Participatory approaches have become de rigueur in research for development. A goal of many participatory projects is to generally empower beneficiaries, beyond the scope of the immediate project. The technical and organizational learning, the social contacts, and the prestige that result from participation continue to serve beneficiaries after the end of a project. These benefits would accrue more in projects with higher levels of participation. However, in the event of a premature end or an...
Vaughan, Gregory; Lanc?on, Jacques
This book, published as part of Routledges Studies in Human Geography, is useful well beyond this discipline, as it provides a welcome review of Participatory Action Research (PAR). In three major sections, beginning and ending with Reflections that bracket the Action section, this collection provides a timely overview of the current status of this methodology, as well as many useful examples of applying PAR as a research process.
Full Text Available This book, published as part of Routledges Studies in Human Geography, is useful well beyond this discipline, as it provides a welcome review of Participatory Action Research (PAR. In three major sections, beginning and ending with Reflections that bracket the Action section, this collection provides a timely overview of the current status of this methodology, as well as many useful examples of applying PAR as a research process.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR), with its emphasis on joining with the community as full and equal partners in all phases of the research process, makes it an appealing model for research with vulnerable populations. However, the CBPR approach is not without special challenges relating to ethical, cultural, and scientific issues. In this article, we describe how we managed the challenges we encountered while conducting a CBPR project with a Native American community. We also sug...
This investigation seeks to understand "action research" as an approach to "interactive form of evaluation". The first half of the investigation illuminates the approach with the help of the selective body of literature and the second half draws attention to its application in the field with the help of an authentic evaluation plan. Action
Chaudary, Imran Anjum; Imran, Shahida
This thesis is concerned with development of improved management practices in indigenous chicken production systems in a research process that includes participatory approaches with smallholder farmers and other stakeholders in Kenya. The research process involved a wide range of activities that included on-station experiments, field surveys, stakeholder consultations in workshops, seminars and visits, and on-farm farmer participatory research to evaluate the effect of some improved managemen...
Ndegwa, Joseph Mutitu
Analyzes selected critical issues concerning participatory research in adult education. Defines participatory research and looks at its development. Links this with the significance and rationale of the participatory approach in adult education and focuses on the problems of this approach. (JOW)
Mtonga, Harry L.
The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.
Magnussen, Rikke; SÃ¸rensen, Birgitte Holm
This manuscript presents the evaluation of a 3 year community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach involving the testing of a psychosocial intervention to improve reproductive and mental health of married women in a disadvantaged community in Beirut, Lebanon. The community-based participatory approach involved a community advisory committee (CAC), a local women committee (LWC), and university researchers. The evaluation of the CBPR approach followed qualitative assessment which included: analysis of compiled field notes and minutes of meetings of CAC and LWC throughout the 3 years of the intervention, and focus group discussions and individual interviews conducted with the CAC and the LWC members following completion of the trial. The CBPR approach confirmed feasibility, cultural adequacy, as well as representation of community needs. Five main emerging themes came out of the FGD and interviews with CAC and LWC. The community and women involved viewed that the CBPR approach allowed for a good understanding of the community, they felt ownership of the study, acknowledged that participation gave the women voices, and established trust, and acknowledged the challenges faced. This manuscript describes how the community was involved, reports on their evaluation of the CBPR process, and discusses challenges to CBPR in this particular context. PMID:21311960
Kobeissi, Loulou; Nakkash, Rima; Ghantous, Zeina; Saad, Maya Abou; Yassin, Nasser
Financed partly by the French ministry in charge of environment, PRIME is a participative research coordinated by IRSN. The aim is to develop with stakeholders and experts a prospective method to build a multicriteria decision tool for ranking specificities of territories which identifies its vulnerability in case of nuclear accident. The method is elaborated through the participation of experts, decision-makers and local actors in order to enable the risk managers to choose the appropriate strategy in case of an accident involving radioactive substances. The method establishes the hierarchy of factors of the sensitivity of a territory to radioactive pollution. The studied zone is situated within the radius of about 50 km around three nuclear sites in the South of France. The main questions of this project are the following: Does the sensitivity of the territory of 50 km radius around a nuclear site depend only on the distance from the source or, alternatively, can it vary depending on the type and the use of the soils? Which criteria are important for the people living in the area and how are they balanced? Which of them would be particularly useful for decision-making? Can the multi criteria method be an appropriate tool to treat the data and make them visible and accessible? The characteristic of the project is to combine different opinion of the vulnerability of a territory in a participatory approach. The first step is to identify, alongside with stakeholders, the factors of the sensitivity of a territory and to establish correlation between them. The second step is to provide the managers and people who have to decide in such case with data necessary for working out the preparation and action plans for rationalizing the decision-making in the field of post-accidental management. As expected results, we hope to simplify the representation about territorial consequences of radiological contamination and to elaborate management tools common for different actors who a priori speak different 'languages', tools showing the evaluation of radio ecological sensitivity of a territory for further exploration. We will also share the main findings concerning the way to manage such a challenging social process. (author)
In the past, researchers have inadvertently caused stigmatization of various populations, first by not involving community members and then through publishing negative findings. In contrast, participatory research, which is based on a partnership between researchers and those affected by the issue being studied, promotes the voice of those being researched. This essay highlights key principles, processes, complexities, and challenges of participatory research and outlines when participatory r...
Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.
Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila
Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution. PMID:24748238
Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on specific community needs, and produces results that directly address those needs. Although conducting ethical CBPR is critical to its success, few academic programs include this training in their curricula. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an online training course designed to increase the use of CBPR in mental health disciplines. Developed using a participatory approach involving a community of experts, this cours...
Smikowski, Jane; Dewane, Sarah; Johnson, Mark E.; Brems, Christiane; Bruss, Catherine; Roberts, Laura W.
Background: Following decades of conflict, South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011. Prolonged conflict, which included gender-based violence (GBV), exacerbated gender disparities. This study aimed to assess attitudes towards gender inequitable norms related to GBV and to estimate the frequency of GBV in sampled communities of South Sudan. Methods: Applying a community-based participatory research approach, 680 adult male and female household respondents were interviewed in seven si...
Scott, Jennifer Ann; Averbach, Sarah Helene; Modest, Anna; Hacker, Michele Renee; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen
Full Text Available Contemporary research in early childhood education turned from adult-centered orientations to investigations based on childrens views, involved in data collection as competent research informants. Within this context, a variety of creative methodological frames and tools infused specific research. The present contribution discusses and exemplifies one of the innovative research tools in early education research, namely photography, through a small-scale qualitative study conducted with preschoolers as main data collectors. The study focuses on childrens perceptions of their learning space, in its very material understanding, in an attempt to challenge at the same time anthropocentric tendencies in early education research. Data are discussed mainly against the methodological framework, but discussions also emphasize materiality and material surroundings as sources and determinants of early learning experiences. Photographs produced by preschoolers as research participants illustrate their balanced orientation towards human and material determinants of their learning processes: although instructed to take photos of their learning space, final data included a large percentage of photos with human figures as central points of interest (either early education professionals or peers. These results are consistent with findings of similar studies, as well as participants preference for outdoor settings and indoor objects with aesthetic value.
Nicoleta Laura POPA
Full Text Available Abstract For many sub-Saharan African countries, a National Health Research System (NHRS exists more in theory than in reality, with the health system itself receiving the majority of investments. However, this lack of attention to NHRS development can, in fact, frustrate health systems in achieving their desired goals. In this case study, we discuss the ongoing development of Zambias NHRS. We reflect on our experience in the ongoing consultative development of Zambias NHRS and offer this reflection and process documentation to those engaged in similar initiatives in other settings. We argue that three streams of concurrent activity are critical in developing an NHRS in a resource-constrained setting: developing a legislative framework to determine and define the systems boundaries and the roles all actors will play within it; creating or strengthening an institution capable of providing coordination, management and guidance to the system; and focusing on networking among institutions and individuals to harmonize, unify and strengthen the overall capacities of the research community.
How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard
Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.
Background Web or Internet-based surveys are increasingly popular in health survey research. However, the strengths and challenges of Web-based surveys with people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are unclear. Objective The aim of this article is to describe our experience piloting a cross-sectional, Web-based, self-administered survey with adults living with HIV using a community-based participatory research approach. Methods We piloted a Web-based survey that investigated disability and rehabilitation services use with a sample of adults living with HIV in Canada. Community organizations in five provinces emailed invitations to clients, followed by a thank you/reminder one week later. We obtained survey feedback in a structured phone interview with respondents. Participant responses were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using directed content analysis. Results Of 30 people living with HIV who accessed the survey link, 24/30 (80%) initiated and 16/30 (53%) completed the survey instrument. A total of 17 respondents participated in post-survey interviews. Participants described the survey instrument as comprehensive, suggesting content validity. The majority (13/17, 76%) felt instruction and item wording were clear and easy to understand, and found the software easy to navigate. Participants felt having a pop-up reminder directing them to missed items would be useful. Conclusions Strengths of implementing the Web-based survey included: our community-based participatory approach, ease of software use, ability for respondents to complete the questionnaire on ones own time at ones own pace, opportunity to obtain geographic variation, and potential for respondent anonymity. Considerations for future survey implementation included: respondent burden and fatigue, the potentially sensitive nature of HIV Web-based research, data management and storage, challenges verifying informed consent, varying computer skills among respondents, and the burden on community organizations. Overall, results provide considerations for researchers conducting community-based participatory Web-based survey research with people living with HIV.
Solomon, Patricia; Worthington, Catherine; Ibanez-Carrasco, Francisco; Baxter, Larry; Nixon, Stephanie A; Baltzer-Turje, Rosalind; Robinson, Greg; Zack, Elisse
Quality improvement programs for depression in primary care can reduce disparities in outcomes. We describe how community-partnered participatory research was used to design Community Partners in Care, a randomized trial of community engagement to activate a multiple-agency network versus support for individual agencies to implement depression QI in underserved communities.
Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Dixon, Elizabeth L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Wells, Kenneth
It is challenging to change physicians' antimicrobial prescribing behaviour. Although antimicrobial prescribing is determined by contextual (e.g. a lack of guidelines), cultural (e.g. peer practice) and behavioural (e.g. perceived decision making autonomy) factors, most antimicrobial stewardship programmes fail to consider these factors in their approach. This may lead to suboptimal intervention effectiveness. We present a new approach in antimicrobial stewardship programme development that addresses relevant determinants of antimicrobial prescribing: participatory action research (PAR). PAR is a collaborative process that aims to bring about change in social situations by producing practical knowledge that is useful in local practice. It requires substantial involvement of relevant stakeholders to address determinants of the studied behaviour and to facilitate empowerment. PAR is well suited for complex problems in multidisciplinary settings as it adapts to local needs, delivering a tailored approach to improving local practice. We describe how PAR can be applied to antimicrobial stewardship, and describe the PAR design of two ongoing multicentre antimicrobial stewardship projects, in the acute care setting and the long-term care setting, respectively. PMID:24648505
van Buul, Laura W; Sikkens, Jonne J; van Agtmael, Michiel A; Kramer, Mark H H; van der Steen, Jenny T; Hertogh, Cees M P M
This paper develops a reflexive approach on the relations between research and action in works on participatory democracy; a topic in which bridges are numerous between academic, political and activist fields. It aims at analyzing the impact of the close links between sociologists and actors on the methods and results of research and, reciprocally, the role of sociology in developing participatory practices. Relying on Michael Burawoys reflection on public sociology, our own research...
Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved socially and politically. The PAREU model empowers the community to take action from the research they, themselves, conducted, and enables them to carry out future research. Finally, many of these communities (and the general public) lack the understanding of the nature of science, which leads to ignorance on the part of citizens in areas of science such as climate change. By participating in science/social science research, community members gain a better understanding of the nature of science, making them more informed citizens. The PAREU model is theoretically grounded in decades of research in social science and documented impacts of student research experiences. In addition to providing practical benefits for communities with needs solvable by scientific research, the model builds on and expands student skills gained from traditional REU programs Deep and sustained engagement among scientists, social scientists, and community leaders is expected to create better informed citizens and improve their ability to solve problems.
Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.
Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging research relationships and generate.
Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde
Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR) as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR appro...
Tara Ford; Stacy Rasmus; James Allen
Objectives. The purpose of this article is to describe a community-based participatory research pilot project conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that Pacific Islanders (PIs) hold toward biospecimen collection, use, and banking, all of which will help drive higher PI participation rates in both medical and behavioral research studies. Method. Academic and community partners worked side by side to develop a conceptual model, study measures, and study protocols. PI community partners screened, recruited, and conducted data collection, which consisted of a paper-and-pencil survey and a 1-hour semistructured interview administered by trained community workers. Results. A total of 60 PI adults representing various PI ethnic groups completed the surveys and interviews. Results showed a general support for biospecimen studies that would benefit the community, and many are willing to provide their biospecimen samples if asked. Conclusion. Due to the established level of trust, community partners were able to successfully recruit and collect data for the study. Many of those interviewed also called for more outreach and education about the importance of biospecimen research in their communities. PMID:24396121
Kwan, Patchareeya P; Briand, Greta; Lee, Cevadne; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Pang, Jane Ka'ala; Sabado, Melanie; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Tanjasiri, Sora; Tui'one, Vanessa; Palmer, Paula H
Full Text Available This article reviews 'Revolutionizing education', a deeply reflective and retrospective book of scholarship on critical questions about youth participatory action research. The book contains a series of case study chapters that examine how youth participatory action research transforms young people and the social contexts in which they live as well as the learnings and implications yielded from this research. The book examines youth participatory action research both for its radical and revolutionary challenge to 'traditional research' practices but also for its active focus on research as a vehicle for increasing critical consciousness, developing knowledge for 'resistance and transformation' and for creating social change. It represents an important contribution to the field of youth participatory action research and community-based research.
The use of geo-visualization for participatory planning purposes is a challenging field of research. Reason for this is that researchers involved with the subject currently lack a common rationale for the integration of the two complementary domains: participatory planning and geo-visualization. Consequently existing knowledge still needs to be extracted from various relevant sub-domains of research. Therefore a literature research was conducted to make an inventory of aspects that influence ...
Bloemmen, M. H. I.; Fransen, H.; Hoogerwerf, T. C.; Ligtenberg, A.; Lammeren, R. J. A.
Full Text Available Linking sociological, artistic, and participatory elements in research has far-reaching consequences for research practice on the whole. The artistic approach represents a difference to everyday and sociological manners of thinking and acting. This difference not only determines other questions and points of view, but also opens up special communication and reflection spaces in research fields. This, in turn, is of great value for both the participatory and the sociological approach. In this article I depict the relevance of the artistic approach for participatory practice in sociological research. My remarks are limited to the first phase of research. On the basis of a project example, I portray my own special research practice by reflecting on aspects of research design and aspects of communication among those involved.
Although logic models are now touted as an important component of health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation, there are few published manuscripts that describe the process of logic model development, and fewer which do so with community involvement, despite the increasing emphasis on participatory research. This paper describes a process leading to the development of a logic model for a youth mental health promotion intervention using a participatory approach in a Palestinian re...
Afifi, Rema A.; Makhoul, Jihad; El Hajj, Taghreed; Nakkash, Rima T.
Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.
Naydene de Lange
National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development...
Flicker, Sarah; Travers, Robb; Guta, Adrian; Mcdonald, Sean; Meagher, Aileen
Latinas living in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, few effective interventions currently exist that are designed to meet the priorities and needs of recently arrived and less acculturated immigrant Latinas who are settling in the southeastern US. To identify sexual health priorities, gaps in information and skills, and key intervention characteristics to improve sexual health among immigrant Latinas, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership conducted four focus groups with Latinas, in central North Carolina. Findings revealed: a lack of knowledge about sexual health; shame and embarrassment related to clinical exams and conversations about sex; multi-level barriers to sexual health; and disease transmission misinformation. Findings also suggested that interventions should include information about a broad range of sexual and reproductive health topics and skill-building. Such interventions could serve to assist in diminishing health disparities experienced among this vulnerable population.
Cashman, Rebecca; Eng, Eugenia; Siman, Florence; Rhodes, Scott D.
Participatory action research (PAR) represents an approach that is deeply consonant with counseling psychology's commitments to social equity and action. However, counseling psychologists who would like to study this literature, or who would like to write about a project of their own, may discover that the reporting of PAR is not straightforward:
Smith, Laura; Rosenzweig, Lisa; Schmidt, Marjorie
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.
This report presents the results of work carried out ARGONA project. The main objective has been to gain some appreciation of the success, or otherwise, of several public involvement approaches associated with radioactive waste disposal facility siting in general and of various involvement activities and techniques in particular, especially any that appear to be novel in their content and/or application. The main focus of the analysis has been to examine three case studies. Firstly the use of stakeholder panels as part of the consultation about the BPEO (Best Practicable Environmental Option) study for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at Britain's former centre for fast reactor research and development at Dounreay in northern Scotland; secondly, the series of subsequent 'drop-in' meetings held to communicate information about the development of the agreed solution for these wastes (namely a near-surface disposal facility); thirdly, work carried out by the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez (NRI) in the Czech Republic, as part of ARGONA WP5.1, involving a series of stakeholder meetings to examine radioactive waste management in the context of plans for the management of spent fuel. In order to evaluate the success or usefulness of the approaches, techniques and meetings involved, we have developed a participation process 'Evaluation Matrix'. This has involved the use of criteria against which particular approaches and activities may be judged. In order to develop these we have adapted criteria developed as part of the RISCOM II project and developed a parallel set of descriptions to enable us to examine each activity through the 'lens' of an appropriate Evaluation Matrix. We have then conducted an evaluation using these 'ARGONA criteria' for the three separate case studies. It is recognised that the literature currently fails to offer a methodology for comparing approaches and allowing selection of appropriate techniques for use in particular circumstances. The methodology adopted here has shown that it is however possible to map approaches and techniques against RISCOM-type criteria using a range of information, including feedback forms, questionnaires and interviews. This can inform about how particular approaches are perceived by both sides and assist in development of more suitable methods for the future. Evaluation of the different activities and techniques employed in the three case studies has allowed insight into several common factors, such as timing, purpose of the involvement, scale of the involvement, and development of suitable discussion arenas. We consider that this work makes a contribution to responding to the absence of a comparison methodology by proposing the development of a 'knowledge base' as a basis for reporting participation studies in a manner that would facilitate comparisons and selection of methods appropriate to particular issues. We consider that the resulting knowledge base should be developed in the form of a library of relevant approaches (techniques, meeting types etc) that can be 'indexed' in terms of what the desired end result might be (a requirement for advice; development of societal consensus; provision of clarity regarding a contentious issue etc) and cross referenced as to their suitability at different stages of an involvement process. The intention would then be that a 'customer' agency could consult the knowledge base and identify possible approaches and techniques that would be suitable for use (and adaptation) in the particular situation and at the relevant process stage in question. The approach could be developed more widely to include a large number of processes and a large number of 'requirement criteria' as components in the knowledge base. It should be emphasised, however, that such an approach should be used for communication about what it means to use certain processes, and not as a calculation tool to decide on which method to use in a simple objective manner
Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provid...
Darya Hirsch; Geraldine Abrami; Raffaele Giordano; Stefan Liersch; Nilufar Matin; Maja Schlüter
Drawing on Thomas, Whybrow and Scharber's four participatory perspectives, this paper describes and complicates endeavours to move beyond utilitarian perspectives of infant participation in participatory research. It proposes that film-mediated encounters between researchers and infants have the potential to be more than sites that privilege
Elwick, Sheena; Sumsion, Jennifer
Full Text Available Objective This project, based on a study of the impact of art programs in public libraries on the teenaged participants, sought to show how library practitioners can perform embedded, participatory research by adding participants to their research team. Embedded participatory techniques, when paired with grounded theory methods, build testable theories from the ground up, based on the real experiences of those involved, including the librarian. This method offers practical solutions for other librarians while furthering a theoretical research agenda.Methods This example of embedded, participatory techniques used grounded theory methods based on the experiences of teens who participated in art programs at a public library. Fourteen teens participated in interviews, and six of them assisted in coding,analyzing, and abstracting the data, and validating the resulting theory.Results Employing the teenagers within the research team resulted in a teen-validated theory. The embedded techniques of the practitioner-researcher resulted in a theory that can be applied to practice.Conclusions This research framework develops the body of literature based on real world contexts and supports hands-on practitioners. It also provides evidence-based theory for funding agencies and assessment. In addition, practitioner-based research that incorporates teens as research partners activates teens voices. It gives them a venue to speak for themselves with support from an interested and often advocacy-minded adult.
Shannon Crawford Barniskis
Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to address health issues. Few evidence exist to indicate how builds the capacity of communities to function as health promoter and what resources are required to promote successful efforts. This article presents the result of a capacity assessment for preventing drug abuse through CBPR, which working with rather than in communities, to strengthen a community's problem-solving capacity. For exploring the perce...
Kh, Shahandeh; Majdzadeh, R.; Jamshidi, E.; Loori, N.
This exploration of the racial power dynamics in a participatory action research project with women who had experienced intimate partner violence discusses the challenges inherent in doing participatory action with antiracist intent and offers suggestions for overcoming these challenges. To engage in this type of research, explicit commitment to the goals of an antiracist intent needs to be shared as widely as possible. Fostering such shared commitment demands that the social locations of all involved be interrogated continuously. Such interrogation, however, needs to be prefaced with understanding that individuals are not representative of particular power positions or social identities or locations and with critical attention to how language and social structures shape racism and other forms of dominance. Being inclusive must be understood as complex and the influence of diverse agendas and perspectives acknowledged and taken into account. In the face of such complexity, "success" in research may need redefinition. PMID:16829636
Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good information about the participants and the context in which the method will be applied, knowledge of the local language(s, and careful training of local moderators. While these aspects are relevant to any application of participatory methods, they become even more important in a political and socio-cultural setting such as that found in Uzbekistan. One added value of the activities and a crucial aspect of a participatory research processes was the capacity building of local scientists and practitioners, which facilitates the further application of the methods.
The purpose of this evaluation was to explore the collaborative nature of partners in a rural mental health program for the elderly, and to test an adapted method of assessing the collaborative process. Sixteen collaborative partners were interviewed to explore ratings of collaboration across 6 domains identified as critical to participatory research. Results indicate that the context of rural Missouri and uniqueness of the program necessitated an approach to collaboration that began with a t...
Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails....
Zoellner Jamie; Hill Jennie L; Zynda Karen; Sample Alicia D; Yadrick Kathleen
Deaf people who use American Sign Language (ASL) are medically underserved and often excluded from health research and surveillance. We used a community participatory approach to develop and administer an ASL-accessible health survey. We identified deaf community strengths (e.g., a low prevalence of current smokers) and 3 glaring health inequities: obesity, partner violence, and suicide. This collaborative work represents the first time a deaf community has used its own data to identify health priorities.
Barnett, Steven; Klein, Jonathan D.; Pollard, Robert Q.; Samar, Vincent; Schlehofer, Deirdre; Starr, Matthew; Sutter, Erika; Yang, Hongmei
Interventions involving communityacademic partnerships must be driven by a participatory approach that is informed by a comprehensive understanding of the perspectives of communities or focus populations. Often research agendas of academics are different from perceived priority needs of community members. Successful and sustainable interventions are made possible with initial open dialogue among all collaborators so that roles are clearly defined and concerns are addressed. This article de...
Gwede, Clement K.; Menard, Janelle M.; Martinez-tyson, Dinorah; Lee, Ji-hyun; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Padhya, Tapan A.; Meade, Cathy D.
Pure Participatory Action Research projects in the IMP research tradition are rather rare. This paper describes both the process and the outcomes of such a project carried out for a major business to retail firm in the UK. The issue at hand was, and is, Key Account Management, defined in a very broad way. The process is one of changing the ways in which the actors in the firm at different levels work together to try to coordinate the long term strategy and short term operations in relation to...
Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.
Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes re [...] sults of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.
Loewenson, Rene; Flores, Walter; Shukla, Abhay; Kagis, Maija; Baba, Amuda; Ryklief, Ashraf; Mbwili-Muleya, Clara; Kakde, Dhananjay.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Participatory educational research is generally characterised by a commitment to making a difference in the lives of those who participate in the research and more broadly, to promoting social transformation. This suggests a potentially fruitful synergy between participatory educational research and [...] the multidisciplinary body of academic work on generativity as a human capacity that has at its core a desire to contribute to the well-being of others. As a research team of teacher educators from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, we seek to add an alternative dimension to current debates on participatory educational research by focusing on understanding the 'how' and 'what' of generativity in a participatory research process. The research question we address is: How does/can engagement in participatory educational research facilitate generativity? While participatory research literature often concentrates on collaboration between researchers and 'researched' communities, we are taking a reflexive stance by exploring our own participation in our dual roles as university community members and as researchers studying our colleagues' experiences in relation to integration of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related issues in university curricula. We describe how our use of the visual method of storyboarding facilitated insight into generativity in participatory educational research. Building on an earlier concept of generativity, we identify and discuss significant generativefeatures ofparticipation, playfulness, passion, and perspicacity in our research process.
Linda, van Laren; Ronicka, Mudaly; Kathleen, Pithouse-Morgan; Shakila, Singh.
Full Text Available Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease prevention, and other health issues in California. The survey is used for policy and program development, advocacy, and research. Methods The development of the California Health Interview Survey involves more than 145 people from more than 60 state and local policymaking bodies, public health agencies, advocacy groups, research organizations, and health care organizations. They participate as volunteers in an advisory board, on technical advisory committees, and in work groups that interact with California Health Interview Survey research staff in an accountable advisory process that shapes survey topics, measures, and sample design and determines languages selected for translation. Survey results and data are provided to the communities involved in the survey. Results California Health Interview Survey data have been widely used by local, state, and national public health leaders, policymakers, advocates, and researchers to improve access to health insurance and health care services and to develop and target prevention programs for obesity and chronic illnesses. Conclusion The California Health Interview Survey participatory research model has been an effective approach to planning and implementing a health survey and should be considered by developers of other large health surveys.
E. Richard Brown, PhD
Freire's theory of social change informs analysis of youth-focused participatory research, with researchers describing links between participation and young people's critical thinking. There is less analysis of how youth move from the safe social space of a participatory research project to take health-promoting action in difficult real-world contexts. This article analyses a project conducted with Papua New Guinean youth, disrupting assumptions that critical thinking inevitably leads to critical action on health. Findings suggest the need to shift the focus of participatory research from supporting 'safe social spaces' to supporting 'transformative action in context' to concretely contribute to improving youth health. PMID:24058110
Full Text Available Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operated for 4 years (2005-2008 in Borno state of Nigeria. Survey results indicated that farmers who participated in project activities' have been successful in increasing crop yields. Both yields and per capita production of major crops were statistically significantly higher (ñ? 0.05 in project communities compared to non-project ones. It is also estimated that there was a decline in percentage of households in food insecurity situation in project communities. Probit regression revealed that participation in project activities had a positive and significant effect on household food security (ñ? 0.05. It is then concluded that development interventions that involve multiple stakeholder partnership, use of participatory research and extension approach can help increase technology uptake among resourcepoor farmers as well as increase food production and food security in a region.
Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals. PMID:19040372
McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Lovera, Dalia; Nuss, Henry; Wise, Carolyn; Ning, Baitang; Teitel, Candee; Clark, Beatrice Shelby; Toennessen, Terri; Green, Bridgett; Bogle, Margaret L; Kaput, Jim
Participatory research is essential in public health studies, but using this methodology to examine sensitive public health problems among vulnerable populations is a challenge. We share some of our trials and tribulations in attempting to use participatory research in our substance abuse studies among transnational Mexican migrants in southeastern Pennsylvania. Major challenges did not permit partnerships across the community in all phases of research, including the dissemination of findings...
Garcia, Victor; Gonzalez, Laura
Full Text Available Dean Blevins1,2,3, Bridget Morton4, Rene McGovern5,61South Central Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (SC-MIRECC, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System; 2University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; 3University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus, Little Rock, AR; 4Northeast Missouri Health Network, Kirksville, MO; 5A.T. Still University/Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, Kirksville, MO; 6Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OHAbstract: The purpose of this evaluation was to explore the collaborative nature of partners in a rural mental health program for the elderly, and to test an adapted method of assessing the collaborative process. Sixteen collaborative partners were interviewed to explore ratings of collaboration across 6 domains identified as critical to participatory research. Results indicate that the context of rural Missouri and uniqueness of the program necessitated an approach to collaboration that began with a top-down approach, but greater community responsibility developed over time. Partners recognized the efforts of the programs directors to seek input. Most were satisfied with their roles and the degree of success achieved by the program, although several wanted to have more input in the future in some domains, but not in others. Interviews revealed numerous barriers to achieving sustainability. Methods to improve the assessment of collaboration are discussed and areas for improvement are offered.Keywords: community-based participatory research, elderly, mental health, older adults, rural
Dissemination, or distribution, of empirically-supported interventions (ESIs) for psychopathology remains a significant challenge. This paper reviews the principles of community-partnership research (CPR) and explores why CPR might improve distribution of psychological ESIs. Benefits of CPR include building trust, pooling resources and knowledge, and better serving a community by directly involving its members in the design and implementation of research. In addition, after establishing a com...
