WorldWideScience

Sample records for participatory research approach

  1. International health research monitoring: exploring a scientific and a cooperative approach using participatory action research

    OpenAIRE

    Chantler, T; Cheah, PY; Miiro, G; Hantrakum, V; Nanvubya, A; Ayuo, E; Kivaya, E; Kidola, J; KALEEBU, P; M.Parker; Njuguna, P; Ashley, E; Guerin, PJ; Lang, T.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and determine the value of monitoring models developed by the Mahidol Oxford Tropical Research Unit and the East African Consortium for Clinical Research, consider how this can be measured and explore monitors' and investigators' experiences of and views about the nature, purpose and practice of monitoring. RESEARCH DESIGN: A case study approach was used within the context of participatory action research because one of the aims was to guide and improve practice. 34 in...

  2. Participatory research approaches in the development of improved management practices in indigenous chickens production systems with smallholder farmers in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Ndegwa, Joseph Mutitu

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with development of improved management practices in indigenous chicken production systems in a research process that includes participatory approaches with smallholder farmers and other stakeholders in Kenya. The research process involved a wide range of activities that included on-station experiments, field surveys, stakeholder consultations in workshops, seminars and visits, and on-farm farmer participatory research to evaluate the effect of some improved managemen...

  3. Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Majdzadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and local resources. Its objective is to empower all stakeholders of development. The priority in local communities and the grass-root of health problems were mainly social determinants of health. On the other hand, both approaches of top-down and bottom-up approaches must be simultaneously considered for dealing with these determinants. Establishment of such centers can create good opportunities for developing original solutions for dealing with social determinants of health. The success of Population Research Centers depends on policy makers' concepts and attitude toward social determinants of health and the role of community participation in this regard. It seems that a more extensive engagement of different sectors including universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations is also vital for such movements.

  4. Engendering Change within a Water Infrastructure Client Organisation: A Participatory Action Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Potts

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuing demands by stakeholders for improved service delivery has caused Infrastructure Client Organisations (ICO in the UK to embark upon organisational restructuring. It is expected that such restructuring would enhance cost-effectiveness and quality in asset management and service delivery. However, this change, if not properly managed and sustained, could result in the inability of the ICO to achieve these targets. This study outlines the use of systemic thinking and Participatory Action Research (PAR in driving and managing such change within a UK-based Water and Wastewater ICO (UK WASC. Besides highlighting the context for change in response to policy, austerity and regulatory pressures, this study portrays how the PAR approach can assist in the management of change within ICOs. Furthermore, it provides an insight into the evolution of an external researcher, from novice to expert within the ICO, imbued with the required knowledge to encourage other stakeholders to participate in driving the change management process. Preliminary findings indicate the usefulness of this phased approach toward PAR. This study provides a platform for researchers wishing to engage with ICOs to improve service delivery, identifying the value of engagement, change and systemic thinking.

  5. Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methodological approaches for ‘Design-Based Participatory Research'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; SØrensen, Birgitte Holm

    2010-01-01

    The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

  6. Development of Nutrient Management Strategies for ASAL using Participatory Learning and Action Research (PLAR) Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Participatory diagnosis of soil fertility problems and subsequent experimentation was carried out at Kibwezi Division, Makweni district, using Participatory learning and Action Research (PLAR) methodologies. results of the soil analysis showed that nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) were the most limiting nutrients to the crop production. Farmers were excited to learn how to identify deficiency symptoms of N and P by looking at plant leaves. Farmers also identified and implemented practical options under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for solving the soil fertility problems such as use of manure, fertilisers or a combination of both. Fertiliser application at the rate of 40N + 40P2O5 ha-1 and 60N + 60P2O5 ha-1 produced significantly yield responses under rain-fed conditions. However, application of 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1 of farm yard manure had no effect on grain yield of maize. Maize gross margins were positive with increasing fertilizer application. Similarly, fresh yields of Chili showed marked yield increasing with increasing fertility conditions. In contrast, onions and tomatoes showed a corresponding smaller yield increase with fertility improvement. Chili, onions and tomatoes had positive gross margins as nutrient application was increased indicating that benefit was higher with increasing fertiliser inputs. The PLAR methodology provided farmers with knowledge and skills that helped them to change their attitude towards soil fertility improvement interventions

  7. Indicators of radioecological sensitivity of contaminated territories: a proactive and participatory research approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financed partly by the French ministry in charge of environment, PRIME is a participative research coordinated by IRSN. The aim is to develop with stakeholders and experts a prospective method to build a multicriteria decision tool for ranking specificities of territories which identifies its vulnerability in case of nuclear accident. The method is elaborated through the participation of experts, decision-makers and local actors in order to enable the risk managers to choose the appropriate strategy in case of an accident involving radioactive substances. The method establishes the hierarchy of factors of the sensitivity of a territory to radioactive pollution. The studied zone is situated within the radius of about 50 km around three nuclear sites in the South of France. The main questions of this project are the following: Does the sensitivity of the territory of 50 km radius around a nuclear site depend only on the distance from the source or, alternatively, can it vary depending on the type and the use of the soils? Which criteria are important for the people living in the area and how are they balanced? Which of them would be particularly useful for decision-making? Can the multi criteria method be an appropriate tool to treat the data and make them visible and accessible? The characteristic of the project is to combine different opinion of the vulnerability of a territory in a participatory approach. The first step is to identify, alongside with stakeholders, the factors of the sensitivity of a territory and to establish correlation between them. The second step is to provide the managers and people who have to decide in such case with data necessary for working out the preparation and action plans for rationalizing the decision-making in the field of post-accidental management. As expected results, we hope to simplify the representation about territorial consequences of radiological contamination and to elaborate management tools common for different actors who a priori speak different 'languages', tools showing the evaluation of radio ecological sensitivity of a territory for further exploration. We will also share the main findings concerning the way to manage such a challenging social process. (author)

  8. Seeing beyond fertiliser trees : a case study of a community based participatory approach to agroforestry research and development in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kiptot, E.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination.   The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known as the village committee approach by a collaborative agroforestry programme between the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and the World Agrofore...

  9. Using qualitative inquiry and participatory research approaches to develop prevention research: validating a life course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Janna; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Application of life course theory (LCT) holds promise for advancing knowledge toward the elimination of health disparities. This article validates the usefulness of employing a life course perspective when conducting health disparities research. We provide an overview of LCT as it applies to our research program in prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among Latino teen parents. We illustrate the goodness-of-fit of our research with the basic premises of LCT. Though early adverse life experiences impact health over the lifespan, strength-based HIV prevention programs designed for Latino teen parents that recognize the reality of their lives may alter their health trajectory. PMID:23168344

  10. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  11. An assessment of attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Jennifer; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna Merport; Hacker, Michele; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Communities in South Sudan have endured decades of conflict. Protracted conflict exacerbated reproductive health disparities and gender inequities. This study, conducted prior to the country’s 2011 independence, aimed to assess attitudes toward gender inequitable norms related to sexual relationships and reproductive health and the effects of sex, age, and education on these attitudes. Methods: Applying a community-based participatory research approach and quota sampling, 680 adul...

  12. An assessment of gender inequitable norms and gender-based violence in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Jennifer Ann; Averbach, Sarah Helene; Modest, Anna; Hacker, Michele Renee; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Following decades of conflict, South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011. Prolonged conflict, which included gender-based violence (GBV), exacerbated gender disparities. This study aimed to assess attitudes towards gender inequitable norms related to GBV and to estimate the frequency of GBV in sampled communities of South Sudan. Methods: Applying a community-based participatory research approach, 680 adult male and female household respondents were interviewed in seven si...

  13. Social Experiments and Participatory Research as Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope with this kind of complexity in regards to technology development and design projects. Based on experiences and lessons learned from the project "The Digital North Denmark (DDN), the chapter reflects on participatory research in a complex organizational setting of researchers, stakeholders and users emphasising practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. 

  14. Literate Bodies: Multigenerational Participatory Action Research and Embodied Methodologies as Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Madeline

    2012-01-01

    The recent study Polling for Justice (PFJ) used a multigenerational participatory action research approach with embodied methodologies to document youth experiences of education, criminal justice, and public health in New York City. Through an exploration of the PFJ project, this column demonstrates how participatory action research and embodied…

  15. Participatory research in psychology - A practical example in the field of drug counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Vandreier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article gives insights into the work of the self-help- and research-group of the "Projekt Selbstverständigung über Drogengebrauch" as an example of participatory research in psychology. In a first step the basics of the project will be discussed by distinguishing it from other approaches in drug research, positioning it within the field of participatory research and analyzing it in regard to its theoretical basics. In a second step the practical work of the project will be described to illustrate problems that emerged as well as first solutions that could be helpful for further development of participatory research.

  16. The development of participatory health research among incarcerated women in a Canadian prison

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, R. Elwood; Murphy, K; Hanson, D; Hemingway, C.; Ramsden, V.; Buxton, J.; Granger-Brown, A.; Condello, L-L.; BUCHANAN, M; Espinoza-Magana, N.; Edworthy, G.; Hislop, T G

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a unique prison participatory research project, in which incarcerated women formed a research team, the research activities and the lessons learned. The participatory action research project was conducted in the main short sentence minimum/medium security women's prison located in a Western Canadian province. An ethnographic multi-method approach was used for data collection and analysis. Quantitative data was collected by surveys and analysed using des...

  17. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  18. A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jittra Rukijkanpanich; Aniruth Manothum

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b) work practice improvement, and c) working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR) method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupa...

  19. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements : The Strengths and Challenges of Participatory Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging research relationships and generate.

  20. Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey

    OpenAIRE

    E. Richard Brown, PhD; Sue Holtby, MPH; Elaine Zahnd, PhD; George B. Abbott, MD, MPH

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease pr...

  1. Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naydene, de Lange; Mart-Mari, Geldenhuys.

    Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary s [...] chools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

  2. Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naydene de Lange

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

  3. Participatory Action Research: Integrating Community Occupational Therapy Practice and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…

  4. Revolutionizing education: Youth participatory action research in motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Richards-Schuster

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews 'Revolutionizing education', a deeply reflective and retrospective book of scholarship on critical questions about youth participatory action research. The book contains a series of case study chapters that examine how youth participatory action research transforms young people and the social contexts in which they live as well as the learnings and implications yielded from this research. The book examines youth participatory action research both for its radical and revolutionary challenge to 'traditional research' practices but also for its active focus on research as a vehicle for increasing critical consciousness, developing knowledge for 'resistance and transformation' and for creating social change. It represents an important contribution to the field of youth participatory action research and community-based research.

  5. New Approaches to Urban Planning - Insights from Participatory Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Horelli, Liisa (editor); Jarenko, Karoliina; Kuoppa, Jenni; Saad-Sulonen, Joanna (ed.); Wallin, Sirkku

    2013-01-01

    The new approaches to urban planning, such as participatory time and e-planning, comprise methods that allow us to analyse, develop, implement and monitor physical, functional and participatory structures at the neighbourhood level and beyond. They enable models of planning that may bring about an architecture of opportunities. This means the building of a supportive infrastructure of everyday life that encourages citizens to participate not only in formal decision-making, but actually in th...

  6. Let Them do the Work : A Participatory Place Branding Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenker, Sebastian; Erfgen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This conceptual essay seeks to develop a participatory approach to place branding. In doing so, it offers guidance on how to implement a participatory place branding strategy within place management practice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on theoretical insights drawn from the combination of distinct literatures on place branding, general marketing, and collaborative governance. Findings: The paper highlights the importance of residents in the place branding process and argues that their special functions as ambassadors for the place constitute the most valuable assets in place branding. Thus, a participatory place branding approach involving residents is needed. To implement this approach, three stages are necessary: (stage 1) defining a shared vision for the place including core place elements; (stage 2) implementing a structure for participation; (stage 3) supporting residents in their own place branding projects. Originality/value: The inclusion of residents is often requested in contemporary place branding literature. Unfortunately, none of these articles offer a real strategy for participatory place branding so far. Thus, this conceptual essay provides a participatory place branding approach to help place managers implement such structure.

  7. Masihambisane, lessons learnt using participatory indigenous knowledge research approaches in a school-based collaborative project of the Eastern Cape

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thenjiwe, Meyiwa; Tebello, Letsekha; Lisa, Wiebesiek.

    Full Text Available Masihambisane is an Nguni word, loosely meaning "let us walk the path together". The symbolic act of walking together is conceptually at the heart of a funded1 research project conducted in rural schools of Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape. The project focuses on promoting the direct participation of t [...] eachers in planning, researching, and developing learning and teaching materials (LTSMs), with a view to aligning these materials with indigenous and local knowledge. In this paper we make explicit our learning, and the manner in which we carried out the collaborated research activities, using the Reflect process.

  8. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  9. Walking the talk: how participatory interview methods can democratize research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Amy

    2007-09-01

    In this article, the author explores the importance of participatory, respectful, and community-specific approaches to research relationships across differences in social location and experience. Drawing on transcripts from group interviews with 6 young Aboriginal mothers from Vancouver's Downtown Eastside who had experienced substance use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome/fetal alcohol effects, she discusses three practical strategies used in her doctoral research to address the empirical and methodological implications of this work: the provision of honoraria, collaborating with community leaders in participant recruitment, and the use of shared analysis in group interviews. Shared analysis in the group interviews was integral to supporting policy analysis that challenges the privatization of mothering and substance use. Group interviews can benefit both the participants and the research, support womens' agency, and democratize the research process while mitigating the potential for the misrepresentation and appropriation of women's experiences. PMID:17724110

  10. International Participatory Research Framework: triangulating procedures to build health research capacity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rogério M; da Silva, Sueli Bulhões; Penido, Cláudia; Spector, Anya Y

    2012-12-01

    This study advances Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) by presenting a set of triangulated procedures (steps and actions) that can facilitate participatory research in myriad international settings. By using procedural triangulation-the combination of specific steps and actions as the basis for the International Participatory Research Framework (IPRF)-our approach can improve the abilities of researchers and practitioners worldwide to systematize the development of research partnerships. The IPRF comprises four recursive steps: (i) contextualizing the host country; (ii) identifying collaborators in the host country; (iii) seeking advice and endorsement from gatekeepers and (iv) matching partners' expertise, needs and interests. IPRF includes the following sets of recursive participatory actions: (A(1)) becoming familiar with local languages and culture; (A(2)) sharing power, ideas, influence and resources; (A(3)) gathering oral and written information about partners; (A(4)) establishing realistic expectations and (A(5)) resolving personal and professional differences. We show how these steps and actions were used recursively to build a partnership to study the roles of community health workers (CHWs) in Brazil's Family Health Program (PSF). The research conducted using IPRF focused on HIV prevention, and it included nearly 200 CHWs. By using the IPRF, our partnership achieved several participatory outcomes: community-defined research aims, capacity for future research and creation of new policies and programs. We engaged CHWs who requested that we study their training needs, and we engaged CHWs' supervisors who used the data collected to modify CHW training. Data collected from CHWs will form the basis for a grant to test CHW training curricula. Researchers and community partners can now use the IPRF to build partnerships in different international contexts. By triangulating steps and actions, the IPRF advances knowledge about the use of CBPR methods/procedures for international health research. PMID:22144416

  11. Comprehensive Case Analysis on Participatory Approaches, from Nexus Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine the driving factors, evaluating if components of database are enough to present each process or not.

  12. La Investigacion Participativa en America Latina: Retablo de Papel, 10 (Participatory Research in Latin America: Series, 10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejarano, Gilberto M., Comp.

    The following papers (titles are translated into English) were presented at a conference on participatory research: "Participatory Research, Popular Knowledge, and Power"; "Participatory Research and Adult Literacy"; "Developments and Perspectives on Participatory Research"; "Popular Education and Participatory Research"; "The Researcher and the…

  13. Participation and power : In participatory research and action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers to participation conceptualised as various degrees of codetermination in organisations and in research processes?’ The anthology is part of a follow-up on an initiative taken in 2010 by Professor Werner Fricke, editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Action Research for many years. His vision was to create an academy of AR and PR.

  14. Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

  15. Youth researching youth: benefits, limitations and ethical considerations within a participatory research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Jardine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the benefits, limitations and ethical issues associated with conducting participatory research on tobacco use using youth to research other youth. Study design. Community-based participatory research. Methods. Research on tobacco use was conducted with students in the K’àlemì Dene School and Kaw Tay Whee School in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using PhotoVoice. The Grade 9–12 students acted as researchers. Researcher reflections and observations were assessed using “member checking,” whereby students, teachers and community partners could agree or disagree with the researcher's interpretation. The students and teachers were further asked informally to share their own reflections and observations on this process. Results and conclusions. Using youth to research other youth within a participatory research framework had many benefits for the quality of the research, the youth researchers and the community. The research was perceived by the researchers and participants to be more valid and credible. The approach was more appropriate for the students, and the youth researchers gained valuable research experience and a sense of ownership of both the research process and results. Viewing smoking through their children's eyes was seen by the community to be a powerful and effective means of creating awareness of the community environment. Limitations of the approach were residual response bias of participants, the short period of time to conduct the research and failure to fully explore student motivations to smoke or not to smoke. Ethical considerations included conducting research with minors, difficulties in obtaining written parental consent, decisions on cameras (disposable versus digital and representation of all participants in the final research product.

  16. Resisting Participation: Critiquing Participatory Research Methodologies with Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Rachael

    2013-01-01

    Participatory methodologies are increasingly employed in research with young people. These practices stem from a desire to reduce problematic distributions of power in research and to construct knowledge with young people rather than for them. This paper examines research conducted with a small group of young people experiencing exclusion from…

  17. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

  18. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  19. Modeling the principles of community-based participatory research in a community health assessment conducted by a health foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen Jaynes; Gail Bray, Patricia; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Reisz, Ilana; Peranteau, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss strategies used and lessons learned by a health foundation during development of a community health assessment model incorporating community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches. The assessment model comprises three models incorporating increasing amounts of CPBR principles. Model A combines local-area analysis of quantitative data, qualitative information (key informants, focus groups), and asset mapping. Model B, a community-based participatory model, emphasizes participatory rural appraisal approaches and quantitative assessment using rapid epidemiological assessment. Model C, a modified version of Model B, is financially more sustainable for our needs than Model B. The authors (a) describe origins of these models and illustrate practical applications and (b) explore the lessons learned in their transition from a traditional, nonparticipatory, quantitative approach to participatory approaches to community-health assessment. It is hoped that this article will contribute to the growing body of knowledge of practical aspects of incorporating CBPR approaches into community health assessments. PMID:17652187

  20. Challenges and Facilitating Factors in Sustaining Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships: Lessons Learned from the Detroit, New York City and Seattle Urban Research Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Barbara A.; Krieger, James; Vlahov, David; Ciske, Sandra; Foley, Mary; Fortin, Princess; Guzman, J. Ricardo; Lichtenstein, Richard; McGranaghan, Robert; Palermo, Ann-gel; Tang, Gary

    2006-01-01

    In order to address the social, physical and economic determinants of urban health, researchers, public health practitioners, and community members have turned to more comprehensive and participatory approaches to research and interventions. One such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR) in public health, has received considerable attention over the past decade, and numerous publications have described theoretical underpinnings, values, principles and practice. Issues relate...

  1. Recommended Mitigation Measures for an Influenza Pandemic in Remote and Isolated First Nations Communities of Ontario, Canada: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia A. Charania

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza pandemics disproportionately impact remote and/or isolated Indigenous communities worldwide. The differential risk experienced by such communities warrants the recommendation of specific mitigation measures. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were conducted with adult key health care informants from three remote and isolated Canadian First Nations communities of sub-Arctic Ontario. Forty-eight mitigation measures (including the setting, pandemic period, trigger, and duration were questioned. Participants’ responses were summarized and collected data were deductively and inductively coded. The participants recommended 41 of the questioned mitigation measures, and often differed from previous literature and national recommendations. Results revealed that barriers, such as overcrowded housing, limited supplies, and health care infrastructure, impacted the feasibility of implementing mitigation measures. These findings suggest that pandemic plans should recommend control strategies for remote and isolated Canadian First Nations communities that may not be supported in other communities. These findings highlight the importance of engaging locally impacted populations using participatory approaches in policy decision-making processes. Other countries with remote and/or isolated Indigenous communities are encouraged to include recommendations for mitigation measures that specifically address the unique needs of such communities in an effort to improve their health outcomes during the next influenza pandemic.

  2. A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittra Rukijkanpanich

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b work practice improvement, and c working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1 the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2 the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (p=sig. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives.

  3. Learning through Situated Innovation : Why the specific is crucial for Participatory Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why and in which ways the specificity and situatedness of PD practices are crucial for PD research. We do so by developing the notion of PD as situated innovation based on a pragmatic epistemology. PD research aims at devel oping and continuously unfolding what PD can, might and should be. We show implications of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argumentation supports the emphasis on exploring new PD practices and learning and theorizing about PD from the specificities, in line with recent debate contributions.

  4. Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Matin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good information about the participants and the context in which the method will be applied, knowledge of the local language(s, and careful training of local moderators. While these aspects are relevant to any application of participatory methods, they become even more important in a political and socio-cultural setting such as that found in Uzbekistan. One added value of the activities and a crucial aspect of a participatory research processes was the capacity building of local scientists and practitioners, which facilitates the further application of the methods.

  5. Challenges of youth participation in participatory action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattar, Laila; Fanous, Sandrine; Berliner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Paamiut Youth Voice (PYV) is a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, exploring youth perceptions, experiences, and the promotion of well-being in Paamiut, Greenland. Active youth participation remained a key challenge in the development of the local community through the locally initiated community mobilisation programme Paamiut Asasara. The challenges of youth participation in PYV are investigated in order to explore the implications of youth participation in PAR projects. The discussion...

  6. Harvard Personal Genome Project: lessons from participatory public research

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Madeleine P.; Bobe, Jason R.; Chou, Michael F; Clegg, Tom; Estep, Preston W; Lunshof, Jeantine E.; Vandewege, Ward; Zaranek, Alexander Wait; Church, George M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since its initiation in 2005, the Harvard Personal Genome Project has enrolled thousands of volunteers interested in publicly sharing their genome, health and trait data. Because these data are highly identifiable, we use an ‘open consent’ framework that purposefully excludes promises about privacy and requires participants to demonstrate comprehension prior to enrollment. Discussion Our model of non-anonymous, public genomes has led us to a highly participatory model of researche...

  7. Giving Student Groups a Stronger Voice: Using Participatory Research and Action (PRA) to Initiate Change to a Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Geraldine; McMahon, Sinead

    2012-01-01

    Traditional student feedback mechanisms have been criticised for being teacher-centred in design and, in particular, for their absence of transparent follow-up actions. In contrast, this study describes the process and the evaluation of a participatory research and action (PRA) approach used in an undergraduate physiotherapy degree. This approach

  8. Preparing pre-service teachers as emancipatory and participatory action researchers in a teacher education programme

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Omar, Esau.

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyse the potential that participatory action research holds for educating pre-service teachers to become more critically reflective and socially conscious. I also describe the rationale for and process of engaging pre-service teachers in their teacher education programme. Involvin [...] g these candidate teachers in participatory action research (PAR) projects may provide opportunities for aspiring teachers to develop pedagogical content knowledge, examine their beliefs about teaching, and gain confidence in addressing social justice issues. More than merely exposing them to applying the technique of action research, the PAR project encouraged them to become more socially conscious, critical, imaginative and argumentative as teacher-researchers. In the project I used a participatory approach in action research to prepare the pre-service teachers to become emancipatory action researchers. Supporting and fostering inquiring practices is a strategy to help pre-service teachers move beyond just receiving hand-outs in a teacher education programme and beginning to focus on their work with learners and challenges in the real school environment.

  9. Programme quality in Australian early special education: an example of participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamish, W; Bryer, F

    1999-11-01

    A study of programme quality of early intervention in a large governmental early special education service in Queensland, Australia employed a collaborative methodology of participatory action research. The approach has been encouraged strongly for disability-focused research, but the approach is demanding and few examples have been reported. In this multistage 4-year project, indicators of programme quality were generated from staff and parents in the service, validated throughout the service, and generalized across the nation. Examples of the implementation of this methodology across these stages are reported, and benefits and compromises are examined. PMID:10547708

  10. Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    BITSO, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also...

  11. Una experiencia de investigación participativa en Uruguay / An experience of participatory research in Uruguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Marta, Albicette-Bastreri; Marta, Chiappe-Hernández.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los enfoques participativos para el desarrollo y la investigación e innovación en el sector agrario han buscado respuestas adaptadas a las necesidades de los productores utilizando diferentes metodologías, entre las que se encuentra la investigación participativa (IP). Entre 2006 y 2009 tuvo lugar e [...] n Uruguay un proceso denominado Desarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones (DPI), llevado adelante por investigadores del Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA) y productores orgánicos hortícolas, focalizado en tecnología de abonos verdes; siendo el primer caso de IP iniciado y finalizado en el sector agrario uruguayo. En este ensayo se describe una investigación evaluativa del DPI a partir de entrevistas en profundidad a productores y técnicos participantes. Se analizan fortalezas y debilidades, aprendizajes y resultados del DPI, aportando sugerencias para un próximo ciclo o para su aplicación en otros procesos participativos. Como resultado del proceso fue posible introducir la metodología en INIA, progresar en su implementación, compartir saberes entre investigadores y productores y lograr innovación con la tecnología, permitiendo aprendizaje y apropiación social del conocimiento. Abstract in english Participatory approaches for development, and research and innovation in the agricultural sector have sought answers adapted to the needs of producers using different methodologies, among them participatory research (PR). Between 2006 and 2009, a process took place in Uruguay called Participatory In [...] novation Development (PID, Desarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones), carried out by researchers in the National Agriculture and Livestock Research Institute (Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria, INIA) and organic vegetable producers, focused on green fertilizer technologies; this was the first case of PR that began and was finished in the Uruguay agrarian sector. In this essay, we describe the evaluative research of PID, contributing suggestions for the next cycle or to apply in other participatory processes. As a result of the process, it was possible to introduce the INIA methodology, make progress in its implementation, share knowledge between researchers and farmers, and achieve innovation with technology, allowing learning and social appropriation of the knowledge.

  12. For a public sociology on participatory democracy. Reflexive feedback on research conducted in an association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nez, Héloïse

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a reflexive approach on the relations between research and action in works on participatory democracy; a topic in which bridges are numerous between academic, political and activist fields. It aims at analyzing the impact of the close links between sociologists and actors on the methods and results of research and, reciprocally, the role of sociology in developing participatory practices. Relying on Michael Burawoy’s reflection on “public sociology”, our own research experience in an association, and other research studies conducted in Europe, we define five ways sociologists carry out research on participatory democracy in collaboration with the actors. Beyond a reflection on the social reception of our research, the challenge is to develop a critical and committed sociology on participatory democracy with a view to contributing to the political debate and public action from a critical viewpoint.

    Este artículo desarrolla un enfoque reflexivo sobre las relaciones entre investigación y acción en los trabajos sobre democracia participativa, una temática en la que los vínculos entre los campos académicos, políticos y militantes son numerosos. El objetivo es analizar el impacto de las estrechas relaciones entre sociólogos y actores sociales en los métodos y resultados de la investigación y, al mismo tiempo, el papel de la sociología en el desarrollo de las prácticas participativas. Apoyándose en la reflexión de Michael Burawoy sobre la “sociología pública”, en nuestra propia experiencia de investigación en una asociación y en otras investigaciones en Europa, se definen cinco posturas de sociólogos que trabajan en colaboración con los actores sociales sobre la democracia participativa. Más allá de una reflexión sobre la receptividad social de nuestras investigaciones, el desafío consiste en desarrollar una sociología a la vez crítica y comprometida sobre la democracia participativa, para contribuir al debate político y a la acción pública a partir de una capacidad de distancia crítica.

  13. Participatory approaches to promote healthy lifestyles among Turkish and Moroccan women in Amsterdam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, Annemarie; Corstjens, Renée; Koelen, Maria; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Van't Riet, Hilda; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte

    2008-12-01

    Although it is recognized that community health promotion succeeds or fails by level of participation, effectiveness and benefits of community programs are underestimated, because participation is seldom monitored and evaluated. In the Dutch "Healthy Lifestyle Westerpark" program in Amsterdam, participation was both the main working principle and the main goal.Between 2003 and 2006, the Municipal Health Service (MHS) carried out a qualitative study on the background of overweight in Turkish and Moroccan women aged 25 to 45 years and on possibilities for promoting health with and for the target group. The aim of the program was to increase the women's participation and to evaluate participation levels in all phases. The research aim of this paper is to contribute to the development of participatory methods.Needs assessment and intervention development phases resulted in implementation of aerobic lessons and nutrition interventions. In the evaluation phase, participation levels were measured using Pretty's typology in focus groups.Results show that women appreciate participating in the program. Increase in physical activity was not measured. Women's knowledge about healthy food increased, women changed behavior by buying healthier food ingredients and women continued to participate.Participatory approaches facilitate participation at the desired level in the different phases of the program. Participatory approaches are time-consuming but worthwhile. Pretty's typology is useful to measure degree of participation, although methods can be improved and the meaning of participation should be reconsidered.The added value of this article is twofold: 1. it demonstrates that participatory methods and tools both facilitate and evaluate participation, and 2. it shows how to evaluate the degree of participation. PMID:19066234

  14. Participatory rural appraisal approaches: an overview and an exemplary application of focus group discussion in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    M.N. Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Different tools and techniques of participatory approaches are the basic way of conducting qualitative research especially in the field of applied social science. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is one of the main Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) technique often used in combination with others to achieve desired goals. Considering this concept, this paper attempts to review the PRA approach and then application of FGD, in combination with matrix scoring and ranking to identify problems and ca...

  15. Some considerations on the attractiveness of participatory processes for researchers from natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Participatory modeling and participatory scenario development have become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources management. But even if most people agree that participation is required to solve environmental problems in a way that satisfies both the environmental and societal needs, success stories are relatively rare, while many attempts to include stakeholders in the development of models are still reported to have failed. This paper proposes the hypothesis, that the lack of success in participatory modeling can partly be attributed to a lack of attractiveness of participatory approaches for researchers from natural sciences (subsequently called 'modelers'). It has to be pointed out that this discussion is mainly concerned with natural scientists in academia and not with modelers who develop models for commercial purposes or modelers employed by public agencies. The involvement of modelers and stakeholders in participatory modeling has been intensively studied during recent years. However, such analysis is rarely made from the viewpoint of the modelers themselves. Modelers usually don't see participatory modeling and scenario development as scientific targets as such, because the theoretical foundations of such processes usually lie far outside their own area of expertise. Thus, participatory processes are seen mainly as a means to attract funding or to facilitate the access to data or (relatively rarely) as a way to develop a research model into a commercial product. The majority of modelers very likely do not spend too much time on reflecting whether or not their new tools are helpful to solve real world problems or if the results are understandable and acceptable for stakeholders. They consider their task completed when the model they developed satisfies the 'scientific requirements', which are essentially different from the requirements to satisfy a group of stakeholders. Funding often stops before a newly developed model can actually be tested in a stakeholder process. Therefore the gap between stakeholders and modelers persists or is even growing. A main reason for this probably lies in the way that the work of scientists (modelers) is evaluated. What counts is the number of journal articles produced, while applicability or societal impact is still not a measure of scientific success. A good journal article on a model requires an exemplary validation but only very rarely would a reviewer ask if a model was accepted by stakeholders. So why should a scientist go through a tedious stakeholder process? The stakeholder process might be a requirement of the research grant, but whether this is taken seriously, can be questioned, as long as stakeholder dialogues do not lead to quantifiable scientific success. In particular for researchers in early career stages who undergo typical, publication-based evaluation processes, participatory research is hardly beneficial. The discussion in this contribution is based on three pillars: (i) a comprehensive evaluation of the literature published on participatory modeling and scenario development, (ii) a case study involving the development of an integrated model for water and land use management including an intensive stakeholder process and (iii) unstructured, personal communication - with mainly young scientists - about the attractiveness of multidisciplinary, applied research.

  16. The Development of Research Skills in Young Adults with Intellectual Disability in Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michelle F.; Moni, Karen B.; Cuskelly, Monica

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information about specific research constructs developed by adults with intellectual disability in undertaking research despite increasing involvement in research "with" rather than "on" these individuals. Participatory research was used with three young adults with intellectual disability to collaboratively…

  17. Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rene, Loewenson; Walter, Flores; Abhay, Shukla; Maija, Kagis; Amuda, Baba; Ashraf, Ryklief; Clara, Mbwili-Muleya; Dhananjay, Kakde.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes re [...] sults of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.

  18. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future. PMID:26040608

  19. From Participatory Design and Ontological Ethics, Towards an Approach to Constructive Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sandra Burri Gram; Ryberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores, analyses and discusses the potential of applying Danish theologian and philosopher K.E. Løgstrup’s ontological approach to ethics, when planning and conducting participatory design activities. By doing so, ethical considerations, will transform from being a summative evaluation perspective typically included at the end of a design process, to becoming a more formative and constructive perspective which influences the entire process. The approach presented in this paper will support on-going research within the field of Value Sensitive Design with theoretically based principles. These are principles that practitioners may consider when planning e.g. workshops in order to ensure that the activities facilitate both the design process and establish an ethical foundation for the design process. In addition to the theoretical contribution of the paper, the notion of constructive ethics is exemplified in practice by on-going research in the cross field between persuasive design and learning, carried out in collaboration with the Danish Military. Previous research has suggested that both participatory design and ethics may be essential to persuasive design in theory and in practice. However, considering the impact interactive technologies have on users in general, the principles exemplified through this case are relevant in a much broader perspective and to many other design traditions.

  20. Developing theory from complexity: reflections on a collaborative mixed method participatory action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhues, Anne; Ochocka, Joanna; Jacobson, Nora; Simich, Laura; Maiter, Sarah; Janzen, Rich; Fleras, Augie

    2008-05-01

    Research studies are increasingly complex: They draw on multiple methods to gather data, generate both qualitative and quantitative data, and frequently represent the perspectives of more than one stakeholder. The teams that generate them are increasingly multidisciplinary. A commitment to engaging community members in the research process often adds a further layer of complexity. How to approach a synthesizing analysis of these multiple and varied data sources with a large research team requires considerable reflection and dialogue. In this article, we outline the strategies used by one multidisciplinary team committed to a participatory action research (PAR) approach and engaged in a mixed method program of research to synthesize the findings from four subprojects into a conceptual framework that could guide practice in community mental health organizations. We also summarize factors that hold promise for increasing productivity when managing complex research projects. PMID:18420539

  1. Incentive Mechanisms for Participatory Sensing: Survey and Research Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Restuccia, Francesco; Sajal K. Das; Payton, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Participatory sensing is a powerful paradigm which takes advantage of smartphones to collect and analyze data beyond the scale of what was previously possible. Given that participatory sensing systems rely completely on the users' willingness to submit up-to-date and accurate information, it is paramount to effectively incentivize users' active and reliable participation. In this paper, we survey existing literature on incentive mechanisms for participatory sensing systems. ...

  2. Cultivating communication : participatory approaches in land restoration in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Brita Berglund

    2014-01-01

    Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Environmental agency personnel, however, often lack training in communication and conduct of participatory processes. How they interpret participation affects how it is practiced, which in turn affects the outcomes of participatory projects. This study explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland (SCSI) and how this interpretation affected implementation in two land restoration p...

  3. Participatory knowledge-management design: A semiotic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtolina, Stefano; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a design strategy for collaborative knowledge-management systems based on a semiotic approach. The contents and structure of experts' knowledge is highly dependent on professional or individual practice. Knowledge-management systems that support cooperation between experts from different (sub-)fields need to be situated and tailored to provide effective support even if the common aspects of the data need to be described by ontologies that are generic in respect to the sub-disciplines involved. To understand and approach this design problem, we apply a semiotic perspective to computer application and human–computer interaction. From a semiotic perspective, the computer application is both a message from the designer to the user about the structure of the problem domain, as well as about interaction with it, and a structured channel for the user's communication with herself, himself or other users of the software. Tailoring or “end-user development” – i.e. adapting the knowledge-management system to a specific (sub-)discipline, task or context – then refines both the message and adapts the structure of the interaction to the situated requirements. The essential idea of this paper is to define a new perspective for designing and developing interactive systems to support collaborative knowledge management. The key concept is to involve domain experts in participatory knowledge design for mapping and translating their professional models into the proper vocabularies, notations, and suitable visual structures for navigating among interface elements. To this end, the paper describes how our semiotic approach supports processes for representing, storing, accessing, and transferring knowledge through which the information architecture of an interactive system can be defined. Finally, the results of applying our approach to a real-world case in an archaeological context are presented.

  4. Participatory nursing research. A promising methodology in Third World countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, S M

    1990-06-01

    This project had some unique components which may have played a significant role in assuring its success. For several months prior to the initiation of the project, the author had worked with the local people developing a rapport and helping them assess their needs and interests. The research was then initiated at their invitation and with their enthusiastic support. There was also a well-organized, local, leadership network in place which provided stability throughout the research project. The support and personal involvement of locally acknowledged leaders assisted greatly in gaining access into the homes of the batey mothers who consented to be interviewed. These same local leaders continued to lend support to the CHWs as they implemented their findings. The validity of the findings was very possibly enhanced by the use of CHW participants from the group studied. Informants frequently are more willing to share openly with someone from a similar value system than with a foreign researcher. In addition, the fact that the researcher, CHWs, and informants were all of the same sex no doubt contributed to the success of the method. The requirements of the participatory method which were encountered in this study would need to be carefully addressed in similar research projects conducted in Third World countries. Gaining entrée into a research site, addressing language and cultural differences, identifying participant researchers who were literate, arranging transportation to isolated sites for the interview component of the process, and allowing sufficient time to be on-site personally to conduct the project were a few of the challenges encountered in this study. Researchers conducting projects of this type should also guard against raising false hopes of change among the participants. Limitations should be identified at the onset of the project and participants reminded that the success of the program should be projected realistically. In spite of the challenges, this participatory research project using CHWs in the Dominican Republic was successful for a number of reasons: (a) local leaders supported the project and chose the CHWs who became the participant researchers; (b) the CHWs were literate and eager to learn; (c) the mothers were willing to share their beliefs and perceptions with the CHWs; (d) analysis of the data provided helpful new insights; (e) results of the analysis were immediately implemented in the health projects; and (f) the CHWs who participated demonstrated increased self-confidence and decision-making ability as they progressed through the process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2363286

  5. Using community-based participatory research to advocate for homeless children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherman, Debra L; Burke, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    The social determinants of health represent the societal and economic influences responsible for most health inequities. Advocacy to eliminate health inequities for homeless children oftentimes involves the use of community-based approaches. This article details the Floating Hospital's (TFH) community-based participatory research (CBPR) project that resulted in an advocacy brief. Within the project, the community practice concepts of a strengths perspective, empowerment, capacity building, and advocacy are embedded. The brief enhances TFH's capacity to advocate for the needs of homeless children. This example serves as a guide for social work and public health professionals to use CBPR to address health inequities within their communities. PMID:25317978

  6. Respondent-Driven Sampling in Participatory Research Contexts: Participant-Driven Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the use of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in participatory and community-based research. Participant-driven recruitment (PDR) retains all of the analytic capabilities of RDS while enhancing the role of respondents in framing research questions, instrument development, data interpretation, and other aspects of the research process. Merging the capabilities of RDS with participatory research methods, PDR creates new opportunities for engaging community members in resea...

  7. Personalizing nutrigenomics research through community based participatory research and omics technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Lovera, Dalia; Nuss, Henry; Wise, Carolyn; Ning, Baitang; Teitel, Candee; Clark, Beatrice Shelby; Toennessen, Terri; Green, Bridgett; Bogle, Margaret L; Kaput, Jim

    2008-12-01

    Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals. PMID:19040372

  8. Evaluating a community-based participatory research project for elderly mental healthcare in rural America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Blevins

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Dean Blevins1,2,3, Bridget Morton4, Rene McGovern5,61South Central Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (SC-MIRECC, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System; 2University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; 3University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus, Little Rock, AR; 4Northeast Missouri Health Network, Kirksville, MO; 5A.T. Still University/Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, Kirksville, MO; 6Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OHAbstract: The purpose of this evaluation was to explore the collaborative nature of partners in a rural mental health program for the elderly, and to test an adapted method of assessing the collaborative process. Sixteen collaborative partners were interviewed to explore ratings of collaboration across 6 domains identified as critical to participatory research. Results indicate that the context of rural Missouri and uniqueness of the program necessitated an approach to collaboration that began with a top-down approach, but greater community responsibility developed over time. Partners recognized the efforts of the program’s directors to seek input. Most were satisfied with their roles and the degree of success achieved by the program, although several wanted to have more input in the future in some domains, but not in others. Interviews revealed numerous barriers to achieving sustainability. Methods to improve the assessment of collaboration are discussed and areas for improvement are offered.Keywords: community-based participatory research, elderly, mental health, older adults, rural

  9. Participatory Research Challenges in Drug Abuse Studies Among Transnational Mexican Migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Victor; Gonzalez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Participatory research is essential in public health studies, but using this methodology to examine sensitive public health problems among vulnerable populations is a challenge. We share some of our trials and tribulations in attempting to use participatory research in our substance abuse studies among transnational Mexican migrants in southeastern Pennsylvania. Major challenges did not permit partnerships across the community in all phases of research, including the dissemination of findings...

  10. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia

  11. Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs

  12. Researches on China Preschool Education Teachers’ Participatory Training Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyan LIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the concept of participatory training has been disseminated to pedagogy area, traditional preschool teacher training continuously conflicts with such training of modern mode. In China, in the field of preschool education, participatory training for teachers has been established gradually. This mode is centered on group dynamics to form a constant group dynamics system under the interactive checks and balances of three mechanisms of driving force: the driving force, the cohesive force and the binding force. This thesis mainly elaborates the basic key elements of group structure on the basis of the participatory training mode’s dynamics structure and operation mechanism, and in detail analyzes the main guarantee conditions for healthy operation of the participatory training mode.

  13. Evaluating participatory research: Framework, methods and implementation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a structured participatory process and associated evaluation protocol developed to detect systems learning by decision makers involved in the management of natural resources. A series of facilitated participatory workshops were conducted to investigate learning when decision makers and influencers were confronted with the multiple, complex interactions arising from decisions concerned with the nexus of water, food and energy security. The participatory process and evaluation of learning were trialled in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), where integrated scientific evidence was systematically presented to challenge existing beliefs concerned with the effectiveness of proposed policy actions and development investments. Consistent with theoretical propositions, individually held values, beliefs and attitudes were deployed as the primary factors (and psychometrics) that underpin and influence environmental management decision making. Observed and statistically significant changes in the three psychometrics expressed by decision makers in response to the facilitated presentation of scientific evidence during the participatory process, provided supportive evidence of systems learning and the evaluation protocol. PMID:25929196

  14. Place and Situated Deliberation in Participatory Planning – A Research Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Within the domain of participatory urban planning, this position paper argues for a focus on the notion of place in the design of mobile and/or ubiquitous systems that are used in deliberation processes with central spatial references. I discuss (1) leveraging properties of place as a resource for users in the design of such systems and (2) situating, or merely co-locating, deliberation activities within the places these discussions are concerned with. To support my argument, I outline two exemplary cases that explore this focus on place and situated deliberation to further motivate research in that direction. The first case concerns the different qualities of in-situ reflection and action on proposed changes to the cityscape in contrast to ex-situ reflection and action on those changes. The second case focuses on providing immersive information about citizens’ own living environment on the spot for everyone and everywhere through a mobile augmented reality application that visualizes future, planned buildings on capable mobile phones. I conclude with the central questions and problems for future research that focuses on place and situated deliberation.

