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Sexual education for adolescents: a participatory research approach in the school  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: to characterize the perception of adolescents about sexuality within the school. Methods: this is a qualitative research, from participatory approach, adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UNIFRA under protocol number 313.2007.2. It had been developed group dynamics and semi-structured questionnaire with adolescents from a public school in southern Brazil, a total of 48 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from December 2007 to May 2008. Results: the adolescents present th...

Adriana Dall’Asta Pereira; Eliane Tatsch Neves; Joanita Cechin Donaduzzi; Andressa da Silveira

2010-01-01

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Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and local resources. Its objective is to empower all stakeholders of development. The priority in local communities and the grass-root of health problems were mainly social determinants of health. On the other hand, both approaches of top-down and bottom-up approaches must be simultaneously considered for dealing with these determinants. Establishment of such centers can create good opportunities for developing original solutions for dealing with social determinants of health. The success of Population Research Centers depends on policy makers' concepts and attitude toward social determinants of health and the role of community participation in this regard. It seems that a more extensive engagement of different sectors including universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations is also vital for such movements.

R Majdzadeh

2009-03-01

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Sexual education for adolescents: a participatory research approach in the school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the perception of adolescents about sexuality within the school. Methods: this is a qualitative research, from participatory approach, adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UNIFRA under protocol number 313.2007.2. It had been developed group dynamics and semi-structured questionnaire with adolescents from a public school in southern Brazil, a total of 48 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from December 2007 to May 2008. Results: the adolescents present themselves uninformed regarding prevention of STD'S, HIV/AIDS and pregnancy, do not talk to parents/family members about their questions about sex and sexuality; value feelings when it comes to staying or dating someone, but denote prejudice and taboos regarding the subject addressed in the study. Conclusion: it is recommended the development of educational activities with teenagers in schools, including health professionals, teachers and family to allow for a sharing of ideas and ways of teaching and learning about sex and sexuality.

Adriana Dall’Asta Pereira

2010-01-01

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Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methodological approaches for ‘Design-Based Participatory Research'  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

Magnussen, Rikke; SØrensen, Birgitte Holm

2010-01-01

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Development of Nutrient Management Strategies for ASAL using Participatory Learning and Action Research (PLAR) Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Participatory diagnosis of soil fertility problems and subsequent experimentation was carried out at Kibwezi Division, Makweni district, using Participatory learning and Action Research (PLAR) methodologies. results of the soil analysis showed that nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) were the most limiting nutrients to the crop production. Farmers were excited to learn how to identify deficiency symptoms of N and P by looking at plant leaves. Farmers also identified and implemented practical options under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for solving the soil fertility problems such as use of manure, fertilisers or a combination of both. Fertiliser application at the rate of 40N + 40P2O5 ha-1 and 60N + 60P2O5 ha-1 produced significantly yield responses under rain-fed conditions. However, application of 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1 of farm yard manure had no effect on grain yield of maize. Maize gross margins were positive with increasing fertilizer application. Similarly, fresh yields of Chili showed marked yield increasing with increasing fertility conditions. In contrast, onions and tomatoes showed a corresponding smaller yield increase with fertility improvement. Chili, onions and tomatoes had positive gross margins as nutrient application was increased indicating that benefit was higher with increasing fertiliser inputs. The PLAR methodology provided farmers with knowledge and skills that helped them to change their attitude towards soil fertility improvement interventions

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Care and Concern: An Ethical Journey in Participatory Action Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the four basic principles of an ethical framework as outlined by the Code of Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans in light of the requirements of a participatory action research approach. Discusses the ethics of participatory action research in regard to care and concern. Argues that the ethics of morality and justice are…

Stuart, Carol A.

1998-01-01

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Community Based Participatory Research: A New approach to engaging community members to rapidly call 911 for Stroke  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Purpose Acute stroke treatments are underutilized primarily due to delayed hospital arrival. Using a community based participatory research approach, we explored stroke self-efficacy, knowledge and perceptions of stroke among a predominately African American population in Flint, Michigan. Methods In March 2010, a survey was administered to youth and adults after religious services at three churches and one church health day. The survey consisted of vignettes (12 stroke, 4 non-stroke) to assess knowledge of stroke warning signs and behavioral intent to call 911. The survey also assessed stroke self-efficacy, personal knowledge of someone who had had a stroke, personal history of stroke and barriers to calling 911. Linear regression models explored the association of stroke self-efficacy with behavioral intent to call 911 among adults. Results Two hundred forty two adults and 90 youth completed the survey. Ninety two percent of adults and 90% of youth respondents were African American. Responding to 12 stroke vignettes, adults would call 911 in 72% (sd=0.26) of the vignettes while youth would call 911 in 54% (sd=0.29) (p<0.001). Adults correctly identified stroke in 51% (sd=0.32) of the stroke vignettes and youth in 46% (sd=0.28) of the stroke vignettes (p=0.28). Stroke self-efficacy predicted behavioral intent to call 911 (p=0.046). Conclusion In addition to knowledge of stroke warning signs, behavioral interventions to increase both stroke self-efficacy and behavioral intent may be useful for helping people make appropriate 911 calls for stroke. A community based participatory research approach may be effective in reducing stroke disparities. PMID:21617148

Skolarus, Lesli E.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Murphy, Jillian; Brown, Devin L.; Kerber, Kevin A.; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B.

2014-01-01

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Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

2014-07-01

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Evaluation of Community Health Education Workshops among Chinese Older Adults in Chicago: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Health education is one of the proven ways to improve knowledge and change health attitudes and behaviors. This study is intended to assess the effectiveness of five health workshops in a Chinese community, focusing on depression, elder abuse, nutrition, breast cancer and stroke. Methods: A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to plan and organize the workshops. A total of 236 Chinese community-dwelling older adults participated in different health workshops. Quantitative questionnaires on knowledge, risk factors and outcomes of each health topic were distributed before and after the workshop. Pre and post workshop comparison analyses were conducted to examine the effectiveness of the workshops on knowledge and learning. Results: Overall, the health workshops have significantly improved participants’ understanding throughout the five health themes (P<0.05. Whereas Chinese older adults have limited knowledge on depression, nutrition and stroke, their health knowledge regarding depression and elder abuse were significantly improved after attending the workshops. In addition, health education workshops increased older adults’ understanding of the risk factors and consequences of depression, elder abuse and breast cancer. Conclusion: This study sheds light on the importance of promoting health education, and the complexity and challenges of designing health education for community dwelling Chinese older adults. Significant implications for researchers, community service providers, health service workers and policy makers are discussed.

Xinqi Dong

2013-01-01

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Participatory research and service-learning among farmers, health professional students, and experts: an agromedicine approach to farm safety and health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agromedicine developments in Alabama rest heavily on the interest and support of the farm community. Participatory approaches have been advocated in order to impact the safety and health of farms. The University of Alabama Agromedicine Research Team, working closely with and guided by farmers, places emphasis on identifying areas of farmer concern related to agricultural health and safety and on developing jointly with the farmers plans to address their concerns. Agricultural extension agents were key to developing the trust relationships among farmers, health professionals, and extension personnel required for these successful agricultural safety and health developments. In this article the authors describe how the research team engaged farmers in participatory research to develop service learning activities for graduate students studying Agricultural Safety and Health at The University of Alabama. Accepting farmers' active role in research processes creates an environment that is favorable to change, while providing farmers reassurance that their health and safety is of utmost importance to the researchers. PMID:22191500

Guin, Susan M; Wheat, John R; Allinder, Russell S; Fanucchi, Gary J; Wiggins, Oscar S; Johnson, Gwendolyn J

2012-01-01

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Investigating Learning Space with Photography in Early Childhood Education: A Participatory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary research in early childhood education turned from adult-centered orientations to investigations based on children’s views, involved in data collection as competent research informants. Within this context, a variety of creative methodological frames and tools infused specific research. The present contribution discusses and exemplifies one of the innovative research tools in early education research, namely photography, through a small-scale qualitative study conducted with preschoolers as main data collectors. The study focuses on children’s perceptions of their learning space, in its very material understanding, in an attempt to challenge at the same time anthropocentric tendencies in early education research. Data are discussed mainly against the methodological framework, but discussions also emphasize materiality and material surroundings as sources and determinants of early learning experiences. Photographs produced by preschoolers as research participants illustrate their balanced orientation towards human and material determinants of their learning processes: although instructed to take photos of their learning space, final data included a large percentage of photos with human figures as central points of interest (either early education professionals or peers. These results are consistent with findings of similar studies, as well as participants’ preference for outdoor settings and indoor objects with aesthetic value.

Nicoleta Laura POPA

2013-08-01

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Developing a national health research system: participatory approaches to legislative, institutional and networking dimensions in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

For many sub-Saharan African countries, a National Health Research System (NHRS) exists more in theory than in reality, with the health system itself receiving the majority of investments. However, this lack of attention to NHRS development can, in fact, frustrate health systems in achieving their desired goals. In this case study, we discuss the ongoing development of Zambia's NHRS. We reflect on our experience in the ongoing consultative development of Zambia's NHRS and offer this reflection and process documentation to those engaged in similar initiatives in other settings. We argue that three streams of concurrent activity are critical in developing an NHRS in a resource-constrained setting: developing a legislative framework to determine and define the system's boundaries and the roles all actors will play within it; creating or strengthening an institution capable of providing coordination, management and guidance to the system; and focusing on networking among institutions and individuals to harmonize, unify and strengthen the overall capacities of the research community. PMID:22672331

Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Campbell, Sandy; Zarowsky, Christina

2012-01-01

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Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

2010-01-01

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Developing measures of community-relevant outcomes for violence prevention programs: a community-based participatory research approach to measurement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-Based Participatory Research is a research paradigm that encourages community participation in designing and implementing evaluation research, though the actual outcome measures usually reflect the "external" academic researchers' view of program effect and the policy-makers' needs for decision-making. This paper describes a replicable process by which existing standardized psychometric scales commonly used in youth-related intervention programs were modified to measure indicators of program success defined by community partners. This study utilizes a secondary analysis of data gathered in the context of a community-based youth violence prevention program. Data were retooled into new measures developed using items from the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, the Hare Area Specific Self-Esteem Scale, and the Youth Asset Survey. These measures evaluated two community-defined outcome indicators, "More Parental Involvement" and "Showing Kids Love." Results showed that existing scale items can be re-organized to create measures of community-defined outcomes that are psychometrically reliable and valid. Results also show that the community definitions of parent or parenting caregivers exemplified by the two indicators are similar to how these constructs have been defined in previous research, but they are not synonymous. There are nuanced differences that are important and worthy of better understanding, in part through better measurement. PMID:23846829

Hausman, Alice J; Baker, Courtney N; Komaroff, Eugene; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Hohl, Bernadette C; Leff, Stephen S

2013-12-01

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Social Experiments and Participatory Research as Method  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope with this kind of complexity in regards to technology development and design projects. Based on experiences and lessons learned from the project "The Digital North Denmark (DDN), the chapter reflects on participatory research in a complex organizational setting of researchers, stakeholders and users emphasising practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. 

Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

2007-01-01

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Community-Based Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009–2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research. PMID:23680507

Simonds, Vanessa W.; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia

2013-01-01

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The development of participatory health research among incarcerated women in a Canadian prison  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes the development of a unique prison participatory research project, in which incarcerated women formed a research team, the research activities and the lessons learned. The participatory action research project was conducted in the main short sentence minimum/medium security women's prison located in a Western Canadian province. An ethnographic multi-method approach was used for data collection and analysis. Quantitative data was collected by surveys and analysed using des...

Martin, R. Elwood; Murphy, K.; Hanson, D.; Hemingway, C.; Ramsden, V.; Buxton, J.; Granger-brown, A.; Condello, L-l; Buchanan, M.; Espinoza-magana, N.; Edworthy, G.; Hislop, T. G.

2009-01-01

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Tribal participatory research: mechanisms of a collaborative model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although much social science research has been conducted within American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities, relatively little research has been conducted by or for those communities. We describe an approach that facilitates the active involvement of AIAN communities in the research process, from conceptualizing the issues to be investigated to developing a research design, and from collecting, analyzing, and interpreting the data to disseminating the results. The Tribal Participatory Research (TPR) approach is consistent with recent developments in psychology that emphasize the inclusion of community members and the social construction of knowledge. We describe the foundations of the approach and present specific mechanisms that can be employed in collaborations between researchers and AIAN communities. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the use of TPR regarding project timelines and budgets, interpretation of the data, and ultimately the relationships between tribes and researchers. PMID:14703257

Fisher, Philip A; Ball, Thomas J

2003-12-01

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Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved socially and politically. The PAREU model empowers the community to take action from the research they, themselves, conducted, and enables them to carry out future research. Finally, many of these communities (and the general public) lack the understanding of the nature of science, which leads to ignorance on the part of citizens in areas of science such as climate change. By participating in science/social science research, community members gain a better understanding of the nature of science, making them more informed citizens. The PAREU model is theoretically grounded in decades of research in social science and documented impacts of student research experiences. In addition to providing practical benefits for communities with needs solvable by scientific research, the model builds on and expands student skills gained from traditional REU programs Deep and sustained engagement among scientists, social scientists, and community leaders is expected to create better informed citizens and improve their ability to solve problems.

Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

2013-12-01

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Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

MacDonald, Cathy

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

2013-01-01

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Employing a Community Based Participatory Research Approach to Bear Witness: Psycho-Social Impact of the 2010 Earthquake on Haitians in Somerville, MA.  

Science.gov (United States)

We employed a community-based participatory research approach to assess mental health among the Haitian community in the Somerville, MA area. The development of the survey coincided with the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and so several questions related to the natural disaster were included in the analysis to increase understanding of the impact locally. We surveyed a convenience sample of 64 Haitians recruited with the assistance of the Somerville Haitian Coalition. The survey assessed demographic data, reasons for migrating to the area, response to the 2010 earthquake, and mental health. Mental health measures included the short versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Perceived Stress Scale. Participants reported high rates of stress and depression post-earthquake. On the CES-D, men reported higher average depression and stress scores than women (13.8 vs. 11 and 20.6 vs. 17.6). Our results suggest that social and family support resources may be beneficial to Haitians in our sample. PMID:23515968

Martinez, Linda Sprague; Reich, Amanda J; Ndulue, Uchenna J; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M; Peréa, Flavia C

2014-12-01

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Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements : The Strengths and Challenges of Participatory Methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging research relationships and generate.

Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde

2014-01-01

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The value and limitations of Participatory Action Research methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThis article describes the Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology used to trial and evaluate a suite of planning tools to improve the engagement process for statutory water planning in Australia, and assesses its value and limitations in the Australian context. We argue that the strength of this method is its consistency with a social learning and adaptive management approach. We owe the success of this research approach to five key factors: a high degree of access to the project setting; clear demarcation of roles and responsibilities between researchers and participants; considerable effort spent building and maintaining informal networks and relationships; sensitivity to the relationship between 'insiders' (the participants or owners of the issue i.e. government and community) and 'outsiders' (the research project team); and continual review of project planning and willingness to adapt timeframes and processes to suit the situation. The value and challenges of Participatory Action Research are discussed with key lessons emerging for improving its practice, as well as the transferability of this knowledge to engagement practice for water planning.

Mackenzie, John; Tan, Poh-Ling; Hoverman, Suzanne; Baldwin, Claudia

2012-12-01

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Participatory Design in the Developing World : Issues and opportunities from case studies of adapting Nordic participatory approaches to a South African context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the field of participatory design originating in Scandinavia, where approaches are developed for actively engaging local stakeholders in change processes, a major part of the research has been confined to Western contexts. The need to study participatory design in broader settings outside Western organisations has been stressed in the research community over the last decade, but later research indicates that still relatively few studies are done in developing countries. Researchers recognise that participatory design approaches cannot simply be transferred to developing country settings as there are numerous challenges for enabling participation, e.g. power distance, cultural barriers, low educational levels and geographical distances. However, participatory design offers substantial opportunities for developing countries, regarding empowerment in local communities and democratisation of change processes. Arguably, the appropriation of participatory design approaches and methods to developing world settings is an important priority in research cooperation between Nordic and Southern African universities. This work presents issues and opportunities for introducing participatory design in a South African context, based on two case studies. In the first case, concepts for new information technology were developed for a small-scale wine farm in the Western Cape, engaging multiple stakeholders on the farm. In the second case, hyper-local storytelling distributed through Bluetooth technology was explored in a socially challenged suburb in the Cape Flats area of Cape Town. Issues on appropriation of strategies and methods for participation are discussed, and directions for further research in the field are identified.