Becker, Carolyn Black; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Woda, Susan
Full Text Available As the concept of participatory training has been disseminated to pedagogy area, traditional preschool teacher training continuously conflicts with such training of modern mode. In China, in the field of preschool education, participatory training for teachers has been established gradually. This mode is centered on group dynamics to form a constant group dynamics system under the interactive checks and balances of three mechanisms of driving force: the driving force, the cohesive force and the binding force. This thesis mainly elaborates the basic key elements of group structure on the basis of the participatory training modes dynamics structure and operation mechanism, and in detail analyzes the main guarantee conditions for healthy operation of the participatory training mode.
The disability community has experienced a long history of segregation and exclusion. With the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, discriminatory attitudes and behaviors would no longer be tolerated under law. In recent decades, disability researchers have also experienced a shift in how research projects are designed and conducted, with participatory action research (PAR) playing a prominent role. This paper provides an overview of these shifts and presents a qualitative ...
Oden, Kristin; Hernandez, Brigida; Hidalgo, Marco A.
Participatory action research (PAR) is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, wit...
Full Text Available Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR approach involved the advancement of three key strategies including: (a the local steering committee made up of youth, tribal leaders, and elders, (b youth-researcher partnerships, and (c youth action-groups to translate findings. Results. The addition of a local youth-action and translation group to the CBPR process in the southwest Alaska site represents an innovative strategy for disseminating findings to youth from a research project that focuses on youth resilience and wellbeing. This strategy drew from two community-based action activities: (a being useful by helping elders and (b being proud of our village. Conclusions. In our study, youth informed the research process at every stage, but most significantly youth guided the translation and application of the research findings at the community level. Findings from the research project were translated by youth into serviceable action in the community where they live. The research created an experience for youth to spend time engaged in activities that, from their perspectives, are important and contribute to their wellbeing and healthy living. Youth-guided CBPR meant involving youth in the process of not only understanding the research process but living through it as well.
Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.
Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia
Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol
Water has always been held in high respect by the Apsaálooke (Crow) people of Montana. Tribal members questioned the health of the rivers and well water due to visible water quality deterioration and potential connections to illnesses in the community. Community members initiated collaboration among local organizations, the Tribe and academic partners, resulting in genuine community based participatory research. The article shares what we have learned as tribal members and researchers about ...
Cummins, C.; Doyle, J.; Kindness, L.; Lefthand, M. J.; Bear Don T Walk, U. J.; Bends, A.; Broadaway, S. C.; Camper, A. K.; Fitch, R.; Ford, T. E.; Hamner, S.; Morrison, A. R.; Richards, C. L.; Young, S. L.; Eggers, M. J.
Just as the notion of participatory approaches has been subjected to questioning and criticism, so has the more specific notion of participatory approaches to monitoring and evaluation. There are parallel possibilities of tokenism and even of manipulation, here, just as there are parallels around the need for more critical reflection and dialogue. Even if not actually manipulative, participatory evaluation can involve little more than the occasional use of particular techniques from a partici...
Rooke, Alison; Mayo, Marjorie C.
Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicagos Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing
Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicagos Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing
Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, as well as key challenges for the future are also discussed.
Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.
Using a community-based participatory research approach, we explored adolescent, parent, and community stakeholder perspectives on barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, and intervention ideas to address adolescent obesity. We conducted 14 adolescent focus groups (n = 119), 8 parent focus groups (n = 63), and 28 interviews with community members (i.e., local experts knowledgeable about youth nutrition and physical activity). Participants described ecological and psychosocial barrie...
Goh, Ying-ying; Bogart, Laura M.; Sipple-asher, Bessie Ko; Uyeda, Kimberly; Hawes-dawson, Jennifer; Olarita-dhungana, Josephina; Ryan, Gery W.; Schuster, Mark A.
In environmental health research, a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach can effectively involve community members, researchers, and representatives from nonprofit, academic, and governmental agencies as equal partners throughout the research process. The authors sought to use CBPR principles in a pilot study; its purpose was to investigate how green construction practices might affect indoor exposures to chemicals and biological agents. Information from this pilot informed the development of a methodology for a nationwide study of low-income urban multifamily housing. The authors describe here 1) the incorporation of CBPR principles into a pilot study comparing green vs. conventionally built urban housing, 2) the resulting implementation and reporting challenges, and 3) lessons learned and implications for increased community participation in environmental health research. PMID:24988659
Ponder-Brookins, Paris; Witt, Joyce; Steward, John; Greenwell, Douglas; Chew, Ginger L; Samuel, Yvette; Kennedy, Chinaro; Brown, Mary Jean
Participatory approaches are frequently recommended for international development programs, but few have been evaluated. From 2007 to 2010 the Andean Change Alliance evaluated an agricultural research and development approach known as the "Participatory Market Chain Approach" (PMCA). Based on a study of four cases, this paper examines the fidelity of implementation, the factors that influenced implementation and results, and the PMCA change model. We identify three types of deviation from the intervention protocol (lapses, creative adaptations, and true infidelities) and five groups of variables that influenced PMCA implementation and results (attributes of the macro context, the market chain, the key actors, rules in use, and the capacity development strategy). There was insufficient information to test the validity of the PMCA change model, but results were greatest where the PMCA was implemented with highest fidelity. Our analysis suggests that the single most critical component of the PMCA is engagement of market agents - not just farmers - throughout the exercise. We present four lessons for planning and evaluating participatory approaches related to the use of action and change models, the importance of monitoring implementation fidelity, the limits of baseline survey data for outcome evaluation, and the importance of capacity development for implementers. PMID:23619235
Horton, Douglas; Rotondo, Emma; Paz Ybarnegaray, Rodrigo; Hareau, Guy; Devaux, André; Thiele, Graham
Wo partizipative Forschung dem Pragmatismus einer drittmittelgeförderten (Gesundheits Forschung begegnet: Herausforderungen bei der Suche nach bedeutungsvollen Forschungsräumen Where Participatory Approaches Meet Pragmatism in Funded (Health Research: The Challenge of Finding Meaningful Spaces Donde los enfoques participativos encuentran al pragmatismo en la investigación financiada en salud: El desafío de descubrir espacios significativos
Full Text Available Der Begriff partizipative Forschung wird mittlerweile häufig zur Kategorisierung eines Typus von Untersuchungen gebraucht, der sich weg von Forschung "über" Menschen hin zur Forschung "mit" Menschen entwickelt hat. Der Artikel beschäftigt sich mit einigen Unklarheiten eines partizipativen Untersuchungsansatzes und mit deren möglichen Einflüssen auf die konkrete Forschungspraxis. Im Mittelpunkt stehen Probleme, die daraus erwachsen, dass partizipative Forschung an die Anforderungen in akademischen Räumen angepasst werden muss, die dieser Methodik aber nur wenig Anerkennung gewähren. Es wird gezeigt, wie wichtig es ist, eigene Forschungsräume zu kreieren, um partizipative Methodendesigns zu realisieren, die einem diskursiven Ansatz entsprechen. Erst dadurch wird es möglich, die Qualität und die Resultate dieser Methoden schätzen zu lernen. Das Hauptargument ist, dass eine besondere Stärke partizipativer Forschung darin besteht, eine ganze Vielfalt an sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschungsansätzen und zwecken aufzugreifen. Eine Klärung der gemeinsamen Kennzeichen des partizipativen Paradigmas und die Entwicklung geeigneter Kritikformen könnten einen Beitrag dafür liefern, dass partizipative Forschung stärker in der Sozialforschung, der Forschungsförderung und der öffentlichen Verwaltung aufgegriffen wird. Dadurch würde es auch möglich werden, angemessener die besondere Natur und Absicht einer authentischen Beteiligung der Forschungspartner/innen zur Geltung zu bringen.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1201187 The term participatory research is now widely used as a way of categorising research that has moved beyond researching "on" to researching "with" participants. This paper draws attention to some confusions that lie behind such categorisation and the potential impact of those confusions on qualitative participatory research in practice. It illuminates some of the negative effects of "fitting in" to spaces devised by other types of research and highlights the importance of forging spaces for presenting participatory research designs that suit a discursive approach and that allow the quality and impact of such research to be recognised. The main contention is that the adoption of a variety of approaches and purposes is part of the strength of participatory research but that to date the paradigm has not been sufficiently articulated. Clarifying the unifying features of the participatory paradigm and shaping appropriate ways for critique could support the embedding of participatory research into research environments, funding schemes and administration in a way that better reflects the nature and purpose of authentic involvement.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1201187 El término investigación participativa es hoy utilizado ampliamente como una forma de categorizar la investigación que ha ido mas allá de investigar "acerca de los" a investigar "con los" participantes. Este documento atrae la atención sobre alguna confusión que está detrás de tal categorización y sobre el impacto potencial de esas confusiones en la investigación cualitativa participativa en la práctica. Destaca algunos de los efectos negativos de "encajar" a espacios ideados por otros tipos de investigación y remarca la importancia de forjar espacios para presentar diseños de investigación participativa que concuerdan con una aproximación discursiva y que permiten que el impacto y la calidad de este tipo de investigación sean reconocidos. El argumento principal es que la adopción de una variedad de enfoques y propósitos es parte de la fortaleza de la investigación participativa pero que hasta la fecha el paradigma no ha sido suficientemente articulado. Clarificar las funciones unificadas del paradigma participativo y formar los medios apropiados para la crítica pueden apoyar a la incorporación de la investigación participativa a los escenarios de la investigación, esquemas de financiamiento y administración, en una forma que refleje mejor la naturaleza y propósito d
This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation principles in radiation protection. Insight was also gained in what information should be collected or subject studied for emergency management. It was proved to be essential that information is in the proper form for decision-making. Therefore, methods and models to assess realistically the radiological and cost implications of different countermeasures need to be further developed. In the consequent assessments, it is necessary to take production, economic, demographic and geographical information into account. Also, the feasibility and constraints of protective actions, such as logistics, require further investigation. For example, there seems to exist no plans in the EU or Nordic countries to dispose radioactive waste that may result from decontamination. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop for tackling a decision problem that concerns many different key players. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in planning actions in advance. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although its suitability was not rated as highly as for planning. The suitability of the approach in the early phase of an accident was rated the lowest. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises in order to revise emergency plans or identify issues that need to be resolved. The pros and cons of the facilitated workshop method can be compared with the conventional approaches. The general goal in all methods is that key players would be better prepared for an accident situation. All participatory methods, when practiced in advance, also create a network of key players. Facilitated workshops provide the participants with an forum for structured dialogue to discuss openly the values behind the decision. Stakeholder network can evaluate and augment generic countermeasures but all the possible and feasible protective actions cannot be justified and optimised in depth. The ranking of protective actions depends on weigh
Although logic models are now touted as an important component of health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation, there are few published manuscripts that describe the process of logic model development, and fewer which do so with community involvement, despite the increasing emphasis on participatory research. This paper describes a process leading to the development of a logic model for a youth mental health promotion intervention using a participatory approach in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon. First, a needs assessment, including quantitative and qualitative data collection was carried out with children, parents and teachers. The second phase was identification of a priority health issue and analysis of determinants. The final phase in the construction of the logic model involved development of an intervention. The process was iterative and resulted in a more grounded depiction of the pathways of influence informed by evidence. Constructing a logic model with community input ensured that the intervention was more relevant to community needs, feasible for implementation and more likely to be sustainable.
Afifi, Rema A; Makhoul, Jihad; El Hajj, Taghreed; Nakkash, Rima T
Full Text Available Engagement in collaborative learning and knowledge building activities is still a big challenge for many workplace-learning designers. Especially in highly competitive environments people might be reluctant to give away too much of their tacit knowledge. A feeling of ownership and an involvement of the individual in the planning of the learning activities can be important motivational factors. In an international research project called IntelLEO Intelligent Learning Extended Organization we intend to follow a participatory design approach involving individual workers from the very beginning of the development process. The planned user participation will range from the first conceptual design phase through the different development stages until the final validation of the system. Our hypothesis is that this involvement will increase the motivation of the individuals for collaborative learning and knowledge building activities.
Aim of the study: Forest management planning in a region typically involves multiple stake holders. Decisions processes are idiosyncratic, driven by individual goals and supported by segmented forest-based information. Nevertheless, stake holders' decisions do impact one another leading to complex interaction networks where communication, cooperation and negotiation play a key role. This research addresses the need to develop decision tools to support these roles. Emphasis is on the integration of participatory planning tools and techniques in the architecture of a regional decision support toolbox. Area of the study: The proposed approach was applied in the Chamusca County in Central Portugal although it is easily extended to other regions. Material and methods: This research proposes an Enterprise Architecture methodological approach to design a toolbox that may address distinct stake holders' interests and decision processes, while enabling communication, cooperation, negotiation and information sharing among all those involved in the regional interactions network. Main results: the proposed approach was tested in a regional network involving decision processes and information shared by 22 entities clustered into 13 stake holders groups, including industrial owners, and non-industrial private forest land owners (NIPF) acting individually or grouped into associations and federations, national and regional offices of the forest authority, forest services providers, non-governmental organizations and research centers. Results suggest that the proposed approach may provide a toolbox that may effectively address stake holders decision processes and goals and support the regional interaction network. (Author)
Marques, A. F.; Borges, J. G.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Lucas, B.; Melo, I.
Full Text Available Young women and girls formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups face multiple challenges. Many become pregnant or have children while they are associated and face stigma and marginalization upon reintegration into civilian communities. This article describes a multi-year participatory action research study that took place in twenty communities in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and northern Uganda from 2006 2009 and included more than 650 young mother participants. We find that this community-based approach to reintegration improved the wellbeing of young mother participants and their children. We discuss the challenges and limitations of conducting participatory action research with war-affected young people and make recommendations for future reintegration programming.
The formulation and communication of fish advisories are highly complex because of the potential conflict between the nutritional and toxicological issues associated with fish consumption. Government and organization-sponsored fish advisories have had limited success in changing behaviors. Participatory approaches may enhance the understanding of complex issues and the adoption of new behaviors. Here we used social network analysis to investigate the adoption of dietary changes within the context of a community participatory research project. In the Brazilian Amazon, many communities are highly exposed to methylmercury from fish consumption. A participatory intervention based on dietary changes aimed at reducing methylmercury exposure while maintaining fish consumption was initiated in 1995. In 2001, we collected data on individual participation in the research, on the discussion network regarding mercury issues and on changes in fish consumption from 96 of the 110 village households. More than half of men and women had adopted new fish consumption behavior to reduce mercury exposure. Adoption was associated with participation in the research project for both women and men, and with a higher number of discussion partners about mercury issues for women. Adoption was likewise associated with the presence of a female communication partner in the personal networks of both men and women. At the household level, men and women who considered their spouse as a discussion partner were more likely to adopt than those who did not. Opinion le]adership was associated with change in fish consumption only for women. We discuss the contribution of community participation and communication networks to overcome the difficulties in generating complex messages that take into account both health benefits and risks of fish consumption. We also discuss the relevance of building preventive health programs based on participatory research approaches and the roles and relations specific to men and women. PMID:22172976
Mertens, Frédéric; Saint-Charles, Johanne; Mergler, Donna
In this paper we propose that taking time before the work begins to develop agreements about how to work together in participatory action research enables researchers to directly address several ethical issues that can be problematic in this type of research: gaining fully informed consent; in-group confidentiality; cultural misconceptions; and
Balakrishnan, Vishalache; Cornforth, Sue
Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual meth...
Naydene de Lange; Mart-Mari Geldenhuys
Full Text Available Health statistics leave little doubt that the current health system in Iran,which is mainly based on primary health care (PHC, is a functioningone, and that health in Iran has improved far beyond where it was 40years ago. However, this system has its limitations too. While PHC isvery effective in reducing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseasesand other acute conditions, it is far less effective in addressingchronic and multi-factorial conditions which are now emerging in Iran.In this article, we review some of the salient features of the currenthealth system in Iran, its strengths and limitations, and then introducecommunity-based participatory research (CBPR as a method thatcould potentially fill some of the gaps in the system. We will discussthe definition and steps needed to implement CBPR, provide someimportant references, and discuss how this approach may not onlyimprove the health system but it could also lead to improvement inother fields in the society too.
Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management. PMID:23860379
Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret
The fifty years since the 100th anniversary of John Dewey's birth have marked the emergence of new technologies that afford a wealth of previously unknown approaches to learning, making it not only possible but practicable for Dewey's educational vision of participatory learning to be realized on a mass scale. This article discusses these
Cunningham, Craig A.
This essay uses the interplay of biography and the historical development of society to discuss how one female teacher has experienced learning and teaching throughout her life. It also presents the results of the teacher's exploration of the dialogic, experiential, and participatory (DEP) approach to teaching and learning that she has explored.
Chow, Esther Ngan-ling
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The
Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana
This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the
Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher
Renewable energy sources today can provide a promising alternative to conventional power generation, provided some economic, institutional, social and technical barriers could be overcome, and the appropriate planning instruments for their deployment are developed. In Greece, contemporary practice seems inadequate to address the multiple character of renewables and the need to 'open up' the decision-making process to actively include all stakeholders. A number of case studies has been examined in order to formulate a new regulatory framework. The results suggested that participatory multi-criteria decision aiding techniques can capture renewable energy and local stakeholders values as reflected in the weights and criteria. A new framework is established and proposed as a complement to current practice. (author)
Heracles Polatidis; Dias Haralambopoulos [University of the Aegean Mytilene (Greece). Dept. of Environmental Studies
Water availability, use and quality in a rural watershed of the Colombian Andes were investigated through participatory research involving local youth. Research included the quantification of disaggregated water use at the household level; comparison of water use with availability; monitoring water quality of streams, community water intakes and household faucets; and the determination of land use-water quality interactions. Youth were involved in all aspects of the research from design to implementation, dissemination of results and remediation options. Quantification of domestic and on-farm water use, and water availability indicated that water availability was sufficient during the study period, but that only an 8% decrease in dry season supply would result in shortages. Elevated conductivity levels in the headwaters were related to "natural" bank erosion, while downstream high conductivity and coliform levels were associated with discharges from livestock stalls and poorly maintained septic tanks in the stream buffer zone. Through the involvement of youth as co-investigators, the knowledge generated by the research was appropriated at the local level. Community workshops led by local youth promoted water conservation and water quality protection practices based on research, and resulted in broader community participation in water management. The approach involving youth in research stimulated improved management of both land and water resources, and could be applied in small rural watersheds in developed or developing countries. PMID:19500900
Roa García, C E; Brown, S
Youth constitute an important section of our society. They are the biggest reservoir of human resources and are the future of our country. Their development has direct affect on the development of the nation. Street Theatre is not a moment's act. It is a participatory approach which deals with fictional narratives and thus used for communicating
Capila, Anjali; Bhalla, Pragati
The persistent theory-practice gap shows how challenging it can be for healthcare professionals to keep updating their practices. The continuing education challenges are partly explained by the tremendous stream of new discoveries in health and the epidemic of multi-morbid conditions. Participatory action research (PAR) is used in healthcare as a research approach that capitalizes on people's resources to better understand and enhance their professional practices. PAR thus can consolidate our knowledge on workplace learning in continuing interprofessional education while directly improving quality of care. However, PAR lacks clear scientific criteria to ensure the consistency between the investigators' methodology and philosophy, which jeopardize its credibility. This paper outlines the principles of rigour in PAR and describes the additions of a preliminary planning phase to Kemmis and McTaggart's PAR description as well as the use of the professional co-development group, an action-oriented data collection method. We believe that this will help PAR co-participants achieve improved scientific rigour and encourage more investigators to collaborate through this research approach contributing to the advancement of knowledge on workplace learning in continuing interprofessional education. PMID:24559150
Langlois, Sophie; Goudreau, Johanne; Lalonde, Lyne
Objective: since the revision of some criteria of the Participatory Action Research (p a r): the researcher`s influence, agrees, transparency and coupling, we try to point out the significance that this approach is qualitative research to address problems like abuse and some forms of political violence that affect children and young people. Issues that are cross to the interests of investigative work and intervention of a political psychology and psychology of gender, since the focus of a cr...
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a paradigm to study and reduce disparities in health outcomes related to chronic disease. Community advisory boards (CABs) commonly formalize the academiccommunity partnerships that guide CBPR by providing a mechanism for community members to have representation in research activities. Researchers and funding agencies increasingly recognize the value of the communitys contribution to research and acknowledge that community advisory boards...
Susan D Newman, Phd; Jeannette O Andrews, Phd; Gayenell S Magwood, Phd; Carolyn Jenkins, Drph; Melissa J Cox, Mph; Deborah C Williamson, Dha
In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a
Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac
When people come together in community to practice critical inquiry, they develop a capacity to see, reflect, and become subjects of their own development. This article describes arts-based participatory action research in partnership with a nongovernmental organization in Central America. Creative art therapy was culturally adapted and practiced
Kapitan, Lynn; Litell, Mary; Torres, Anabel
Discusses the application of participatory research to a study of rural Filipino women to identify living conditions and to raise consciousness. Conditions include (1) unemployment and underemployment, (2) limitations of homemaking and child rearing tasks, (3) nonrecognition of reproductive rights, and (4) discrimination in political life and
This study discusses the benefits and challenges of an undergraduate module on participatory geographies, involving students in co-producing research with community partners. The module challenges the knowledge production model predominant in Geography curricula. We argue that it develops students' skills and understanding through engaging
Pain, Rachel; Finn, Matt; Bouveng, Rebecca; Ngobe, Gloria
This commentary reflects on the key themes and goals of this symposium. It contextualizes the relationship between participatory action research (PAR) and teaching in the increasingly popular field of critical action-oriented geography. It considers a number of benefits to student learning from engagement with PAR, drawing on the papers in the
Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and
Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia
Of all the varieties of educational disadvantage, issues involving students who are homeless, or who move frequently because of poverty, are perhaps some of the most difficult for public school educators in the US to address. Using a pragmatic mixed methods design, this study evaluates the efficacy of participatory action research (PAR): (1) as a
James, Emily Alana
The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV) relies on adverse event (AE) reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings to improve quality and quantity of drug safety reports as new medicines are scaled-up. PMID:22479335
Davies, Emma C; Chandler, Clare I R; Innocent, Simeon H S; Kalumuna, Charles; Terlouw, Dianne J; Lalloo, David G; Staedke, Sarah G; Haaland, Ane
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action research is an effective method for community assessments. However, researchers must rigorously embrace principles of mutual cooperation, respect for public ideas, and a robust belief in community empowerment in order to pave the way for responsible and active citizen participation in the various stages of research.
Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC). The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy) or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action research is an effective method for community assessments. However, researchers must rigorously embrace principles of mutual cooperation, respect for public ideas, and a robust belief in community empowerment in order to pave the way for responsible and active citizen participation in the various stages of research.
In this article we report on the manner in which participatory action research (PAR) was utilised by teachers in developing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) school plan, in collaboration with university researchers. The need for a structured HIV and Aids school plan emerged during the course of a broader research project (of which this study formed part) during which a school principal and teachers expressed a need to support infected and affe...
This report is focused on why and how a participatory approach to implement Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in a cluster would be beneficial for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the Norwegian Center of Expertise (NCE) Subsea cluster in Bergen, Norway. The political and strategic reasons, as well as internal motivation, for SMEs to incorporate CSR into their business strategies are discussed with support from relevant literature. Furthermore, the report reviews different ap...
Høivik, Heidi Von Weltzien; Shankar, Deepthi
This paper deals with the comparative analysis of different policy options for water resources management in three south-eastern Mediterranean countries. The applied methodology follows a participatory approach throughout its implementation and is supported by the use of three different software packages dealing with water allocation budget, water quality simulation, and Multi Criteria Analysis, respectively. The paper briefly describes the general objectives of the SMART project and then pre...
Giupponi, Carlo; Mysiak, Jaroslav; Crimi, Jacopo
Objective: The purpose of this article is to offer a theoretical review on community based research, namely about collaborative processes and qualitative participatory methodologies, and to present an application of this framework to the research design. Method: It is provided a review on community-based research methodology, university-community partnerships, and is described the qualitative participatory methodology used in one collaborative study. Conclusion: following the partnership guid...
José Ornelas; Rita Aguiar; Beatrice Sacchetto; Jorge-monteiro, Maria F.
Based on a Bakhtinian approach negotiations of knowledge in a workshop with health professionals at two psychiatric wards were analyzed. Our analysis reveals that there is a mismatch between the dialogical context we as participatory-oriented researchers want to invoke and the monological context we in fact co-produce in-interaction. The analysis shows that there appears to be two major reasons for this undesired nature of the conversations. First, all participants (including us) orient to a formal and monological learning context in which there seems to be a hierarchical relationship between the participants in the workshop relating primarily to level of education. Secondly, we confuse the participants in the workshop because there is a mismatch between our orientation to a formal learning context as described above and our search for their local, concrete and lived experiences - i.e. a situated knowledge. The analysis indicates that this mismatch potentially adds to the confusion because we on the one hand meet the practitionersâ?? expectations to us as researchers when we invoke a more formal learning context. On the other hand we do probably not meet their expectations when we are looking for sensitive and contextualized knowledge because a representational and de-contextualized knowledge form is closely linked to a more formalized learning context.
Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
Health educators can play a critical role in bringing together the partners and resources to successfully make videos using principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). This article is a "how-to" guide for making videos using community-based participatory research principles. The authors describe video-making and CBPR, then outline six steps on how to make a video using principles of CBPR: (a) engaging stakeholders, (b) soliciting funding and informed consent, (c) creation of shared ownership, (d) building cross-cultural collaborations, (e) writing the script together, and (f) pulling it all together: editing and music selection. Still photographs and key themes from the video A Bridge Between Communities are presented as a running case study to illustrate these steps. The article concludes with implications for health promotion research and practice. PMID:15358912
Chávez, Vivian; Israel, Barbara; Allen, Alex J; DeCarlo, Maggie Floyd; Lichtenstein, Richard; Schulz, Amy; Bayer, Irene S; McGranaghan, Robert
The present PhD thesis is conducted as an Industrial PhD project in collaboration with the Danish company Gabriel A/S (Gabriel), which designs and produces furniture textiles and â??related productsâ?? for manufacturers of furniture. A â??related textile productâ?? is e.g. processing of piece goods, upholstery, mounting etc. This PhD project addresses the challenges of the textile industry, where the global knowledge economy increasingly forces companies to include user-participation and value innovation in their product development. My project revolves around the challenges which the textile designers at Gabriel face while trying to implement an innovative and process-oriented business strategy. The focal point has been the section of the strategy which aims at developing Blue Ocean products, which have a functional and an emotional value for the user. The thesis examines and explores emotional value of applied textiles. The objective is to operationalise the strategic term â??emotional valueâ?? as it relates to applied textiles. The procedure includes the development of user- and stakeholder-centred approaches, which are valuable for the textile designer in the design process. The research approach is application-oriented and practical. In chapter two, I explain the â??programmatic approachâ?? to design research, in which design experiments are the core of the project. The research programme is dynamic; it is developing in the course of the project and in tandem with the knowledge generated. The outcome of the research is â??exemplaryâ?? and the research contributions are presented as â??exemplarsâ??, â??frameworksâ??, â??toolsâ?? and â??structuresâ??, which are relevant for the design process or can be the subject of critique and further investigation by other researchers. The project is a contribution to the broad and multifaceted field of design research with a particular focus on textile design including the discourse and methodology used in the field of design. In addition the project relates to the Participatory Design approach and to the design research fields which focus on emotional aspects of design. Based on my experiences with the programmatic approach I propose a distinction between â??overall challengesâ?? and â??research questionsâ??. I view this thesis as a research contribution which facilitates a programmatic approach to a project such as this one. The â??overall challengesâ?? (challenges within the field of textile design) is a constant variable against which the programme (challenges which Gabrielâ??s textile designers face) can be benchmarked. Thus the â??research questionsâ?? (emotional value and user and stakeholder involvement) are â??shapableâ?? and situation-specific, and they constantly interact with the experiments (procedures of user and stakeholder involvement). In the course of the thesis I explain and elaborate on four themes each of which contributes to the outcome of the project. 1) Creating a frame of reference for the textile design process and a systematic approach to applied textiles. In chapter three I compare a textile design process with Donald SchÃ¶nâ??s definition of design as â??a conversation with the materials of a situationâ??. Subsequently, through design experiments involving several participants, I develop the â??Tripod Approachâ??â?? a structured and systematic approach to design and research of applied textiles. 2) Understanding and exploring emotional value related to design of applied textiles. In chapter four I argue â?? based on Jesse Prinzâ??s and Antonio Damasioâ??s emotion research â?? for a perception of emotional value of applied textiles which acknowledges bodily feedback as a core concept in the process which leads to â??emotionâ??. This approach is used when exploring and adjusting Patrick Jordanâ??s framework of â??the four pleasuresâ?? to the study of emotional value of applied textiles as presented in this thesis. My expe
Bang, Anne Louise
Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.
Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been applied by health researchers and practitioners to address health disparities and community empowerment for health promotion. Despite the growing popularity of CBPR projects, there has been little effort to synthesize the literature to evaluate CBPR projects. The present review attempts to identify appropriate elements that may contribute to the successful or unsuccessful interventions. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken using evidence identified through searching electronic databases, web sites, and reference list checks. Predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed by reviewers. Levels of evidence, accounting for methodologic quality, were assessed for 3 types of CBPR approaches, including interventional, observational, and qualitative research design as well as CBPR elements through separate abstraction forms. Each included study was appraised with 2 quality grades, one for the elements of CBPR and one for research design. Results: Of 14,222 identified articles, 403 included in the abstract review. Of these, 70 CBPR studies, that 56 intervention studies had different designs, and finally 8 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings show that collaboration among community partners, researchers, and organizations led to community-level action to improve the health and wellbeing and to minimize health disparities. It enhanced the capacity of the community in terms of research and leadership skills. The result provided examples of effective CBPR that took place in a variety of communities. However, little has been written about the organizational capacities required to make these efforts successful. Conclusion: Some evidences were found for potentially effective strategies to increase the participant's levels of CBPR activities. Interventions that included community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of activities and should be promoted.