  15. Researches on China Preschool Education Teachers’ Participatory Training Mode

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, YUNYAN; Shaoren CHENG; Chenchen YANG

    2014-01-01

    As the concept of participatory training has been disseminated to pedagogy area, traditional preschool teacher training continuously conflicts with such training of modern mode. In China, in the field of preschool education, participatory training for teachers has been established gradually. This mode is centered on group dynamics to form a constant group dynamics system under the interactive checks and balances of three mechanisms of driving force: the driving force, the cohesive force and t...

  16. Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

    2012-04-01

    Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, as well as key challenges for the future are also discussed.

  17. Engaging and sustaining adolescents in community-based participatory research: structuring a youth-friendly community-based participatory research environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners. PMID:25423241

  18. Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johansson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

  19. Reception research 2.0 : A multidimensional model of participatory media culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    Some might argue that reception analysis is a remnant of the past in an age where “people formerly known as the audience” (Rosen, 2006) are producing and circulating content on a diversity of interactive and participatory media platforms. Far from being the case, reception research must continue to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored as an empirical reality. Knowing about the meanings produced and circulated on social media can help us better understand the participatory media culture that has established itself over the past decade. To properly address the question of meaning, however, reception research needs to be adapted to the current media landscape. Taking my point of departure in the multi-dimensional model of reception developed by Kim Schrøder (2003, 2000), I suggest a revision of the model and its dimensions in light of notions such as produsage (Bruns, 2008), convergence (Jenkins, 2008), participation (Carpentier, 2011) and networked culture (Castells, 1996). The model suggested by Schrøder is itself an elaboration, establishing both continuity and critique with Hall’s original suggestion (1973/1980). In the same spirit, I wish to build on the multidimensional model for it offers a systematic approach to the complexity of sense-making processes surrounding media use. Yet I wish to develop the model for its potential to provide a portrait of the participatory media culture that stands in contrast to its understanding as exploitation of labor (Scholz, 2013) or as a business model (van Dicjk, 2013) disguised as false consciousness. The paper will revisit the five dimensions of the model (motivation, comprehension, discrimination, position, implementation) for their relevance and explanatory power in today’s media landscape, suggesting new interpretations and new formulations. A revision of reception research does not only concern the notion of reception itself, but also that of the text, which appears increasingly complex, multi-formed and integrated to the audience. The original dimensions of Schrøder’s model need to be looked at with reference to both reception and circulation (Jenkins et al., 2013), and to the network that binds participatory media culture. It appears that with media 2.0, phenomena which traditionally fell under the labels of interpretation or reception are increasingly taking part in the media text itself. As audiences become textual matters, they contribute to set a new agenda for media research.

  20. Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation principles in radiation protection. Insight was also gained in what information should be collected or subject studied for emergency management. It was proved to be essential that information is in the proper form for decision-making. Therefore, methods and models to assess realistically the radiological and cost implications of different countermeasures need to be further developed. In the consequent assessments, it is necessary to take production, economic, demographic and geographical information into account. Also, the feasibility and constraints of protective actions, such as logistics, require further investigation. For example, there seems to exist no plans in the EU or Nordic countries to dispose radioactive waste that may result from decontamination. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop for tackling a decision problem that concerns many different key players. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in planning actions in advance. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although its suitability was not rated as highly as for planning. The suitability of the approach in the early phase of an accident was rated the lowest. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises in order to revise emergency plans or identify issues that need to be resolved. The pros and cons of the facilitated workshop method can be compared with the conventional approaches. The general goal in all methods is that key players would be better prepared for an accident situation. All participatory methods, when practiced in advance, also create a network of key players. Facilitated workshops provide the participants with an forum for structured dialogue to discuss openly the values behind the decision. Stakeholder network can evaluate and augment generic countermeasures but all the possible and feasible protective actions cannot be justified and optimised in depth. The ranking of protective actions depends on weigh

  1. Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

  2. Using community-based participatory research to identify potential interventions to overcome barriers to adolescents’ healthy eating and physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Ying-Ying; Bogart, Laura M.; Sipple-Asher, Bessie Ko; Uyeda, Kimberly; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Olarita-Dhungana, Josephina; GERY W. RYAN; Schuster, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Using a community-based participatory research approach, we explored adolescent, parent, and community stakeholder perspectives on barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, and intervention ideas to address adolescent obesity. We conducted 14 adolescent focus groups (n = 119), 8 parent focus groups (n = 63), and 28 interviews with community members (i.e., local experts knowledgeable about youth nutrition and physical activity). Participants described ecological and psychosocial barrie...

  3. Calorie Labeling in a Rural Middle School Influences Food Selection: Findings from Community-Based Participatory Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hunsberger, Monica; McGinnis, Paul; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; O'Malley, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background. Calorie labeling at the point-of-purchase in chain restaurants has been shown to reduce energy intake. Objective. To investigate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information at one rural middle school. Methods. With a community-based participatory research framework a mixed method approach was used to evaluate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information. Students in grades 6–8, dining at the school cafeteria January and February 2010, participated for 17 school days...

  4. A participatory approach to design a toolbox to support forest management planning at regional level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, A. F.; Borges, J. G.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Lucas, B.; Melo, I.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of the study: Forest management planning in a region typically involves multiple stake holders. Decisions processes are idiosyncratic, driven by individual goals and supported by segmented forest-based information. Nevertheless, stake holders' decisions do impact one another leading to complex interaction networks where communication, cooperation and negotiation play a key role. This research addresses the need to develop decision tools to support these roles. Emphasis is on the integration of participatory planning tools and techniques in the architecture of a regional decision support toolbox. Area of the study: The proposed approach was applied in the Chamusca County in Central Portugal although it is easily extended to other regions. Material and methods: This research proposes an Enterprise Architecture methodological approach to design a toolbox that may address distinct stake holders' interests and decision processes, while enabling communication, cooperation, negotiation and information sharing among all those involved in the regional interactions network. Main results: the proposed approach was tested in a regional network involving decision processes and information shared by 22 entities clustered into 13 stake holders groups, including industrial owners, and non-industrial private forest land owners (NIPF) acting individually or grouped into associations and federations, national and regional offices of the forest authority, forest services providers, non-governmental organizations and research centers. Results suggest that the proposed approach may provide a toolbox that may effectively address stake holders decision processes and goals and support the regional interaction network. (Author)

  5. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  6. A novel recruiting and surveying method: Participatory research during a Pacific Islander community’s traditional cultural event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Donoho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the health status of Marshallese, a Pacific Islander subpopulation living in the United States. The Marshallese have established a growing community in Northwest Arkansas, providing a unique opportunity for increasing knowledge regarding the health of this minority group. This article describes how a community-based participatory research process was used by a community and university coalition to identify and refine questionnaires and recruit study participants. Questionnaires were self-administered on computers during a one-week traditional cultural event. A total of 874 Marshallese from Arkansas completed the questionnaire, exceeding the goal of 600 respondents. Lessons learned, including the level and timing of involvement of both the leadership and the community at large, are discussed in detail. This approach enhanced communication and collaboration between the Marshallese community, service providers and researchers, resulting in higher participation and interest among the Marshallese community. Keywords: participatory research, minority populations, community health assessment, community coalition, Marshallese

  7. Scandinavian Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the...

  8. Community-based participatory research in complex settings: clean mind-dirty hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Jihad; Nakkash, Rima; Harpham, Trudy; Qutteina, Yara

    2014-09-01

    Despite the abundance of the literature which discusses factors supporting or inhibiting effective participation of community members in community-based research, there is a paucity of publications analysing challenges to participation in complex settings. This manuscript describes an intervention built on researcher-community partnership amid complex social conditions which challenged participation of community members at different stages of the research process. The research took place in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon and 1 of 12 in Lebanon which suffer from deteriorating social, economic and physical conditions perpetuated by state-imposed restrictions. The research team developed a community coalition which was involved in all stages of planning, designing, implementation and dissemination. In all those stages the aim was to maintain rigorous research, to follow a 'clean mind' approach to research, but maintain principles of community participation which necessitate 'a dirty hand'. Despite commitment to the principles of community-based participatory research, participation of community members (including youth, parents and teachers) was affected to a great extent by the social, physical and structural conditions of the community context. Characteristics of the context where research is conducted and how it affects community members should not be overlooked since multiple factors beyond the researchers' control could interfere with the rigour of scientific research. Researchers need to develop a plan for participation with the community from the beginning with an understanding of the community forces that affect meaningful participation and address possible deterrence. PMID:23872385

  9. The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Forchuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group. Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

  10. The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Forchuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group.Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

  11. Empowering Communities in Educational Management: Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruechakul, Prayad; Erawan, Prawit; Siwarom, Manoon

    2015-01-01

    The participatory learning and action: PLA was the process used for empowering in this program. This process has four steps: 1) create awareness, 2) specify problems or needs, 3) act and 4) present and reflect or monitor. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the conditions of communities in terms of context and problems or needs in…

  12. COMBINING PARTICIPATIONS. Expanding the Locus of Participatory E?Planning by Combining Participatory Approaches in the Design of Digital Technology and in Urban Planning.

    OpenAIRE

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna (ed.)

    2014-01-01

    The thesis is a trans-disciplinary work on participatory e-planning. So far, participatory e-planning, as approached in the urban planning and e-planning fields, has only focused on conventional types of participation in urban planning, which are enhanced by the use of single pieces of software. This approach is not in tune with the realities of the emerging digital age and its emerging cultures of participation. These are cultures of information-centred and digitally mediated peer production...

  13. "We Are Researchers": Students with and without Intellectual Disabilities Research the University Experience in a Participatory Action Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Susan M.; Yuan, Susan J.; Karambelas, Alex M.; Lampugnale, Luke E.; Parrott, Bernard J.; Sagar, Cora E.; Terry, Taylor V.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate Participatory Action Research (PAR) course in which students with and without intellectual disabilities collaborated as co-researchers in order to explore various aspects of the university experience. The article describes the university course as well as presents results of the students' PAR projects. The…

  14. Evaluating the Implementation of an Emotional Wellbeing Programme for Primary School Children Using Participatory Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Aleisha M.; Sixsmith, Jane; Barry, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This paper reports on the use of child participatory approaches to evaluate the implementation and impact of the "Zippy's Friends" emotional wellbeing programme on children in disadvantaged primary schools in Ireland. Design: As part of the overall evaluation study, which comprised a clustered randomised controlled trial,…

  15. Chicana Feminist Strategies in a Participatory Action Research Project with Transnational Latina Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) project carried out with three transnational Latina youth in northern California and how the university researcher incorporated Chicana feminist strategies in the study. PAR and Chicana feminism place at the heart of research the knowledge that ordinary people produce, referring to this…

  16. Involving deprived communities in improving the quality of primary care services: does participatory action research work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation by communities in improving the quality of health services has become a feature of government policy in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study was to involve a deprived community in the UK in shaping quality improvements of local primary care services. The specific objectives were firstly to create participation by local people in evaluating the primary care services available in the area and secondly to bring about change as a result of this process. Methods The methods of participatory action research was used. The study was set in an area of high socio-economic deprivation served by a 'Local Health Care Co-operative' in a peripheral housing estate in Glasgow, Scotland. 72 local residents took part in 11 focus groups: eight of these were with community groups and three with other residents. 372 local residents completed questionnaires either by brief face-to-face interviews (114 or by self or carer completion (258. Results The study group produced recommendations on physical access to the health centre, time constraints in accessing services and problems encountered in individual relationships with health staff. They also highlighted the social gap between health service providers and the daily life of community residents. Action was taken to bring these recommendations to the attention of the Primary Care Organisation. Conclusion Participatory action research was used to involve a deprived community in the UK in a 'bottom-up' approach aimed at improving quality of local primary care services. Although successful in creating a partnership between academic researchers and lay researchers and participation by local people in evaluating the primary care services available in the area, the impact of the study in terms of immediate action taken over specific issues has been modest. The possible reasons for this are discussed.

  17. African primary care research: Participatory action research / La recherche sur les soins de santé primaire en Afrique: la recherche sur l'action participative

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bob, Mash.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in [...] detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal.

  18. Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Approach to Environmental Education in Urban Community Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…

  19. The DEPICT model for participatory qualitative health promotion research analysis piloted in Canada, Zambia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Sarah; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2015-09-01

    Health promotion researchers are increasingly conducting Community-Based Participatory Research in an effort to reduce health disparities. Despite efforts towards greater inclusion, research teams continue to regularly exclude diverse representation from data analysis efforts. The DEPICT model for collaborative qualitative analysis is a democratic approach to enhancing rigour through inclusion of diverse stakeholders. It is broken down into six sequential steps. Strong leadership, coordination and facilitation skills are needed; however, the process is flexible enough to adapt to most environments and varying levels of expertise. Including diverse stakeholders on an analysis team can enrich data analysis and provide more nuanced understandings of complicated health problems. PMID:24418997

  20. Place and Situated Deliberation in Participatory Planning – A Research Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Within the domain of participatory urban planning, this position paper argues for a focus on the notion of place in the design of mobile and/or ubiquitous systems that are used in deliberation processes with central spatial references. I discuss (1) leveraging properties of place as a resource for users in the design of such systems and (2) situating, or merely co-locating, deliberation activities within the places these discussions are concerned with. To support my argument, I outline two exemp...

  1. Stakeholders' perspectives on community-based participatory research to enhance mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrew D; Byrd, Ronald; Claggett, Eddrena; DeVeaux, Sandra; Perkins, Reno; Huang, Cindy; Sernyak, Michael J; Steiner, Jeanne L; Cole, Robert; LaPaglia, Donna M; Bailey, Margaret; Buchanan, Candace; Johnson, Avon; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-12-01

    Historically, consumers of mental health services have not been given meaningful roles in research and change efforts related to the services they use. This is quickly changing as scholars and a growing number of funding bodies now call for greater consumer involvement in mental health services research and improvement. Amidst these calls, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an approach which holds unique promise for capitalizing on consumer involvement in mental health services research and change. Yet, there have been few discussions of the value added by this approach above and beyond that of traditional means of inquiry and enhancement in adult mental health services. The purpose of this paper is to add to this discussion an understanding of potential multilevel and multifaceted benefits associated with consumer-involved CBPR. This is accomplished through presenting the first-person accounts of four stakeholder groups who were part of a consumer-involved CBPR project purposed to improve the services of a local community mental health center. We present these accounts with the hope that by illustrating the unique outcomes associated with CBPR, there will be invigorated interest in CBPR as a vehicle for consumer involvement in adult mental health services research and enhancement. PMID:25245601

  2. The application of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in developing MSD interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, D C; Vitalis, A; Bentley, T A

    2016-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics projects are traditionally applied within one organisation. In this study, a participative approach was applied across the New Zealand meat processing industry, involving multiple organisations and geographical regions. The purpose was to develop interventions to reduce musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk. This paper considers the value of an industry level participatory ergonomics approach in achieving this. The main rationale for a participative approach included the need for industry credibility, and to generate MSD interventions that address industry level MSD risk factors. An industry key stakeholder group became the primary vehicle for formal participation. The study resulted in an intervention plan that included the wider work system and industry practices. These interventions were championed across the industry by the key stakeholder group and have extended beyond the life of the study. While this approach helped to meet the study aim, the existence of an industry-supported key stakeholder group and a mandate for the initiative are important prerequisites for success. PMID:26360206

  3. Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonas, Michael A; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

    2013-10-01

    Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and address disparities in breast cancer and cancer care. PMID:24000307

  4. Academics and Advocates: Using Participatory Action Research To Influence Welfare Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoss, Bernita; Cooney, Margaret; Longhurst, Terri

    2000-01-01

    Participatory action research is a useful technique for helping low income groups access postsecondary education. Conducting research involving analysis of the use of surplus welfare funds and federal regulations and advocating policy changes by explaining the benefits of public investment in postsecondary education are two roles for consumer…

  5. Perceptions That Influence the Maintenance of Scientific Integrity in Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and…

  6. Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

  7. Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne; Nyvang, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countri...

  8. The field of Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törpel, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter, the field of Participatory Design is introduced, including the description of a number of its specific approaches. After an introduction in some of the issues in Participatory Design, approaches within the field of Participatory Design and relevant for the field of Participatory Design are outlined.

  9. Texting as a Channel for Personalized Youth Support: Participatory Design Research by City Youth and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Mica; Amaechi, Uche

    2013-01-01

    Most school districts are out to regulate and restrict student texting and fear student-teacher texting as particularly inappropriate. But might this youth-dominated channel in fact be a twenty-first century portal to personalized support for youth struggling in school? This article shares first findings from participatory design research on…

  10. Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

  11. Cancer, Employment, and American Indians: A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2011-01-01

    American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…

  12. Participatory Mapping with Urban Youth: The Visual Elicitation of Socio-Spatial Research Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literat, Ioana

    2013-01-01

    Participatory mapping attempts to engage youth in the generation of personalized maps, as a way to both harness the value of individual knowledge about geographic space, and to concurrently empower the research participants by inviting them to take an active stake in the representation and explication of their spatial environment. Engagement in…

  13. Emotional Value of Applied Textiles : Dialogue-oriented and participatory approaches to textile design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2011-01-01

    The present PhD thesis is conducted as an Industrial PhD project in collaboration with the Danish company Gabriel A/S (Gabriel), which designs and produces furniture textiles and ‘related products’ for manufacturers of furniture. A ‘related textile product’ is e.g. processing of piece goods, upholstery, mounting etc. This PhD project addresses the challenges of the textile industry, where the global knowledge economy increasingly forces companies to include user-participation and value innovation in their product development. My project revolves around the challenges which the textile designers at Gabriel face while trying to implement an innovative and process-oriented business strategy. The focal point has been the section of the strategy which aims at developing Blue Ocean products, which have a functional and an emotional value for the user. The thesis examines and explores emotional value of applied textiles. The objective is to operationalise the strategic term ‘emotional value’ as it relates to applied textiles. The procedure includes the development of user- and stakeholder-centred approaches, which are valuable for the textile designer in the design process. The research approach is application-oriented and practical. In chapter two, I explain the ‘programmatic approach’ to design research, in which design experiments are the core of the project. The research programme is dynamic; it is developing in the course of the project and in tandem with the knowledge generated. The outcome of the research is ‘exemplary’ and the research contributions are presented as ‘exemplars’, ‘frameworks’, ‘tools’ and ‘structures’, which are relevant for the design process or can be the subject of critique and further investigation by other researchers. The project is a contribution to the broad and multifaceted field of design research with a particular focus on textile design including the discourse and methodology used in the field of design. In addition the project relates to the Participatory Design approach and to the design research fields which focus on emotional aspects of design. Based on my experiences with the programmatic approach I propose a distinction between ’overall challenges’ and ’research questions’. I view this thesis as a research contribution which facilitates a programmatic approach to a project such as this one. The ‘overall challenges’ (challenges within the field of textile design) is a constant variable against which the programme (challenges which Gabriel’s textile designers face) can be benchmarked. Thus the ‘research questions’ (emotional value and user and stakeholder involvement) are ‘shapable’ and situation-specific, and they constantly interact with the experiments (procedures of user and stakeholder involvement). In the course of the thesis I explain and elaborate on four themes each of which contributes to the outcome of the project. 1) Creating a frame of reference for the textile design process and a systematic approach to applied textiles. In chapter three I compare a textile design process with Donald Schön’s definition of design as ‘a conversation with the materials of a situation’. Subsequently, through design experiments involving several participants, I develop the ‘Tripod Approach’– a structured and systematic approach to design and research of applied textiles. 2) Understanding and exploring emotional value related to design of applied textiles. In chapter four I argue – based on Jesse Prinz’s and Antonio Damasio’s emotion research – for a perception of emotional value of applied textiles which acknowledges bodily feedback as a core concept in the process which leads to ‘emotion’. This approach is used when exploring and adjusting Patrick Jordan’s framework of ‘the four pleasures’ to the study of emotional value of applied textiles as presented in this thesis. My experiments lead to the creation of a framework of four adjusted categories of ‘pleasure’ based on which a group of stakeholders can e

  14. Mobile Applications for Participatory Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) :a participatory approach to implementing CSR in a cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Høivik, Heidi von Weltzien; Shankar, Deepthi

    2010-01-01

    This report is focused on why and how a participatory approach to implement Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in a cluster would be beneficial for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the Norwegian Center of Expertise (NCE) Subsea cluster in Bergen, Norway. The political and strategic reasons, as well as internal motivation, for SMEs to incorporate CSR into their business strategies are discussed with support from relevant literature. Furthermore, the report reviews different ap...

  16. Are Research Ethics Committees Prepared for Community-Based Participatory Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Leonardo; Medina, Heidy; Taylor, Janielle; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Kobetz, Erin; Palacio, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is challenging to research ethics committees (RECs). We reviewed the REC preparedness when reviewing CBPR projects. We searched the MEDLINE database and included qualitative studies of CBPR researchers or REC members about their experiences with RECs. The search yielded 107 studies, of which 10 met our criteria. Barriers were that the community is not prepared to conduct research, the reluctance of RECs to work outside the university, the difficulty RECs have understanding CBPR, and that REC forms evaluate individual rather than community risk. Facilitators were having a CBPR expert as an REC member and educating RECs. Therefore, RECs are not prepared to evaluate CBPR projects leading to unnecessary delays in the approval process. PMID:26527370

  17. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action research is an effective method for community assessments. However, researchers must rigorously embrace principles of mutual cooperation, respect for public ideas, and a robust belief in community empowerment in order to pave the way for responsible and active citizen participation in the various stages of research.

  18. The role of community health advisors in community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Lachel; Hinton, Agnes; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2010-01-01

    Mistrust and fear of research often exist in minority communities because of assumptions, preconceived ideas, and historical abuse and racism that continue to influence research participation. The research establishment is full of well-meaning 'outsider' investigators who recognize discrimination, health disparities, and insufficient health care providers in minority communities, but struggle in breaking through this history of mistrust. This article provides ethical insights from one such 'insider-outsider', community-based participatory research project implemented via community health advisors in the Mississippi Delta. Both community-based participatory research and community health advisors provide opportunities to address the ethical issues of trust, non-maleficence, and justice in minority communities. Implications for ethics-driven nursing research are discussed. PMID:20089631

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF A PARTICIPATORY ACTION ORIENTED TRAINING INTERVENTION APPROACH AMONG HARVESTERS IN OIL PALM PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Yee Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with the global demand for palm oil, the intensified upstream harvesting activities of oil palms’ fresh fruit bunches, despite the harvesters evidences of various ergonomics risk factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders should be a cause for concern. Thus, this study describes the effectiveness of a modified and locally adapted Participatory Action-Oriented Training intervention program in improving the working environment of the harvesters. A training program modified and customized to the harvesters’ working in oil palm plantation consist of 3 primary instrument (awareness video, interactive lecture and action checklist with 3 reinforcing activities (to increase knowledge, enhance understanding and practical application. Based on the result of post-intervention assessment, the self-reported prevalence of MSD and KAP score among Intervention Group (IG did not significantly differ from Control Group (CG. Instead of decreasing, the prevalence of MSD in the past 12 months and 7 days increased within IG. Qualitative findings in this research show that the negative psychosocial and organizational climate has severely affected the implementation of PAOT rendering the effect of the intervention approach. The interventions were ineffective on the IG as this study suffers from various situational barriers as obstacles to benefit the full extent of PAOT advantages.

  20. African Americans, democracy, and biomedical and behavioral research: contradictions or consensus in community-based participatory research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, C

    Individualism, in both its political and attitudinal senses, reinforces societal and institutional racism in the United States. Because of individualism's dominant focus on self-interest and self-reliance, any application of "participatory democracy" in community-based biomedical and behavioral research is fraught with dilemmas similar to those that Gunnar Myrdal observed between American racism and democracy. The research establishment is overwhelmed by well-meaning non-minorities who recognize racism and its consequences in health, but only greater representation of people-of-color in the health establishment can ameliorate the inherent contradictions of "participatory democracy" which is so fundamental to the process of community-based participatory research. PMID:16021781

  1. Visual Participatory Approach to Violent Behaviour amongst Zimbabwean Students: Forms and Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephias Gudyanga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the perceptions of students on forms and prevalence of violent behavior in Gweru urban district of Zimbabwe. Visual participatory methodology premised on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was used. Drawings with focus group discussions were the main data collecting instruments. Participants were fifteen conveniently selected students attending a typical urban high school (females = 7, age range 15-17, males = 8, age range 14-18. Data on forms and prevalence of violence were collected from the students. The majority of the participants portrayed physical violence, vandalism and sexual harassment. It was recommended that schools must develop clear policies in an endeavor to reduce or eliminate violence. Schools Psychological Services must provide psychotherapy to individuals concerned. Visual participatory methodology, a new body of knowledge in Zimbabwe, is a vital tool for future researchers.

  2. Large-Scale Participation: A Case Study of a Participatory Approach to Developing a New Public Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case study of a participatory project that focuses on interaction in large-scale design, namely, the development of the new Urban Mediaspace Aarhus. This project, which has been under way for ten years, embodies a series of issues that arise when participatory design approaches are applied to large-scale, IT-oriented projects. At the same time, it highlights the issues public knowledge institutions face, when interactive technologies challenge their fundamental roles ...

  3. Using participatory action research to foster nurse leadership in Australian rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Melanie; Kenny, Amanda; Nay, Rhonda

    2013-09-01

    This paper outlines the processes and results of a participatory action research study undertaken to identify issues that may impact on strategies to foster nurse leadership in rural hospitals. Five Directors of Nursing from rural regions of Victoria, Australia participated. The group activities involved discussion and analysis of previous research, a review of current literature and critical reflection of the leadership performance of their organization. The analysis identified five key themes; dispel the myths, adopt big-picture thinking, connect with colleagues, reflect on your own conduct, and create organizational buy-in. It is essential to have an awareness of contextual challenges, an understanding of the importance of your own conduct as a visible leader, and the need for effective communication to inform the development of strategies that may be used to foster nurse leadership in rural hospitals. The platform to discuss and critically analyze leadership saw a group consensus that affirmed the need for any approach to nursing leadership to be tailored to the individual healthcare organization. PMID:23490407

  4. Too much coffee... - Negotiation of Knowledge Forms in Participatory Research Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    Based on a Bakhtinian approach negotiations of knowledge in a workshop with health professionals at two psychiatric wards were analyzed. Our analysis reveals that there is a mismatch between the dialogical context we as participatory-oriented researchers want to invoke and the monological context we in fact co-produce in-interaction. The analysis shows that there appears to be two major reasons for this undesired nature of the conversations. First, all participants (including us) orient to a formal and monological learning context in which there seems to be a hierarchical relationship between the participants in the workshop relating primarily to level of education. Secondly, we confuse the participants in the workshop because there is a mismatch between our orientation to a formal learning context as described above and our search for their local, concrete and lived experiences - i.e. a situated knowledge. The analysis indicates that this mismatch potentially adds to the confusion because we on the one hand meet the practitioners’ expectations to us as researchers when we invoke a more formal learning context. On the other hand we do probably not meet their expectations when we are looking for sensitive and contextualized knowledge because a representational and de-contextualized knowledge form is closely linked to a more formalized learning context.

  5. Participatory Research Challenges in Drug Abuse Studies Among Transnational Mexican Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Victor; Gonzalez, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Participatory research is essential in public health studies, but using this methodology to examine sensitive public health problems among vulnerable populations is a challenge. We share some of our trials and tribulations in attempting to use participatory research in our substance abuse studies among transnational Mexican migrants in southeastern Pennsylvania. Major challenges did not permit partnerships across the community in all phases of research, including the dissemination of findings. Especially difficult was including transnational migrants and nearby relatives as partners in the research, similar to partnerships created with others in the community. The sensitive nature of our research and associated human subject concerns did not permit a more participatory methodology. Another problem involved partnerships with members of the larger community, given the apathy and ambivalence towards drug use by transnational migrants. Finally, collaborating with community stakeholders to develop and implement research-based recommendations was also problematic. As we learned, there are more to generating substance abuse recommendations in partnership with stakeholders than simply working together on recommendations, which also require an effective implementation strategy. Based on these experiences, we elaborate useful suggestions in development and application of local-level programs aimed at curtailing substance abuse among transnational migrant workers while they are at their work sites in Pennsylvania. PMID:22003376

  6. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovatio...

  7. Integrating Geo-information Models with Participatory Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Nidumolu, U.B.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Land use analysis, GIS, remote sensing, yield gaps, regression modeis, crop management improvement, crop selection, conservation, multiple goal optimisation model, stakeholder communication matrix, fuzzy modelling, soft systems methodologyRemotely-sensed data coupled with GIS-derived biophysical data have been key components in land use studies during the past decades. Natural Resource Managers relied on biophysically-oriented 'top down' approaches for the design of land and water m...

  8. Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkko, Kari

    2004-01-01

    This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision-making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested i...

  9. Increasing Critical Health Literacy of Roma People trough Participatory Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Crondahl, Kristine

    Evidence shows that the Roma people engage less in democratic processes than the majority population. Rather than being involved in the planning of measurements and proposals, the Roma people have been treated as a helpless group in need of expert support from the authorities. To enable Roma people to take a leading role in their integration process a 2-year action research was implemented in 2010-2012. The idea was to strengthen the Roma Peoples’ critical health literacy which allows them to analyze and apply health information to oppose the forces that are holding them oppressed and to take better control over their life situation. The objective of this paper is to discuss methodological issues based on experiences of the use of participatory research approach in increasing health literacy. Methods: The core of the intervention was ‘training of trainers’ of a group of Roma people from western Sweden. They organized lectures on Roma issues for the civil servants and mobilized the Roma community for social action. The data, consisting of observational notes, reports, and participant interviews, were analysed qualitatively. Results: The intervention created an arena for dialogue between the Roma people and the public service employees. Their mutual viewpoints improved as their insight into each other’s life circumstances increased. However, rigidity and an inability to see the character of the emancipatory approach of the project by the authorities created difficulties for its implementation. Conclusions: The Roma participants’ strengthened critical health literacy improved their health chances and possibilities for participation in working life and decision making on Roma issues. The existing system of rules for project operations clashed with the character of the “soft” bottom-up approach of the project. This created situations where the project spent more time working with the rules of the authorities than with the purpose of the project.

  10. Participatory action research, strengthening institutional capacity and governance: Confronting the urban challenge in Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaib Lwasa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban governance presents the most daunting and challenging task for sub-Saharan African countries in this century (Rakodi, 1997: 3; Rakodi, 2001; 5; McGill, 1988; 6. Africa is urbanizing faster than any other region. The level of urbanization stands at 39.1%, with annual rates of growth ranging between 8% and 13%. It is estimated that by 2025 half of the African population will be urban. This demographic shift, particularly in the sub-Saharan region, presents major problems for urban management. Although urban management programs of infrastructure development, financial management, economic development, environmental planning, spatial development mechanisms and social services provision continue to be enhanced, there is a mismatch between the program outcomes and need. Due to this shortfall, alternative strategies have been sought but with little documented evidence of successes, failures and lessons because of limited evaluation. The importance of research-informed policy is underscored by the apparent disconnect between actors in the urban field. These actors include city managers, researchers, political leaders and most important, communities. The latter are often disregarded yet they largely influence the development path and shape the fabric of urban space. Even where communities are engaged, they exert less influence than other actors on urban policies and programs. This paper examines how participatory action research is changing the relationships between researchers, communities and city authorities in a search for alternative approaches to address urban poverty and environmental challenges in Kampala – in particular service delivery, solid waste management and flood control. Based on an action-research and development project conducted in Kampala since 2006, there is evidence that communities can be galvanized not only to design solutions to their problems, but also to engage with city authorities through information sharing platforms about their needs and thus bolster outcomes of urban development programs through improved governance.

  11. Tobacco environment for Southeast Asian American youth: Results from a participatory research project

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Juliet P.; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Saephan, Sang; Kirkpatrick, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Despite reports of high rates of smoking among Southeast Asian refugees in the U.S., few studies have described environmental aspects of tobacco use among this population, particularly for the second generation of youths. This absence is notable, as the social environment within which second-generation youths are exposed to tobacco products differs radically from the natal environment of their parents. We describe results of a youth-led community participatory research project for Southeast A...

  12. Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are invol...

  13. Native Hawaiian Voices: Enhancing the Role of Cultural Values in Community Based Participatory Research

    OpenAIRE

    McMullin, Juliet; Bone, Momi; Pang, Jane Ka‘ala; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; McEligot, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Following the goals of Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR), this paper describes how Native Hawaiian values emerged as a methodology for the conduct of a study with Native Hawaiians residing in Southern California. The equitable placing of community values side by side with scientific values show that community concepts can parallel and extend CBPR premises and are more than a variable to be added in the analysis. The community partners, whose voices guide this paper, introduced the...

  14. Sequencing Participatory Action Research and i* Modeling Framework in Capturing Multiple Roles Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Siti Nurul Hayatie; Nordin, Ariza

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual framework for sequencing of Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology with the implementation of i* modeling framework in capturing multiple roles requirements. There are multiple roles involved in the development of information system, thus it involves with difference users requirements and preferences, context as well as the demands which become a challenge in development of system. This is due to these roles where information of th...

  15. A Stepwise, Participatory Approach to Design and Implement Community Based Adaptation to Drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lasage

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participatory design with physical measurements, modeling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña River basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey (n = 94 we explore how a vulnerability index (risk divided by response efficacy can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households, and how socio-economic factors determine this vulnerability. Water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlated with vulnerability to drought. The research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency is low. The selected adaptation measures aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency of farmers and households.

  16. Ambitious mitigation scenarios for Germany: A participatory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the challenge of engaging civil society stakeholders in the development process of ambitious mitigation scenarios that are based on formal energy system modeling, allowing for the explicit attachment of normative considerations to technology-focused mitigation options. It presents the definition and model results for a set of mitigation scenarios for Germany that achieve 85% CO2 emission reduction in 2050 relative to 1990. During consecutive dialogues, civil society stakeholders from the transport and electricity sector framed the definition of boundary conditions for the energy-economy model REMIND-D and evaluated the scenarios with regard to plausibility and social acceptance implications. Even though the limited scope of this research impedes inferential conclusions on the German energy transition as a whole, it demonstrates that the technological solutions to the mitigation problem proposed by the model give rise to significant societal and political implications that deem at least as challenging as the mere engineering aspects of innovative technologies. These insights underline the importance of comprehending mitigation of energy-related CO2 emissions as a socio-technical transition embedded in a political context. - Highlights: ? Preferences of German civil society stakeholders are elicited in dialogues. ? Three scenarios represent likely, desirable and controversial key developments. ? A carbon lock-in from freight transport and coal electrification is deemed likely. ? Stakeholders advocate major paradigm shifts for resolving the carbon lock-in. ? Institutional and societal factors are decisive for achieving ambitious mitigation.

  17. Assessing the outcomes of participatory research: protocol for identifying, selecting, appraising and synthesizing the literature for realist review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenhalgh Trish

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory Research (PR entails the co-governance of research by academic researchers and end-users. End-users are those who are affected by issues under study (e.g., community groups or populations affected by illness, or those positioned to act on the knowledge generated by research (e.g., clinicians, community leaders, health managers, patients, and policy makers. Systematic reviews assessing the generalizable benefits of PR must address: the diversity of research topics, methods, and intervention designs that involve a PR approach; varying degrees of end-user involvement in research co-governance, both within and between projects; and the complexity of outcomes arising from long-term partnerships. Methods We addressed the above mentioned challenges by adapting realist review methodology to PR assessment, specifically by developing inductively-driven identification, selection, appraisal, and synthesis procedures. This approach allowed us to address the non-uniformity and complexity of the PR literature. Each stage of the review involved two independent reviewers and followed a reproducible, systematic coding and retention procedure. Retained studies were completed participatory health interventions, demonstrated high levels of participation by non-academic stakeholders (i.e., excluding studies in which end-users were not involved in co-governing throughout the stages of research and contained detailed descriptions of the participatory process and context. Retained sets are being mapped and analyzed using realist review methods. Results The librarian-guided search string yielded 7,167 citations. A total of 594 citations were retained after the identification process. Eighty-three papers remained after selection. Principle Investigators (PIs were contacted to solicit all companion papers. Twenty-three sets of papers (23 PR studies, comprising 276 publications, passed appraisal and are being synthesized using realist review methods. Discussion The systematic and stage-based procedure addressed challenges to PR assessment and generated our robust understanding of complex and heterogeneous PR practices. To date, realist reviews have focussed on evaluations of relatively uniform interventions. In contrast our PR search yielded a wide diversity of partnerships and research topics. We therefore developed tools to achieve conceptual clarity on the PR field, as a beneficial precursor to our theoretically-driven synthesis using realist methods. Findings from the ongoing review will be provided in forthcoming publications.

  18. Using community based participatory research to create a culturally grounded intervention for parents and youth to prevent risky behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez Parsai, Monica; Castro, Felipe González; Marsiglia, Flavio F; Harthun, Mary L; Valdez, Hector

    2011-03-01

    The principal goal of this article is to contribute to the field of prevention science by providing a sequential description of how Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) was used to develop a parent education curriculum aimed at preventing and decreasing adolescent drug use and risky sexual behaviors. CBPR principles are outlined, and information is provided on the unique contributions of researchers and community members who came together to develop this parent education program. Focus group information is presented as an exemplar to illustrate how thematic content from focus groups was used to inform the development of this parent education curriculum. A step by step description is given to facilitate replication of this process by other prevention researchers who are interested in applying this CBPR approach to develop a culturally responsive parent education intervention. PMID:21107693

  19. Evaluation of soil salinity amelioration technologies in Timpaki, Crete: a participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2015-10-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we use the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE Project Case Study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rain water harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, whereas green manuring and the use of biological agents can support increasing production/efficiency and improving soil properties.

  20. Participatory Activities in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Frederik; SØrensen, Vicki

    Through a series of participatory activities within a product development project, we analyse how these activities influence the design process and how new meaning is created through the interaction of crossing intentions (Larsen, 2010). By focusing on a specific theme in the project we reflect on how participatory activities are a key part in establishing important interactions between participants resulting in new design approaches. At other times participatory activities become a part of blurring these new approaches when performing new participatory activities towards developing new iterations of the concept in focus. We conclude that participatory activities can play a key part in the uptake of user knowledge but that a participatory innovation approach of establishing collaboration between crossing intentions can as well be considered provocative and as such, result in resistance and exclusion of potential project partners.

  1. Integrating participatory engagement and scientific research to inform causes and solutions to water problems in the River Njoro Watershed Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M.

    2012-12-01

    Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.

  2. Metodo y Proceso de la Investigacion Participativa en la Capacitacion Rural (The Method and Process of Participatory Research in Rural Leadership Training). Cuadernos del CREFAL 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schutter, Anton

    In participatory research, education and learner participation are directly connected. The document analyzes the role of a participatory research method in the basic education of rural adults. The different phases of the Participant Research method are presented, along with a profound analysis of both research and participation. The claim is that…

  3. Using a Participatory Approach to the Development of a School-Based Physical Activity Policy in an Indigenous Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Lindsay; Bengoechea, Enrique García; Salsberg, Jon; Jacobs, Judi; King, Morrison; Macaulay, Ann C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study is part of a larger community-based participatory research (CBPR) project to develop, implement, and evaluate the physical activity component of a school-based wellness policy. The policy intervention is being carried out by community stakeholders and academic researchers within the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention…

  4. Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  5. Vulnerability assessment in a participatory approach to design and implement community based adaptation to drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.

  6. Assessing the benefits of participatory research: a rationale for a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Ann C; Jagosh, Justin; Seller, Robbyn; Henderson, Jim; Cargo, Margaret; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wong, Geoff; Salsberg, Jon; Green, Lawrence W; Herbert, Carol P; Pluye, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Participatory research (PR) experts believe that increased community and stakeholder participation in research augments program pertinence, quality, outcome, sustainability, uptake, and transferability. There is, however, a dearth of assessments and measurement tools to demonstrate the contribution of participation in health research and interventions. One systematic review of PR, conducted for the Agency for Health Research and Quality (AHRQ), provided no conclusive evidence concerning the benefits of community participation to enhance research and health outcomes. To overcome methodological gaps and barriers of the AHRQ review, we propose to conduct a systematic realist review, which can be understood as a theory-driven qualitative review capable of capturing the often complex, diffuse and obtuse evidence concerning participation. Reviewing how PR mechanisms and contextual factors mediate and moderate outcomes, the review will generate and test hypotheses (middle-range theories) conceptualizing the benefits of participation and will portray the manner and circumstances in which participation influences outcomes. PMID:21744664

  7. Participatory telerobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  8. "What Happened to Our Sense of Justice?" Tracing Agency and Critical Engagement in a Youth Participatory Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-García, Regina J.; Galletta, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Tracing the nature of critical engagement and agency among youth in a participatory action research (PAR) collective, the study attends to the manner in which critical engagement and agency developed over time for the youth researchers. The focus of the project was to conduct a survey among ninth grade students concerning their early high school…

  9. Contextualizing Violence in a Participatory Classroom: A Socially Defined Identities Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginorio, Angela B.

    1998-01-01

    Outlines techniques for integrating race, class, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, and other categories of socially defined identity into a survey course on women and violence in a student-centered participatory classroom. Early efforts indicate that an open and participatory classroom facilitates dealing with the stresses of this…

  10. Echoes of Bedford: a 20-year social psychology memoir on participatory action research hatched behind bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space. PMID:24320653

  11. Latino Community-Based Participatory Research Studies: A Model for Conducting Bilingual Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Escamilla, Julia; Rodriguez, Erin M.; Vega, Susan; Bolaños, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Many behavioral health materials have not been translated into Spanish. Of those that are available in Spanish, some of them have not been translated correctly, many are only appropriate for a subgroup of Latinos, and/or multiple versions of the same materials exist. This article describes an innovative model of conducting bilingual English–Spanish translations as part of community-based participatory research studies and provides recommendations based on this model. In this article, the traditional process of conducting bilingual translations is reviewed, and an innovative model for conducting translations in collaboration with community partners is described. Finally, recommendations for conducting future health research studies with community partners are provided. Researchers, health care providers, educators, and community partners will benefit from learning about this innovative model that helps produce materials that are more culturally appropriate than those that are produced with the most commonly used method of conducting translations. PMID:25741929

  12. Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model: Community Partner Consultation and Face Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie E; Duran, Bonnie; Tafoya, Greg; Baker, Elizabeth A; Chan, Domin; Chang, Charlotte; Greene-Moton, Ella; Kelley, Michele A; Wallerstein, Nina

    2016-01-01

    A national community-based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nationwide. Participants validated and expanded on existing model constructs and identified new constructs based on "real-world" praxis, resulting in a revised model. Four cross-cutting constructs were identified: trust development, capacity, mutual learning, and power dynamics. By empirically testing the model, we found community face validity and capacity to adapt the model to diverse contexts. We recommend partnerships use and adapt the CBPR model and its constructs, for collective reflection and evaluation, to enhance their partnering practices and achieve their health and research goals. PMID:25361792

  13. Challenges of youth participation in participatory action research. : methodological considerations of the Paamiut Youth Voice research project.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattar, Laila; Fanous, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    Paamiut Youth Voice (PYV) is a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, exploring youth perceptions, experiences, and the promotion of well-being in Paamiut, Greenland. Active youth participation remained a key challenge in the development of the local community through the locally initiated community mobilisation programme Paamiut Asasara. The challenges of youth participation in PYV are investigated in order to explore the implications of youth participation in PAR projects. The discussion of challenges is based on a methodological account of experiences from the research process clarifying how youth participation in the PYV project took place. Results are presented, concerning the young people’s understandings and experiences of engagement and participation.