Messeter, Jörn; Claassen, Hester

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Participatory approaches and the measurement of human well-being  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper considers the use of participatory methods in international development research, and asks what contribution these can make to the definition and measurement of well-being. It draws on general lessons arising from the project level, two larger-scale policy research processes sponsored by the World Bank, and the experience of quality of life studies. It also considers emerging experiments with using participatory methods to generate quantitative data. The paper closes by assessing t...

White, Sarah; Pettit, Jethro

2004-01-01

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Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

Naydene de Lange

2012-01-01

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Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary s [...] chools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

Naydene, de Lange; Mart-Mari, Geldenhuys.

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Using participatory approaches with older people in a residential home in Guyana: challenges and tensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory approaches are a popular and entrenched strategy in community development, yet a number of unresolved issues and tensions persist regarding the definition, rationales, outcomes and ethics of participation. Despite its popularity there are relatively few examples of participatory projects with older people or in institutional settings so their potential with this group is poorly understood. This case study presents some of the practical and ethical challenges that arose over the course of a participatory project that aimed to analyse and improve quality of life in a residential home for older people in Guyana. Through a qualitative process evaluation it examines the degree of participation achieved, the determinants of the participatory process, the benefits the approach brought and the ethical dilemmas encountered. Although the degree of participation achieved was limited, beneficial outcomes were observed, notably the selection of appropriate and desirable interventions and the effect on the residents themselves, who valued their part in the project. The participatory process was unpredictable and complex, however, and key determinants of it included the organizational dynamics of the home and the skills, actions and attitudes of the researcher. Adopting a participatory approach brought valuable benefits in a residential home, but others adopting the approach should ensure they critically consider at the outset the ethical and practical dilemmas the setting and approach may produce and have realistic expectations of participation. PMID:23143161

Hewitt, Gillian; Draper, Alizon K; Ismail, Suraiya

2013-03-01

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Masihambisane, lessons learnt using participatory indigenous knowledge research approaches in a school-based collaborative project of the Eastern Cape  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Masihambisane is an Nguni word, loosely meaning "let us walk the path together". The symbolic act of walking together is conceptually at the heart of a funded1 research project conducted in rural schools of Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape. The project focuses on promoting the direct participation of t [...] eachers in planning, researching, and developing learning and teaching materials (LTSMs), with a view to aligning these materials with indigenous and local knowledge. In this paper we make explicit our learning, and the manner in which we carried out the collaborated research activities, using the Reflect process.

Thenjiwe, Meyiwa; Tebello, Letsekha; Lisa, Wiebesiek.

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Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

1996-01-01

32

Participatory Evaluation: Implications for Improving Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the participatory approach used by a group of academic support staff in evaluating an academic professional development resource designed to support e-learning and teaching. The resource, titled Designing Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches (DELTA), showcases examples of electronic learning and teaching approaches

Benson, Robyn; Samarawickrema, Gayani; O'Connell, Margaret

2009-01-01

33

Participation and power : In participatory research and action research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers to participation conceptualised as various degrees of codetermination in organisations and in research processes?’ The anthology is part of a follow-up on an initiative taken in 2010 by Professor Werner Fricke, editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Action Research for many years. His vision was to create an academy of AR and PR.

2014-01-01

34

Let Them do the Work : A Participatory Place Branding Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: This conceptual essay seeks to develop a participatory approach to place branding. In doing so, it offers guidance on how to implement a participatory place branding strategy within place management practice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on theoretical insights drawn from the combination of distinct literatures on place branding, general marketing, and collaborative governance. Findings: The paper highlights the importance of residents in the place branding process and argues that their special functions as ambassadors for the place constitute the most valuable assets in place branding. Thus, a participatory place branding approach involving residents is needed. To implement this approach, three stages are necessary: (stage 1) defining a shared vision for the place including core place elements; (stage 2) implementing a structure for participation; (stage 3) supporting residents in their own place branding projects. Originality/value: The inclusion of residents is often requested in contemporary place branding literature. Unfortunately, none of these articles offer a real strategy for participatory place branding so far. Thus, this conceptual essay provides a participatory place branding approach to help place managers implement such structure.

Zenker, Sebastian; Erfgen, Carsten

2014-01-01

35

Participatory approaches to understanding practices of flood management across borders  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to outline and present initial results from a study designed to identify principles of and practices for adaptive co-management strategies for resilience to flooding in borderlands using participatory methods. Borderlands are the complex and sometimes undefined spaces existing at the interface of different territories and draws attention towards messy connections and disconnections (Strathern 2004; Sassen 2006). For this project the borderlands concerned are those between professional and lay knowledge, between responsible agencies, and between one nation and another. Research was focused on the River Tweed catchment, located on the Scottish-English border. This catchment is subject to complex environmental designations and rural development regimes that make integrated management of the whole catchment difficult. A multi-method approach was developed using semi-structured interviews, Q methodology and participatory GIS in order to capture wide ranging practices for managing flooding, the judgements behind these practices and to 'scale up' participation in the study. Professionals and local experts were involved in the research. The methodology generated a useful set of options for flood management, with research outputs easily understood by key management organisations and the wider public alike. There was a wide endorsement of alternative flood management solutions from both managers and local experts. The role of location was particularly important for ensuring communication and data sharing between flood managers from different organisations and more wide ranging stakeholders. There were complex issues around scale; both the mismatch between communities and evidence of flooding and the mismatch between governance and scale of intervention for natural flood management. The multi-method approach was essential in capturing practice and the complexities around governance of flooding. The involvement of key flood management organisations was integral to making the research of relevance to professionals.

Bracken, L. J.; Forrester, J.; Oughton, E. A.; Cinderby, S.; Donaldson, A.; Anness, L.; Passmore, D.

2012-04-01

36

A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

37

In from the Cold? Reflections on Participatory Research from 1970-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research (PR) is a term that was first articulated in Tanzania in the early 1970s to describe a variety of community-based approaches to the creation of knowledge. Taken together these approaches combine social investigation, education and action in an interrelated process. The International Council for Adult Education provided a…

Hall, Budd L.

2005-01-01

38

Youth researching youth: benefits, limitations and ethical considerations within a participatory research process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the benefits, limitations and ethical issues associated with conducting participatory research on tobacco use using youth to research other youth. Study design. Community-based participatory research. Methods. Research on tobacco use was conducted with students in the K’àlemì Dene School and Kaw Tay Whee School in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using PhotoVoice. The Grade 9–12 students acted as researchers. Researcher reflections and observations were assessed using “member checking,” whereby students, teachers and community partners could agree or disagree with the researcher's interpretation. The students and teachers were further asked informally to share their own reflections and observations on this process. Results and conclusions. Using youth to research other youth within a participatory research framework had many benefits for the quality of the research, the youth researchers and the community. The research was perceived by the researchers and participants to be more valid and credible. The approach was more appropriate for the students, and the youth researchers gained valuable research experience and a sense of ownership of both the research process and results. Viewing smoking through their children's eyes was seen by the community to be a powerful and effective means of creating awareness of the community environment. Limitations of the approach were residual response bias of participants, the short period of time to conduct the research and failure to fully explore student motivations to smoke or not to smoke. Ethical considerations included conducting research with minors, difficulties in obtaining written parental consent, decisions on cameras (disposable versus digital and representation of all participants in the final research product.

Cynthia G. Jardine

2012-05-01

39

Deciding What to Research: An Overview of a Participatory Workshop  

Science.gov (United States)

While recent years have seen an increase in the number of participatory and inclusive research studies being undertaken where people with learning disabilities are active members of the research team, little has been published about how teams decide what to research. This paper aims to fill this gap by discussing how in one area of Wales a…

Northway, Ruth; Hurley, Karen; O'Connor, Chris; Thomas, Helen; Howarth, Joyce; Langley, Emma; Bale, Sue

2014-01-01

40

A Framework for Clarifying “Participation” in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory research processes is key to their implementation. Our first assumption is that this positive view and acceptance of participation in research processes is a public good for the whole participatory research community. We also assume that the diversity of participatory forms of research is rarely considered by potential participants when they make their decisions about whether or not to participate in a proposed process. We specifically address how to avoid stakeholders’ reluctance to be involved in participatory research projects based on disillusion with past experiences. We argue that the disappointment experienced by stakeholders and other participants (i.e., researchers and policy makers can be avoided by being upfront and precise about how “participation” will be implemented, and what kind of involvement is expected from participants. Such a collective effort from the research community can also clarify the variety of possible implementations for potential participants. Building on earlier efforts to characterize and categorize the diversity of participatory research approaches, we develop a conceptual analytic procedural framework to make participants’ roles explicit in the implementation of different participatory research processes. This framework consists of three facets: (1 the flows of information among participants and the control over these flows for each step in a process, i.e., who will be expected to produce information, who will use this information, and who will receive the results; (2 the timing of the involvement of participants in the different steps of the research process, and the framing power that is associated with each process step; and (3 the organization of communication among participants for each information flow, i.e., in what configuration (bilaterally or as a group, mediated or face to face the interactions among researchers, stakeholders, and policy makers will take place. This framework can accommodate a wide variety of research methods, and highlights exactly how participants are involved in research processes. We are prescriptive in dealing with the need to be procedurally explicit when engaging in participatory research. We anticipate that using this framework will lead to more thoughtful acceptances or refusals to participate in proposed research processes. Our framework is based on various experiences with participatory research. It is intended to be used from the very beginning of a participatory research process as a conceptual guide for researchers. We suggest a protocol to transform it into more practical guidelines for communicating about upcoming participatory research processes. The leader of such processes should propose at each key stage an explicit, yet adaptive, plan for the following stages. This plan should also specify in what ways participants will be involved, and how the plan itself can be questioned and revised.

Katherine A. Daniell

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
41

A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

Bridgelall, Raj

2014-03-01

42

A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

2008-01-01

43

Using Participatory Action Research and Photo Methods to Explore Higher Education Administration as an Emotional Endeavor  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we build on Wood's (2010, 2012) recent call to consider higher education as a work place that conjures emotion among constituents, particularly positional leaders, like department chairs. Using a participatory action research and photo-enhanced methodological approach, we illustrate the emotional labor that was poured into the…

Gonzales, Leslie D.; Rincones, Rodolfo

2013-01-01

44

Environmental Sustainability and Participatory Approaches: the Case of Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A big challenge of the new millennium consists of activating a large mobilization of society toward concrete, efficient and efficacy actions which promote awareness of the problems and their solutions for a sustainable environment. In order to address the different environmental issues existing today in Italy, besides correct and transparent communication, it is also needed the involvement of local communities. The greater problem is how to inform the public. Starting from an analysis of different kinds of participatory approaches, the paper proposes a classification of methods and techniques in four different typologies: participation by feedback, participation by consultation, participation by negotiating and participation by online interaction. Moreover, in depth interviews have been carried out to interdisciplinary experts to evaluate which participatory approaches are the best to use in Italy in terms of participation and cost-effectiveness, to identify constraints that limit the implementation of the different approaches and to provide solutions to overcome them.

Patrizia Grifoni

2014-04-01

45

Recommended Mitigation Measures for an Influenza Pandemic in Remote and Isolated First Nations Communities of Ontario, Canada: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza pandemics disproportionately impact remote and/or isolated Indigenous communities worldwide. The differential risk experienced by such communities warrants the recommendation of specific mitigation measures. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were conducted with adult key health care informants from three remote and isolated Canadian First Nations communities of sub-Arctic Ontario. Forty-eight mitigation measures (including the setting, pandemic period, trigger, and duration were questioned. Participants’ responses were summarized and collected data were deductively and inductively coded. The participants recommended 41 of the questioned mitigation measures, and often differed from previous literature and national recommendations. Results revealed that barriers, such as overcrowded housing, limited supplies, and health care infrastructure, impacted the feasibility of implementing mitigation measures. These findings suggest that pandemic plans should recommend control strategies for remote and isolated Canadian First Nations communities that may not be supported in other communities. These findings highlight the importance of engaging locally impacted populations using participatory approaches in policy decision-making processes. Other countries with remote and/or isolated Indigenous communities are encouraged to include recommendations for mitigation measures that specifically address the unique needs of such communities in an effort to improve their health outcomes during the next influenza pandemic.

Nadia A. Charania

2014-06-01

46

Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

Smith, Liz

2008-01-01

47

Integrating Participatory Action Research and GIS Education: Negotiating Methodologies, Politics and Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges of integrating participatory action research into undergraduate GIS courses, drawing evidence from two undergraduate courses that contributed to a long-term participatory action research project. The author shows that incorporating participatory action research in undergraduate…

Elwood, Sarah

2009-01-01

48

Broadening Participation in the Geosciences through Participatory Research  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of many efforts, the geosciences remain less diverse than the overall population of the United States and even other sciences. This lack of diversity threatens the quality of the science, the long-term viability of our workforce, and the ability to leverage scientific insight in service of societal needs. Drawing on new research into diversity specific to geosciences, this talk will explore underlying causes for the lack of diversity in the atmospheric and related sciences. Causes include the few geoscience majors available at institutions with large minority enrollment; a historic association of the geosciences with extractive industries which are negatively perceived by many minority communities, and the perception that science offers less opportunity for service than other fields. This presentation suggests a new approach - community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, which was first applied in the field of rural development and has been used for many years in biomedical fields, scientists and community leaders work together to design a research agenda that simultaneously advances basic understanding and addresses community priorities. Good CBPR integrates research, education and capacity-building. A CBRP approach to geoscience can address the perceived lack of relevance and may start to ameliorate a history of negative experiences of geosciences. Since CBPR works best when it is community-initiated, it can provide an ideal place for Minority-Serving Institutions to launch their own locally-relevant programs in the geosciences. The presentation will conclude by describing three new examples of CBPR. The first is NCAR’s partnerships to explore climate change and its impact on Tribal lands. The second approach a Denver-area listening conference that will identify and articulate climate-change related priorities in the rapidly-growing Denver-area Latino community. Finally, we will describe a Google-funded project that brings together atmospheric scientists, epidemiologists, medical doctors, and economists to use improved precipitation forecasts to better manage Meningitis in Ghana.

Pandya, R. E.; Hodgson, A.; Wagner, R.; Bennett, B.

2009-12-01

49

Learning through Situated Innovation : Why the specific is crucial for Participatory Design Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why and in which ways the specificity and situatedness of PD practices are crucial for PD research. We do so by developing the notion of PD as situated innovation based on a pragmatic epistemology. PD research aims at devel oping and continuously unfolding what PD can, might and should be. We show implications of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argumentation supports the emphasis on exploring new PD practices and learning and theorizing about PD from the specificities, in line with recent debate contributions.

Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara

2014-01-01

50

Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. Methods The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR’s Health and Well-being Project’s corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1 community engagement, 2 sampling and recruitment, 3 retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4 analysis, interpretation and dissemination. Results To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the research agenda. Conclusion CBPR methods have the ability to enable and strengthen epidemiological and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa within the social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the diverse communities on the continent. This project demonstrates that adaptation of these methods is crucial to the successful implementation of a community-based project involving a highly vulnerable population.

Kamanda Allan

2013-01-01

51

Preparing pre-service teachers as emancipatory and participatory action researchers in a teacher education programme  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this paper I analyse the potential that participatory action research holds for educating pre-service teachers to become more critically reflective and socially conscious. I also describe the rationale for and process of engaging pre-service teachers in their teacher education programme. Involvin [...] g these candidate teachers in participatory action research (PAR) projects may provide opportunities for aspiring teachers to develop pedagogical content knowledge, examine their beliefs about teaching, and gain confidence in addressing social justice issues. More than merely exposing them to applying the technique of action research, the PAR project encouraged them to become more socially conscious, critical, imaginative and argumentative as teacher-researchers. In the project I used a participatory approach in action research to prepare the pre-service teachers to become emancipatory action researchers. Supporting and fostering inquiring practices is a strategy to help pre-service teachers move beyond just receiving hand-outs in a teacher education programme and beginning to focus on their work with learners and challenges in the real school environment.

Omar, Esau.