Salimi, Yahya; Shahandeh, Khandan; Malekafzali, Hossein; Loori, Nina; Kheiltash, Azita; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Frouzan, Ameneh S.; Majdzadeh, Reza
Evidence shows that the Roma people engage less in democratic processes than the majority population. Rather than being involved in the planning of measurements and proposals, the Roma people have been treated as a helpless group in need of expert support from the authorities. To enable Roma people to take a leading role in their integration process a 2-year action research was implemented in 2010-2012. The idea was to strengthen the Roma Peoplesâ?? critical health literacy which allows them to analyze and apply health information to oppose the forces that are holding them oppressed and to take better control over their life situation. The objective of this paper is to discuss methodological issues based on experiences of the use of participatory research approach in increasing health literacy. Methods: The core of the intervention was â??training of trainersâ?? of a group of Roma people from western Sweden. They organized lectures on Roma issues for the civil servants and mobilized the Roma community for social action. The data, consisting of observational notes, reports, and participant interviews, were analysed qualitatively. Results: The intervention created an arena for dialogue between the Roma people and the public service employees. Their mutual viewpoints improved as their insight into each otherâ??s life circumstances increased. However, rigidity and an inability to see the character of the emancipatory approach of the project by the authorities created difficulties for its implementation. Conclusions: The Roma participantsâ?? strengthened critical health literacy improved their health chances and possibilities for participation in working life and decision making on Roma issues. The existing system of rules for project operations clashed with the character of the â??softâ? bottom-up approach of the project. This created situations where the project spent more time working with the rules of the authorities than with the purpose of the project.
Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Crondahl, Kristine
Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used....
Ahari Saeid; Habibzadeh Shahram; Yousefi Moharram; Amani Firouz; Abdi Reza
Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health p...
Jutta Gutberlet; Baeder, Angela M.; Pontuschka, Ni?dia N.; Felipone, Sonia M. N.; Dos Santos, Tereza L. F.
An earlier investigation by academic and community co-investigators led to the development of the Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Model, which defined major dimensions and key indicators of partnership readiness. As a next step in this process, we used qualitative methods, cognitive pretesting, and expert reviews to develop a working guide, or toolkit, based on the model for academic and community partners to assess and leverage their readiness for CBPR...
Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha
This presentation tries to answer the question: Are beneficial, happy accidents serendipity more likely to occur among more participatory Internet users? And among users with larger and more diverse social networks as well as more trust? It derives a research framework to relate digital serendipity, online trust, and participation on the Internet.
The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.
Full Text Available Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007 brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems, such as forums, blogs, and sites of the open source type. In this study we produce a preliminary survey of thematic concentration and methodologies of research on blogs and other interactive models of journalistic publication in recent Brazilian contributions in this area.
Keywords: Land use analysis, GIS, remote sensing, yield gaps, regression modeis, crop management improvement, crop selection, conservation, multiple goal optimisation model, stakeholder communication matrix, fuzzy modelling, soft systems methodologyRemotely-sensed data coupled with GIS-derived biophysical data have been key components in land use studies during the past decades. Natural Resource Managers relied on biophysically-oriented 'top down' approaches for the design o...
Nidumolu, U. B.
Drama for Schools (DFS) is an arts integration professional development program rooted in critical pedagogy and constructivism that emphasizes partnerships between school districts and a major research university. As a part of the research initiative embedded in this professional development program, DFS began an Arts integration Research Teacher
Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Dawson, Kathryn M.; Judd-Glossy, Laura; Ihorn, Shasta
Full Text Available This article reported on two research projects, the first conducted in the early 1990s and the second, a project currently in progress. In essence, the article was an attempt to compare the theology of African Independent Churches in the two respective periods by making use of a grounded theory approach to their worship services. Significant similarities and differences were identified and reported on.
How to cite this article: Müller, B.A. & Wepener, C.J., 2011, Applying grounded theory to data collected through participatory research on AIC liturgical rituals: A comparative study, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(2, Art. #1034, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v67i2.1034
Bethel A. Müller
Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes
Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita
Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.
Background Numerous publications demonstrate the importance of community-based participatory research (CBPR) in community health research, but few target the Deaf community. The Deaf community is understudied and underrepresented in health research despite suspected health disparities and communication barriers. Objectives The goal of this paper is to share the lessons learned from the implementation of CBPR in an understudied community of Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users in the greater Rochester, New York, area. Methods We review the process of CBPR in a Deaf ASL community and identify the lessons learned. Results Key CBPR lessons include the importance of engaging and educating the community about research, ensuring that research benefits the community, using peer-based recruitment strategies, and sustaining community partnerships. These lessons informed subsequent research activities. Conclusions This report focuses on the use of CBPR principles in a Deaf ASL population; lessons learned can be applied to research with other challenging-to-reach populations.
McKee, Michael; Thew, Denise; Starr, Matthew; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Reid, John T.; Graybill, Patrick; Velasquez, Julia; Pearson, Thomas
Purpose:?This study's purpose was to advance the process of culture change within long-term care (LTC) and assisted living settings by using participatory action research (PAR) to promote residents competence and nourish the culture change process with the active engagement and leadership of residents.?Design and Methods:?Seven unit-specific PAR groups, each consisting of 47 residents, 12 family members, and 13 staff, met 1 hour per week for 4 months in their nursing home or...
Shura, Robin; Siders, Rebecca A.; Dannefer, Dale
Full Text Available "nCommunity-based participatory research (CBPR is believed to be a potent means for the promotion of health in the community. To that end, Iran has conducted several CBPR projects in various community research centers (CRCs. We aimed to assess the quality of some of these CBPR projects in Iran from the perspective of Iranian academicians. In this cross-sectional study, carried out during 2005, five CBPR projects implemented in Iranian CRCs (Tehran, n=3; Qazvin, n=1; and Bandar Abbas, n=1 were selected. Three academic members involved in each project were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that appraised the extent to which the research project was aligned with the principles of participatory research. Results show that the CRCs and the academic members in our CBPR projects should receive further training and consultation. Quality assessment of CBPR projects seems essential from the view point of other participants of such projects, namely community and stakeholders.
This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods: cultural transect, problem-tree analysis and focus-group discussion. The paper concludes by categorizing the barriers identified at different levels: micro (roughly the individual level at which the lack of knowledge and motivation are significant barriers), meso (roughly the school level at which the lack of teachers and computers are significant barriers) and macro (roughly the national level at which the lack of government planning and the lack of training of teachers are significant barriers). Finally, the paper also concludes that applied participatory learning and action-oriented techniques showed potential to provide researchers and local practitioners with situated insights that could not just have been lifted out of existing research literature.
Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom
Evaluating the impacts of the development of alternative agricultural systems, such as organic or low-input cropping systems, in the context of an agricultural region requires the use of specific tools and methodologies. They should allow a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account the field, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multicriteria) and participatory assessment, abbreviated PIAAS (for Participatory Integrated Assessment of Agricultural System). In this paper, we compare the possible contribution to PIAAS of three modeling approaches i.e. Bio-Economic Modeling (BEM), Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) and statistical Land-Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) models. After a presentation of each approach, we analyze their advantages and drawbacks, and identify their possible complementarities for PIAAS. Statistical LUCC modeling is a suitable approach for multi-scale analysis of past changes and can be used to start discussion about the futures with stakeholders. BEM and ABM approaches have complementary features for scenarios assessment at different scales. While ABM has been widely used for participatory assessment, BEM has been rarely used satisfactorily in a participatory manner. On the basis of these results, we propose to combine these three approaches in a framework targeted to PIAAS. PMID:24013558
Delmotte, Sylvestre; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Barbier, Jean-Marc; Wery, Jacques
The project aimed to identify factors that contribute to hypertension and diabetes and to design and implement appropriate local interventions to prevent these noncommunicable diseases and promote healthy lifestyles. This was a community-based participatory action research project in which researchers and community health workers (CHWs) were the main participants. The triple A approach to planning interventions was used, that is, the process of assessing the situation, analyzing the findings, and taking action based on this analysis. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. Twenty-two CHWs working in site C, Khayelitsha, a deprived urban area of Cape Town, South Africa, participated in the study. Findings from the situational assessment indicated a lack of knowledge among CHWs and the community about hypertension and diabetes and the risk factors for these non-communicable diseases. Economic constraints and cultural beliefs and practices influenced the community's food choices and participation in physical activity. On the basis of these findings, a training program was proposed that would provide CHWs with the skills to prevent hypertension and diabetes in their community. A program was developed and piloted by the project team. A health club that focuses on promoting healthy lifestyles is currently being piloted. This paper illustrates the unique involvement of CHWs in a successful participatory action research project on the prevention of hypertension and diabetes and promotion of health in a deprived urban setting. The project emphasizes the importance of involving local people in community-based initiatives to promote health and identifies that the primary role of health services is to develop appropriate skills in the local community, monitor activities, and facilitate a link with primary health services. PMID:17274209
Bradley, Hazel A; Puoane, Thandi
Full Text Available Participatory action research (PAR is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, within the context of women as rural farm dwellers in the North-West Province, South Africa. It emphasises the need for continued participation and highlights the practical principles and benefits derived from PAR. The PAR process cycles are discussed and parallels are drawn with the practical setting. In conclusion, the article emphasises that the application of the PAR process can make a multi-dimensional contribution towards the development of a community by creating an understanding of social vulnerability, by building capacity and by ensuring participation, and also addresses income-generating activities.
Liezel van Niekerk
This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate social processes, decision-making processes, and any change process for that matter. Participatory approaches are nothing new. At a time when institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, increasingly seek participatory approaches in their development initative, this guide provides perspectives, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society.
Following the thoughts and topics we have discussed and worked on for a very long time with Bridget Somekh, we would like to present the theoretical relationship between lesson studies, action research and practical knowledge in teacher education. Inspired by the pedagogical philosophy of lesson studies, participatory action research, and core
Perez, Angel I.; Soto, Encarnacion; Servan, M. Jose
This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions outside its original domain. When possible, the points are illustrated through a recent research project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Zander, PÃ¤r-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne
We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.
Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.
Paamiut Youth Voice (PYV) is a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, exploring youth perceptions, experiences, and the promotion of well-being in Paamiut, Greenland. Active youth participation remained a key challenge in the development of the local community through the locally initiated community mobilisation programme Paamiut Asasara. The challenges of youth participation in PYV are investigated in order to explore the implications of youth participation in PAR projects. The discussion of challenges is based on a methodological account of experiences from the research process clarifying how youth participation in the PYV project took place. Results are presented, concerning the young peopleâ??s understandings and experiences of engagement and participation.
Wattar, Laila; Fanous, Sandrine
Full Text Available I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV & AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambivalence in teacher experiences of drawings to highlight the complexity of employing drawings as visual method. Then, I interpret the teachers' methodological experiences through the lens ofsocial-ecological understandings of resilience in order to address the question of how drawings, as form of visual participatory methodology, may make a positive difference and nurture participant resilience. What the teachers' experiences suggest is that drawings offer methodological opportunities for participants to make constructive meaning of adversity, to take action, to experience mastery, and to regulate emotion associated with adversity. All of the aforementioned are well documented pathways to resilience. I theorise, therefore, that researchers with a social conscience would be well advised to use drawings, albeit in competent and participatory ways, as this methodology potentiates participant resilience and positive change.
Linda C Theron
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.
Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.
Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21 high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails, the odds for meeting walking recommendations increased 1.27 times, and the odds for meeting PA recommendation increased 3.54 times. Perceived and objective audit variables did not predict meeting physical activity recommendations. Conclusions To improve physical activity levels, intervention efforts are needed to maximize the use of existing trails, as well as improve residents' perceptions related to incivilities, safety, conditions of trail, and amenities of the walking trails. This study provides important insights for informing development of the CBPR walking intervention and informing local recreational and environmental policies in this southern community.
Objective To examine the effectiveness of current community-based participatory research (CBPR) clinical trials involving racial and ethnic minorities. Data Source All published peer-reviewed CBPR intervention articles in PubMed and CINAHL databases from January 2003 to May 2010. Study Design We performed a systematic literature review. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were extracted on each study's characteristics, community involvement in research, subject recruitment and retention, and intervention effects. Principle Findings We found 19 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were published from 2007 to 2010. Articles described some measures of community participation in research with great variability. Although CBPR trials examined a wide range of behavioral and clinical outcomes, such trials had very high success rates in recruiting and retaining minority participants and achieving significant intervention effects. Conclusions Significant publication gaps remain between CBPR and other interventional research methods. CBPR may be effective in increasing participation of racial and ethnic minority subjects in research and may be a powerful tool in testing the generalizability of effective interventions among these populations. CBPR holds promise as an approach that may contribute greatly to the study of health care delivery to disadvantaged populations.
De Las Nueces, Denise; Hacker, Karen; DiGirolamo, Ann; Hicks, LeRoi S
Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in field study assignments. The objectives of practising participatory tools in training on local agrobiodiversity management and related to that the objectives of this guide are many. However, the cur...
Boston is one of the preeminent health care and research centers in the world, but for much of its urban core, these resources are largely out of reach. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) provides a model with the potential to bridge the gaps between its research prominence and the health of its residents. We report here two case studies of major research projects that were partnerships between universities in Boston and community based organizations and city agencies. The Healthy ...
Freeman, Elmer R.; Brugge, Doug; Bennett-bradley, Willie Mae; Levy, Jonathan I.; Carrasco, Edna Rivera
Expansion of the child welfare evidence base is a major challenge. The field must establish how organizational systems and practice techniques yield outcomes for children and families. Needed research must be grounded in practice and must engage practitioners and administrators via participatory evaluation. The extent to which successful practices
Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Shackelford, Kim; Kelly, Michael; Martin-Galijatovic, Ramie
This paper describes a study focused on promoting culturally responsive collaboration practices at an urban preK-8 Catholic school. Using participatory action research (PAR) as its framework, a team of school stakeholders and university faculty and students from the psychology department partnered to create a participant-driven data collection and
Shriberg, David; Schumacher, Ruth; McMahon, Kara C.; Flores, Sofia; Moy, Gregory E.; Swidzinski, Joanna; Tompkins, Nicole A.
Healthy People 2010 made it a priority to eliminate health disparities. We used a rapid assessment response and evaluation (RARE) to launch a program of participatory action research focused on health disparities in an urban, disadvantaged Black community serviced by a major south Florida health center. We formed partnerships with community members, identified local health disparities, and guided interventions targeting health disparities. We describe the RARE structure used to triangulate data sources and guide intervention plans as well as findings and conclusions drawn from scientific literature and epidemiological, historic, planning, clinical, and ethnographic data. Disenfranchisement and socioeconomic deprivation emerged as the principal determinants of local health disparities and the most appropriate targets for intervention.
Brown, David Richard; Hernandez, Agueda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Evans, Sian; Tafari, Ida; Brewster, Luther G.; Celestin, Michel J.; Gomez-Estefan, Carlos; Regalado, Fernando; Akal, Siri; Nierenberg, Barry; Kauschinger, Elaine D.; Schwartz, Robert; Page, J. Bryan
The prevention of weight gain to address the obesity epidemic rather than weight loss involves promoting small changes in food choices and physical activity. People United to Sustain Health (PUSH) was designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and food security to prevent weight gain in rural adults. Forty-nine participants were randomized into a treatment group which received access to a "Rolling Store," nutrition education and physical activity, and a control group which received family coping classes. Forty-one (84%) of participants completed the study. At the end of 6 months, weight for all participants was maintained from baseline to completion with no significant differences between the groups. The mean fruit consumption over 6 months for the treatment group increased and was significantly greater than change in the control group (p = 0.01). This community-based participatory research study was considered successful because weight gain was prevented. PMID:24405579
Kennedy, Betty M; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Johnson, William D; Johnson, Glenda S; McGee, Bernestine B; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David W; Crawford, Terri; Ryan, Donna H
Full Text Available Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995. What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian ideal speech situation in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989. Consistent with the Freirean liberal pedagogy, the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the participative quality of participatory com-munication (cf. Freire, 1970. For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos, rightfulness (ethos and truthfulness (pathos are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, in-strumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communi-cative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic, rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communi-cation for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.
In this paper, we present a case study of a participatory project that focuses on interaction in large-scale design, namely, the development of the new Urban Mediaspace Aarhus. This project, which has been under way for ten years, embodies a series of issues that arise when participatory design approaches are applied to large-scale, IT-oriented projects. At the same time, it highlights the issues public knowledge institutions face, when interactive technologies challenge their fundamental roles and practices; by extension, this case offers examples of how these challenges may be explored and addressed through IT-based participatory initiatives. We present a range of such activities carried out during the past ten years, and present the main lessons from the project, based on interviews with three key stakeholders. These lessons focus on how to make participation work in practice, how to align different paradigms of inquiry and practice in a project of this scale, and how to capture and anchor the insights from participatory events to inform the ongoing design process.
Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva
With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community toÂ think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD approach applied throughout design and organizational implementation. To pursue this aim we extend the iterative PD prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing stepwise implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. The extended approach is exemplified through a large-scale PD experiment in the Danish healthcare sector. We reflect on our experiences from this experiment and discuss four challenges PD must address in dealing with large-scale systems development.
Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No campo da saúde pública, advoga-se uma mudança de paradigma de investigação que possibilite maior tradução do conhecimento científico em ações e políticas de saúde mais adaptadas às comunidades. Especial atenção tem sido dada à investigação participativa baseada na comunidade, pelo seu potencial e [...] m possibilitar um maior conhecimento sobre as questões complexas de saúde. Neste ensaio, refletiu-se sobre a contribuição da investigação participativa em saúde, analisando as suas perspectivas teóricas, princípios e potencialidades. Também se examinarom alguns aspectos críticos na sua implementação, realçando-se possíveis estratégias para superar esses desafios. A investigação participativa integra uma abordagem colaborativa de envolvimento das comunidades, profissionais, decisores políticos e acadêmicos na produção de conhecimento, incorporando as suas diferentes perspectivas e experiências. Essa abordagem favorece a aceitação do projeto, a adesão das comunidades ao estudo e, consequentemente, a qualidade dos dados coletados. A investigação participativa pode ser, em si só, uma intervenção: o envolvimento das comunidades pode aumentar a sua tomada de consciência sobre a importância das temáticas abordadas e capacitá-las para definir e responder às problemáticas de saúde, promovendo o seu empoderamento. Contudo, os investigadores encontram desafios na utilização dessa abordagem, relacionados com o estabelecimento e manutenção das parcerias de investigação, a partilha de controle da tomada de decisão e a conciliação das motivações e interesses dos parceiros. Mais evidência sobre o processo de implementação da investigação participativa reforçará o seu quadro teórico, a compreensão das suas potencialidades e limitações no estudo de diferentes problemáticas, contextos e populações, e o seu papel benéfico para as comunidades. Abstract in english A change in the research paradigm towards a method that more readily allows the translation of scientific knowledge into more community-oriented health actions and policies has been advocated in the field of public health. Special attention has been paid to community-based participatory research, wh [...] ich has the potential to allow the production of deeper knowledge of complex health issues. The present essay reflects on the contributions of participatory research in health, analyzing its theoretical perspectives, principles, and strengths. Some key aspects relating to the implementation of participatory research are also examined, underscoring possible strategies to face this challenge. Participatory research integrates a collaborative approach with involvement of communities, professionals, political decision-makers, and academics to produce knowledge, incorporating the different perspectives and experiences of these stakeholders. This approach facilitates acceptance of the project and engagement of communities, and consequently enhances the quality of the data collected. Participatory research may work in and of itself as an intervention: the involvement of communities may increase their awareness about the importance of the research themes and serve as training to define and address health issues, promoting empowerment. Nevertheless, researchers face challenges in applying this approach. Such challenges are related to the establishment and maintenance of research partnerships, the sharing of decision-making control, and the reconciliation of the motivations and interests of partners. More evidence regarding the process of implementation of participatory research will strengthen the method's theoretical framework and provide further understanding regarding its potential and limitations to address various problems, contexts, and populations, and clarify its beneficial role for communities.
Dias, Sónia; Gama, Ana.
Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is having a devastating impact on South Africa and particularly on poor communities. Empowerment of communities has been identified as an important step towards mitigating the consequences and helping communities to overcome the challenges presented. Participatory Action Research (PAR has been identified as a useful methodology for the purpose of facilitating empowerment. This study explores the challenges involved in implementing PAR in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty. In this article, the author describes a PAR project that took place in 2003/ 2004 with a group of five Xhosa speaking people living with HIV/AIDS in Masiphumelele, Cape Town. The aims of the study were to: 1. Create an opportunity for the participants to engage in a participatory process aimed at self-awareness and empowerment. 2. To record and analyse this process with the intention of producing insight into the use of PAR in the context of poverty and HIV/AIDS and to identify the challenges involved. The findings of this study highlight some important insights into the process of engaging people in the PAR process and the experiences of HIV positive people living in the context of poverty. The study explores the challenges involved in the process of empowerment and examines the process of transferring power and control from the researcher to the participants. Challenges were uncovered both from the point of view of the researcher who had to let go of control and participants who had to take on control. Participants struggled with issues of low self-efficacy and learned helplessness. Fluctuations in health also contributed towards alternating periods of hope and despair and these problems had an impact on their motivation to participate in the study. Lack of motivation to participate is a challenge highlighted in the literature and explored in this study. Participation is necessary for a study of this nature to be of benefit to the community, but unfortunately those most in need were found to be least likely to participate.The study also critically examines the research process that was conducted and highlights the positive and negative contribution of the process towards empowerment. Certain aspects of the research process, including the contracting process, were identified as being problematic as they emphasize the power and control of the researcher rather than the participants. Recommendations for future research include: Promoting participation among the disempowered; the Contracting process and Power relations in PAR
Participatory research is increasingly advocated for use in health and health services research and has been defined as a 'process of producing new knowledge by systematic enquiry, with the collaboration of those being studied'. The underlying philosophy of participatory research is that those recruited to studies are acknowledged as experts who are 'empowered to truly participate and have their voices heard'. Research methods should enable children to express themselves. This has led to the development of creative approaches of working with children that offer alternatives to, for instance, the structured questioning of children by researchers either through questionnaires or interviews. To examine the feasibility and potential of developing participatory methods in imaging research. We employed three innovative methods of data collection sequentially, namely the provision of: 1) a graffiti wall; 2) cameras, and 3) a video box for children's use. While the graffiti wall was open to all who attended the department, for the other two methods children were allocated to each 'arm' consecutively until our target of 20 children for each was met. The study demonstrated that it was feasible to use all three methods of data collection within the context of a busy radiology department. We encountered no complaints from staff, patients or parents. Children were willing to participate but we did not collect data to establish if they enjoyed the activities, were pleased to have the opportunity to make comments or whether anxieties about their treatment inhibited their participation. The data yield was disappointing. In particular, children's contributions to the graffiti wall were limited, but did reflect the nature of graffiti, and there may have been some 'copycat' comments. Although data analysis was relatively straightforward, given the nature of the data (short comments and simple drawings), the process proved to be extremely time-consuming. This was despite the modest amount of data collected. Novel methods of engaging with children have been shown to be feasible although further work is needed to establish their full potential. (orig.)
Full Text Available This paper describes a three-year curriculum innovation project on teaching about climate change. The innovation for this study focused on a socio-critical approach towards teaching climate change in four different teaching domains (biology, chemistry, physics and politics. The teaching itself explicitly aimed at general educational objectives, i.e., fostering students communication and evaluation abilities as essential components for preparing young people for active participation in society. Participatory Action Research has been used as a collaborative strategy of cyclical curriculum innovation and research. Using past experiences and selected results from accompanying research, this project and its methodology will be reflected upon from the viewpoint of the chemistry group taking part in the project. Core issues reflected upon include how the project contributed to the creation of feasible curriculum materials, how it led to innovative structures in practice, and whether it supported experienced teachers ongoing professional development. General considerations for the process of curriculum innovation will also be derived.
Full Text Available The lack of understanding on how to integrate ecological issues into so-called social-ecological natural resource management hampers sustainability in tropical forest landscape management. We build upon a comparison of three cases that show inverse gradients of knowledge and perceptions of the environment and human pressure on natural resources. We discuss why the ecological dimension currently lags behind in the management of tropical forest landscapes and to what extent participatory development can enhance the fit among ecological, socio-cultural, and economic systems. For each case study, socio-cultural and anthropological aspects of society and indigenous knowledge of the environment, the distribution of natural resources, classification, and management are documented in parallel with biophysical studies. Our results confirm that the ecological dimension remains weakly addressed and difficult to integrate into development actions when dealing with tropical forested landscape management in developing countries. We discuss three issues to understand why this is so: the disdain for traditional ecological knowledge and practices, the antagonism between economy and ecology, and the mismatch between traditional and modern governance systems. Participatory development shows potential to enhance the fit among ecological, socio-cultural, and economic systems through two dimensions: the generation and sharing of information to understand trends and the generation of new coordination practices that allow stakeholders to voice environmental concerns. In the absence of a "champion," institutions, and financial resources, the expected outcomes remain on paper, even when changes are negotiated. Future research in natural resource management must emphasize better integration at the interface of ecology and governance. Finally, we identify three challenges: the design of operational tools to reconcile ecology with social and economic concerns, the creation of governance systems to institutionalize collaborative and integrated resource management, and the design of enabler organizations close to local communities.
As agricultural education based on participatory approaches expand, knowledge is needed about the impact it has on the daily lives of participants beyond farming gains. The study explores how involvement in the participatory extension practice Farmer Field Schools (FFS) results in shifting world views among participants and to what extent it has an impact on peoples' sense of well-being and agency in society. The paper discuss how transformative learning in participatory research and ex...
Friis-hansen, Esbern; Duveskog, Deborah; Taylor, Edward W.
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Involving citizens in public affairs through the use of participatory sensing applications is an emerging theme in Pervasive Computing and mobile E-Government (M-Government). Prior work, however, suggests that local governments place more emphasis on internal than on external M-Government projects. [...] This paper takes an action design research perspective to provide insight into the often overlooked potential of citizen-centric, external M-Government services. We consider the scenario of a sensing application for reporting urban infrastructure issues to the municipality and present a System Dynamics model to estimate the diffusion, use, and municipal impacts of such service. The model is validated based on the case of a large German city, a dedicated survey, and further data sources. The simulation results indicate that, compared to internal information acquisition procedures, the use of urban sensing can improve a municipality's availability of environmental information at a comparable level of cost. Furthermore, we discuss a number of aspects and learnings related to an urban sensing implementation and provide an empirical estimation of the diffusion model. Our results provide an impetus for researchers and government practitioners to reconsider the benefits of urban sensing applications in E-Government endeavors.
Winkler, Till J.; Ziekow, Holger; Weinberg, Martin.
This article discusses the concept of popular participation within the context of nonformal education and analyzes the use of the mass media as a tool for promoting such participation. It is argued that the central issue of popular participation is that of power; it is concerned with the struggle for the control of resources on the part of the oppressed masses. Participatory research principles emphasize the active involvement of people on whom the research is focused at all stages of the educational process and reject the possibility of scientific objectivity. Control of the mass media can be exercised over both the hardware itself and the program content. The latter form, which is more feasible in developing countries, includes several discrete stages where some degree of popular participation is possible: identification of the campaign topic, production of materials, and creation of a 2-way flow of communication. The role of the media person and the political climate in which the radio campaign is operating affect the degree to which authentic participation is possible. Popular participation must be organized; it does not just happen. Among the issues in this area that need to be addressed by future surveys are the role of the professional media person, the technical limitations on participation, and the extent to which a radio network needs to be decentralized to make participation an ongoing feature. PMID:12268338
Byram, M L
A total of 74 farms were selected from Machakos, Mwingi and Makueni districts in Kenya, using participatory techniques and classified in three categories on the basis of soil fertility management (low level, medium and high level). Soil fertility management was monitored, using the NUTrient MONitoring methodology, which appears a suitable and appropriate tool for the diagnostic phase of Farming System Analysis and Design in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Kenya. The participatory inventory and mo...
Gachimbi, L. N.; Keulen, H.; Thuranira, E. G.; Karuku, A. M.; Jager, A.; Nguluu, S.; Ikombo, B. M.; Kinama, J. M.; Itabari, J. K.; Nandwa, S. M.
In this paper, we develop a method for spatial decision support that combines economic efficiency Ã¢Â¿Â¿ measured by the concept op willingness to pay Ã¢Â¿Â¿ with a participatory planning tool, that allows for an active collaboration among the actors involved, in such a way that decision makers can draw on the outcomes in their spatial planning and design process. The method is called RITAM, a Dutch acronym for spatially explicit, participatory and interdisciplinary trade-off meth...
Heide, C. M.; Blaeij, A. T.; Heijman, W. J. M.
At the science - policy interface there are several reasons to combine models with the participatory process to facilitate the complex policy making process but the communication of the two sides is often too hard to generate any meaningful results. In this paper we argue that to close the communication gap the rationale of the Meta rule of complex policy making needs to be comprehended and coped with. Gaming as a participatory method can be used to organize the combined process. Through ...