  14. Does visual participatory research have resilience-promoting value? Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda C Theron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV & AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambivalence in teacher experiences of drawings to highlight the complexity of employing drawings as visual method. Then, I interpret the teachers' methodological experiences through the lens ofsocial-ecological understandings of resilience in order to address the question of how drawings, as form of visual participatory methodology, may make a positive difference and nurture participant resilience. What the teachers' experiences suggest is that drawings offer methodological opportunities for participants to make constructive meaning of adversity, to take action, to experience mastery, and to regulate emotion associated with adversity. All of the aforementioned are well documented pathways to resilience. I theorise, therefore, that researchers with a social conscience would be well advised to use drawings, albeit in competent and participatory ways, as this methodology potentiates participant resilience and positive change.

  15. Does visual participatory research have resilience-promoting value? Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Linda C, Theron.

    Full Text Available I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds) intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV & AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambiv [...] alence in teacher experiences of drawings to highlight the complexity of employing drawings as visual method. Then, I interpret the teachers' methodological experiences through the lens ofsocial-ecological understandings of resilience in order to address the question of how drawings, as form of visual participatory methodology, may make a positive difference and nurture participant resilience. What the teachers' experiences suggest is that drawings offer methodological opportunities for participants to make constructive meaning of adversity, to take action, to experience mastery, and to regulate emotion associated with adversity. All of the aforementioned are well documented pathways to resilience. I theorise, therefore, that researchers with a social conscience would be well advised to use drawings, albeit in competent and participatory ways, as this methodology potentiates participant resilience and positive change.

  16. Participatory and action research as a transformative praxis: responding to humanitarian crises from the margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykes, M Brinton

    2013-11-01

    This article reports on a small set of community-based participatory projects designed collaboratively by and for survivors directly affected by armed conflict in Guatemala and some of their family members in the North (i.e., in New Orleans, Louisiana, and New England). Local protagonists deeply scarred by war and gross violations of human rights drew on indigenous beliefs and practices, creativity, visual performance arts, and participatory and action research strategies to develop and perform collaborative community-based actions. These initiatives constitute a people's psychosocial praxis. Through their individual and collective narratives and actions, Mayan and African American women and Latinas perform a psychology from the "two-thirds world," one that draws on postcolonial theory and methodology to retheorize trauma and resilience. These voices, creative representations, and actions of women from the Global South transform earlier, partial efforts to decenter EuroAmerican epistemologies underlying dominant models of trauma that reduce complex collective phenomena to individual pathology, refer to continuous trauma as past, are ahistorical, and universalize culturally particular realities. PMID:24320677

  17. What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.

  18. Large-Scale Participation: A Case Study of a Participatory Approach to Developing a New Public Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case study of a participatory project that focuses on interaction in large-scale design, namely, the development of the new Urban Mediaspace Aarhus. This project, which has been under way for ten years, embodies a series of issues that arise when participatory design approaches are applied to large-scale, IT-oriented projects. At the same time, it highlights the issues public knowledge institutions face, when interactive technologies challenge their fundamental roles and practices; by extension, this case offers examples of how these challenges may be explored and addressed through IT-based participatory initiatives. We present a range of such activities carried out during the past ten years, and present the main lessons from the project, based on interviews with three key stakeholders. These lessons focus on how to make participation work in practice, how to align different paradigms of inquiry and practice in a project of this scale, and how to capture and anchor the insights from participatory events to inform the ongoing design process.

  19. Mapping a Strategic Plan for Health: Community-Based Participatory Research with Underserved, Low-Income, Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandee, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Since 2002, community-based participatory research methods have been used by the Calvin College Nursing Department to map out a strategic health plan for three urban, low-income, underserved neighborhoods. Nine focus groups and 449 door-to-door health surveys were completed across the three urban neighborhoods between 2002 and 2004. Neighborhood…

  20. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practica...

  1. Prospective of groundwater overexploitation through participatory approaches: Saiss Plain in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameur, Fatah; Lejars, Caroline; Dionnet, Mathieu; Quarouch, Hassan; Kuper, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    In the Saiss plain, groundwater overexploitation is often explained by two phenomena. The first one is a natural phenomenon (droughts), which seems therefore uncontrollable; the other one is human as groundwater is largely used by the agricultural sector. The main issue of groundwater governance is to find an acceptable balance in the use of the water resource without compromising the socio-economic development generated by this resource. Our study aims to contribute to understanding the differential contribution of different categories of groundwater users and the socio-economic and agrarian dynamics impacted by the overuse of groundwater. We adopted a participatory approach to explore with the different actors involved in the management and use of groundwater to identify the different viewpoints on the issue of overexploitation and to engage prospective and collective thinking of present situation of groundwater overexploitation. We organized multi-stakeholder workshops and designed a role-playing game to identify and qualify the existing links between the water resource, and the economic and social dynamics in order to better understand the human behavior to economic and environmental crises and the adaptive strategies of farmers confronted with an increasingly scarce groundwater resource. Our results showed considerable differences in the viewpoints of different categories of farmers regarding overexploitation. Agricultural investors who arrived over the past 5 years in the area practicing arboriculture consider themselves modern farmers using precise and water-saving irrigation technologies (drip irrigation, especially) who cannot be blamed for overexploitation of groundwater resources. Lessees practicing horticulture put considerable pressure on water resources, but were not interested in debates on overexploitation and the sustainability of groundwater resources. In fact, they did not turn up for the workshops. Finally, the local small-scale farmers who have very limited access to groundwater due to declining groundwater tables were shown to be the most concerned about groundwater overexploitation, especially the youngsters. These results show that not only different categories of users contribute differently to groundwater overexploitation, but also the direct effects of overexploitation are asymmetrically supported by different categories of users. These results can thus provide the basis for a user-oriented debate on groundwater governance involving the different categories of users and public institutions, by making the differential contribution and impacts of groundwater overexploitation visible. Keywords: Participatory approaches, role-playing game, actors, groundwater, overexploitation, Morocco

  2. Municipal Benefits of Participatory Urban Sensing: A Simulation Approach and Case Validation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Till J., Winkler; Holger, Ziekow; Martin, Weinberg.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Involving citizens in public affairs through the use of participatory sensing applications is an emerging theme in Pervasive Computing and mobile E-Government (M-Government). Prior work, however, suggests that local governments place more emphasis on internal than on external M-Government projects. [...] This paper takes an action design research perspective to provide insight into the often overlooked potential of citizen-centric, external M-Government services. We consider the scenario of a sensing application for reporting urban infrastructure issues to the municipality and present a System Dynamics model to estimate the diffusion, use, and municipal impacts of such service. The model is validated based on the case of a large German city, a dedicated survey, and further data sources. The simulation results indicate that, compared to internal information acquisition procedures, the use of urban sensing can improve a municipality's availability of environmental information at a comparable level of cost. Furthermore, we discuss a number of aspects and learnings related to an urban sensing implementation and provide an empirical estimation of the diffusion model. Our results provide an impetus for researchers and government practitioners to reconsider the benefits of urban sensing applications in E-Government endeavors.

  3. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde, through a participatory approach: which outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

    2014-09-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of Work Package 5 (socio-economical vulnerability assessment and community-based disaster risk reduction) of the MIAVITA (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) research programme conducted on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 years (May 2010 to January 2012), of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km wide caldera of the volcano inside Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the programme included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people to volcanic threats is linked to daily access to sources of livelihood, especially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk to their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such an objective, a participatory three-dimensional mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participatory aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability of (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties in involving more marginalised people like women and the youth, and (3) the fact that volcanic risk is not a priority for the people, who are more concerned with daily difficulties due to unsustainable livelihoods, a lack of access to water, land tenure, and the restrictions by the Fogo Natural Park administration and the municipal officials. Still, the study was successful in creating a space for dialogue between the local people and the outside stakeholders such as the Natural Park Administration, the Civil Protection, and the Municipality of Santa Catarina, who have all participated actively during the course of the project.

  4. A Review of Bayesian Networks as a Participatory Modeling Approach in Support of Sustainable Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Meike Duespohl; Sina Frank; Petra Doell

    2012-01-01

    To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN) modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition,...

  5. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do conventional distinctions betw...

  6. PARTICIPATORY EXTENSION PROCESSES AS CATALYST FOR CHANGE IN SOCIAL DYNAMICS AMONG RURAL POOR

    OpenAIRE

    Friis-Hansen, Esbern; Duveskog, Deborah; Edward W. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    As agricultural education based on participatory approaches expand, knowledge is needed about the impact it has on the daily lives of participants beyond farming gains. The study explores how involvement in the participatory extension practice “Farmer Field Schools (FFS)” results in shifting world views among participants and to what extent it has an impact on peoples' sense of well-being and agency in society. The paper discuss how transformative learning in participatory research and extens...

  7. Focus Section on Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between diverse – material, digital and networked – spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do the c...

  8. Participatory Design in Emergency Medical Service: Designing for Future Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Palen, Leysia Ann

    2006-01-01

    We describe our research—its approach, results and prod-ucts—on Danish emergency medical service (EMS) field or “pre-hospital” work in minor and major incidents. We dis-cuss how commitments to participatory design and attention to the qualitative differences between minor and major incidents address challenges identified by disaster sociologists when designing for major incidents. Through qualitative research and participatory design, we have ex-amined the features of EMS work and technology use...

  9. Developing participatory research in radiology: the use of a graffiti wall, cameras and a video box in a Scottish radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Participatory research is increasingly advocated for use in health and health services research and has been defined as a 'process of producing new knowledge by systematic enquiry, with the collaboration of those being studied'. The underlying philosophy of participatory research is that those recruited to studies are acknowledged as experts who are 'empowered to truly participate and have their voices heard'. Research methods should enable children to express themselves. This has led to the development of creative approaches of working with children that offer alternatives to, for instance, the structured questioning of children by researchers either through questionnaires or interviews. To examine the feasibility and potential of developing participatory methods in imaging research. We employed three innovative methods of data collection sequentially, namely the provision of: 1) a graffiti wall; 2) cameras, and 3) a video box for children's use. While the graffiti wall was open to all who attended the department, for the other two methods children were allocated to each 'arm' consecutively until our target of 20 children for each was met. The study demonstrated that it was feasible to use all three methods of data collection within the context of a busy radiology department. We encountered no complaints from staff, patients or parents. Children were willing to participate but we did not collect data to establish if they enjoyed the activities, were pleased to have the opportunity to make comments or whether anxieties about their treatment inhibited their participation. The data yield was disappointing. In particular, children's contributions to the graffiti wall were limited, but did reflect the nature of graffiti, and there may have been some 'copycat' comments. Although data analysis was relatively straightforward, given the nature of the data (short comments and simple drawings), the process proved to be extremely time-consuming. This was despite the modest amount of data collected. Novel methods of engaging with children have been shown to be feasible although further work is needed to establish their full potential. (orig.)

  10. Exploring the challenges of implementing participatory action research in the context of HIV and poverty

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WA, Rosenthal; DD, Khalil.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is having a devastating impact on South Africa and particularly on poor communities. Empowerment of communities has been identified as an important step towards mitigating the consequences and helping communities to overcome the challenges presented. Participatory Action Research (PAR) has [...] been identified as a useful methodology for the purpose of facilitating empowerment. This study explores the challenges involved in implementing PAR in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty. In this article, the author describes a PAR project that took place in 2003/ 2004 with a group of five Xhosa speaking people living with HIV/AIDS in Masiphumelele, Cape Town. The aims of the study were to: 1. Create an opportunity for the participants to engage in a participatory process aimed at self-awareness and empowerment. 2. To record and analyse this process with the intention of producing insight into the use of PAR in the context of poverty and HIV/AIDS and to identify the challenges involved. The findings of this study highlight some important insights into the process of engaging people in the PAR process and the experiences of HIV positive people living in the context of poverty. The study explores the challenges involved in the process of empowerment and examines the process of "transferring" power and control from the researcher to the participants. Challenges were uncovered both from the point of view of the researcher who had to "let go of control" and participants who had to take on control. Participants struggled with issues of low self-efficacy and learned helplessness. Fluctuations in health also contributed towards alternating periods of hope and despair and these problems had an impact on their motivation to participate in the study. Lack of motivation to participate is a challenge highlighted in the literature and explored in this study. Participation is necessary for a study of this nature to be of benefit to the community, but unfortunately those most in need were found to be least likely to participate. The study also critically examines the research process that was conducted and highlights the positive and negative contribution of the process towards empowerment. Certain aspects of the research process, including the contracting process, were identified as being problematic as they emphasize the power and control of the researcher rather than the participants. Recommendations for future research include: Promoting participation among the disempowered; the Contracting process and Power relations in PAR.

  11. Accounting for the Ecological Dimension in Participatory Research and Development: Lessons Learned from Indonesia and Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Laurent Pfund

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The lack of understanding on how to integrate ecological issues into so-called social-ecological natural resource management hampers sustainability in tropical forest landscape management. We build upon a comparison of three cases that show inverse gradients of knowledge and perceptions of the environment and human pressure on natural resources. We discuss why the ecological dimension currently lags behind in the management of tropical forest landscapes and to what extent participatory development can enhance the fit among ecological, socio-cultural, and economic systems. For each case study, socio-cultural and anthropological aspects of society and indigenous knowledge of the environment, the distribution of natural resources, classification, and management are documented in parallel with biophysical studies. Our results confirm that the ecological dimension remains weakly addressed and difficult to integrate into development actions when dealing with tropical forested landscape management in developing countries. We discuss three issues to understand why this is so: the disdain for traditional ecological knowledge and practices, the antagonism between economy and ecology, and the mismatch between traditional and modern governance systems. Participatory development shows potential to enhance the fit among ecological, socio-cultural, and economic systems through two dimensions: the generation and sharing of information to understand trends and the generation of new coordination practices that allow stakeholders to voice environmental concerns. In the absence of a "champion," institutions, and financial resources, the expected outcomes remain on paper, even when changes are negotiated. Future research in natural resource management must emphasize better integration at the interface of ecology and governance. Finally, we identify three challenges: the design of operational tools to reconcile ecology with social and economic concerns, the creation of governance systems to institutionalize collaborative and integrated resource management, and the design of enabler organizations close to local communities.

  12. Participatory Sustainability Approach to Value Capture-Based Urban Rail Financing in India through Deliberated Stakeholder Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Sai Kumar Jillella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, cities around the world are seeking innovative financial mechanisms to build rail transit projects. Land value capture (VC is a financing mechanism to fund urban rail transit. Often VC mechanisms are viewed only as a financing tool applied in relation to increased land values from the administration and legislation perspectives, without actively involving the community in the process. The lack of such participation has resulted in the under collection of the true value established. The transit beneficiary community and city tax payers are especially important stakeholders in this process as their willingness to participate is really critical to the overall VC success and transport outcome. This paper introduces a participatory sustainability approach to enable a more deliberated stakeholder engagement intervention across the VC life cycle. A four-step “Participatory Strategic Value Capture (PSVC” framework is proposed offering step-by-step guidance toward facilitating a meaningful stakeholder dialogue, deliberation, and collaboration around the stated engagement interests. The PSVC framework, applied to the proposed Bangalore sub-urban rail project in India, has demonstrated the importance of stakeholder engagement using deliberated participatory approaches from a win-win perspective.

  13. A Scandinavian approach to designing with children in a developing country - Exploring the applicability of participatory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) offers a democratic approach to design by creating a platform for active end-user participation in the design process. Since its emergence, the field of PD has been shaped by the Scandinavian context, in which many early PD projects took place. In this paper we discuss the challenges that arise from employing participatory methods in a different socio-cultural setting with participants who have had comparatively limited exposure to digital technologies. We offer a comparative study of two PD projects carried out with school classes in Scandinavia and India. While the setup for the two projects was identical, they unfolded in very different ways. We present and discuss this study, which leads us to conclude that PD can be a useful approach in both settings, but that there is a distinct difference as to which methods bring about fruitful results. The most prominent difference is the ways in which abstract and manifest participatory methods led to different outcomes in the two settings.

  14. Participatory action research: moving beyond the mental health 'service user' identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, A; Lovell, A

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary models of involvement within statutory services pay little regard to the identity of individuals beyond the 'service user' label and in doing so unwittingly perpetuate and sustain the negative impact of mental illness. The aim of this paper is to discuss the process of a 3-year participatory action research study facilitated by a mental health nurse. It highlights the perspective of those involved as co-researchers, all having experience of accessing statutory mental health services. It identifies both the process and the impact of this type of involvement on them illustrating their move beyond an illness identity. The study involved them undertaking a series of interviews with other service users in relation to their life stories. They subsequently mapped and analysed the transcripts. In order that the people were enabled to undertake these roles the study included a process of interviewing and appointing service user researchers followed by a programme of training workshops, supervision and discussion group/peer support. The accounts provided reflect the six researchers' attempts to make sense of their experience and reveal the path of transformation through collaboration. PMID:23167824

  15. Practical Strategies for Promoting Full Inclusion of Individuals with Disabilities in Community-Based Participatory Intervention Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hassouneh, Dena; Alcala-Moss, Amana; McNeff, E.

    2011-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) with disability communities is directed toward facilitating full inclusion of individuals with disabilities and disability community organizations in all aspects of the research process. Within the CBPR framework, academic-disability community partners may value and wish to use experimental designs to test interventions. Being aware of and proactively addressing barriers and challenges to inclusion in the areas of human resources, training, produc...

  16. Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Pamela K.; Viola Waghiyi; Gretchen Welfinger-Smith; Samuel Carter Byrne; Jane Kava; Jesse Gologergen; Lorraine Eckstein; Ronald Scrudato; Jeff Chiarenzelli; CARPENTER, David O.; Samarys Seguinot-Medina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site...

  17. Mobilizing local innovation capacity through a simulation game in a participatory research project on agricultural innovation in El Brahmi irrigation scheme (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Aleksandra; d'Aquino, Patrick; Imache, Amar; Dionnet, Mathieu; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we conducted a participatory research on the possible innovative practices to increase production of dairy farms in the irrigation scheme El Brahmi in Tunisia in the face of changing economic, political and environmental conditions. Our aim was to find effective research method to stimulate farmers' participation in the innovation process. Although the capacities of farmers in producing knowledge and in innovating are recognized and the shift from the linear model of technology transfer towards more participatory approaches to innovation is postulated, in which the role of researchers changes from providing solutions towards supporting farmers in finding their own solutions, in practice, the position of farmers in shaping innovation practice and process remains weak. After a series of participatory workshops and in-depth interviews with the actors of the local innovation system we developed and tested a simple open simulation game Laitconomie for farmers. The game proved to be effective in increasing our understanding of the system as the farmers were adding new elements and rules while playing, and in mobilizing farmers' knowledge (including tacit knowledge) in the simulated innovation process. The result reported by the participants was learning how to improve farm management, soil fertility management and cow nutrition practices. Some of the participants used the game as a decision support tool. While our game and its scope were modest and mobilized only two types of players (farmers and extension agent), open simulation proved to be a useful tool to analyze a local innovation system. Designing similar type of tools that would mobilize more diverse players and hence have a larger scope can be imagined.

  18. Experiences in Participatory Surveillance and Community-based Reporting Systems for H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza: A Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mariner, Jeffrey C; Jones, Bryony A; Hendrickx, Saskia; El Masry, Ihab; Jobre, Yilma; Jost, Christine C.

    2014-01-01

    Participatory surveillance (PS) is the application of participatory rural appraisal methods to the collection of epidemiological information to inform decision-making and action. It was applied in Africa and Asia as part of emergency programs to address the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) pandemic. The approach resulted in markedly increased case detection in countries experiencing HPAI, and a better understanding of the epidemiological situation. Where HPAI was absent and PS wa...

  19. Participatory rural appraisal approaches: an overview and an exemplary application of focus group discussion in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Uddin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Different tools and techniques of participatory approaches are the basic way of conducting qualitative research especially in the field of applied social science. Focus Group Discussion (FGD is one of the main Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA technique often used in combination with others to achieve desired goals. Considering this concept, this paper attempts to review the PRA approach and then application of FGD, in combination with matrix scoring and ranking to identify problems and causes of climate change along with possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. A group of 20 students at post graduate level under the faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture at Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany those from different corner of the world was considered as target people of the study. The results concluded that “unpredictable weather events” was ranked as the present outstanding visible climate change problem caused by “human activities”. However, it was noted that if alternative renewable energy sources are exploited, this could contribute to solving the present climate change problem. This finding might have the good reference for the policy makers in the same line not only for developing countries but also for developed countries.

  20. Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. N. Felipone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

  1. Towards a Creative Synthesis of Participant Observation and Participatory Research: Reflections on Doing Research "with" and "on" Young Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to Wright and Nelson's (1995) call for a "creative synthesis" of participant observation and participatory research, which may allow the limitations of both methods to be addressed. It does so by reflecting on the experience of doing long-term research both with and on young Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Although participant…

  2. RESEARCH ON THE EFFICACY OF ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ROTUNDU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One reason for the success or failure of students in each class is the difference in the use of teaching methods. Student-centered or active-learning approaches to instruction have increasingly been promoted worldwide and valued because they are perceived to better prepare future citizens and often include the production of tangible result that can be immediately appreciated. Active-learning methods can be contrasted with traditional approaches emphasizing teacher lecturing or direct transmission of factual knowledge. In this study, the traditional methods and modern techniques were used and tested in rural school. Learning and competence levels of students in each of these classes (traditional and modern were evaluated separately. Using participatory teaching and assessment methods prove to be effective, reducing the number of low and very low notes. Written tests give lower results than the annual average for each student in Biology. Early age students (girls and boys equally considers knowledge of Biology and in the future would choose a profession in this field. To manage their classrooms, teachers increasingly seek methods to motivate students but some teachers may prefer didactic instruction because they are more comfortable in the role of information giver. It is not sufficient for teachers merely to be told about a different way to teach and to evaluate: is the necessity for teacher training.

  3. A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

  4. Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management...

  5. Eight Years of Building Community Partnerships and Trust: The UCLA Family Medicine Community-Based Participatory Research Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Michael A; Lopez, Glenn A.; Bholat, Michelle A.; Dowling, Patrick T.

    2009-01-01

    Acknowledging the growing disparities in health and health care that exist among immigrant families and minority populations in large urban communities, the UCLA Department of Family Medicine (DFM) sought a leadership role in the development of family medicine training and community-based participatory research (CBPR). Performing CBPR requires that academic medicine departments build sustainable and long-term community partnerships. The authors describe the eight-year (2000–2008) process of b...

  6. Facilitating War-Affected Young Mothers’ Reintegration: Lessons from a Participatory Action Research Study in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Worthen; Grace Onyango; Mike Wessells; Angela Veale; Susan McKay

    2013-01-01

    Young women and girls formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups face multiple challenges. Many become pregnant or have children while they are associated and face stigma and marginalization upon reintegration into civilian communities. This article describes a multi-year participatory action research study that took place in twenty communities in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and northern Uganda from 2006 – 2009 and included more than 650 young mother participants. We find that this com...

  7. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Develop the PARTNERS Youth Violence Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Stephen S.; Thomas, Duane E.; Vaughn, Nicole A.; Thomas, Nicole A.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Freedman, Melanie A.; Abdul-Kabir, Saburah; Woodlock, Joseph; Guerra, Terry; Bradshaw, Ayana S.; Woodburn, Elizabeth M.; Myers, Rachel K.; Fein, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background School-based violence prevention programs have shown promise for reducing aggression and increasing children’s prosocial behaviors. Prevention interventions within the context of urban after-school programs provide a unique opportunity for academic researchers and community stakeholders to collaborate in the creation of meaningful and sustainable violence prevention initiatives. Objectives This paper describes the development of a collaborative between academic researchers and community leaders to design a youth violence prevention/leadership promotion program (PARTNERS Program) for urban adolescents. Employing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) model, this project addresses the needs of urban youth, their families, and their community. Methods Multiple strategies were used to engage community members in the development and implementation of the PARTNERS Program. These included focus groups, pilot testing the program in an after-school venue, and conducting organizational assessments of after-school sites as potential locations for the intervention. Results Community members and academic researchers successfully worked together in all stages of the project development. Community feedback helped the PARTNERS team redesign the proposed implementation and evaluation of the PARTNERS Program such that the revised study design allows for all sites to obtain the intervention over time and increases the possibility of building community capacity and sustainability of programs. Conclusion Despite several challenges inherent to CBPR, the current study provides a number of lessons learned for the continued development of relationships and trust among researchers and community members, with particular attention to balancing the demand for systematic implementation of community-based interventions while being responsive to the immediate needs of the community. PMID:20729611

  8. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic. Guidelines on approaches to siting a deep repository. Deliverable D21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the review of experiences in SEA and EIA in the Czech Republic summarized in Deliverable No.3 and the testing of novel participatory and dialogue approaches summarized in Deliverables No.7, 11 and 12 in this report a model for the siting process specifically in the Czech Republic, that takes into account the need for transparency and interaction with the public, within the framework of legal requirements is outlined. Lessons learnt are summarised and a road map specified. The guidelines / recommendations in this report are proposed based on mapping the situation in the Czech Republic and experience gained in connection with the testing and application of novel participatory approaches and dialogue, but many of them are of general validity and can be applied in other countries outside the Czech Republic. This reports links directly to Work package 6, where general guidelines for participation and transparency, reflecting institutional and cultural differences, are given - Deliverable No.22

  9. Application of Remote Sensing and Participatory Soil Erosion Assessment Approach for Soil Erosion Mapping in a Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad BHANDARI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the problem of soil erosion in the Phewa watershed, Pokhara, Nepal, through remote sensing application of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model, and Participatory Geographic Information System (PGIS based Erosion Damage Assessment (EDA. Acceleration of soil erosion is due to anthropogenic factors, such as construction of roads without conservation, intensive agriculture, and socio-economic activities. The aim of the study is to identify the major causes of soil erosion by application of remote sensing; RUSLE and PGIS based EDA for soil erosion reduction management. The methodologies employed include structured questionnaires, focus groups, stakeholders’ sketches, and application of remote sensing and GIS on RUSLE model. The RUSLE model results indicate that the rate of soil erosion in the Phewa watershed varies from 0 to 206.78 t/ha/yr, and the mean annual rate of soil loss was 14.71 t/ha/yr in 2010. The PGIS based EDA resulted in different classes of severity (stable, slight, moderate, severe, very severe which were similar to the quantified results of RUSLE, except for the dense forest class in Land Use and Land Cover (LULC. Erosion-prone maps were developed through PGIS based EDA by stakeholders and use of the RUSLE model. Maps showed that the soil erosion risk areas were similar on both maps. The stakeholders’ sketched map, with knowledge gained from PGIS based EDA, RS and GIS technology for their conservation practices, could help to reduce soil erosion. The study identifies that the major issues are soil and agriculture management practices, and concludes that there is a link between RS and GIS and the estimated erosion by the RUSLE model. Thus, the RS and GIS techniques and PGIS based EDA approach can benefit stakeholders in applying better measures for soil erosion management.

  10. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde, through a participatory approach: which out coming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

    2013-11-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of the Work Package 5 (Socio-economical Vulnerability Assessment and Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction) of the MIAVITA Research Program (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) conducted in Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 yr (May 2010-January 2012) of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km-wide caldera of the volcano inside the Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the program included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people at volcanic threats is linked with daily access to sources of livelihood specially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk on their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such objective, a Participatory 3-Dimensional Mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participative aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties to involve more marginalized people like women and youth, and (3) the fact that volcanic risk is not the priority for people who are more concerned on daily difficulties due to unsustainable livelihood, lack of access to water, land tenure, and the restrictions by the Fogo Natural Park administration and the municipal officials. Still, the study was successful in creating a space for dialogue between the local people and the outside stakeholders such as the Natural Park administration, the National Civil Protection Service (SNPC), and the Municipality of Santa Catarina who have all participated actively during the implementation of the project.

  11. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. PMID:26489602

  12. Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

    2000-02-07

    This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed into ergonomic training that address the issues originally raised. This training includes intervention methods, ergonomic tools used, dam acquired, and effects of waste container handling techniques on lower back, shoulder, and wrists and methods to help proactively reduce injuries associated with this profession.

  13. Developing In-Service Science Teachers' Ownership of the Profiles Pedagogical Framework through a Technology-Supported Participatory Design Approach to Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyza, E. A.; Georgiou, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher ownership is crucial for the sustainability of science education reform efforts. This paper discusses participatory design as a bottom-up approach for promoting teachers' sense of ownership of inquiry-based learning and teaching approach as put forward by the PROFILES project. According to the prevalent argument in favor of…

  14. Application of Participatory Approach in Community Forest Resource Management Based on a Case Study Performed in Fujian Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilei Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After China’s collective forest right system reform, cooperation organizations have played an important role in the development of community forestry. In order to analyze the demands and attitudes of stakeholders of community forests, a participatory approach which included brainstorming, material collection, PRA tools, semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys, was used in a forest management survey involving four village cases. According to the application of the participatory approach it can be seen that the different types of stakeholders had different demands and attitudes toward community forest management. Farmers were more focused on economic benefit while forestry bureaus were more concerned about attaining the maximum level of forestry farmers’ ecological, economic and social efficiency. Cooperative members had more positive attitudes than non-cooperative members. According to all stakeholders, the harvest quota control system is the most unreasonable policy. In addition, based on the results of the SWOT strategy analysis matrix for forest management policies and systems at the level of forestry farmers, four strategy selections are proposed.

  15. Communities of practice in participatory approaches to environmental regulation : Prerequisites for implementation of environmental knowledge in agricultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mads Lægdsgaard; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes for change in agricultural contexts. The hypothesis is that the processes in the case project can be analysed by applying concepts of the theory of communities of practice. The first analytical component is a test for learning prerequisites conducted by the concepts of domain, community and practice. The second component concerns identity changes among involved farmers and the third component introduces the concept of boundary objects to concrete cooperative processes in the case project. We find that the stakeholder approach is problematic in catchment areas because communities of practice are rare in interest groups and organisations. On the basis of the theory of communities of practice, we suggest to integrate both knowledge production and knowledge implementation in the work-related social setting of each individual farm.

  16. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) in South Africa: engaging multiple constituents to shape the research question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; van Stade, Debbie; Buchbinder, Mara

    2005-12-01

    Community engagement is an on-going, arduous, and necessary process for developing effective health promotion programs. The challenges are amplified when the particular health issue or research question is not prominent in the consciousness of the targeted community. In this paper, we explore the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model as a means to negotiate a mutual agenda between communities and researchers. The paper is focused on the (perceived) need for cervical cancer screening in an under-resourced community in Cape Town, South Africa. Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in this community and elsewhere in South Africa. Unlike HIV-AIDS, however, many Black South Africans have not been educated about cervical cancer and the importance of obtaining screening. Many may not consider screening a priority in their lives. Our research included extensive consultations and informal interviews with diverse community and regional stakeholders. Following these, we conducted 27 focus groups and 106 demographic surveys with randomly selected youth, parents, local health care personnel, educators and school staff. Focus group data were summarized and analyzed cross-sectionally. Community stakeholders were involved throughout this research. Our consultations, interviews, and focus group data were key in identifying the concerns and priorities of the community. By engaging community stakeholders, we developed a research framework that incorporated the community's concerns and priorities, and stressed the intersecting roles of poverty, violence, and other cultural forces in shaping community members' health and wellbeing. Community members helped to refocus our research from cervical cancer to 'cervical health,' a concept that acknowledged the impact on women's bodies and lives of HIV-AIDS and STDs, sexual violence, poverty, and multiple social problems. We conclude that the research agenda and questions in community-based health research should not be considered immutable. They need to be open to negotiation, creativity, and constant reinvention. PMID:15955605

  17. 4Ps medicine of the fatty liver: the research model of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine-recommendations for facing obesity, fatty liver and fibrosis epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Francesca Maria; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between adipose tissue and fatty liver, and its possible evolution in fibrosis, is supported by clinical and research experience. Given the multifactorial pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), treatments for various contributory risk factors have been proposed; however, there is no single validated therapy or drug association recommended for all cases which can stand alone. Mechanisms, diagnostics, prevention and treatment of obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance are displayed along with recommendations and position points. Evidences and practice can get sustainable and cost-benefit valuable outcomes by participatory interventions. These recommendations can be enhanced by comprehensive research projects, addressed to societal issues and innovation, market appeal and industry development, cultural acceptance and sustainability. The basis of participatory medicine is a greater widespread awareness of a condition which is both a disease and an easy documented and inclusive clue for associated diseases and unhealthy lifestyle. This model is suitable for addressing prevention and useful for monitoring improvement, worsening and adherence with non-invasive imaging tools which allow targeted approaches. The latter include health psychology and nutritional and physical exercise prescription expertise disseminated by continuous medical education but, more important, by concrete curricula for training undergraduate and postgraduate students. It is possible and recommended to do it by early formal teaching of ultrasound imaging procedures and of practical lifestyle intervention strategies, including approaches aimed to healthier fashion suggestions. Guidelines and requirements of research project funding calls should be addressed also to NAFLD and allied conditions and should encompass the goal of training by research and the inclusion of participatory medicine topics. A deeper awareness of ethics of competences in health professionals and the articulation of knowledge, expertise and skills of medical doctors, dieticians, health psychologists and sport and physical exercise graduates are the necessary strategy for detectin a suboptimal health status and achieving realistically beneficial lifestyle changes. "The devil has put a penalty on all things we enjoy in life. Either we suffer in health or we suffer in soul or we get fat" (Albert Einstein); the task of medical research and intervention is to make possible to enjoy life also without things that make sufferance in health and souls and which excessively increase body fat. PMID:25937854

  18. A Participatory Regional Partnership Approach to Promote Nutrition and Physical Activity Through Environmental and Policy Change in Rural Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth A.; Estlund, Amy; Motton, Freda; Hipp, Pamela R.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rural residents are less likely than urban and suburban residents to meet recommendations for nutrition and physical activity. Interventions at the environmental and policy level create environments that support healthy eating and physical activity. Community Context Healthier Missouri Communities (Healthier MO) is a community-based research project conducted by the Prevention Research Center in St. Louis with community partners from 12 counties in rural southeast Missouri. We created a regional partnership to leverage resources and enhance environmental and policy interventions to improve nutrition and physical activity in rural southeast Missouri. Methods Partners were engaged in a participatory action planning process that included prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating promising evidence-based interventions to promote nutrition and physical activity. Group interviews were conducted with Healthier MO community partners post intervention to evaluate resource sharing and sustainability efforts of the regional partnership. Outcome Community partners identified the benefits and challenges of resource sharing within the regional partnership as well as the opportunities and threats to long-term partnership sustainability. The partners noted that the regional participatory process was difficult, but the benefits outweighed the challenges. Interpretation Regional rural partnerships may be an effective way to leverage relationships to increase the capacity of rural communities to implement environmental and policy interventions to promote nutrition and physical activity. PMID:26068413

  19. RESEARCH: Theory in Practice: Applying Participatory Democracy Theory to Public Land Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moote; Mcclaran; Chickering

    1997-11-01

    / Application of participatory democracy theory to public participation in public land planning, while widely advocated, has not been closely examined. A case study is used here to explicate the application of participatory democracy concepts to public participation in public land planning and decision making. In this case, a Bureau of Land Management resource area manager decided to make a significant shift from the traditional public involvement process to a more participatory method-coordinated resource management (CRM). This case was assessed using document analysis, direct observation of CRM meetings, questionnaires, and interviews of key participants. These sources were used to examine the CRM case using participatory democracy concepts of efficacy, access and representation, continuous participation throughout planning, information exchange and learning, and decision-making authority. The case study suggests that social deliberation in itself does not ensure successful collaboration and that establishing rules of operation and decision making within the group is critical. Furthermore, conflicts between the concept of shared decision-making authority and the public land management agencies' accountability to Congress, the President, and the courts need further consideration.KEY WORDS: Case study; Coordinated resource management; Public participation; Administrative discretion; Representation; Consensus; Collaboration PMID:9336486

  20. Developing participatory research in radiology: the use of a graffiti wall, cameras and a video box in a Scottish radiology department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathers, Sandra A. [Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); The Robert Gordon University, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Anderson, Helen [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); McDonald, Sheila [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Chesson, Rosemary A. [University of Aberdeen, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Participatory research is increasingly advocated for use in health and health services research and has been defined as a 'process of producing new knowledge by systematic enquiry, with the collaboration of those being studied'. The underlying philosophy of participatory research is that those recruited to studies are acknowledged as experts who are 'empowered to truly participate and have their voices heard'. Research methods should enable children to express themselves. This has led to the development of creative approaches of working with children that offer alternatives to, for instance, the structured questioning of children by researchers either through questionnaires or interviews. To examine the feasibility and potential of developing participatory methods in imaging research. We employed three innovative methods of data collection sequentially, namely the provision of: 1) a graffiti wall; 2) cameras, and 3) a video box for children's use. While the graffiti wall was open to all who attended the department, for the other two methods children were allocated to each 'arm' consecutively until our target of 20 children for each was met. The study demonstrated that it was feasible to use all three methods of data collection within the context of a busy radiology department. We encountered no complaints from staff, patients or parents. Children were willing to participate but we did not collect data to establish if they enjoyed the activities, were pleased to have the opportunity to make comments or whether anxieties about their treatment inhibited their participation. The data yield was disappointing. In particular, children's contributions to the graffiti wall were limited, but did reflect the nature of graffiti, and there may have been some 'copycat' comments. Although data analysis was relatively straightforward, given the nature of the data (short comments and simple drawings), the process proved to be extremely time-consuming. This was despite the modest amount of data collected. Novel methods of engaging with children have been shown to be feasible although further work is needed to establish their full potential. (orig.)

  1. Community Health Workers Support Community-based Participatory Research Ethics:: Lessons Learned along the Research-to-Practice-to-Community Continuum

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for ...

  2. A participatory approach of flood vulnerability assessment in the Banat Plain, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balteanu, Dan; Costache, Andra; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Dragota, Carmen; Grigorescu, Ines

    2014-05-01

    The Banat Plain (western Romania) is a low, alluvial plain affected by neotectonic subsidence movements, being a critical region in terms of exposure to floods. The latest extreme event was the historic floods occcured in the spring of 2005, which caused significant economic damage in several rural communities. The response to 2005 floods has highlighted a number of weaknesses in the management of hazards, such as the deficiencies of the early warning system, people awareness or the inefficiency of some mitigation measures, besides the past structural measures which are obsolete. For a better understanding of the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to floods, the quantitative assessment of human vulnerability to floods was supplemented with a participatory research, in which there were involved five rural settlements from the Banat Plain (comprising 15 villages and a population of over 12,000 inhabitants). Thus, in the spring of 2013, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in approx. 100 households of the affected communities and structured interviews were held with local authorities, in the framework of VULMIN project, funded by the Ministry of National Education. The questionnaire was designed based on a pilot survey conducted in 2005, several months after the flood, and was focused on two major issues: a) perception of the local context of vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events; b) perception of human vulnerability to floods (personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding). The results were correlated with a number of specific variables of the households included in the sample, such as: household structure; income source; income level; location of the dwelling in relation to floodplains. In this way, we were able to draw general conclusions about the way in which local people perceive the extreme events, such as floods, on the one hand. On the other hand, there were highlighted differences in perception between the respondents, caused by their different degree of socio-economic vulnerability. Although exposure to floods remains a significant problem in the Banat Plain, statistical analysis of the results revealed that respondents tended to relate mainly to newly produced extreme climatic events (droughts, heat waves, storms), when being asked to mention natural hazards threatening the studied region. Moreover, the comparison of the results of the two surveys conducted in the region (in 2005 and 2013) indicated that the relationship between the components of risk perception has changed over time. Thus, the directly proportional relationship between awareness, worry and preparedness, emphasized in 2005, is currently absent. The implementation of flood mitigation measures appears to be only the result of mechanisms put into service at the institutional level, after the events of 2005. Although currently there may be an improvement in flood response and mitigation in the region, compared to 2005, the low level of awareness and the fact that exposure to floods is not yet perceived as a threat can jeopardize the resilience and adaptation of rural communities to floods in the Banat Plain.

  3. Is Participatory Research Compatible with Graduate Research ? Reflections From Three Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Amstrong, Lisa; Loomis, Colleen; Mairena-Torres, Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    Graduate programs aim to train future researchers and practitioners in the values, skills and tools of their trade. This paper reports on the experiences of a graduate student, a youth co-researcher and a faculty supervisor while conducting thesis research within a community psychology master’s degree program. In a program that values research, action and social justice we reflect on our struggles to exemplify these values throughout the thesis process while complying with departmental norms ...

  4. Making Meaning about Educational Experiences through Participatory Action Research: A Project Conducted with Adults Enrolled in a Community College Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, German Alonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a group of co-researchers involved in a participatory action research (PAR) project conducted with adults in a developmental education program. The co-researchers were mostly individuals of Hispanic descent, who had struggled in the past with schooling. Because the educational experiences of Hispanics often…

  5. Reflections on CHAT and Freire's Participatory Action Research from the West of Scotland: "Praxis," Politics, and the "Struggle for Meaningful Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Chik

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a perspective on the relationship between cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and one particular strand of action research--Freirean participatory action research (PAR). It reflects on a research collaboration conducted two decades ago with a community organisation and seeks to "show" the interaction of CHAT and Freirean…

  6. Expanding the Reach of the Interview in Audience and Reception Research : The Performative and Participatory Models of Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David; Brites, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the interview method in relation to context, a central notion in audience studies. Through a critique of the traditional conception of the interview method as a question-answer model, the chapter suggests two different articulations of the interview method in the framework of a contextual inquiry: the performative and participatory models of interview. These models are presented in their original theoretical, methodological and empirical contexts and then highlighted along four methodological considerations that help position audience research towards the challenges of a contextual inquiry.