52

Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

2007-07-01

53

Some considerations on the attractiveness of participatory processes for researchers from natural science  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory modeling and participatory scenario development have become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources management. But even if most people agree that participation is required to solve environmental problems in a way that satisfies both the environmental and societal needs, success stories are relatively rare, while many attempts to include stakeholders in the development of models are still reported to have failed. This paper proposes the hypothesis, that the lack of success in participatory modeling can partly be attributed to a lack of attractiveness of participatory approaches for researchers from natural sciences (subsequently called 'modelers'). It has to be pointed out that this discussion is mainly concerned with natural scientists in academia and not with modelers who develop models for commercial purposes or modelers employed by public agencies. The involvement of modelers and stakeholders in participatory modeling has been intensively studied during recent years. However, such analysis is rarely made from the viewpoint of the modelers themselves. Modelers usually don't see participatory modeling and scenario development as scientific targets as such, because the theoretical foundations of such processes usually lie far outside their own area of expertise. Thus, participatory processes are seen mainly as a means to attract funding or to facilitate the access to data or (relatively rarely) as a way to develop a research model into a commercial product. The majority of modelers very likely do not spend too much time on reflecting whether or not their new tools are helpful to solve real world problems or if the results are understandable and acceptable for stakeholders. They consider their task completed when the model they developed satisfies the 'scientific requirements', which are essentially different from the requirements to satisfy a group of stakeholders. Funding often stops before a newly developed model can actually be tested in a stakeholder process. Therefore the gap between stakeholders and modelers persists or is even growing. A main reason for this probably lies in the way that the work of scientists (modelers) is evaluated. What counts is the number of journal articles produced, while applicability or societal impact is still not a measure of scientific success. A good journal article on a model requires an exemplary validation but only very rarely would a reviewer ask if a model was accepted by stakeholders. So why should a scientist go through a tedious stakeholder process? The stakeholder process might be a requirement of the research grant, but whether this is taken seriously, can be questioned, as long as stakeholder dialogues do not lead to quantifiable scientific success. In particular for researchers in early career stages who undergo typical, publication-based evaluation processes, participatory research is hardly beneficial. The discussion in this contribution is based on three pillars: (i) a comprehensive evaluation of the literature published on participatory modeling and scenario development, (ii) a case study involving the development of an integrated model for water and land use management including an intensive stakeholder process and (iii) unstructured, personal communication - with mainly young scientists - about the attractiveness of multidisciplinary, applied research.

Barthel, Roland

2013-04-01

54

Starting with ourselves in deepening our understanding of generativity in participatory educational research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Participatory educational research is generally characterised by a commitment to making a difference in the lives of those who participate in the research and more broadly, to promoting social transformation. This suggests a potentially fruitful synergy between participatory educational research and [...] the multidisciplinary body of academic work on generativity as a human capacity that has at its core a desire to contribute to the well-being of others. As a research team of teacher educators from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, we seek to add an alternative dimension to current debates on participatory educational research by focusing on understanding the 'how' and 'what' of generativity in a participatory research process. The research question we address is: How does/can engagement in participatory educational research facilitate generativity? While participatory research literature often concentrates on collaboration between researchers and 'researched' communities, we are taking a reflexive stance by exploring our own participation in our dual roles as university community members and as researchers studying our colleagues' experiences in relation to integration of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related issues in university curricula. We describe how our use of the visual method of storyboarding facilitated insight into generativity in participatory educational research. Building on an earlier concept of generativity, we identify and discuss significant generativefeatures ofparticipation, playfulness, passion, and perspicacity in our research process.

Linda, van Laren; Ronicka, Mudaly; Kathleen, Pithouse-Morgan; Shakila, Singh.

55

Participatory Methods in Health Research with elderly People  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Institut für Gerontologische Forschung e.V. investigated the "Primary Prevention Effects of the Märkisches Viertel Network" in Berlin in a research project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The study integrates various participatory methods to investigate the health promotion effects of the volunteer Märkisches Viertel Network, an organisation that brings together different local actors working to assist and encourage older people to live independent lives. In this project participation was realised in two different levels: Firstly, in the cooperation between the team of investigators and the network, secondly, in the handling with the target group of (socially disadvantaged elderly people. The experiences in both processes will be explained and critically discussed after a brief overview about the project.

Kerstin Kammerer

2011-08-01

56

Participatory workspace design : A new approach for ergonomists?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually based methods such as workbooks, layout workshops and use scenarios. Employees, management and external design engineersalike took actively part in the design process. The general outcome of the inter-vention was some very concrete changes in the proposed design layout, an enhanced clarity of the production procedures in the new plant, and an identification of potential future ergonomic problems. This case study indi-cates that workspace design can be a new approach for OHS consultants.

Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole

2010-01-01

57

Passion for participatory research on the menstrual cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-day symposium entitled "The Menstrual Cycle and Adolescent Health" was held in Potomac, Maryland in mid October 2007. Groups sponsoring the meeting included the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health, the NIH Office of Rare Diseases, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Office of Women's Health, the DHHS Office of Women's Health, and Rachel's Well, Inc. Attendees included patients, patient advocates, and experts from a variety of fields and disciplines. The effort identified areas in which there are only sparse data from which to create evidence-based recommendations for management of menstrual problems in young adolescents. In a final session of the meeting, participants worked together to develop a manifesto regarding research on the menstrual cycle in adolescents, which is the subject of this report. The group reached two major conclusions. First, there is need for a new research model that integrates grass roots community passion for participatory research with research planning and regulatory oversight. Second, there is a need for a coordinated research effort on the menstrual cycle and its disorders in adolescents. This could initially take the form of a Study of Puberty across the Nation (SPAN), similar to the Study of Women across the Nation (SWAN) that addresses the normal menopausal process. PMID:18574237

Gordon, Catherine M; Hijane, Karima; Heyman, Carly; Bell, Maureen Lindenhofen; Busby, Mary Beth; Nelson, Lawrence M

2008-01-01

58

Promoting the Adoption of Innovations through Participatory Approaches: Example from Northern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operated for 4 years (2005-2008 in Borno state of Nigeria. Survey results indicated that farmers who participated in project activities' have been successful in increasing crop yields. Both yields and per capita production of major crops were statistically significantly higher (ñ? 0.05 in project communities compared to non-project ones. It is also estimated that there was a decline in percentage of households in food insecurity situation in project communities. Probit regression revealed that participation in project activities had a positive and significant effect on household food security (ñ? 0.05. It is then concluded that development interventions that involve multiple stakeholder partnership, use of participatory research and extension approach can help increase technology uptake among resourcepoor farmers as well as increase food production and food security in a region.

Abdoulaye, T.

2012-01-01

59

Participatory knowledge-management design: A semiotic approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to present a design strategy for collaborative knowledge-management systems based on a semiotic approach. The contents and structure of experts' knowledge is highly dependent on professional or individual practice. Knowledge-management systems that support cooperation between experts from different (sub-)fields need to be situated and tailored to provide effective support even if the common aspects of the data need to be described by ontologies that are generic in respect to the sub-disciplines involved. To understand and approach this design problem, we apply a semiotic perspective to computer application and human–computer interaction. From a semiotic perspective, the computer application is both a message from the designer to the user about the structure of the problem domain, as well as about interaction with it, and a structured channel for the user's communication with herself, himself or other users of the software. Tailoring or “end-user development” – i.e. adapting the knowledge-management system to a specific (sub-)discipline, task or context – then refines both the message and adapts the structure of the interaction to the situated requirements. The essential idea of this paper is to define a new perspective for designing and developing interactive systems to support collaborative knowledge management. The key concept is to involve domain experts in participatory knowledge design for mapping and translating their professional models into the proper vocabularies, notations, and suitable visual structures for navigating among interface elements. To this end, the paper describes how our semiotic approach supports processes for representing, storing, accessing, and transferring knowledge through which the information architecture of an interactive system can be defined. Finally, the results of applying our approach to a real-world case in an archaeological context are presented.

Valtolina, Stefano; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

2012-01-01

60

Respondent-Driven Sampling in Participatory Research Contexts: Participant-Driven Recruitment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports on the use of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in participatory and community-based research. Participant-driven recruitment (PDR) retains all of the analytic capabilities of RDS while enhancing the role of respondents in framing research questions, instrument development, data interpretation, and other aspects of the research process. Merging the capabilities of RDS with participatory research methods, PDR creates new opportunities for engaging community members in resea...

Tiffany, Jennifer S.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a tropical African catchment: An integrated participatory approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Sound decision making for water resources management has to be based on good knowledge of the dominant hydrological processes of a catchment. This information can only be obtained through establishing suitable hydrological monitoring networks. Research catchments are typically established without involving the key stakeholders, which results in instruments being installed at inappropriate places as well as at high risk of theft and vandalism. This paper presents an integrated participatory approach for establishing a hydrological monitoring network. We propose a framework with six steps beginning with (i) inception of idea; (ii) stakeholder identification; (iii) defining the scope of the network; (iv) installation; (v) monitoring; and (vi) feedback mechanism integrated within the participatory framework. The approach is illustrated using an example of the Ngerengere catchment in Tanzania. In applying the approach, the concept of establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network was initiated in 2008 within the Resilient Agro-landscapes to Climate Change in Tanzania (ReACCT) research program. The main stakeholders included: local communities; Sokoine University of Agriculture; Wami Ruvu Basin Water Office and the ReACCT Research team. The scope of the network was based on expert experience in similar projects and lessons learnt from literature review of similar projects from elsewhere integrated with local expert knowledge. The installations involved reconnaissance surveys, detailed surveys, and expert consultations to identify best sites. First, a Digital Elevation Model, land use, and soil maps were used to identify potential monitoring sites. Local and expert knowledge was collected on flow regimes, indicators of shallow groundwater plant species, precipitation pattern, vegetation, and soil types. This information was integrated and used to select sites for installation of an automatic weather station, automatic rain gauges, river flow gauging stations, flow measurement sites and shallow groundwater wells. The network is now used to monitor hydro-meteorological parameters in collaboration with key stakeholders in the catchment. Preliminary results indicate that the network is working well. The benefits of this approach compared to conventional narrow scientific/technical approaches have been shown by gaining rapid insight into the hydrology of the catchment, identifying best sites for the instruments; and voluntary participation of stakeholders in installation, monitoring and safeguarding the installations. This approach has proved simple yet effective and yielded good results. Based on this experience gained in applying the approach in establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network, we conclude that the integrated participatory approach helps to assimilate local and expert knowledge in catchments monitoring which consequently results in: (i) identifying best sites for the hydrologic monitoring; (ii) instilling the sense of ownership; (iii) providing security of the installed network; and (iv) minimizing costs for installation and monitoring.

Gomani, M. C.; Dietrich, O.; Lischeid, G.; Mahoo, H.; Mahay, F.; Mbilinyi, B.; Sarmett, J.

62

Place and Situated Deliberation in Participatory Planning – A Research Proposal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the domain of participatory urban planning, this position paper argues for a focus on the notion of place in the design of mobile and/or ubiquitous systems that are used in deliberation processes with central spatial references. I discuss (1) leveraging properties of place as a resource for users in the design of such systems and (2) situating, or merely co-locating, deliberation activities within the places these discussions are concerned with. To support my argument, I outline two exemplary cases that explore this focus on place and situated deliberation to further motivate research in that direction. The first case concerns the different qualities of in-situ reflection and action on proposed changes to the cityscape in contrast to ex-situ reflection and action on those changes. The second case focuses on providing immersive information about citizens’ own living environment on the spot for everyone and everywhere through a mobile augmented reality application that visualizes future, planned buildings on capable mobile phones. I conclude with the central questions and problems for future research that focuses on place and situated deliberation.

Korn, Matthias

2011-01-01

63

Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews ...

Rene Loewenson; Walter Flores; Abhay Shukla; Maija Kagis; Amuda Baba; Ashraf Ryklief; Clara Mbwili-Muleya; Dhananjay Kakde

2011-01-01

64

Lessons from a Community-Based Participatory Research Project: Older People's and Researchers' Reflections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ethical and practical importance of actively involving older people in the research process is increasingly articulated in the gerontology literature. This article contributes to the literature by outlining a community-based participatory research project that centered on the design and administration of a questionnaire exploring older people’s use and perceptions of community services. The authors discuss both older adults’ and the researchers’ views of the partic...

Timonen, Virpi; Doyle, Martha

2009-01-01

65

Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR approach involved the advancement of three key strategies including: (a the local steering committee made up of youth, tribal leaders, and elders, (b youth-researcher partnerships, and (c youth action-groups to translate findings. Results. The addition of a local youth-action and translation group to the CBPR process in the southwest Alaska site represents an innovative strategy for disseminating findings to youth from a research project that focuses on youth resilience and wellbeing. This strategy drew from two community-based action activities: (a being useful by helping elders and (b being proud of our village. Conclusions. In our study, youth informed the research process at every stage, but most significantly youth guided the translation and application of the research findings at the community level. Findings from the research project were translated by youth into serviceable action in the community where they live. The research created an experience for youth to spend time engaged in activities that, from their perspectives, are important and contribute to their wellbeing and healthy living. Youth-guided CBPR meant involving youth in the process of not only understanding the research process but living through it as well.

Tara Ford

2012-05-01

66

Patients as partners in a health research agenda setting: the feasibility of a participatory methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article deals with the participation of patients in setting the agenda of health research that potentially directly affects their lives. The focus is on the communication problems encountered between lay people and medical professionals in developing a joint research agenda. The author argues that a participatory methodology can address these problems and thereby give patients "a say" in the types of health research that have the greatest chance of affecting them personally. The article uses a case example of people with spinal cord injuries participating in research to support the importance and value of patient participation. The case example also helps to rethink appropriate methodologies or at least to modify existing approaches by paying more attention to required social conditions, diversity, and the life world of patients to foster meaningful participation. PMID:17102064

Abma, Tineke A

2006-12-01

67

Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also provides information about Lesotho Environmental Information Network as the body that drove the networking process. The paper discusses cycles of the participatory process undertaken for the EE networking in Mafeteng schools, including identification of problems, problem solving, and reflective workshop and study tour. Finally the paper outlines issues that emerged in participatory EE networking, which include school governance, teachers’ existing knowledge, and communication, decision-making and power relations.

Constance BITSO

2006-01-01

68

Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps  

Science.gov (United States)

Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, as well as key challenges for the future are also discussed.

Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

2012-04-01

69

Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

XinQi Dong

2011-11-01

70

Using community-based participatory research to identify potential interventions to overcome barriers to adolescents’ healthy eating and physical activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using a community-based participatory research approach, we explored adolescent, parent, and community stakeholder perspectives on barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, and intervention ideas to address adolescent obesity. We conducted 14 adolescent focus groups (n = 119), 8 parent focus groups (n = 63), and 28 interviews with community members (i.e., local experts knowledgeable about youth nutrition and physical activity). Participants described ecological and psychosocial barrie...

Goh, Ying-ying; Bogart, Laura M.; Sipple-asher, Bessie Ko; Uyeda, Kimberly; Hawes-dawson, Jennifer; Olarita-dhungana, Josephina; Ryan, Gery W.; Schuster, Mark A.

2009-01-01

71

Participatory Design : An introduction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this book is to provide a current account of the commitments and contributions of research and practice in the Participatory Design of information technologies. An overview of the central concepts that have defined and shaped the field is provided as an introduction to the more detailed focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter concludes with some guidance and recommendations for further reading. An introduction to Participatory Design is followed by explanations of how practitioners and researchers in the field understand participation and practice and how design is approached as a process driven by social interaction and engagement. The structure of the book is described, individual chapters introduced and further relevant publications listed. Essentially this chapter introduces, motivates, and grounds the book and the chapters that follow. It provides basic definitions of the core concepts of Participatory Design and explains both their origins and ongoing relations to the motivations and commitments of researchers and practitioners who use participatory approaches in their work. The chapter provides the foundation to account for the structure of the book: one section focusing on some of the different perspectives in the field and their particular contributions and challenges and another section that presents case studies of three outstanding applications of Participatory Design. If we are to design the futures we wish to live then we need those, whose futures they will be, to actively participate in their design. This is why it is so important that Participatory Design keeps developing the design processes, tools, techniques, and methods needed to enable full and active participation in all kinds of design activities.

Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper

2012-01-01

72

A Participatory Design Approach for the Support of Collaborative Learning and Knowledge Building in Networked Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Engagement in collaborative learning and knowledge building activities is still a big challenge for many workplace-learning designers. Especially in highly competitive environments people might be reluctant to give away too much of their tacit knowledge. A feeling of ownership and an involvement of the individual in the planning of the learning activities can be important motivational factors. In an international research project called IntelLEO – Intelligent Learning Extended Organization we intend to follow a participatory design approach involving individual workers from the very beginning of the development process. The planned user participation will range from the first conceptual design phase through the different development stages until the final validation of the system. Our hypothesis is that this involvement will increase the motivation of the individuals for collaborative learning and knowledge building activities.

Barbara Kieslinger

2009-08-01

73

A participatory approach to design a toolbox to support forest management planning at regional level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of the study: Forest management planning in a region typically involves multiple stake holders. Decisions processes are idiosyncratic, driven by individual goals and supported by segmented forest-based information. Nevertheless, stake holders' decisions do impact one another leading to complex interaction networks where communication, cooperation and negotiation play a key role. This research addresses the need to develop decision tools to support these roles. Emphasis is on the integration of participatory planning tools and techniques in the architecture of a regional decision support toolbox. Area of the study: The proposed approach was applied in the Chamusca County in Central Portugal although it is easily extended to other regions. Material and methods: This research proposes an Enterprise Architecture methodological approach to design a toolbox that may address distinct stake holders' interests and decision processes, while enabling communication, cooperation, negotiation and information sharing among all those involved in the regional interactions network. Main results: the proposed approach was tested in a regional network involving decision processes and information shared by 22 entities clustered into 13 stake holders groups, including industrial owners, and non-industrial private forest land owners (NIPF) acting individually or grouped into associations and federations, national and regional offices of the forest authority, forest services providers, non-governmental organizations and research centers. Results suggest that the proposed approach may provide a toolbox that may effectively address stake holders decision processes and goals and support the regional interaction network. (Author)

Marques, A. F.; Borges, J. G.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Lucas, B.; Melo, I.

2013-09-01

74

The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group.Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

Cheryl Forchuk

2014-06-01

75

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual meth...

Naydene de Lange; Mart-Mari Geldenhuys

2012-01-01

76

A participatory approach to sanitation: experience of Bangladeshi NGOs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assesses the role of participatory development programmes in improving sanitation in rural Bangladesh. Data for this study came from a health surveillance system of BRAC covering 70 villages in 10 regions of the country. In-depth interviews were conducted with one adult member of a total of 1556 randomly selected households that provided basic socioeconomic information on the households and their involvement with NGO-led development programmes in the community. The findings reveal that households involved with credit programmes were more likely to use safe latrines than others who were equally poor but not involved in such programmes. The study indicates that an unmet need to build or buy safe and hygienic latrines existed among those who did not own one. Such latent need could be raised further if health education at the grassroots level along with supervised credit supports were provided to them. Unlike conventional belief, the concept of community-managed jointly owned latrines did not seem a very attractive alternative. The study argues that social and behavioural aspects of the participatory development programmes can significantly improve environmental sanitation in a traditional community. PMID:11012409

Hadi, A

2000-09-01

77

Chicana Feminist Strategies in a Participatory Action Research Project with Transnational Latina Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) project carried out with three transnational Latina youth in northern California and how the university researcher incorporated Chicana feminist strategies in the study. PAR and Chicana feminism place at the heart of research the knowledge that ordinary people produce, referring to this…

Sanchez, Patricia

2009-01-01

78

Involving deprived communities in improving the quality of primary care services: does participatory action research work?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation by communities in improving the quality of health services has become a feature of government policy in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study was to involve a deprived community in the UK in shaping quality improvements of local primary care services. The specific objectives were firstly to create participation by local people in evaluating the primary care services available in the area and secondly to bring about change as a result of this process. Methods The methods of participatory action research was used. The study was set in an area of high socio-economic deprivation served by a 'Local Health Care Co-operative' in a peripheral housing estate in Glasgow, Scotland. 72 local residents took part in 11 focus groups: eight of these were with community groups and three with other residents. 372 local residents completed questionnaires either by brief face-to-face interviews (114 or by self or carer completion (258. Results The study group produced recommendations on physical access to the health centre, time constraints in accessing services and problems encountered in individual relationships with health staff. They also highlighted the social gap between health service providers and the daily life of community residents. Action was taken to bring these recommendations to the attention of the Primary Care Organisation. Conclusion Participatory action research was used to involve a deprived community in the UK in a 'bottom-up' approach aimed at improving quality of local primary care services. Although successful in creating a partnership between academic researchers and lay researchers and participation by local people in evaluating the primary care services available in the area, the impact of the study in terms of immediate action taken over specific issues has been modest. The possible reasons for this are discussed.

Mercer Stewart W

2007-06-01

79

COMBINING PARTICIPATIONS. Expanding the Locus of Participatory E?Planning by Combining Participatory Approaches in the Design of Digital Technology and in Urban Planning.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis is a trans-disciplinary work on participatory e-planning. So far, participatory e-planning, as approached in the urban planning and e-planning fields, has only focused on conventional types of participation in urban planning, which are enhanced by the use of single pieces of software. This approach is not in tune with the realities of the emerging digital age and its emerging cultures of participation. These are cultures of information-centred and digitally mediated peer production...

Saad-sulonen, Joanna

2014-01-01

80

HYDROLOGY-PRESERVATION OF WATER THROUGH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management of Irrigation system and included the provisions in the National Water Policy act as under: ``Efforts should be made to involve farmers progressively in various aspects of management of irrigation systems, particularly in water distribution and collection of water rates.Assisitance of voluntary agencies should be enlisted in educating the farmers in efficient water-use and water management`` The constraints, success and other setbacks in the system are analyzed in the paper.

PROF.B.SUNDARARAMAN

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Promoting Environmental Justice through Community-Based Participatory Research: The Role of Community and Partnership Capacity  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…

Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana

2008-01-01

82

Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

2013-01-01

83

Who Benefits from Community-Based Participatory Research? A Case Study of the Positive Youth Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as a popular new paradigm in health research. This shift is exciting, yet there is still much to discover about how various stakeholders are affected. This article uses a critical social science perspective to explore who benefits from these changes through an analysis of a CBPR case study…

Flicker, Sarah

2008-01-01

84

Self-Regulation of a Chiropractic Association through Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory action research (PAR) can be used in the health professions to redefine their roles. This study investigated a small health professional group, the members of The Chiropractic Association Singapore (TCAS), by using a PAR method; researchers and participants gained insights into the self-regulation of a health profession. A…

Sheppard, Lorraine A.; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Crowe, Michael J.

2012-01-01

85

Participatory Action Research and the Quest for Teacher Educator Community Solidarity  

Science.gov (United States)

Desiring to overcome sharp feelings of disconnection, a year-long participatory action research seminar involving both clinical and tenure-track teacher education faculty was formed. Working in teams with tenure-track faculty support, clinical faculty set research questions but they were reluctant to assume project leadership. In part, because of…

Bullough, Robert V., Jr.; Draper, Roni Jo; Hall, Kendra; Smith, Leigh K.; Young, Janet; Sabey, Brenda; Brooks, Shaun

2005-01-01

86

"Street Theatre for Edutainment": A Participatory Research with Youth in Delhi  

Science.gov (United States)

Youth constitute an important section of our society. They are the biggest reservoir of human resources and are the future of our country. Their development has direct affect on the development of the nation. Street Theatre is not a moment's act. It is a participatory approach which deals with fictional narratives and thus used for communicating…

Capila, Anjali; Bhalla, Pragati

2010-01-01

87

Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and address disparities in breast cancer and cancer care. PMID:24000307

Yonas, Michael A; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

2013-10-01

88

Using Participatory Action Research to Increase Learning Transfer of Recovery-Based Principles  

Science.gov (United States)

This study questions whether or not participatory action research is an effective and practical method for increasing learning transfer of recovery-based principles. The participants (N = 250) were ethnically and educationally diverse clinicians, in an urban state mental health institute. The Self-Assessment of Recovery-Based Behaviors survey ( n…

Barish, Diane J.

2009-01-01

89

Culture Change in Long-Term Care: Participatory Action Research and the Role of the Resident  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This study's purpose was to advance the process of culture change within long-term care (LTC) and assisted living settings by using participatory action research (PAR) to promote residents' competence and nourish the culture change process with the active engagement and leadership of residents. Design and Methods: Seven unit-specific PAR…

Shura, Robin; Siders, Rebecca A.; Dannefer, Dale

2011-01-01

90

Cancer, Employment, and American Indians: A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…

Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

2011-01-01

91

Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

2009-01-01

92

Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Assess Health Needs among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers  

Science.gov (United States)

Principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) were applied among migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs) in a seven-county region of east Texas. The study purpose was to establish community-based partnerships for CBPR and conduct a preliminary qualitative assessment of perceived health needs and capacities. Key informant interviews…

Doyle, Eva; Rager, Robin; Bates, Denise; Cooper, Cheryl

2006-01-01

93

Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Preconception Health among Northern Plains American Indian Adolescent Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Sacred Beginnings is a community-based participatory research project that examines the effectiveness of a culturally appropriate preconception health educational intervention developed by tribal community members and elders. The primary goal is to increase knowledge of preconception health and its benefits among adolescent females and…

Richards, Jennifer; Mousseau, Alicia

2012-01-01

94

Emotional Value of Applied Textiles : Dialogue-oriented and participatory approaches to textile design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present PhD thesis is conducted as an Industrial PhD project in collaboration with the Danish company Gabriel A/S (Gabriel), which designs and produces furniture textiles and ‘related products’ for manufacturers of furniture. A ‘related textile product’ is e.g. processing of piece goods, upholstery, mounting etc. This PhD project addresses the challenges of the textile industry, where the global knowledge economy increasingly forces companies to include user-participation and value innovation in their product development. My project revolves around the challenges which the textile designers at Gabriel face while trying to implement an innovative and process-oriented business strategy. The focal point has been the section of the strategy which aims at developing Blue Ocean products, which have a functional and an emotional value for the user. The thesis examines and explores emotional value of applied textiles. The objective is to operationalise the strategic term ‘emotional value’ as it relates to applied textiles. The procedure includes the development of user- and stakeholder-centred approaches, which are valuable for the textile designer in the design process. The research approach is application-oriented and practical. In chapter two, I explain the ‘programmatic approach’ to design research, in which design experiments are the core of the project. The research programme is dynamic; it is developing in the course of the project and in tandem with the knowledge generated. The outcome of the research is ‘exemplary’ and the research contributions are presented as ‘exemplars’, ‘frameworks’, ‘tools’ and ‘structures’, which are relevant for the design process or can be the subject of critique and further investigation by other researchers. The project is a contribution to the broad and multifaceted field of design research with a particular focus on textile design including the discourse and methodology used in the field of design. In addition the project relates to the Participatory Design approach and to the design research fields which focus on emotional aspects of design. Based on my experiences with the programmatic approach I propose a distinction between ’overall challenges’ and ’research questions’. I view this thesis as a research contribution which facilitates a programmatic approach to a project such as this one. The ‘overall challenges’ (challenges within the field of textile design) is a constant variable against which the programme (challenges which Gabriel’s textile designers face) can be benchmarked. Thus the ‘research questions’ (emotional value and user and stakeholder involvement) are ‘shapable’ and situation-specific, and they constantly interact with the experiments (procedures of user and stakeholder involvement). In the course of the thesis I explain and elaborate on four themes each of which contributes to the outcome of the project. 1) Creating a frame of reference for the textile design process and a systematic approach to applied textiles. In chapter three I compare a textile design process with Donald Schön’s definition of design as ‘a conversation with the materials of a situation’. Subsequently, through design experiments involving several participants, I develop the ‘Tripod Approach’– a structured and systematic approach to design and research of applied textiles. 2) Understanding and exploring emotional value related to design of applied textiles. In chapter four I argue – based on Jesse Prinz’s and Antonio Damasio’s emotion research – for a perception of emotional value of applied textiles which acknowledges bodily feedback as a core concept in the process which leads to ‘emotion’. This approach is used when exploring and adjusting Patrick Jordan’s framework of ‘the four pleasures’ to the study of emotional value of applied textiles as presented in this thesis. My experiments lead to the creation of a framework of four adjusted categories of ‘pleasure’ based on which a group of stakeholders can e

Bang, Anne Louise

2011-01-01

95

Risk of Domestic Violence after Natural Disaster: Teaching Research and Statistics through the Use of a Participatory Action Research Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the use of a participatory action research model to teach undergraduate social work research and statistics. Strategies of the model include (1) integration with social work education, (2) policy analysis, (3) literature review, (4) collaboration with practitioners, (5) collaboration with the target population through…

Reese, Donna J.

2004-01-01

96

Mobile Applications for Participatory Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

Drill, Sabrina L.

2013-01-01

97

EFFECTIVENESS OF A PARTICIPATORY ACTION ORIENTED TRAINING INTERVENTION APPROACH AMONG HARVESTERS IN OIL PALM PLANTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consistent with the global demand for palm oil, the intensified upstream harvesting activities of oil palms? fresh fruit bunches, despite the harvesters evidences of various ergonomics risk factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders should be a cause for concern. Thus, this study describes the effectiveness of a modified and locally adapted Participatory Action-Oriented Training intervention program in improving the working environment of the harvesters. A training program modified and customized to the harvesters? working in oil palm plantation consist of 3 primary instrument (awareness video, interactive lecture and action checklist with 3 reinforcing activities (to increase knowledge, enhance understanding and practical application. Based on the result of post-intervention assessment, the self-reported prevalence of MSD and KAP score among Intervention Group (IG did not significantly differ from Control Group (CG. Instead of decreasing, the prevalence of MSD in the past 12 months and 7 days increased within IG. Qualitative findings in this research show that the negative psychosocial and organizational climate has severely affected the implementation of PAOT rendering the effect of the intervention approach. The interventions were ineffective on the IG as this study suffers from various situational barriers as obstacles to benefit the full extent of PAOT advantages.

Ng Yee Guan

2014-01-01

98

Lessons Learned From Community-Based Participatory Research in Indian Country  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to share lessons learned from implementing community-based participatory research (CBPR) in Indian Country that may be generalizable to other medically underserved communities. CBPR is currently included in multiple grant announcements by the National Institute of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, but information about this methodology vs traditional research methodology is often misleading. This article addresses some common mistakes made b...

Burhansstipanov, Linda; Christopher, Suzanne; Schumacher, Sr Ann

2005-01-01

99

Too much coffee... - Negotiation of Knowledge Forms in Participatory Research Settings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a Bakhtinian approach negotiations of knowledge in a workshop with health professionals at two psychiatric wards were analyzed. Our analysis reveals that there is a mismatch between the dialogical context we as participatory-oriented researchers want to invoke and the monological context we in fact co-produce in-interaction. The analysis shows that there appears to be two major reasons for this undesired nature of the conversations. First, all participants (including us) orient to a formal and monological learning context in which there seems to be a hierarchical relationship between the participants in the workshop relating primarily to level of education. Secondly, we confuse the participants in the workshop because there is a mismatch between our orientation to a formal learning context as described above and our search for their local, concrete and lived experiences - i.e. a situated knowledge. The analysis indicates that this mismatch potentially adds to the confusion because we on the one hand meet the practitioners’ expectations to us as researchers when we invoke a more formal learning context. On the other hand we do probably not meet their expectations when we are looking for sensitive and contextualized knowledge because a representational and de-contextualized knowledge form is closely linked to a more formalized learning context.

Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

100

The Role of Participatory Modeling in Landscape Approaches to Reconcile Conservation and Development  

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Full Text Available Conservation organizations are increasingly turning to landscape approaches to achieve a balance between conservation and development goals. We use six case studies in Africa and Asia to explore the role of participatory modeling with stakeholders as one of the steps towards implementing a landscape approach. The modeling was enthusiastically embraced by some stakeholders and led to impact in some cases. Different stakeholders valued the modeling exercise differently. Noteworthy was the difference between those stakeholders connected to the policy process and scientists; the presence of the former in the modeling activities is key to achieving policy impacts, and the latter were most critical of participatory modeling. Valued aspects of the modeling included stimulating cross-sector strategic thinking, and helping participants to confront the real drivers of change and to recognize trade-offs. The modeling was generally considered to be successful in building shared understanding of issues. This understanding was gained mainly in the discussions held in the process of building the model rather than in the model outputs. The model itself reflects but a few of the main elements of the usually rich discussions that preceded its finalization. Problems emerged when models became too complex. Key lessons for participatory modeling are the need for good facilitation in order to maintain a balance between "models as stories" and technical modeling, and the importance of inviting the appropriate stakeholders to achieve impact.