Zhou, Q.; Mayer, I. S.
Incomplete information is one of the main constraints for decision-making, which are then by definition risky. In this study, formal risk concepts were introduced in decision-makers¿ meetings according to local demands and following a participatory approach, as a first step towards integrating risk assessment into rural decision-making in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews and meetings were conducted with extensionists and farmers. The following information was presented and ...
Bacic, I. L. Z.; Bregt, A. K.; Rossiter, D. G.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077
Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B
The principal goal of this article is to contribute to the field of prevention science by providing a sequential description of how Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) was used to develop a parent education curriculum aimed at preventing and decreasing adolescent drug use and risky sexual behaviors. CBPR principles are outlined, and information is provided on the unique contributions of researchers and community members who came together to develop this parent education program. Foc...
Parsai, Monica Bermu?dez; Castro, Felipe Gonza?lez; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Harthun, Mary L.; Valdez, Hector
Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 20002012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (bd) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site...
Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.
Sonia M. N. Felipone
Participatory Design (PD) offers a democratic approach to design by creating a platform for active end-user participation in the design process. Since its emergence, the field of PD has been shaped by the Scandinavian context, in which many early PD projects took place. In this paper we discuss the challenges that arise from employing participatory methods in a different socio-cultural setting with participants who have had comparatively limited exposure to digital technologies. We offer a comparative study of two PD projects carried out with school classes in Scandinavia and India. While the setup for the two projects was identical, they unfolded in very different ways. We present and discuss this study, which leads us to conclude that PD can be a useful approach in both settings, but that there is a distinct difference as to which methods bring about fruitful results. The most prominent difference is the ways in which abstract and manifest participatory methods led to different outcomes in the two settings.
Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.
The aim of this paper was to understand the process of selecting soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) promiscuous varieties by smallholders for soil fertility management in western Kenya. Eight varieties were screened on 2.5 m × 3 m plots that were managed according to farmers¿ practices and evaluated through participatory monitoring and evaluation approaches. Farmers selected preferred varieties and explained their reasons (criteria) for making the selections. Seven promiscuous varieties had b...
Full Text Available Academic success, and the economic well-being it usually affords, is closely tied to math achievement. Key national indicators reveal decades of underperformance of African American males in mathematics. Scholars argue that the schooling experiences of Black males are highly-racialized, are often bereft of significance, and result in academic and social marginalization. The author reports findings from an eight-month participatory action research (PAR project involving seven high-school aged Black males in South Los Angeles; students undertook research to empirically verify and qualitatively explore narratives concerning incarceration and university enrollment. Utilizing a critical ethnographic methodology to privilege student voice, the author shares how low-performing? students in an urban setting utilize their mathematical knowledge to become critically literate about these narratives. Highlighting two student-constructed counternarratives he terms mathematical counterstories, the author shows how students used data analysis to contradict dominant understandings about young Black males. The author argues math counterstories are a unique synthesis of critical and mathematical literacies that are supported through PAR. Implications for the re-orientation of high school-aged Black males towards mathematics are discussed.
Clarence L. Terry
Within the domain of participatory urban planning, this position paper argues for a focus on the notion of place in the design of mobile and/or ubiquitous systems that are used in deliberation processes with central spatial references. I discuss (1) leveraging properties of place as a resource for users in the design of such systems and (2) situating, or merely co-locating, deliberation activities within the places these discussions are concerned with. To support my argument, I outline two exemplary cases that explore this focus on place and situated deliberation to further motivate research in that direction. The first case concerns the different qualities of in-situ reflection and action on proposed changes to the cityscape in contrast to ex-situ reflection and action on those changes. The second case focuses on providing immersive information about citizensâ?? own living environment on the spot for everyone and everywhere through a mobile augmented reality application that visualizes future, planned buildings on capable mobile phones. I conclude with the central questions and problems for future research that focuses on place and situated deliberation.
Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007) brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems...
André Holanda; Claudia Quadros; Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva; Marcos Palacios
Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007) brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems...
André Holanda; Claudia Quadros; Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva; Marcos Palacios
To address disproportionately high rates of diabetes morbidity and mortality in some of Chicago's medically underserved minority neighborhoods, a group of community residents, medical and social service providers, and a local university founded the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention REACH 2010 Initiative. A community-based participatory action research model guided coalition activities from conceptualization through implementati...
Giachello, Aida L.; Arrom, Jose O.; Davis, Margaret; Sayad, Judith V.; Ramirez, Dinah; Nandi, Chandana; Ramos, Catalina
Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants collected data from the PTM invasion front, which revealed clear connection...
Dangles, O.; Carpio, F. C.; Villares, M.; Yumisaca, F.; Liger, B.; Rebaudo, F.; Silvain, J. F.
Full Text Available Partizipative Forschung zielt darauf ab, soziale Wirklichkeit partnerschaftlich zu erforschen und zu beeinflussen. Das Konzept der Teilhabe (Partizipation spielt dabei eine zentrale Rolle. Dieser Beitrag beleuchtet dieses Konzept anhand eines Studiendesigns aus der partizipativen Gesundheitsforschung, das in Anlehnung an den nordamerikanischen Ansatz des Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR entwickelt wurde. Der CBPR-Ansatz sowie die darin enthaltenen Schlüsselbegriffe "Community" und "Partizipation" werden vorgestellt. Die Umsetzung dieser Konzepte wird anschließend an einem Beispiel aus dem Forschungs- und Handlungsfeld der HIV-Prävention bei Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund erläutert. Das PaKoMi-Projekt fördert und untersucht die Partizipation und Kooperation in der HIV-Prävention mit Migrant/inn/en in Deutschland. Es wird geklärt: 1. Welche Akteure und Akteurinnen sind beteiligt (Wer partizipiert?, 2. an welchen Prozessen sind sie beteiligt (Woran wird partizipiert? und 3. in welcher Form findet eine Beteiligung statt (Wie wird partizipiert?? Ein Fokus liegt dabei auf der Beteiligung an den Forschungsprozessen, die u.a. in Form von partizipativen Fallstudien stattfinden. An den Fallstudien sind Community-Partner/innen (Akteure und Akteurinnen aus den Zielgruppen und Communities mit Migrationshintergrund, Praxispartner/innen (professionelle Anbieter/innen, z.B. Mitarbeiter/innen von Aidshilfen und Wissenschaftler/innen gleichberechtigt beteiligt. Entscheidungen über Zielsetzung, Datenerhebung, Auswertung und Verwertung werden gemeinsam getroffen. Darüber hinaus übernehmen Community-Partner/innen als Peer Researcher Aufgaben der Datenerhebung und Auswertung. Die Chancen und Möglichkeiten des gemeinsamen Forschens werden dargelegt, ebenso Herausforderungen und offene Fragen, die beispielsweise im Hinblick auf ungleich verteilte Teilhabechancen, die Bestimmung von Community, mögliche Gefahren von Partizipation sowie die Übertragbarkeit des CBPR-Ansatzes auf den deutschen Kontext bestehen.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120176Participatory research aims to study and change social reality in collaborative ways. The concept of participation plays a key role. In this article, I clarify the concept using the example of a participatory health research study. The study design presented here is based on the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR. These principles as well as the key concepts of "community" and "participation" are introduced. Subsequently, the realization of these concepts is illustrated using a specific example: the PaKoMi project is a participatory research project on health promotion and HIV prevention with immigrant communities in Germany. The following questions are discussed: 1. Which actors are involved? (Who participates?; 2. What processes do they participate in?; 3. How is their participation realized? The actors, methods, and forms of participation are analyzed by focusing on research-related participation that takes place in participatory case studies and workshops. Community partners (members of immigrant communities, service providers (staff from AIDS service organizations, and researchers share decision making power to differing degrees in all phases of the research processesfrom formulating the aims and research questions, to collecting and analyzing data, to disseminating the study findings. "Peer researchers" were trained to conduct studies in their respective immigrant communities. Reflecting on the study design, I discuss the opportunities of doing research in participatory ways. Also, challenges and open questions are addressed, such as power differences and preconditions for the participation of socially marginalized groups, pitfalls in defining and involving community and the question of transferability of CBPR as a North-American research strategy to the German context.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120176La investigación participativa se enfoca en estudiar y cambiar la realidad social median
Hella von Unger
Full Text Available To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition, strengths and limitations of BNs are synthesized. We found that BNs were successfully applied for knowledge integration and identification of sustainable management strategies within participatory processes. Due to many favorable characteristics, BNs have the potential to become a core method of transdisciplinary knowledge integration in environmental management.
The participatory, action-oriented training program in occupational safety and health named POSITIVE (Participation-Oriented Safety Improvements by Trade Union InitiatiVE) was established in Pakistan and extended to other countries in Asia. The steps taken in the development of the POSITIVE program included collecting local good examples in safety and health, developing an action-checklist, testing a participatory training program, and conducting follow-up activities to examine local achievements. Training manuals were compiled to provide workers with the practical, easy-to-understand information on safety and health improvements and on the positive roles of trade unions. Trade union trainers trained in the methodology conducted serial POSITIVE training workshops in Pakistan and then in Bangladesh, Mongolia, Nepal, the Philippines and Thailand and recently in China. These workshops resulted in many low-cost improvements at the workplace level. These improvements were carried out in the technical areas of materials handling, workstations, machine safety, physical environment, and welfare facilities. The trade union networks have been vital in reaching an increasing number of grass-root workplaces and in expanding the program to other countries. This included the visits to Mongolia and Thailand of Pakistani trade union trainers to demonstrate the POSITIVE training. The participatory training tools used in the POSITIVE program such as the action checklist and group discussion methods were commonly applied in different local situations. Participatory approaches adopted in the POSITIVE program have proven useful for providing practical problem-solving measures based on the local trade union initiative. PMID:15128169
Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Kogi, Kazutaka; Toyama, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Toru
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.
Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa
This paper presents a qualitative analysis of a series of in-depth interviews with governmental and non-governmental institutions (NGOs). Within the EUROCAT 1 project this methodology of participatory approach, aiming to scope the present perceptions about environmental issues and possible strategies for environmental improvement, is applied to the study of the Elbe catchment for the first time. In this frame, an Advisory Board (AB) was created, with the aim of giving insights into conflicting interests in the river catchment and guidelines for river basin management. Focus of the Elbe case study is the issue of nutrient enrichment (from the catchment) and the induced eutrophication of the coastal waters (the German Bight). Specifically, regarding this topic, the possible reduction of eutrophication in the German Bight by a (policy driven) decrease in nutrient inputs from the catchment area is analysed. Different measures for reducing the input of nutrients from the catchment, and ultimately preventing eutrophication of the coastal waters are considered. In this context, the members of the AB were asked about the efficiency and feasibility of different measures and the criteria for choosing 'better' management solutions among the possible ones. Although there is a general agreement about the necessity of reducing nutrient emissions, some members of the AB perceive other environmental issues (e.g. altered morphodynamics) as more relevant than nutrient enrichment. Voluntary cooperation, eco-efficiency and 'trans-sectoral' communication are the key concepts mentioned as being indispensable for integrated management. The (public) acceptance of measures for nutrient reduction have to find its way through compromises and social equity, allowing for win-win solutions among different groups of interests and balanced spatial division of costs and benefits. EUROpean CATchments, Project N° EVK1-CT-2000-00044 ( http://www.iia-cnr.unical.it/EUROCAT/project.htm).
Nunneri, C.; Hofmann, J.
Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants collected data from the PTM invasion front, which revealed clear connection between the abundance of one of the species (Tecia solanivora) and the remoteness to the main market place. This suggests that mechanisms structuring invasive populations at the invasion front are different from those occurring in areas invaded for longer period. Participatory monitoring with local people may serve as a cost-effective early warning system to detect and control incipient invasive pest species in countries where the daily management of biological resources is largely in the hands of poor rural people. PMID:20799682
Dangles, O; Carpio, F C; Villares, M; Yumisaca, F; Liger, B; Rebaudo, F; Silvain, J F
Full Text Available Eind augustus 2006 vond in Groningen het gecombineerde internationale congress over Action Learning and Action Research/Participatory Action Research (ALARPM 7th/PAR 11th plaats. Onderzoekers van over de hele wereld namen deel om te luisteren naar key-note speakers, om een workshop te geven of bij te wonen en om ervaringen uit te wisselen. De 290 deelnemers hadden een ruime keus: naast de zeven centrale lezingen was er een scala aan workshops over themas uit vijf verschillende stromingen (Standards/Ethics, Education/Action Learning, Organizational Development, Rural Development/Developmental Cooperation/Social Innovation, Health. Een impressie van het congres.
Based on the review of experiences in SEA and EIA in the Czech Republic summarized in Deliverable No.3 and the testing of novel participatory and dialogue approaches summarized in Deliverables No.7, 11 and 12 in this report a model for the siting process specifically in the Czech Republic, that takes into account the need for transparency and interaction with the public, within the framework of legal requirements is outlined. Lessons learnt are summarised and a road map specified. The guidelines / recommendations in this report are proposed based on mapping the situation in the Czech Republic and experience gained in connection with the testing and application of novel participatory approaches and dialogue, but many of them are of general validity and can be applied in other countries outside the Czech Republic. This reports links directly to Work package 6, where general guidelines for participation and transparency, reflecting institutional and cultural differences, are given - Deliverable No.22
Full Text Available This research paper presents the outcomes of the Work Package 5 (Socio-economical Vulnerability Assessment and Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction of the MIAVITA Research Program (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities conducted in Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 yr (May 2010January 2012 of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km-wide caldera of the volcano inside the Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the program included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people at volcanic threats is linked with daily access to sources of livelihood specially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk on their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such objective, a Participatory 3-Dimensional Mapping (P3DM activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1 the non-participative aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability (2 deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties to involve more marginalized people like women and youth, and (3 the fact that volcanic risk is not the priority for people who are more concerned on daily difficulties due to unsustainable livelihood, lack of access to water, land tenure, and the restrictions by the Fogo Natural Park administration and the municipal officials. Still, the study was successful in creating a space for dialogue between the local people and the outside stakeholders such as the Natural Park administration, the National Civil Protection Service (SNPC, and the Municipality of Santa Catarina who have all participated actively during the implementation of the project.
Full Text Available The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-a-vis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.
Yee Ming Chen
Full Text Available After Chinas collective forest right system reform, cooperation organizations have played an important role in the development of community forestry. In order to analyze the demands and attitudes of stakeholders of community forests, a participatory approach which included brainstorming, material collection, PRA tools, semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys, was used in a forest management survey involving four village cases. According to the application of the participatory approach it can be seen that the different types of stakeholders had different demands and attitudes toward community forest management. Farmers were more focused on economic benefit while forestry bureaus were more concerned about attaining the maximum level of forestry farmers ecological, economic and social efficiency. Cooperative members had more positive attitudes than non-cooperative members. According to all stakeholders, the harvest quota control system is the most unreasonable policy. In addition, based on the results of the SWOT strategy analysis matrix for forest management policies and systems at the level of forestry farmers, four strategy selections are proposed.
Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes for change in agricultural contexts. The hypothesis is that the processes in the case project can be analysed by applying concepts of the theory of communities of practice. The first analytical component is a test for learning prerequisites conducted by the concepts of domain, community and practice. The second component concerns identity changes among involved farmers and the third component introduces the concept of boundary objects to concrete cooperative processes in the case project. We find that the stakeholder approach is problematic in catchment areas because communities of practice are rare in interest groups and organisations. On the basis of the theory of communities of practice, we suggest to integrate both knowledge production and knowledge implementation in the work-related social setting of each individual farm.
Madsen, Mads LÃ¦gdsgaard; Noe, Egon
Abstract Background: This is a time of unprecedented mobility across the globe. Healthcare systems need to adapt to ensure that primary care is culturally and linguistically appropriate for migrants. Evidence-based guidelines and training interventions for cultural competence and the use of professional interpreters are available across European healthcare settings. However, in real-world practice migrants and their healthcare providers 'get by' with a range of informal and inadequate strategies. RESTORE is an EU FP7 funded project, which is designed to address this translational gap. Objectives: The objective of RESTORE is to investigate and support the implementation of guidelines and training initiatives to support communication in cross-cultural consultations in selected European primary care settings. Design: RESTORE is a qualitative, participatory health project running from 2011-2015. It uses a novel combination of normalization process theory and participatory learning and action research to follow and shape the implementation journeys of relevant guidelines and training initiatives. Research teams in Ireland, England, the Netherlands, Austria and Greece are conducting similar parallel qualitative case study fieldwork, with a complementary health policy analysis led by Scotland. In each setting, key stakeholders, including migrants, are involved in participatory data generation and analysis. Expected results: RESTORE will provide knowledge about the levers and barriers to the implementation of guidelines and training initiatives in European healthcare settings and about successful, transferrable strategies to overcome identified barriers. RESTORE will elucidate the role of policy in shaping these implementation journeys; generate recommendations for European policy driving the development of culturally and linguistically appropriate healthcare systems. PMID:24467319
MacFarlane, Anne; O'Reilly-de Brún, Mary; de Brún, Tomas; Dowrick, Christopher; O'Donnell, Catherine; Mair, Frances; Spiegel, Wolfgang; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria; van Weel Baumgarten, Evelyn; Lionis, Christos; Clissmann, Ciaran
The lack of understanding on how to integrate ecological issues into so-called social-ecological natural resource management hampers sustainability in tropical forest landscape management. We build upon a comparison of three cases that show inverse gradients of knowledge and perceptions of the environment and human pressure on natural resources. We discuss why the ecological dimension currently lags behind in the management of tropical forest landscapes and to what extent participatory develo...
Yves Laumonier; Robin Bourgeois; Jean-Laurent Pfund
In this participatory action research study, researchers conducted a total of 3 implementation cycles to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a new delirium prevention program (DPP) for cognitively impaired residents in long term care (LTC) settings. Researchers interviewed 95 health care staff to obtain feedback on their use of the DPP and then modified the DPP and tested the changes in the next implementation cycle. Our results indicated that the DPP was feasible and that health care staff would accept it under certain conditions. We found there were 4 keys to successful implementation of the DPP: support for the program from both the administration and the users; effective clinician leadership to ensure proper delivery of the DPP (format, content and values) and its appropriate adaptation to the LTC facility's internal culture and policies; a sense of ownership among the DPP users; and, last, practical hands-on training as well as theoretical training for staff. PMID:24094898
Voyer, Philippe; McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Vu, Minh; Ciampi, Antonio; Sanche, Steven; Richard, Sylvie; de Raad, Manon
The Banat Plain (western Romania) is a low, alluvial plain affected by neotectonic subsidence movements, being a critical region in terms of exposure to floods. The latest extreme event was the historic floods occcured in the spring of 2005, which caused significant economic damage in several rural communities. The response to 2005 floods has highlighted a number of weaknesses in the management of hazards, such as the deficiencies of the early warning system, people awareness or the inefficiency of some mitigation measures, besides the past structural measures which are obsolete. For a better understanding of the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to floods, the quantitative assessment of human vulnerability to floods was supplemented with a participatory research, in which there were involved five rural settlements from the Banat Plain (comprising 15 villages and a population of over 12,000 inhabitants). Thus, in the spring of 2013, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in approx. 100 households of the affected communities and structured interviews were held with local authorities, in the framework of VULMIN project, funded by the Ministry of National Education. The questionnaire was designed based on a pilot survey conducted in 2005, several months after the flood, and was focused on two major issues: a) perception of the local context of vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events; b) perception of human vulnerability to floods (personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding). The results were correlated with a number of specific variables of the households included in the sample, such as: household structure; income source; income level; location of the dwelling in relation to floodplains. In this way, we were able to draw general conclusions about the way in which local people perceive the extreme events, such as floods, on the one hand. On the other hand, there were highlighted differences in perception between the respondents, caused by their different degree of socio-economic vulnerability. Although exposure to floods remains a significant problem in the Banat Plain, statistical analysis of the results revealed that respondents tended to relate mainly to newly produced extreme climatic events (droughts, heat waves, storms), when being asked to mention natural hazards threatening the studied region. Moreover, the comparison of the results of the two surveys conducted in the region (in 2005 and 2013) indicated that the relationship between the components of risk perception has changed over time. Thus, the directly proportional relationship between awareness, worry and preparedness, emphasized in 2005, is currently absent. The implementation of flood mitigation measures appears to be only the result of mechanisms put into service at the institutional level, after the events of 2005. Although currently there may be an improvement in flood response and mitigation in the region, compared to 2005, the low level of awareness and the fact that exposure to floods is not yet perceived as a threat can jeopardize the resilience and adaptation of rural communities to floods in the Banat Plain.
Balteanu, Dan; Costache, Andra; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Dragota, Carmen; Grigorescu, Ines
Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. Neighborhood STRENGTH, our community based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects that are single topic-focused, our holistic, systems-based project targeted five priorities. The three research-focused/action-oriented components were: 1) participatory monitoring of indoor and outdoor pollution; 2) learning about health needs and concerns of residents through community based listening sessions; and 3) engaging in collaborative survey work, including a household vulnerability survey and an asthma prevalence survey for schoolchildren. The two action-focused/research-informed components were: 4) tackling persistent street trash and illegal dumping strategically; and 5) educating and empowering youth to promote environmental justice. We used a coupled CBPR-capacity building approach to design, vulnerability theory to frame, and mixed methods: quantitative environmental testing and qualitative surveys. Process and outcomes yielded important lessons: vulnerability theory helps frame issues holistically; having several topic-based projects yielded useful information, but was hard to manage and articulate to the public; access to, and engagement with, the target population was very difficult and would have benefited greatly from having representative residents who were paid at the partners' table. Engagement with residents and conflict burden varied highly across components. Notwithstanding, we built enabling capacity, strengthened our understanding of vulnerability, and are able to share valuable experiential knowledge.
Downs, Timothy J.; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee; Piersanti, Kelly; Taylor, Octavia; Goble, Robert
Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. "Neighborhood STRENGTH", our community-based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community-based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects that are single topic-focused, our 'holistic', systems-based project targeted five priorities. The three research-focused/action-oriented components were: (1) participatory monitoring of indoor and outdoor pollution; (2) learning about health needs and concerns of residents through community-based listening sessions; (3) engaging in collaborative survey work, including a household vulnerability survey and an asthma prevalence survey for schoolchildren. The two action-focused/research-informed components were: (4) tackling persistent street trash and illegal dumping strategically; and (5) educating and empowering youth to promote environmental justice. We used a coupled CBPR-capacity building approach to design, vulnerability theory to frame, and mixed methods: quantitative environmental testing and qualitative surveys. Process and outcomes yielded important lessons: vulnerability theory helps frame issues holistically; having several topic-based projects yielded useful information, but was hard to manage and articulate to the public; access to, and engagement with, the target population was very difficult and would have benefited greatly from having representative residents who were paid at the partners' table. Engagement with residents and conflict burden varied highly across components. Notwithstanding, we built enabling capacity, strengthened our understanding of vulnerability, and are able to share valuable experiential knowledge. PMID:19762014
Downs, Timothy J; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee; Piersanti, Kelly; Taylor, Octavia; Goble, Robert
The establishment of a catchment monitoring network is a process, from the inception of the idea to its implementation, the latter being the construction of relevant gauging structures and installation of the various instruments. It is useful that the local communities and other stakeholders are involved and participate in such a process, as was highlighted during the establishment of the hydrological monitoring network in the Potshini catchment in Bergville District in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. The paper highlights the participatory establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a small rural inhabited catchment, in line with the overall objective of the Smallholder System Innovations (SSI) research programme, to monitor hydrological processes at both field and catchment scale for water resources management research purposes. The engagement and participation of the Potshini community precipitated a learning opportunity for both the researchers and the local community on (i) the understanding of hydrological processes inherent in the catchment (ii) appreciating the inherent dynamics in establishing a catchment monitoring network in the midst of a community (iii) paradigm shift on how to engage different stakeholders at different levels of participation. The participatory engagement in the monitoring process led to appreciation and uptake of some of the research results by the Potshini community and ensured continued support from all stakeholders. This paper is of the view that the participation of the local community and other stakeholders in catchment monitoring and instilling a sense of ownership and management of natural resources to the local communities needs to be encouraged at all times. Success stories in water resources management by local communities can be realized if such a process is integrated with other development plans in the catchment at all forums, with due recognition of the social dynamics of the communities living in the catchment.
Kongo, V. M.; Kosgei, J. R.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Lorentz, S. A.
Full Text Available Objective: since the revision of some criteria of the Participatory Action Research (p a r: the researcher`s influence, agrees, transparency and coupling, we try to point out the significance that this approach is qualitative research to address problems like abuse and some forms of political violence that affect children and young people. Issues that are cross to the interests of investigative work and intervention of a political psychology and psychology of gender, since the focus of a critical social psychology. Methodology: the goals of this task requiring the deployment of methodologies analyzes recognize the pattern of meaning as a space in which meanings emerge on triggers of the problems and factors that enable the development of alternative solution. The empirical component consists of some research findings on racism, womens identity in subjects with experience of abuse, the construction of subjectivities and the phenomenon of political participation in children and young people demobilized from illegal armed groups. The text shows dates of abuse and the untying of young children and armed conflict as a way of forms of political violence and some thoughts about the commitment of psychologists in handling these problems. Results: a summary of some historical background to the par and its significant elements as proposed critical and qualitative research and intervention, and ends the text to mean scientific criteria of the p a r, the influence of the researcher, agreement and transparency, based on empirical findings of the component.
Olga L. Obando S
This participatory study used PhotoVoice and qualitative description to (a) mentor baccalaureate nursing and college students in workforce diversity research; (b) explore barriers and facilitators encountered by rural American Indian, Hispanic, and other high school students when attending college and pursuing careers in nursing or the health sciences; and (c) model a process of social action to help existing and future students. Baccalaureate nursing and graduate students participated in all stages of research, including dissemination. Five themes emerged from analysis of PhotoVoice data: (a) being afraid; (b) believing; (c) taking small steps; (d) facing fears; and (e) using support systems. Findings underscore the importance of helping students participate in efforts to increase work-force diversity through research. Increasing nursing and health sciences workforce diversity may require strategies developed within and tailored to specific cultures and communities. PMID:24654692
Benavides-Vaello, Sandra; Katz, Janet R; Peterson, Jeffery Chaichana; Allen, Carol B; Paul, Robbie; Charette-Bluff, Andrea Lelana; Morris, Phyllis
La violencia contra niños y niñas: un problema global de abordaje local, mediante la IAP / Violence against the child: A local approach to a global problem through participatory action research / A violência contra as crianças: um problema global de enfoque local
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este artigo trata sobre as dimensões e a seriedade da presença atual da violência contra as crianças, apresentada em vários estudos, relatórios e recomendações dos governos e dos organismos nacionais e internacionais, como também trata sobre a necessidade de recorrer à opções de trabalho, como aquel [...] a da IAP, que permitem enfocar a complexidade dos implicados. Tudo isto é possível pela particularidade que determina a convergência de fatores sociais, culturais, familiares, pessoais e jurídicos em cada contexto. Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo nos ocupamos de las dimensiones y gravedad de la presencia actual de la violencia¹ contra la niñez, reflejada en diferentes estudios, informes y recomendaciones de gobiernos y organismos nacionales e internacionales, y de la necesidad de recurrir a opciones de trabajo como la [...] Investigación Acción Participativa, IAP, que permitan abordar la complejidad de los sujetos implicados, por la particularidad que traza la convergencia de factores sociales, culturales, económicos, familiares, personales y jurídicos, en cada contexto. Abstract in english This article considers the different dimensions and gravity of actual violence against children that are reflected among different articles, studies, reports and recommendations of governments and national and international organizations and the necessity to work within participatory action research [...] . This allows us to get the complexity of what is implicated due to the particular convergence of social, cultural, economic, familiar, personal and legal factors in each context.
Gutiérrez-Vega, Ingrit; Acosta-Ayerbe, Alejandro.
A multidisciplinary team of researchers at the Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace (CPH-NEW) developed an evidence-based approach to address three recognized challenges to workplace programs designed to improve employee health: establishing employee ownership, integrating with work organization, and sustainability. The two main innovations being introduced in combination were (1) integrating traditional workplace health protection (e.g., ergonomics, industrial hygi...
Henning, Robert; Warren, Nicholas; Robertson, Michelle; Faghri, Pouran; Cherniack, Martin
Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a methodology hinged on flexible power relationships and unobstructed flow of expert and local knowledge among project partners. Success in CBPR depends on authentic dialogue, free flow of information, and trust. But accurate, unmediated, and timely channels of communication, while key to successful CBPR, are difficult to create and maintain. As participatory methodologies evolve, popular arts and education techniques have increasingly taken center stage as culturally fluent, bidirectional modalities for conveying information, building responsive channels for communication, promoting policy, and enhancing the effectiveness of grassroots organizing. PMID:20129900
Sullivan, John; Siqueira, C Eduardo
Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...
De Cristofaro, Emiliano
While integrity is often thought of as the degree to which a program is applied as intended, researchers have recently widened the lens to include not only monitoring of program content, but also evaluating the process by which interventions are implemented and the extent to which the intervention is received as intended. Further, a partnership-based approach has been identified to be as critical to facilitating appropriate and accurate monitoring and interpretation of intervention integrity ...
Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Feinberg, Betsy E.; Freedman, Melanie A.; Jawad, Abbas; Leff, Stephen S.