  7. Suc Khoe La Quan Trong Hon Sac Dep! Health is better than beauty! A community-based participatory research intervention to improve cancer screening among Vietnamese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2014-05-01

    This paper examines community-based participatory research (CBPR) intervention approaches in promoting cancer-relevant outcomes for 102 Vietnamese women. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in promoting breast and cervical cancer knowledge, positive attitudes towards breast cancer screening, and breast cancer screening. Collectivism moderated the effect of the intervention on attitudes towards breast cancer screening. The intervention led to more favorable attitudes towards breast cancer screening for women with high levels of collectivism but not for women with low levels. Ethnic identity moderated the effect of the intervention on breast cancer screening: the intervention program led to higher probability of getting a clinical breast exam; however, this effect was more pronounced for women with low ethnic identity than for those with high ethnic identity. The study provides evidence for the effectiveness of culturally-tailored strategies in developing cancer screening interventions for the Vietnamese American population. PMID:24858871

  8. Beyond Borders: Participatory Design Research and the Changing Role of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair-Early, Adream

    2010-01-01

    University art and design programs are branching out and creating cross-disciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to…

  9. Ethical challenges and opportunities for nurses in HIV and AIDS community-based participatory research in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Colleen M; Kahwa, Eulalia; Atkinson, Uki; Hepburn-Brown, Cerese; Aiken, Joyette; Dawkins, Pauline; Rae, Tania; Edwards, Nancy; Roelofs, Susan; MacFarlane, Denise

    2013-02-01

    As part of a multinational program of research, we undertook a community-based participatory research project in Jamaica to strengthen nurses' engagement in HIV and AIDS policy. Three leadership hubs were purposefully convened and included small groups of people (6-10) from diverse HIV and AIDS stakeholder groups in Jamaica: frontline nurses and nurse managers in primary and secondary care settings; researchers; health care decision makers; and other community members. People living with HIV or AIDS were among the hub members. Using a relational public health ethics framework, we outline some of the ethical challenges and opportunities experienced by the research team and the leadership hubs. Data included research assistant field notes and hub progress reports. Emerging ethical concerns were associated with relational personhood, social justice, relational autonomy, relational solidarity, and sustainability of the hub activities. PMID:23485671

  10. Farmers Participatory Research in the Evaluation of Maize Crop Residues for Improved Dairy Cattle Production in Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Informal and formal surveys, and participatory rural appraisal conducted within the coffee land-use system of Embu District in Eastern Kenya identified feed shortage as a major constraint to increased dairy production on small holder farms. To address this constraint, a two-year (1996-1998) on-farm research project involving 20 farms in Manyatta division, Embu District was initiated with broad objectives of developing components technologies that would use maize crop residues. This was due to the recognition of the fact that the greatest potential for improving field availability would be in the exploitation of crop residues, especially those derived from maize, the main staple crop in the region. Based on these reality appropriate technologies that would offer viable offers for the use of crop residues were identified and discussed during workshops and meetings with farmers. Component technologies considered included drying of maize leaves after defoliation and post-harvest storage methods for dry maize stover. this paper discussed the results of the participatory research in context of farmers' involvement in the technology development, testing, evaluation and promotion. The study demonstrated that involving farmers in all stages of the research process, enhanced their interest and participation in the testing and subsequent adoption of appropriate technologies

  11. Accounting for the Ecological Dimension in Participatory Research and Development: Lessons Learned from Indonesia and Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Laurent Pfund; Robin Bourgeois; Yves Laumonier

    2008-01-01

    The lack of understanding on how to integrate ecological issues into so-called social-ecological natural resource management hampers sustainability in tropical forest landscape management. We build upon a comparison of three cases that show inverse gradients of knowledge and perceptions of the environment and human pressure on natural resources. We discuss why the ecological dimension currently lags behind in the management of tropical forest landscapes and to what extent participatory develo...

  12. Workplace Health Protection and Promotion through Participatory Ergonomics: An Integrated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Robert; Warren, Nicholas; Robertson, Michelle; Faghri, Pouran; Cherniack, Martin

    2009-01-01

    A multidisciplinary team of researchers at the Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace (CPH-NEW) developed an evidence-based approach to address three recognized challenges to workplace programs designed to improve employee health: establishing employee ownership, integrating with work organization, and sustainability. The two main innovations being introduced in combination were (1) integrating traditional workplace health protection (e.g., ergonomics, industrial hygi...

  13. Qualitative options in political psychology and gender. Participatory Action Research studies on child abuse and forms of political violence that affects children and young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga L. Obando S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: since the revision of some criteria of the Participatory Action Research (p a r: the researcher`s influence, agrees, transparency and coupling, we try to point out the significance that this approach is qualitative research to address problems like abuse and some forms of political violence that affect children and young people. Issues that are cross to the interests of investigative work and intervention of a political psychology and psychology of gender, since the focus of a critical social psychology. Methodology: the goals of this task requiring the deployment of methodologies analyzes recognize the pattern of meaning as a space in which meanings emerge on triggers of the problems and factors that enable the development of alternative solution. The empirical component consists of some research findings on racism, women’s identity in subjects with experience of abuse, the construction of subjectivities and the phenomenon of political participation in children and young people demobilized from illegal armed groups. The text shows dates of abuse and the untying of young children and armed conflict as a way of forms of political violence and some thoughts about the commitment of psychologists in handling these problems. Results: a summary of some historical background to the par and its significant elements as proposed critical and qualitative research and intervention, and ends the text to mean scientific criteria of the p a r, the influence of the researcher, agreement and transparency, based on empirical findings of the component.

  14. Empowerment and regulation : Dilemmas in participatory fisheries science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

    2012-01-01

    Using a perspective from the sociology of knowledge, this study identifies some ‘dilemmas of participatory research’. We look at how social relationships between fishers and scientists develop around the exchange of fishers’ knowledge in particular institutional contexts. We survey the general types and global examples of fisher– scientist relationships in terms of how they approach the integration of fishers’ and scientists’ knowledge. Based on an empirical study of three European cases of participatory research, we then discuss five dilemmas that tend to characterize fisher– scientist relationships. These dilemmas centre on the relationship between fisheries research, fishery regulations and fishers as subjects of both regulation and participatory research endeavours. We argue that these dilemmas – experienced by both scientists and fishers – express an underlying tension between ‘empowering’ fishers to support the effective management of the fishing commons and the bureaucratic need to regulate the fishery as an industry.

  15. Use of Q Methodology to Analyze Divergent Perspectives on Participatory Action Research as a Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention Among Caribbean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Keiko; Tiffany, Jennifer; Pelto, Gretel; Pelletier, David

    2008-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to examine perspectives regarding participatory action research (PAR) among participants in a UNICEF initiative aimed at enhancing HIV/AIDS prevention among youth in the Caribbean. We interviewed 20 youth PAR researchers and 12 project managers from youth organizations about their attitudes and experiences. Statements…

  16. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  17. La violencia contra niños y niñas: un problema global de abordaje local, mediante la IAP / Violence against the child: A local approach to a global problem through participatory action research / A violência contra as crianças: um problema global de enfoque local

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ingrit, Gutiérrez-Vega; Alejandro, Acosta-Ayerbe.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata sobre as dimensões e a seriedade da presença atual da violência contra as crianças, apresentada em vários estudos, relatórios e recomendações dos governos e dos organismos nacionais e internacionais, como também trata sobre a necessidade de recorrer à opções de trabalho, como aquel [...] a da IAP, que permitem enfocar a complexidade dos implicados. Tudo isto é possível pela particularidade que determina a convergência de fatores sociais, culturais, familiares, pessoais e jurídicos em cada contexto. Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo nos ocupamos de las dimensiones y gravedad de la presencia actual de la violencia¹ contra la niñez, reflejada en diferentes estudios, informes y recomendaciones de gobiernos y organismos nacionales e internacionales, y de la necesidad de recurrir a opciones de trabajo como la [...] Investigación Acción Participativa, IAP, que permitan abordar la complejidad de los sujetos implicados, por la particularidad que traza la convergencia de factores sociales, culturales, económicos, familiares, personales y jurídicos, en cada contexto. Abstract in english This article considers the different dimensions and gravity of actual violence against children that are reflected among different articles, studies, reports and recommendations of governments and national and international organizations and the necessity to work within participatory action research [...] . This allows us to get the complexity of what is implicated due to the particular convergence of social, cultural, economic, familiar, personal and legal factors in each context.

  18. Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methological approches for design-based participatory reseach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Birgitte Holm; Magnussen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today’s teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

  19. Participatory Privacy: Enabling Privacy in Participatory Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    De Cristofaro, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...

  20. How participatory design works as an approach for provoking system innovations towards sustainable pig production in the Netherlands, 4-7- July, Vienaa, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Eijk, O.N.M., van; Lauwere, C.C., de; Miedema, H.; Weeghel, H.J.E., van; Kaal-Lansbergen, L.M.T.E.

    2010-01-01

    Design is increasingly seen and tried as a vehicle for system innovative sustainable development. In a system innovative design project on pig production, called ‘Porkunities’, the authors tested the effect of a participatory and iterative approach. Does the approach serve the goal to provoke initiatives from stakeholders, without loosing innovative content of the designs necessary for system innovation? The results show that participation of stakeholders doesn’t limit the innovative potentia...

  1. Identification of people with disabilities using participatory rural appraisal and key informants: a pragmatic approach with action potential promoting validity and low cost.

    OpenAIRE

    Gona, JK; Xiong, T.; Muhit, MA; Newton, CR; Hartley, S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surveys have been the conventional methods used for identification of people with disabilities; however, they have been observed to be expensive and time-consuming that may not be affordable or practical. As a result, the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and key informant (KI) approaches have been developed and increasingly used in the resource-poor countries. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the strengths and weaknesses of PRA and KI approaches in the identification of people with di...

  2. Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovanova Hana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium, an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed attitude amongst experts on the other will continue to play a role even after closure.

  3. Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Eve S; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A

    2013-04-01

    Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936

  4. Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. This sustained participatory design and implementation approach is exemplified through a large-scale project in the Danish healthcare sector

  5. Environmental Evaluation of Agri-Environment Schemes using Participatory Approaches : Experiences of Testing the Agri-Environmental Footprint Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauchline, Alice L.; Mortimer, Simon R.

    2012-01-01

    The Agri-Environment Footprint Index (AFI) has been developed as a generic methodology to assess changes in the overall environmental impacts from agriculture at the farm level and to assist in the evaluation of European agri-environmental schemes (AES). The methodology is based on multi-criteria analysis (MCA) and involves stakeholder participation to provide a locally customised evaluation based on weighted environmental indicators. The methodology was subjected to a feasibility assessment in a series of case studies across the EU. The AFI approach was able to measure significant differences in environmental status between farms that participated in an AES and non-participants. Wider environmental concerns, beyond the scheme objectives, were also considered in some case studies and the benefits for identification of unintentional (and often beneficial) impacts of AESs are presented. The participatory approach to AES evaluation proved efficient in different environments and administrative contexts. The approach proved to be appropriate for environmental evaluation of complex agri-environment systems and can complement any evaluation conducted under the Common Monitoring and Evaluation Framework. The applicability of the AFI in routine monitoring of AES impacts and in providing feedback to improve policy design is discussed.

  6. How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.

  7. Examining School-Based Social Skills Program Needs and Barriers for Students with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostmeyer, Katrina; Scarpa, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a method used to develop interventions with the direct input of stakeholders. Social skills are a core deficit of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) that can affect academic performance and other areas of well-being, yet empirically supported services are not always available.…

  8. An In-Depth Examination of Perceptions of Physical Activity in Regularly Active and Insufficiently Active Older African American Women: A Participatory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research and programmatic efforts to alleviate racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity (PA), disparities in PA among older minorities and major racial ethnic groups persist. This study explored perceptions of PA among regularly active (RA) and insufficiently active (IA) older African American women (AAW) and the factors that influence (positively and negatively) their physical participation in their socio-cultural environment. A total of 20 AAW aged 60 to 80 years participated in a cross-sectional mixed-methods study (i.e., qualitative and quantitative) employing participatory research approaches (i.e., photoelicitation) along with an objective assessment of PA. Nine women were considered RA and 11 IA according to current PA recommendations. RA and IA women held two major beliefs about the nature of PA (i.e., PA as a broadly defined construct that goes beyond traditional exercise routines; and PA and exercise are synonymous and can be used interchangeably) and had a good understanding of its benefits. Participants in both groups did not know about the importance of PA intensity for health benefits. Barriers and facilitator of PA were found to be similar among RA and IA participants. Special attention should be paid to providing access to no or low cost opportunities for PA participation in safe environments. PMID:26554842

  9. Participatory modelling and decision support for natural resources management in climate change research

    OpenAIRE

    Giupponi, Carlo; Myšiak, Jaroslav; Sgobbi, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    The ever greater role given to public participation by laws and regulations, in particular in the field of environmental management calls for new operational methods and tools for managers and practitioners. This paper analyses the potentials and the critical limitations of current approaches in the fields of simulation modelling (SM), public participation (PP) and decision analysis (DA), for natural resources management within the context of climate change research. The potential synergies o...

  10. Participatory development of a middleware for AAL solutions: requirements and approach – the case of SOPRANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main features of a middleware for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL applications, exemplified along the SOPRANO research project. The contribution outlines main requirements towards the technical system and the elicitation methodology. The presented middleware allows for personalisation and flexible, extendible configuration of AAL solutions with low effort. Concerning the technical concept, the design approach as well as components, qualities and functionality of the AAL platform are depicted. Furthermore the methodology of requirements elicitation is discussed. It is explained how SOPRANO met the problem to elicit socio-technical system requirements in a user-centred manner, although the addressed target group is not expected to be able to express precise guidelines. SOPRANO („Service oriented programmable smart environments for older Europeans“, http://www.soprano-ip.org/ is a research project funded by the European Commission, which aims at the provision of a technical (AAL infrastructure to help elderly people to keep their independence and to stay in their familiar environment as long as possible. SOPRANO focuses on in-house support and emphasises well-being. It is a main goal to secure situation-aware assistance and help not only in case of emergencies but particularly as well in activities of daily living.

  11. Use of an interdisciplinary, participatory design approach to develop a usable patient self-assessment tool in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallum, Lori; McGaw, Heather; Meshkat, Nazanin; Valentinis, Alissia; Ashley, Leslie Beard; Bhatia, Rajan Sacha; Benson, Kaye; Ivers, Noah; Leblanc, Kori; Morra, Dante

    2013-01-01

    After identifying that significant care gaps exist within the management of atrial fibrillation (AF), a patient-focused tool was developed to help patients better assess and manage their AF. This tool aims to provide education and awareness regarding the management of symptoms and stroke risk associated with AF, while engaging patients to identify if their condition is optimally managed and to become involved in their own care. An interdisciplinary group of health care providers and designers worked together in a participatory design approach to develop the tool with input from patients. Usability testing was completed with 22 patients of varying demographics to represent the characteristics of the patient population. The findings from usability testing interviews were used to further improve and develop the tool to improve ease of use. A physician-facing tool was also developed to help to explain the tool and provide a brief summary of the 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines. By incorporating patient input and human-centered design with the knowledge, experience, and medical expertise of health care providers, we have used an approach in developing the tool that tries to more effectively meet patients' needs. PMID:24235817

  12. Evaluation of a Tuberculosis Education Video among Immigrants and Refugees at an Adult Education Center: A Community-Based Participatory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wieland, Mark L; Nelson, Jonathan; Palmer, Tiffany; O’Hara, Connie; Weis, Jennifer A.; Nigron, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants and refugees to the United States. Upon arrival to the US, many of these individuals attend adult education centers, but little is known about how to deliver TB health information at these venues. Therefore, a participatory approach was used to design and evaluate a tuberculosis education video in this setting. Focus groups data were used to inform the content of the video that was produced and delivered by adult learners and their teach...

  13. How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity b...

  14. African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Dunston, Brenda Shelton; Green, Derek

    2015-01-01

    African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is five times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended: 1) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders; 2) Local HIV prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission; 3) Resources should be distributed to the most heavily impacted neighborhoods of Philadelphia; and 4) Faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This CBPR case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446

  15. From Water Poverty to Water Prosperity—A More Participatory Approach to Studying Local Water Resources Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wilk, Julie; Jonsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The Water Poverty Index (WPI), a tool designed for integrated analysis of water issues, was set-up in a community in Madhya Pradesh, India through a transparent and participatory process. Though the aim of the WPI is to primarily use existing statistical data, quantitative information from census and local records was combined with qualitative data from community interviews and participatory exercises. The inclusion of community chosen indicators and the adjustment of values so that higher nu...

  16. Can the democratic ideal of participatory research be achieved? An inside look at an academic-indigenous community partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargo, Margaret; Delormier, Treena; Lévesque, Lucie; Horn-Miller, Kahente; McComber, Alex; Macaulay, Ann C

    2008-10-01

    Democratic or equal participation in decision making is an ideal that community and academic stakeholders engaged in participatory research strive to achieve. This ideal, however, may compete with indigenous peoples' right to self-determination. Study objectives were to assess the perceived influence of multiple community (indigenous) and academic stakeholders engaged in the Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project (KSDPP) across six domains of project decision making and to test the hypothesis that KSDPP would be directed by community stakeholders. Self-report surveys were completed by 51 stakeholders comprising the KSDPP Community Advisory Board (CAB), KSDPP staff, academic researchers and supervisory board members. KSDPP staff were perceived to share similar levels of influence with (i) CAB on maintaining partnership ethics and CAB activities and (ii) academic researchers on research and dissemination activities. KSDPP staff were perceived to carry significantly more influence than other stakeholders on decisions related to annual activities, program operations and intervention activities. CAB and staff were the perceived owners of KSDPP. The strong community leadership aligns KSDPP with a model of community-directed research and suggests that equitable participation-distinct from democratic or equal participation-is reflected by indigenous community partners exerting greater influence than academic partners in decision making. PMID:18187491

  17. A Retrospective Analysis of the Capacity Built through a Community-Based Participatory Research Project Addressing Diabetes and Obesity in South and East Los Angeles

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Hillstrom; Valerie Ruelas; Anne Peters; Turusew Gedebu-Wilson; Ellen Iverson

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are more prevalent in low-income and minority communities. One promising method to understand and address these chronic conditions is through Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR). CBPR engages and empowers community members to identify risk factors and work toward solutions as equal partners with researchers. One positive and lasting outcome may be an increase in the community capacity which includes individual and community leadership ...

  18. Enhancing collaborative rule-making on global sustainability concerns through Participatory Design : A research agenda based empirically on United Nations developments on business conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new opportunities for PD by pointing to social science oriented processes that may be strengthened by the theory and practice of PD. With a theoretical foundation in legal philosophy on legitimacy and steps towards a deliberative democratic evolution of norms of conduct for global concerns, the paper is concerned with opportunities to involve a global citizenry in the evolution of norms of conduct that may affect the lives and futures of individuals. The paper describes research potential for PD towards enhancing information technology assisted inclusion of views, needs and concerns of individuals in transnational rule-making. It does so by drawing on the process that led to the 2011 United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. This process exemplifies challenges in collaborative and inclusive global rule-making that that may be assisted by increased and informed deployment of IT in order to enhance broad and balanced participation in the rule-making process

  19. Enhancing Collaborative Rule-making on Global Sustainability Concerns Through Participatory Design : A Research Agenda Based Empirically on United Nations Developments on Business Conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new opportunities for PD by pointing to social science oriented processes that may be strengthened by the theory and practice of PD. With a theoretical foundation in legal philosophy on legitimacy and steps towards a deliberative democratic evolution of norms of conduct for global concerns, the paper is concerned with opportunities to involve a global citizenry in the evolution of norms of conduct that may affect the lives and futures of individuals. The paper describes research potential for PD towards enhancing information technology assisted inclusion of views, needs and concerns of individuals in transnational rule-making. It does so by drawing on the process that led to the 2011 United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. This process exemplifies challenges in collaborative and inclusive global rule-making that that may be assisted by increased and informed deployment of IT in order to enhance broad and balanced participation in the rule-making process.

  20. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  1. Use of an interdisciplinary, participatory design approach to develop a usable patient self-assessment tool in atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCallum L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lori MacCallum,1,2 Heather McGaw,1 Nazanin Meshkat,3 Alissia Valentinis,4 Leslie Beard Ashley,5 Rajan Sacha Bhatia,3,6,7 Kaye Benson,7 Noah Ivers,6,8 Kori Leblanc,2,7 Dante Morra3,5,7 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, 4Taddle Creek Family Health Team, Toronto, 5Trillium Health Partners, Mississauga, 6Women's College Hospital, Toronto, 7Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, University Health Network, Toronto, 8Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: After identifying that significant care gaps exist within the management of atrial fibrillation (AF, a patient-focused tool was developed to help patients better assess and manage their AF. This tool aims to provide education and awareness regarding the management of symptoms and stroke risk associated with AF, while engaging patients to identify if their condition is optimally managed and to become involved in their own care. An interdisciplinary group of health care providers and designers worked together in a participatory design approach to develop the tool with input from patients. Usability testing was completed with 22 patients of varying demographics to represent the characteristics of the patient population. The findings from usability testing interviews were used to further improve and develop the tool to improve ease of use. A physician-facing tool was also developed to help to explain the tool and provide a brief summary of the 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines. By incorporating patient input and human-centered design with the knowledge, experience, and medical expertise of health care providers, we have used an approach in developing the tool that tries to more effectively meet patients' needs. Keywords: patient education, atrial fibrillation, care gaps, patient care tools, patient self-assessment

  2. A case study of the development of environmental action projects from the framework of participatory action research within two middle school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmatz, Kim

    The purpose of this study was to understand student and teacher empowerment through a socially critical environmental education perspective. The main research question guiding this study was: How do participants make sense of a learning experience in which students design and carry out an environmental action project in their community? This study used participatory action research and critical theory as practical and theoretical frameworks. These frameworks were relevant as this study sought to examine social change, power, and relationships through participants' experiences. The context of this study was within one seventh and one eighth grade classroom participating in environmental projects. The study was conducted in spring 2005 with an additional follow-up data collection period during spring 2006. The school was located in a densely populated metropolitan suburb. Fifty-three students, a teacher researcher, and three science teachers participated. Data sources were written surveys, scores on Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey Instrument (MSELI), observations, interviews, and student work. This study used a mixed methodological approach. Quantitative data analysis involved dependent samples t-test scores on the MSELI before and after the completion of the projects. Qualitative data were analyzed using an inductive analysis approach. This study has implications for educators interested in democratic education. Environmental action projects provide a context for students and teachers to learn interdisciplinary content knowledge, develop personal beliefs, and learn ways to take action in their communities. This pedagogy has the potential to increase cooperation, communication, and tensions within school communities. Students' participation in the development of environmental action projects may lead to feelings of empowerment or being able to make a difference in their community, as an individual or member of a group. Future research is needed to discern why participants experience this type of educational experience differently, for example, how does the type of environmental action project influence individual and group empowerment?

  3. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting initiatives and couples them together in a generic process model. Two cases studies are examined for different purposes. The well known Porto Alegre case is analysed to show how the generic process model is implemented in a practical example. The more recent Berlin-Lichtenberg initiative, however, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different eParticipation activities and match them to the generic participatory budgeting processes. This results in a comprehensive picture of how known eParticipation technologies can be used to support participatory budgeting. The next research question (unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) is how to choose - which technologies fit which local circumstances and conditions?

  4. Increasing the general level of academic capacity in general practice: introducing mandatory research training for general practitioner trainees through a participatory research process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To obtain good quality evidence-based clinical work there needs to be a culture of critical appraisal, and strong bridges between the clinical and the academic worlds in general practice. AIM: The aim was to educate the general practitioner (GP) trainees to obtain critical appraisal skills, and through the development and implementation of the mandatory programme to gradually empower the GP community to achieve academic capacity by creating a link between the GP researchers and the GP training community. This was done by developing a faculty, giving teaching skills to GP academics, and research skills to GP clinicians; and creating an awareness of the potential benefits of critical appraisal in training GP surgeries. METHODS: Development and implementation of a faculty and a programme through a participatory action research-inspired project, with process evaluation from the beginning of the planning phase. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2009, we built a teaching faculty of 25 teachers among clinical GPs and GP academics; developed the training programme; and delivered the programme to 95 GP trainees. Some of the GP trainees later showed an interest in more substantial research projects, and GP trainers with no previous association with the research environment started to show an interest through their function as GP trainers. The GP academics of the faculty, however, felt that it was difficult to continue the engagement because of the still increasing demand for published knowledge production in academia. CONCLUSION: It is possible to support the development of general academic capacity in general practice using participatory design in collaboration with GP academics and clinicians, building bridges between academia and clinical work, as well as within academia between research publication and teaching. There is, however, a generic barrier in the regulation of academia itself.

  5. Benevolent Paradox: Integrating Community-Based Empowerment and Transdisciplinary Research Approaches into Traditional Frameworks to Increase Funding and Long-Term Sustainability of Chicano-Community Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Adela

    2014-01-01

    Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS) is a 5-year multi-intervention study aimed at preventing childhood obesity among Mexican-origin children in rural California. Using a transdisciplinary approach and community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology, NSFS's development included a diversely trained team working in collaboration with…

  6. Factors influencing performance of health workers in the management of seriously sick children at a Kenyan tertiary hospital - participatory action research

    OpenAIRE

    Irimu, GW; Greene, A.; Gathara, D; Kihara, H; Maina, C; Mbori-Ngacha, D; Zurovac, D.; Migiro, S; English, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Implementation of World Health Organization case management guidelines for serious childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. Facilitators of and barriers to implementation of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have not been explored. Methods. This ethnographic study based on the theory of participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya's largest teaching hospital. The primary intervention c...

  7. Project Salud: Using community-based participatory research to culturally adapt an HIV prevention intervention in the Latino migrant worker community

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Jesús; Serna, Claudia A; de La Rosa, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Despite the unique and challenging circumstances confronting Latino migrant worker communities in the U.S., debate still exists as to the need to culturally adapt evidence-based interventions for dissemination with this population. Project Salud adopted a community-based participatory research model and utilized focus group methodology with 83 Latino migrant workers to explore the relevance of culturally adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention to be disseminated within this pop...

  8. A Participatory Design Approach for the Support of Collaborative Learning and Knowledge Building in Networked Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Kieslinger; Kai Pata; Claudia Magdalena Fabian

    2009-01-01

    Engagement in collaborative learning and knowledge building activities is still a big challenge for many workplace-learning designers. Especially in highly competitive environments people might be reluctant to give away too much of their tacit knowledge. A feeling of ownership and an involvement of the individual in the planning of the learning activities can be important motivational factors. In an international research project called IntelLEO – Intelligent Learning Extended Organization we...

  9. Participatory systems mapping for sustainable consumption : Discussion of a method promoting systemic insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedlacko, Michal; Martinuzzi, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes our usage of and experience with the method of participatory systems mapping. The method, developed for the purpose of facilitating knowledge brokerage, builds on participatory modelling approaches and applications and was used in several events involving both researchers and policy makers. The paper presents and discusses examples of how different types of participatory interaction with causal loop diagrams (‘system maps’) produced different insights on issues related to sustainable consumption and enabled participatory reflection and sharing of knowledge. Together, these insights support a systemic understanding of the issues and Thus the method provides instruments for coping with complexity when formulating policies for sustainable consumption. Furthermore the paper discusses the ability of the method—and its limits—to connect mental models of participants through structured discussion and thus bridge boundaries between different communities.

  10. Children as Ethnographers: Reflections on the Importance of Participatory Research in Assessing Orphans' Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Kristen E.

    2011-01-01

    Critiques of child participation within aid programming suggest that it is superficial and insubstantive for the fulfilment of children's rights. By employing former child research participants as youth research assistants, the collaborative research design developed for my research project on the survival strategies of African orphans and…

  11. Participatory Common Learning in Groups of Dairy Farmers in Uganda (FFS approach) and Danish Stable Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2007-01-01

    Farmer Field Schools (FFS) is a well-known concept, which is widely used in many types of farming systems in the Global South. In this report different approaches to FFS adjusted to Ugandan smallholder dairy systems and to Danish organic dairy systems are explored and discussed. The report is based on a Master Thesis in Health Anthropology and a mini manual to the so-called Stable Schools. Improvements of farming practices should be based on the context of the individual farm and include the goals of the farmer and the farming system. This should be the case in all types of farming systems. Viewing learning as a social phenomenon and process, as well as an interaction between the learner and the learning environment (including other farmers) may give opportunities for context based innovations and developments towards a common goal in a group of farmers.

  12. Using Photovoice as a Community Based Participatory Research Tool for Changing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Behaviours in Usoma, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J; Abudho, Bernard; Karanja, Diana M; Schuster-Wallace, Corinne J

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an increase in the use of community based participatory research (CBPR) tools for understanding environment and health issues and facilitating social action. This paper explores the application and utility of photovoice for understanding water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) behaviours and catalysing community led solutions to change behaviours. Between June and August 2013, photovoice was conducted with eight (8) women in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Kenya with a follow-up community meeting (baraza) in May 2014 to discuss findings with the community members and government officials. In the first part of the study, photovoice one-on-one interviews were used to explore local perceptions and practices around water-health linkages and how the ecological and socio-political environment shapes these perceptions and practices. This paper, which is the second component of the study, uses photovoice group discussions to explore participants' experiences with and (re)action to the photographs and the photovoice project. The findings illustrate that photovoice was an effective CBPR methodology for understanding behaviours, creating awareness, facilitating collective action, and engaging with local government and local health officials at the water-health nexus. PMID:26380305

  13. Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project

    OpenAIRE

    Chovanova Hana; Van Campenhout Karen; Springael Johan; Loots Ilse; Koppen Gudrun; Colles Ann; Croes Kim; Morrens Bert; Keune Hans; Schoeters Greet; Nelen Vera; Baeyens Willy; van Larebeke Nik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium), an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The proj...

  14. Requirements for Participatory Framework on Governmental Policy Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birut? PITR?NAIT?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes’ expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.

  15. RESEARCH ON THE EFFICACY OF ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY LESSONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela ROTUNDU

    2012-01-01

    One reason for the success or failure of students in each class is the difference in the use of teaching methods. Student-centered or active-learning approaches to instruction have increasingly been promoted worldwide and valued because they are perceived to better prepare future citizens and often include the production of tangible result that can be immediately appreciated. Active-learning methods can be contrasted with traditional approaches emphasizing teacher lecturing or direct transmis...

  16. [Participatory Quality Development: Engaging Community Members in All Phases of Project Planning and Implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M T; Kilian, H; Block, M; von Unger, H; Brandes, S; Ziesemer, M; Gold, C; Rosenbrock, R

    2015-09-01

    Community participation, recognised as a central feature of successful health promotion and prevention, is often difficult to implement. In this research project internationally recognised methods of participatory health research were applied to demonstrate ways in which community members can be engaged. Participatory health research is characterised by a close collaboration between academic researchers, practitioners and community members in order to generate common knowledge. It is not a question of translating knowledge from research into practice, but rather a question of promoting a collective learning process on the part of all participants for the purpose of developing solutions which address the interests and needs of local people. The result of the project is a new approach for strengthening the quality of prevention and health promotion interventions: participatory quality development (PQD). PMID:24937351

  17. Digital publics and participatory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. McNely

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.

  18. Metodologia de la Investigacion Participativa (The Methodology of Participatory Research). Cuadernos del CREFAL 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopo, Boris P.

    The traditional educational method has focused on a passive stand from the learner. This passive stand can hinder creativity and analytical thinking. This work concentrates on a presentation of the Participant Research educational method. Participant Research is an adult-education method in which the learner can have an active role in his…

  19. Community health workers support community-based participatory research ethics: lessons learned along the research-to-practice-to-community continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S

    2012-11-01

    Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502

  20. Priority water research questions for South Africa developed through participatory processes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RM, Siebrits; K, Winter; J, Barnes; MC, Dent; G, Ekama; M, Ginster; J, Harrison; B, Jackson; I, Jacobs; A, Jordaan; HC, Kasan; W, Kloppers; R, le Roux; J, Maree; MNB, Momba; AV, Munnik; J, O' Keeffe; R, Schulze; M, Silberbauer; D, Still; JE, van Zyl.

    2014-04-03

    Full Text Available This paper describes a collaborative process of identifying and prioritising current and future water research questions from a wide range of water specialists within South Africa. Over 1 600 questions were collected, reduced in number and prioritised by specialists working in water research and pra [...] ctice. A total of 59 questions were finally proposed as an outcome of the study and are categorised under the themes of change, data, ecosystems, governance, innovation and resources. The questions range in scale, challenge and urgency, and are also aligned with prevailing paradigms in water research. The majority of the questions dealt with relatively short- to medium-term research requirements and most focused on immediate issues such as water supply, service delivery and technical solutions. Formulations of long-term research questions were sparse, partly because some of the principles and methods used in this study were difficult to apply in the South African context, and also because researchers are influenced by addressing what are believed to be the more immediate, short-term water-related challenges in South Africa. This is the first initiative of its kind to produce a comprehensive and inclusive list of research priorities for water in South Africa.

  1. A community-based approach to translational research addressing breast cancer disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Yeary, Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Mason, Mondi; Turner, Jerome; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Chow, Marie; Hine, R. Jean; Henry-Tillman, Ronda; Greene, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Disparities in breast cancer survival rates suggest that biological processes contribute. Translational research addressing health disparities would benefit from using a community-based participatory approach (CBPR) to examine biological processes commonly seen as the proximal causes of illness as well as behavioral and social-ecological “causes of the causes” within an integrated conceptual framework. This paper describes a CBPR study that explored perceptions regarding breast cancer relevan...

  2. Integration of a Participatory Research Strategy into a Rural Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Stratford, Dale; Chamblee, Sandra; Ellerbrock, Tedd V.; Johnson, Johnny W; Abbott, Denny; von Reyn, C Fordham; Horsburgh, C. Robert

    2003-01-01

    The Glades Health Survey, a population-based survey of tuberculosis and HIV infection, provides a model for building community–research partnerships with local health departments in ethnically diverse communities. The survey was initiated without broad community participation; a year and a half of organizing established community leadership of the project. Essential factors in the success of the project included a shared objective, direct confrontation of fears about research, inclusion of al...

  3. FUTISTREFFIT : Participatory Action Research: analysis and evaluation of football as a community youth development tool

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseh, Cucu

    2012-01-01

    Wesseh Cucu. Thesis: Futistreffit – analysis and evaluation. Language: English. Content: 53 pages, 2 appendices. Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. Focus: Community Development. Institution: Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Järvenpää The aim of this research is to examine football as a positive youth development tool for Learning-Integration. It focuses on community youth work and uses action research as the prime method of analysis and evaluation. The subject of researc...

  4. Using fuzzy cognitive mapping as a participatory approach to analyze change, preferred states, and perceived resilience of social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Gray

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the use of fuzzy cognitive mapping (FCM as a participatory method for understanding social-ecological systems (SESs. In recent years, FCM has been used in a diverse set of contexts ranging from fisheries management to agricultural development, in an effort to generate transparent graphical models of complex systems that are useful for decision making, illuminate the core presumptions of environmental stakeholders, and structure environmental problems for scenario development. This increase in popularity is because of FCM's bottom-up approach and its ability to incorporate a range of individual, community-level, and expert knowledge into an accessible and standardized format. Although there has been an increase in the use of FCM as an environmental planning and learning tool, limited progress has been made with regard to the method's relationship to existing resilience frameworks and how the use of FCM compares with other participatory modeling/approaches available. Using case study data developed from community-driven models of the bushmeat trade in Tanzania, we examine the usefulness of FCM for promoting resilience analysis among stakeholders in terms of identifying key state variables that comprise an SES, evaluating alternative SES equilibrium states, and defining desirable or undesirable state outcomes through scenario analysis.

  5. Web 2.0-based learning. A pedagogical model of participatory media in e-research

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Bahaaeldin; Köhler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last decade, Web 2.0 technologies became one of the most fashionable applications for a whole range of Internet applications. However, many academics are unaware of Web 2.0 services and the benefits such applications have for learning. In this paper, we first provide a new perspective of the use of technology for research and knowledge sharing, in order to improve learning/research productivity through the use of such technologies. Second, we provide a literature review...

  6. Promoting exercise in Parkinson's disease through community-based participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Mark A; Iyer, Sanjay S; Englert, Danielle; Sanjak, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive, as-of-yet incurable, neurodegenerative condition affecting the nigro–striatal dopaminergic system. Emerging evidence suggests the importance of exercise in improving the trajectory of PD. Yet few people with PD are physically active. One challenge that healthcare professionals face in the 21st century is how to deliver physical activity programs to the population of individuals living with PD. A novel approach to delivering physical activity...

  7. Participatory Research in Support of Quality Public Education in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Burel, Deirdre; Drame, Elizabeth; Frattura, Elise

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, two years after Hurricane Katrina, several education and child advocacy groups began discussing the depleted conditions of the New Orleans public school district. These groups came together to discuss how to create a sustainable education reform movement post Katrina. New Orleans-based community groups and outside university researchers

  8. A Tale of Two Sites: Cellphones, Participatory Video and Indigeneity in Community-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab-Cartas, Joshua; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This polyvocal text is both a narrative and a dialogue between two scholar-activist researchers working in rural communities in distinct parts of the world--South Africa and Southern Mexico--sharing their experiences of using cellular phone and camcorders, while also exploring the potential sustainability of these technologies in the context of…

  9. Creativity in ethnographic interviews : reflexive participatory observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses interviews as participatory reflexive observation. It is based on experiences of interviewing policymakers and researchers about knowledge and evidence in health promotion. This particular group of informants challenged an approach to interviews as getting informants to describe their everyday work life. By employing a methodological framework focusing on reflexive processes, interviews became consensual interactions, and the content of the interviews turned out to be analyses, interpretations and meaning making, that is, knowledge production. Interpretation and meaning making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process.

  10. Communicative action: The Habermasian and Freirean dialogical approach to participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa / Kommunikatiewe aksie: Die dialogiese benadering tot deelnemende kommunikasie vir sosiale verandering volgens Habermas en Freire

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H., Otto; L.M., Fourie.

    Full Text Available Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of participatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schram [...] m, 1964; Servaes, 1995). What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian "ideal speech situation" in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989). Consistent with the Freirean "liberal pedagogy", the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the "participative" quality of participatory communication (cf. Freire, 1970). For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos), rightfulness (ethos) and truthfulness (pathos) are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, instrumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communicative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic), rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.

  11. Cross-disciplinary Participatory & Contextual Design Research: Creating a Teacher Dashboard Application

    OpenAIRE

    Troy D. Abel; Michael Evans

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of Human Computer Interaction have crossed disciplinary boundaries allowing the discovery of underlying stakeholder affordances to emerge during the design research phase of system design. For the current scenario, middle school mathematics teachers as data-driven decision makers are inundated with diagnostic and assessment data, resulting in data deluge. The situation is unlikely to subside as digital technologies and media are broadly adopted for instruction and learning. Teachers ...

  12. Roadmap for a Participatory Research–Practice Partnership to Implement Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Our research team has undertaken implementation of evidence in the form of practice guideline recommendations for populations in hospital, community, and long-term care settings with diverse provider and patient populations (people with chronic wounds, e.g., pressure and leg ulcers, heart failure, stroke, diabetes, palliative care, cancer, and maternity care). Translating evidence into clinical practice at the point of care is a complex and often overwhelming challenge for the hea...

  13. Evaluating a community-based participatory research project for elderly mental healthcare in rural America

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Blevins; Bridget Morton; Rene McGovern

    2008-01-01

    Dean Blevins1,2,3, Bridget Morton4, Rene McGovern5,61South Central Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (SC-MIRECC), Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System; 2University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; 3University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus, Little Rock, AR; 4Northeast Missouri Health Network, Kirksville, MO; 5A.T. Still University/Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, Kirksville, MO; 6Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OHAbstract: The purpose of th...

  14. In the Midst of Participatory Action Research Practices: Moving towards Decolonizing and Decolonial Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartej Gill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Where disenfranchised groups such as women, immigrants and people of color more generally were either excluded from the academy or not thought to have important 'stories' to tell, several qualitative methodologies now value these voices, in large measure because disenfranchised research participants have an understanding in their bodies of what it means to be exposed to patriarchy, racism, classism, heterosexism, ableism, xenophobia and other complex forms of oppression (Gitlin, 2007, p.1.

  15. A Recess Evaluation with the Players: Taking Steps Toward Participatory Action Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Julie Yunyi; Langhout, Regina Day

    2010-01-01

    This playground study conceptualizes recess as a time and space that belongs to students; their inclusion in this evaluation is a notable difference from other recess/playground research. The goal was to help elementary school students make the changes they felt were needed on their playground. After conducting structured observations and student and recess aide focus groups, a report was presented to all stakeholders, and recess changes were made. We seek to show how the process of being inc...

  16. Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela K. Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

  17. O Comitê Cidadão como estratégia cogestiva em uma pesquisa participativa no campo da saúde mental / The Citizen Committee as a co-management strategy in participatory research in the field of mental health in Quebec

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Passos; Thais Mikie de Carvalho, Otanari; Bruno Ferrari, Emerich; Lorena, Guerini.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O tema dos direitos dos usuários ganha centralidade na discussão contemporânea no campo da saúde mental. A partir da criação de um Comitê Cidadão, composto por usuários e familiares em uma aliança de pesquisa internacional entre Brasil e Canadá, propomos discutir os efeitos, nestes sujeitos, da expe [...] riência de cogestão promovida pela pesquisa participativa "Gestão Autônoma da Medicação (GAM)". Através de descrição detalhada do histórico do Comitê e de entrevista e análise de transcrição da voz de seus membros, problematizamos a relação dialogada entre o saber científico e o saber advindo da experiência singular destes sujeitos, em uma perspectiva metodológica de pesquisa participativa. Como resultado da pesquisa, observamos que a experiência do Comitê Cidadão na cogestão da pesquisa em saúde pode ser propiciadora do aumento nos graus de autonomia, maior empoderamento e exercício de protagonismo e cidadania, com a consequente emergência de sujeitos de direitos. Abstract in english The theme of users' rights has become a central issue in contemporary debate on mental health. Drawing from the experiences of "Comitê Cidadão" (Citizen Committee), consisting of users and family members in an international research alliance between Brazil and Canada, an attempt is made to discuss t [...] he effects of the experience of co-management of the so-called Autonomous Medication Administration (GAM - Gestão Autônoma da Medicação) participatory research project on these individuals. By means of a detailed description of the background of the Committee and interviews and analysis of the voice transcriptions of its members, the problems raised by the relation of dialogue between scientific knowledge and users' knowledge are examined in a methodological approach of participatory research. As a result of the research, it was established that the experience of the Citizens Committee in co-management of health research can be propitious to the increase in the degree of autonomy, greater empowerment and the exercise of leadership and citizenship, with the consequent emergence of subjects with rights.

  18. The thai-Australian alliance: developing a rural health management curriculum by participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanggratoke, S; Briggs, David; Alexander, Christian; Taytiwat, Prawit; Cruickshank, Mary; Fraser, John; Ditton, Mary; Gaul, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the Thai National Health Security Office and the Ministry of Public Health, through the Nakhonratchasima Provincial Health Office in Thailand, asked the Thai-Australian Health Alliance to identify competencies and skills for a health management curriculum for health professionals working in primary healthcare in rural Thailand. The study was conducted in Nakhonratchasima province, Thailand, utilizing questionnaires, focus group discussions and an intensive 3-day workshop involving a purposive sample of 35 participants drawn from various sectors in the health industry. Findings identified the core curriculum competencies and skills required by rural doctors, nurses and public health officers. Critical issues regarding continuing education for health professionals in primary healthcare were also examined. This study found that a primary healthcare approach should include the principles of sustainability and capacity building, and incorporate team-based, interprofessional and long-term continuous learning. PMID:20357555

  19. Increasing Critical Health Literacy of Roma People trough Participatory Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Crondahl, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Evidence shows that the Roma people engage less in democratic processes than the majority population. Rather than being involved in the planning of measurements and proposals, the Roma people have been treated as a helpless group in need of expert support from the authorities. To enable Roma people to take a leading role in their integration process a 2-year action research was implemented in 2010-2012. The idea was to strengthen the Roma Peoples’ critical health literacy which allows them to an...