Habtemariam Kassa

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.

Garcia Piedad

2009-03-01

102

Increasing Critical Health Literacy of Roma People trough Participatory Action Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Evidence shows that the Roma people engage less in democratic processes than the majority population. Rather than being involved in the planning of measurements and proposals, the Roma people have been treated as a helpless group in need of expert support from the authorities. To enable Roma people to take a leading role in their integration process a 2-year action research was implemented in 2010-2012. The idea was to strengthen the Roma Peoples’ critical health literacy which allows them to analyze and apply health information to oppose the forces that are holding them oppressed and to take better control over their life situation. The objective of this paper is to discuss methodological issues based on experiences of the use of participatory research approach in increasing health literacy. Methods: The core of the intervention was ‘training of trainers’ of a group of Roma people from western Sweden. They organized lectures on Roma issues for the civil servants and mobilized the Roma community for social action. The data, consisting of observational notes, reports, and participant interviews, were analysed qualitatively. Results: The intervention created an arena for dialogue between the Roma people and the public service employees. Their mutual viewpoints improved as their insight into each other’s life circumstances increased. However, rigidity and an inability to see the character of the emancipatory approach of the project by the authorities created difficulties for its implementation. Conclusions: The Roma participants’ strengthened critical health literacy improved their health chances and possibilities for participation in working life and decision making on Roma issues. The existing system of rules for project operations clashed with the character of the “soft” bottom-up approach of the project. This created situations where the project spent more time working with the rules of the authorities than with the purpose of the project.

Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Crondahl, Kristine

103

Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self-determination, through better-informed policy based on community-level holistic responses and solutions as opposed to an exclusive focus on single-issue deficit approaches. PMID:25310135

Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

2014-10-01

104

Participatory action research, strengthening institutional capacity and governance: Confronting the urban challenge in Kampala  

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Full Text Available Urban governance presents the most daunting and challenging task for sub-Saharan African countries in this century (Rakodi, 1997: 3; Rakodi, 2001; 5; McGill, 1988; 6. Africa is urbanizing faster than any other region. The level of urbanization stands at 39.1%, with annual rates of growth ranging between 8% and 13%. It is estimated that by 2025 half of the African population will be urban. This demographic shift, particularly in the sub-Saharan region, presents major problems for urban management. Although urban management programs of infrastructure development, financial management, economic development, environmental planning, spatial development mechanisms and social services provision continue to be enhanced, there is a mismatch between the program outcomes and need. Due to this shortfall, alternative strategies have been sought but with little documented evidence of successes, failures and lessons because of limited evaluation. The importance of research-informed policy is underscored by the apparent disconnect between actors in the urban field. These actors include city managers, researchers, political leaders and most important, communities. The latter are often disregarded yet they largely influence the development path and shape the fabric of urban space. Even where communities are engaged, they exert less influence than other actors on urban policies and programs. This paper examines how participatory action research is changing the relationships between researchers, communities and city authorities in a search for alternative approaches to address urban poverty and environmental challenges in Kampala – in particular service delivery, solid waste management and flood control. Based on an action-research and development project conducted in Kampala since 2006, there is evidence that communities can be galvanized not only to design solutions to their problems, but also to engage with city authorities through information sharing platforms about their needs and thus bolster outcomes of urban development programs through improved governance.

Shuaib Lwasa

2010-03-01

105

Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision-making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested i...

Sinkko, Kari

2004-01-01

106

Ideas in Practice: Toward a Participatory Approach to Program Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on critical multicultural education scholarship, this article discusses an alternative assessment of academic support programs. It highlights the importance and value of supplementing traditional assessments with direct student participation. Through a discussion of data from a summer bridge program at a large research university, the…

Bruch, Patrick L.; Reynolds, Thomas

2012-01-01

107

Participatory Research for Preventing Pesticide-Related DSH and Suicide in Sundarban, India: A Brief Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major public health problem in the Sundarban region, India. This study is aimed to develop a DSH-suicide prevention programme based on the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Perception and opinion of community about the problem of pesticide-related DSH and suicide were elicited in a series of facilitated focus group discussions in Namkhana block of Sundarban region. Based on their suggestion, a broad preventive programme was launched i...

Arabinda Brahma; Biswas, Mrinal K.; Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Sohini Banerjee

2013-01-01

108

Exploring the challenges of implementing Participatory Action Research in the context of HIV and poverty  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV/AIDS is having a devastating impact on South Africa and particularly on poor communities. Empowerment of communities has been identified as an important step towards mitigating the consequences and helping communities to overcome the challenges presented. Participatory Action Research (PAR) has been identified as a useful methodology for the purpose of facilitating empowerment. This study explores the challenges involved in implementing PAR in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty. In this ...

Rosenthal, W. A.; Khalil, D. D.

2010-01-01

109

Agroecological innovation in Challa : Intercultural dialogue and participatory research in knowledge and information exchange  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of agroecological food systems in the Andes provides a fruitful study environment for understanding innovation processes in participatory research. In this particular context two knowledge based communities - the modern scientific and the traditional indigenous form an intercultural dialogue that frames the conditions for innovation to be developed and sustained. This thesis presents an exploratory case study of the Communal Agricultural Risk Management project in Challa, Boli...

Tarazona Machicao, Mateo

2013-01-01

110

Participatory Research in an Arts Integration Professional Development Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Drama for Schools (DFS) is an arts integration professional development program rooted in critical pedagogy and constructivism that emphasizes partnerships between school districts and a major research university. As a part of the research initiative embedded in this professional development program, DFS began an Arts integration Research Teacher…

Cawthon, Stephanie W.; Dawson, Kathryn M.; Judd-Glossy, Laura; Ihorn, Shasta

2012-01-01

111

African primary care research: Participatory action research / La recherche sur les soins de santé primaire en Afrique: la recherche sur l'action participative  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in [...] detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal.

Bob, Mash.

112

Assessing the influence of researcher-partner involvement on the process and outcomes of participatory research in autism spectrum disorder and neurodevelopmental disorders: a scoping review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify and characterize published participatory research partnerships between researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders and examine the influence of participatory research partnerships on the research process and reported study outcomes. A search of databases and review of gray literature identified seven studies that described participatory research partnerships between academic researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders. A comparative analysis of the studies revealed two key themes: (1) variations in the participatory research design and (2) limitations during the reporting of the depth of the partner's involvement. Both themes potentially limit the application and generalizability of the findings. The results of the review are discussed in relation to the use of evaluative frameworks for such participatory research studies to determine the potential benefits of participatory research partnerships within the neurodevelopmental and autism spectrum disorder populations. PMID:24989447

Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

2014-10-01

113

Mathematics, Critical Literacy, and Youth Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines mathematics education as both the site and object of transformation for a youth PAR project in which students researched and evaluated their urban high school in Oakland, California. These youth researchers were trained as part of a sociology course as well as a mathematics class designed to both remediate gaps in math…

Yang, K. Wayne

2009-01-01

114

Participatory Research for Chronic Disease Prevention in Inuit Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To develop a community-based chronic disease prevention program for Inuit in Nunavut, Canada. Methods: Stakeholders contributed to intervention development through formative research [in-depth interviews (n = 45), dietary recalls (n = 42)], community workshops, group feedback and implementation training. Results: Key cultural themes…

Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Kratzmann, Meredith; Reid, Rhonda; Ogina, Julia; Sharma, Sangita

2010-01-01

115

Local Community Development and the Participatory Planning Approach: A Review of Theory and Practice  

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Full Text Available This study tries to put forward the argument that, much as the Participatory Approach has in theory been praised and given high international prominence as a possible solution to addressing community development issues, its practical application still leaves a lot to be desired. Practically, it remains to be seen as an approach whose islands of knowledge continue to be unknown, some invisible and yet others denied from the mainstream of practice. The paper makes this observation from a study conducted in Ghana on the use of the approach to address local community development needs. Specifically, the aim was to establish the link between the theoretical knowledge of the approach and its practical application.

Daniel Wandera Clief Naku

2013-09-01

116

The Design:Lab as platform in participatory design research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The notion of laboratory or simply 'lab' has become popular in recent years in areas outside science and technology development. Learning Labs, Innovation Labs, Usability Labs, Media and Communication Labs and even Art Labs designate institutions or fora dedicated to change and experimentation. Influenced by these currents we use the expression 'Design:Lab' as a shorthand description of open collaborations between many stakeholders sharing a mutual interest in design research in a particular field. Many have reacted to the term 'laboratory' or 'lab' as foreign and awkward to design, and we as well as others have frequently used other metaphors like workshop, studio or atelier in design research. In this article we will argue that the laboratory metaphor is particularly suitable and useful for the design:lab, and we will give examples of how we have worked with the design:lab as a platform for collaborative inquiries and knowledge production based on design experiments. Udgivelsesdato: June

Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva

2008-01-01

117

Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

Blengini, Gian Andrea, E-mail: blengini@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); CNR-IGAG - Institute of Environmental Geology and Geo-Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Fantoni, Moris, E-mail: moris.fantoni@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Busto, Mirko, E-mail: mirko.busto@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Genon, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.genon@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Zanetti, Maria Chiara, E-mail: mariachiara.zanetti@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

2012-09-15

118

Integrating participatory engagement and scientific research to inform causes and solutions to water problems in the River Njoro Watershed Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.

Jenkins, M.

2012-12-01

119

Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods: cultural transect, problem-tree analysis and focus-group discussion. The paper concludes by categorizing the barriers identified at different levels: micro (roughly the individual level at which the lack of knowledge and motivation are significant barriers), meso (roughly the school level at which the lack of teachers and computers are significant barriers) and macro (roughly the national level at which the lack of government planning and the lack of training of teachers are significant barriers). Finally, the paper also concludes that applied participatory learning and action-oriented techniques showed potential to provide researchers and local practitioners with situated insights that could not just have been lifted out of existing research literature.

Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

2013-01-01

120

Community-Based Participatory Research: How Do Academicians Rate Success in Iran?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nCommunity-based participatory research (CBPR is believed to be a potent means for the promotion of health in the com­munity. To that end, Iran has conducted several CBPR projects in various community research centers (CRCs. We aimed to assess the quality of some of these CBPR projects in Iran from the perspective of Iranian academicians. In this cross-sec­tional study, carried out during 2005, five CBPR projects implemented in Iranian CRCs (Tehran, n=3; Qazvin, n=1; and Bandar Abbas, n=1 were selected. Three academic members involved in each project were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that appraised the extent to which the research project was aligned with the principles of participatory re­search. Results show that the CRCs and the academic members in our CBPR projects should receive further training and consultation. Quality assessment of CBPR projects seems essential from the view point of other participants of such pro­jects, namely community and stakeholders.

H Malekafzali

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

2014-01-01

122

Prospective and participatory integrated assessment of agricultural systems from farm to regional scales: Comparison of three modeling approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluating the impacts of the development of alternative agricultural systems, such as organic or low-input cropping systems, in the context of an agricultural region requires the use of specific tools and methodologies. They should allow a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account the field, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multicriteria) and participatory assessment, abbreviated PIAAS (for Participatory Integrated Assessment of Agricultural System). In this paper, we compare the possible contribution to PIAAS of three modeling approaches i.e. Bio-Economic Modeling (BEM), Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) and statistical Land-Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) models. After a presentation of each approach, we analyze their advantages and drawbacks, and identify their possible complementarities for PIAAS. Statistical LUCC modeling is a suitable approach for multi-scale analysis of past changes and can be used to start discussion about the futures with stakeholders. BEM and ABM approaches have complementary features for scenarios assessment at different scales. While ABM has been widely used for participatory assessment, BEM has been rarely used satisfactorily in a participatory manner. On the basis of these results, we propose to combine these three approaches in a framework targeted to PIAAS. PMID:24013558

Delmotte, Sylvestre; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Barbier, Jean-Marc; Wery, Jacques

2013-11-15

123

Iterative participatory design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The theoretical background in this chapter is information systems development in an organizational context. This includes theories from participatory design, human-computer interaction, and ethnographically inspired studies of work practices. The concept of design is defined as an experimental iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design.

Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

2010-01-01

124

Farmer-participatory integrated watershed management: Adarsha watershed, Kothapally India - an innovative and upscalable approach: case 7  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a reprint from the book entitled "Research Towards Integrated Natural Resources Management: Examples of Research Problems, Approaches and Partnerships in Action in the CGIAR" ( Hat-wood, R.R.; Kassam, A.H. eds..which briefly describes the tools and methods used in research and development for integrated natural resources management. They have been evolving over the years in order to tackle the complexities of farming systems in marginal areas, and the issues of environmental change in ecoregional research. The integrated farmer-participatory watershed management process involves: agro-ecological zoning, farming systems research, systems analysis to select best-bet options, upscaling research results, identification of products with competitive advantage for iocal and regional markets, and the design and implementation of a science-based action plan. The plan includes technical assistance, supervised credit, strengthening communal cohesion through women's and farmers' groups, increasing marketing opportunities by concentrating the supply in quantity and quality, quality control of the products, product development to add value, and market studies for the products developed. The impact on the production systems is briefly described.

SP Wani

2006-08-01

125

Exploring safety and quality in a hemodialysis environment with participatory photographic methods: a restorative approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used principles and methods of good ecological restoration, including participatory photographic research methods, to explore perceptions of safety and quality in one hemodialysis unit. Using a list of potential safety and quality issues developed during an initial focus group, a practitioner-led photo walkabout was conducted to obtain photographs of the patient care unit and nurses' stories (photo narration) about safety and quality in their environment. Following a process of iterative coding, photos were used to discuss preliminary themes in a photo elicitation focus group with four additional unit staff The major themes identified related to clutter, infection control, unit design, chemicals and air quality, lack of storage space, and health and safety hazards (including wet floors, tripping hazards from hoses, moving furniture/chairs). The visual methods engaged researchers and unit nurses in rich dialogue about safety in this complex environment and provides an ongoing basis for monitoring and enhancing safety. PMID:24689262

Marck, Patricia; Molzahn, Anita; Berry-Hauf, Rhonda; Hutchings, Loretta Gail; Hughes, Susan

2014-01-01

126

Community Advisory Boards in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Synthesis of Best Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a paradigm to study and reduce disparities in health outcomes related to chronic disease. Community advisory boards (CABs commonly formalize the academic–community partnerships that guide CBPR by providing a mechanism for community members to have representation in research activities. Researchers and funding agencies increasingly recognize the value of the community’s contribution to research and acknowledge that community advisory boards are a key component of successful CBPR projects. In this article, we describe the best processes for forming, operating, and maintaining CABs for CBPR. We synthesize the literature and offer our professional experiences to guide formation, operation, and maintenance of CABs.

Susan D. Newman, PhD, RN, CRRN

2011-05-01

127

Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709

Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn

2012-08-01

128

Participatory action research: Addressing social vulnerability of rural women through income-generating activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory action research (PAR is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, within the context of women as rural farm dwellers in the North-West Province, South Africa. It emphasises the need for continued participation and highlights the practical principles and benefits derived from PAR. The PAR process cycles are discussed and parallels are drawn with the practical setting. In conclusion, the article emphasises that the application of the PAR process can make a multi-dimensional contribution towards the development of a community by creating an understanding of social vulnerability, by building capacity and by ensuring participation, and also addresses income-generating activities.

Liezel van Niekerk

2009-04-01

129

Echoes of Bedford: a 20-year social psychology memoir on participatory action research hatched behind bars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space. PMID:24320653

Fine, Michelle

2013-11-01

130

Challenges of youth participation in participatory action research. : methodological considerations of the Paamiut Youth Voice research project.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Paamiut Youth Voice (PYV) is a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, exploring youth perceptions, experiences, and the promotion of well-being in Paamiut, Greenland. Active youth participation remained a key challenge in the development of the local community through the locally initiated community mobilisation programme Paamiut Asasara. The challenges of youth participation in PYV are investigated in order to explore the implications of youth participation in PAR projects. The discussion of challenges is based on a methodological account of experiences from the research process clarifying how youth participation in the PYV project took place. Results are presented, concerning the young people’s understandings and experiences of engagement and participation.