The ever greater role given to public participation by laws and regulations, in particular in the field of environmental management calls for new operational methods and tools for managers and practitioners. This paper analyses the potentials and the critical limitations of current approaches in the fields of simulation modelling (SM), public participation (PP) and decision analysis (DA), for natural resources management within the context of climate change research. The potential synergies o...
The Agri-Environment Footprint Index (AFI) has been developed as a generic methodology to assess changes in the overall environmental impacts from agriculture at the farm level and to assist in the evaluation of European agri-environmental schemes (AES). The methodology is based on multi-criteria analysis (MCA) and involves stakeholder participation to provide a locally customised evaluation based on weighted environmental indicators. The methodology was subjected to a feasibility assessment in a series of case studies across the EU. The AFI approach was able to measure significant differences in environmental status between farms that participated in an AES and non-participants. Wider environmental concerns, beyond the scheme objectives, were also considered in some case studies and the benefits for identification of unintentional (and often beneficial) impacts of AESs are presented. The participatory approach to AES evaluation proved efficient in different environments and administrative contexts. The approach proved to be appropriate for environmental evaluation of complex agri-environment systems and can complement any evaluation conducted under the Common Monitoring and Evaluation Framework. The applicability of the AFI in routine monitoring of AES impacts and in providing feedback to improve policy design is discussed.
Mauchline, Alice L.; Mortimer, Simon R.
Full Text Available This paper describes the main features of a middleware for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL applications, exemplified along the SOPRANO research project. The contribution outlines main requirements towards the technical system and the elicitation methodology. The presented middleware allows for personalisation and flexible, extendible configuration of AAL solutions with low effort. Concerning the technical concept, the design approach as well as components, qualities and functionality of the AAL platform are depicted. Furthermore the methodology of requirements elicitation is discussed. It is explained how SOPRANO met the problem to elicit socio-technical system requirements in a user-centred manner, although the addressed target group is not expected to be able to express precise guidelines. SOPRANO (Service oriented programmable smart environments for older Europeans, http://www.soprano-ip.org/ is a research project funded by the European Commission, which aims at the provision of a technical (AAL infrastructure to help elderly people to keep their independence and to stay in their familiar environment as long as possible. SOPRANO focuses on in-house support and emphasises well-being. It is a main goal to secure situation-aware assistance and help not only in case of emergencies but particularly as well in activities of daily living.
Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity b...
Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.
Rudel Ruthann A
The establishment of a catchment monitoring network is a process, from the inception of the idea to its implementation, the latter being the construction of relevant gauging structures and installation of the various instruments. It is useful that the local communities and other stakeholders are involved and participate in such a process as was realised during the establishment of the hydrological monitoring network in the Potshini catchment in the Bergville district in the KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa. The paper illustrates the participatory application of various methods and techniques for establishing a hydrological monitoring network, in a small rural inhabited catchment, to monitor hydrological processes at both field and catchment scale for research purposes in water resources management. The authors conclude that the participation of the local community and other stakeholders in catchment monitoring and instilling the sense of ownership and management of natural resources to the local communities needs to be encouraged at all times. Success stories in water resources management by local communities can be realized if such a process is integrated with other development plans in the catchment at all forums with due recognition of the social dynamics of the communities living in the catchment.
Kongo, V. M.; Kosgei, J. R.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Lorentz, S. A.
BACKGROUND: To obtain good quality evidence-based clinical work there needs to be a culture of critical appraisal, and strong bridges between the clinical and the academic worlds in general practice. AIM: The aim was to educate the general practitioner (GP) trainees to obtain critical appraisal skills, and through the development and implementation of the mandatory programme to gradually empower the GP community to achieve academic capacity by creating a link between the GP researchers and the GP training community. This was done by developing a faculty, giving teaching skills to GP academics, and research skills to GP clinicians; and creating an awareness of the potential benefits of critical appraisal in training GP surgeries. METHODS: Development and implementation of a faculty and a programme through a participatory action research-inspired project, with process evaluation from the beginning of the planning phase. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2009, we built a teaching faculty of 25 teachers among clinical GPs and GP academics; developed the training programme; and delivered the programme to 95 GP trainees. Some of the GP trainees later showed an interest in more substantial research projects, and GP trainers with no previous association with the research environment started to show an interest through their function as GP trainers. The GP academics of the faculty, however, felt that it was difficult to continue the engagement because of the still increasing demand for published knowledge production in academia. CONCLUSION: It is possible to support the development of general academic capacity in general practice using participatory design in collaboration with GP academics and clinicians, building bridges between academia and clinical work, as well as within academia between research publication and teaching. There is, however, a generic barrier in the regulation of academia itself.
Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen
Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting initiatives and couples them together in a generic process model. Two cases studies are examined for different purposes. The well known Porto Alegre case is analysed to show how the generic process model is implemented in a practical example. The more recent Berlin-Lichtenberg initiative, however, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different eParticipation activities and match them to the generic participatory budgeting processes. This results in a comprehensive picture of how known eParticipation technologies can be used to support participatory budgeting. The next research question (unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) is how to choose - which technologies fit which local circumstances and conditions?
Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus
Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. Neighborhood STRENGTH, our community based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects...
Downs, Timothy J.; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee
The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatche...
The present article describes an experiment using the SAMBA role play game as a research tool in Bac Kan province of Vietnam, in the framework of the Mountain Agrarian Systems Program, a joint research project of the Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute, the International Rice Research Institute, the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, and the Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement. The role play game was a follow-up to intensive fiel...
Every community is unique and has special strengths and health-related needs, such that a community-based participatory research partnership cannot be formed and implemented in a predetermined, step-by-step manner. In this article, we describe how the Community Partnership Model (CPM), designed to allow flexible movement back and forth through all action phases, can be adapted to a variety of communities. Originally developed for nursing practice, the CPM has evolved into approaches for the collaborative initiation and maintenance of community partnerships. The model is informed by the recognition that cultural, social, economic, and knowledge backgrounds may vary greatly between nurse researchers and their community partners. The Familias En Acción violence prevention project exemplifies the use of the CPM in a transcultural partnership formation and implementation process. The collaborative approaches of the model guide community and research partners to interconnect and move flexibly through all partnership phases, thereby facilitating sustainability and community self-advocacy. PMID:24391121
Anderson, Nancy Lois Ruth; Lesser, Janna; Oscós-Sánchez, Manuel Ángel; Piñeda, Daniel V; Garcia, Gwyn; Mancha, Juan
While it began as a citizen water quality monitoring program to document long-term trends and find problem areas impacting lake watersheds the New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program soon evolved into a model effort for engaging the participants to help investigate a wide range of scientific questions primarily derived through their concerns. As a true participatory effort, community members were involved in the design as well as the implementation of the research and also in the interpretation of the results. The research outcomes have provided benefits to both the local and scientific communities. In many cases productive partnerships between the research community and participants were initiated that continue to last to this day. In addition, participants have been empowered through their experience and have become local experts and community leaders. Collaborative research projects to date have explored fish condition, recreational impacts, nutrient loadings from watershed land use, morphometric determinants of lake productivity, ground truth for remote sensing of water quality, biological controls for invasive aquatic plants, in-lake resource co-occurrences, and cyanobacteria bloom toxin ecology. Participants were also instrumental in confirming a more accurate method for water clarity measurement. Results have not only provided the community with the information they require for the informed local stewardship of their resources but also have been useful to state agencies and decision-makers. Our success can be attributed to the development of quality assured methods acceptable to regional and state agencies, the cost efficiencies of using volunteer scientists, support from the University and Cooperative Extension, capturing the "local expertise" of our participants, providing timely feedback and support, and making sure the study results are reported back to the local community through the participants involved.
Schloss, J. A.
Background. Haitian immigrant women residing in Little Haiti, a large ethnic enclave in Miami-Dade County, experience the highest cervical cancer incidence rates in South Florida. While this disparity primarily reflects lack of access to screening with cervical cytology, the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) which causes virtually all cases of cervical cancer worldwide, varies by population and may contribute to excess rate of disease. Our study examined the prevalence of oncogenic and nononcogenic HPV types and risk factors for HPV infection in Little Haiti. Methods. As part of an ongoing community-based participatory research initiative, community health workers recruited study participants between 2007 and 2008, instructed women on self-collecting cervicovaginal specimens, and collected sociodemographic and healthcare access data. Results. Of the 242 women who contributed adequate specimens, the overall prevalence of HPV was 20.7%, with oncogenic HPV infections (13.2% of women) outnumbering nononcogenic infections (7.4%). Age-specific prevalence of oncogenic HPV was highest in women 1830 years (38.9%) although the prevalence of oncogenic HPV does not appear to be elevated relative to the general U.S. population. The high prevalence of oncogenic types in women over 60 years may indicate a substantial number of persistent infections at high risk of progression to precancer.
Kobetz, Erin; Kish, Jonathan K.; Campos, Nicole G.; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Bishop, Ian; Lipshultz, Hannah; Barton, Betsy; Barbee, Lindley
Identification of relevant social impact indicators for a Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) is still difficult and poorly documented (Jorgensen, et al, 2009). In aquaculture systems, the studies based on social aspects are essentially focused on manpower or on conflicts with other activities . In the PISCEnLit project**, we aim to broaden the vision of social impacts of fish farming systems using a new approach of SLCA. We studied fish farming pond systems in France (Lorraine and Brenne) an...
Mathe, Syndhia; Aubin, Joel; Wilfart, Aure?lie; Rey-valette, Helene; Slembrouck, Jacques; Ediwarman,; Fontaine, Pascal; Tocqueville, Aure?lien; Blancheton, Jean-paul; Callier, Myriam
As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte
Activities that are fun, social, engaging and put something at stake are positive for your health no matter age or condition. What can you do if you suffer from dementia and are living at a Special Housing? According to research you should dance, visit the garden, get tactile massage discuss artworks etc. Still, despite all these proposals there are many voices from this domain, telling stories about living without live. Suffering from dementia may affect your ability to speak for your self a...
Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.
Despite the fact that many measures to attenuate flood hazards and reduce vulnerabilities are being implemented, adverse effects of floods are ever-increasing in most parts of the world. On the one hand this holds true for economically and/or demographically growing regions. On the other hand this applies also to areas that face population shrinkage and economic problems. Such flood risks occur in human-environment systems and are subject to dynamics caused by a number of drivers such as climate change, land-use changes, and others. Many drivers evolve slowly over time or show time-lag effects and long return periods. Moreover, certain decisions may determine the control actions of the following decades. At present, current flood risks are mostly determined based on historic developments and the ex post analysis of flood events. Approaches that look at the future dynamics of both hazards and vulnerable elements ex ante in an integrated manner are rare. Instead, future hazard scenarios are often just overlaid with current socio-economic data, which poses a strong inconsistency. Usually the focus lies on rather short-term, specific or local problems. But many developments and measures show their effects only after long time periods and when considering the whole catchment area. This calls for a holistic and long-term view into the future and implies the challenge of dealing with many uncertainties due to the system's complexity. In order to anticipate and react to these developments, this contribution suggests developing a flexible, yet holistic approach to design, analyse and evaluate alternative futures of such human-environment systems. These futures follow a scenario understanding that considers both specific (current) factor constellations as well as consistent assumptions on autonomous developments (so-called development frameworks) and potentials for control (strategic alternatives) of the interacting entities that influence flood risk. Different scenario concepts and the application of respective techniques are thus reviewed and incorporated with regard to their suitability for an integrated management of current and future flood risks. In particular, "hybrid scenarios" with qualitative and quantitative components represented by nested models as well as assumptions across different spatiotemporal scales, respectively, are suggested for dealing with the uncertainties when assessing flood risks throughout a system's possible evolution. The (initially top-down developed) approach and its components will be briefly presented. These "scenario products" could later serve as a stimulus for discussions that bring together different actors and enhance - and eventually legitimise - the scenarios further in a "scenario process": (1) A first step is the conceptualisation of a flood risk system following the SPRC-model. Its physical geographical and anthropogenic factors may either be subject to autonomous trends, target-oriented control, or facultative system behaviour (e.g. dike breaches). With this concept, the integration of different processes and scales is aspired. (2) Secondly, it is conceptually shown how the risk cascade for present and future states of the flood risk system can be calculated based on coupled models ranging from climate change projections to a damage simulation models. (3) Thirdly, ways to develop socioeconomic storylines for the development frameworks and guiding principles for the strategic alternatives are presented and the futures are combined. This involves making plausible and consistent assumptions for many system factors and their drivers and finding ways to harmonise existing data for the same areas and time steps. (4) Fourthly, selected futures can be analysed and evaluated ex ante applying the coupled models of the second step to derive the emerging flood risks. The evaluation addresses, amongst other aspects, the identification of (i) the sensitivity of all scenarios against the current strategic alternative; (ii) the resulting risks when applying different str
This paper describes a long-term research seminar, developed in 2001 by Hertz-Lazarowitz at the University of Haifa (UH). The goal of the seminar was to involve students in a meaningful, experiential and cooperative-interactive learning environment, based on topics relevant to their development as individuals coming from diverse collectives to the
Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Zelniker, Tamar; Azaiza, Faisal
Dean Blevins1,2,3, Bridget Morton4, Rene McGovern5,61South Central Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (SC-MIRECC), Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System; 2University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; 3University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus, Little Rock, AR; 4Northeast Missouri Health Network, Kirksville, MO; 5A.T. Still University/Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, Kirksville, MO; 6Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OHAbstract: The purpose of th...
Full Text Available Where disenfranchised groups such as women, immigrants and people of color more generally were either excluded from the academy or not thought to have important 'stories' to tell, several qualitative methodologies now value these voices, in large measure because disenfranchised research participants have an understanding in their bodies of what it means to be exposed to patriarchy, racism, classism, heterosexism, ableism, xenophobia and other complex forms of oppression (Gitlin, 2007, p.1.
Enabling is a concept central to health promotion. It is perceived as a mechanism that can help people gain control over determinants of health. Little is known, however, about enabling among policy-makers and professionals. This case study investigates enabling among policy-makers and professionals who engaged in a specific participatory approach, cooperative planning. We define 'enabling' as creating action situations that allow policy-makers and professionals to (i) build individual capacities for health promotion and to (ii) apply these capacities to concrete organizational and political action at the institutional level. This case study followed policy-makers and professionals as they participated in a local physical activity promotion action research project in Germany. We conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative data gathered in that project (2005-2011). Methods included participant observation, document analysis, focus groups and qualitative interviews. All data were revisited for the case study and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings include examples of enabling among policy-makers and professionals related to the cooperative planning process. Individual capacities were developed in perceived project roles, interactions with target groups and decision-making procedures. Findings also demonstrated municipal policy changes. Access to physical activity infrastructures improved, and an intersectoral job position was funded to support physical activity promotion among target group participants. Findings were analyzed using a model that links cooperative planning with a framework on policy change from a political science perspective. We conclude that cooperative planning might be a pathway to negotiated agreements that foster systematic enabling and health-promoting policy change. PMID:22987843
Frahsa, Annika; Rütten, Alfred; Roeger, Ulrike; Abu-Omar, Karim; Schow, Diana
The authors implemented and assessed the effectiveness of a public health initiative aimed at reducing traffic-related air pollution exposure of the school community at four Cincinnati public schools. A partnership was fostered with academic environmental health researchers and community members. Anti-idling campaign materials were developed and education and training were provided to school bus drivers, students, parents, and school staff. Pledge drives and pre- and posteducation assessments were documented to measure the effectiveness of the program. After completing the educational component of the public health initiative, bus drivers (n = 397), community members (n = 53), and staff (n = 214) demonstrated significantly increased knowledge about the health effects of idling (p public health intervention. A community-driven public health initiative can be effective in both 1) enhancing community awareness about the benefits of reducing idling vehicles and 2) increasing active participation in idling reduction. The partnership initially developed has continued to develop toward a sustainable and growing process. PMID:23734527
Eghbalnia, Cynthia; Sharkey, Ken; Garland-Porter, Denisha; Alam, Mohammad; Crumpton, Marilyn; Jones, Camille; Ryan, Patrick H
In the United States, the agricultural industry is dependent on men and women from Mexico who migrate throughout the country to participate in the care and harvest of crops. They often migrate independently of their families and leave loved ones behind. Separation from families and difficult working conditions create high frequencies of mental health issues. When available, the farmworkers seek out treatment for the somatic symptoms such as high heart rate, upset stomachs, and difficult breathing often associated with depression and anxiety. Mental health counselors and facilities often are not able to meet the needs in culturally sensitive ways presented by this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on Mexican farmworkersâ?? levels of depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition, this study sought to examine how the migrant farmworkers used music-making sessions between music therapy sessions as a coping skill to further improve their overall mental health. Finally, this study sought to examine how migrant farmworkers engaged in the research process and how they valued their relationship with the researcher. This study utilized a mixed methods approach incorporating a randomized control trial with repeated measures and participatory action research. A total of 125 farmwokers participated in this study over the course of two distinct phases. Farmworkers in Phase I were randomly assigned to music therapy, English as a second language classes, and a stress education (control) group. Farmworkers in Phase II were randomly assigned to music therapy or a comparison stress education group. Farmworkers in the music therapy condition participated in 6-10 music therapy sessions during which time they learned how to play an instrument, engaged in song writing and lyric analysis, and group music-making. Results indicated that participants in the music therapy condition across both phases did not significantly improve their depression, anxiety, and social isolationscores compared to the control/comparison group. The farmworkers who did participate in group musicmaking between sessions did improve their scores more so than participants who did not engage in weekly group music-making. The farmworkers identified helpful and impeding aspects of the research through focus group interviews. They also identified components of their relationship to the music therapist/researcher that were helpful in establishing and developing a relationship with her.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94% females (85% with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1 years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84% participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1 to 120.3 (SD = 17.9 mmHg; p Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach and representativeness of enrolled participants are discussed. Adherence to pedometer diary self-monitoring was better than education session participation. Significant decreases in the primary blood pressure outcomes demonstrate early effectiveness. Importantly, future analyses will evaluate long-term effectiveness of this CBPR behavioral intervention on health outcomes, and help inform the translational capabilities of CBPR efforts.
While many researchers have worked to address the unequal educational outcomes between White and non-White students, there are few signs of progress for people of color seeking entry into a STEM career trajectory. Starting from high school, the number of students who persist to complete a STEM bachelor's degree and obtaining a job in science or engineering continues to indicate that people of color are underrepresented. I suggest that research must consider the role of race and racism in the education of youth of color. Especially in science education, there is very little work addressing how racism may present barriers that impede progress for students along the STEM trajectory. This study is informed by critical race theory (CRT) that posits racism is endemic in society. White privilege enables the dominant group to maintain inequitable advantages that marginalizes populations of color. CRT also puts forth that counter narratives of the marginalized groups is essential to challenge the institutionalized forms of oppression. Using CRT and youth participatory action research (YPAR), this investigation re-imagines youth as capable of transforming their own social and political condition through research and action. This project asked youth of color to interrogate their own experiences as science learners, engage in research on structural inequities of STEM trajectories, plan strategic moves to challenge power structures, and take action for social justice. The youth started by exploring the concept of race and instances where racism was found in public spaces and in their personal experiences. They examined their experiences in science as a student more generally and then for racism. Then, the focus turned to conducting research with peers, observing science classrooms in another school, and using online information to compare schools. The youth planned strategic action against the racism they found in the analysis of the data that included conference presentations, using social media to communicate with peers, and teaching a science unit for middle grades peers using lessons that incorporated engaging teaching practices lacking in their student experiences. YPAR resulted in counternarratives that exposed youth encounters with systemic racism and their efforts to positively change STEM trajectories for themselves and their peers. Through YPAR, youth gained research tools and skills to critically examine the world and expose racism. While schools are purported to be places of equal opportunity for all students to learn and find success, the youth showed that institutionalized racism in schools created barriers to STEM aspirations. By planning and teaching a food and nutrition unit, the youth took aim at the institutionalized racism by taking on the role of teacher and expert while improving the science learning opportunities for their middle grades peers and themselves. In addition, planning the unit enabled the youth to conduct all of the activities before teaching the unit. Thus, the youth supplemented their own science learning. YPAR provided an empowering opportunity to challenge racism along their STEM trajectories and fight for social justice.
Sato, Takumi C.
Drawing from our PD projects, this paper shows how designers enact their appreciative judgment of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. The widespread of Participatory Design (PD), have meant that different approaches and conceptualization exist in this field today. We argue that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in PD. This requires focusing upon values as the engine that drives our activities in PD.
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim
Estrategia intersectorial y participativa con enfoque de ecosalud para la prevención de la transmisión de dengue en el nivel local / An inter-sector participatory strategy in Cuba using an ecosystem approach to prevent dengue transmission at the local level
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Cuba está ubicada en una zona de países con alta incidencia de dengue. En los últimos 10 años ha sido afectada por varias epidemias, es por ello que se diseñó, implementó y evaluó una estrategia participativa, basada en el enfoque de ecosalud, la cual estuvo dirigida a propiciar acciones intersector [...] iales en la gestión del ecosistema para disminuir las poblaciones del mosquito Aedes aegypti y prevenir la transmisión de dengue en el municipio Cotorro de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó la metodología de investigación acción participativa. Como resultado del proceso se pudo describir una estrategia que garantiza la participación activa de la comunidad, los sectores y el gobierno en la producción de ecosistemas saludables, se desarrollaron acciones de prevención y control oportunas e integrados que disminuyeron los riesgos para la proliferación del vector y la transmisión local de la enfermedad. Este enfoque permitió el análisis holístico de los problemas, su priorización y la gestión de sus soluciones; la estrategia se sostiene dos años después de concluido el proceso. Abstract in english Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aed [...] es aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process.
Cristina, Díaz; Yisel, Torres; Ana Margarita de la, Cruz; Ángel M., Álvarez; María Eugenia, Piquero; Aida, Valero; Omar, Fuentes.
Estrategia intersectorial y participativa con enfoque de ecosalud para la prevención de la transmisión de dengue en el nivel local / An inter-sector participatory strategy in Cuba using an ecosystem approach to prevent dengue transmission at the local level
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Cuba está ubicada en una zona de países con alta incidencia de dengue. En los últimos 10 años ha sido afectada por varias epidemias, es por ello que se diseñó, implementó y evaluó una estrategia participativa, basada en el enfoque de ecosalud, la cual estuvo dirigida a propiciar acciones intersector [...] iales en la gestión del ecosistema para disminuir las poblaciones del mosquito Aedes aegypti y prevenir la transmisión de dengue en el municipio Cotorro de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó la metodología de investigación acción participativa. Como resultado del proceso se pudo describir una estrategia que garantiza la participación activa de la comunidad, los sectores y el gobierno en la producción de ecosistemas saludables, se desarrollaron acciones de prevención y control oportunas e integrados que disminuyeron los riesgos para la proliferación del vector y la transmisión local de la enfermedad. Este enfoque permitió el análisis holístico de los problemas, su priorización y la gestión de sus soluciones; la estrategia se sostiene dos años después de concluido el proceso. Abstract in english Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aed [...] es aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process.
Cristina, Díaz; Yisel, Torres; Ana Margarita de la, Cruz; Ángel M., Álvarez; María Eugenia, Piquero; Aida, Valero; Omar, Fuentes.
This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audienceâ??s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts.
The aim was to link necessary research skills to increase the range of options available to resource-poor farmers in the study area. The research consisted of on-station research to evaluate and understand cropping-system options resulting from insertion of a legume crop into the sorghum and castor system, on-farm research whereby farmers evaluate cropping-system options that are of interest to them, use of 15N as a label to help understand the nitrogen (N) balance of the various options, and cropping-systems simulation to examine long-term climatic risks from possible options. Particular attention was placed on the option of sorghum/pigeon pea intercrops, and on quantifying the inputs of N from animal manure and by the pigeon-pea component. We were also interested in the process of linking on-station to on-farm research, and simulation modelling to the cropping system research. One important outcome was that different groups identified different problems and posed different questions. The problems identified and questions raised were examined by use of scenario analyses run for ten to thirty years which contrasted the existing practice with a range of alternative practices. The simulations were useful in guiding the design of on-farm experiments. Other likely outcomes are the setting of low-rate fertilizer recommendations specifically for the semi-arid tropics, the marketing of small packs of fertilizers, and increased use of manure resources for crop production. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetiva destacar a importância do orçamento participativo como fonte de inclusão social na sociedade intensiva de informação, em conjunto com os postulados da Ciência da Informação. O modelo participativo de gestão do orçamento participativo apresenta sinais de possibilidades de const [...] rução de um método provedor de democracia, e, nesse processo, a informação torna-se insumo inestimável. Nesse contexto, a Ciência da Informação surge como uma teia de formulações com laços concomitantes para que o acesso, a disseminação, o registro e a organização das informações produzidas sejam transformadas em realidades, sugerindo, ademais, proposições de ordem educativa para a cidadania. No atual momento de transição histórica e cultural da sociedade brasileira, comunidades e pessoas excluídas econômica e socialmente têm a possibilidade de participar do processo de gestão democrática mediante o orçamento participativo. Esses núcleos de compartilhamento de informações, conhecimentos e saberes tendem a contribuir para criar alternativas de transformação do espaço social, de modo a promover a inclusão dos grupos sociais menos favorecidos no acesso à informação. Abstract in english This work proposes highlighting the importance of participatory budgeting as a source of social inclusion in the intensive information society, in conjunction with the premises of Information Science. The model of participatory budget management shows signs of the possibility of constructing a metho [...] d that provides democracy, in which case the information becomes an invaluable input. In this context, information science emerges as a web of formulations with concurrent ties, permitting the dissemination, recording and organization of the information produced to be transformed into reality, suggesting, moreover, propositions of an educational order for citizens. At the present moment of historical and cultural transition through which we are passing in Brazilian society, communities and economically and socially excluded individuals have the chance to participate in the process of democratic management through participatory budgeting. These clusters of information sharing, knowledge and wisdom tend to contribute to the creation of alternatives for the transformation of social space in order to promote the inclusion of disadvantaged social groups in terms of access to information.
Lopes, Alex de Araujo; Freire, Isa Maria.
Participatory research methods directly engage with the topics that they set out to address. It is therefore no surprise that participatory research practice on the topic of educational inclusion and exclusion raises ethical issues for the participatory researcher that are themselves about inclusion and exclusion. This paper describes and analyses
Kaplan, Ian; Miles, Susie; Howes, Andy
Full Text Available Enhancing incomes from the sustainable harvest of nontimber forest products can help to maintain local livelihoods and provide local communities with economic incentives to conserve biodiversity. A key feature of a successful enterprise approach to the conservation of these products is a sound monitoring and evaluation program that involves all concerned stakeholders and leads to adaptive management. However, few studies have presented any of the approaches, successes, or challenges involved in participatory monitoring initiatives for nontimber forest products. We present our experiences using a participatory research model that we developed and used over a 10-yr (19952005 period for the wild harvesting of Phyllanthus spp. fruits (amla by indigenous Soliga harvesters in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. We describe the establishment and evolution of our participatory resource monitoring activities, compare some of the results of our activities to those obtained from monitoring using standard ecological approaches, and evaluate some of the successes and challenges associated with our participatory resource model. An initial step in this work was the establishment of Soliga-run enterprises for the processing and value addition of amla and other nontimber forest products. Participatory resource monitoring activities consisted of participatory mapping and assessments of fruit production, fruit harvest and regeneration combined with pre- and postharvesting meetings for sharing information, and adaptive management. Over the years, harvesters rejected, changed, and adapted various participatory resource monitoring methods to select those most appropriate for them. Visual estimates of fruit production made by harvesters at the forest level were very similar to estimates obtained using standard scientific monitoring protocols. Participatory research monitoring techniques that were effective included strategies for participatory resource mapping, fruit productivity estimation, and promotion of improved harvest techniques. Major challenges involved ensuring adequate incentives for monitoring activities that lead to benefits only over the longer term, such as monitoring of extraction and regeneration rates. Maintaining long-term participation and interest in the latter requires ensuring resource tenure.
Purpose â?? This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/approach â?? Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players and future users in the customer organization. The interview data were supplemented with company and project documents. Findings â?? The paper found genuine customer and user participation carried out by onsite customers and by other operational staff in the form of direct and indirect participation and with functional and democratic empowerment. The onsite customers played informative, consultative and participativeroles. The analysis revealed that planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the customer and user participation. This form of user participation supported a balance between flexibility and project progress and resulted in a project and a product which were considered a success by the customer and the development organization. The analysis showed that the integrative framework for user participation can also fruitfully be used in a new context to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory design contributes to the successful completion of the investigated project. By drawing on innovation theory it was found that participatory design in agile development bears the characteristics of a successful organizational innovation. Grounding further explanations in complex adaptive systems theory the paper provides an additional argument why participatory design despite some identified challenges fosters project staff to successfully carry out the agile development project.
Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called messes or wicked problems. The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.
While the knowledge management literature has addressed the explicit and tacit skills needed for successful performance in the modern enterprise, little attention has been paid to date in this particular literature as to how these wide-ranging skills may be suitably acquired during the course of an undergraduate business school education. This paper presents case analysis of the research-oriented participatory education curriculum developed at Copenhagen Business School because it appears uniquely suited, by a curious mix of Danish education tradition and deliberate innovation, to offer an educational experience more empowering of essential tacit knowledge skills than that found in educational institutions in other national settings. We specify the program forms and procedures for consensus-based governance and group work (as benchmarks) that demonstrably instruct undergraduates in the tacit skill dimensions of knowledge thought to be essential for success following graduation.