  20. Music Therapy’s Effects on Mexican Migrant Farmworkers’ Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Social Isolation: A Mixed Methods Randomized Control Trial Utilizing Participatory Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, the agricultural industry is dependent on men and women from Mexico who migrate throughout the country to participate in the care and harvest of crops. They often migrate independently of their families and leave loved ones behind. Separation from families and difficult working conditions create high frequencies of mental health issues. When available, the farmworkers seek out treatment for the somatic symptoms such as high heart rate, upset stomachs, and difficult breathing often associated with depression and anxiety. Mental health counselors and facilities often are not able to meet the needs in culturally sensitive ways presented by this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on Mexican farmworkers’ levels of depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition, this study sought to examine how the migrant farmworkers used music-making sessions between music therapy sessions as a coping skill to further improve their overall mental health. Finally, this study sought to examine how migrant farmworkers engaged in the research process and how they valued their relationship with the researcher. This study utilized a mixed methods approach incorporating a randomized control trial with repeated measures and participatory action research. A total of 125 farmwokers participated in this study over the course of two distinct phases. Farmworkers in Phase I were randomly assigned to music therapy, English as a second language classes, and a stress education (control) group. Farmworkers in Phase II were randomly assigned to music therapy or a comparison stress education group. Farmworkers in the music therapy condition participated in 6-10 music therapy sessions during which time they learned how to play an instrument, engaged in song writing and lyric analysis, and group music-making. Results indicated that participants in the music therapy condition across both phases did not significantly improve their depression, anxiety, and social isolation scores compared to the control/comparison group. The farmworkers who did participate in group musicmaking between sessions did improve their scores more so than participants who did not engage in weekly group music-making. The farmworkers identified helpful and impeding aspects of the research through focus group interviews. They also identified components of their relationship to the music therapist/researcher that were helpful in establishing and developing a relationship with her.

  1. Experiences in participatory surveillance and community-based reporting systems for H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza: a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Jeffrey C; Jones, Bryony A; Hendrickx, Saskia; El Masry, Ihab; Jobre, Yilma; Jost, Christine C

    2014-01-01

    Participatory surveillance (PS) is the application of participatory rural appraisal methods to the collection of epidemiological information to inform decision-making and action. It was applied in Africa and Asia as part of emergency programs to address the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) pandemic. The approach resulted in markedly increased case detection in countries experiencing HPAI, and a better understanding of the epidemiological situation. Where HPAI was absent and PS was implemented, the method did not result in false positives and contributed to the overall epidemiological assessment that the country was free of disease. It was noted that clarity of surveillance objectives and resulting data needs at the outset was essential to optimize the balance of surveillance methods, size of the program and costs. The quality of training programs and adherence to international guidelines on good PS training practice were important for assuring the competence of PS practitioners. Orientation of senior decision-makers was an important step in assuring effective program management and appropriate use of results. As a problem-solving methodology, PS is best used to rapidly assess situations and inform strategy. Several countries continued PS after the end of projects and went on to apply PS to other health challenges. PMID:24643858

  2. La participación, entre la democracia participativa y la democracia directa. Aportes desde un enfoque psicosocial / The participation. Between participatory democracy and direct democracy. Contributions from the psychosocial approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Patricia Mariel, Sorribas; Zenaida, Garay Reyna.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la participación (PP) mediante acciones directas y en instituciones de democracia participativa y directa diseñadas por el Estado municipal y provincial implementadas en Córdoba (Argentina). Los datos se relevaron desde dos muestras poblacionales (N=200 y N=450) durante 20 [...] 10 mediante encuestas aplicadas a residentes mayores de 18 años. El enfoque adoptado permitió describir la pertenencia a diferentes organizaciones sociales de aquellos ciudadanos que participaron en al menos una de estas instancias participativas; conocer la amplitud e intensidad de la participación, sus dimensiones psicosociales asociadas y conocer cómo se distribuyen estas dimensiones entre quienes participaron y no participaron. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the participation (PP) means of direct action and through institutions of participatory democracy and direct democracy, designed by the state (municipal and provincial) implemented in Cordoba (Argentina). The data were surveyed on two population samples (N = 200 and N = 450) duri [...] ng 2010 and through surveys applied to residents (over 18 years). The approach allowed describing the membership in to different social organizations of citizens who participated in at least one of these instances participatory; know the extent and intensity of their participation, the psychosocial dimensions associated, and knowing how these dimensions are distributed among those who participated and those who not participate.

  3. Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

  4. Cross-disciplinary Participatory & Contextual Design Research: Creating a Teacher Dashboard Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy D. Abel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of Human Computer Interaction have crossed disciplinary boundaries allowing the discovery of underlying stakeholder affordances to emerge during the design research phase of system design. For the current scenario, middle school mathematics teachers as data-driven decision makers are inundated with diagnostic and assessment data, resulting in data deluge. The situation is unlikely to subside as digital technologies and media are broadly adopted for instruction and learning. Teachers could benefit from tools to quickly sift through this data to inform classroom instruction. Data should be visualized in a way that teachers can make real-time formative and summative assessments of student progress. The purpose of this article is to introduce a mixed-method mode of discovery to uncover affordances innate to classroom teachers during the design of an iPad data visualization application. These technology-assisted “dashboard” platforms could serve as efficient and effective interventions to deal with the copious amounts of data streams now available to teachers.

  5. Values-Led Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities in PD. Drawing from the authors‘ own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical...

  6. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest Us...

  7. Examining how youth of color engage youth participatory action research to interrogate racism in their science experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takumi C.

    While many researchers have worked to address the unequal educational outcomes between White and non-White students, there are few signs of progress for people of color seeking entry into a STEM career trajectory. Starting from high school, the number of students who persist to complete a STEM bachelor's degree and obtaining a job in science or engineering continues to indicate that people of color are underrepresented. I suggest that research must consider the role of race and racism in the education of youth of color. Especially in science education, there is very little work addressing how racism may present barriers that impede progress for students along the STEM trajectory. This study is informed by critical race theory (CRT) that posits racism is endemic in society. White privilege enables the dominant group to maintain inequitable advantages that marginalizes populations of color. CRT also puts forth that counter narratives of the marginalized groups is essential to challenge the institutionalized forms of oppression. Using CRT and youth participatory action research (YPAR), this investigation re-imagines youth as capable of transforming their own social and political condition through research and action. This project asked youth of color to interrogate their own experiences as science learners, engage in research on structural inequities of STEM trajectories, plan strategic moves to challenge power structures, and take action for social justice. The youth started by exploring the concept of race and instances where racism was found in public spaces and in their personal experiences. They examined their experiences in science as a student more generally and then for racism. Then, the focus turned to conducting research with peers, observing science classrooms in another school, and using online information to compare schools. The youth planned strategic action against the racism they found in the analysis of the data that included conference presentations, using social media to communicate with peers, and teaching a science unit for middle grades peers using lessons that incorporated engaging teaching practices lacking in their student experiences. YPAR resulted in counternarratives that exposed youth encounters with systemic racism and their efforts to positively change STEM trajectories for themselves and their peers. Through YPAR, youth gained research tools and skills to critically examine the world and expose racism. While schools are purported to be places of equal opportunity for all students to learn and find success, the youth showed that institutionalized racism in schools created barriers to STEM aspirations. By planning and teaching a food and nutrition unit, the youth took aim at the institutionalized racism by taking on the role of teacher and expert while improving the science learning opportunities for their middle grades peers and themselves. In addition, planning the unit enabled the youth to conduct all of the activities before teaching the unit. Thus, the youth supplemented their own science learning. YPAR provided an empowering opportunity to challenge racism along their STEM trajectories and fight for social justice.

  8. Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    2014-01-01

    This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts.

  9. Participatory governance for energy policy-making: A case study of the UK nuclear consultation in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy challenges associated with climate impacts, nuclear risks and an emergence of public preferences for fuel mixes have prompted many contemporary societies to adopt participatory approaches for managing energy matters. The extent to which and just how participatory approaches can work has however remained under-researched. This paper develops a normative framework for participatory governance to examine, analyse, and understand nuclear policy making processes and outcomes, with a particular reference to a case study of the UK nuclear consultation exercise in 2007. By comparing the actual consultation practice in the UK and our normative content–process–outcome framework, we found that the government approach paid insufficient attention to trust and some other normative values underpinning participatory governance, contributing to undesirable outcomes relating to policy legitimacy and public distrust. Our findings suggest that the UK government needs to pay more attention to the interaction that can occur between different rationales for participation and the processes and consequences of participatory exercises. - Highlights: • A three dimensional content–process–outcome evaluative model is developed. • We examine the limitations of the 2007 consultation. • Public distrust and three trust destroying process were found to be critical. • Complex interactions between different rationales affected participatory processes

  10. Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services

    OpenAIRE

    Yonas, Michael A.; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-...

  11. Orçamento participativo: uma abordagem na perspectiva da Ciência da Informação / Participatory budgeting: an approach from an Information Science perspective

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alex de Araujo, Lopes; Isa Maria, Freire.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva destacar a importância do orçamento participativo como fonte de inclusão social na sociedade intensiva de informação, em conjunto com os postulados da Ciência da Informação. O modelo participativo de gestão do orçamento participativo apresenta sinais de possibilidades de const [...] rução de um método provedor de democracia, e, nesse processo, a informação torna-se insumo inestimável. Nesse contexto, a Ciência da Informação surge como uma teia de formulações com laços concomitantes para que o acesso, a disseminação, o registro e a organização das informações produzidas sejam transformadas em realidades, sugerindo, ademais, proposições de ordem educativa para a cidadania. No atual momento de transição histórica e cultural da sociedade brasileira, comunidades e pessoas excluídas econômica e socialmente têm a possibilidade de participar do processo de gestão democrática mediante o orçamento participativo. Esses núcleos de compartilhamento de informações, conhecimentos e saberes tendem a contribuir para criar alternativas de transformação do espaço social, de modo a promover a inclusão dos grupos sociais menos favorecidos no acesso à informação. Abstract in english This work proposes highlighting the importance of participatory budgeting as a source of social inclusion in the intensive information society, in conjunction with the premises of Information Science. The model of participatory budget management shows signs of the possibility of constructing a metho [...] d that provides democracy, in which case the information becomes an invaluable input. In this context, information science emerges as a web of formulations with concurrent ties, permitting the dissemination, recording and organization of the information produced to be transformed into reality, suggesting, moreover, propositions of an educational order for citizens. At the present moment of historical and cultural transition through which we are passing in Brazilian society, communities and economically and socially excluded individuals have the chance to participate in the process of democratic management through participatory budgeting. These clusters of information sharing, knowledge and wisdom tend to contribute to the creation of alternatives for the transformation of social space in order to promote the inclusion of disadvantaged social groups in terms of access to information.

  12. Stirring up the mud: using a community-based participatory approach to address health disparities through a faith-based initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sue A; Ruddock, Charmaine; Golub, Maxine; Davis, Joyce; Foley, Robert; Devia, Carlos; Rosen, Rosa; Berry, Carolyn; Barretto, Brenda; Carter, Toni; Irish-Spencer, Evalina; Marchena, Maria; Purcaro, Ellenrita; Calman, Neil

    2009-11-01

    This case study provides a mid-course assessment of the Bronx Health REACH faith-based initiative four years into its implementation. The study uses qualitative methods to identify lessons learned and to reflect on the benefits and challenges of using a community-based participatory approach for the development and evaluation of a faith-based program designed to address health disparities. Key findings concern the role of pastoral leadership, the importance of providing a religious context for health promotion and health equality messages, the challenges of creating a bilingual/bi-cultural program, and the need to provide management support to the lay program coordinators. The study also identifies lessons learned about community-based evaluation and the importance of addressing community concern about the balance between evaluation and program. Finally, the study identifies the challenges that lie ahead, including issues of program institutionalization and sustainability. PMID:20168022

  13. Adaptation to changing water resource availability in Northern India with respect to Himalayan Glacier retreat and changing monsoons using participatory approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadwal, Suruchi; Groot, Annemarie; Balakrishnan, Sneha; Nair, Sreeja; Ghosh, Sambita; Lingaraj, G J; van Scheltinga, Catharien Terwisscha; Bhave, Ajay; Siderius, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Changes in rainfall patterns and temperatures are likely to affect water resources in India. Also, changes in the extreme events will have direct implications on life and property. Adapting to the adverse effects of climate change becomes critical to avoid huge material and immaterial damages. This paper discusses the use of a multi-level and participatory approach to develop adaptation options to deal with climate related risks in a manner that contributes to stakeholder engagement, understanding of the risks, identification of the adaptation responses as well as its prioritization for risk reduction. It highlights the importance of involving stakeholders from multiple levels as each level corresponds with different priorities in adaptation options. PMID:23845508

  14. Integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems in Pakistan: participatory rural appraisal and economic opportunity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Abdul; Khan, M Qasim; Ullah, Nemat

    2007-12-01

    Livestock production is an integral part of the rain-fed and irrigated agriculture system in Pakistan. Animal production is closely interlinked with the cropping systems and play a crucial role in the rural economy. Participatory rural appraisals and economic opportunity surveys were conducted in two ecological zones (irrigated and rain-fed) and two dairy production systems (peri-urban and mixed livestock). Major constraints in animal health, nutrition and reproduction were identified and interventions were suggested to overcome these difficulties. The economic opportunity survey revealed that maximum opportunity to enhance farmers' income is to increase milk production per day per animal, which can be accomplished through coordinated improvements in nutrition, reproduction and genetics. PMID:18265868

  15. Priority interventions to improve the management of chronic non-cancer pain in primary care: a participatory research of the ACCORD program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalonde L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lyne Lalonde,1–4 Manon Choinière,3,5 Elisabeth Martin,3 Lise Lévesque,3 Éveline Hudon,2,3,6 Danielle Bélanger,2 Sylvie Perreault,1,7 Anaïs Lacasse,8 Marie-Claude Laliberté1,9 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Équipe de recherche en soins de première ligne, Centre de santé et de services sociaux de Laval, Laval, QC, Canada; 3Centre de recherche, Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Sanofi Aventis Endowment Chair in Ambulatory Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal and Centre de santé et de services sociaux de Laval, QC, Canada; 5Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Family Medicine and Emergency, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Sanofi Aventis Endowment Chair in Drug Utilization, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 8Département des sciences de la santé, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada; 9AbbVie Corporation, St-Laurent, QC, Canada Purpose: There is evidence that the management of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP in primary care is far from being optimal. A 1-day workshop was held to explore the perceptions of key actors regarding the challenges and priority interventions to improve CNCP management in primary care. Methods: Using the Chronic Care Model as a conceptual framework, physicians (n=6, pharmacists (n=6, nurses (n=6, physiotherapists (n=6, psychologists (n=6, pain specialists (n=6, patients (n=3, family members (n=3, decision makers and managers (n=4, and pain researchers (n=7 took part in seven focus groups and five nominal groups. Results: Challenges identified in focus group discussions were related to five dimensions: knowledge gap, “work in silos”, lack of awareness that CNCP represents an important clinical problem, difficulties in access to health professionals and services, and patient empowerment needs. Based on the nominal group discussions, the following priority interventions were identified: interdisciplinary continuing education, interdisciplinary treatment approach, regional expert leadership, creation and definition of care paths, and patient education programs. Conclusion: Barriers to optimal management of CNCP in primary care are numerous. Improving its management cannot be envisioned without considering multifaceted interventions targeting several dimensions of the Chronic Care Model and focusing on both clinicians and patients. Keywords: chronic pain, community-based participatory research, health service accessibility, patient-centered care, primary health care

  16. Images and the Ethics of Inclusion and Exclusion: Learning through Participatory Photography in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ian; Miles, Susie; Howes, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Participatory research methods directly engage with the topics that they set out to address. It is therefore no surprise that participatory research practice on the topic of educational inclusion and exclusion raises ethical issues for the participatory researcher that are themselves about inclusion and exclusion. This paper describes and analyses…

  17. Investigating the Design Process : Participatory Design in Agile Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/approach – Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players and future users in the customer organization. The interview data were supplemented with company and project documents. Findings – The paper found genuine customer and user participation carried out by onsite customers and by other operational staff in the form of direct and indirect participation and with functional and democratic empowerment. The onsite customers played informative, consultative and participativeroles. The analysis revealed that planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the customer and user participation. This form of user participation supported a balance between flexibility and project progress and resulted in a project and a product which were considered a success by the customer and the development organization. The analysis showed that the integrative framework for user participation can also fruitfully be used in a new context to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory design contributes to the successful completion of the investigated project. By drawing on innovation theory it was found that participatory design in agile development bears the characteristics of a successful organizational innovation. Grounding further explanations in complex adaptive systems theory the paper provides an additional argument why participatory design despite some identified challenges fosters project staff to successfully carry out the agile development project.

  18. Helping small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics: Linking participatory research, traditional research and simulation modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to link necessary research skills to increase the range of options available to resource-poor farmers in the study area. The research consisted of on-station research to evaluate and understand cropping-system options resulting from insertion of a legume crop into the sorghum and castor system, on-farm research whereby farmers evaluate cropping-system options that are of interest to them, use of 15N as a label to help understand the nitrogen (N) balance of the various options, and cropping-systems simulation to examine long-term climatic risks from possible options. Particular attention was placed on the option of sorghum/pigeon pea intercrops, and on quantifying the inputs of N from animal manure and by the pigeon-pea component. We were also interested in the process of linking on-station to on-farm research, and simulation modelling to the cropping system research. One important outcome was that different groups identified different problems and posed different questions. The problems identified and questions raised were examined by use of scenario analyses run for ten to thirty years which contrasted the existing practice with a range of alternative practices. The simulations were useful in guiding the design of on-farm experiments. Other likely outcomes are the setting of low-rate fertilizer recommendations specifically for the semi-arid tropics, the marketing of small packs of fertilizers, and increased use of manure resources for crop production. (author)

  19. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant approaches, compares them in terms of goals, methods and basic philosophy, and shows how they may beneficially enrich one another. We will present an industrial innovation case that has been instrumental to ...

  20. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text

  1. When Soda Is a Social Justice Issue: Design and Documentation of a Participatory Action Research Project with Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, James

    2015-01-01

    Schools are increasingly seen as having a promising role to play in reducing adverse health and wellness outcomes among young people. This paper uses a collaborative action research approach to examine the effects of one school's efforts to change its students' eating habits by implementing a "junk-food free campus." By engaging school…

  2. How to make participatory technology assessment in agriculture more 'participatory'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests a framework, based on Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH), to guide the organisation and management of expert-facilitated and participatory processes that allow for stakeholders' different interests, concerns, and values to be included in the assessment and policy making of GM plants. The framework is particularly useful for stakeholders, such as governments, foundations, and researchers, who attempt to facilitate inclusive and democratic processes to assess GM plants. The use ...

  3. A RFID specific participatory design approach to support design and implementation of real-time location systems in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédon, A C P; Wauben, L S G L; de Korne, D F; Overvelde, M; Dankelman, J; van den Dobbelsteen, J J

    2015-01-01

    Information technology, such as real-time location (RTL) systems using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) may contribute to overcome patient safety issues and high costs in healthcare. The aim of this work is to study if a RFID specific Participatory Design (PD) approach supports the design and the implementation of RTL systems in the Operating Room (OR). A RFID specific PD approach was used to design and implement two RFID based modules. The Device Module monitors the safety status of OR devices and the Patient Module tracks the patients' locations during their hospital stay. The PD principles 'multidisciplinary team', 'participation users (active involvement)' and 'early adopters' were used to include users from the RFID company, the university and the hospital. The design and implementation process consisted of two 'structured cycles' ('iterations'). The effectiveness of this approach was assessed by the acceptance in terms of level of use, continuity of the project and purchase. The Device Module included eight strategic and twelve tactical actions and the Patient Module included six strategic and twelve tactical actions. Both modules are now used on a daily basis and are purchased by the hospitals for continued use. The RFID specific PD approach was effective in guiding and supporting the design and implementation process of RFID technology in the OR. The multidisciplinary teams and their active participation provided insights in the social and the organizational context of the hospitals making it possible to better fit the technology to the hospitals' (future) needs. PMID:25503417

  4. Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Bots

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

  5. Participatory evaluation for environmental indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Goma, H.C.; Rahim, K.; Nangendo, G.; Riley, J; Stein, A.

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research has emerged as a powerful tool to identify agro-ecosystem indicators in developing countries. Indigenous knowledge, thus generated complements scientific information to the benefit of all stakeholders. This paper demonstrates the value of participating with farmers and hunters to identify indicators at a local level and how these supplement scientific information. Three examples are provided to demonstrate different degrees of participation and different indicator ident...

  6. Sowing the seeds for sustainable change: a community-based participatory research partnership for health promotion in Indiana, USA and its aftermath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkler, Meredith; Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Warner, Joanne Rains; Steussey, Helen; Facente, Shelley

    2006-12-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used in both developed and developing countries to study and address community-identified issues through a collaborative and empowering action-oriented process. In 2003-2005, a study was undertaken to document the impacts of CBPR on healthy public policy in the US. From an initial review of 80 partnership efforts, 10 were selected as best capturing the range and diversity of projects meeting the study criteria, and were the subject of in-depth case study analysis. This article presents and analyzes one of these cases, a collaboration between researchers at the Indiana University School of Nursing and the Healthy Cities Committee of New Castle, IN, USA. With its action component still underway a decade after the formal study's completion, the partnership was selected to enable an examination of sustainable change through CBPR. Beginning with a participatory door-to-door health survey of 1000 households using a non-probability quota sampling strategy, the project involved community members in many stages of the research process. A smoking rate of twice the national average was among the study findings that helped to galvanize the community into action. A variety of health promoting environmental and 'small p policy' changes were undertaken ranging from a bill restricting indoor smoking in public places to an initiative to develop a system of trails throughout the county to promote physical fitness and decreased reliance on automobiles. This article examines the evolution of the original CBPR partnership, its research methods and findings, and the environmental changes it sought to promote healthier lifestyles. Success factors, barriers and sustainability benchmarks are discussed. The case study offers an example of the potential of CBPR for helping to lay the groundwork for long-term sustainable change in support of healthier communities. PMID:16873393

  7. Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Redman-MacLaren; Jane Mills; Rachael Tommbe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective: To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of exi...

  8. Applying grounded theory to data collected through participatory research on African Independent Churches’ liturgical rituals: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethel A. Müller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reported on two research projects, the first conducted in the early 1990s and the second, a project currently in progress. In essence, the article was an attempt to compare the theology of African Independent Churches in the two respective periods by making use of a grounded theory approach to their worship services. Significant similarities and differences were identified and reported on.

  9. Learning and Teaching about Participatory Development: The Practical and Theoretical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adely, Fida

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1970s, participatory development has become part and parcel of most practitioner-oriented development studies programs. This reflects a shift in the field of development that has been going on for the past few decades. "Participatory Rural Appraisal" (PRA) is one approach to participatory development that has received much attention and…

  10. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brîndu?a-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  11. A pesquisa-ação participante como estratégia metodológica para o estudo do empreendedorismo social em administração de empresas / Participatory action research as a methodological strategy for the study of social entrepreneurship in business administration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Bidart Carneiro de, Novaes; Antonio Carlos, Gil.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio tem como objetivo analisar e discutir como a pesquisa-ação participante pode ganhar espaço como estratégia metodológica em administração. Esta análise enfoca em especial o campo do empreendedorismo, e mais especificamente o campo do empreendedorismo social, ressaltando as vantagens [...] e limitações da aplicação dessa estratégia de pesquisa. Procede-se, inicialmente, à análise dos principais paradigmas de pesquisa em administração e define-se a pesquisa-ação participante como modalidade de pesquisa crítica, inserida no paradigma humanista radical. A seguir, passa-se à identificação das características da pesquisa participante e ao seu contraste com outras modalidades de pesquisa, em especial com a observação participante e a pesquisa-ação. Os conceitos da pesquisa-ação participante são apresentados e os autores prosseguem apresentando uma revisão dos mais recentes trabalhos em que essa foi usada para apoiar pesquisas na área do empreendedorismo social. Concluem com a proposta de que a avaliação desses trabalhos se dê por outros conceitos que não os da pesquisa tradicional. Abstract in english This essay aims to analyze and discuss how participatory action research can be applied as a methodological strategy in business administration. This analysis focuses mainly on the field of entrepreneurship and, more specifically, social entrepreneurship, highlighting the advantages and limitations [...] of this research strategy. Firstly, the main research paradigms in business administration are analyzed and participatory-action research is defined as a research modality set within the radical humanist paradigm. Then, the characteristics of participatory research are identified and it is contrasted with other research modalities, specially with participant observation and action research. Participatory action research is then presented and the authors proceed with the presentation of a review of recent researches which it was used. They finish the work proposing that avaliation of works with this kind of methodology must be different then those used for traditional research.

  12. I WAS HERE: young mothers who have experienced homelessness use Photovoice and participatory qualitative analysis to demonstrate strengths and assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the participatory analysis process expanded the Photovoice methodology to facilitate self-reflection and an empowering collective dialogue among a group of women whose strengths and assets are rarely showcased. PMID:24830441

  13. Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Kazutaka

    2006-07-01

    Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries. PMID:16756940

  14. Theory Building through Praxis Discourse: A Theory- and Practice-Informed Model of Transformative Participatory Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnar, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Stakeholder participation in evaluation, where the evaluator engages stakeholders in the process, is prevalent in evaluation practice and is an important focus of evaluation research. Cousins and Whitmore proposed a bifurcation of participatory evaluation into the two streams of transformative participatory and practical participatory evaluation…

  15. Empowering Smallholder Women Farmers through Participatory Seed Potato Management: Lessons from Welmera District, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammed Oumer; Wudineh Getahun Tiruneh; Chilot Yirga Tizale

    2014-01-01

    Women are often ignored from research and development agenda although they play key roles in agriculture in developing countries. They are excluded from decision making and as a result, they frequently do not have access to resources, technologies and extension services, credits, inputs and markets. This paper aims to document, using qualitative methods, how participatory approach through Farmers Research Group (FRG) can address gender inequalities and subsequently empower women smallholder f...

  16. Participatory archive : towards decentralised curation, radical user orientation, and broader contextualisation of records management

    OpenAIRE

    Huvila, Isto

    2008-01-01

    The user perspective and user studies have received noticeably little practical attention in archives and archival science. The purpose of this article is to address the issues of communication and user participation in archival contexts. Two action research projects based digital archives are discussed. The insights gained during the research and development work are used to formulate a new approach to a participatory archive. In spite of the historical nature of the archives discussed, the ...

  17. Hacia un enfoque de investigación participativa para mejorar los sistemas de producción de caprinos en regiones semiáridas de México: una caracterización socioeconómica y ecológica / Towards a participatory research approach to improve goats production systems in semi arid Mexico: socioeconomic and ecological

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco G., Echavarría-Chairez; Luis, Iñiguez; Homero, Salinas-González; Manuel de J., Flores-Najera; Aden, Aw-Hassan; Alfonso, Serna-Pérez; César A., Meza-Herrera.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar opciones que permitan mejorar la productividad caprina en una microcuenca con dos poblados en las regiones áridas del norte mexicano. El estudio se realizó durante los años 2004 al 2007 y se basó en el enfoque de sistemas de producción. Se evaluaron aspect [...] os socioeconómicos y ecológicos al nivel de macrosistema para identificar diferencias socioeconómicas y con posibles opciones generadoras de ingresos, y determinar la idoneidad del área para producir cabras e identificar tierras bajo cultivo que pudieran reconvertirse en tierras de pastoreo. Además, en el estudio se midió la erosión hídrica y se evaluaron los cambios en la calidad de la vegetación en las tierras de pastoreo para identificar las intervenciones adecuadas en el manejo del suelo. Un aspecto diferenciador fue la escasa participación femenina en las actividades económicas del municipio, lo que dio lugar a que se recomendara investigar las opciones generadoras de ingresos para la mujer (i.e., procesar la leche y así obtener quesos que son demandados). Las 4,914 ha de la microcuenca fueron clasificadas como adecuadas para los sistemas de producción caprina, pero se detectaron necesidades tecnológicas para mejorarlas. Los análisis de erosión hídrica y degradación del suelo identificaron 807 ha que requieren ser reconvertidas de uso agrícola a campos de pastoreo y 208 ha de pastoreo a campos para vegetación nativa. Los resultados relacionados con la disponibilidad y calidad de la vegetación nativa a lo largo del año definieron consideraciones principales para el suplemento alimenticio con energía y proteínas, en particular durante la estación seca. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to identify research options which may lead to the improvement of goat productivity in a microwatershed involving two villages in the dry areas of northern Mexico. The study was carried out during 2004-2007 and was based on the systems theory. Socioeconomic and ecolog [...] ical aspects were evaluated at the macro-system level to identify socioeconomic differences and possible income generation options, to determine suitability of the area for goat production and to identify cropland areas to be reconverted to range production. In addition, the study assessed water erosion occurrence, evaluation of range vegetation and grazing quality changes to identify appropriate land management interventions. Poor participation of women in economic activities at the municipality level was a differentiating aspect that prompted recommendations for exploring gender-sensitive income-generation options (i.e. milk processing into highly demanded cheese). The microwatershed's 4914 ha of land were categorized as suitable for goat production systems, however in need of improvement interventions: results from water erosion and land degradation analysis identified 807 ha to be reconverted from agricultural uses to range and 208 ha from range use to native vegetation. The results concerning native vegetation availability and quality across the year defined major considerations for appropriate protein and energy feeding in particular during the dry season.

  18. A participatory approach to sustainable energy strategy development in a carbon-intensive jurisdiction: The case of Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: ? Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. ? We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. ? The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. ? The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. ? In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.

  19. Healthy Transitions: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach with Burundians with Refugee Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Denise; Burman, Elizabeth; Ejike-King, Lacreisha; Rufyiri, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Healthy Transitions is a program of the University of Tennessee's Ready for the World initiative, a broad plan to transform campus culture and prepare students for the 21st century. Healthy Transitions partners the university with a local community of Burundian refugees. The university joined several community organizations interested in the…

  20. Improving maternity care in the Dominican Republic: a pilot study of a community-based participatory research action plan by an international healthcare team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Gossett, Sarah; Burgos, Rosa; Cáceres, Ramona; Tejada, Carmen; Dominguez García, Luis; Ambrosio Rosario, Angel; Almonte, Asela; Perez, Lydia J

    2015-05-01

    This article is a report of the process and results of a feasibility pilot study to improve the quality of maternity care in a sample of 31 women and their newborns delivering in a public, tertiary hospital in the Dominican Republic. The pilot study was the first "action step" taken as a result of a formative, community-based participatory research (CBPR) study conducted between 2008 and 2010 by an interdisciplinary, international partnership of U.S. academic researchers, Dominican medical/nursing personnel, and Dominican community health workers. Health personnel and community health workers separately identified indicators most important to measure quality of antepartum maternity care: laboratory and diagnostic studies and respectful, interpersonal communication. At the midpoint and the completion of data collection, the CBPR team evaluated the change in quality indicators to assess improvement in care. The pilot study supports the idea that joint engagement of community health workers, health personnel, and academic researchers with data creation and patient monitoring is motivating for all to continue to improve services in the cultural context of the Dominican Republic. PMID:24793488

  1. Positioning audience research for public dialogue : a double dialogical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Jenni; Fourie, Ina; Dick, Archie L.

    2013-01-01

    Public dialogue can widen the knowledge base for decision making to make public policy and programmes more effective and accountable, in line with citizens’ priorities. Audience research can enhance the relevance of a communication strategy to its objectives and to participants’ needs and communication preferences. Audience research designs based on diffusion models of communication are, however, inadequate for the participatory objectives of public dialogue. This article, base...

  2. O desenho de um centro de saúde para jovens: um exemplo de investigação participativa / The design of a health center for youth: an example of participatory research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Manuel, Calheiros; Joana Nunes, Patrício; Sónia, Bernardes.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O direito dos jovens à participação afigura-se como um meio para exprimirem necessidades e reclamarem os seus direitos. Contudo, a perspetiva dos jovens continua sub-representada na investigação aplicada à definição das políticas e práticas no âmbito dos serviços de saúde, sendo pouco utilizada na m [...] elhoria dos mesmos. Neste artigo apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação participativa, na qual os jovens identificaram alguns fatores que promovem ou inibem a utilização dos serviços de saúde, e contribuíram para o desenho de um centro de saúde ideal para jovens. Abstract in english The right of youth to participation is a means for young people to express their needs and claim their rights. However, the perspectives of youth remain underrepresented in research applied to the definition of policies and practices within the health services and are seldom used to improve them. In [...] this article we present the results of a participatory research in the design of a health service with young people. The results indicate the reasons for the recurrence of young people to health services, as well as the characteristics of an ideal health center in their perspective.

  3. The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: a multi-level framework on maternal, paternal, and child health disparities derived by community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Schafer, Peter; DeClerque, Julia L; Lanzi, Robin G; Hobel, Calvin; Shalowitz, Madeleine; Chinchilli, Vern; Raju, Tonse N K

    2015-04-01

    Emerging evidence supports the theoretical and clinical importance of the preconception period in influencing pregnancy outcomes and child health. Collectively, this evidence affirms the need for a novel, integrative theoretical framework to design future investigations, integrate new findings, and identify promising, evidence-informed interventions to improve intergenerational health and reduce disparities. This article presents a transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network (CCHN) through community-based participatory research processes. CCHN developed a Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways (PSRP) model by building local and multi-site community-academic participatory partnerships that established guidelines for research planning and decision-making; reviewed relevant findings diverse disciplinary and community perspectives; and identified the major themes of stress and resilience within the context of families and communities. The PSRP model focuses on inter-relating the multiple, complex, and dynamic biosocial influences theoretically linked to family health disparities. The PSRP model borrowed from and then added original constructs relating to developmental origins of lifelong health, epigenetics, and neighborhood and community influences on pregnancy outcome and family functioning (cf. MCHJ 2014). Novel elements include centrality of the preconception/inter-conception period, role of fathers and the parental relationship, maternal allostatic load (a composite biomarker index of cumulative wear-and-tear of stress), resilience resources of parents, and local neighborhood and community level influences (e.g., employment, housing, education, health care, and stability of basic necessities). CCHN's integrative framework embraces new ways of thinking about how to improve outcomes for future generations, by starting before conception, by including all family members, and by engaging the community vigorously at multiple levels to promote resiliency, reduce chronic and acute stressors, and expand individualized health care that integrates promotive and prevention strategies. If widely adopted, the PSRP model may help realize the goal of sustaining engagement of communities, health and social services providers, and scientists to overcome the siloes, inefficiencies, and lack of innovation in efforts to reduce family health disparities. Model limitations include tremendous breadth and difficulty measuring all elements with precision and sensitivity. PMID:25070734

  4. Facilitating innovation: an action-oriented approach and participatory methodology to improve innovative social practice in agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, P.G.H.

    1995-01-01

    This study focuses upon the social organization of innovation. It makes use of insights from knowledge and information systems research, development sociology, management science and applied philosophy and seeks answers to the following questions: What do social actors, individuals and/or organizations, actually do to innovate their practices? How do they organize themselves? Can this be managed or facilitated, and if so, how? The research is exploratory rather than conclusion-oriented and sy...

  5. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  6. From conflict to ownership: Participatory approaches to the re-integration of ex-combatants in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Kilroy, Walt

    2011-01-01

    The demobilisation and re-integration of ex-combatants has become an important element in peace-building. The need for a more holistic, integrated approach, in which there is greater local ownership of the process, has long been recognised. However, putting this into practice remains a challenge. Re-integration ultimately takes place in the community, merging with development and post-conflict reconstruction. This study of re-integration in Sierra Leone uses the concept of ‘participation’ fro...

  7. From conflict to ownership: Participatory approaches to the reintegration of ex-combatants in Sierra Leone and Liberia

    OpenAIRE

    Kilroy, Walt

    2012-01-01

    Programmes for the Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants have become a standard tool in peacebuilding. Empirical data on their effectiveness suggest varying degrees of success. The need for a more holistic, integrated approach has long been recognised, but rarely achieved. The reintegration of ex-combatants takes place in the community, and merges with development and post-conflict reconstruction. This study uses the concept of “participation” from development d...

  8. The participatory patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of the “participatory patient” as a vehicle to promote attention to patients¿ dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship between a patient¿s work on the project as a co-designer and his work of being a patient using a prototype. I conclude by arguing for the importance of being aware of the ways in which patients inscribe p...

  9. Accreditation and Participatory Design in the Health-Care Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the role of participatory design approaches emphasizing the current context of the accreditation regime imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes specifying, realizing, and measuring effects from using an information technology. This approach aligns with much of the logic inherent in accreditation and it supports challenging parts of the accred...

  10. Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mulas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center of the University of Sassari (Italy and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the project, all actors own/share all choices made and the technology used participating thus to the intervention sustainability.

  11. Evaluation of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) germplasm from north-eastern Uganda through a Farmer Participatory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, P.E.; van Eeuwijk, F. A.; Stam, P.; Struik, P. C.; Zhang, D.P.; Hermann, M.; Carey, E.E.

    2002-01-01

    Ugandan farmers grow many landrace sweetpotato varieties, but some of these are relatively low yielding and susceptible to pests. The objective of the present research was to involve farmers in a large-scale assessment of Ugandan farmers’ varieties to rapidly identify those with superior yield performance, pest resistance and consumer acceptance. One hundred sixty distinct farmers’ varieties collected from Lira, Soroti, Katakwi, Kumi and Pallisa Districts of North-eastern Uganda were evaluate...

  12. Lydia J. Roberts's Nutrition Research and the Rhetoric of "Democratic" Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Jordynn

    2009-01-01

    This article examines nutritionist Lydia J. Roberts's use of the "democratic approach" as a rhetorical strategy both to build solidarity among scientists and to enact participatory research in a rural Puerto Rican community. This example suggests that participatory scientific methodologies are not necessarily democratic but may function…

  13. Participatory approach used to develop a sustainability assessment tool for wood-based bioenergy industry in upper Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Ashma; Mayer, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel production has grown significantly in the past few decades as a result of global concern over energy security, climate change implications and unsustainable attributes of fossil fuels. Currently, biofuels produced from food crops (such as corn, sugarcane, soy, etc.) constitute the bulk of global biofuel production. However, purported adverse impacts of direct and indirect land-use changes (such as increased food prices, competition for agricultural land and water, and carbon emissions from land-use change) resulting from large-scale expansion of the crop-based biofuel industry have motivated many nations to further shift their attention to second-generation (non crop-based) biofuel production. Current R&D on second-generation biofuel production is largely focused on exploring prospects of using abandoned/fallow land for growing feedstock (such as Jatropha, short rotation woody coppice, Willow/Poplar species, Micanthus etc.), and on producing fuel that is cost-effective and compatible with existing infrastructures. The bulk of existing research on second-generation biofuel production concentrates on enhancing its technical feasibility and compatibility with existing infrastructure; very few have attempted to qualitatively determine and understand stakeholders' concerns and perception regarding this emergent industry. Stakeholders' decisions regarding land and resource use will play a crucial role in ensuring the social sustainability of any industry. Our research is focused on understanding stakeholders' concerns and perceptions regarding biofuel production in the upper Michigan region, where wood-based bioenergy development is being planned and researched by businesses, government agencies, and the local university. Over a century ago, the region's economy was dependent upon mining and clear-cut logging industries, which left the area once the resources were depleted. Since that time, the region has lost significant population due to the lack of economic opportunities, but the forests have recovered to volumes prior to the logging boom. Interest in a wood-based bioenergy production industry is growing, yet whether this industry can be developed sustainably is a concern. The main goal of our research is to incorporate stakeholders' concerns and knowledge into an expert-assisted sustainability assessment tool for a regional wood-based biofuel industry. Key stakeholders involved in the research include landowners, farmers, land management companies, bioenergy users, venture capitalists, interest groups, government organizations and NGOs. We used interviews, focus group meetings and a workshop to collect information from these stakeholders, which were then translated into social sustainability criteria. Multiple criteria analysis methods, Bayesian Belief Network and information collected from other studies were used to develop a final set of sustainability criteria and indicators. Our results provide a platform for experts and stakeholders to understand the local context relevant to sustainability, the state of the science, and will bridge the gap between scientific and non-scientific knowledge in the region. This sustainability assessment tool is intended to facilitate inclusive and sustainability-oriented decision-making for a wood-based bioenergy industry.

  14. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  15. Household pesticide contamination from indoor pest control applications in urban low-income public housing dwellings: a community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chensheng; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Attfield, Kathleen R; Kapp, Michaela; Spengler, John D; Tao, Lin; Xie, Shao Hua

    2013-02-19

    We designed this community-based participatory research (CBPR) project aiming to generate evidence-based research results to encourage residents living in urban low-income public housing dwellings engaging in a community-wide integrated pest management (IPM) program with the intention to improve their health and quality of life, as well as household conditions. We enrolled 20 families and their children in this study in which we utilized environmental exposure assessment (surface wipe and indoor air) tools to quantitatively assessing residential pesticide exposure in young children before the implementation of an IPM program. We analyzed those samples for 19 organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticides were pyrethroids, particularly permethrin and cypermethrin with average concentrations of 2.47 and 3.87 ?g/m(2), respectively. In many dwellings, we detected OPs, which are no longer available on the market; however, their levels are significantly lower than those of pyrethroids. None of the 20 families was free from pesticide contamination in their households, and pesticides were commonly detected in living room and children's bedroom. The correlation among household hygienic conditions, the sighting of live pests/pest debris, and the degree of indoor pesticide contamination highlights the failure of conventional chemical-based applications for pest controls. The results from the current study, as well as other recent studies, conducted in low-income public housing, child care centers, and randomly selected homes in the U.S. should accentuate the need for alternative pest management programs that incorporate safer and more sustainable protocols for pest controls. PMID:23363037

  16. Developing a participatory process to include ecosystem services in landscape planing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaindia, Miren; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Peña, Lorena; Madariaga, Iosu; Ametzaga, Ibone

    2015-04-01

    This work develops an approach that integrates scientific knowledge on ecosystem services and stakeholders demands to get guidelines for landscape planning strategies in the region of Biscay (Basque Country, northern Spain). In the conducted participatory process, forest multi-functionality was considered as a practicable good alternative. This process identified also a knowledge gap on the synergies and trade-offs between biodiversity, timber production and carbon storage, guiding the directions of the research actions. The results from developed spatial analysis converged with those from the participatory process in the adequacy of promoting, where possible and appropriate, natural forest ecosystems restoration. The ongoing stepwise learning strategy is already showing its effectiveness for decision making, with concrete examples of how the results obtained with the applied approach are being included in planning and decision-making processes.

  17. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design : From Ethnography to Anthropological Critique?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do conventional distinctions between research and design. This half-day workshop invites participant to discuss and explore opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical.