Wattar, Laila; Fanous, Sandrine

2012-01-01

131

Participatory telerobotics  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

2013-05-01

132

A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner

133

Participatory Communication : A Practical Guide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate social processes, decision-making processes, and any change process for that matter. Participatory approaches are nothing new. At a time when institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, increasingly seek participatory approaches in their development initative, this guide provides perspectives, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society.

Tufte, Thomas

2009-01-01

134

Does visual participatory research have resilience-promoting value? Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds) intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV & AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambiv [...] alence in teacher experiences of drawings to highlight the complexity of employing drawings as visual method. Then, I interpret the teachers' methodological experiences through the lens ofsocial-ecological understandings of resilience in order to address the question of how drawings, as form of visual participatory methodology, may make a positive difference and nurture participant resilience. What the teachers' experiences suggest is that drawings offer methodological opportunities for participants to make constructive meaning of adversity, to take action, to experience mastery, and to regulate emotion associated with adversity. All of the aforementioned are well documented pathways to resilience. I theorise, therefore, that researchers with a social conscience would be well advised to use drawings, albeit in competent and participatory ways, as this methodology potentiates participant resilience and positive change.

Linda C, Theron.

135

Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions outside its original domain. When possible, the points are illustrated through a recent research project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne

136

Participatory approach in planning for low carbon and eco-village: A case of Felda Taib Andak  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory approaches have becoming an important tool in planning of sustainable communities. Although participation is conceived as a malleable concept there are certain methods that planners can adopt to ensure a meaningful participation. This paper will provide some experiences and lessons on how participatory planning could be carried out with local people, the role of planners in the process of plan preparation, implementation and the outcome. This paper first explores some of the meanings of participation, the criteria of participation and the approaches of participation in planning for sustainable community. The second part is a description and discussion of how participatory approach in planning was applied in planning for low carbon and eco-village in Iskandar Malaysia based on a case study of planning of Felda Taib Andak scheme. The participatory approach involved a series of meetings, site visit and focus group discussions with representative of the Felda Village to come out with action plan and actual implementation. From focus group discussions a roadmap consisted of a vision and objectives and a dozen actions were formulated and adopted. In the process of implementation the main implementation & coordination committee was form in which the author (planner) is one of its members to look into fund raising & implementation strategies together with the local people. Several task forces or sub committees responsible to implement the dozen actions were also formed. The outcome was encouraging in which some of the actions such as planting of bamboo trees, reduction of pollution from oil palm factory and bicycling activities has been implemented and shown progress. The paper also highlights some of the issues and challenges in participatory planning.

Ngah, I.; Zulkifli, A. S.

2014-02-01

137

Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21 high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails, the odds for meeting walking recommendations increased 1.27 times, and the odds for meeting PA recommendation increased 3.54 times. Perceived and objective audit variables did not predict meeting physical activity recommendations. Conclusions To improve physical activity levels, intervention efforts are needed to maximize the use of existing trails, as well as improve residents' perceptions related to incivilities, safety, conditions of trail, and amenities of the walking trails. This study provides important insights for informing development of the CBPR walking intervention and informing local recreational and environmental policies in this southern community.

Zoellner Jamie

2012-01-01

138

What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.

Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.

139

Distinctiveness and Sense of Community in the Historical Center of Naples: A Piece of Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Inspired by the impact of an increase in tourism in the Old Center of Naples, Fondazione Laboratorio Mediterraneo, a nonprofit organization that promotes sustainable town development and encourages participation, has undertaken the participatory action research described in this article. The inhabitants' sense of community (McMillan & Chavis,…

Arcidiacono, Caterina; Procentese, Fortuna

2005-01-01

140

People United to Sustain Health (PUSH): a community-based participatory research study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevention of weight gain to address the obesity epidemic rather than weight loss involves promoting small changes in food choices and physical activity. People United to Sustain Health (PUSH) was designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and food security to prevent weight gain in rural adults. Forty-nine participants were randomized into a treatment group which received access to a "Rolling Store," nutrition education and physical activity, and a control group which received family coping classes. Forty-one (84%) of participants completed the study. At the end of 6 months, weight for all participants was maintained from baseline to completion with no significant differences between the groups. The mean fruit consumption over 6 months for the treatment group increased and was significantly greater than change in the control group (p = 0.01). This community-based participatory research study was considered successful because weight gain was prevented. PMID:24405579

Kennedy, Betty M; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Johnson, William D; Johnson, Glenda S; McGee, Bernestine B; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David W; Crawford, Terri; Ryan, Donna H

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Communicative action: the Habermasian and Freirean dialogical approach to participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995. What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian “ideal speech situation” in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989. Consistent with the Freirean “liberal pedagogy”, the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the “participative” quality of participatory com-munication (cf. Freire, 1970. For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos, rightfulness (ethos and truthfulness (pathos are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, in-strumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communi-cative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic, rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communi-cation for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.

H. Otto

2009-07-01

142

The North Carolina Youth Empowerment Study (NCYES): A Participatory Research Study Examining the Impact of Youth Empowerment for Tobacco Use Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the North Carolina Youth Empowerment Study (NCYES), a 3-year participatory evaluation of youth programs addressing tobacco use prevention. The study goals of NCYES were to (1) convene an advisory board comprised of lay youths and adults in a participatory research process, (2) document the characteristics of youth programs…

Ribisl, Kurt M.; Steckler, Allan; Linnan, Laura; Patterson, Carol C.; Pevzner, Eric S.; Markatos, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Adam O.; McGloin, Tim; Peterson, Arlana Bobo

2004-01-01

143

Investigação participativa baseada na comunidade em saúde pública: potencialidades e desafios / Community-based participatory research in public health: potentials and challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No campo da saúde pública, advoga-se uma mudança de paradigma de investigação que possibilite maior tradução do conhecimento científico em ações e políticas de saúde mais adaptadas às comunidades. Especial atenção tem sido dada à investigação participativa baseada na comunidade, pelo seu potencial e [...] m possibilitar um maior conhecimento sobre as questões complexas de saúde. Neste ensaio, refletiu-se sobre a contribuição da investigação participativa em saúde, analisando as suas perspectivas teóricas, princípios e potencialidades. Também se examinarom alguns aspectos críticos na sua implementação, realçando-se possíveis estratégias para superar esses desafios. A investigação participativa integra uma abordagem colaborativa de envolvimento das comunidades, profissionais, decisores políticos e acadêmicos na produção de conhecimento, incorporando as suas diferentes perspectivas e experiências. Essa abordagem favorece a aceitação do projeto, a adesão das comunidades ao estudo e, consequentemente, a qualidade dos dados coletados. A investigação participativa pode ser, em si só, uma intervenção: o envolvimento das comunidades pode aumentar a sua tomada de consciência sobre a importância das temáticas abordadas e capacitá-las para definir e responder às problemáticas de saúde, promovendo o seu empoderamento. Contudo, os investigadores encontram desafios na utilização dessa abordagem, relacionados com o estabelecimento e manutenção das parcerias de investigação, a partilha de controle da tomada de decisão e a conciliação das motivações e interesses dos parceiros. Mais evidência sobre o processo de implementação da investigação participativa reforçará o seu quadro teórico, a compreensão das suas potencialidades e limitações no estudo de diferentes problemáticas, contextos e populações, e o seu papel benéfico para as comunidades. Abstract in english A change in the research paradigm towards a method that more readily allows the translation of scientific knowledge into more community-oriented health actions and policies has been advocated in the field of public health. Special attention has been paid to community-based participatory research, wh [...] ich has the potential to allow the production of deeper knowledge of complex health issues. The present essay reflects on the contributions of participatory research in health, analyzing its theoretical perspectives, principles, and strengths. Some key aspects relating to the implementation of participatory research are also examined, underscoring possible strategies to face this challenge. Participatory research integrates a collaborative approach with involvement of communities, professionals, political decision-makers, and academics to produce knowledge, incorporating the different perspectives and experiences of these stakeholders. This approach facilitates acceptance of the project and engagement of communities, and consequently enhances the quality of the data collected. Participatory research may work in and of itself as an intervention: the involvement of communities may increase their awareness about the importance of the research themes and serve as training to define and address health issues, promoting empowerment. Nevertheless, researchers face challenges in applying this approach. Such challenges are related to the establishment and maintenance of research partnerships, the sharing of decision-making control, and the reconciliation of the motivations and interests of partners. More evidence regarding the process of implementation of participatory research will strengthen the method's theoretical framework and provide further understanding regarding its potential and limitations to address various problems, contexts, and populations, and clarify its beneficial role for communities.

Sónia, Dias; Ana, Gama.

2014-02-01

144

Investigação participativa baseada na comunidade em saúde pública: potencialidades e desafios / Community-based participatory research in public health: potentials and challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No campo da saúde pública, advoga-se uma mudança de paradigma de investigação que possibilite maior tradução do conhecimento científico em ações e políticas de saúde mais adaptadas às comunidades. Especial atenção tem sido dada à investigação participativa baseada na comunidade, pelo seu potencial e [...] m possibilitar um maior conhecimento sobre as questões complexas de saúde. Neste ensaio, refletiu-se sobre a contribuição da investigação participativa em saúde, analisando as suas perspectivas teóricas, princípios e potencialidades. Também se examinarom alguns aspectos críticos na sua implementação, realçando-se possíveis estratégias para superar esses desafios. A investigação participativa integra uma abordagem colaborativa de envolvimento das comunidades, profissionais, decisores políticos e acadêmicos na produção de conhecimento, incorporando as suas diferentes perspectivas e experiências. Essa abordagem favorece a aceitação do projeto, a adesão das comunidades ao estudo e, consequentemente, a qualidade dos dados coletados. A investigação participativa pode ser, em si só, uma intervenção: o envolvimento das comunidades pode aumentar a sua tomada de consciência sobre a importância das temáticas abordadas e capacitá-las para definir e responder às problemáticas de saúde, promovendo o seu empoderamento. Contudo, os investigadores encontram desafios na utilização dessa abordagem, relacionados com o estabelecimento e manutenção das parcerias de investigação, a partilha de controle da tomada de decisão e a conciliação das motivações e interesses dos parceiros. Mais evidência sobre o processo de implementação da investigação participativa reforçará o seu quadro teórico, a compreensão das suas potencialidades e limitações no estudo de diferentes problemáticas, contextos e populações, e o seu papel benéfico para as comunidades. Abstract in english A change in the research paradigm towards a method that more readily allows the translation of scientific knowledge into more community-oriented health actions and policies has been advocated in the field of public health. Special attention has been paid to community-based participatory research, wh [...] ich has the potential to allow the production of deeper knowledge of complex health issues. The present essay reflects on the contributions of participatory research in health, analyzing its theoretical perspectives, principles, and strengths. Some key aspects relating to the implementation of participatory research are also examined, underscoring possible strategies to face this challenge. Participatory research integrates a collaborative approach with involvement of communities, professionals, political decision-makers, and academics to produce knowledge, incorporating the different perspectives and experiences of these stakeholders. This approach facilitates acceptance of the project and engagement of communities, and consequently enhances the quality of the data collected. Participatory research may work in and of itself as an intervention: the involvement of communities may increase their awareness about the importance of the research themes and serve as training to define and address health issues, promoting empowerment. Nevertheless, researchers face challenges in applying this approach. Such challenges are related to the establishment and maintenance of research partnerships, the sharing of decision-making control, and the reconciliation of the motivations and interests of partners. More evidence regarding the process of implementation of participatory research will strengthen the method's theoretical framework and provide further understanding regarding its potential and limitations to address various problems, contexts, and populations, and clarify its beneficial role for communities.

Sónia, Dias; Ana, Gama.

145

Accounting for the Ecological Dimension in Participatory Research and Development: Lessons Learned from Indonesia and Madagascar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lack of understanding on how to integrate ecological issues into so-called social-ecological natural resource management hampers sustainability in tropical forest landscape management. We build upon a comparison of three cases that show inverse gradients of knowledge and perceptions of the environment and human pressure on natural resources. We discuss why the ecological dimension currently lags behind in the management of tropical forest landscapes and to what extent participatory development can enhance the fit among ecological, socio-cultural, and economic systems. For each case study, socio-cultural and anthropological aspects of society and indigenous knowledge of the environment, the distribution of natural resources, classification, and management are documented in parallel with biophysical studies. Our results confirm that the ecological dimension remains weakly addressed and difficult to integrate into development actions when dealing with tropical forested landscape management in developing countries. We discuss three issues to understand why this is so: the disdain for traditional ecological knowledge and practices, the antagonism between economy and ecology, and the mismatch between traditional and modern governance systems. Participatory development shows potential to enhance the fit among ecological, socio-cultural, and economic systems through two dimensions: the generation and sharing of information to understand trends and the generation of new coordination practices that allow stakeholders to voice environmental concerns. In the absence of a "champion," institutions, and financial resources, the expected outcomes remain on paper, even when changes are negotiated. Future research in natural resource management must emphasize better integration at the interface of ecology and governance. Finally, we identify three challenges: the design of operational tools to reconcile ecology with social and economic concerns, the creation of governance systems to institutionalize collaborative and integrated resource management, and the design of enabler organizations close to local communities.

Jean-Laurent Pfund

2008-06-01

146

Municipal Benefits of Participatory Urban Sensing: A Simulation Approach and Case Validation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Involving citizens in public affairs through the use of participatory sensing applications is an emerging theme in Pervasive Computing and mobile E-Government (M-Government). Prior work, however, suggests that local governments place more emphasis on internal than on external M-Government projects. [...] This paper takes an action design research perspective to provide insight into the often overlooked potential of citizen-centric, external M-Government services. We consider the scenario of a sensing application for reporting urban infrastructure issues to the municipality and present a System Dynamics model to estimate the diffusion, use, and municipal impacts of such service. The model is validated based on the case of a large German city, a dedicated survey, and further data sources. The simulation results indicate that, compared to internal information acquisition procedures, the use of urban sensing can improve a municipality's availability of environmental information at a comparable level of cost. Furthermore, we discuss a number of aspects and learnings related to an urban sensing implementation and provide an empirical estimation of the diffusion model. Our results provide an impetus for researchers and government practitioners to reconsider the benefits of urban sensing applications in E-Government endeavors.

Till J., Winkler; Holger, Ziekow; Martin, Weinberg.

2012-12-01

147

Municipal Benefits of Participatory Urban Sensing: A Simulation Approach and Case Validation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Involving citizens in public affairs through the use of participatory sensing applications is an emerging theme in Pervasive Computing and mobile E-Government (M-Government). Prior work, however, suggests that local governments place more emphasis on internal than on external M-Government projects. [...] This paper takes an action design research perspective to provide insight into the often overlooked potential of citizen-centric, external M-Government services. We consider the scenario of a sensing application for reporting urban infrastructure issues to the municipality and present a System Dynamics model to estimate the diffusion, use, and municipal impacts of such service. The model is validated based on the case of a large German city, a dedicated survey, and further data sources. The simulation results indicate that, compared to internal information acquisition procedures, the use of urban sensing can improve a municipality's availability of environmental information at a comparable level of cost. Furthermore, we discuss a number of aspects and learnings related to an urban sensing implementation and provide an empirical estimation of the diffusion model. Our results provide an impetus for researchers and government practitioners to reconsider the benefits of urban sensing applications in E-Government endeavors.

Till J., Winkler; Holger, Ziekow; Martin, Weinberg.

148

Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde, through a participatory approach: which outcome?  

Science.gov (United States)

This research paper presents the outcomes of Work Package 5 (socio-economical vulnerability assessment and community-based disaster risk reduction) of the MIAVITA (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) research programme conducted on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 years (May 2010 to January 2012), of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km wide caldera of the volcano inside Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the programme included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people to volcanic threats is linked to daily access to sources of livelihood, especially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk to their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such an objective, a participatory three-dimensional mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participatory aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability of (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties in involving more marginalised people like women and the youth, and (3) the fact that volcanic risk is not a priority for the people, who are more concerned with daily difficulties due to unsustainable livelihoods, a lack of access to water, land tenure, and the restrictions by the Fogo Natural Park administration and the municipal officials. Still, the study was successful in creating a space for dialogue between the local people and the outside stakeholders such as the Natural Park Administration, the Civil Protection, and the Municipality of Santa Catarina, who have all participated actively during the course of the project.

Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

2014-09-01

149

Economic aspects in landscape decision-making: a participatory planning tool based on a representative approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we develop a method for spatial decision support that combines economic efficiency â¿¿ measured by the concept op willingness to pay â¿¿ with a participatory planning tool, that allows for an active collaboration among the actors involved, in such a way that decision makers can draw on the outcomes in their spatial planning and design process. The method is called RITAM, a Dutch acronym for spatially explicit, participatory and interdisciplinary trade-off meth...

Heide, C. M.; Blaeij, A. T.; Heijman, W. J. M.

2008-01-01

150

Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: budgetary and other cost considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B

2014-03-01

151

Participatory action research: moving beyond the mental health 'service user' identity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary models of involvement within statutory services pay little regard to the identity of individuals beyond the 'service user' label and in doing so unwittingly perpetuate and sustain the negative impact of mental illness. The aim of this paper is to discuss the process of a 3-year participatory action research study facilitated by a mental health nurse. It highlights the perspective of those involved as co-researchers, all having experience of accessing statutory mental health services. It identifies both the process and the impact of this type of involvement on them illustrating their move beyond an illness identity. The study involved them undertaking a series of interviews with other service users in relation to their life stories. They subsequently mapped and analysed the transcripts. In order that the people were enabled to undertake these roles the study included a process of interviewing and appointing service user researchers followed by a programme of training workshops, supervision and discussion group/peer support. The accounts provided reflect the six researchers' attempts to make sense of their experience and reveal the path of transformation through collaboration. PMID:23167824

Hutchinson, A; Lovell, A

2013-09-01

152

Using participatory action research to develop an HIV and AIDS school plan  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english In this article we report on the manner in which participatory action research (PAR) was utilised by teachers in developing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) schoolplan, in collaboration with university researchers. The need for a structured HIV and A [...] ids school plan emerged during the course of a broader research project (of which this study formed part) during which a school principal and teachers expressed a need to support infected and affected children more effectively. The study involved three phases, used interpretivism as meta-theoretical lens, and relied on PAR principles. Following the first phase of data generation, findings indicated that teachers were keen to transfer their knowledge and skills to neighbouring schools in support of the community; they were of the view that the transfer of knowledge and skills was needed to support infected and affected children more effectively in the classroom; and they experienced the need to document knowledge and skills in the form of an HIV and Aids school plan. In addition to determining expectations regarding an HIV and Aids school plan, fundamental principles and implementation of such a plan were identified in collaboration with the participating teachers. In this manner, the content of an HIV and Aids school plan was identified, resulting in a documented plan.

Ronél, Ferreira; Liesel, Ebersöhn; Karien, Botha.

153

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

Sonia M. N. Felipone

2013-09-01

154

RESEARCH ON THE EFFICACY OF ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY LESSONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One reason for the success or failure of students in each class is the difference in the use of teaching methods. Student-centered or active-learning approaches to instruction have increasingly been promoted worldwide and valued because they are perceived to better prepare future citizens and often include the production of tangible result that can be immediately appreciated. Active-learning methods can be contrasted with traditional approaches emphasizing teacher lecturing or direct transmission of factual knowledge. In this study, the traditional methods and modern techniques were used and tested in rural school. Learning and competence levels of students in each of these classes (traditional and modern were evaluated separately. Using participatory teaching and assessment methods prove to be effective, reducing the number of low and very low notes. Written tests give lower results than the annual average for each student in Biology. Early age students (girls and boys equally considers knowledge of Biology and in the future would choose a profession in this field. To manage their classrooms, teachers increasingly seek methods to motivate students but some teachers may prefer didactic instruction because they are more comfortable in the role of information giver. It is not sufficient for teachers merely to be told about a different way to teach and to evaluate: is the necessity for teacher training.

Mihaela ROTUNDU

2012-01-01

155

Assessing the Influence of Researcher-Partner Involvement on the Process and Outcomes of Participatory Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Scoping Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify…

Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

2014-01-01

156

A Scandinavian approach to designing with children in a developing country - Exploring the applicability of participatory methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory Design (PD) offers a democratic approach to design by creating a platform for active end-user participation in the design process. Since its emergence, the field of PD has been shaped by the Scandinavian context, in which many early PD projects took place. In this paper we discuss the challenges that arise from employing participatory methods in a different socio-cultural setting with participants who have had comparatively limited exposure to digital technologies. We offer a comparative study of two PD projects carried out with school classes in Scandinavia and India. While the setup for the two projects was identical, they unfolded in very different ways. We present and discuss this study, which leads us to conclude that PD can be a useful approach in both settings, but that there is a distinct difference as to which methods bring about fruitful results. The most prominent difference is the ways in which abstract and manifest participatory methods led to different outcomes in the two settings.

Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.

2013-01-01

157

A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

2011-04-01

158

Participatory rural appraisal approaches: an overview and an exemplary application of focus group discussion in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different tools and techniques of participatory approaches are the basic way of conducting qualitative research especially in the field of applied social science. Focus Group Discussion (FGD is one of the main Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA technique often used in combination with others to achieve desired goals. Considering this concept, this paper attempts to review the PRA approach and then application of FGD, in combination with matrix scoring and ranking to identify problems and causes of climate change along with possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. A group of 20 students at post graduate level under the faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture at Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany those from different corner of the world was considered as target people of the study. The results concluded that “unpredictable weather events” was ranked as the present outstanding visible climate change problem caused by “human activities”. However, it was noted that if alternative renewable energy sources are exploited, this could contribute to solving the present climate change problem. This finding might have the good reference for the policy makers in the same line not only for developing countries but also for developed countries.

M.N. Uddin

2013-12-01

159

A situated practice of ethics for participatory visual and digital methods in public health research and practice: a focus on digital storytelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores ethical considerations related to participatory visual and digital methods for public health research and practice, through the lens of an approach known as "digital storytelling." We begin by briefly describing the digital storytelling process and its applications to public health research and practice. Next, we explore 6 common challenges: fuzzy boundaries, recruitment and consent to participate, power of shaping, representation and harm, confidentiality, and release of materials. We discuss their complexities and offer some considerations for ethical practice. We hope this article serves as a catalyst for expanded dialogue about the need for high standards of integrity and a situated practice of ethics wherein researchers and practitioners reflexively consider ethical decision-making as part of the ongoing work of public health. PMID:23948015

Gubrium, Aline C; Hill, Amy L; Flicker, Sarah

2014-09-01

160

Trying on and trying out: participatory action research as a tool for literacy and identity work in middle grades classrooms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the role of collaborative, ethnographic, participatory action research (PAR) with eighth grade students as a set of possible literacy practices for involving students with issues connected to their lives, resources, language(s), and communities. Findings are based on a year of fieldwork conducted as part of shared inquiry into one public school community's experiences with gentrification and meeting the complex needs of diverse learners. Findings bring to life the ways in which PAR facilitates the redefining of reading, writing, and research; the reconsideration of languages; the rethinking of literacy practices; and the repositioning of participants within and beyond given research endeavors. PMID:20526667

Van Sluys, Katie

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
161

Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde, through a participatory approach: which out coming?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper presents the outcomes of the Work Package 5 (Socio-economical Vulnerability Assessment and Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction of the MIAVITA Research Program (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities conducted in Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 yr (May 2010–January 2012 of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km-wide caldera of the volcano inside the Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the program included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people at volcanic threats is linked with daily access to sources of livelihood specially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk on their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such objective, a Participatory 3-Dimensional Mapping (P3DM activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1 the non-participative aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability (2 deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties to involve more marginalized people like women and youth, and (3 the fact that volcanic risk is not the priority for people who are more concerned on daily difficulties due to unsustainable livelihood, lack of access to water, land tenure, and the restrictions by the Fogo Natural Park administration and the municipal officials. Still, the study was successful in creating a space for dialogue between the local people and the outside stakeholders such as the Natural Park administration, the National Civil Protection Service (SNPC, and the Municipality of Santa Catarina who have all participated actively during the implementation of the project.

P. Texier-Teixeira

2013-11-01

162

Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde, through a participatory approach: which out coming?  

Science.gov (United States)

This research paper presents the outcomes of the Work Package 5 (Socio-economical Vulnerability Assessment and Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction) of the MIAVITA Research Program (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) conducted in Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 yr (May 2010-January 2012) of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km-wide caldera of the volcano inside the Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the program included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people at volcanic threats is linked with daily access to sources of livelihood specially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk on their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such objective, a Participatory 3-Dimensional Mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participative aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties to involve more marginalized people like women and youth, and (3) the fact that volcanic risk is not the priority for people who are more concerned on daily difficulties due to unsustainable livelihood, lack of access to water, land tenure, and the restrictions by the Fogo Natural Park administration and the municipal officials. Still, the study was successful in creating a space for dialogue between the local people and the outside stakeholders such as the Natural Park administration, the National Civil Protection Service (SNPC), and the Municipality of Santa Catarina who have all participated actively during the implementation of the project.

Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

2013-11-01

163

Action research als relevante vorm van interventieonderzoek: Verslag van het World Congress on Action Learning and Action Research & Participatory Action Research 2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eind augustus 2006 vond in Groningen het gecombineerde internationale congress over Action Learning and Action Research/Participatory Action Research (ALARPM 7th/PAR 11th plaats. Onderzoekers van over de hele wereld namen deel om te luisteren naar key-note speakers, om een workshop te geven of bij te wonen en om ervaringen uit te wisselen. De 290 deelnemers hadden een ruime keus: naast de zeven centrale lezingen was er een scala aan workshops over thema’s uit vijf verschillende stromingen (Standards/Ethics, Education/Action Learning, Organizational Development, Rural Development/Developmental Cooperation/Social Innovation, Health. Een impressie van het congres.

Coyan Tromp

2008-10-01

164

Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed into ergonomic training that address the issues originally raised. This training includes intervention methods, ergonomic tools used, dam acquired, and effects of waste container handling techniques on lower back, shoulder, and wrists and methods to help proactively reduce injuries associated with this profession.

Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

2000-02-07

165

Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-a-vis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

Yee Ming Chen

2009-09-01

166

Communities of practice in participatory approaches to environmental regulation : Prerequisites for implementation of environmental knowledge in agricultural context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes for change in agricultural contexts. The hypothesis is that the processes in the case project can be analysed by applying concepts of the theory of communities of practice. The first analytical component is a test for learning prerequisites conducted by the concepts of domain, community and practice. The second component concerns identity changes among involved farmers and the third component introduces the concept of boundary objects to concrete cooperative processes in the case project. We find that the stakeholder approach is problematic in catchment areas because communities of practice are rare in interest groups and organisations. On the basis of the theory of communities of practice, we suggest to integrate both knowledge production and knowledge implementation in the work-related social setting of each individual farm.

Madsen, Mads Lægdsgaard; Noe, Egon

2012-01-01

167

Developing participatory research in radiology: the use of a graffiti wall, cameras and a video box in a Scottish radiology department  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Participatory research is increasingly advocated for use in health and health services research and has been defined as a 'process of producing new knowledge by systematic enquiry, with the collaboration of those being studied'. The underlying philosophy of participatory research is that those recruited to studies are acknowledged as experts who are 'empowered to truly participate and have their voices heard'. Research methods should enable children to express themselves. This has led to the development of creative approaches of working with children that offer alternatives to, for instance, the structured questioning of children by researchers either through questionnaires or interviews. To examine the feasibility and potential of developing participatory methods in imaging research. We employed three innovative methods of data collection sequentially, namely the provision of: 1) a graffiti wall; 2) cameras, and 3) a video box for children's use. While the graffiti wall was open to all who attended the department, for the other two methods children were allocated to each 'arm' consecutively until our target of 20 children for each was met. The study demonstrated that it was feasible to use all three methods of data collection within the context of a busy radiology department. We encountered no complaints from staff, patients or parents. Children were willing to participate but we did not collect data to establish if they enjoyed the activities, were pleased to have the opportunity to make comments or whether anxieties about their treatment inhibited their participation. The data yield was disappointing. In particular, children's contributions to the graffiti wall were limited, but did reflect the nature of graffiti, and there may have been some 'copycat' comments. Although data analysis was relatively straightforward, given the nature of the data (short comments and simple drawings), the process proved to be extremely time-consuming. This was despite the modest amount of data collected. Novel methods of engaging with children have been shown to be feasible although further work is needed to establish their full potential. (orig.)

Mathers, Sandra A. [Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); The Robert Gordon University, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Anderson, Helen [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); McDonald, Sheila [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Chesson, Rosemary A. [University of Aberdeen, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

2010-03-15

168

Reflections on CHAT and Freire's Participatory Action Research from the West of Scotland: "Praxis," Politics, and the "Struggle for Meaningful Life"  

Science.gov (United States)

This article offers a perspective on the relationship between cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) and one particular strand of action research--Freirean participatory action research (PAR). It reflects on a research collaboration conducted two decades ago with a community organisation and seeks to "show" the interaction of CHAT and Freirean…

Collins, Chik

2011-01-01

169

A participatory approach of flood vulnerability assessment in the Banat Plain, Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

The Banat Plain (western Romania) is a low, alluvial plain affected by neotectonic subsidence movements, being a critical region in terms of exposure to floods. The latest extreme event was the historic floods occcured in the spring of 2005, which caused significant economic damage in several rural communities. The response to 2005 floods has highlighted a number of weaknesses in the management of hazards, such as the deficiencies of the early warning system, people awareness or the inefficiency of some mitigation measures, besides the past structural measures which are obsolete. For a better understanding of the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to floods, the quantitative assessment of human vulnerability to floods was supplemented with a participatory research, in which there were involved five rural settlements from the Banat Plain (comprising 15 villages and a population of over 12,000 inhabitants). Thus, in the spring of 2013, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in approx. 100 households of the affected communities and structured interviews were held with local authorities, in the framework of VULMIN project, funded by the Ministry of National Education. The questionnaire was designed based on a pilot survey conducted in 2005, several months after the flood, and was focused on two major issues: a) perception of the local context of vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events; b) perception of human vulnerability to floods (personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding). The results were correlated with a number of specific variables of the households included in the sample, such as: household structure; income source; income level; location of the dwelling in relation to floodplains. In this way, we were able to draw general conclusions about the way in which local people perceive the extreme events, such as floods, on the one hand. On the other hand, there were highlighted differences in perception between the respondents, caused by their different degree of socio-economic vulnerability. Although exposure to floods remains a significant problem in the Banat Plain, statistical analysis of the results revealed that respondents tended to relate mainly to newly produced extreme climatic events (droughts, heat waves, storms), when being asked to mention natural hazards threatening the studied region. Moreover, the comparison of the results of the two surveys conducted in the region (in 2005 and 2013) indicated that the relationship between the components of risk perception has changed over time. Thus, the directly proportional relationship between awareness, worry and preparedness, emphasized in 2005, is currently absent. The implementation of flood mitigation measures appears to be only the result of mechanisms put into service at the institutional level, after the events of 2005. Although currently there may be an improvement in flood response and mitigation in the region, compared to 2005, the low level of awareness and the fact that exposure to floods is not yet perceived as a threat can jeopardize the resilience and adaptation of rural communities to floods in the Banat Plain.