Tackney, Charles T.; StrÃ¶mgren, Ole
The rationale for a constructivist approach to behavioral and social science research, and studies which have applied this methodology, are reviewed. The author suggests that ethnographic techniques of explaining behavior patterns may be as valuable as or more appropriate than traditional behavioral science methods. (GDC)
Magoon, A. Jon
A pesquisa-ação participante como estratégia metodológica para o estudo do empreendedorismo social em administração de empresas / Participatory action research as a methodological strategy for the study of social entrepreneurship in business administration
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente ensaio tem como objetivo analisar e discutir como a pesquisa-ação participante pode ganhar espaço como estratégia metodológica em administração. Esta análise enfoca em especial o campo do empreendedorismo, e mais especificamente o campo do empreendedorismo social, ressaltando as vantagens [...] e limitações da aplicação dessa estratégia de pesquisa. Procede-se, inicialmente, à análise dos principais paradigmas de pesquisa em administração e define-se a pesquisa-ação participante como modalidade de pesquisa crítica, inserida no paradigma humanista radical. A seguir, passa-se à identificação das características da pesquisa participante e ao seu contraste com outras modalidades de pesquisa, em especial com a observação participante e a pesquisa-ação. Os conceitos da pesquisa-ação participante são apresentados e os autores prosseguem apresentando uma revisão dos mais recentes trabalhos em que essa foi usada para apoiar pesquisas na área do empreendedorismo social. Concluem com a proposta de que a avaliação desses trabalhos se dê por outros conceitos que não os da pesquisa tradicional. Abstract in english This essay aims to analyze and discuss how participatory action research can be applied as a methodological strategy in business administration. This analysis focuses mainly on the field of entrepreneurship and, more specifically, social entrepreneurship, highlighting the advantages and limitations [...] of this research strategy. Firstly, the main research paradigms in business administration are analyzed and participatory-action research is defined as a research modality set within the radical humanist paradigm. Then, the characteristics of participatory research are identified and it is contrasted with other research modalities, specially with participant observation and action research. Participatory action research is then presented and the authors proceed with the presentation of a review of recent researches which it was used. They finish the work proposing that avaliation of works with this kind of methodology must be different then those used for traditional research.
Marcos Bidart Carneiro de, Novaes; Antonio Carlos, Gil.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 2564 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527
The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities in PD. Drawing from the authorsâ?? own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding.
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim
Hacia un enfoque de investigación participativa para mejorar los sistemas de producción de caprinos en regiones semiáridas de México: una caracterización socioeconómica y ecológica / Towards a participatory research approach to improve goats production systems in semi arid Mexico: socioeconomic and ecological
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar opciones que permitan mejorar la productividad caprina en una microcuenca con dos poblados en las regiones áridas del norte mexicano. El estudio se realizó durante los años 2004 al 2007 y se basó en el enfoque de sistemas de producción. Se evaluaron aspect [...] os socioeconómicos y ecológicos al nivel de macrosistema para identificar diferencias socioeconómicas y con posibles opciones generadoras de ingresos, y determinar la idoneidad del área para producir cabras e identificar tierras bajo cultivo que pudieran reconvertirse en tierras de pastoreo. Además, en el estudio se midió la erosión hídrica y se evaluaron los cambios en la calidad de la vegetación en las tierras de pastoreo para identificar las intervenciones adecuadas en el manejo del suelo. Un aspecto diferenciador fue la escasa participación femenina en las actividades económicas del municipio, lo que dio lugar a que se recomendara investigar las opciones generadoras de ingresos para la mujer (i.e., procesar la leche y así obtener quesos que son demandados). Las 4,914 ha de la microcuenca fueron clasificadas como adecuadas para los sistemas de producción caprina, pero se detectaron necesidades tecnológicas para mejorarlas. Los análisis de erosión hídrica y degradación del suelo identificaron 807 ha que requieren ser reconvertidas de uso agrícola a campos de pastoreo y 208 ha de pastoreo a campos para vegetación nativa. Los resultados relacionados con la disponibilidad y calidad de la vegetación nativa a lo largo del año definieron consideraciones principales para el suplemento alimenticio con energía y proteínas, en particular durante la estación seca. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to identify research options which may lead to the improvement of goat productivity in a microwatershed involving two villages in the dry areas of northern Mexico. The study was carried out during 2004-2007 and was based on the systems theory. Socioeconomic and ecolog [...] ical aspects were evaluated at the macro-system level to identify socioeconomic differences and possible income generation options, to determine suitability of the area for goat production and to identify cropland areas to be reconverted to range production. In addition, the study assessed water erosion occurrence, evaluation of range vegetation and grazing quality changes to identify appropriate land management interventions. Poor participation of women in economic activities at the municipality level was a differentiating aspect that prompted recommendations for exploring gender-sensitive income-generation options (i.e. milk processing into highly demanded cheese). The microwatershed's 4914 ha of land were categorized as suitable for goat production systems, however in need of improvement interventions: results from water erosion and land degradation analysis identified 807 ha to be reconverted from agricultural uses to range and 208 ha from range use to native vegetation. The results concerning native vegetation availability and quality across the year defined major considerations for appropriate protein and energy feeding in particular during the dry season.
Francisco G., Echavarría-Chairez; Luis, Iñiguez; Homero, Salinas-González; Manuel de J., Flores-Najera; Aden, Aw-Hassan; Alfonso, Serna-Pérez; César A., Meza-Herrera.
Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.
Chin, George, Jr.
El término investigación participativa es hoy utilizado ampliamente como una forma de categorizar la investigación que ha ido mas allá de investigar "acerca de los" a investigar "con los" participantes. Este documento atrae la atención sobre alguna confusión que está detrás de tal categorización y sobre el impacto potencial de esas confusiones en la investigación cualitativa participativa en la práctica. Destaca algunos de los efectos negativos de "encajar" a espacios ideados por o...
Our community-based participatory research partnership engaged in a multistep process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were the following: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership, (2) establish an Intervention Team, (3) review the existing sexual health literature, (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM, (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable, (6) blend health behavior theory with Latino MSM's lived experiences, (7) design an intervention conceptual model, (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials, and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. The developed intervention contains four modules to train Latino MSM to serve as lay health advisors known as Navegantes. These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data; blend health behavior theory, the lived experiences, and cultural values of immigrant Latino MSM; and harness the informal social support Latino MSM provide one another. This community-level intervention is designed to meet the expressed sexual health priorities of Latino MSM. It frames disease prevention within sexual health promotion. PMID:23075504
Rhodes, Scott D; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Duck, Stacy; García, Manuel; Downs, Mario; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Alegría-Ortega, José; Miller, Cindy; Boeving Allen, Alex; Gilbert, Paul A; Marsiglia, Flavio F
The Evolution of Community-School Bully Prevention Programs: Enabling Participatory Action Research La Evolución de Programas de Prevención de Matonaje en Comunidades Escolares: Promoviendo la Investigación-Acción Participativa
Community scientists must resist the temptation to "solve" an identified problem. Rather, they must partner with members of the community and transfer to them the knowledge and skills to understand and resolve their needs. This case-study reports a community's efforts to reduce school-based bullying. Within a participatory-action approach, teachers, students, administrators and parents organized to assess the ways in which members of the school-community mistreated each other. Students bullyi...
Lorion, Raymond P.
The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: ? Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. ? We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. ? The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. ? The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. ? In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.
Meta-evaluation of baseline studies of the Brazilian Family Health Strategy Expansion Project: a participatory and formative approach Meta-avaliação dos estudos da linha de base do Projeto de Expansão da Estratégia Saúde da Família no Brasil: uma abordagem formativa e participativa
A participatory, formative meta-evaluation of baseline studies in Brazil is presented. International standards recommended by associations of evaluators were used, along with "specificity" criteria built up using the terms of reference for proposals for the selection of studies. The methodological approach combined a "peer review" of baseline study reports, with a participatory (self) assessment for "primary" evaluators, the average of which provided the final score. Results revealed a classi...
Ana Cláudia Figueiró; Zulmira Maria de Araújo Hartz; Luiz Claudio Santos Thuler; André Luiz Freitas Dias
This community-based participatory research project used popular education techniques to support and educate Hispanic farmworker families in planting and maintaining organic gardens. Measures included a pre- post gardening survey, key informant interviews and observations made at community-based gardening meetings to assess food security, safety and family relationships. Thirty-eight families enrolled in the study during the pre-garden time period, and four more families enrolled in the study during the post-garden period, for a total of 42 families enrolled in the 2009 gardening season. Of the families enrolled during the pre-gardening time period there were 163 household members. The mean age of the interviewee was 44.0, ranging from 21 to 78 years of age. The median number of occupants in a household was 4.0 (range: 2-8), Frequency of adult vegetable intake of "Several time a day" increased from 18.2 to 84.8%, (P skipping meals due to lack of money was not statistically significantly different before and after the gardening season for either adults or children. Analysis of text responses and key informant interviews revealed that physical and mental health benefits were reported as well as economic and family health benefits from the gardening study, primarily because the families often worked in their gardens together. A community gardening program can reduce food insecurity, improve dietary intake and strengthen family relationships. PMID:22194063
Carney, Patricia A; Hamada, Janet L; Rdesinski, Rebecca; Sprager, Lorena; Nichols, Katelyn R; Liu, Betty Y; Pelayo, Joel; Sanchez, Maria Antonia; Shannon, Jacklien
This study focuses upon the social organization of innovation. It makes use of insights from knowledge and information systems research, development sociology, management science and applied philosophy and seeks answers to the following questions: What do social actors, individuals and/or organizations, actually do to innovate their practices? How do they organize themselves? Can this be managed or facilitated, and if so, how? The research is exploratory rather than conclusion-oriented and sy...
Engel, P. G. H.
Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center of the University of Sassari (Italy and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the project, all actors own/share all choices made and the technology used participating thus to the intervention sustainability.
Since the end of the seventies, the utilisation of multi-agents simulations has spread out. A typical use of these simulations concerns the modelling of human behaviour. In this application case, a key point to ensure the simulation realism is the definition of the agent behaviour. Unfortunately, designing such behaviour is often complex. In order to help the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on the participatory paradigm. In our approach, a human actor directly plays...
Community-Based Environmental Monitoring (CBM) is a social practice that makes a valuable contribution to environmental management and construction of active societies for sustainable future. However, its documentation and analysis show deficiencies that hinder contrast and comparison of processes and effects. Based on systems approach, this article presents a model of CBM to orient assessment of programs, with heuristic or practical goals. In a focal level, the model comprises three components, the social subject, the object of monitoring, and the means of action, and five processes, data management, social learning, assimilation/decision making, direct action, and linking. Emergent properties were also identified in the focal and suprafocal levels considering community self-organization, response capacity, and autonomy for environmental management. The model was applied to the assessment of a CBM program of water quality implemented in rural areas in Mexico. Attributes and variables (indicators) for components, processes, and emergent properties were selected to measure changes that emerged since the program implementation. The assessment of the first 3 years (2010-2012) detected changes that indicated movement towards the expected results, but it revealed also the need to adjust the intervention strategy and procedures. Components and processes of the model reflected relevant aspects of the CBM in real world. The component called means of action as a key element to transit "from the data to the action." The CBM model offered a conceptual framework with advantages to understand CBM as a socioecological event and to strengthen its implementation under different conditions and contexts. PMID:23852536
Burgos, Ana; Páez, Rosaura; Carmona, Estela; Rivas, Hilda
Full Text Available Empirical research report can be seen as a specific monologue addressed to others (including other researchers in order to inspire them to critically assess its theses as well as to, possibly, reproduce and continue the research. From this perspective, the report becomes part of a peculiar dialogue, which lacks immediate feedback and defers the addressees' response. As the author of the report is accountable for any silences and omissions, a dilemma arises whether the omissions protect the research subjects or whether they mislead the report's target audience. The paper locates the empirical research report in the ethical context of scholarship.
Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.
Bhandari, K. P.
The case for inquiry-based, hands-on, meaningful science education continues to gain credence as an effective and appropriate pedagogical approach (Karukstis 2005; NSF 2000). An innovative community-based framework for science learning, hereinafter referred to as the Big Sky Model, successfully addresses these educational aims, guiding high school and tribal college students from rural areas of Montana and Idaho in their understanding of chemical, physical, and environmental health concepts. ...
Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Holian, Andrij; Adams, Earle; Jones, David; Knuth, Randy
This paper describes a three-year curriculum innovation project on teaching about climate change. The innovation for this study focused on a socio-critical approach towards teaching climate change in four different teaching domains (biology, chemistry, physics and politics). The teaching itself explicitly aimed at general educational objectives, i.e., fostering students communication and evaluation abilities as essential components for preparing young people for active participation in soc...
Timo Feierabend; Ingo Eilks
In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do conventional distinctions between research and design. This half-day workshop invites participant to discuss and explore opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical.
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev KjÃ¦rsgaard, Mette
This publication presents the French case study of the European ENCI-LowCarb research project: Engaging Civil Society in Low Carbon scenarios. The core activity of this project was the development of a methodology for the transparent integration of stakeholders' contributions in the scenario design process to enhance the stakeholders' acceptance of the resulting low carbon pathways. This attempt at integrating acceptability in scenario-making constitutes an important step to distinguish what is technically and economically feasible from what is acceptable. Today, a wide range of published scenarios emphasize the fact that they are built on public consultations or stakeholders' contributions. However, transparency is lacking concerning the methodology relative to how contributions were taken into account and translated into assumptions that can be used by the modeling tool. The project ENCI-LowCarb aimed at exploring this scientific gap. Energy scenarios outline possible low-carbon futures built around assumptions on fossil fuels prices evolution, technological choices and the mechanisms of energy demand and supply, among others. Scenarios are influential tools in political decision-making processes since they shed light on the long-term impacts of today's investment decisions, especially regarding infrastructures. This is why it is crucial that these pathways derive from discussions with main stakeholders. In this report, the French project team (CIRED and RAC-F) has the pleasure to present energy scenarios for France which derive from a collaborative scenario design process including the participation of a wide range of French stakeholders (civil society organizations including trade unions and non-governmental organizations, private companies, banks, statewide and local authorities). Participating stakeholders were asked to define or select acceptable CO2 emissions mitigation measures. Their contributions were implemented in the technico-economic model Imaclim-R France to create a scenario that is economically and technically consistent as well as acceptable by stakeholders. This methodology allowed an assessment of the level of achievable emissions reductions with stakeholders' 'acceptable' measures. This project report is organized as follows: part 2 presents the methodology of the collaborative scenario design process in detail, part 3 describes the low carbon scenario - the outcome of the stakeholder discussions. In part 4, other drivers of CO2 emissions and additional measures are explored. Chapter 5 introduces additional sensitivity analysis. Part 6 concludes
An important part of the ARGONA project is the testing and application of novel participation and dialogue approaches. The ways in this is being done include a series of events involving different stakeholders such as a focused science shop, a consensus panel and an interaction panel. In the framework of these activities in the Czech Republic the consensus panel was held on June 12, 2008 in Rez and addressed the theme: 'Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives'. The main goals of this consensus panel were: 1. Identification of the main criteria relevant to the assessment of the existing alternatives and determination their importance (weight) from the perspective of all stakeholders; 2. Achieving at least a partial consensus on selecting the most suitable alternative (management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel). A broader audience was selected with a suitable mixture of specialists and interested technical and non-technical peers including representatives from NRI, universities, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of the Environment, State Office for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, representatives of municipalities and NGOs, and waste producers such as CEZ plc etc. In opinion of all participants, there was a 'safe space' for debate ensured and everyone had the same opportunity to express his opinion. All participants also agreed that the whole course of seminar was transparent and correct. From this perspective, the chosen format of dialogue seems appropriate to ensure the exchange of new information and mutual discussion among the interested parties on the contentious issues in the NWM and nuclear energy in general. It was also found, however, that at present the social and political problems are the most important and the most urgent problems in the field of the nuclear waste management in the Czech Republic. It is very important not only to ensure a safe space for meaningful communication, but also: - To increase the activities of relevant state institutions in communication with the public in the field of NWM and enhance public confidence in the state institutions. - To develop motivation programs as another way how to incite the public interest and to positively influence their attitude towards the radioactive waste disposal, siting of the geological repository, and nuclear power production in general. - To strengthen the political responsibility - a long-lasting consistent and clear political attitude of the government and government parties concerning the problems of the final disposal of spent fuel is lacking in the Czech Republic. The general public misses the necessary long-term guarantees. Recommendations for the organization of further activities: - To select appropriate topics with clearly formulated questions taking into account the character of participants - other issues can be discussed within the scientific community and others in the wider discussion with the public participation. - To use service a professional mediator (as an impartial and independent person managing the whole course of the discussion) to facilitate communication among interested parties during the discussion. This applies mainly in the discussions on contentious issues such as selection of appropriate nuclear waste management alternative or the deep repository siting. - To ensure participation of representatives of state institution such as Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry for Regional Development and also representatives of government parties. This is one of the most important prerequisites in order that discussion would be relevant and meaningful and the conclusions obtained could be used practically. - To proceed step by step and set smaller goals - The current situation in the field of NWM in the Czech Republic makes it impossible to achieve consensus among all stakeholders on controversial issues, such as the siting of the deep repository or selecting the optimal alternative to nuclear waste management. Therefore in the present stage it is important
An important part of the ARGONA project is the testing and application of novel participation and dialogue approaches. The ways in this is being done include a series of events involving different stakeholders such as a focused science shop, a consensus panel and an interaction panel. In the framework of these activities in the Czech Republic the consensus panel was held on June 12, 2008 in Rez and addressed the theme: 'Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives'. The main goals of this consensus panel were: 1. Identification of the main criteria relevant to the assessment of the existing alternatives and determination their importance (weight) from the perspective of all stakeholders; 2. Achieving at least a partial consensus on selecting the most suitable alternative (management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel). A broader audience was selected with a suitable mixture of specialists and interested technical and non-technical peers including representatives from NRI, universities, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of the Environment, State Office for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, representatives of municipalities and NGOs, and waste producers such as CEZ plc etc. In opinion of all participants, there was a 'safe space' for debate ensured and everyone had the same opportunity to express his opinion. All participants also agreed that the whole course of seminar was transparent and correct. From this perspective, the chosen format of dialogue seems appropriate to ensure the exchange of new information and mutual discussion among the interested parties on the contentious issues in the NWM and nuclear energy in general. It was also found, however, that at present the social and political problems are the most important and the most urgent problems in the field of the nuclear waste management in the Czech Republic. It is very important not only to ensure a safe space for meaningful communication, but also: - To increase the activities of relevant state institutions in communication with the public in the field of NWM and enhance public confidence in the state institutions. - To develop motivation programs as another way how to incite the public interest and to positively influence their attitude towards the radioactive waste disposal, siting of the geological repository, and nuclear power production in general. - To strengthen the political responsibility - a long-lasting consistent and clear political attitude of the government and government parties concerning the problems of the final disposal of spent fuel is lacking in the Czech Republic. The general public misses the necessary long-term guarantees. Recommendations for the organization of further activities: - To select appropriate topics with clearly formulated questions taking into account the character of participants - other issues can be discussed within the scientific community and others in the wider discussion with the public participation. - To use service a professional mediator (as an impartial and independent person managing the whole course of the discussion) to facilitate communication among interested parties during the discussion. This applies mainly in the discussions on contentious issues such as selection of appropriate nuclear waste management alternative or the deep repository siting. - To ensure participation of representatives of state institution such as Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry for Regional Development and also representatives of government parties. This is one of the most important prerequisites in order that discussion would be relevant and meaningful and the conclusions obtained could be used practically. - To proceed step by step and set smaller goals - The current situation in the field of NWM in the Czech Republic makes it impossible to achieve consensus among all stakeholders on controversial issues, such as the siting of the deep repository or selecting the optimal alternative to nuclear waste management. Therefore in the present st
Vojtechova, Hana (Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic))
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article reported on two research projects, the first conducted in the early 1990s and the second, a project currently in progress. In essence, the article was an attempt to compare the theology of African Independent Churches in the two respective periods by making use of a grounded theory appr [...] oach to their worship services. Significant similarities and differences were identified and reported on.
Müller, Bethel A.; Wepener, Cas J..
Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the smart home to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.
Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; Mc Cullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice
Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the "smart home" to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities. PMID:24304507
Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; McCullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice
Full Text Available Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the smart home to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.
Participatory evaluation provides for the active involvement in the evaluation process of those with a stake in the program: providers, partners, beneficiariies, and any other interested parties. Participation takes place throughout all phases of the evalution. This document describes the characteristics of participatory evaluation, and explains why and how to use this approach. This resource is intended for use by novice evaluators and professional evaluators in a workshop or conference.
Qualitative research was carried out in central Mali to inform the development of curricula for an intervention to improve young people's reproductive health. Both the young people and 'societal gatekeepers' (including religious leaders and traditional healers) perceived reproductive health to comprise the social dynamics in which reproductive health decision-making is embedded and not just the biological aspects of sexual relations and fertility. Their definitions of reproductive health reflected social taboos about pre-marital sex, infidelity and illegitimate children, and comprised holistic notions of bodily and spiritual cleanliness. It is argued that the 'Cairo' definition sees many of the social factors identified by respondents as comprising the context or background of reproductive health. The findings presented here indicate that local populations may see them as integral to the concept itself. It is discussed how the 'Cairo' definition of reproductive health needs to be made culturally specific in order to facilitate programme design and implementation. PMID:12476726
Castle, Sarah; Traore, Sidy; Cisse, Lalla
Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful alcohol use has been linked to the spread of HIV in Kenya. It also adversely affects those on antiretroviral (ARV treatment through poor compliance. This study using participatory research and action (PRA methods sought to understand factors related to alcohol abuse and non-adherence and to formulate appropriate interventions in a sample of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA who were also abusing alcohol, at Kariobangi in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Entry into the community was gained through previous PRA work in that community and PLWHA were recruited through snowballing. Working together with the community members, the researchers explored the participants understanding of alcohol use problem, its effects on compliance to ARV treatment and discussed possible action areas through PRA techniques that included focus group and market place discussions; visual aids such as spider diagrams, community mapping and ranking. Follow-up meetings were held to discuss the progress. Results By the final meeting, 67 PLWHA and 19 community members had been recruited. Through discussions, misconceptions regarding alcohol use were identified. It emerged that alcohol abuse was poorly recognised among both the community and health workers. Screening for alcohol use was not routinely done and protocols for managing alcohol related disorders were not available at the local health centres providing ARVs. The study participants identified improving communication, psychoeducation and screening for alcohol use as possible action areas. Poverty was identified as a major problem but the interventions to mitigate this were not easy to implement. Conclusion We propose that PRA could be useful in improving communication between the health workers and the clients attending primary health care (PHC facilities and can be applied to strengthen involvement of support groups and community health workers in follow up and counselling. Integrating these features into primary health care (PHC would be important not only to PLWHA but also to other diseases in the PHC setting . Longer term follow up is needed to determine the sustained impact of the interventions. Problems encountered in the PRA work included great expectations at all levels fostered by handouts from other donors and cognitive impairment that interfered with constructive engagement in some of the PLWHA.
Othieno Caleb J
Full Text Available The focus of the present paper is on the potential of participatory scenario planning as a tool for regional future studies. More specifically, a methodological framework for participatory scenario planning is presented, integrating an analytical participatory scenario planning approach (the LIPSOR model with the Focus Groups and Future Workshop participatory tools. This framework is applied to a Greek rural region, for building scenarios and structuring policies for its future rural development. The specific region is in front of a great challenge referring to the potential location of a large infrastructure (airport, which can drive a considerable socio-economic restructuring, affecting mostly the agricultural sector due to the land loss and the pressures exerted from competitive land uses around the airport area.
In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes
Background Implementation of World Health Organization case management guidelines for serious childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. Facilitators of and barriers to implementation of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have not been explored. Methods This ethnographic study based on the theory of participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenyas largest teaching hospital. The primary intervention consisted of dissemination of locally adapted CPGs. The PRECEDE-PROCEED health education model was used as the conceptual framework to guide and examine further reinforcement activities to improve the uptake of the CPGs. Activities focussed on introduction of routine clinical audits and tailored educational sessions. Data were collected by a participant observer who also facilitated the PAR over an eighteen-month period. Naturalistic inquiry was utilized to obtain information from all hospital staff encountered while theoretical sampling allowed in-depth exploration of emerging issues. Data were analysed using interpretive description. Results Relevance of the CPGs to routine work and emergence of a champion of change facilitated uptake of best-practices. Mobilization of basic resources was relatively easily undertaken while activities that required real intellectual and professional engagement of the senior staff were a challenge. Accomplishments of the PAR were largely with the passive rather than active involvement of the hospital management. Barriers to implementation of best-practices included i) mismatch between the hospitals vision and reality, ii) poor communication, iii) lack of objective mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating quality of clinical care, iv) limited capacity for planning strategic change, v) limited management skills to introduce and manage change, vi) hierarchical relationships, and vii) inadequate adaptation of the interventions to the local context. Conclusions Educational interventions, often regarded as quick-fixes to improve care in low-income countries, may be necessary but are unlikely to be sufficient to deliver improved services. We propose that an understanding of organizational issues that influence the behaviour of individual health professionals should guide and inform the implementation of best-practices.
Getting the Most from Working with Higher Education: A Review of Methods Used within a Participatory Design Activity Involving KS3 Special School Pupils and Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Industrial Design Students
This paper provides education-based researchers and practitioners with the preferred research and design methods used by Higher Education Institute (HEI) students and Key Stage 3 (KS3) pupils applied within a participatory approach to a design activity. The outcomes were that both pupils and students found informal (unstructured) interview to be
Torrens, George Edward; Newton, Helen
Killer Fashion Revolution points out connecting nodes between peace education and participatory art and design practices both in theory and in practice. In theory this thesis gives an overview on how peace educational organizations in need of engaging campaigns can find inspiration in participatory art practices like hacktivism, craftivism and fashion hacktivism. Killer Fashion Revolution is as well an example of how participatory design research and a combination of various mediums; workshop...
Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagersâ?? motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagersâ?? motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian
La Investigación participativa como práctica social y su aportación al mundo laboral a través del modelo obrero / Participatory Research as Social Practice, and Its Contribution to the Workplace Through Worker Models.
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La investigación participativa (IP), también llamada investigación-acción (IA) ha sido un aporte teórico-metodológico muy valioso para explorar y transformar diferentes contextos sociales: salud, educación, comunidades, procesos de comunicación y el sector laboral, entre otros. Sus principios implic [...] an la reflexión sobre diferentes prácticas por parte de los grupos sociales, la generación de nuevos conocimientos y la adquisición de un nuevo status tanto del investigador como del grupo investigado, ya que se asume la capacidad de ambos para generar y compartir conocimiento, entraña la intencionalidad de modificar dichas prácticas en beneficio de las colectividades, como una forma de alcanzar objetivos inmediatos pero también satisfactores a largo plazo. La instrumentación de la investigación-acción atraviesa por recobrar su enorme riqueza epistemológica, política, ideológica y ética. Una modalidad de la investigación participante ha sido el Modelo Obrero Italiano, el cual se ha impulsado, en diferentes momentos históricos, al interior de diversos centros de trabajo y distintos contextos sociales. Su puesta en operación en algunos países lo perfila aún como viable, aunque las actuales condiciones sociales, políticas y económicas, señalan la necesidad de la generación de propuestas que permitan, bajo la lógica de la investigación participante, generar un nuevo modelo que de respuesta a las necesidades que la realidad plantea. Abstract in english Participatory research, also known as actionoriented research has made valuable theoretical and methodological contributions that allow us to explore and transform different social contexts: in health, education, communities, communication processes and the labor sector, among others. Its underpin [...] nings allow thoughtful reflection on different practices by social groups, the generation of new knowledge and the acquisition of a new status for both the researcher as well as the group being researched, since both contribute to the generation and sharing of knowledge, and it includes the intent of changing practices to the benefit of a collective, as a way of achieving both immediate and long-term objectives. The articulation of actionoriented research goes through a process of recovering its enormous epistemological, political, ideological and ethical value. One example of participatory research is the Italian Worker Model, which has been implemented, at different times in history, in diverse workplaces and in different social contexts. Its use in some countries makes it still viable, although current social, political and economic conditions indicate the need to develop new proposals that allow, under the framework of participatory research, the generation of a new mode that is responsive to these new realities.
Susana, Martínez Alcántara.