  18. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic Consensus panel - Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. Deliverable 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important part of the ARGONA project is the testing and application of novel participation and dialogue approaches. The ways in this is being done include a series of events involving different stakeholders such as a focused science shop, a consensus panel and an interaction panel. In the framework of these activities in the Czech Republic the consensus panel was held on June 12, 2008 in Rez and addressed the theme: 'Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives'. The main goals of this consensus panel were: 1. Identification of the main criteria relevant to the assessment of the existing alternatives and determination their importance (weight) from the perspective of all stakeholders; 2. Achieving at least a partial consensus on selecting the most suitable alternative (management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel). A broader audience was selected with a suitable mixture of specialists and interested technical and non-technical peers including representatives from NRI, universities, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of the Environment, State Office for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, representatives of municipalities and NGOs, and waste producers such as CEZ plc etc. In opinion of all participants, there was a 'safe space' for debate ensured and everyone had the same opportunity to express his opinion. All participants also agreed that the whole course of seminar was transparent and correct. From this perspective, the chosen format of dialogue seems appropriate to ensure the exchange of new information and mutual discussion among the interested parties on the contentious issues in the NWM and nuclear energy in general. It was also found, however, that at present the social and political problems are the most important and the most urgent problems in the field of the nuclear waste management in the Czech Republic. It is very important not only to ensure a safe space for meaningful communication, but also: - To increase the activities of relevant state institutions in communication with the public in the field of NWM and enhance public confidence in the state institutions. - To develop motivation programs as another way how to incite the public interest and to positively influence their attitude towards the radioactive waste disposal, siting of the geological repository, and nuclear power production in general. - To strengthen the political responsibility - a long-lasting consistent and clear political attitude of the government and government parties concerning the problems of the final disposal of spent fuel is lacking in the Czech Republic. The general public misses the necessary long-term guarantees. Recommendations for the organization of further activities: - To select appropriate topics with clearly formulated questions taking into account the character of participants - other issues can be discussed within the scientific community and others in the wider discussion with the public participation. - To use service a professional mediator (as an impartial and independent person managing the whole course of the discussion) to facilitate communication among interested parties during the discussion. This applies mainly in the discussions on contentious issues such as selection of appropriate nuclear waste management alternative or the deep repository siting. - To ensure participation of representatives of state institution such as Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry for Regional Development and also representatives of government parties. This is one of the most important prerequisites in order that discussion would be relevant and meaningful and the conclusions obtained could be used practically. - To proceed step by step and set smaller goals - The current situation in the field of NWM in the Czech Republic makes it impossible to achieve consensus among all stakeholders on controversial issues, such as the siting of the deep repository or selecting the optimal alternative to nuclear waste management. Therefore in the present stage it is important

  19. Building a low carbon scenario for France. How a participatory approach can enhance social and economic acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the French case study of the European ENCI-LowCarb research project: Engaging Civil Society in Low Carbon scenarios. The core activity of this project was the development of a methodology for the transparent integration of stakeholders' contributions in the scenario design process to enhance the stakeholders' acceptance of the resulting low carbon pathways. This attempt at integrating acceptability in scenario-making constitutes an important step to distinguish what is technically and economically feasible from what is acceptable. Today, a wide range of published scenarios emphasize the fact that they are built on public consultations or stakeholders' contributions. However, transparency is lacking concerning the methodology relative to how contributions were taken into account and translated into assumptions that can be used by the modeling tool. The project ENCI-LowCarb aimed at exploring this scientific gap. Energy scenarios outline possible low-carbon futures built around assumptions on fossil fuels prices evolution, technological choices and the mechanisms of energy demand and supply, among others. Scenarios are influential tools in political decision-making processes since they shed light on the long-term impacts of today's investment decisions, especially regarding infrastructures. This is why it is crucial that these pathways derive from discussions with main stakeholders. In this report, the French project team (CIRED and RAC-F) has the pleasure to present energy scenarios for France which derive from a collaborative scenario design process including the participation of a wide range of French stakeholders (civil society organizations including trade unions and non-governmental organizations, private companies, banks, statewide and local authorities). Participating stakeholders were asked to define or select acceptable CO2 emissions mitigation measures. Their contributions were implemented in the technico-economic model Imaclim-R France to create a scenario that is economically and technically consistent as well as acceptable by stakeholders. This methodology allowed an assessment of the level of achievable emissions reductions with stakeholders' 'acceptable' measures. This project report is organized as follows: part 2 presents the methodology of the collaborative scenario design process in detail, part 3 describes the low carbon scenario - the outcome of the stakeholder discussions. In part 4, other drivers of CO2 emissions and additional measures are explored. Chapter 5 introduces additional sensitivity analysis. Part 6 concludes

  20. Participatory GIS for Soil Conservation in Phewa Watershed of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, K. P.

    2012-07-01

    Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.

  1. Commitment of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences to community-based participatory research for rural health.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Fallon, L R; Dearry, A

    2001-01-01

    The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is the leading biomedical research institution in the United States whose mission is to support research that seeks to understand how environmental exposures affect human health. NIEHS possesses a longstanding interest in the health effects of agrochemical and other environmental exposures in rural America, including pesticides, to farmers and their families and to migrant farmworkers and their families. In recent years, NIEHS ha...

  2. Achieving IT-supported standardized nursing documentation through participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Loft; Lyng, Karen Marie; Jensen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    In the Capital Region of Denmark a full-scale pilot project on IT-supported nursing documentation is - after running for two months at one full university hospital - showing promising results. In this paper we discuss participatory design as a method to design clinical documentation templates that support guideline-based highly structured standard documentation in a large organization with many stakeholders. Applying a participatory design (PD) approach at many organizational levels has involved...

  3. Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Oumelkheir Belkheiri; Maurizio Mulas; Giuseppe Enne; Marcello Lubino; Davide Bellavite

    2012-01-01

    A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme) financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisi...

  4. Learning to deal constructively with troubled conscience related to care providers' perceptions of deficient teamwork in residential care of older people--a participatory action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Strandberg, Gunilla

    2015-06-01

    Conscience can be perceived as an asset that helps care providers to provide good care, but it can also be a burden that generates stress of conscience (stress related to a troubled conscience). Participatory action research (PAR) has been shown to be successful in supporting care providers in residential care of older people to learn to deal with their troubled conscience in challenging and demanding care situations. The aim of the study was to describe an intervention process to assist care providers in residential care of older people to constructively deal with their troubled conscience related to perceptions of deficient teamwork. The study design was grounded in PAR. Nine enrolled nurses (ENs), two nursing aids (NAs), one Registered Nurse (RN) and their manager participated in 12 PAR sessions. All sessions were tape-recorded, and a domain analysis of the transcriptions was performed. Findings show that a PAR-based intervention can support care providers to understand, handle and take measures against deficient teamwork. Using troubled conscience as a driving force can increase the opportunities to improve quality of care in residential care for older people. During the PAR process, participants raised their awareness of the need to view the team in a wider sense and that the manager and the Registered Nurse should also be members of the team to improve team outcome. To improve clinical practice, we suggest that teams in residential care of older people should be enabled to share and reflect on challenging situations that generate troubled conscience. However, as shown in this study, care providers might need support in order to facilitate and promote sharing and reflecting on what their conscience tells them. PMID:24867477

  5. Sustainability and power in health promotion: community-based participatory research in a reproductive health policy case study in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosilda; Plaza, Veronica; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-11-28

    Health promotion programs are commonly viewed as value-free initiatives which seek to improve health, often through behavior change. An opposing view has begun to emerge that health promotion efforts, especially ones seeking to impact health policy and social determinants of health, are vulnerable to political contexts and may depend on who is in power at the time. This community-based participatory research study attempts to understand these interactions by applying a conceptual model focused on the power context, diverse stakeholder roles within this context, and the relationship of political levers and other change strategies to the sustainability of health promotion interventions aimed at health policy change. We present a case study of a health promotion coalition, New Mexico for Responsible Sex Education (NMRSE), as an example of power dynamics and change processes. Formed in 2005 in response to federal policies mandating abstinence-only education, NMRSE includes community activists, health promotion staff from the New Mexico Department of Health, and policy-maker allies. Applying an adapted Mayer's 'power analysis' instrument, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews and triangulated political-context analyses from the perspective of the stakeholders. We identified multiple understandings of sustainability and health promotion policy change, including: the importance of diverse stakeholders working together in coalition and social networks; their distinct positions of power within their political contexts; the role of science versus advocacy in change processes; the particular challenges for public sector health promotion professionals; and other facilitators versus barriers to action. One problem that emerged consisted of the challenges for state employees to engage in health promotion advocacy due to limitations imposed on their activities by state and federal policies. This investigation's results include a refined conceptual model, a power-analysis instrument, and new understandings of the intersection of power and stakeholder strategies in the sustainability of health promotion and health in all policies. PMID:25432963

  6. ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????,Participatory Learning Process to Build Capacity of Families in Solving Alcohol Problems in Ban Sanpabong, Sanpamuang Sub-district, Muang district, Phayao Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???????? ??????????

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?.?????????? ?.????? ?.????????????? ??????????* ?????? ?????????** ?????????? ??????***????????     ?????????????????????????????????? (Participatory Action Research: PAR ?????????????????????? 2 ?????? ??? 1 ?????????????????????????????????????????????????? 2 ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? ??????????? ????????????? ?????????? 1 ??????????????????????????????????????????????? 2 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 3 ??????????????????????????????????????????? 4 ?????????????????????????????????? ??? 5 ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? ??????? 6 ?. ?????????? ?.????? ?.????? ?????????? ????? ?????? 6 ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????? 89.7 ??????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????? ????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ???????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????? ?????? ??????????? ???? ????????? ??????? ??????????

  7. Provotypes for Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared

    Central to multi-stakeholder processes of participatory innovation is to generate knowledge about ‘users’ and to identify business opportunities accordingly. In these processes of collaborative analysis and synthesis, conflicting perceptions within and about a field of interest are likely to surface. Instead of the natural tendency to avoid these tensions, we demonstrate how tensions can be utilized by embodying them in provocative types (provotypes). Provotypes expose and embody tensions that surround a field of interest to support collaborative analysis and collaborative design explorations across stakeholders. In this paper we map how provotyping contributes to four related areas of contemporary Interaction Design practice. Through a case study that brings together stakeholders from the field of indoor climate, we provide characteristics of design provocations and design guidelines for provotypes for participatory innovation.

  8. Relational Expertise in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2014-01-01

    This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social status. We illustrate our theoretical argument for a relational expertise with a running example from a participatory design process engaging an interprofessional group of participants in a project on future technology enabled learning environments.

  9. Videoethnographic approaches to audience research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildermuth, Norbert

    2007-01-01

      In my paper I will explore the methodological uses and epistemological consequences of videoethnography in audience studies. With reference to research done on young people and their media appropriations in Recife (Brazil), in December 2005, I will argue for the creative integration of video recordings in doing mediaethnographic audience research. Moreover, I will discuss the use and potentials of hypermedia in presenting the results of ethnographic audience research. Based on recent conceptua...

  10. A pesquisa participante e a intervenção comunitária no cotidiano do Pibid/CAPES / Participatory research and community intervention in the everyday life of Pibid/CAPES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Fatima Quintal de, Freitas.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as dimensões psicossociais do processo de participação e formação de um grupo de alunos da licenciatura de pedagogia, filosofia e ciências sociais, junto ao projeto Interdisciplinar-Pedagogia, no Programa Institucional de Bolsa de Iniciação à Docência (PIBID)/CAPES-UFPR. A atuação d [...] os graduandos em duas escolas da rede pública de Curitiba-PR privilegiou a construção e a implementação conjunta de um plano de ação em direitos humanos e redes de solidariedade na comunidade. Os trabalhos de intervenção foram desenvolvidos apoiados na proposta de pesquisa participante de Orlando Fals Borda, nos aportes filosóficos da educação conscientizadora de Paulo Freire e na perspectiva teórico-metodológica da psicologia social comunitária latino-americana. Foram realizadas, com os participantes do projeto, reuniões e oficinas semanais de capacitação, grupos focais temáticos e conversações críticas avaliativas. As informações obtidas foram sistematizadas e submetidas à análise de conteúdo, nos seguintes eixos: razões para ingresso no projeto Pibid; atividades realizadas e metodologias para formação e sensibilização; e dificuldades sentidas nas atividades e geração dos produtos. O desenvolvimento das atividades contribuiu para um envolvimento e compromisso com a realidade educacional, colaborando para a quebra de mitos a respeito dessa realidade, com a diminuição de receios e eliminação de preconceitos sobre as escolas públicas. Observou-se que as práticas participativas, comunitárias e educacionais fortaleceram uma proximidade entre universidade e escola, colocando a docência como possível escolha futura desses estudantes e, consequentemente, colaborando para o reconhecimento social do trabalho do professor. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the psychosocial dimensions of the participation and training process of a group of students of bachelor's degree in pedagogy, philosophy and social sciences, in the Interdisciplinary Pedagogy project from the Institutional Program of Teaching Initiation Scholarship (PIBID)/CAPES [...] -UFPR. The work of the students in two public schools in Curitiba-PR favored the construction and implementation of a joint action plan on human rights and solidarity networks in the community. The intervention works were developed supported by the participatory research proposal by Orlando Fals Borda, the philosophical contributions of Paulo Freire's awareness wakening education and the theoretical and methodological perspectives of Latin American Community social psychology. The project participants attended weekly meetings and training workshops, thematic focus groups and evaluative critical conversations. The information collected has been systematized and submitted to content analysis in the following areas: motives to join the Pibid project; activities carried out and methodologies for training and awareness; and difficulties in activities and generation of products. The development of the activities contributed to an involvement and commitment to the educational reality, collaborating to break myths about this reality, reducing prejudices and eliminating fears about state schools. It was observed that participatory, community and educational practices strengthened proximity between universities and schools, putting teaching as a possible future choice for these students and thus contributing to the social recognition of the teachers' work.

  11. Pesquisa-apoio: pesquisa participante e o método Paideia de apoio institucional / Support research: participatory research and the Paideia method of institutional support / Investigación-apoyo: la investigación participante y el método Paideia de apoyo institucional.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula Giovana, Furlan; Gastão Wagner de Sousa, Campos.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da revisão da tradição da pesquisa participante, origens e tipologias, este artigo sugere a intercessão com o método Paideia, usando-o como estratégia para intervenção dos pesquisadores, o que vem sendo denominado pesquisa-apoio. Essa integração busca incorporar a participaçã [...] o dos sujeitos investigados no processo de pesquisar, considerando ainda a inserção ativa do pesquisador com suas ofertas e seu projeto. São apresentados conceitos do método Paideia, seu referencial operativo e dialógico, a metodologia da pesquisa-apoio, que integra tanto momentos participantes como de intervenção dos pesquisadores, com a construção de narrativas interpretativas. Analisa-se que as premissas do metódo destacam o esforço para a reflexão e a produção de conhecimento em três planos: do objeto ou problema, da sociabilidade/da instituição (relações de poder) e da análise de si mesmo (pesquisador e investigado). Abstract in spanish A partir de una revisión de la investigación participante, orígenes y tipologías, este artículo propone la intersección con el método Paideia, usándolo como una estrategia de intervención de los investigadores, lo que se ha denominado investigación-apoyo. El propósito de esta interven [...] ción es incorporar la participación de los sujetos investigados en el proceso de investigación, considerando también la inserción activa del investigador con sus ofertas y su proyecto. Se presentan los conceptos del método Paideia, su marco operativo y de diálogo, la metodología de investigación-apoyo que integra tanto momentos participantes como de intervención de los investigadores, con la construcción de narrativas interpretativas. Se analiza que las premisas del método destacan el esfuerzo para la reflexión y la producción de conocimiento en tres planos: del objeto o problema, de la sociabilidad/institución (relaciones de poder) y del análisis de sí mismo (investigador y investigado). Abstract in english From reviewing the tradition of participatory research and its origins and types, this article suggests that intercession by means of the Paideia method should be used as a strategy for researchers’ interventions. This has been termed “support research”. This integration seeks to inco [...] rporate participation in the research process by the subjects investigated, and also envisages active involvement by researchers, with their offers and projects. The concepts of the Paideia method are presented, with its operating and dialogical framework. The “support research” methodology integrates participatory moments and interventions by the researchers, with construction of interpretive narratives. This analysis shows that the premises of the method highlight the efforts made towards reflection and knowledge production in three planes: the object or problem, sociability/institution (power relations) and self-analysis (researcher and subject investigated).

  12. Participatory Research to Design a Novel Telehealth System to Support the Night-Time Needs of People with Dementia: NOCTURNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Martin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the “smart home” to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.

  13. Participatory research to design a novel telehealth system to support the night-time needs of people with dementia: NOCTURNAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; McCullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice

    2013-12-01

    Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the "smart home" to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities. PMID:24304507

  14. Research Approaches in the Study of Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite development of secular ideas and concepts in the Western world, we can observe increasing interest in the study of religion. However, this popularity of the study of religion and different research approaches has caused that in some sense scholars that were studying religion came to a dead point. Here I show that the most optimal research approach in the study of religion is pluralistic, integral paradigm which connects old traditional methods with naturalistic, cognitive and sometimes experimental approach.

  15. Getting the Most from Working with Higher Education: A Review of Methods Used within a Participatory Design Activity Involving KS3 Special School Pupils and Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Industrial Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, George Edward; Newton, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides education-based researchers and practitioners with the preferred research and design methods used by Higher Education Institute (HEI) students and Key Stage 3 (KS3) pupils applied within a participatory approach to a design activity. The outcomes were that both pupils and students found informal (unstructured) interview to be…

  16. Improving adherence to ante-retroviral treatment for people with harmful alcohol use in Kariobangi, Kenya through participatory research and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othieno Caleb J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful alcohol use has been linked to the spread of HIV in Kenya. It also adversely affects those on antiretroviral (ARV treatment through poor compliance. This study using participatory research and action (PRA methods sought to understand factors related to alcohol abuse and non-adherence and to formulate appropriate interventions in a sample of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA who were also abusing alcohol, at Kariobangi in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Entry into the community was gained through previous PRA work in that community and PLWHA were recruited through snowballing. Working together with the community members, the researchers explored the participants’ understanding of alcohol use problem, its effects on compliance to ARV treatment and discussed possible action areas through PRA techniques that included focus group and market place discussions; visual aids such as spider diagrams, community mapping and ranking. Follow-up meetings were held to discuss the progress. Results By the final meeting, 67 PLWHA and 19 community members had been recruited. Through discussions, misconceptions regarding alcohol use were identified. It emerged that alcohol abuse was poorly recognised among both the community and health workers. Screening for alcohol use was not routinely done and protocols for managing alcohol related disorders were not available at the local health centres providing ARVs. The study participants identified improving communication, psychoeducation and screening for alcohol use as possible action areas. Poverty was identified as a major problem but the interventions to mitigate this were not easy to implement. Conclusion We propose that PRA could be useful in improving communication between the health workers and the clients attending primary health care (PHC facilities and can be applied to strengthen involvement of support groups and community health workers in follow up and counselling. Integrating these features into primary health care (PHC would be important not only to PLWHA but also to other diseases in the PHC setting . Longer term follow up is needed to determine the sustained impact of the interventions. Problems encountered in the PRA work included great expectations at all levels fostered by handouts from other donors and cognitive impairment that interfered with constructive engagement in some of the PLWHA.

  17. The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

  18. Play. Learn. Innovate : Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    „Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes – which always entail change – were people and how they relate to each other, I became curious to understand this from a management perspective. When I did not find any satisfying answers in the world of practice, I decided to return to the world of theory hoping to find answers there. However, I did not. After extensive literature studies mainly in the fields of social capital, organizations, complexity, and knowledge – but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy – I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function was interdependent with other people‘s roles and functions and that uncertainty was omnipresent. While I found many interesting and enlightening studies with brilliant concepts, methods and implications in each respective field, they typically either addressed the individual, or the group level, or the institutional level and they often were ignoring or excluding other disciplines and perspectives – in short they seemed unconnected. My impression was – in order to understand why this was the case – I had to go to the very foundations of management thinking – the research philosophy of management. The aims of my study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that Iwas interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social interaction across different units of analysis. Drawing on explorative projects I had the opportunity to conduct with students – we involved firms and used interviews and video analysis – I explored different theoretical perspectives in relation to practice. In further workshops and experiments I found evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose a multi-level conceptual framework to understand and analyze social dynamics of participatory innovation in organizations – complementing research on knowledge transformation when facing novelty (Carlile, 2004) and participatory innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008; Buur and Larsen, 2010). Further, based on this I carve out theoretical and practical links between innovation as a social process across boundaries, play and games, learning, and design in organizational settings. Thus, confirming and complement work in the field of play (e.g. Kaark, 2011; Sandelands, 2010; Mainemelis and Ronson, 2006;), learning and play (e.g. Brown and Vaughaun, 2010; Thomas and Brown, 2011; Kolb and Kolb, 2010), games (e.g. McGonigal, 2011; Mäyrä, 2008), and innovation across knowledge boundaries (e.g. Carlile, 2004; Nicolini et al, 2011; Buur and Matthews, 2008). I clarify how the proposed approach differs from system thinking and game theory – and I provide first evidence for that playful games are promising as a tool, a method, and a process to grasp and research social dynamics of participatory innovation theoretically and practically. I believe that the idea to use playful games in the proposed way is new and can provide new insights in participatory innovation. Further, I argue that this approach opens up promising way

  19. Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind this model in combination with other theories which have been used successfully in other interventions. The project is only in its initial phases in conducting the intervention, but so far the preliminary results indicate that management support and allocation of resources is vital, that internal facilitators are important drivers of the change process and that easy-to-use tools are requested from the involved company actors. Given that the interventions in the selected companies are conducted successfully we argue that a new organizational capability to address work-related stress in a collective and collaborative manner is developed in the participating companies. With a successfully conducted intervention we mean that the companies have been able to implement their own change proposals in a collective and collaborative process. By developing this organizational capability we expect that the companies would be able to repeat the process with new change proposals. The research builds on observations, participatory action research, interviews and surveys.

  20. Killer Fashion Revolution: Combining peace education with participatory art and design

    OpenAIRE

    Kronman, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Killer Fashion Revolution points out connecting nodes between peace education and participatory art and design practices both in theory and in practice. In theory this thesis gives an overview on how peace educational organizations in need of engaging campaigns can find inspiration in participatory art practices like hacktivism, craftivism and fashion hacktivism. Killer Fashion Revolution is as well an example of how participatory design research and a combination of various mediums; workshop...

  1. O lugar da investigação participada de base comunitária na promoção da saúde mental / The role of community-based participatory research in mental health promotion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos Rodrigues, Gomes; Maria Isabel Guedes, Loureiro.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A saúde mental é imprescindível ao desenvolvimento social e económico das comunidades. Envolver as comunidades no desenho e desenvolvimento de planos locais de promoção da saúde mental é um importante desafio para garantir mais e melhor saúde mental a cada comunidade. De 2009 a 2012 desenvolveu-se u [...] m estudo de caso baseado nos pressupostos de uma investigação participada de base comunitária numa comunidade urbana da região metropolitana de Lisboa, com o objetivo de fundamentar o desenho de um plano local de promoção da saúde mental local. O resultado deste trabalho de parceria, que envolveu habitantes e organizações governamentais e não-governamentais da comunidade urbana, fundamentado na capacitação individual e comunitária da comunidade e dos seus membros, confirmou a necessidade de uma participação ativa e efetiva da comunidade no desenvolvimento de políticas locais de promoção da saúde e concluiu pela definição de 6 eixos estratégicos de intervenção pelo período temporal 2012/2015: uma escola com saúde mental; uma comunidade ativa e segura; uma comunidade solidária e inclusiva; uma comunidade atenta; uma organização económico-laboral promotora de saúde mental; uma senioridade mentalmente saudável. Abstract in english Mental health is essential to community social and economic development. Involving communities in the design and development of mental health promotion local plans is a major challenge to ensure more and better mental health in each community. From 2009 to 2012 a case study was developed based on th [...] e assumptions of a community-based participatory research in an urban community in the metropolitan area of Lisbon, in order to support the design of a mental health promotion local plan. The result of this partnership, which involved inhabitants and governmental and non-governmental organizations of the urban community, based on individual and community empowerment of the community and its members, confirmed the need for an active and effective participation of the community in the development of health promotion local policies and concluded by defining six strategic areas of intervention between 2012 and 2015: a school with mental health, an active and safe community, a supportive and inclusive community, a community aware, an organization promoting economic and work mental health, a seniority mentally healthy.

  2. USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Natasa GALEVSKA

    1998-01-01

    The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small nu...

  3. USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa GALEVSKA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small numbers of available subjects, heterogeneity, ethical and moral problems, etc.

  4. Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.

  5. Reflections on a participatory documentary process : constructing territorial histories of dispossession among Afro-descendant youth in Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velez Torres, Irene

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to discuss the use of a participatory documentary process (PDP) in human geography as a method of constructing critical visual information on territorial histories of dispossession. The process was also used to enhance social change both in conjunction with local communities and within the communities themselves. The project involved 14 local young participants and four professionals who collectively produced a documentary on the rural context of violence in La Toma District, Colombia. By enabling the reflections and intentions of young participants in the research process, PDP gave special value to their social and political commitment to supporting community social organisation, and provided fresh research insights into comprehending territorial conflict. The paper concludes that this method amplifies participatory and action research approaches in geography by producing knowledge that is academically and socially relevant. Such collective, emancipatory and anti-hegemonic visual representations and actions for social change in PDP are especially pertinent in spaces of conflict and violence.

  6. Envisioning Adaptive Strategies to Change: Participatory Scenarios for Agropastoral Semiarid Systems in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Simelton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the semiarid social–ecological systems of the dry Central American corridor have proven resilient to pressures. However, in the last century, these systems have experienced huge environmental and socioeconomic changes that have increased the vulnerability of local livelihoods to shocks. New approaches are needed to capture complex, uncertain, cross-scale and nonlinear relationships among drivers of change and vulnerability. Therefore, to tackle this challenge, we have applied a participatory and interdisciplinary methodological framework of vulnerability assessment to a case study in northern Nicaragua. We triangulated a range of information and data from participatory and scientific research to explore historical and current drivers of changes that affect the system’s components and indicators of vulnerability, represented in a 3-dimensional space in terms of ecological resilience, the socioeconomic ability of individuals to adapt to change, and an institutional capacity to buffer and respond to crisis. A projection of climatic changes combined with a participatory scenario analysis helped, then, to heuristically analyze tendencies of vulnerability in the future and to explore what policy options might enhance the system’s adaptive capacity to face new pressures. Our work primarily contributes to an empirical understanding of key factors that influence vulnerability and learning about local strategies to adapt to change in semiarid agropastoral systems in Central America. We also make a methodological contribution by testing the use of a multidimensional vulnerability framework as a way of stimulating discussion among researchers, local stakeholders, and policy makers.

  7. Participatory evaluation of a community-academic partnership to inform capacity-building and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Klasko, Lynne B; Fleming, Khaliah; Koskan, Alexis M; Jackson, Nia T; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa; Luque, John S; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Britt, Lounell; Waddell, Rhondda; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K

    2015-10-01

    The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) was formed as a partnership comprised of committed community based organizations (grassroots, service, health care organizations) and a National Cancer Institute designated cancer center working together to reduce cancer health disparities. Adhering to principles of community-based participatory research, TBCCN's primary aims are to develop and sustain outreach, training, and research programs that aim to reach medically underserved, multicultural and multilingual populations within the Tampa Bay tri-county area. Using a participatory evaluation approach, we recently evaluated the partnerships' priorities for cancer education and outreach; perspectives on the partnerships' adherence to CBPR principles; and suggestions for sustaining TBCCN and its efforts. The purpose of this paper is to describe implementation and outcomes of this participatory evaluation of a community/academic partnership, and to illustrate the application of evaluation findings for partnership capacity-building and sustainability. Our evaluation provides evidence for partners' perceived benefits and realized expectations of the partnership and illustrates the value of ongoing and continued partnership assessment to directly inform program activities and build community capacity and sustainability. PMID:25863014

  8. Learning outcomes from participatory modelling: A case study in the Tamar catchment, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others and discovering shared interests, but not necessarily changing their own view, behaviour or institutional practice. We conclude the paper with a discussion of two learning aspects of the participatory modelling process for which conflicting results were obtained: the question of depth of model scrutiny and the question of trust in the model, in the modeller and between the participants. References Krueger, T, Inman, A, Chilvers, J. 2012. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling. Paper Number EGU2012-5958. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, April 22nd-27th: Vienna, Austria.

  9. Accreditation and Participatory Design in the Health-Care Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the role of participatory design approaches emphasizing the current context of the accreditation regime imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes specifying, realizing, and measuring effects from using an information technology. This approach aligns with much of the logic inherent in accreditation and it supports challenging parts of the accreditation process. Effects-driven IT development furthermore might support effects related to clinical evidence-based thinking. We describe and compare effects- driven IT development with accreditation and discuss the prospects and challenges for this approach to participatory design within the healthcare domain.

  10. Interdisciplinary research approach for cultural heritage.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Minster, Ji?í

    Brusel : ECCREDI, 2003, s. 2-2 ISBN N. [FP6 Construction research in the enlarged European union. Warsaw (PL), 06.11.2003-07.11.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2071913 Keywords : cultural heritage * interdisciplinary approach * stone masonry Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  11. A Departure from the Past? Extension Workers and Participatory Rural Development: The Case of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngman, Frank; Maruatona, Tonic

    1998-01-01

    Evaluation of a project in which Botswanan extension agents used participatory rural appraisal showed that agents can develop attitudes for adopting more participatory approaches, but they are hindered by institutional and contextual constraints, such as government bureaucracy and the political economy. (SK)

  12. Examining a Social-Participatory Youth Co-Researcher Methodology: A Cross-Case Analysis Extending Possibilities of Literacy and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Vaughn W. M.; Marciano, Joanne E.

    2015-01-01

    At a time when youth are increasingly negotiating new media literacy practices across multiple contexts, literacy researchers are compelled to take notice and reconsider methodologies that centre the researcher, to purposefully engage youth's knowledge, identities and new media literacies as research methodologies. To that end, the authors…

  13. A Case Study in Chamorro Community and Academic Engagement for a Community-Partnered Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisnado, Diana M.; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Guevara, Linda; Quitugua, Lourdes; Castro, Keith; Aromin, Jay; Quenga, Joey; Tran, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe the development of a community and academic research partnership, share reflections on processes for collaborations, and identify key factors for establishing strong and effective relationships to foster high-quality research. Background A community-based participatory research (CBPR) effort evaluating a community-based patient navigation program assisting Chamorro women to access breast cancer services in Southern California served as the foundation for the development of the community-academic partnership. Methods Using a CBPR approach focusing on active involvement of community members, organizational representatives, and academic researchers in all aspects of research process, faculty from a research university and a local community-based organization were brought together to build a partnership. Community and academic partners engaged in a series of meetings where dialogue focused on developing and nurturing trust and shared values, respect for community knowledge, and establishing community-defined and prioritized needs and goals. Partners have also focused on defining and developing explicit structures and policies to implement an equal partnership. Results Experiences and lessons learned are shared, reflecting the processes of relationship building, and planning and implementing preliminary research steps. Lessons Learned Adequate time for relationship-building, open and honest communication, flexibility, and ongoing examination of assumptions are keys to developing successful CBPR partnerships.

  14. Community-based participatory action research: transforming multidisciplinary practice in primary health care Investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad: transformación de la práctica multidisciplinaria en atención primaria de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Hills

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Health care systems throughout the world are in the process of restructuring and reforming their health service delivery systems, reorienting themselves to a primary health care (PHC model that uses multidisciplinary practice (MDP teams to provide a range of coordinated, integrated services. This study explores the challenges of putting the MDP approach into practice in one community in a city in Canada. METHODS: The data we analyzed were derived from a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR project, conducted in 2004, that was used to enhance collaborative MDP in a PHC center serving a residential and small-business community of 11 000 within a medium-sized city of approximately 300 000 people in Canada. CBPAR is a planned, systematic approach to issues relevant to the community of interest, requires community involvement, has a problem-solving focus, is directed at societal change, and makes a lasting contribution to the community. We drew from one aspect of this complex, multiyear project aimed at transforming the rhetoric advocating PHC reform into actual sustainable practices. The community studied was diverse with respect to age, socioeconomics, and lifestyle. Its interdisciplinary team serves approximately 3 000 patients annually, 30% of whom are 65 years or older. This PHC center's multidisciplinary, integrated approach to care makes it a member of a very distinct minority within the larger primary care system in Canada. RESULTS: Analysis of practice in PHC revealed entrenched and unconscious ideas of the limitations and boundaries of practice. In the rhetoric of PHC, MDP was lauded by many. In practice, however, collaborative, multidisciplinary team approaches to care were difficult to achieve. CONCLUSIONS: The successful implementation of an MDP approach to PHC requires moving away from physician-driven care. This can only be achieved once there is a change in the underlying structures, values, power relations, and roles defined by the health care system and the community at large, where physicians are traditionally ranked above other care providers. The CBPAR methodology allows community members and the health-related professionals who serve them to take ownership of the research and to critically reflect on iterative cycles of evaluation. This provides an opportunity for practitioners to implement relevant changes based on internally generated analyses.OBJETIVOS: Los sistemas de salud de todo el mundo se encuentran en un proceso de reestructuración y reforma de sus sistemas de prestación de servicios, reorientándose hacia el modelo de atención primaria de salud (APS que utiliza equipos de consultorios multidisciplinarios (CMD para brindar un conjunto de servicios coordinados e integrados. En este estudio se exploran los retos de poner en práctica el enfoque de CMD en una comunidad urbana de Canadá. MÉTODOS:Los datos analizados se tomaron de un proyecto de investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad (IAPBC llevado a cabo en 2004. Su objetivo era perfeccionar un CMD colaborativo en un centro de APS que atiende a una comunidad de 11 000 personas, compuesta por una zona residencial y pequeños negocios, en una ciudad canadiense de aproximadamente 300 000 personas. La IAPBC permite abordar de manera planificada y sistemática problemas importantes para la comunidad en cuestión, requiere la participación de la comunidad, se enfoca hacia la solución de los problemas, se dirige a lograr cambios en la sociedad y hace contribuciones duraderas a la comunidad. Se partió de un aspecto de este complejo proyecto de varios años, para transformar la defensa retórica de la reforma de la APS en una práctica real y sustentable. La comunidad estudiada era diversa en cuanto a la edad, las características socioeconómicas y los estilos de vida. Su equipo multidisciplinario atendía aproximadamente a 3 000 pacientes al año, 30% de los cuales tenían 65 años o más. Gracias a su enfoque multidisciplinario e integrado con respecto a la atención, este centr

  15. Ethics and Participatory Water Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Daniell, K.A.; White, I.; Rollin,D.

    2009-01-01

    Greater attention needs to be given to ethics related to the use, organisation and coordination of participatory forms of water planning. Working with diverse groups of people on water management issues requires the ability to understand and collectively make a range of decisions on the content, design and implementation of participatory processes. Ethical questions and sensitivities arise in such work including issues of changing existing power structures, privacy conditions and cultural sen...

  16. Transformative research: definitions, approaches and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Trevors, J T; Pollack, Gerald H; Saier, Milton H (Jr); Masson, Luke

    2012-01-01

    In this perspective a definition of transformative research (TR) is proposed and discussed. We define TR as that which “transforms” or causes a major change in thought patterns concerning an area of scientific endeavor. This type of research is often elusive, requires different approaches and sometimes depends on a bit of luck. TR concerns intangibles such as human intuition, serendipity, unpredictable events, implausible hypotheses, a well-prepared mind and often interpersonal communications...

  17. Proteomic approaches in research of cyanobacterial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battchikova, Natalia; Angeleri, Martina; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-10-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants is carried out by a fabulous pigment-protein machinery that is amazingly complicated in structure and function. Many different approaches have been undertaken to characterize the most important aspects of photosynthesis, and proteomics has become the essential component in this research. Here we describe various methods which have been used in proteomic research of cyanobacteria, and demonstrate how proteomics is implemented into on-going studies of photosynthesis in cyanobacterial cells. PMID:25359503

  18. An action research approach to curriculum development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Riding

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.

  19. Capacity-building and Participatory Research Development of a Community-based Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP for Pregnant and Postpartum Aboriginal Women:Information Gathered from Talking Circles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Big-Canoe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives were to gather information from Talking Circles of Aboriginal women who participated in a maternal Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP to identify strategies to bring NELIP into the community. Twelve First Nations women participated. Several main themes were identified regarding health: balance, knowledge/education and time management. Benefits of the NELIP were improvement in health, stamina, stress, and a healthy baby, no gestational diabetes and a successful home birth, with social support as an important contributing factor for success. Suggestions for improvement for the NELIP included group walking, and incorporating more traditional foods into the meal plan. The information gathered is the first step in determining strategies using participatory research and capacity-building to develop a community-based NELIP for pregnant Aboriginal women.

  20. Participatory Evaluation as Seen in a Vygotskian Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Terry Ann F.; Brandon, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    In participatory evaluations of K-12 programs, evaluators develop school faculty's and administrators' evaluation capacity by training them to conduct evaluation tasks and providing consultation while the tasks are conducted. A strong case can be made that the capacity building in these evaluations can be examined using a Vygotskian approach. We…

  1. Dialectical approach to research and development planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Leschly, K.; Feinberg, A.; Smith, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    This paper reports on the methodology and an application of a dialectical approach to research and development planning. The methodology features a structured debate followed by augmentation analysis. The argumentation analysis in turn is followed by an assessment of the plausibility of the arguments. The application involved using the methodology to assess the level of funding for research and development for a transportation system that would employ advanced technology. The Dialectic Inquiry process, and specifically, the plausibility rating activity, were seen as valuable aids for policy analysis. 12 references, 6 figures.

  2. Actionable Ethnography in Participatory Innovation: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustrate how the stakeholders engaged in activities such as sense-making, co-analysis, and cross-comparison of the ethnographic materials, and the specification and mapping of innovation opportunities. We argue that these activities served to establish a shared understanding and ownership of the participatory research, design material.

  3. Reaching into patients‘ homes - participatory designed AAL services

    OpenAIRE

    Menschner, P; A. Prinz; Koene, P.; F. Köbler; Altmann, M.; Helmut Krcmar; Jan Marco Leimeister

    2011-01-01

    Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) offers possibilities for promising new IT-based health care services that are resulting in new challenges for its design process. We introduce a novel approach for engineering AAL services (AALSDA) which combines methods from service engineering and participatory design. We demonstrate this approach by developing and implementing an electronic data capture system, NuTrack, for self-reporting of nutrition status. The approach uses different concepts for AAL servic...

  4. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in the UK.

  5. Socio-Psychological Factors Affecting Participatory Planning Processes At Interactional Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan KULÖZÜ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is widely accepted that communities need to collaborate when making decisions on behalf of the individual, society and the environment. Hence, planners engaged in participatory initiatives need to understand how best to design and carry out a participatory planning process. In order to answer this question, all factors affecting participatory processes need to be determined, since only then can steps be taken to design and execute the best participatory process for each stakeholder in every unique context. By focusing particularly on the factors affecting participatory processes at interactional level, this study aims to determine the socio-psychological dimensions of participatory planning processes, the aim being to bring to light some hitherto unexplained factors involved and thus help to improve these processes. Based on previous discussions in participation literature, the ultimate aim of this study is to provide subsequent researchers and those involved in participatory planning practices with a framework on the socio-psychological dimensions, namely communication, power, attribution, relationships and persuasion, of participatory processes at interactional level.

  6. Doing Participatory Evaluation: From "Jagged World Views" to Indigenous Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Steven; Stocek, Christine; Mark, Rodney; Matches, Stacy

    2009-01-01

    The paper will present findings from a Social Science and Humanities Research (SSHRC) funded participatory evaluation conducted over the past four years in the Cree nation of Wemindji in Quebec, Canada. COOL (Challenging Our Own Limits) or "Nigawchiisuun" in Cree, was launched in 2003 as part of a broader program of governance initiatives within…

  7. Participatory Livestock Farmer Training for improvement of animal health in rural and peri-urban smallholder dairy herds in Jinja, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Byarugaba, D.K.; Nakavuma, J.; Laker, C.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  Within the framework of a research project investigating methods to decrease mastitis incidence, farmer groups for participatory training in a modified Farmer Field School approach were initiated in order to improve animal health and farmer knowledge in mastitis control technologies in smallholder dairy farms in the Jinja district of Uganda. Two peri-urban groups and one rural group met for common learning and training two hours per fortnight during a 12-month period, facilitated by tw...

  8. Community-based participatory action research: transforming multidisciplinary practice in primary health care / Investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad: transformación de la práctica multidisciplinaria en atención primaria de salud

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcia, Hills; Jennifer, Mullett; Simon, Carroll.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Los sistemas de salud de todo el mundo se encuentran en un proceso de reestructuración y reforma de sus sistemas de prestación de servicios, reorientándose hacia el modelo de atención primaria de salud (APS) que utiliza equipos de consultorios multidisciplinarios (CMD) para brindar un con [...] junto de servicios coordinados e integrados. En este estudio se exploran los retos de poner en práctica el enfoque de CMD en una comunidad urbana de Canadá. MÉTODOS:Los datos analizados se tomaron de un proyecto de investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad (IAPBC) llevado a cabo en 2004. Su objetivo era perfeccionar un CMD colaborativo en un centro de APS que atiende a una comunidad de 11 000 personas, compuesta por una zona residencial y pequeños negocios, en una ciudad canadiense de aproximadamente 300 000 personas. La IAPBC permite abordar de manera planificada y sistemática problemas importantes para la comunidad en cuestión, requiere la participación de la comunidad, se enfoca hacia la solución de los problemas, se dirige a lograr cambios en la sociedad y hace contribuciones duraderas a la comunidad. Se partió de un aspecto de este complejo proyecto de varios años, para transformar la defensa retórica de la reforma de la APS en una práctica real y sustentable. La comunidad estudiada era diversa en cuanto a la edad, las características socioeconómicas y los estilos de vida. Su equipo multidisciplinario atendía aproximadamente a 3 000 pacientes al año, 30% de los cuales tenían 65 años o más. Gracias a su enfoque multidisciplinario e integrado con respecto a la atención, este centro de APS pasó a formar parte de un selecto grupo dentro del extenso sistema de atención primaria de Canadá. RESULTADOS: El análisis del trabajo de APS puso de manifiesto ideas arraigadas e inconcientes acerca de los límites y las limitaciones de la atención prestada. En el sentido retórico de la APS, el CMD era elogiado por muchos. En la práctica, sin embargo, era difícil lograr el enfoque de equipo colaborativo multidisciplinario. CONCLUSIONES: La exitosa implementación de un enfoque de CMD en la APS exige apartarse del estilo de atención centrada en el médico. Esto sólo puede lograrse cuando cambian las estructuras subyacentes, los valores, las relaciones de poder y los papeles a desempeñar, definidos por los sistemas de salud y la comunidad en general, donde los médicos tienen tradicionalmente una posición por encima de la de otros proveedores de atención sanitaria. La metodología de IAPBC permite a los miembros de la comunidad y a los profesionales relacionados con la salud que los atienden apropiarse de la investigación y reflejarse críticamente en ciclos iterativos de evaluación. Esto ofrece a los médicos una oportunidad de implementar cambios importantes basados en análisis generados internamente. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Health care systems throughout the world are in the process of restructuring and reforming their health service delivery systems, reorienting themselves to a primary health care (PHC) model that uses multidisciplinary practice (MDP) teams to provide a range of coordinated, integrated ser [...] vices. This study explores the challenges of putting the MDP approach into practice in one community in a city in Canada. METHODS: The data we analyzed were derived from a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) project, conducted in 2004, that was used to enhance collaborative MDP in a PHC center serving a residential and small-business community of 11 000 within a medium-sized city of approximately 300 000 people in Canada. CBPAR is a planned, systematic approach to issues relevant to the community of interest, requires community involvement, has a problem-solving focus, is directed at societal change, and makes a lasting contribution to the community. We drew from one aspect of this complex, multiyear project aimed at transforming the rhetoric advocating PHC reform into actual sustainable practices. The community studied

  9. Accreditation and participatory design in the healthcare sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the role of participatory design approaches in the light of the accreditation regime currently imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes specifying, realizing, and measuring the effects from using an information technology. This approach aligns with much of the logic in accreditation but is distinguished by its focus on effects, whereas current accreditation approaches focus on processes. Thereby, effects-driven IT development might support challenging parts of the accreditation process and fit well with clinical evidence-based thinking. We describe and compare effects-driven IT development with accreditation, in terms of the Danish Quality Model which is used throughout the Danish healthcare sector, and we discuss the prospects and challenges of combining these two approaches.