â??Play. Learn. Innovate. â?? Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovationâ?? the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes â?? which always entail change â?? were people and how they relate to each other, I became curious to understand this from a management perspective. When I did not find any satisfying answers in the world of practice, I decided to return to the world of theory hoping to find answers there. However, I did not. After extensive literature studies mainly in the fields of social capital, organizations, complexity, and knowledge â?? but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy â?? I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function was interdependent with other peopleâ??s roles and functions and that uncertainty was omnipresent. While I found many interesting and enlightening studies with brilliant concepts, methods and implications in each respective field, they typically either addressed the individual, or the group level, or the institutional level and they often were ignoring or excluding other disciplines and perspectives â?? in short they seemed unconnected. My impression was â?? in order to understand why this was the case â?? I had to go to the very foundations of management thinking â?? the research philosophy of management. The aims of my study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that Iwas interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social interaction across different units of analysis. Drawing on explorative projects I had the opportunity to conduct with students â?? we involved firms and used interviews and video analysis â?? I explored different theoretical perspectives in relation to practice. In further workshops and experiments I found evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that â?? in innovation settings â?? the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose a multi-level conceptual framework to understand and analyze social dynamics of participatory innovation in organizations â?? complementing research on knowledge transformation when facing novelty (Carlile, 2004) and participatory innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008; Buur and Larsen, 2010). Further, based on this I carve out theoretical and practical links between innovation as a social process across boundaries, play and games, learning, and design in organizational settings. Thus, confirming and complement work in the field of play (e.g. Kaark, 2011; Sandelands, 2010; Mainemelis and Ronson, 2006;), learning and play (e.g. Brown and Vaughaun, 2010; Thomas and Brown, 2011; Kolb and Kolb, 2010), games (e.g. McGonigal, 2011; MÃ¤yrÃ¤, 2008), and innovation across knowledge boundaries (e.g. Carlile, 2004; Nicolini et al, 2011; Buur and Matthews, 2008). I clarify how the proposed approach differs from system thinking and game theory â?? and I provide first evidence for that playful games are promising as a tool, a method, and a process to grasp and research social dynamics of participatory innovation theoretically and practically. I believe that the idea to use playful games in the proposed way is new and can provide new insights in participatory innovation.
Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others and discovering shared interests, but not necessarily changing their own view, behaviour or institutional practice. We conclude the paper with a discussion of two learning aspects of the participatory modelling process for which conflicting results were obtained: the question of depth of model scrutiny and the question of trust in the model, in the modeller and between the participants. References Krueger, T, Inman, A, Chilvers, J. 2012. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling. Paper Number EGU2012-5958. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, April 22nd-27th: Vienna, Austria.
Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason
Full Text Available Participatory Design (PD is an effective tool for designing organizational systems where views, aspirations and the input of both the system users and developers are sought and reconciled in the development of a system. This paper attempts to highlight and identify the fit between the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM as applied in systems development and the tools of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD as applied in manufacturing and how that fit does enhance Participatory Design in systems development. By recognizing the complementarities of the tools of these two approaches (SSM and QFD, we can enhance Participatory Design in systems development. Findings from literature review show that a comprehensive application of this concept is yet to be done in information systems development. The approach builds on the seven phases of Soft Systems Methodology by applying the Quality Function Deployment techniques to elicit information from complex and amorphous real-world situations to augment the Participatory Design process.Keywords: Participatory Design; Soft Systems Methodology; Quality Function Deployment; House of Quality
Cameron Park, Texas, is a colonia (an isolated, unincorporated rural settlement without municipal improvements) on the Texas-Mexico border in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in Cameron County near Brownsville, Texas. Cameron Park has a population of 5,961 residents, 99.3% of whom are Hispanic. The annual median income is 16,934 US dollars, about one-half of the state median. Fifty-eight percent of families generally and 68% of those with children younger than 5 years have incomes below poverty level. Cameron Park resides geographically in a region where agriculture has been, and continues to be, a dominant industry, a fact consistent with the intensive use of pesticides and increased potential for air, water, and ground contamination. The practice of good environmental health is extremely difficult under these conditions. In 1999 the Texas A&M University Center for Housing and Urban Development's Colonias Program and the Center for Environmental and Rural Health teamed up to create an environmental health education and outreach program called the Cameron Park Project (CPP). The CPP focused on how to reduce potential environmental exposures associated with human illness by providing residents with scientifically sound information on positive health practices and how to deal with environmental hazards. In this article we discuss the research methodology used in the CPP, a methodology specifically chosen to address four challenges presented by colonias to conducting valid and reliable research. PMID:14527834
May, Marlynn L; Bowman, Gloria J; Ramos, Kenneth S; Rincones, Larry; Rebollar, Maria G; Rosa, Mary L; Saldana, Josephine; Sanchez, Adelina P; Serna, Teresa; Viega, Norma; Villegas, Gregoria S; Zamorano, Maria G; Ramos, Irma N
Plataforma de investigación en salud: una experiencia de formación participativa en una universidad mexicana / Health research platform: a participatory training experience in a mexican university / Plataforma de pesquisa em saúde: uma experiência de formação participativa numa universidade mexicana
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresenta uma experiência de formação em investigação desenvolvida em uma faculdade de enfermagem do México, designada de Plataforma de Investigação em Saúde. Esta Plataforma está baseada em princípios de colaboração e participação. Além de promover um processo de inclusão, a iniciativ [...] a começou mediante a recuperação das experiências, práticas e propostas do pessoal interessado na investigação. O produto foi a identificação de prioridades e a elaboração de um programa de trabalho anual. Entre as atividades propostas estão um seminário permanente de investigação, cursos sob a forma de oficinas, mecanismos de apoio e assessorias individualizadas e o fortalecimento de redes. Após quase um ano da implementação da Plataforma são observados avanços em aspectos como as assessorias, os cursos e o seminário; mas, persistem dificuldades para realizar outras ações planejadas. São destacadas áreas que podem ser fortalecidas e são identificadas situações nas quais se poderia replanejar o trabalho futuro. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo presenta una experiencia de formación en investigación la cual se llevó a cabo en una facultad de enfermería de México. La Plataforma de Investigación en Salud, denominación dada a la iniciativa, se basa en principios de colaboración y participación. Además de impulsar un proceso incluy [...] ente, la Plataforma comenzó mediante la recuperación de experiencias, prácticas y propuestas del personal. El producto fue la identificación de prioridades y la elaboración de un programa de trabajo anual. Entre las actividades propuestas se encuentran un seminario permanente de investigación, cursos talleres, mecanismos de apoyo y asesorías individualizadas y el fortalecimiento de redes. A casi un año de la implementación de la Plataforma se observan avances en rubros como las asesorías, los cursos y el seminario; empero, persisten dificultades para realizar otras acciones planeadas. Se destacan áreas que se pueden fortalecer e identifican situaciones en las cuales se podría replantear el trabajo en el futuro. Abstract in english This paper presents a training experience on research in a Mexican nursing school. The Health Research Platform, as the initiative was called, was carried out using a participatory and collaborative approach. Besides its interest in an inclusive process, the Platform started by retrieving experience [...] s, practices and suggestions of those involved in the research. The product was the identification of priorities and the elaboration of an annual plan. The latter included a permanent research seminar, courses, and mechanisms of support at an individual level as well as the strengthening of networks. Almost one year after having started the Platform, some advances can be seen in certain areas such as in counseling, coursework and the permanent seminar. However, there are other activities which have not been implemented due to problems of diverse nature. In addition, some areas stand out in need of further development and they bring to light situations where future programs can be redefined.
Francisco Javier, Mercado-Martínez; Sandra Olimpia, Gutiérrez-Enríquez; Yolanda, Terán-Figueroa.
Full Text Available Participatory rural development has evolved in the past 60 years as a development process and discourse that should encapsulate a wide range of views, voices and stakeholder contributions. How has this approach been followed in Nigeria?s rural development practice? This paper reviews the practices and challenges of participatory rural development in Nigeria from a historical perspective emphasizing on the colonial system and post-colonial military and civilian governance. The paper observes that participatory development has not been practiced in the real sense of the concept in rural development in Nigeria. While highly centralized and top-down exploitative rural development practice dominated the colonial system up to the period of post-independence military dictatorship, not much significant difference have been observed within the current civilian democratic experiment. The paper argues that while long years of military rule in Nigeria have made it impossible for the development of effective institutional arrangements that could sustain true participatory democratic culture, a lack of citizens? capacity to participate in development intended for their benefit has posed the greatest challenge in achieving sustainable participatory rural development.
Nseabasi S. Akpan
Community-based health promotion has focussed on empowering disadvantaged groups, but there is growing awareness of the need to address everyday practices used to maintain power and privilege across social divisions. Participatory Action Research projects have proved subject to problems of resistance from dominant social groups. Social movements seeking to reshape power relations, give voice to excluded people and promote a social environment in which their problems are understood have been suggested as an alternative approach. A model of social movements based on theories and observations of social movement dynamics offers a practical framework for initiating such social change. PMID:23988685
In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustrate how the stakeholders engaged in activities such as sense-making, co-analysis, and cross-comparison of the ethnographic materials, and the specification and mapping of innovation opportunities. We argue that these activities served to establish a shared understanding and ownership of the participatory research, design material.
Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens
The Canadian government supports the transformation of education for health care providers based on the recognized need for an inter-professional collaborative approach to care. This first paper in a series of papers demonstrates the credibility of an action research approach for the promotion and understanding of inter-professional education
Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer M.; Chapman, Christine; Verma, Sarita; Broers, Teresa; Schroder, Cori
Effectiveness of participatory-action-research to put in practice evidence at a nursing onco-hematology unit Evaluación de la efectividad de la implantación de evidencias mediante una investigación-acción-participante en una unidad de enfermería oncohematológica Avaliação da efetividade da aplicação de evidências por meio de pesquisa-ação-participante em uma unidade de enfermagem hematológica
The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of evidence implementation through participatory-action research (PAR). A prospective quasi-experimental design with two non-equivalent and non-concurrent groups (2006 and 2008) was adopted. The research was conducted at the bone marrow transplant unit of a tertiary-level Spanish hospital. To put the evidence in practice, PAR was adopted as an "intervention studied". The dependent variables were: professional performance and patient outcomes (...
Researchers working with the American Indian Rehabilitation Research and Training Center in Arizona have found that culture is important in social research, especially with indigenous people. Community-based participatory research is one approach that has yielded outcomes valuable to researchers and community members. However, ethical concerns
Marshall, Catherine A.; Johnson, Sharon R.; Kendall, Elizabeth; Busby, Howard; Schacht, Robert; Hill, Calvin
Ghana has been experimenting with the participatory policy making approach that allows citizenry engagement in the formulation and implementation of public policies in recent times. In many ways the approach enhances the opportunity structures for consolidating the countrys democratic credentials by allowing citizens to share in the ownership of governance decisions. In this paper, we draw illustrations from the participatory strategies used by an adhoc body known as the Constitut...
Kpessa, Michael W.; Atuguba, Raymond A.
"The proposed presentation has two aims: (a) It will outline a theoretical understanding of 'citizenship' that is rooted in sociological systems theory and in sociolinguistic approaches. With this approach it tries to develop a sociological supplement to the more normative notions of governance and citizenship in the legal and political sciences. (b) It will apply these theoretical considerations to a comparative view on forms of citizenship, which can be observed in participatory procedures ...
Bora, Alfons; Hausendorf, Heiko; Rehberg, Karl-siegbert
Full Text Available In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach emerges as a legitimate choice in organizational culture research methodology. It combines elements of both subjectivistic and objectivistic methodological approaches, according to the goals, content, and context of the research and preferences of the researcher himself/herself. Since it is possible to combine the two principal methodological approaches in various ways, there are several possible hybrid methodologies in organizational culture research. After the review of objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative methodological approaches, one of possible hybrid approaches in the research of organizational culture is presented in this paper.
Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer. PMID:22927757
Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Tabrez, Shams; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Shakil, Shazi; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Kamal, Mohammad A
There is a growing interest in values-led inquiries within participatory design. One approach argues that working with values is a recursive 3-phase process that supports the emergence, development and grounding of values. In this paper we focus solely upon the emergence phase, proposing an approach that can support the emergence of values during the initial phase of a values-led inquiry. To illustrate this approach and to ground our discussion, we draw from a recent participatory design case where we were engaged in the design of digital technology to support the experiences of young adults with severe intellectual disabilities, in an art museum. By describing how we establish, negotiate and the debrief values during this initial phase of a values-led inquiry. By foregrounding both explicit and implicit mediation in the PD process we show how a theoretical understanding of mediation can potentially
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Leong, Tuck Wah
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools can be effective settings for improving eating habits and physical activity, whereas it is more difficult to prevent obesity. A key challenge is the implementation gap. Trade-off must be made between expert-driven programmes on the one hand and contextual relevance, flexibility, participation and capacity building on the other. The aim of the Stockholm County Implementation Programme was to improve eating habits, physical activity, self-esteem, and promote a healthy body weight in children aged 616 years. We describe the programme, intervention fidelity, impacts and outcomes after two years of intervention. Methods Nine out of 18 schools in a middle-class municipality in Sweden agreed to participate whereas the other nine schools served as the comparison group (quasi-experimental study. Tailored action plans were developed by school health teams on the basis of a self-assessment questionnaire called KEY assessing strengths and weaknesses of each schools health practices and environments. Process evaluation was carried out by the research staff. Impacts at school level were assessed yearly by the KEY. Outcome measures at student level were anthropometry (measured, and health behaviours assessed by a questionnaire, at baseline and after 2 years. All children in grade 2, 4 and 7 were invited to participate (n=1359 of which 59.8% consented. The effect of the intervention on health behaviours, self-esteem, weight status and BMIsds was evaluated by unilevel and multilevel regression analysis adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results Programme fidelity was high demonstrating feasibility, but fidelity to school action plans was only 48% after two years. Positive and significant (p Conclusions School staff has the capacity to create their own solutions and make changes at school level on the basis of self-assessment and facilitation by external agents. However these changes were challenging to sustain over time and had little impact on student behaviours or weight status. Better student outcomes could probably be attained by a more focused and evidence-based approach with stepwise implementation of action plans.
Elinder Liselotte Schäfer
To capture a system's uncertainty, a participatory, integrated approach is a prerequisite of many scenario development projects. Increasingly, a toolbox of methods is employed to facilitate stakeholder input. In this paper we evaluate four potential added values of using a toolbox of methods and the effect on the quality of resulting scenarios. Ten case studies within a large project (SCENES), that set out to develop participatory scenarios for Europe's freshwaters, are used to test our hypot...
Kok, K.; Vliet, M.
With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) information used in the planning process, efficient geographic information gathering and relevant spatial analytical tools necessary to support the negotiation among the stakeholders are lacking. Besides, methods a...
Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated organizations.The participatory development planning approach was first introduced in Thailand through her Fourth National Economic and Social Development Plan (1977-1981) as a strategy to apply the...
This article discusses the photo interview method used in a participatory inter- and transdisciplinary research setting. The photo interview has proven particularly useful for sustainability and environmental studies in which eliciting community points of view is crucial to the research effort. Based on experiences in several countries, the author describes and analyses the photo interview process and its three phasesinvolving, sharing and analysingand explores potential influences on d...
Participatory design is a process by which the people who will use a space, a service, or a tool are involved in its conceptualization and development. Traditionally, a narrow range of experts, such as architects, engineers, or computer scientists, decided what people needed and how it would be built. Even today, library buildings and especially catalogs and other library technology are built in this traditional way, and this is why they are often so hard to use. The alternative is to conside...
Sustainable land use planning is crucial for realizing the aim of food security and for combating land degradation in the Sahel. A participatory land use planning workshop was organised in a village in the eastern region of Burkina Faso to investigate land use problems, their causes, effects and possible solutions. Participatory research tools and GIS were combined to get insight into possible conflicts or synergies between different land use options as mapped by different ethnic groups. Pict...
Hessel, R.; Berg, J.; Kabore, O.; Kekem, A. J.; Verzandvoort, S. J. E.
The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be prima...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.
Promoção à saúde e educação: diagnóstico de saneamento através da pesquisa participante articulada à educação popular (Distrito São João dos Queiróz, Quixadá, Ceará, Brasil Health promotion and education: a diagnosis of sanitation conditions using participatory research and community education (São João dos Queiróz, Quixadá, Ceará, Brazil
Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma comunidade rural vila de São João dos Queiróz, Distrito do Município de Quixadá, Ceará, através da pesquisa participante articulada à educação popular, tendo como referencial a promoção à saúde de acordo com os princípios da Carta de Ottawa, 1986. Participaram do projeto representantes das diversas instituições públicas do distrito e entidades associativas ligadas ao movimento popular. O tema gerador, definido em assembléia da associação comunitária, foi o diagnóstico de saneamento, e o ponto de partida, o levantamento da condição situacional. Os resultados obtidos mostraram as precárias condições locais de saneamento, escolaridade, renda e trabalho. As sugestões para resoluções dos problemas foram organizadas para subsidiar a agenda de planejamento das políticas locais de saúde. A avaliação foi processual e enriquecida com práticas do cotidiano da pesquisa. A pedagogia problematizadora, desenvolvida durante o processo educativo, contribuiu para a construção e a reconstrução crítica dos conceitos de promoção à saúde e de saneamento, assim como para a efetivação da construção, apropriação e socialização dos conhecimentos produzidos.This study was conducted in a rural community, São João dos Queiróz, a township in the county of Quixadá, Ceará, Brazil, using a combination of participatory research and community education in compliance with the health promotion reference and principles of the 1986 Ottawa Charter. The project was joined by representatives of several local government institutions and organizations from the grassroots community movement. The theme generating the research, as defined by an assembly meeting of the community association, was a diagnosis of sanitation conditions in the community. The starting point was the assessment of local conditions. Results showed adverse local conditions in sanitation, literacy, income, and employment. Suggestions for solving the problems were organized so as to be included in the planning agenda for local health policies. Evaluation was procedural and enriched with daily research activities. The problem-solving pedagogical approach developed during the educational process contributed to a critical reconstruction, appropriation, and sharing of the resulting knowledge.
Dalva A. Mello
Full Text Available Previously, video production was a skill set practiced by trained individuals, but new technologies have opened the doors so that anyone can be a filmmaker. This paper explores the history and conceptual foundations of participatory video (PV, and offers a reflective perspective on its applicability as a teaching and learning tool. A review of a PV training in Uganda is featured to highlight the methodology used in practice and the challenges faced. The authors propose that an approach to PV which combines the best existing practices with a closer alignment to its foundational principles is worthy of further research.
A Spanish version of a manual on workshops for training nutrition and health field educators to approach communities more sensitively emphasizes techniques for involving community members in efforts to achieve better health and nutrition. Experiential workshop materials and techniques have been field-tested in several countries, including
Keehn, Martha, Ed.
Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related socialecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1 that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2 that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.
Participatory Budgeting (PB) has expanded to over 1,500 municipalities worldwide since its inception in Porto Alege, Brazil in 1989 by the leftist Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers Party). While PB has been adopted throughout the world, it has yet to take hold in the United States. This dissertation examines the introduction of PB to the United States with the first project in Chicago in 2009, and proceeds with an in-depth case study of the largest implementation of PB in the United State...
Gilman, Hollie Russon
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite indoor home environments being where people spend most time, involving residents in testing those environments has been very limited, especially in marginalized communities. We piloted participatory testing and reporting that combined relatively simple tests with actionable reporting to empower residents in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts. We answered: 1 How do we design and implement the approach for neighborhood and household environments using participatory methods? 2 What do pilot tests reveal? 3 How does our experience inform testing practice? Methods The approach was designed and implemented with community partners using community-based participatory research. Residents and researchers tested fourteen homes for: lead in dust indoors, soil outdoors, paint indoors and drinking water; radon in basement air; PM2.5 in indoor air; mold spores in indoor/outdoor air; and drinking water quality. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates by residents and researchers used real-time data to stimulate dialogue. Results Given the newness of our partnership and unforeseen conflicts, we achieved moderate-high success overall based on process and outcome criteria: methods, test results, reporting, lessons learned. The conflict burden we experienced may be attributable less to generic university-community differences in interests/culture, and more to territoriality and interpersonal issues. Lead-in-paint touch-swab results were poor proxies for lead-in-dust. Of eight units tested in summer, three had very high lead-in-dust (>1000 ?g/ft2, six exceeded at least one USEPA standard for lead-in-dust and/or soil. Tap water tests showed no significant exposures. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates raised awareness of environmental health risks, especially asthma. Conclusions Timely reporting back home-toxics' results to residents is ethical but it must be empowering. Future work should fund the active participation of a few motivated residents as representatives of the target population. Although difficult and demanding in time and effort, the approach can educate residents and inform exposure assessment. It should be considered as a core ingredient of comprehensive household toxics' testing, and has potential to improve participant retention and the overall positive impact of long-term environmental health research efforts.
This full-day invitational pre-conference workshop is devoted to sharing experiences from teaching PD methods, approaches, issues and concerns to students and practitioners. Our experiences stem from teaching and coaching IT practitioners as well as students studying computer science or IT. However, people with experiences gained from working with other professions are also welcome. Short presentations from each of the participants form the starting point of the discussion to which most of the time will be devoted. The intend is not to suggest the way of teaching PD, rather we hope that each participant will receive valuable inspiration to help improve his or her own teaching.
Kensing, Finn; BÃ¸dker, Keld
This master thesis explores Participatory Design where teenagers get the opportunity to participate in the public discussion of cultural heritage using their language and their own media. This study focuses on bringing teenagers as users, testers and informants into the technology design process. The roles user, tester and informants are based on Allison Druins roles of children in a technology design process. The research done for this thesis have taken place at Trosterudklubben. This yout...
Heyerdahl, Ida Margrethe
The Evolution of Community-School Bully Prevention Programs: Enabling Participatory Action Research / La Evolución de Programas de Prevención de Matonaje en Comunidades Escolares: Promoviendo la Investigación-Acción Participativa
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Los científicos comunitarios deben resistir la tentación de "resolver" un problema identificado. Ellos deben, en cambio, aliarse con miembros de la comunidad y transferir a éstos el conocimiento y habilidades para comprender y resolver sus necesidades. Este estudio de caso da cuenta de los esfuerzos [...] de una comunidad para reducir el matonaje en la escuela. Con un enfoque de acción participativa, profesores, estudiantes, administradores y padres se organizaron para evaluar las formas en que los miembros de la comunidad educativa se maltrataban unos a otros. El matonaje entre estudiantes era parte de un patrón sistémico mayor, en el que los profesores se maltrataban entre ellos y, con consecuencias inesperadamente serias, a sus alumnos. A través de su participación activa, los miembros de la comunidad educativa se involucraron juntos en la comprensión y resolución del problema. Abstract in english Community scientists must resist the temptation to "solve" an identified problem. Rather, they must partner with members of the community and transfer to them the knowledge and skills to understand and resolve their needs. This case-study reports a community's efforts to reduce school-based bullying [...] . Within a participatory-action approach, teachers, students, administrators and parents organized to assess the ways in which members of the school-community mistreated each other. Students bullying each other was part of a larger systemic pattern in which teachers bullied each other and, with unexpectedly serious consequences, their students. Through their active participation, members of the school-community engaged together in understanding and resolving the problem.
Raymond P, Lorion.
The main purpose of this article is to contribute to a discussion about the future of research and research education in music. The multiple existing traditions of music research constitute a rich resource. Increasingly however, similar topics are researched from different angles, often with watertight bulkheads between such various music disciplines as, e.g. music education, musicology, music therapy and performance studies. Music is a common denominator in these disciplines and interdiscip...
The grounded theory approach has been used in nursing research since 1970. The latest methodological books describe the research process in details. However, there are many problems involved in the grounded theory approach, which especially need to be considered by a novice researcher. One of these problems is the question of how deeply and widely the researcher should get familiar with the research topic before the empirical study. The problems also include the need to focus the research problem and to choose the sampling method. Data analysis is a multistage process, which demands from the researcher sensitivity and time to work out the findings which emerge from the data. In this paper, the grounded theory approach is described as a process undertaken by the researcher. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges of the grounded theory approach and the problems encountered by a researcher using the method for the first time. PMID:10437449
Backman, K; Kyngäs, H
The grounded theory approach has been used in nursing research since 1970. The latest methodological books describe the research process in detail. However, there are many problems involved in the grounded theory approach, which especially need to be considered by a novice researcher. One of these problems is the question of how deeply and widely the researcher should familiarize her- or himself with the research topic before the empirical study. The problems also include the need to focus the research problem and to choose the sampling method. Data analysis is a multistage process, which demands from the researcher both sensitivity and time to work out the findings which emerge from the data. In this paper, the grounded theory approach is described as a process undertaken by the novice researcher. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the challenges of the grounded theory approach and the problems encountered by a researcher using the method for the first time. PMID:10894637
Backman, K; Kyngäs, H A
Students Against Nicotine and Tobacco Addiction is a community-based participatory research project that engages local medical and mental health providers in partnership with students, teachers, and administrators at the Minnesota-based Job Corps. This intervention contains multiple and synchronous elements designed to allay the stress that students attribute to smoking, including physical activities, nonphysical activities, purposeful modifications to the campus's environment and rules/policies, and on-site smoking cessation education and peer support. The intent of the present investigation was to evaluate (a) the types of stress most predictive of smoking behavior and/or nicotine dependence, (b) which activities students are participating in, and (c) which activities are most predictive of behavior change (or readiness to change). Quantitative data were collected through 5 campus-wide surveys. Response rates for each survey exceeded 85%. Stressors most commonly cited included struggles to find a job, financial problems, family conflict, lack of privacy or freedom, missing family or being homesick, dealing with Job Corps rules, and other-unspecified. The most popular activities in which students took part were physically active ones. However, activities most predictive of beneficent change were nonphysical. Approximately one third of respondents were nicotine dependent at baseline. Nearly half intended to quit within 1 month and 74% intended to quit within 6 months. Interventions perceived as most helpful toward reducing smoking were nonphysical in nature. Future efforts with this and comparable populations should engage youth in advancing such activities within a broader range of activity choices, alongside conventional education and support. PMID:24079815
Mendenhall, Tai J; Harper, Peter G; Henn, Lisa; Rudser, Kyle D; Schoeller, Bill P
In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros ...
Birukou, Aliaksandr; Wakeling, Joseph Rushton; Bartolini, Claudio; Casati, Fabio; Marchese, Maurizio; Mirylenka, Katsiaryna; Osman, Nardine; Ragone, Azzurra; Sierra, Carles; Wassef, Aalam
Reading seasons and environments has been a long-held practice for Torres Strait Islanders through their close relationships with their islands and seas. This research project worked with elders on Erub (Darnley) Island, in the eastern group of islands in the Torres Strait, to document and synthesise their knowledge of seasonal patterns and
McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; McNamara, John Patrick
Full Text Available In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities.
In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities. PMID:22174702
Birukou, Aliaksandr; Wakeling, Joseph Rushton; Bartolini, Claudio; Casati, Fabio; Marchese, Maurizio; Mirylenka, Katsiaryna; Osman, Nardine; Ragone, Azzurra; Sierra, Carles; Wassef, Aalam
Several sub-disciplines of engineering are driven by the researchersâ?? aim of providing positive change to the society through their engineering. These researchers are challenged by the traditional research method of experimental research with a waterfall model which demands clearly defined project definition and functional requirements, and impose a sequential processes leading to the final system evaluation, which may lead to solutions which work in the lab, but have little impact in the messy real world. Based on two decades research in developing engineering systems with a societal impact (e.g. in robotics, embodied AI, and playware), in this paper we suggest a cyclic research method based on a mix between participatory and experimental processes. In particular, inspiration from the action research method applied to interdisciplinary technology development becomes a participatory approach characterized by rapid prototyping cycles which allow iterative technology specification and development together with people in their real world environment.
Lund, Henrik Hautop
Industry and public agencies increasingly adopt user-driven innovation and open innovation, as they realise that innovation cannot come solely from within an organisation. Innovation happens in the â??breaking of the wavesâ?? between people outside and people inside â?? because they have different stakes and perspectives. In academia, new breakthrough contributions to understanding innovation â?? and supporting it â?? will also emerge in the borderlands between disciplines that traditionally do not collaborate: between languages and design, and between management and anthropology for instance. The new discipline of Participatory Innovation gathers theories and methods across such academic fields that describe how people outside an organisation can contribute to its innovation. The many papers in this volume have in common that they identify ways for industry and the public sector to expand innovation through the participation of users, employees, suppliers, customers etc. â?? both on a strategiclevel, in concrete methods, and in the day-to-day interactions. PINC 2011 is a forum where participants from different disciplines and organisations can meet and challenge each other to develop the field of participatory innovation.
Improvements in water infrastructure in developing countries are of major importance for achieving access to clean water. CuveWaters, a research based IWRM project, currently underway in Namibia, is testing different technical options to de-centralise water supply and upgrade sanitation. The Cuvelai Basin is affected by highly variable precipitation, mostly saline groundwater and a lack of perennial rivers. Water management is characterised by strong dependency on a water pipeline. Finding wa...
Deffner, Jutta; Mazambani, Clarence
The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker . Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN, completed in 2011) which found that up to an 80% decarbonization of the global economy was possible if we can enable and launch a large-scale transition to a clean energy system consistent with what a number of 'leading edge' cities, regions, and nations have already accomplished or started. Note, in particular, that as the physical climate change metrics have progressed, the wordsshown on the righthave also progressed. In 1990, at the time of the FAR the strongest scientific consensus statement was that another decade of data would likely be needed to clearly observe climate change. Through the second to fourth (SAR, TAR, and AR4) reports, increasing clarity on the science of climate change translated into a consensus of overwhelming blame on human activities. The key statements from each report are not only about the growing evidence for anthropogenically driven climate change, but they have moved into the ecological and social impacts of this change. AR4 critically concluded that climate change would lead to climate injustice as the poor, globally, bear the brunt of the impacts. Despite this 'Rosetta Stone' translating science to language, we have failed to act collectively. One area where ERL can advance the overall conversation is on this science/action interface. As AR5 emerges, the climate change/climate response interface will need deep, substantive, action that responds rapidly to new ideas and opportunities. The rapid publication and open access features of ERL are particularly critical here as events a such as Hurricane Sandy, economic or political advances in climate response made by cities, regions or nations, all warrant assessment and response. This is one of many areas where ERL has been at the forefront of the conversation, through not only research letters, but also commentary-style Perspective pieces and the conversation that ERL's sister community website environmentalresearchweb can facilitate. This process of translating proposed solutionsinnovationsbetween interest groups, has been in far too short supply rece
Kammen, Daniel M.
The paper describes the rationale and importance of the approaches and methodologies of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to enable constraint analysis, to understand the complexities of farming systems and to improve integrated dairy productivity. Implicit in this objective is Farming Systems Research (FSR), which focused on cropping systems in the 1970's, with the subsequent addition of animal components. The methodology for FSR involves the following sequential components: site selection, site description and characterization (diagnosis), planning of on-farm research, on-farm testing and validation of alternatives, diffusion of results, and impact assessment. PRA is the development of FSR, which involves the active participation of farmers to identify constraints and plan appropriate solutions. In the Coordinated Research Project (CRP), the approach was adapted to 10 different country situations and led to Economic Opportunity Surveys (EOS) and Diagnostic Surveillance Studies (DSS), allowing the planning and implantation of integrated interventions to improve dairy productivity. PMID:18265864
Nasimudeen R Jabir,1 Shams Tabrez,1 Ghulam Md Ashraf,2 Shazi Shakil,3 Ghazi A Damanhouri,4 Mohammad A Kamal11Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, 2Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, 3Enzoinformatics Unit, 4Hematology Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemother...
Nr, Jabir; Tabrez S; Gm, Ashraf; Shakil S; Ga, Damanhouri; Ma, Kamal
Full Text Available This paper identifies types of citizen participation in local government in Australia, in particular focusing on the past two decades when local government systems have been the focus of intense reform. The paper considers the extent to which contemporary views of participatory governance have taken root at local and sub-local levels and concludes that despite reforms intended to engage local citizens more in local government activity, citizen participation has yet to develop significantly into arrangements that reach the level of participatory governance. It also argues that for participatory governance to be further developed, leadership may often have to come from organisations outside institutional local government.
In this article, the authors highlight the potential for rethinking approaches to community and social change interventions that draw on participatory action research at the organizational and community level. They distinguish problem-centric from opportunity-centric approaches to social change. Theory on social norms suggests that problem-centric
Boyd, Neil M.; Bright, David S.
We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the...
Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; DArcy Walsh
"Partizipative Verfahren zum Thema 'Technologie und Autonomes Altern'Ziel von pTA Altern war es, für das Programm benefit jene Themenbereiche zu identifizieren, in denen Partizipation zur Begleitung bzw. als Bestandteil der Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten sinnvoll und notwendig ist. Darüber hinaus ging es um die Frage, welche relevanten Gruppen in solche Prozesse eingebunden werden sollen. Die Identifikation möglicher Problembereiche, die für das Programm relevant werden k...
Sotoudeh, Mahshid; Bechtold, Ulrike
Journal clubs may enhance the knowledge and skills necessary to engage in community-based participatory research (CBPR) that will ultimately impact cancer health disparities. This article (1) describes an innovative approach to adapting the traditional journal club format to meet community and academic participants' needs, (2) presents evaluation data, and (3) explores whether responses differed between academic and community members. Five journal clubs occurred between February 2011 and May 2012 as a training activity of a regional cancer health disparities initiative. Each journal club was jointly planned and facilitated by an academic member in collaboration with a community partner. Attendees were recruited from academic programs across the Moffitt Cancer Center/University and community partners. Responses to a 13-item evaluation of each journal club session were compared to assess whether certain topics were evaluated more favorably, and explore differences between academic and community participants' assessment of the topic relevance. Evaluations were positive (mean ratings >4 out of 5) on most items and overall. No statistically significant differences were observed between academic and community members' ratings. Key overlapping interests by community partners and academic researchers/trainees for future journal club topics included discussing real-world CBPR examples and methods for involving the community in research. Although the initial goal was to use journal clubs as an educational tool to increase CBPR knowledge and skills of junior faculty trainees, results suggest mutual academic-community benefit and interest in learning more about CBPR as a way to reduce cancer health disparities. PMID:24078328
Vadaparampil, Susan T; Simmons, Vani N; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Malo, Teri; Klasko, Lynne; Rodriguez, Maria; Waddell, Rhonda; Gwede, Clement K; Meade, Cathy D
The complexity of many urban health problems often makes them ill suited to traditional research approaches and interventions. The resultant frustration, together with community calls for genuine partnership in the research process, has highlighted the importance of an alternative paradigm. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is presented as a promising collaborative approach that combines systematic inquiry, participation, and action to address urban health problems. Following a br...
The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a
Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, indigenous populations, known as Adivasi or Scheduled Tribes (STs, are among the poorest and most marginalized groups. 'Deprived' ST groups tend to display high levels of resignation and to lack the capacity to aspire; consequently their health perceptions often do not adequately correspond to their real health needs. Moreover, similar to indigenous populations elsewhere, STs often have little opportunity to voice perspectives framed within their own cultural worldviews. We undertook a study to gather policy-relevant data on the views, experiences, and priorities of a marginalized and previously enslaved tribal group in South India, the Paniyas, who have little 'voice' or power over their own situation. Methods/design We implemented a Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment (PPHA. We adopted guiding principles and an ethical code that promote respect for Paniya culture and values. The PPHA, informed by a vulnerability framework, addressed five key themes (health and illness, well-being, institutions, education, gender using participatory approaches and qualitative methods. We implemented the PPHA in five Paniya colonies (clusters of houses in a small geographical area in a gram panchayat (lowest level decentralized territorial unit to generate data that can be quickly disseminated to decision-makers through interactive workshops and public forums. Preliminary findings Findings indicated that the Paniyas are caught in multiple 'vulnerability traps', that is, they view their situation as vicious cycles from which it is difficult to break free. Conclusion The PPHA is a potentially useful approach for global health researchers working with marginalized communities to implement research initiatives that will address those communities' health needs in an ethical and culturally appropriate manner.
Abstract The medical research community is experiencing a marked increase in the amount of information available on genomic sequences and genes expressed by humans and other organisms. This information offers great opportunities for improving our understanding of complex diseases such as lung cancer. In particular, we should expect to witness a rapid increase in the rate of discovery of genes involved in lung cancer pathogenesis and we should be able to develop reliable molecular cr...
Participatory Sensing combines the ubiquity of mobile phones with sensing capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks. It targets pervasive collection of information, e.g., temperature, traffic conditions, or health-related data. As users produce measurements from their mobile devices, voluntary participation becomes essential. However, a number of privacy concerns -- due to the personal information conveyed by data reports -- hinder large-scale deployment of participatory sensing applications. ...
Cristofaro, Emiliano; Soriente, Claudio
Full Text Available Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.
Almost 2 decades of joint government-industry oilsands research in Alberta will move a step closer this year to a multi-billion barrel payout. The key to success is buried in a mine using new technology at a test facility operated by the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra). This paper reports that pilot projects under way at the Underground Test Facility (UTF) 37 miles north of Fort McMurray in the Athabasca oilsands region are only two of scores that the agency has sponsored since it was established by the provincial government 18 years ago with $100 million in seed funding (see map and diagram). But authority spokesmen say the UTF tests are the most promising techniques to date to finally bring billions of barrels of bitumen reservoir within economic reach. A horizontal well in situ steam injection process designed as a precommercial pilot will being producing at a rate of 2,000 b/d in September or October. It is a follow-up to a smaller proof of concept pilot project that produced 130,000 bbl of bitumen over several years
This paper presents results of a literature analysis on Empirical Research Approaches in Software Engineering (SE). The analysis explores reasons why traditional methods, such as statistical hypothesis testing and experiment replication are weakly utilized in the field of SE. It appears that basic assumptions and preconditions of the traditional methods are contradicting the actual situation in the SE. Furthermore, we have identified main issues that should be considered by the researcher when selecting the research approach. In virtue of reasons for weak utilization of traditional methods we propose stronger use of Multi-Method approach with Pragmatism as the philosophical standpoint.
Mandi?, Vladimir; Markkula, Jouni; Oivo, Markku
Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article presents findings from a study of assessing performed participatory community based health programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Methods: This study ...
Monir Baradarn Eftekhari; Katayoun Falahat; Masoumeh Dejman; Ameneh Setareh Forouzan; Hossein Malek Afzali; Noot Heydari; Arash Mirabzadeh
Research means different things to different people. Organized curiosity has been proposed as a suitable description for family-practice research. Studies involving patients in community practices are becoming recognized as a unique type of research that contributes new understanding to matters relating to primary care. Such research, however, requires an infrastructure that makes a study as unobtrusive as possible in participating practices. One approach is the development of a p...
Elford, R. W.
This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included in this paper along with future research directions.
Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga
Background This paper presents findings from a qualitative investigation of ethical and participatory issues related to the conduct of biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations in Thailand. This research was deemed important to conduct, as several large-scale biomedical HIV prevention trials among marginalized populations had closed prematurely in other countries, and a better understanding of how to prevent similar trial closures from occurring in the future was desired. Methods In-depth key informant interviews were held in Bangkok and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, translated and thematically analyzed. The Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials (GPP) guided this work. Results Fourteen interviews were conducted: 10 with policymakers, academic and community-based researchers and trial staff and four with representatives of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Suggested ways to improve ethical and participatory practice centered on standards of HIV prevention, informed consent, communication and human rights. In particular, the need to overcome language and literacy differences was identified. Key informants felt communication was the basis of ethical understanding and trust within biomedical HIV prevention trial contexts, and thus fundamental to trial participants' ability to exercise free will. Discussion Biomedical HIV prevention trials present opportunities for inclusive and productive ethical and participatory practice. Key informants suggested that efforts to improve practice could result in better relationships between research stakeholders and research investigative teams and by extension, better, more ethical participatory trials. This research took place in Thailand and its findings apply primarily to Thailand. However, given the universality of many ethical considerations, the results of this study can inform the improvement of ethical and participatory practice in other parts of the world where biomedical HIV prevention trials occur, and where clinical trials in marginalized populations continue.
Allman, Dan; Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Kaplan, Karyn
Promoção à saúde e educação: diagnóstico de saneamento através da pesquisa participante articulada à educação popular (Distrito São João dos Queiróz, Quixadá, Ceará, Brasil) / Health promotion and education: a diagnosis of sanitation conditions using participatory research and community education (São João dos Queiróz, Quixadá, Ceará, Brazil)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma comunidade rural vila de São João dos Queiróz, Distrito do Município de Quixadá, Ceará, através da pesquisa participante articulada à educação popular, tendo como referencial a promoção à saúde de acordo com os princípios da Carta de Ottawa, 1986. Participaram [...] do projeto representantes das diversas instituições públicas do distrito e entidades associativas ligadas ao movimento popular. O tema gerador, definido em assembléia da associação comunitária, foi o diagnóstico de saneamento, e o ponto de partida, o levantamento da condição situacional. Os resultados obtidos mostraram as precárias condições locais de saneamento, escolaridade, renda e trabalho. As sugestões para resoluções dos problemas foram organizadas para subsidiar a agenda de planejamento das políticas locais de saúde. A avaliação foi processual e enriquecida com práticas do cotidiano da pesquisa. A pedagogia problematizadora, desenvolvida durante o processo educativo, contribuiu para a construção e a reconstrução crítica dos conceitos de promoção à saúde e de saneamento, assim como para a efetivação da construção, apropriação e socialização dos conhecimentos produzidos. Abstract in english This study was conducted in a rural community, São João dos Queiróz, a township in the county of Quixadá, Ceará, Brazil, using a combination of participatory research and community education in compliance with the health promotion reference and principles of the 1986 Ottawa Charter. The project was [...] joined by representatives of several local government institutions and organizations from the grassroots community movement. The theme generating the research, as defined by an assembly meeting of the community association, was a diagnosis of sanitation conditions in the community. The starting point was the assessment of local conditions. Results showed adverse local conditions in sanitation, literacy, income, and employment. Suggestions for solving the problems were organized so as to be included in the planning agenda for local health policies. Evaluation was procedural and enriched with daily research activities. The problem-solving pedagogical approach developed during the educational process contributed to a critical reconstruction, appropriation, and sharing of the resulting knowledge.
Mello, Dalva A.; Rouquayrol, Maria Zélia; Araújo, Dominique; Amadei, Marcelo; Souza, Janaina; Bento, Lourdes F.; Gondin, Janaina; Nascimento, Janine.
Promoção à saúde e educação: diagnóstico de saneamento através da pesquisa participante articulada à educação popular (Distrito São João dos Queiróz, Quixadá, Ceará, Brasil) / Health promotion and education: a diagnosis of sanitation conditions using participatory research and community education (São João dos Queiróz, Quixadá, Ceará, Brazil)
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma comunidade rural vila de São João dos Queiróz, Distrito do Município de Quixadá, Ceará, através da pesquisa participante articulada à educação popular, tendo como referencial a promoção à saúde de acordo com os princípios da Carta de Ottawa, 1986. Participaram [...] do projeto representantes das diversas instituições públicas do distrito e entidades associativas ligadas ao movimento popular. O tema gerador, definido em assembléia da associação comunitária, foi o diagnóstico de saneamento, e o ponto de partida, o levantamento da condição situacional. Os resultados obtidos mostraram as precárias condições locais de saneamento, escolaridade, renda e trabalho. As sugestões para resoluções dos problemas foram organizadas para subsidiar a agenda de planejamento das políticas locais de saúde. A avaliação foi processual e enriquecida com práticas do cotidiano da pesquisa. A pedagogia problematizadora, desenvolvida durante o processo educativo, contribuiu para a construção e a reconstrução crítica dos conceitos de promoção à saúde e de saneamento, assim como para a efetivação da construção, apropriação e socialização dos conhecimentos produzidos. Abstract in english This study was conducted in a rural community, São João dos Queiróz, a township in the county of Quixadá, Ceará, Brazil, using a combination of participatory research and community education in compliance with the health promotion reference and principles of the 1986 Ottawa Charter. The project was [...] joined by representatives of several local government institutions and organizations from the grassroots community movement. The theme generating the research, as defined by an assembly meeting of the community association, was a diagnosis of sanitation conditions in the community. The starting point was the assessment of local conditions. Results showed adverse local conditions in sanitation, literacy, income, and employment. Suggestions for solving the problems were organized so as to be included in the planning agenda for local health policies. Evaluation was procedural and enriched with daily research activities. The problem-solving pedagogical approach developed during the educational process contributed to a critical reconstruction, appropriation, and sharing of the resulting knowledge.
Mello, Dalva A.; Rouquayrol, Maria Zélia; Araújo, Dominique; Amadei, Marcelo; Souza, Janaina; Bento, Lourdes F.; Gondin, Janaina; Nascimento, Janine.
Full Text Available The process of planning and initiating health services development has been described as conceived and experienced by the working group of the Health Services Development Research Project in Iran. The technical steps (conceiving and describing the health services system, development of plans, preparatory step and implementation as well as political support needed are defined and described. The importance of clear definition of the system is stressed as the basis for situational analysis and plans. Data are presented to illustrate findings during field observations in the province of West Azarbaijan. As a mechanism to initiate the proposed changes, the choice of direction of development and objectives, as well as to focus on critical and productive elements of the existing system specifically building of a new front-line of primary health care services , have been proposed. The functional unity of agencies and organizations participating in health delivery system and management tools for perpetuating of development, complete the plans. After discussion of alternative plans for development it is concluded that at present it is essential to look at service systems comprehensively, use the existing services as the point of departure aim at adequate coverage and provide service as required by the population and not as conceived by professional pressure groups.
Participatory research methods have helped scientists to understand how farmers experiment and to seek partnerships with farmers in developing technologies with enhanced relevance and adoption. This paper reports on the development of a participatory methodology to systematize long-term experimentation with agroforestry systems carried out in a hotspot of biodiversity by non-governmental organizations and local farmers. A methodological guide for systematization and techniques used for Partic...
This research investigates the processes of adaptation of participatory budget (PB) institutions to France, Germany, and Great Britain in relation to frames of citizen participation, for instance participatory democracy or community empowerment. I define frames as relatively coherent but flexible idea combinations that contain cognitive and normative assumptions about the issue at stake (in the present case citizen participation). The process of PB, developed in Porto Alegre, Braz...
A participatory research model was used in six village communities in the Central Region of the North West Province of South Africa in order to achieve the following broad objectives : to obtain information on the challenges owners face in raising livestock in these areas and to evaluate the livestock owners' level of knowledge of internal parasites in their animals. Information obtained at participatory workshops clearly indicated a need for improvements in water supply, schools, job creatio...
Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated) approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme the 'Health of Londoners Programme' in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing th...
McCourt Christine A; Morgan Philip A; Youll Penny
Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.
The author's main concern is to provide a research format which will supply a unitary conception of communication. The wide range of complex topics and variety of concepts embraced by communication theory and the rather disparate set of phenomena encompassed by communication research create this need for a unitary study approach capable of linking
Hill, Gary A.
One approach that is helpful in framing and facilitating effective and ethical rural education research projects is centred on ensuring that researcher-participant relations are respectful, responsible and reciprocal, predicated on the shared principles of CHE (connectivity, humanness and empathy). This approach derives from a strengths-based
Brown, Alice; Danaher, P. A.
In this short review paper we summarise the emerging challenges in the field of participatory sensing for the self-organisation of the next generation of wireless cellular networks. We identify the potential of participatory sensing in enabling the self-organisation, deployment optimisation and radio resource management of wireless cellular networks. We also highlight how this approach can meet the future goals for the next generation of cellular system in terms of infrastructure sharing, management of multiple radio access techniques, flexible usage of spectrum and efficient management of very small data cells.
Imran, Muhammad Ali; Imran, Ali; Onireti, Oluwakayode
Full Text Available The diminished trust of citizens in the public sector, the increased complexity of policy issues and the reforms in accordance with the new public management principles generate the need of focusing more extensively on participatory governance. Participatory governance can be defined as the genuine engagement of citizens and other organizations in the formulation of policies and strategies, in the decision-making process from the public sector and in the implementation of the decisions. The present paper's objectives are to define the concept of participatory governance, to argue in favor of implementing it in the public sector and to find to what extent public healthcare institutions from Scandinavian and Baltic countries publish information on participatory governance and how they perceive community engagement. The research findings are that the information on participatory governance disclosed on the websites of relevant institutions from within the Scandinavian and Baltic public healthcare systems is scarce. The countries with the greatest concern for community engagement are Denmark and Sweden. It is argued that there should be a shift in focus within the public sector in general and within the healthcare system in particular, so that citizens are genuinely involved in the relevant processes and their satisfaction is indeed at an adequate level.
Sustainable environmental management requires a decision support approach that accounts for dynamic connections between social and ecological systems, integrates stakeholder deliberation with scientific analysis, incorporates diverse stakeholder knowledge, and fosters relationships among stakeholders that can accommodate changing information and changing social and environmental conditions. Participatory system dynamics modeling provides such a framework. It supports stakeholder learning abou...
This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre-established handbooks for the selection of stakeholders often conduct instrumental participation, limited to information dissemination. On the other hand, in some cantons participatory processes characterized by normative rationales take place. Here the goals of participatory processes are not limited to outcomes (e.g. acceptance of the project), but value the process of participation in itself. In these cantons actors are selected via social connections and the claimed 'common sense' of cantonal project officers. Here, the opportunity of public debate opens up, the inclusion of actors often start earlier in the decision-making processes and objectives are defined publicly and collectively. Cantonal authorities involved in river management do not all consider participatory processes as important. The acknowledgment of participatory processes is less related to an authority's recognition of the importance of participation and more to specific local experience.
Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel
This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project focused on holistic learning which includes social and spiritual learning and whole-brained learning. Broadly interpreting and applying the four-quadrant brain model of Herrmann (1994), and other models of the brain, my study seeks to understand whether, to what extent and how learning can be advanced by deliberately employing holistic learning strategies to narrow the gap between theory and practice, between left-brain ...
Introduccion y evaluacion de Phymastichus coffea (tlymenoptera: Eulophidae en fincas de pequeños caficultores, a traves de investigaciòn participativa Introduction and evaluatiòn of Phymastichus coffea (tlymenoptera: Eulophidae in smallholder coffee farms, through participatory research
Full Text Available Cenicafe en convenio con el ICO-CFC-CABI Bioscience adelanto un proyecto de investigacion participativa con pequeños caficultores de Caldas, Quindio y Risaralda relacionado con el manejo de la broca del cafe. Durante este proyecto se realizaron las primeras liberaciones de Phymastichus coffea (La Salle en Colombia, con el proposito de darlo a conocer a los caficultores. iniciar su introduccion y evaluar su establecimiento. En el estudio se consideraron 41 fincas localizadas entre 1.200 y 1.800 m de altitud. Durante 20 meses el manejo de la broca se baso en recolecciones frecuentes de cafe maduro y en liberaciones de P. coffea. Los caficultores realizaron evaluaciones de infestacion de broca, posiciones de penetracion en los frutos y colectaron frutos infestados para evaluar el establecimiento del parasitoide. En total se colectaron 455 muestras de frutos infestados. En el 49,2% (N = 224 de las muestras se observò la presencia de P. coffea. Se detectò la presencia de P. coffea hasta 14 meses despues de la ultima liberacion. En las fincas de los municipios de Balboa, Montenegro y Belalcazar se observaron los parasitismos mayores 5,6, 5,6 y 4.7% en promedio, respectivamente. En contraste, las fincas de los municipios de Riosucio. Buenavista y Santa Rosa de Cabal presentaron parasitismos menores 0,7, 1,3 y 1,9% en promedio. respectivamente. El parasitismo maximo fue 42%. Es importante resaltar la presencia de P. coffea en el 87,5% de los predios en donde fue liberado, ya que se demuestra que se puede establecer en los agroecosistemas cafeteros del pais.In collaboratiòn with ICO-CFC-CABI Bioscience, Cenicafe conducted a farmer participatory research project with smallholder coffee growers in Caldas, Quindio and Risaralda, related to the management of the coffee berry borer. During this study the first release of Phymastichus coffea (La Salle was made in Colombia with the main purpose of allowing farmers to learn about this parasitoid, initiate its introduction, and evaluate its establishment. Forty-one coffee farms participated in the study, which were located between 1.200 and 1.800 meters elevatiòn. For 20 months coffee berry borer management was based on frequent harvests of mature coffee and releases of P. coffea. Farmers made evaluatiòns of insect infestaciòn, positions of borer penetratiòn in the berry and collected infested berries to evaluate the parasitoid establishment. Altogether 455 samples of infested berries were collected. In 49,2% (N = 224 of the samples the presence of P. coffea was observed. The presence of P. coffea was detected up to 14 months after the last release. In farms of Balboa, Montenegro and Belalcazar, the highest parasitism was observed: mean of 5,6. 5,6 and 4,7%, respectively. In contrast, farms of Riosucio, Buenavista and Santa Rosa de Cabal, had lower parasitism: mean of 0,7. 1,3 and 1,9%. respectively. Maximum parasitism observed was 42%. It is important to emphasize that P. coffea was present in 87,5 % of the farms where it was released, demonstrating that it can be established in the coffee agroecosystems of the country.
LUIS FERNANDO ARISTIZABAL A
Full Text Available We are witnessing a revolution in industry which, if successful, will change forever how business systems are developed and the type of staff required. This paradigm shift has only recently become possible as business process conceptual understanding evolved, technologies have matured and higher abstraction levels have become possible. Industry leads Business Processing Systems research as it has the strategic imperative and resources to be effective. Academic research is faced with three challenges: firstly, how to do effective research in an area of such broad scope, secondly, how to make research relevant to practice, thirdly how to spend limited resources effectively. This paper defines the research framework for effective academic research at the University of Wollongong by the Software Effective Process group. Effective research is enabled by co-ordinating research based on the primacy of the business model and its resultant effective representation in executable systems. The framework aims to build a core research team, promote strong synergy with existing research areas, and create academic and industry relevant research.. We report on the results to date of our pilot program and seek feedback and advice to help us refine our approach. A major Australian project is utilising a new software development lifecycle for system of systems development which has arisen out of this research strategy. Later papers will report on both the theoretical basis and practical impacts of this work and other research by the group.
The core empirical basis of this paper is based upon my recent participatory action research case study, sponsored by my university, conducted in a rural school in one of the most disadvantageous districts of Sindh, Pakistan. The paper argues that the current climate in most of the schools across the country reflects "apathy" and "ignorance".
The paper aims at showing how Participatory Design contributes to the understanding of learning processes related to Communities of Practice (CoPs) and, at the same time, to the design and implementation of Web Services to support organisational and individual learning in CoPs. This research builds on the European PALETTE project.
Charlier, Bernadette; Esnault, Liliane; Henri, France; Vanoirbeek, Christine
Experience sampling methods are essential tools for building a modern idiographic approach to understanding personality. These methods yield multiple snapshots of peoples experiences over time in daily life and allow researchers to identify patterns of behavior within a given individual, rather than strictly identify patterns of behavior across individuals, as with standard nomothetic approaches. In this article, we discuss the origin and evolution of idiographic methods in the field of pe...
Conner, Tamlin S.; Tennen, Howard; Fleeson, William; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
While universities can play a major role in advancing research-based community development, academic discourses of rigor, quality and ethics often conflict with the participatory and collaborative approaches required by community development principles. While experienced academics often have difficulty negotiating these issues, they present
Darcy, Michael; Nicholls, Ruth; Roffey, Christopher; Rogers, Dallas
The IER (Institut dEconomie Rurale) in Mali, and the DRD (Department of Research and Development) in Tanzania, in collaboration with KIT (Royal Tropical Institute) in the Netherlands developed the Client-Oriented Research Management Approach (CORMA) for the facilitation of this organizational change process. This guide provides tools for the assessment of the level of client-orientation by researchers and other stakeholders of the ARCs (Agricultural Research Centres), which should result i...
Heemskerk, W.; Lema, N.; Guindo, D.; Schouten, C.; Semgalawe, Z.; Verkuijl, H.; Steenhuijsen Piters, B.; Penninkhoff, P.
In this paper, we stress two points. First, analysis of public patenting should expand their focus from universities to Public Research Organisations (PRO). Second, a multidisciplinary approach allows for a richer view and interpretation of results. We adopt historical and economic perspectives to address these issues, with data from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the largest PRO in Spain. We distinguish three periods in the history of CSIC, according to the political context: ...
Azagra Caro, Joaqui?n; Romero Pablos, Ana
In this article, I argue that online social networking is anchored in surveillance practices. This gives us an opportunity to challenge conventional understandings of surveillance that often focus on control and disempowerment. In the context of online social networking, surveillance is something potentially empowering, subjectivity building and even playful what I call participatory surveillance.
Full Text Available The south-western Colombian department of Nariño has developed an innovative, demand-led and participatory initiative for the local integration of IDP s. The long-term sustainability of such partnerships between local administrations and grassroots communities hinges on ability to influence national and international financial flows.
Participatory culture has many mechanisms to support peer-to-peer learning as young people enter interest-driven and friendship-driven networks. In this article, the authors argue that school librarians can help bridge the gap between the excitement of having students experiment with new forms of social learning and new digital-media practices,
Losh, Elizabeth; Jenkins, Henry
The legitimacy of the scientific underpinning of European fisheries management is often challenged because of perceived exclusion of fishers knowledge and the lack of transparency in generating scientific advice. One of the attempts to address this lack of legitimacy has been through participatory knowledge development. In this paper, we will present the results of the JAKFISH project (Judgement and Knowledge in Fisheries Management involving Stakeholders) that focussed on the interplay between different actors in constructing the underpinning of policy decisions for sustainable fisheries. We tested participatory modelling as a tool to enhance mutual understanding and to increase legitimacy and found that it can be instrumental in developing a broader knowledge base for fisheries management and in building up trust between scientists and stakeholders. However, the participatory approach may not always work. Through social network analyses we found that the number of connections and the frequency of interactions between individuals in different groups (science, fisheries, eNGOs, policy) provides an important clue on the potential effectiveness of participatory approaches. We used three concepts to evaluate the role of scientific knowledge in policy making: salience, legitimacy and credibility. In situations with high stakes and high uncertainties, the evaluation of scientific analyses for policy decisions needs to involve a broader peer community consisting of scientists, policy-makers, NGOs and fisheries in order to increase legitimacy of results. When stakes are low and uncertainties are modest, the credibility of scientific results are sufficiently addressed through traditional scientific peer review
Pastoors, M.A.; Ulrich, Clara
BACKGROUND: Priority setting is one of the major issues in the health research system and no health system can afford to pay for every research they want to do, particularly in developing countries, so we decided to set the national main areas of the health research priorities. METHODS: In this study, according to Essential National Health Research (ENHR) strategy and with cooperation of all the Iranian universities of medical sciences and other stakeholders, the national health research priorities were extracted. RESULTS: The number of research priorities collected from the universities of medical sciences was 6723. Seventeen percent of the research priorities were related to basic science, 78 percent applied science, and 5 percent were related to developmental type. According to epidemiological classification, 50% of the research priorities were in descriptive form. In this process, 9 main extracted areas consist of communicable diseases, non-communicable disease, Health System Research, pharmaceutical sciences and Industry, basic science, traditional medicine and herbal medicine, nutrition, environmental health, and dentistry. And then for each area, five main projects were defined. CONCLUSIONS: In the Health Research System, the participatory priority setting is the main function based on needs assessment.
Owlia, Parviz; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh; Bahre