  10. Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD approach applied throughout design and organizational implementation. To pursue this aim we extend the iterative PD prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyp...

  11. Participatory Design of Large-Scale Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss how to engage in large-scale information systems development by applying a participatory design (PD) approach that acknowledges the unique situated work practices conducted by the domain experts of modern organizations. We reconstruct the iterative prototyping approach into a PD process model that (1) emphasizes PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporates improvisational ...

  12. Educação, pesquisa participante e saúde: as ideias de Carlos Rodrigues Brandão / Education, participatory research, and health: the ideas of Carlos Rodrigues Brandão / Educación, investigación participante y salud: las ideas de Carlos Rodrigues Brandão

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Almeida da, Silva; Kátia Reis de, Souza.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as obras do autor brasileiro Carlos Rodrigues Brandão relacionadas ao campo da educação e da pesquisa participante, destacando os seus pressupostos teóricos e estabelecendo relações com o campo da saúde. Realizamos uma investigação de caráter qualitativo e de t [...] ipo exploratório-descritivo, adotando a pesquisa bibliográfica como procedimento metodológico. 'Educação' foi a categoria teórica principal. Ademais, obtivemos as seguintes categorias empíricas advindas das análises textuais: 'educações'; 'sempre aprendemos uns com os outros'; 'uma antropologia participante'; 'liberdade, autonomia e esperança'; 'pesquisa participante'; 'diálogo: (re)construção do conhecimento ou construção de saberes'; 'pesquisa, conhecimento e tempo'; 'o sentido da palavra: direito de pronunciar o sentido do mundo'. Verificamos importantes fundamentos de uma concepção crítica de educação que podem contribuir como base para práticas democráticas de saúde, como, por exemplo, a ideia de 'diálogo' como pedra angular pedagógica, que possibilita processos de interação de sujeitos e a construção social do conhecimento. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las obras del autor brasileño Carlos Rodrigues Brandão, relacionadas al campo de la educación y de la investigación participante, destacando sus premisas teóricas y estableciendo relaciones con el campo de la salud. Se realizó una investigación de carácter [...] cualitativo y de tipo exploratorio-descriptivo, adoptando la investigación bibliográfica como procedimiento metodológico. "Educación" fue la categoría teórica principal. Además, se obtuvieron las siguientes categorías empíricas surgidas de los análisis textuales: "educaciones"; "siempre aprendeemos unos con otros"; "una antropología participante"; "libertad, autonomía y esperanza"; "investigación participante"; "diálogo: (re)construcción del conocimiento o construcción de saberes"; "investigación, conocimiento y tiempo"; "el sentido de la palabra: derecho de pronunciar el sentido del mundo". Se verificaron fundamentos importantes de una concepción crítica de educación que pueden contribuir como base para prácticas democráticas de salud como, por ejemplo, la idea de "diálogo" como piedra angular pedagógica, que permite procesos de interacción de individuos y la construcción social del conocimiento. Abstract in english This article aims to analyze the work of Brazilian author Carlos Rodrigues Brandão as related to the field of education and participatory research, highlighting his theoretical assumptions and establishing relationships with the field of healthcare. We conducted a qualitative, exploratory-descriptiv [...] e investigation, using literature research as a methodological procedure. 'Education' was the main theoretical category. Additionally, we obtained the following empirical categories arising from textual analysis: 'Educations;' 'always learn from each other;' 'a participatory anthropology;' 'freedom, autonomy, and hope;' 'participatory research;' 'dialog: (Re)construction of knowledge or construction of knowledge;' 'research, knowledge, and time;' 'The sense of the word: the right to pronounce the meaning of the world.' We checked important foundations of a critical conception of education that can contribute as a basis for democratic health practices, such as the idea of 'dialog' as a pedagogical cornerstone that enables interaction processes among individuals and the social construction of knowledge.

  13. A participatory and capacity-building approach to healthy eating and physical activity – SCIP-school: a 2-year controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinder Liselotte Schäfer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools can be effective settings for improving eating habits and physical activity, whereas it is more difficult to prevent obesity. A key challenge is the “implementation gap”. Trade-off must be made between expert-driven programmes on the one hand and contextual relevance, flexibility, participation and capacity building on the other. The aim of the Stockholm County Implementation Programme was to improve eating habits, physical activity, self-esteem, and promote a healthy body weight in children aged 6–16 years. We describe the programme, intervention fidelity, impacts and outcomes after two years of intervention. Methods Nine out of 18 schools in a middle-class municipality in Sweden agreed to participate whereas the other nine schools served as the comparison group (quasi-experimental study. Tailored action plans were developed by school health teams on the basis of a self-assessment questionnaire called KEY assessing strengths and weaknesses of each school’s health practices and environments. Process evaluation was carried out by the research staff. Impacts at school level were assessed yearly by the KEY. Outcome measures at student level were anthropometry (measured, and health behaviours assessed by a questionnaire, at baseline and after 2 years. All children in grade 2, 4 and 7 were invited to participate (n=1359 of which 59.8% consented. The effect of the intervention on health behaviours, self-esteem, weight status and BMIsds was evaluated by unilevel and multilevel regression analysis adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results Programme fidelity was high demonstrating feasibility, but fidelity to school action plans was only 48% after two years. Positive and significant (p Conclusions School staff has the capacity to create their own solutions and make changes at school level on the basis of self-assessment and facilitation by external agents. However these changes were challenging to sustain over time and had little impact on student behaviours or weight status. Better student outcomes could probably be attained by a more focused and evidence-based approach with stepwise implementation of action plans.

  14. Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarshan Mishra; B. K. Passi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triang...

  15. Playware Research – Methodological Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2014-01-01

    Several sub-disciplines of engineering are driven by the researchers’ aim of providing positive change to the society through their engineering. These researchers are challenged by the traditional research method of experimental research with a waterfall model which demands clearly defined project definition and functional requirements, and impose a sequential processes leading to the final system evaluation, which may lead to solutions which work in the lab, but have little impact in the messy real world. Based on two decades research in developing engineering systems with a societal impact (e.g. in robotics, embodied AI, and playware), in this paper we suggest a cyclic research method based on a mix between participatory and experimental processes. In particular, inspiration from the action research method applied to interdisciplinary technology development becomes a participatory approach characterized by rapid prototyping cycles which allow iterative technology specification and development together with people in their real world environment.

  16. Participatory projects – a benefit to all? : A minor field study in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Participation has become a crucial aspect for development and development aid thus it ensures empowerment and appropriate gain for the stakeholders. Participation is important especially for managing natural resources like water but the participatory approach is not always satisfying. This Minor field study has looked at two different projects participation from the stakeholders view and tried to answer what the stakeholders gain is for from participatory projects. This is done by interviewin...

  17. Integration of local participatory and regional planning for resources management using remote sensing and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sedogo, L.G.

    2002-01-01

    With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) information used in the planning process, efficient geographic information gathering and relevant spatial analytical tools necessary to support the negotiation among the stakeholders are lacking. Besides, methods a...

  18. Participatory development activities at local level: case studies in villages of Central Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Pongquan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated organizations.The participatory development planning approach was first introduced in Thailand through her Fourth National Economic and Social Development Plan (1977-1981) as a strategy to apply the bottom-...

  19. Fictional space in participatory design of engaging interactive environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the topic of designing engaging interactive environments and is positioned in the intersection between participatory design, design theory, and interaction design. This topic has been addressed through a research program on designing engaging interactive exhibition spaces for museums and science centres. The dissertation is composed of seven research papers framed by a general overview that summarises the arguments made in the papers and outlines related work and rese...

  20. Molecular biology approaches in bioadhesion research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular biology tools in the field of bioadhesion is still in its infancy. For new research groups who are considering taking a molecular approach, the techniques presented here are essential to unravelling the sequence of a gene, its expression and its biological function. Here we provide an outline for addressing adhesion-related genes in diverse organisms. We show how to gradually narrow down the number of candidate transcripts that are involved in adhesion by (1 generating a transcriptome and a differentially expressed cDNA list enriched for adhesion-related transcripts, (2 setting up a BLAST search facility, (3 perform an in situ hybridization screen, and (4 functional analyses of selected genes by using RNA interference knock-down. Furthermore, latest developments in genome-editing are presented as new tools to study gene function. By using this iterative multi-technologies approach, the identification, isolation, expression and function of adhesion-related genes can be studied in most organisms. These tools will improve our understanding of the diversity of molecules used for adhesion in different organisms and these findings will help to develop innovative bio-inspired adhesives.

  1. Crossing Intentions in Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Larsen, Henry

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore the role of 'crossing intentions' among participants involved in innovation processes with users. We use improvised theatre to investigate what happens in industrial (and other) organizations that embark on participatory activities, and to explore the barriers that hinder such activities. We propose that people who meet each other with different and conflicting intentions relevant to the theme together can create new insight (understood as movement of thought and action) that may become a driver of innovation. However, such meetings in which crossing intentions come to the surface are experienced as risky to participate in. We examine four examples of such meetings with the intent to disclose conceptual themes that show high potential for developing participatory innovation.

  2. Digital publics and participatory education

    OpenAIRE

    Brian J. McNely; Christa B. Teston; Bolutife Olorunda; Noah Dunker

    2010-01-01

    This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983), or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American universi...

  3. Para Cerrar la Brecha: Un Enfoque Participativo para la Educacion en Salud y Nutricion (Bridging the Gap: A Participatory Approach to Health and Nutrition Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehn, Martha, Ed.

    A Spanish version of a manual on workshops for training nutrition and health field educators to approach communities more sensitively emphasizes techniques for involving community members in efforts to achieve better health and nutrition. Experiential workshop materials and techniques have been field-tested in several countries, including…

  4. Pursuing Aesthetic Inquiry in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We introduce aesthetic inquiry as an important perspective to pursue in Participatory Design. Within the scope of tradition and transcendence we pursue aesthetic inquiry by tipping the scale towards transcendence and by staging offline loops for detached reflection by use of imaginative artefacts. Although aesthetic inquiry to some extent resides in most Participatory Design practice, we see the need for elaborating this perspective and to further build Participatory Design practice, tools and t...

  5. Participatory Hazard Management System and Accident Prevention in the Bonny NLNG Construction Project

    OpenAIRE

    Mba Okechukwu Agwu; Cletus Izunwanne Emeti

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be primaril...

  6. A Participatory Perspective on the Experience of Narrative Worlds (Invited Talk)

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrig, Richard

    2013-01-01

    As people experience narratives, they often behave as if they are participants in the narrative world. This talk embraces that claim to develop a participatory perspective on readers' and viewers' narrative experiences. This perspective asserts, for example, that readers encode participatory responses as reactions to characters' utterances and actions. The talk will review three areas of empirical research that have emerged from this perspective. The first area will be re...

  7. Methodological approaches in the research of organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jani?ijevi? Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach e...

  8. An Interdisciplinary and Intersectoral Action-research Method: Case-Study of Climate Change Adaptation by Cities Using Participatory Web 2.0 Urban Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève VACHON

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the last segment of a three-year interdisciplinary and intersectoral action research on climate change and urban transformation. The project had, as one of its core missions, the role of imagining urban and architectural adaptations for urban neighbourhoods that would contribute to minimizing the negative impacts of climate change on people’s comfort, health and safety. The first part of the paper describes the collaborative design and augmented participation method used in the context of Québec City, Canada. These include the design process conducted to imagine adaptation scenarios, the visual strategies undertaken to make these understandable for the population, and the Web 2.0 crowdsourcing approach forwarded to measure feasibility and social acceptability of the design and visualization strategies. The second part discusses three positive outcomes of the process. First, collaborative design conducted with intersectoral groups of experts constitutes a promising avenue to identify adaptations and evaluate their relevance. Second, crowdsourcing is a powerful tool to inform the general public about climate change including both negative and potential aspects. As well, the crowdsource model allows access to particular knowledge which empowered users to make changes around their homes and neighbourhoods or advocating action from their local government. Crowdsourcing is also an efficient tool to help understand what people know about the potential impact of climate change and how it bears on their comfort, health and safety. Third and finally, the design proposals and the evaluation comments generated by working closely with various stakeholders, along with the public on-line consultation, allow for the induction of pragmatic recommendations that can be used as decision aids by elected officials and civil servants to better prepare their municipalities for climate change. 

  9. ‘Eh! I felt I was sabotaged!’: facilitators’ understandings of success in a participatory HIV and IPV prevention intervention in urban South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Washington, Laura; Jewkes, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Participatory approaches to behaviour change dominate HIV- and intimate partner violence prevention interventions. Research has identified multiple challenges in the delivery of these. In this article, we focus on how facilitators conceptualize successful facilitation and how these understandings may undermine dialogue and critical consciousness, through a case study of facilitators engaged in the delivery of Stepping Stones and Creating Futures and ten focus-group discussions held with facilitators. All facilitators continually emphasized the importance of discussion and active engagement by participants. However, other understandings of successful facilitation also emerged, including group management—particularly securing high levels of attendance; ensuring answers provided by participants were ‘right’; being active facilitators; and achieving behaviour change. These in various ways potentially undermined dialogue and the emergence of critical thinking. We locate these different understandings of success as located in the wider context of conceptualizations of autonomy and structure; historical experiences of work and education; and the ongoing tension between the requirements of rigorous research and those of participatory interventions. We suggest a new approach to training and support for facilitators is required if participatory interventions are to be delivered at scale, as they must be. PMID:26590246

  10. 'Eh! I felt I was sabotaged!': facilitators' understandings of success in a participatory HIV and IPV prevention intervention in urban South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha; Jama-Shai, Nwabisa; Washington, Laura; Jewkes, Rachel

    2015-12-01

    Participatory approaches to behaviour change dominate HIV- and intimate partner violence prevention interventions. Research has identified multiple challenges in the delivery of these. In this article, we focus on how facilitators conceptualize successful facilitation and how these understandings may undermine dialogue and critical consciousness, through a case study of facilitators engaged in the delivery of Stepping Stones and Creating Futures and ten focus-group discussions held with facilitators. All facilitators continually emphasized the importance of discussion and active engagement by participants. However, other understandings of successful facilitation also emerged, including group management-particularly securing high levels of attendance; ensuring answers provided by participants were 'right'; being active facilitators; and achieving behaviour change. These in various ways potentially undermined dialogue and the emergence of critical thinking. We locate these different understandings of success as located in the wider context of conceptualizations of autonomy and structure; historical experiences of work and education; and the ongoing tension between the requirements of rigorous research and those of participatory interventions. We suggest a new approach to training and support for facilitators is required if participatory interventions are to be delivered at scale, as they must be. PMID:26590246

  11. Collaboration of farmers en breeders: Participatory crop improvement in perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Elings, A.

    2001-01-01

    Participatory Crop Improvement (PCI) has developed over the past decade as an alternative and complementary breeding approach to Formal Crop Improvement (FCI). In that context, PCI principally aims at more effectively addressing the needs of farmers in marginal areas in developing countries. This paper describes the rationale behind the emerging of the PCI-concept, the first experiences, and its place in a development-context. The relation with in situ conservation of plant genetic resources ...

  12. Teaching Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; Bødker, Keld; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This full-day invitational pre-conference workshop is devoted to sharing experiences from teaching PD methods, approaches, issues and concerns to students and practitioners. Our experiences stem from teaching and coaching IT practitioners as well as students studying computer science or IT. However, people with experiences gained from working with other professions are also welcome. Short presentations from each of the participants form the starting point of the discussion to which most of the t...

  13. The role of health education in addressing the health divide : evidence from two European health-promotion projects employing a participatory and action-oriented education approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people with opportunities (as part of teaching and learning processes) to critically examine health issues, including social determinants of health, and to gain experience with initiating health-promoting changes within the everyday realms of their school or its adjacent community.

  14. New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Raiola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected demand about the real choice of customers with the proposal for a various architectural aspects. A survey was carries out by using statistical model to correlate a demand of multi game sport relating to various hypotheses, already designed with a different solution. A sample of 100 customers that have submitted questionnaire with the specific parameters about the architecture and engine was taken to apply the qualitative research method to the market research. Results and Conclusion: The result of this study concludes that it is not possible to the partially construct but it is useful the plenty reconstruction of game court. The local organization of Coni (Italian National Olympic Committee designed a new project according to a specific parameter that follows the same characteristic of old game court without searching the other engineer and architectural solutions. Thus the question is a mix of engine and architectural aspects, economical and functional elements of it. The data showed association between demand of multisport and new architectonical hypothesis and the association between demand of single sport and old architectural structure. The percentage of multi sport demand is higher than single sport and this orientation has to follow to design a new sport facilities.

  15. Multi-method and innovative approaches to researching the learning and social practices of young digital users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vittadini, Nicoletta; Carlo, Simone

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges in researching the social aspects of contemporary societies is to adapt the methodological approach to complex digital media environments. Learning processes take place in this complex environment, and they include formal and informal experiences (learning in school, home, and real-virtual communities), peer cultures and inter-generational connections, production and creation as relevant activities, and personal interests as a focal point. Methods used in the study of learning and the social practices of young people must take into account four key issues: boundaries between online and offline experiences are blurring; young people act performatively, knowingly, or reflexively; and their activities cannot be understood through the use of a single method, but require the use of multiple tools of investigation. The article discusses three methodological issues: research design aimed at following people along their transmedia paths, the relevance of participatory research, and the epistemological implications of multi-method research. The article presents a theoretical discussion of the research issues and some examples of research projects for each topic.

  16. Participatory testing and reporting in an environmental-justice community of Worcester, Massachusetts: a pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvache Maria-Camila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite indoor home environments being where people spend most time, involving residents in testing those environments has been very limited, especially in marginalized communities. We piloted participatory testing and reporting that combined relatively simple tests with actionable reporting to empower residents in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts. We answered: 1 How do we design and implement the approach for neighborhood and household environments using participatory methods? 2 What do pilot tests reveal? 3 How does our experience inform testing practice? Methods The approach was designed and implemented with community partners using community-based participatory research. Residents and researchers tested fourteen homes for: lead in dust indoors, soil outdoors, paint indoors and drinking water; radon in basement air; PM2.5 in indoor air; mold spores in indoor/outdoor air; and drinking water quality. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates by residents and researchers used real-time data to stimulate dialogue. Results Given the newness of our partnership and unforeseen conflicts, we achieved moderate-high success overall based on process and outcome criteria: methods, test results, reporting, lessons learned. The conflict burden we experienced may be attributable less to generic university-community differences in interests/culture, and more to territoriality and interpersonal issues. Lead-in-paint touch-swab results were poor proxies for lead-in-dust. Of eight units tested in summer, three had very high lead-in-dust (>1000 ?g/ft2, six exceeded at least one USEPA standard for lead-in-dust and/or soil. Tap water tests showed no significant exposures. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates raised awareness of environmental health risks, especially asthma. Conclusions Timely reporting back home-toxics' results to residents is ethical but it must be empowering. Future work should fund the active participation of a few motivated residents as representatives of the target population. Although difficult and demanding in time and effort, the approach can educate residents and inform exposure assessment. It should be considered as a core ingredient of comprehensive household toxics' testing, and has potential to improve participant retention and the overall positive impact of long-term environmental health research efforts.

  17. Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Mishra

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

  18. Teaching Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; BØdker, Keld

    2004-01-01

    This full-day invitational pre-conference workshop is devoted to sharing experiences from teaching PD methods, approaches, issues and concerns to students and practitioners. Our experiences stem from teaching and coaching IT practitioners as well as students studying computer science or IT. However, people with experiences gained from working with other professions are also welcome. Short presentations from each of the participants form the starting point of the discussion to which most of the time will be devoted. The intend is not to suggest the way of teaching PD, rather we hope that each participant will receive valuable inspiration to help improve his or her own teaching.

  19. Pelembagaan Participatory Poverty Assessment Sebagai Strategi Pengentasan Kemiskinan di Samigaluh Kabupaten Kulonprogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang Darumurti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This article try to analysis strategy for reducing poverty in Samigaluh Municapy, Kulonprogo Region by using Participatory Poverty Assessment (PPA strategy. PPA known as strategy to reduce poverty by including poor people to find solution of their poverty problem. In Other word, this strategy use bottom up method to reduce poverty. In Samigaluh, Poverty condition clearly seen as so many people live in near poor condition. This research use qualitative approach and data collect technic use interview and observation. From the research is gotten data that poor condition in Samigaluh caused by economic aspect, uncapability, isolation condition. PPA strategy, which is including poor people in solution making, give result that we must do some activities. The Activities are women empowernment, Informal institution empowernment, Increase Education, Training, and so on.

  20. Participatory Digital Design:A Study with Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Heyerdahl,Ida Margrethe

    2007-01-01

    This master thesis explores Participatory Design where teenagers get the opportunity to participate in the public discussion of cultural heritage using their language and their own media. This study focuses on bringing teenagers as users, testers and informants into the technology design process. The roles user, tester and informants are based on Allison Druins roles of children in a technology design process. The research done for this thesis have taken place at Trosterudklubben. This yout...

  1. Participatory urban renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. The first deals with the theoretical framework of urban rehabilitation. Literature provides the basis for a conclusion, which is that the key issue in rehabilitation projects is legitimate negotiation of various interests between participating individuals and institutions. In the second part this presentation and analyses of events that took place at the urban design workshop organised within the framework of the research project Renewal of housing estates in Ljubljana, provide experiential confirmation of the starting thesis. We established that the directly involved residents were willing to actively participate in rehabilitation procedures, however the process is never triggered, because of insufficient capacities in institutional frameworks. In conclusion several real proposals are shown, namely, how to surmount obstacles in urban rehabilitation and especially in larger housing estates built after World War 2.

  2. Towards Standardization: A Participatory Framework for Scientific Standard-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Yarmey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary scientific research, standard-making and standardization are key processes for the sharing and reuse of data. The goals of this paper are twofold: 1 to stress that collaboration is crucial to standard-making, and 2 to urge recognition of metadata standardization as part of the scientific process. To achieve these goals, a participatory framework for developing and implementing scientific metadata standards is presented. We highlight the need for ongoing, open dialogue within and among research communities at multiple levels. Using the Long Term Ecological Research network adoption of the Ecological Metadata Language as a case example in the natural sciences, we illustrate how a participatory framework addresses the need for active coordination of the evolution of scientific metadata standards. The participatory framework is contrasted with a hierarchical framework to underscore how the development of scientific standards is a dynamic and continuing process. The roles played by ‘best practices’ and ‘working standards’ are identified in relation to the process of standardization.

  3. Achieving IT-supported standardized nursing documentation through participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Loft; Lyng, Karen Marie

    2012-01-01

    In the Capital Region of Denmark a full-scale pilot project on IT-supported nursing documentation is - after running for two months at one full university hospital - showing promising results. In this paper we discuss participatory design as a method to design clinical documentation templates that support guideline-based highly structured standard documentation in a large organization with many stakeholders. Applying a participatory design (PD) approach at many organizational levels has involved the stakeholders actively in the design process. Developing a set of design principles has concurrently made it possible to frame the discussions among the different stakeholders. Both PD and design principles have been instrumental in designing and implementing a set of standard templates that support the daily work and coordination between the nurses

  4. Alternatives to peer review: novel approaches for research evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksandr Birukou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities.

  5. Constraint analysis to improve integrated dairy production systems in developing countries: the importance of participatory rural appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2007-12-01

    The paper describes the rationale and importance of the approaches and methodologies of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to enable constraint analysis, to understand the complexities of farming systems and to improve integrated dairy productivity. Implicit in this objective is Farming Systems Research (FSR), which focused on cropping systems in the 1970's, with the subsequent addition of animal components. The methodology for FSR involves the following sequential components: site selection, site description and characterization (diagnosis), planning of on-farm research, on-farm testing and validation of alternatives, diffusion of results, and impact assessment. PRA is the development of FSR, which involves the active participation of farmers to identify constraints and plan appropriate solutions. In the Coordinated Research Project (CRP), the approach was adapted to 10 different country situations and led to Economic Opportunity Surveys (EOS) and Diagnostic Surveillance Studies (DSS), allowing the planning and implantation of integrated interventions to improve dairy productivity. PMID:18265864

  6. The Boston-area HASWIC Research Circle: an innovative participatory method for coloring in the picture of a special work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Susan; Azaroff, Lenore S

    2007-01-01

    Recent qualitative studies have investigated some of the hazards affecting women in non-traditional trades such as construction. However, one-time interactions among researcher participants, and between researchers and participants, in standard settings such as focus groups and interviews, cannot provide the time, space, and relationships to fully explore tradeswomen's in-depth knowledge of their work environment. This study applied a Scandinavian method called the Research Circle to convene a group of experienced women construction workers repeatedly over a period of two years so they could collaborate with researchers in explaining workplace issues. The results both validated and expanded upon previous findings about health and safety for women in construction, including gender discrimination, lack of access to sanitary facilities, retaliation for reporting hazards and injuries, and inadequate training and equipment. Especially important, findings illustrate some of the complex hierarchical social structures involved in both female and male construction workers responding to hazardous conditions. PMID:17434864

  7. Youths as partners in a community participatory project for substance use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbok, Pamela A; Meszaros, Peggy S; Bond, Donna C; Thatcher, Esther; Park, Eunhee; Kimbrell, Monica; Smith-Gregory, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    This community-based participatory research project aimed to develop strategies to prevent youth substance use in a rural county. This article (1) describes the project phases, (2) examines unique contributions and considerations of youth involvement, and (3) explores the youths' perspective. Twelve youths, aged 16 to 18 years, joined parents, community leaders, and research specialists on the community-based participatory research team. The youths were integrally involved in all phases including the community assessment, community leader interviews, selection of a substance use prevention program, and program implementation. Youths reported sustained enthusiasm, experiences of authentic leadership, development of research skills, and greater awareness of their community. PMID:25423239

  8. Downscaling socio-economic prospective scenarios with a participatory approach for assessing the possible impacts of future land use and cover changes on the vulnerability of societies to mountain risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémont, Marine; Houet, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Due to the peculiarities of their landscapes and topography, mountain areas bring together a large range of socio-economic activities whose sustainability is likely to be jeopardised by projected global changes. Disturbance of hydro-meteorological processes will alter slope stability and affect mountain hazards occurrence. Meanwhile, socio-economic transformations will influence land use and cover changes (LUCC), which in turn will affect both hazards occurrence and hazards consequences on buildings, infrastructures and societies. Already faced with recurrent natural hazards, mountain areas will have to cope with increasing natural risks in the future. Better understanding the pathways through which future socio-economic changes might influence LUCC at local scale is thus a crucial step to assess accurately the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of societies to mountain risks in a global change context. Scientists face two main issues in assessing spatially explicit impacts of socio-economic scenarios in mountainous landscapes. First, modelling LUCC at local scale still faces many challenges related to past (observed) LUCC and those to consider in the future in terms of dynamics and processes. Second, downscaling global socio-economic scenarios so that they provide useful input for local LUCC models requires a thorough analysis of local social dynamics and economic drivers at stake, which falls short with current practices. Numerous socio-economic prospective scenarios have recently been developed at regional, national and international scales. They mostly rely on literature reviews and expert workshops carried out through global sectoral analysis (e.g. agriculture, forestry or industry) but only few of these exercises attempt to decline global scenarios at smaller scales confronting global vision with information gathered from the field and stakeholders. Yet, vulnerability assessments are more useful when undertaken at local scales that are relevant to geophysical fluxes and local decision-making processes. Therefore, there is a need to downscale socio-economic prospective scenarios so that they are both consistent with global scenarios used to feed public policies and relevant for local policy-makers in charge of implementing natural risks management strategies. This paper investigates the contribution of coupling participatory approach in downscaling socio-economic prospective scenarios with spatially explicit LUCC modelling to assess future changes in mountain risks. We present an on-going work aiming at co-constructing with local stakeholders integrated city-scale socio-economic scenarios up to 2040 and 2100 in a way that is consistent with the requirements of LUCC models. The study site is located in the city of Cauterets (Pyrenean Mountains, France).

  9. Participatory Inovation Conference 2011 Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Industry and public agencies increasingly adopt user-driven innovation and open innovation, as they realise that innovation cannot come solely from within an organisation. Innovation happens in the ‘breaking of the waves’ between people outside and people inside – because they have different stakes and perspectives. In academia, new breakthrough contributions to understanding innovation – and supporting it – will also emerge in the borderlands between disciplines that traditionally do not collaborate: between languages and design, and between management and anthropology for instance. The new discipline of Participatory Innovation gathers theories and methods across such academic fields that describe how people outside an organisation can contribute to its innovation. The many papers in this volume have in common that they identify ways for industry and the public sector to expand innovation through the participation of users, employees, suppliers, customers etc. – both on a strategiclevel, in concrete methods, and in the day-to-day interactions. PINC 2011 is a forum where participants from different disciplines and organisations can meet and challenge each other to develop the field of participatory innovation.

  10. Principles and approaches in ethics assessment : Research integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Collste, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Scientific research is a conscious and systematic approach to acquire knowledge, based on theories, methods and standards that have been developed through the history of scientific disciplines. The terms “research integrity” and “good research practice” refer to ideals for how research ought to be performed. In the 1940s the American sociologist Robert Merton proposed norms for scientific research that have influenced the discussion on research integrity since then. According to Merton good r...

  11. Research and research education in music – disciplinary or interdisciplinary approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Schei, Tiri Bergesen; Espeland, Magne; Stige, Brynjulf

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to contribute to a discussion about the future of research and research education in music. The multiple existing traditions of music research constitute a rich resource. Increasingly however, similar topics are researched from different angles, often with watertight bulkheads between such various music disciplines as, e.g. music education, musicology, music therapy and performance studies. Music is a common denominator in these disciplines and interdiscip...

  12. Moving Beyond the Systems Approach in SCM and Logistics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Fredrik; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a paradigmatic reflection on theoretical approaches recently identified in logistics and supply chain management (SCM); namely complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking, and to compare it to the dominant approach in logistics and SCM research, namely the systems approach. By analyzing the basic assumptions of the three approaches, SCM and logistics researchers are guided in their choice of research approaches which increases their awareness of the consequences different approaches have on theory and practice. Design/methodology/approach – The point of departure for the research presented is conceptualization based on literature reviews. Furthermore, years of observations, discussions and empirical studies of logistics operations and management have also influenced the design of this research. Findings – With a discourse set in relation to the dominant approach in SCM and logistics research, the systems approach, it is concluded that the underlyingassumptions of complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking are more appropriate than systems approach for contemporary challenges of organizational complexity in SCM and logistics. It is found that the two complexity-based approaches can advance SCM and logistics research and practice especially when focusing on innovation, learning and sense-making. Research limitations/implications – Reflections of underlying assumptions when considering and selecting methodological approaches have implications for research results. This paper provides both a framework for and an analysis of such reflection which contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research. Future research is needed to empirically provide insights on how complexity approaches can advance the area of SCM and logistics. Practical implications – For logistics researchers and practitioners dealing with creativity, innovation, learning and sense-making and other human-related aspects, the complexity approaches, with underlying assumptions, presented will provide reflection, inspiration and guidance for further development. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research and practice by providing a reflective analysis and discussion of established and new research approaches with potential benefits for the SCM and logistics community.

  13. The Danish school reform: A methodological framework for the discursive study and development of participatory plurivocal practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann; MØlholm, Martin

    The paper presents a methodological framework for the study of the discursive emergence of the recent Danish School reform (2014). The framework will enable discourse scholars to hold an actively involved position in changing and furthering plurivocal processes of translations, negotiations and implementation of the reform. The framework is operationalized through research-based participatory collaborative processes involving local actors in two Danish public schools. It interlinks diverse discourse strategies and perceptive distances that traditionally belong to separate branches within discourse studies. As a point of departure we study the discourse formations that emerge in specific media texts applying a Foucauldian archive analytical strategy. Concurrently, we study processes of how political ideas and discourses are translated through plurivocal dialogue (Bakhtin) and translation processes (Latour), e.g. civil service and municipal practices and texts, into the organizational practices of two local schools. On the basis of these analyses, we will establish a participatory process in which local actors are involved in the co-creation of new plurivocal and egalitarian dialogue designs and practices. In relation to the field of organizational communication, we would argue that the methodological framework has potential to bridge the gulf that often exists between approaches studying local accomplishments of identity and action and approaches focusing on more abstract discourses. Moreover, the framework positions discourse researchers simultaneously as both distant analysts and as actively involved in change processes.

  14. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN, completed in 2011) which found that up to an 80% decarbonization of the global economy was possible if we can enable and launch a large-scale transition to a clean energy system consistent with what a number of 'leading edge' cities, regions, and nations have already accomplished or started. Note, in particular, that as the physical climate change metrics have progressed, the words—shown on the right—have also progressed. In 1990, at the time of the FAR the strongest scientific consensus statement was that another decade of data would likely be needed to clearly observe climate change. Through the second to fourth (SAR, TAR, and AR4) reports, increasing clarity on the science of climate change translated into a consensus of overwhelming blame on human activities. The key statements from each report are not only about the growing evidence for anthropogenically driven climate change, but they have moved into the ecological and social impacts of this change. AR4 critically concluded that climate change would lead to climate injustice as the poor, globally, bear the brunt of the impacts. Despite this 'Rosetta Stone' translating science to language, we have failed to act collectively. One area where ERL can advance the overall conversation is on this science/action interface. As AR5 emerges, the climate change/climate response interface will need deep, substantive, action that responds rapidly to new ideas and opportunities. The rapid publication and open access features of ERL are particularly critical here as events a such as Hurricane Sandy, economic or political advances in climate response made by cities, regions or nations, all warrant assessment and response. This is one of many areas where ERL has been at the forefront of the conversation, through not only research letters, but also commentary-style Perspective pieces and the conversation that ERL's sister community website environmentalresearchweb can facilitate. This process of translating proposed solutions—innovations—between interest groups, has been in far too short supply rece

  15. To each participatory sciences. Conditions for a participatory biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis SALLES

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and scientific requirements for a citizen science monitoring programme on biodiversity in Arcachon Bay (France. The sociological study reveals tensions between different conceptions of what a citizen science programme should be: a means for storing oriented-data; a new way to co-create scientific knowledge; a political communication tool; a way to develop citizen stewardship; or a place for expressing activist environmental demands. Citizen science programmes also tend to reveal tensions between participatory governance and classical management of environmental issues. Despite a seeming consensus amongst actors on biodiversity conservation, in practice contests over different citizen science conceptions have the potential to re-define environmental issues, to re-specify relationships between science and society and outline new management priorities.

  16. “I Don't Think that Any Peer Review Committee . . . Would Ever ‘Get’ What I Currently Do”: How Institutional Metrics for Success and Merit Risk Perpetuating the (Reproduction of Colonial Relationships in Community-Based Participatory Research Involving Indigenous Peoples in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Castleden

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on findings from a study that explored how a group of leading health researchers who do Indigenous community-engaged research (n = 20 in Canada envision enacting ethically sound research with Indigenous communities, as well as the concomitant tensions associated with doing so. In particular, we explore how institutional metrics for assessing merit and granting tenure are seen to privilege conventional discourses of productivity and validity in research and, as a result, are largely incongruent with the relational values associated with decolonizing research through community-based participatory health research. Our findings reveal that colonial incursion from the academy risk filtering into such research agendas and create a conflict between relational accountability to community partners and academic accountability to one’s discipline and peers.

  17. An Interdisciplinary and Intersectoral Action-research Method: Case-Study of Climate Change Adaptation by Cities Using Participatory Web 2.0 Urban Design

    OpenAIRE

    Geneviève VACHON; Marie-Noël Chouinard; Geneviève Cloutier; Catherine Dubois; Carole Després

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the last segment of a three-year interdisciplinary and intersectoral action research on climate change and urban transformation. The project had, as one of its core missions, the role of imagining urban and architectural adaptations for urban neighbourhoods that would contribute to minimizing the negative impacts of climate change on people’s comfort, health and safety. The first part of the paper describes the collaborative design and augmented participation method used ...

  18. Participatory management in today's health care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the health care revolution progresses, so must the management styles of today's leaders. The authors must ask ourselves if we are managing tomorrow's work force or the work force of the past. Participatory management may better meet the needs of today's work force. This paper identifies the reasons participatory management is a more effective management style, the methods used to implement a participatory management program, its benefits (such as higher productivity and more efficient, effective implementation and acceptance of change), and the difficulties experienced

  19. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; D’Arcy Walsh

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the...

  20. Paradoxes of participation : the logic of professionalization in participatory forestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis

    2015-01-01

    Processes of participatory forestry reform in the Global South in recent decades present us with a paradox. While ostensibly aimed at promoting participation by forest adjacent communities, these reforms more often appear to sustain domination by forest administrations or private enterprises and have increasingly been associated with inequitable social outcomes. Part of the explanation for this must be sought in the professionalization promoted by these reforms in the sense of scientific management approaches and structured and detailed systems of information gathering, dissemination and planning. Professionalization has its roots in the historical development of forestry bureaucracies with a basis in principles of scientific forestry that, more recently, has come to resonate with logics of development and neoliberalism. Professionalization emerges in participatory reform as technically and procedurally demanding framings that inhibit implementation, downplay politics and promote inequality. The contributions to this special issue illustrate empirical pathways to unpack and question the framing of participatory forestry as professionalization by pointing to its anti-democratic and social consequences and questioning its relevance and usefulness to actual forest management practice.

  1. Effectiveness of participatory breeding and variety selection for sorghum technology adoption in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Mbulwe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Participatory breeding and variety selection has been proposed as an effective way of disseminating improved technologies to farmers for social-economic benefits. As a result the Sorghum and Millets Improvement Programme (SMIP, of the Zambia Agriculture Research Institution (ZARI, in collaboration with the farming systems scientists at Mansa Research Station, in Luapula Province tested the effectiveness of this methodology. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated based on the number of farmers rating new improved agriculture technologies favourably and willing to adopt the improved technologies after being exposed to participatory breeding. An on-farm participatory sorghum variety demonstration trial was conducted during the 2011/2012 rainy season in Zambia, Milenge district, of the Luapula province. The trial consisted of 12 improved sorghum germplasm lines of which six were hybrids and six were varieties developed by SMIP. The germplasm was evaluated by the farmers, extension and research staff on farm. The germplasm was evaluated for its value for cultivation and use. The methodology that was used is called participatory breeding which is part of the broader concept of participatory rural extension and the Innovative Platform for Technology Adoption (IPTA advocated by the Forum for Agriculture Research in Africa. The results of the methodology indicated that this methodology is effective if farmers are committed and good agriculture policies are in place. When farmers feel part of the developmental process, it is easier for them to adopt improved technologies.

  2. Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Jabir NR; Tabrez S; Ashraf GM; Shakil S; Damanhouri GA; Kamal MA

    2012-01-01

    Nasimudeen R Jabir,1 Shams Tabrez,1 Ghulam Md Ashraf,2 Shazi Shakil,3 Ghazi A Damanhouri,4 Mohammad A Kamal11Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, 2Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, 3Enzoinformatics Unit, 4Hematology Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemother...

  3. Paniya Voices: A Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment among a marginalized South Indian tribal population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikrishnadas CK

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, indigenous populations, known as Adivasi or Scheduled Tribes (STs, are among the poorest and most marginalized groups. 'Deprived' ST groups tend to display high levels of resignation and to lack the capacity to aspire; consequently their health perceptions often do not adequately correspond to their real health needs. Moreover, similar to indigenous populations elsewhere, STs often have little opportunity to voice perspectives framed within their own cultural worldviews. We undertook a study to gather policy-relevant data on the views, experiences, and priorities of a marginalized and previously enslaved tribal group in South India, the Paniyas, who have little 'voice' or power over their own situation. Methods/design We implemented a Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment (PPHA. We adopted guiding principles and an ethical code that promote respect for Paniya culture and values. The PPHA, informed by a vulnerability framework, addressed five key themes (health and illness, well-being, institutions, education, gender using participatory approaches and qualitative methods. We implemented the PPHA in five Paniya colonies (clusters of houses in a small geographical area in a gram panchayat (lowest level decentralized territorial unit to generate data that can be quickly disseminated to decision-makers through interactive workshops and public forums. Preliminary findings Findings indicated that the Paniyas are caught in multiple 'vulnerability traps', that is, they view their situation as vicious cycles from which it is difficult to break free. Conclusion The PPHA is a potentially useful approach for global health researchers working with marginalized communities to implement research initiatives that will address those communities' health needs in an ethical and culturally appropriate manner.

  4. Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions, but both have something to teach each other about how to define and executedesign-oriented research in information systems and management science.

  5. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Hogue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP, fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus (PRV structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer.

  6. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Ian B; Bosse, Jens B; Engel, Esteban A; Scherer, Julian; Hu, Jiun-Ruey; Del Rio, Tony; Enquist, Lynn W

    2015-01-01

    In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP), fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer. PMID:26610544

  7. New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Raiola; Tiziana D?Isanto

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected ...

  8. Learning from others: the scope and challenges for participatory disaster risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, Mark

    2007-12-01

    This paper develops a framework based on procedural, methodological and ideological elements of participatory vulnerability and risk assessment tools for placing individual approaches within the wide range of work that claims a participatory, local or community orientation. In so doing it draws on relevant experience from other areas of development practice from which the disasters field can learn. Participatory disaster risk assessments are examined for their potential to be empowering, to generate knowledge, to be scaled up, to be a vehicle for negotiating local change and as part of multiple-methods approaches to disaster risk identification and reduction. The paper is a response to an international workshop on Community Risk Assessment organised by ProVention Consortium and the Disaster Mitigation for Sustainable Livelihoods Programme, University of Cape Town. The workshop brought together practitioners and academics to review the challenges and opportunities for participatory methodologies in the field of disaster risk reduction. In conclusion the contribution made by participatory methodologies to global disaster risk reduction assessment and policy is discussed. PMID:18028159

  9. Participatory Design for Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Arild; Gulden, Tore

    2012-01-01

    Participatory design can meet the needs of the individuals’ well-being in hospitals; however constraints occur in such a complex context. A case study of exploratory participatory design processes with health professionals were done at a geriatric department in mental health care. An analysis was done to disclose the structures to an analytical tool: Levels of Participation. It visualizes strategies for activation of participants to health promoting environments in hospitals, thus supporting ...

  10. Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    2014-01-01

    This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that a...

  11. PEPSI: Privacy-Enhanced Participatory Sensing Infrastructure.

    OpenAIRE

    De Cristofaro, Emiliano; Soriente, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Participatory Sensing combines the ubiquity of mobile phones with sensing capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks. It targets pervasive collection of information, e.g., temperature, traffic conditions, or health-related data. As users produce measurements from their mobile devices, voluntary participation becomes essential. However, a number of privacy concerns -- due to the personal information conveyed by data reports -- hinder large-scale deployment of participatory sensing applications. ...

  12. Approaches to Work-Life Balance Research.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Formánková, Lenka

    Brno : Office of the Public Defender of Rights, 2015 - (Polák, P.; Kvasnicová, J.; Tichá, I.), s. 75-81 ISBN 978-80-87949-05-4. [Work-life balance. Brno (CZ), 23.10.2014-24.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : research strategy * family * work Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  13. CONFERENCE CHEVREUL Nutrition research: the industrial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korver Onno

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of nutrition research in an industrial setting is the marketing of products. Since consumers cannot see from the product whether it is healthy, communication to the consumer about the nutritional and health values of the products is essential. Industrial nutrition research therefore has to provide the scientific dossier to underpin the claims and other communication on and around the product as well as the scientific basis for the communication. These two lines are illustrated in figure 1. For scientific audiences the steps to collect the scientific evidence are obvious: first screening for new ideas on the basis of scientific developments and business options, then identifying ingredients that can deliver the health benefit, followed by mechanistic and bioavailability studies and finally human intervention trials. The communication line is less obvious for most scientifically oriented audiences. Experience has shown that an information cascade has to be followed: during the execution of the research work close contact with academic experts (a true dialogue is essential, when the research data are available information of a wide selection of health professionals (e.g. physicians, dieticians, science journalists is taking place and only after this step communication to the consumer starts. The communication with the scientific experts (the first step of the cascade obviously has to be in the hands of the nutrition research group of the industry involved. In Unilever this is the Unilever Nutrition Centre based in Vlaardingen in the Netherlands. Their role in the scientific dialogue is outlined in figure 2. The fact that the “Medaille Chevreul” has been awarded twice to members of the Unilever Nutrition Centre in the last two decades, illustrates that the UNC is considered to be a group with a truly scientific tradition.

  14. The Main Advantages of Community Based Participatory Health Programs: An Experience from the Islamic Republic of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Monir Baradarn Eftekhari; Katayoun Falahat; Masoumeh Dejman; Ameneh Setareh Forouzan; Hossein Malek Afzali; Noot Heydari; Arash Mirabzadeh

    2013-01-01

     Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article presents findings from a study of assessing performed participatory community based health programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods: This study was a qualitative study using focus group discussions. Thirteen community based programs related to health that were active for last fi...

  15. Applying Participatory Methods to Address Motivational Aspects in Informal Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Holocher

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.

  16. Developing digital technologies for university mathematics by applying participatory design methods

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included in this paper along with future research directions.

  17. (Post-)genomics approaches in fungal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Pontes, María Victoria; de Vries, Ronald P; Zhou, Miaomiao

    2014-11-01

    To date, hundreds of fungal genomes have been sequenced and many more are in progress. This wealth of genomic information has provided new directions to study fungal biodiversity. However, to further dissect and understand the complicated biological mechanisms involved in fungal life styles, functional studies beyond genomes are required. Thanks to the developments of current -omics techniques, it is possible to produce large amounts of fungal functional data in a high-throughput fashion (e.g. transcriptome, proteome, etc.). The increasing ease of creating -omics data has also created a major challenge for downstream data handling and analysis. Numerous databases, tools and software have been created to meet this challenge. Facing such a richness of techniques and information, hereby we provide a brief roadmap on current wet-lab and bioinformatics approaches to study functional genomics in fungi. PMID:25037051

  18. Hybrid soft computing approaches research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Paramartha; Chakraborty, Susanta

    2016-01-01

    The book provides a platform for dealing with the flaws and failings of the soft computing paradigm through different manifestations. The different chapters highlight the necessity of the hybrid soft computing methodology in general with emphasis on several application perspectives in particular. Typical examples include (a) Study of Economic Load Dispatch by Various Hybrid Optimization Techniques, (b) An Application of Color Magnetic Resonance Brain Image Segmentation by ParaOptiMUSIG activation Function, (c) Hybrid Rough-PSO Approach in Remote Sensing Imagery Analysis,  (d) A Study and Analysis of Hybrid Intelligent Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection using Breast Thermograms, and (e) Hybridization of 2D-3D Images for Human Face Recognition. The elaborate findings of the chapters enhance the exhibition of the hybrid soft computing paradigm in the field of intelligent computing.

  19. Evaluation of a 'virtual' approach to commissioning health research

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan Philip A; McCourt Christine A; Youll Penny

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated) approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme – the 'Health of Londoners Programme' – in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing these key questions. Me...

  20. A Multi-Stage Method for Connecting Participatory Sensing and Noise Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyuan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment, and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1 spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2 multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3 dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for noise simulations on multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  1. A multi-stage method for connecting participatory sensing and noise simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingyuan; Che, Weitao; Zhang, Qiuju; Luo, Qingli; Lin, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment), and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1) spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2) multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3) dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for noise simulations on multiple spatio-temporal scales. PMID:25621604

  2. Model-driven software development approaches in robotics research

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaswamy, Arun Kumar; Monsuez, Bruno; Tapus, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there is an encouraging trend in adopting model-driven engineering approaches for software development in robotics research. In this paper, currently available model-driven techniques in robotics are analyzed with respect to the domain-specific requirements. A conceptual overview of our software development approach called 'Self Adaptive Framework for Robotic Systems (SafeRobots)' is explained and we also try to position our approach within this model ecosystem.

  3. Learning by doing: a participatory methodology for systematization of experiments with agroforestry systems, with an example of its application

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, H.N., de; Cardoso, I.M.; Mendonca, E.D.; Carvalho, A.F.; Oliveira, G.B., de; Gjorup, D.F.; Bonfim, V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory research methods have helped scientists to understand how farmers experiment and to seek partnerships with farmers in developing technologies with enhanced relevance and adoption. This paper reports on the development of a participatory methodology to systematize long-term experimentation with agroforestry systems carried out in a hotspot of biodiversity by non-governmental organizations and local farmers. A methodological guide for systematization and techniques used for Partic...

  4. Raising livestock in resource-poor communities of the North West Province of South Africa - a participatory rural appraisal study

    OpenAIRE

    J.K. Getchell; Vatta, A.F.; P.W. Motswatswe; Krecek, R C; R. Moerane; Pell, A N; Tucker, T. W.; S. Leshomo

    2012-01-01

    A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creatio...

  5. Providing Market Information for Ethiopian Farmers: Extending Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne

    In a developing country like Ethiopia, marketing of agricultural products is influenced by local, socioeconomic, cultural and IT infrastructure characteristics. ICT-based agriculture information systems have been proposed to support farmers with market information. However, such initiatives have often failed to provide useful information in an adequate form for farmers in remote areas. Participatory Design (PD) assumes to be effective approach to overcome these challenges. However, due to its origin in the western countries, the capability of users, motivation and desire to participate and availability of resources are often taken for granted. This work identifies challenges for applying PD in rural Ethiopia and proposes method for ‘Early-Stage’ of PD.

  6. With the lifeworld as ground. A research approach for empirical research in education - the Gothenburg tradition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jan, Bengtsson.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a brief introduction to the lifeworld approach to empirical research in education. One decisive feature of this approach is the inclusion of an explicit discussion of its ontological assumptions in the research design. This does not yet belong to the routines of empirical [...] research in education. Some methodological consequences of taking the lifeworld ontology as a ground for empirical research are discussed as well as the importance of creativity in the choice of method for particular projects. In this way, the lifeworld approach has its own particular perspective in phenomenological, empirical research in education. The article concludes with a description of an empirical study based on the lifeworld approach in order to illuminate the possibilities for empirical research in education as well as the significance of this approach for education.

  7. Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in the Rhine Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Speil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.

  8. Notas sobre a segunda avaliação externa do programa de treinamento em epidemiologia aplicada aos serviços do sistema único de saúde do Brasil - EPISUS: potencialidades do enfoque qualitativo-participativo / Notes on the second external evaluation of the training program in epidemiology applied to the services of brazil's national health system - EPISUS: potentialities of the qualitative-participatory approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Lúcia Magalhães, Bosi; Ricardo José Soares, Pontes.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva relatar o emprego do enfoque qualitativo-participativo, bem como discutir seus fundamentos e potencialidades, tomando como base a participação dos autores na segunda avaliação externa do Programa de Treinamento em Epidemiologia Aplicada aos Serviços do Sistema Único de Saúde - [...] EPISUS. Finalizada em outubro de 2007, em parceria com a Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde e o Center for Diseases Control (CDC/Atlanta), a referida avaliação incorporou o enfoque da chamada quarta geração (fourth generation evaluation), no qual os avaliadores operam como mediadores, substituindo, assim, os fundamentos do enfoque tradicional antes utilizado. Para tanto, tornou-se necessária uma demarcação conceitual referente aos conceitos avaliação, qualitativo e participativo que orientariam o processo avaliativo focalizado. Quanto ao conceito avaliação, sua natureza conflui para as propostas de quarta geração e, portanto, transita de um caráter punitivo para um caráter construtivo. A dimensão participativa aponta para diferentes sentidos do que seja participar e, na experiência aqui relatada, adotou-se o sentido decisório, onde se busca reverter assimetrias de poder. O qualitativo é concebido na interface com a subjetividade, referindo-se a informações que não se submetem à quantificação. Tal modelo permitiu desvelar aspectos que, muitas vezes, se ocultam nos números e nas generalizações abstratas, tornando possível focalizar as relações que constituem o cotidiano dos programas e práticas em saúde, subsidiando, assim, sua transformação. Abstract in english This paper aims to present the authors' experience concerning the use of the qualitative-participatory approach in the second external evaluation of the Training Program in Epidemiology Applied to the Services of the National Health System - EPISUS. Completed in October 2007, in partnership with the [...] Health Surveillance Department and the Center for Diseases Control (CDC / Atlanta), this evaluation incorporated the so-called fourth generation evaluation approach, in which the evaluators operate as mediators, thus replacing the foundations of the traditional approach used so far. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to carry out a conceptual delimitation referring to the concepts of evaluation, qualitative and participatory, which would guide the focused evaluative process. As for evaluation, its nature converges to the proposals of the fourth generation; therefore, it moved from a punitive character to a constructive one. The participatory dimension assumes different senses and, in the experiment reported here, this term is adopted in the decision sense, which attempts to reverse power asymmetries. The qualitative dimension is defined in the interface with subjectivity, referring to information that is not subject to quantification. This model revealed aspects that are often hidden in numbers and in abstract generalizations, enabling to focus on relationships that constitute the daily routine of the health programs and practices, and giving support to their transformation.

  9. Interviewing for Education and Social Science Research: The Gateway Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Carolyn Lunsford

    2009-01-01

    This volume introduces a fresh approach to research, using strategies adapted from oral history and educational criticism to traverse the boundaries of human experience, and bring to light matters of concern to education and social science researchers. This narrator-centered method, a by-product of the author's award-winning investigation into the…

  10. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  11. Conjecture Mapping: An Approach to Systematic Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, William

    2014-01-01

    Design research is strongly associated with the learning sciences community, and in the 2 decades since its conception it has become broadly accepted. Yet within and without the learning sciences there remains confusion about how to do design research, with most scholarship on the approach describing what it is rather than how to do it. This…

  12. Storytelling as Scholarship: A Writerly Approach to Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Sondra; Counihan, Beth; McCormack, Tim; Schnee, Emily

    2007-01-01

    What does it mean to take a writerly approach to research? Sondra Perl and her co-authors have pondered this question over the past five years as they have each worked with her to design and draft dissertations that combine their work as literacy researchers with their love of writing. Each of them has moved toward storytelling as a compelling and…

  13. The participatory archive of the sites of Danish rock music culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Line Vestergaard

    When setting out to tell the story of rock music culture, one approach is a focus at the “meeting places” where bands, fans and those behind the scenes have gathered. With this approach the cultural heritage of rock music becomes situated and site-specific, and it is nearby to think of ways to engage those who “inhabited” these specific sites of the previous 60 years of rock music culture. This paper will discuss how the issues of locality and rock music culture can be gathered and researched by a participatory (web 2.0) archive. The research is empirically focused at “The Map of Danish Rock History” as an example of such a digital participatory archive. This digital online project is initiated by the Danish Rock Music Museum and intends to gather material that portray the sites’ and meeting places’ (such as venues, festivals, youth clubs etc.) of Danish rock music culture. Danish rock music is a broad geographical and institutional phenomenon, not only present in the main cities but also flourishing in small towns, and not only at the well-known venues but also on the edges of the commercial scene as well as the institutionalized Danish welfare state. The history of many provincial hotbeds of rock culture (for example in the area of southern Jutland) have not been collected, documented and told yet. The museum wishes to bring this broad story of the places of Danish Rock music to the surface as cultural heritage by help from those who have had their lives and musical experiences in these places (rock fans and musicians) and those who have gathered material from these places (local archives, rock journalists, private enthusiasts, venue owners, volunteers etc.). This leads to the main question of this paper: What type of story is actually formulated when a heterogeneous group of people from outside the museum contributes with content to throw light on Danish rock music sites and localities? During several workshops with a group of people representing the potential contributors (as described just above) combined with a more broad (internet based) beta-testing of the participatory archive various content has been gathered. Site specific facts, stories, pictures, documents and videos have been uploaded to the archive and now represent the beginning of a conglomerate picture of the specific sites’ evolvement, their local circumstances and their influence on rock music environments, genres and collaborations. See www.rockensdanmarkskort.dk. In this paper, based on my phd.-project research, I wish to present some examples of these collaboratively generated portrays of Danish sites of rock music. In addition, I wish to explore more theoretically how these portrays of sites gathered in the participatory archive can be understood as collective expressions or networked knowledge (rather than narratives of individuals) of locally situated, but globally influenced, rock music communities?

  14. Measuring the Value of Research : A Generational Accounting Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmeister, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a generational accounting approach to valuating research. Based on the flow of scientific results, a value-added (VA) index is developed that can, in principle, be used to assign a monetary value to any research result and, by aggregation, on entire academic disciplines or sub-disciplines. The VA-index distributes the value of all applications that embody research to the works of research which the applications directly rely on, and further to the works of research of prev...

  15. Participatory System Dynamics Modeling for Sustainable Environmental Management: Observations from Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Stave

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable environmental management requires a decision support approach that accounts for dynamic connections between social and ecological systems, integrates stakeholder deliberation with scientific analysis, incorporates diverse stakeholder knowledge, and fosters relationships among stakeholders that can accommodate changing information and changing social and environmental conditions. Participatory system dynamics modeling provides such a framework. It supports stakeholder learning abou...

  16. Changing Coverage of Domestic Violence Murders: A Longitudinal Experiment in Participatory Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Charlotte; Anastario, Mike; DaCunha, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Stressing relation-building and participatory communication approaches, the Rhode Island Coalition against Domestic Violence worked with journalists to develop a best practices handbook on news coverage of domestic violence murders. This study compares print coverage of domestic violence murders prehandbook (1996-1999) and posthandbook…

  17. Experience Sampling Methods: A Modern Idiographic Approach to Personality Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Tamlin S; Tennen, Howard; Fleeson, William; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2009-05-01

    Experience sampling methods are essential tools for building a modern idiographic approach to understanding personality. These methods yield multiple snapshots of people's experiences over time in daily life and allow researchers to identify patterns of behavior within a given individual, rather than strictly identify patterns of behavior across individuals, as with standard nomothetic approaches. In this article, we discuss the origin and evolution of idiographic methods in the field of personality and explain how experience sampling methods function as modern day idiographic methods in this field. We then review four primary ways in which experience sampling methods have been used to foster idiographic approaches in personality research. Specifically, we highlight approaches that examine individual differences in temporal and behavioral distributions, situation-behavior contingencies, daily processes, and the structure of daily experience. Following a brief methodology primer, we end by discussing future directions for idiographic experience sampling approaches in personality psychology and beyond. PMID:19898679

  18. PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE IN THE PUBLIC HEALTHCARE SYSTEMS OF THE SCANDINAVIAN AND BALTIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu Aurelia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The diminished trust of citizens in the public sector, the increased complexity of policy issues and the reforms in accordance with the new public management principles generate the need of focusing more extensively on participatory governance. Participatory governance can be defined as the genuine engagement of citizens and other organizations in the formulation of policies and strategies, in the decision-making process from the public sector and in the implementation of the decisions. The present paper's objectives are to define the concept of participatory governance, to argue in favor of implementing it in the public sector and to find to what extent public healthcare institutions from Scandinavian and Baltic countries publish information on participatory governance and how they perceive community engagement. The research findings are that the information on participatory governance disclosed on the websites of relevant institutions from within the Scandinavian and Baltic public healthcare systems is scarce. The countries with the greatest concern for community engagement are Denmark and Sweden. It is argued that there should be a shift in focus within the public sector in general and within the healthcare system in particular, so that citizens are genuinely involved in the relevant processes and their satisfaction is indeed at an adequate level.

  19. Developing participatory models of watershed management in the Sugar Creek watershed (Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Weaver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

  20. Communicative aspects of participatory video projects : An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Bernhard

    1999-01-01

    This exploratory study analyses the functions and implications of participatory video projects inrural development settings. The term ‘participatory video’ refers to a bundle of innovativeusages of video technology which enjoy growing popularity in many corners of the world. Afterthe first trials in the late 1960s participatory video has developed into several differentdirections and there is no consensus of what the term actually stands for. In the currentliterature participatory video is cl...

  1. Aplicación de un enfoque participativo para la definición y evaluación de metas en un proyecto innovativo agropecuario local / Implementation of a participatory approach to the definition and evaluation of an innovative project goals in local agriculture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lydia, Angarica; Rodobaldo, Ortiz Pérez; Marguerite, Misteli Schmid; Francisco, Guevara Hernández.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En el proyecto Diseminación del Fitomejoramiento Participativo en Cuba (II Fase). Un Programa para fortalecer la innovación agropecuaria local (2007-2010), el equipo de monitoreo y sistematización desarrolló, junto a los ejecutores en los Centros Locales de Innovación Agropecuaria (CLIA) y la plataf [...] orma nacional, una metodología para el monitoreo y evaluación participativos, como instrumento para la planificación, el automonitoreo, la evaluación de impactos y la evaluación externa en los procesos de innovación agropecuaria. La base para tal empeño fue la definición y evaluación participativa de las metas realizadas en cada CLIA para alcanzar los resultados esperados. En el CLIA provincial de Pinar del Río este procedimiento permitió examinar la problemática local a partir de las perspectivas de los involucrados, concretar y ordenar sus aspiraciones en los procesos de innovación, facilitar la participación de mujeres y hombres identificando aspectos de interés y promover relaciones entre actores, reconociendo sus potencialidades internas en el diseño de estrategias para el desarrollo agropecuario de la localidad. Los resultados muestran la capacidad del CLIA para definir sus metas y jerarquizarlas en el corto, mediano y largo plazos; además, se ratifica que la incorporación de este procedimiento en la práctica de los proyectos, permite conocer las percepciones de la diversidad de actores que conforman los espacios locales, se identifican posibles alianzas y se armonizan intereses y resultados esperados en las estrategias de desarrollo con enfoque de género. Abstract in english The Spread of Participatory Plant Breeding project in Cuba (Phase II). Program to strengthen local agricultural innovation (2007-2010), the systematic monitoring equipment and systematization developed along the executors in local Agricultural Innovation Centers (CLIA) and the national platform a me [...] thodology for participatory monitoring and evaluation as a tool planning, self-monitoring, impact assessment and external evaluation in agricultural innovation processes. The basis for this effort was the definition and participatory assessment carried out in each CLIA goals to achieve the expected results. CLIA in Pinar del Río province this procedure allowed us to examine local issues from the perspectives of those involved, realize their aspirations and managing innovation processes, facilitate the participation of women and men identifying areas of concern and promote relations between actors recognize their inner potential in the design of strategies for agricultural development in the locality. The results show the ability of CLIA to define your goals and prioritize in the short, medium and long term, also confirming that the incorporation of this procedure in the practical project, allows to know the perceptions of the diversity of actors that make up the local areas, identify potential partnerships and harmonize interests and expected results in the development strategies with a gender perspective.

  2. Introduction: The Participatory Turn in Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš Krivý

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Footprint examines the recent participatory turn in urban planning and urban design. It discusses the co-opting of participatory processes by planning departments, the systematic disregard of inequalities, and the empowering of the market resulting from the ‘anti-statism’ present in many participatory schemes.What is the relationship between the institutionalisation of participation and the practices of autonomy, self-organisation, and inclusion? When and how does genuine empowerment of collectives take place? Does the demand for the empowerment of local organisations and communities strengthen the market forces at the expense of central government?This issue attempts to problematise ‘participation’, to call attentions to some of its shortcomings, deficits, and limitations, not in order to necessarily bypass the demand for the democratisation of the urban, but in order to rectify and strengthen it.

  3. Using Interdisciplinary and Active Research to Encourage Higher Resolution Research and Prototyping in Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adream Blair-Early

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available University art and design programs are branching out and creating interdisciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to position industry and academic leaders to work alongside students, community leaders, artists and non-profits to develop creative and innovative solutions to the challenges facing contemporary society. But product design benefits even more from practices that engage users throughout the entire design process, often called participatory design. Participatory design process utilizes user feedback throughout the design process to spur innovation and improve design quality. It is possible in the classroom to engage in participatory design and participatory prototyping through the use of inexpensive 3D printers and laser cutters as well as traditional hand tools, requiring only mastery of a few simple techniques and technology readily available on laptop computers. The class research being presented was conceived as part of a new interdisciplinary classroom research space call the Digital Craft Research Lab (DCRL housed within the department of Art and Design. Courses taught within the DCRL offer students, researchers and faculty continual access to both low resolution and high-resolution prototyping machinery and materials. This paper looks at the role of action and participatory research in a design course that created printed hand innovations in collaboration with a nine-year-old female user. Students were asked to work on modeling new designs as well as capturing the progress in a final open source book and models. This paper asks the question can the use of classroom collaboration, action research and work spaces encourage creativity, innovation, and critical thinking in student and professional designers?

  4. A Research Strategy for Investigating Business Process Management Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gibson

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We are witnessing a revolution in industry which, if successful, will change forever how business systems are developed and the type of staff required. This paradigm shift has only recently become possible as business process conceptual understanding evolved, technologies have matured and higher abstraction levels have become possible. Industry leads Business Processing Systems research as it has the strategic imperative and resources to be effective. Academic research is faced with three challenges: firstly, how to do effective research in an area of such broad scope, secondly, how to make research relevant to practice, thirdly how to spend limited resources effectively. This paper defines the research framework for effective academic research at the University of Wollongong by the Software Effective Process group. Effective research is enabled by co-ordinating research based on the primacy of the business model and its resultant effective representation in executable systems. The framework aims to build a core research team, promote strong synergy with existing research areas, and create academic and industry relevant research.. We report on the results to date of our pilot program and seek feedback and advice to help us refine our approach. A major Australian project is utilising a new software development lifecycle for ‘system of systems’ development which has arisen out of this research strategy. Later papers will report on both the theoretical basis and practical impacts of this work and other research by the group.

  5. Making Investments in Dryland Development Work: Participatory Scenario Planning in the Makanya Catchment, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bossio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The agro-ecosystems of semi-arid and dry sub-humid SSA are inherently dynamic. At this point in time they are also experiencing a series of complex social–ecological changes that make their future even more uncertain. To ensure that development investments made today in the small-scale farming systems that dominate these regions make sense also in a long-term perspective they should benefit the local communities over a range of potential futures. We applied a participatory scenario planning approach to a smallholder farming community in semi-arid Tanzania, exploring four alternative development trajectories for the area, to increase the robustness of current investments in small-scale water system technologies. We found that water system technologies will be important across a number of possible futures, but that the most relevant target of these innovations, e.g., staple- versus cash-crop production, or individual- versus community-managed systems, differs. We argue that building capacity for experimentation among farmers is key to upgrading their farming systems, as this will generate benefits over a range of alternative futures. Furthermore, we found it to be essential across a range of scenarios to analyze the system-level impact of proposed interventions for successful investments in water system technologies. We conclude that although the method presents some challenges, participatory scenario planning is a useful tool for integrating research and development projects in the larger context, asit increases the understanding of events and processes that may either challenge the project or provide opportunities for it.

  6. Sweetpotato breeding for northeastern Uganda: farmer varieties, farmer-participatory selection, and stability of performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Agro-biodiversity, farmer varieties, indigenous knowledge, farmer-participatory research, genetic diversity, genotype-by-environment interaction, germplasm collection, Ipomoea batatas , specific adaptation, yield stability, sweetpotato, variance component estimates.Between 1999 and 2001, the author conducted various studies, primarily in northeasternUganda, aimed at rapidly assessing the potential of farmer varieties of sweetpotato ( Ipomoea batatas ) from northeasternUgandain cont...

  7. Experience Sampling Methods: A Modern Idiographic Approach to Personality Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tamlin S. Conner; Tennen, Howard; Fleeson, William; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2009-01-01

    Experience sampling methods are essential tools for building a modern idiographic approach to understanding personality. These methods yield multiple snapshots of people’s experiences over time in daily life and allow researchers to identify patterns of behavior within a given individual, rather than strictly identify patterns of behavior across individuals, as with standard nomothetic approaches. In this article, we discuss the origin and evolution of idiographic methods in the field of pers...

  8. Two-year participatory monitoring of extractivism in Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter

    Sustainable use of nontimber forest products (NTFP) in Amazonia, the World’s largest remaining contiguous rainforest, largely rests upon understanding patterns of resource use involving rural livelihoods to better inform conservation science. Brazil encompasses three-quarters of Amazonia, where non-indigenous semi-subsistence groups referred to as caboclos, outnumber native Amerindians by a factor of ten. The Brazilian government has committed to supporting participatory programs where monitoring biodiversity and co-management of natural resources are spearheaded by residents of sustainable-use protected areas. Notable among these initiatives is the Programa de Monitoramento da Biodiversidade e do Uso de Recursos Naturais em Unidades de Conservação Estaduais do Amazonas (ProBUC). ProBUC aims to 1) sensitize community residents to the importance of monitoring the state of natural resource use and establish norms for sustainable use, 2) train community residents to lead monitoring programs, 3) monitor species with high market potential (e.g. palms), 4) monitor species of special interest (e.g. red listed by IUCN), and 5) monitor land-use change. Since 2005, ProBUC has developed pilot projects in three conservation units, including two extractive reserves. Extractive reserves, defined as forest areas inhabited by extractive populations granted long-term usufruct rights to forest resources which they collectively manage, are among the most important protected area types, accounting for one seventh of Brazilian Amazonia. Here, we present the results of a two-year participatory monitoring program of extractive activities by caboclos inhabiting one of ProBUC’s pilot areas, the Uacari Sustainable Development Reserve, as well as the Médio Juruá Extractive Reserve, both within the Juruá River basin of western Brazilian Amazonia. We discuss the most important extractive activities for ~100 households, how socio-economic factors influence NTFP extractive patterns across households, and the benefits and constraints of using participatory approaches to monitor extractivism in Amazonia.

  9. Introduccion y evaluacion de Phymastichus coffea (tlymenoptera: Eulophidae) en fincas de pequeños caficultores, a traves de investigaciòn participativa / Introduction and evaluatiòn of Phymastichus coffea (tlymenoptera: Eulophidae) in smallholder coffee farms, through participatory research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUIS FERNANDO, ARISTIZABAL A; HUGO MAURICIO, SALAZAR E; CARLOS GONZALO, MEJIA M; ALEX E, BUSTILLO P..

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cenicafe en convenio con el ICO-CFC-CABI Bioscience adelanto un proyecto de investigacion participativa con pequeños caficultores de Caldas, Quindio y Risaralda relacionado con el manejo de la broca del cafe. Durante este proyecto se realizaron las primeras liberaciones de Phymastichus coffea (La Sa [...] lle) en Colombia, con el proposito de darlo a conocer a los caficultores. iniciar su introduccion y evaluar su establecimiento. En el estudio se consideraron 41 fincas localizadas entre 1.200 y 1.800 m de altitud. Durante 20 meses el manejo de la broca se baso en recolecciones frecuentes de cafe maduro y en liberaciones de P. coffea. Los caficultores realizaron evaluaciones de infestacion de broca, posiciones de penetracion en los frutos y colectaron frutos infestados para evaluar el establecimiento del parasitoide. En total se colectaron 455 muestras de frutos infestados. En el 49,2% (N = 224) de las muestras se observò la presencia de P. coffea. Se detectò la presencia de P. coffea hasta 14 meses despues de la ultima liberacion. En las fincas de los municipios de Balboa, Montenegro y Belalcazar se observaron los parasitismos mayores 5,6, 5,6 y 4.7% en promedio, respectivamente. En contraste, las fincas de los municipios de Riosucio. Buenavista y Santa Rosa de Cabal presentaron parasitismos menores 0,7, 1,3 y 1,9% en promedio. respectivamente. El parasitismo maximo fue 42%. Es importante resaltar la presencia de P. coffea en el 87,5% de los predios en donde fue liberado, ya que se demuestra que se puede establecer en los agroecosistemas cafeteros del pais. Abstract in english In collaboratiòn with ICO-CFC-CABI Bioscience, Cenicafe conducted a farmer participatory research project with smallholder coffee growers in Caldas, Quindio and Risaralda, related to the management of the coffee berry borer. During this study the first release of Phymastichus coffea (La Salle) was m [...] ade in Colombia with the main purpose of allowing farmers to learn about this parasitoid, initiate its introduction, and evaluate its establishment. Forty-one coffee farms participated in the study, which were located between 1.200 and 1.800 meters elevatiòn. For 20 months coffee berry borer management was based on frequent harvests of mature coffee and releases of P. coffea. Farmers made evaluatiòns of insect infestaciòn, positions of borer penetratiòn in the berry and collected infested berries to evaluate the parasitoid establishment. Altogether 455 samples of infested berries were collected. In 49,2% (N = 224) of the samples the presence of P. coffea was observed. The presence of P. coffea was detected up to 14 months after the last release. In farms of Balboa, Montenegro and Belalcazar, the highest parasitism was observed: mean of 5,6. 5,6 and 4,7%, respectively. In contrast, farms of Riosucio, Buenavista and Santa Rosa de Cabal, had lower parasitism: mean of 0,7. 1,3 and 1,9%. respectively. Maximum parasitism observed was 42%. It is important to emphasize that P. coffea was present in 87,5 % of the farms where it was released, demonstrating that it can be established in the coffee agroecosystems of the country.

  10. Introduccion y evaluacion de Phymastichus coffea (tlymenoptera: Eulophidae en fincas de pequeños caficultores, a traves de investigaciòn participativa Introduction and evaluatiòn of Phymastichus coffea (tlymenoptera: Eulophidae in smallholder coffee farms, through participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FERNANDO ARISTIZABAL A

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cenicafe en convenio con el ICO-CFC-CABI Bioscience adelanto un proyecto de investigacion participativa con pequeños caficultores de Caldas, Quindio y Risaralda relacionado con el manejo de la broca del cafe. Durante este proyecto se realizaron las primeras liberaciones de Phymastichus coffea (La Salle en Colombia, con el proposito de darlo a conocer a los caficultores. iniciar su introduccion y evaluar su establecimiento. En el estudio se consideraron 41 fincas localizadas entre 1.200 y 1.800 m de altitud. Durante 20 meses el manejo de la broca se baso en recolecciones frecuentes de cafe maduro y en liberaciones de P. coffea. Los caficultores realizaron evaluaciones de infestacion de broca, posiciones de penetracion en los frutos y colectaron frutos infestados para evaluar el establecimiento del parasitoide. En total se colectaron 455 muestras de frutos infestados. En el 49,2% (N = 224 de las muestras se observò la presencia de P. coffea. Se detectò la presencia de P. coffea hasta 14 meses despues de la ultima liberacion. En las fincas de los municipios de Balboa, Montenegro y Belalcazar se observaron los parasitismos mayores 5,6, 5,6 y 4.7% en promedio, respectivamente. En contraste, las fincas de los municipios de Riosucio. Buenavista y Santa Rosa de Cabal presentaron parasitismos menores 0,7, 1,3 y 1,9% en promedio. respectivamente. El parasitismo maximo fue 42%. Es importante resaltar la presencia de P. coffea en el 87,5% de los predios en donde fue liberado, ya que se demuestra que se puede establecer en los agroecosistemas cafeteros del pais.In collaboratiòn with ICO-CFC-CABI Bioscience, Cenicafe conducted a farmer participatory research project with smallholder coffee growers in Caldas, Quindio and Risaralda, related to the management of the coffee berry borer. During this study the first release of Phymastichus coffea (La Salle was made in Colombia with the main purpose of allowing farmers to learn about this parasitoid, initiate its introduction, and evaluate its establishment. Forty-one coffee farms participated in the study, which were located between 1.200 and 1.800 meters elevatiòn. For 20 months coffee berry borer management was based on frequent harvests of mature coffee and releases of P. coffea. Farmers made evaluatiòns of insect infestaciòn, positions of borer penetratiòn in the berry and collected infested berries to evaluate the parasitoid establishment. Altogether 455 samples of infested berries were collected. In 49,2% (N = 224 of the samples the presence of P. coffea was observed. The presence of P. coffea was detected up to 14 months after the last release. In farms of Balboa, Montenegro and Belalcazar, the highest parasitism was observed: mean of 5,6. 5,6 and 4,7%, respectively. In contrast, farms of Riosucio, Buenavista and Santa Rosa de Cabal, had lower parasitism: mean of 0,7. 1,3 and 1,9%. respectively. Maximum parasitism observed was 42%. It is important to emphasize that P. coffea was present in 87,5 % of the farms where it was released, demonstrating that it can be established in the coffee agroecosystems of the country.

  11. Is dementia research ready for big data approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The "big data" paradigm has gained a lot of attention recently, in particular in those areas of biomedicine where we face clear unmet medical needs. Coined as a new paradigm for complex problem solving, big data approaches seem to open promising perspectives in particular for a better understanding of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In this commentary, we will provide a brief overview on big data principles and the potential they may bring to dementia research, and - most importantly - we will do a reality check in order to provide an answer to the question of whether dementia research is ready for big data approaches. PMID:26099627

  12. Opciones cualitativas en psicología política y género: La investigación Acción Participativa en estudios sobre maltrato y formas de violencia política que afecta a niños, niñas y jóvenes / Qualitative options in political psychology and gender: Participatory Action Research studies on child abuse and forms of political violence that affects children and young people

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Olga L, Obando S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a partir de la revisión de algunos criterios de la Investigación Acción Participativa (IAP): influencia del investigador, acuerdo, transparencia y acoplamiento, se intenta señalar el significado que de este enfoque de investigación cualitativa para el abordaje de problemáticas como el malt [...] rato y algunas formas de violencia política que afectan a niños, niñas y jóvenes, problemáticas que son transversales a los intereses del quehacer investigativo y de intervención de una Psicología política y una Psicología de género, desde el enfoque de una psicología social crítica. METODOLOGIA: las metas emancipatorias de ese quehacer exigen de la implementación de metodologías que reconozcan el análisis de tramas de sentido, en el cual emergen significados sobre factores desencadenantes de los problemas y factores que posibilitan el desarrollo de alternativas de solución. El componente empírico lo constituyen algunos hallazgos de investigaciones sobre el racismo, la identidad femenina en sujetos con experiencia de maltrato, la construcción de subjetividades y el fenómeno de participación política en niños y en jóvenes desvinculados de grupos armados irregulares. Se introduce el texto con cifras sobre el maltrato y la desvinculación de niños y jóvenes del conflicto armado como forma de violencia política y algunas reflexiones sobre el compromiso de los psicólogos en el manejo de estas problemáticas. RESULTADOS: se resumen algunos antecedentes históricos de la IAP y sus elementos significativos como propuesta crítica y cualitativa de investigación e intervención y se finaliza el texto, al significar criterios científicos de la IAP -la influencia del investigador, el acuerdo y la transparencia- con base en hallazgos del componente empírico. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: since the revision of some criteria of the Participatory Action Research (par): the researcher`s influence, agrees, transparency and coupling, we try to point out the significance that this approach is qualitative research to address problems like abuse and some forms of political violenc [...] e that affect children and young people. Issues that are cross to the interests of investigative work and intervention of a political psychology and psychology of gender, since the focus of a critical social psychology. METHODOLOGY: the goals of this task requiring the deployment of methodologies analyzes recognize the pattern of meaning as a space in which meanings emerge on triggers of the problems and factors that enable the development of alternative solution. The empirical component consists of some research findings on racism, women’s identity in subjects with experience of abuse, the construction of subjectivities and the phenomenon of political participation in children and young people demobilized from illegal armed groups. The text shows dates of abuse and the untying of young children and armed conflict as a way of forms of political violence and some thoughts about the commitment of psychologists in handling these problems. RESULTS: a summary of some historical background to the par and its significant elements as proposed critical and qualitative research and intervention, and ends the text to mean scientific criteria of the par, the influence of the researcher, agreement and transparency, based on empirical findings of the component.

  13. Patenting at public research organisations: a multidisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Azagra Caro, Joaquín; Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we stress two points. First, analysis of public patenting should expand their focus from universities to Public Research Organisations (PRO). Second, a multidisciplinary approach allows for a richer view and interpretation of results. We adopt historical and economic perspectives to address these issues, with data from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the largest PRO in Spain. We distinguish three periods in the history of CSIC, according to the political context: ...

  14. Participatory interaction design in user requirements specification in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Susanna; Ikävalko, Pauliina; Korpela, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare information systems are accused of poor usability even in the popular media in Finland. Doctors especially have been very critical and actively expressed their opinions in public. User involvement and user-centered design methods are seen as the key solution to usability problems. In this paper we describe a research case where participatory methods were experimented within healthcare information systems development in medicinal care in a hospital. The study was part of a larger research project on Activity-driven Information Systems Development in healthcare. The study started by finding out about and modeling the present state of medicinal care in the hospital. After that it was important to define and model the goal state. The goal state, facilitated by the would-be software package, was modeled with the help of user interface drawings as one way of prototyping. Traditional usability methods were extended during the study. According to the health professionals' feedback, the use of participatory and user-centered interaction design methods, particularly user interface drawings enabled them to describe their requirements and create common understanding with the system developers. PMID:20841698

  15. Citizen Participation for the Improvement of Local Management: Realities, Myths and Challenges about the Participatory Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Pagani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The conceptions of participatory phenomenon are wide and generate various positions. Several authors agree that municipal government, as the face of the State closer to its citizens, is the privileged place to develop participatory public policies, which contributes to make more transparent, efficient, inclusive and democratic the government management. This proximity would allow local actors to participate in communal development processes and would enable them to diagnose problems, participating in decision-making and public policies designing and its evaluation. Moreover, it is noticed that the State transfer its duties to the society through manipulation of participatory policies, which are used as artificial means to build consensus. This article explores the fundamentals, implementation methodologies and results in four cases of participatory budgeting (in La Plata, San Fernando, San Miguel and San Martín. The main lines of analysis focused on the characterization of the projects generated by this policy, the changes in local management and the type of social participation. This research used semi structured and in depth interviews, observations, documentary research with secondary sources of information generated by municipalities (website, laws, institutional documentation, brochures, statistics and academic works produced by other researchers.

  16. Participatory appraisal of the impact of epizootic lymphangitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, C E; Zerfu, A; Pinchbeck, G P; Reed, K; Gebreab, F; Aklilu, N; Mideksa, K; Christley, R

    2015-07-01

    Epizootic lymphangitis (EZL) is reported to have a significant impact upon livelihoods within resource-poor settings. This study used a participatory approach to explore peoples' experiences of EZL and examine the perceived impact of disease, owner knowledge and understanding of EZL, lay management of disease and, attitudes and strategies towards disease prevention. Focus-group discussions were held with 358 cart-horse owners and drivers recruited from 7 towns attended by SPANA (Society for the protection of animals abroad) mobile veterinary clinics and 2 unexposed towns where no SPANA clinics were available. Focus group discussions explored four main research questions: (1) Is EZL recognised by animal owners, and is this considered an important disease in equids? (2) What factors do animal owners associate with the development of disease? (3) What happens to an animal with clinical disease and how does this impact upon the owner/community? (4) Are measures taken to reduce disease occurrence? These key areas were explored using photographs, disease ranking, matrices and open discussion. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The results are presented thematically and include: recognition and descriptions of EZL, treatment strategies used, disease priorities and ranking, impact of disease, disease transmission and attitudes and approaches to disease prevention. EZL was widely recognised and ranked highly as an important disease of equids. However, there was uncertainty around identifying early cases of EZL, and this could impact upon the timing of initiating treatment and separating potentially infectious animals. People had varying knowledge of effective methods for disease prevention and reported particular difficulties with isolating infected animals. The impact of EZL was multi-dimensional and encompassed effects upon the horse, the individual owner and the wider society. Working equids provide a vital utility and source of income to many people in resource-poor settings. Often, infection with EZL resulted in a reduction in working ability which had a direct impact upon the livelihoods of owners and their dependent family members. EZL also impacted upon the welfare of the horse as sick animals continued to be worked and, in advanced cases, horses were abandoned due to ineffective or unavailable treatment. This study conceptualises the importance of EZL due to the effects of the disease on the horse and its impact upon human livelihoods. Epizootic lymphangitis is a neglected disease that requires further investigation in order to develop practical and sustainable disease control strategies within endemic regions. PMID:25980831

  17. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD and the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat (TBS. The key benefits of the approach are the following: i the breadth of the overall (cybersecurity space is described; ii depth statements about specific (cybersecurity challenges are articulated and mapped to the breadth of the problem; iii specific (cybersecurity initiatives that have been resourced through funding or personnel are tracked and linked to specific challenges; and iv progress is assessed through key performance indicators. Although we present examples from cybersecurity, the method may be transferred to other domains. We have found the approach to be rigorous yet adaptive to change; it challenges an organization to be explicit about the nature of its research and experimental development in a manner that fosters alignment with evolving business priorities, knowledge transfer, and partner engagement.

  18. Music Teacher Effectiveness: Selected Historical and Contemporary Research Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Manny

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and analyzes selected past and current research approaches in the study of music teacher effectiveness. Early "teacher characteristic studies" are discussed along with the role of these first-generation studies in attempting to identify personal qualities and characteristics of apparently effective or ineffective teachers.…

  19. Narrative Inquiry: A Spiritual and Liberating Approach to Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Elizabeth McIsaac

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies various research characteristics of narrative inquiry including its holistic and creative approach and its emphases on experience, relationships and participation, subjectivity and consciousness-raising, commitment and resistance, ethical action, and claiming voice and power. The author suggests that these characteristics…

  20. Participatory Exploration of Digitalizing Cultural Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Winschiers-Theophilus, Heike; Koch Kapuire, Gereon; Stanley, Colin; Chivuno-Kuria, Shilumbe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a joint investigation of a Herero wedding ceremony as a sample of cultural content to be digitalized. We have through participatory exploration scrutinized embodied media bias and representation with Herero elders in Namibia. One finding is that this method has enabled the elders to be active agents in the digital portrayal and construction of their culture.