Balteanu, Dan; Costache, Andra; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Dragota, Carmen; Grigorescu, Ines

2014-05-01

170

Establishing health systems financing research priorities in developing countries using a participatory methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Donor funding for health systems financing (HSF) research is inadequate and often poorly aligned with national priorities. This study aimed to generate consensus about a core set of research issues that urgently require attention in order to facilitate policy development. There were three key inputs into the priority setting process: key-informant interviews with health policy makers, researchers, community and civil society representatives across twenty-four low- and middle-income countries in four regions; an overview of relevant reviews to identify research completed to date; and inputs from 12 key informants (largely researchers) at a consultative workshop. Nineteen priority research questions emerged from key-informant interviews. The overview of reviews was instructive in showing which health financing topics have had comparatively little written about them, despite being identified as important by key informants. The questions ranked as most important at the consultative workshop were: It is hoped that this work on HSF research priorities will complement calls for increased health systems research and evaluation by providing specific suggestions as to where new and existing research resources can best be invested. The list of high priority HSF research questions is being communicated to research funders and researchers in order to seek to influence global patterns of HSF research funding and activity. A "bottom up" approach to setting global research priorities such as that employed here should ensure that priorities are more sensitive to user needs. PMID:20378228

Ranson, Kent; Law, Tyler J; Bennett, Sara

2010-06-01

171

Establishment of a catchment monitoring network through a participatory approach in a rural community in South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The establishment of a catchment monitoring network is a process, from the inception of the idea to its implementation, the latter being the construction of relevant gauging structures and installation of the various instruments. It is useful that the local communities and other stakeholders are involved and participate in such a process, as was highlighted during the establishment of the hydrological monitoring network in the Potshini catchment in Bergville District in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. The paper highlights the participatory establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a small rural inhabited catchment, in line with the overall objective of the Smallholder System Innovations (SSI research programme, to monitor hydrological processes at both field and catchment scale for water resources management research purposes. The engagement and participation of the Potshini community precipitated a learning opportunity for both the researchers and the local community on (i the understanding of hydrological processes inherent in the catchment (ii appreciating the inherent dynamics in establishing a catchment monitoring network in the midst of a community (iii paradigm shift on how to engage different stakeholders at different levels of participation. The participatory engagement in the monitoring process led to appreciation and uptake of some of the research results by the Potshini community and ensured continued support from all stakeholders. This paper is of the view that the participation of the local community and other stakeholders in catchment monitoring and instilling a sense of ownership and management of natural resources to the local communities needs to be encouraged at all times. Success stories in water resources management by local communities can be realized if such a process is integrated with other development plans in the catchment at all forums, with due recognition of the social dynamics of the communities living in the catchment.

V. M. Kongo

2010-12-01

172

Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methological approches for design-based participatory reseach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today’s teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

SØrensen, Birgitte Holm; Magnussen, Rikke

2010-01-01

173

La violencia contra niños y niñas: un problema global de abordaje local, mediante la IAP / Violence against the child: A local approach to a global problem through participatory action research / A violência contra as crianças: um problema global de enfoque local  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este artigo trata sobre as dimensões e a seriedade da presença atual da violência contra as crianças, apresentada em vários estudos, relatórios e recomendações dos governos e dos organismos nacionais e internacionais, como também trata sobre a necessidade de recorrer à opções de trabalho, como aquel [...] a da IAP, que permitem enfocar a complexidade dos implicados. Tudo isto é possível pela particularidade que determina a convergência de fatores sociais, culturais, familiares, pessoais e jurídicos em cada contexto. Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo nos ocupamos de las dimensiones y gravedad de la presencia actual de la violencia¹ contra la niñez, reflejada en diferentes estudios, informes y recomendaciones de gobiernos y organismos nacionales e internacionales, y de la necesidad de recurrir a opciones de trabajo como la [...] Investigación Acción Participativa, IAP, que permitan abordar la complejidad de los sujetos implicados, por la particularidad que traza la convergencia de factores sociales, culturales, económicos, familiares, personales y jurídicos, en cada contexto. Abstract in english This article considers the different dimensions and gravity of actual violence against children that are reflected among different articles, studies, reports and recommendations of governments and national and international organizations and the necessity to work within participatory action research [...] . This allows us to get the complexity of what is implicated due to the particular convergence of social, cultural, economic, familiar, personal and legal factors in each context.

Ingrit, Gutiérrez-Vega; Alejandro, Acosta-Ayerbe.

174

La violencia contra niños y niñas: un problema global de abordaje local, mediante la IAP / Violence against the child: A local approach to a global problem through participatory action research / A violência contra as crianças: um problema global de enfoque local  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este artigo trata sobre as dimensões e a seriedade da presença atual da violência contra as crianças, apresentada em vários estudos, relatórios e recomendações dos governos e dos organismos nacionais e internacionais, como também trata sobre a necessidade de recorrer à opções de trabalho, como aquel [...] a da IAP, que permitem enfocar a complexidade dos implicados. Tudo isto é possível pela particularidade que determina a convergência de fatores sociais, culturais, familiares, pessoais e jurídicos em cada contexto. Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo nos ocupamos de las dimensiones y gravedad de la presencia actual de la violencia¹ contra la niñez, reflejada en diferentes estudios, informes y recomendaciones de gobiernos y organismos nacionales e internacionales, y de la necesidad de recurrir a opciones de trabajo como la [...] Investigación Acción Participativa, IAP, que permitan abordar la complejidad de los sujetos implicados, por la particularidad que traza la convergencia de factores sociales, culturales, económicos, familiares, personales y jurídicos, en cada contexto. Abstract in english This article considers the different dimensions and gravity of actual violence against children that are reflected among different articles, studies, reports and recommendations of governments and national and international organizations and the necessity to work within participatory action research [...] . This allows us to get the complexity of what is implicated due to the particular convergence of social, cultural, economic, familiar, personal and legal factors in each context.

Ingrit, Gutiérrez-Vega; Alejandro, Acosta-Ayerbe.

2013-01-01

175

Qualitative options in political psychology and gender. Participatory Action Research studies on child abuse and forms of political violence that affects children and young people  

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Full Text Available Objective: since the revision of some criteria of the Participatory Action Research (p a r: the researcher`s influence, agrees, transparency and coupling, we try to point out the significance that this approach is qualitative research to address problems like abuse and some forms of political violence that affect children and young people. Issues that are cross to the interests of investigative work and intervention of a political psychology and psychology of gender, since the focus of a critical social psychology. Methodology: the goals of this task requiring the deployment of methodologies analyzes recognize the pattern of meaning as a space in which meanings emerge on triggers of the problems and factors that enable the development of alternative solution. The empirical component consists of some research findings on racism, women’s identity in subjects with experience of abuse, the construction of subjectivities and the phenomenon of political participation in children and young people demobilized from illegal armed groups. The text shows dates of abuse and the untying of young children and armed conflict as a way of forms of political violence and some thoughts about the commitment of psychologists in handling these problems. Results: a summary of some historical background to the par and its significant elements as proposed critical and qualitative research and intervention, and ends the text to mean scientific criteria of the p a r, the influence of the researcher, agreement and transparency, based on empirical findings of the component.

Olga L. Obando S

2009-05-01

176

Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium, an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed attitude amongst experts on the other will continue to play a role even after closure.

Chovanova Hana

2010-07-01

177

Evaluating participatory modeling: developing a framework for cross-case analysis.  

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Participatory modeling is increasingly recognized as an effective way to assist collective decision-making processes in the domain of natural resource management. This article introduces a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory modeling approach. This evaluation framework--known as the "Protocol of Canberra"--was developed through a collaboration between French and Australian researchers engaged in participatory modeling and evaluation research. The framework seeks to assess the extent to which different participatory modeling initiatives not only modify perceptions among and interactions between participants, but also contribute to collective decision-making. The article discusses the development of the framework and its application to three case-studies, two from Australia and one from the Pacific Island of the Republic of Kiribati. The article concludes with some comments for future use of the framework in a range of participatory modeling contexts. PMID:19847478

Jones, Natalie A; Perez, Pascal; Measham, Thomas G; Kelly, Gail J; d'Aquino, Patrick; Daniell, Katherine A; Dray, Anne; Ferrand, Nils

2009-12-01

178

Empowerment and regulation : Dilemmas in participatory fisheries science  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a perspective from the sociology of knowledge, this study identifies some ‘dilemmas of participatory research’. We look at how social relationships between fishers and scientists develop around the exchange of fishers’ knowledge in particular institutional contexts. We survey the general types and global examples of fisher– scientist relationships in terms of how they approach the integration of fishers’ and scientists’ knowledge. Based on an empirical study of three European cases of participatory research, we then discuss five dilemmas that tend to characterize fisher– scientist relationships. These dilemmas centre on the relationship between fisheries research, fishery regulations and fishers as subjects of both regulation and participatory research endeavours. We argue that these dilemmas – experienced by both scientists and fishers – express an underlying tension between ‘empowering’ fishers to support the effective management of the fishing commons and the bureaucratic need to regulate the fishery as an industry.

Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

2012-01-01

179

Environmental Evaluation of Agri-Environment Schemes using Participatory Approaches : Experiences of Testing the Agri-Environmental Footprint Index  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Agri-Environment Footprint Index (AFI) has been developed as a generic methodology to assess changes in the overall environmental impacts from agriculture at the farm level and to assist in the evaluation of European agri-environmental schemes (AES). The methodology is based on multi-criteria analysis (MCA) and involves stakeholder participation to provide a locally customised evaluation based on weighted environmental indicators. The methodology was subjected to a feasibility assessment in a series of case studies across the EU. The AFI approach was able to measure significant differences in environmental status between farms that participated in an AES and non-participants. Wider environmental concerns, beyond the scheme objectives, were also considered in some case studies and the benefits for identification of unintentional (and often beneficial) impacts of AESs are presented. The participatory approach to AES evaluation proved efficient in different environments and administrative contexts. The approach proved to be appropriate for environmental evaluation of complex agri-environment systems and can complement any evaluation conducted under the Common Monitoring and Evaluation Framework. The applicability of the AFI in routine monitoring of AES impacts and in providing feedback to improve policy design is discussed.

Teilmann, Kasper

2012-01-01

180

User-generated quality standards for youth mental health in primary care: a participatory research design using mixed methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To develop user-generated quality standards for young people with mental health problems in primary care using a participatory research model. Methods 50 young people aged 16–25 from community settings and primary care participated in focus groups and interviews about their views and experiences of seeking help for mental health problems in primary care, cofacilitated by young service users and repeated to ensure respondent validation. A second group of young people also aged 16–25 who had sought help for any mental health problem from primary care or secondary care within the last 5?years were trained as focus groups cofacilitators (n=12) developed the quality standards from the qualitative data and participated in four nominal groups (n=28). Results 46 quality standards were developed and ranked by young service users. Agreement was defined as 100% of scores within a two-point region. Group consensus existed for 16 quality standards representing the following aspects of primary care: better advertising and information (three); improved competence through mental health training and skill mix within the practice (two); alternatives to medication (three); improved referral protocol (three); and specific questions and reassurances (five). Alternatives to medication and specific questions and reassurances are aspects of quality which have not been previously reported. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of using participatory research methods in order to develop user-generated quality standards. The development of patient-generated quality standards may offer a more formal method of incorporating the views of service users into quality improvement initiatives. This method can be adapted for generating quality standards applicable to other patient groups. PMID:24920648

Graham, Tanya; Rose, Diana; Murray, Joanna; Ashworth, Mark; Tylee, Andre

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches  

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Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.

Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.

2013-06-01

182

Participatory development of a middleware for AAL solutions: requirements and approach – the case of SOPRANO  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the main features of a middleware for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL applications, exemplified along the SOPRANO research project. The contribution outlines main requirements towards the technical system and the elicitation methodology. The presented middleware allows for personalisation and flexible, extendible configuration of AAL solutions with low effort. Concerning the technical concept, the design approach as well as components, qualities and functionality of the AAL platform are depicted. Furthermore the methodology of requirements elicitation is discussed. It is explained how SOPRANO met the problem to elicit socio-technical system requirements in a user-centred manner, although the addressed target group is not expected to be able to express precise guidelines. SOPRANO („Service oriented programmable smart environments for older Europeans“, http://www.soprano-ip.org/ is a research project funded by the European Commission, which aims at the provision of a technical (AAL infrastructure to help elderly people to keep their independence and to stay in their familiar environment as long as possible. SOPRANO focuses on in-house support and emphasises well-being. It is a main goal to secure situation-aware assistance and help not only in case of emergencies but particularly as well in activities of daily living.

Schmidt, Andreas

2008-10-01

183

Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. This sustained participatory design and implementation approach is exemplified through a large-scale project in the Danish healthcare sector

Simonsen, Jesper

2010-01-01

184

A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies. PMID:23669576

Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M

2013-08-01

185

Use of an interdisciplinary, participatory design approach to develop a usable patient self-assessment tool in atrial fibrillation  

Science.gov (United States)

After identifying that significant care gaps exist within the management of atrial fibrillation (AF), a patient-focused tool was developed to help patients better assess and manage their AF. This tool aims to provide education and awareness regarding the management of symptoms and stroke risk associated with AF, while engaging patients to identify if their condition is optimally managed and to become involved in their own care. An interdisciplinary group of health care providers and designers worked together in a participatory design approach to develop the tool with input from patients. Usability testing was completed with 22 patients of varying demographics to represent the characteristics of the patient population. The findings from usability testing interviews were used to further improve and develop the tool to improve ease of use. A physician-facing tool was also developed to help to explain the tool and provide a brief summary of the 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines. By incorporating patient input and human-centered design with the knowledge, experience, and medical expertise of health care providers, we have used an approach in developing the tool that tries to more effectively meet patients’ needs. PMID:24235817

MacCallum, Lori; McGaw, Heather; Meshkat, Nazanin; Valentinis, Alissia; Ashley, Leslie Beard; Bhatia, Rajan Sacha; Benson, Kaye; Ivers, Noah; Leblanc, Kori; Morra, Dante

2013-01-01

186

Enhancing collaborative rule-making on global sustainability concerns through Participatory Design : A research agenda based empirically on United Nations developments on business conduct  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new opportunities for PD by pointing to social science oriented processes that may be strengthened by the theory and practice of PD. With a theoretical foundation in legal philosophy on legitimacy and steps towards a deliberative democratic evolution of norms of conduct for global concerns, the paper is concerned with opportunities to involve a global citizenry in the evolution of norms of conduct that may affect the lives and futures of individuals. The paper describes research potential for PD towards enhancing information technology assisted inclusion of views, needs and concerns of individuals in transnational rule-making. It does so by drawing on the process that led to the 2011 United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. This process exemplifies challenges in collaborative and inclusive global rule-making that that may be assisted by increased and informed deployment of IT in order to enhance broad and balanced participation in the rule-making process

Buhmann, Karin

187

Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

Rudel Ruthann A

2010-07-01

188

What happens when you involve patients as experts? a participatory action research project at a renal failure unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is a trend towards developing health care in a patient-centred direction, changes are usually planned by the professionals without involving the patients. This paper presents an ongoing participatory action research project where patients with chronic renal failure, nurses at a specialist renal failure unit, a hospital manager and a researcher worked together to develop patient-centred care. The project combined the expertise of patients in their own experiences of living with a chronic condition with the professional expertise of nurses, the manager and the researcher. As the workload on the unit was uneven, the development work needed to be low in intensity but long-term. Based on a number of dialogues in focus groups, four main development areas were identified; access to test results, prerequisites for postponing the progress of the illness, general awareness and understanding of living with chronic renal failure, and family-focused care. A number of changes have been planned or implemented, such as developing a prototype for a web-based feed-back system, expanding patient education to newly diagnosed patients, steering the nurses' role towards a guiding and family-focused function, and planning a digital story-telling workshop. Involving committed people who have the mandate to change practices were prerequisites for success. PMID:21059149

Blomqvist, Kerstin; Theander, Eva; Mowide, Inger; Larsson, Veronica

2010-12-01

189

Training Partnership Dyads for Community-Based Participatory Research: Strategies and Lessons Learned From the Community Engaged Scholars Program  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus–community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution’s Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners. PMID:23091303

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra

2014-01-01

190

The SAMBA role play game in northern Vietnam: An innovative approach to participatory natural resource management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present article describes an experiment using the SAMBA role play game as a research tool in Bac Kan province of Vietnam, in the framework of the Mountain Agrarian Systems Program, a joint research project of the Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute, the International Rice Research Institute, the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, and the Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement. The role play game was a follow-up to intensive fiel...

Boissau, S.; Anh, H. L.; Castella, J. C.

2004-01-01

191

Increasing the general level of academic capacity in general practice: introducing mandatory research training for general practitioner trainees through a participatory research process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: To obtain good quality evidence-based clinical work there needs to be a culture of critical appraisal, and strong bridges between the clinical and the academic worlds in general practice. AIM: The aim was to educate the general practitioner (GP) trainees to obtain critical appraisal skills, and through the development and implementation of the mandatory programme to gradually empower the GP community to achieve academic capacity by creating a link between the GP researchers and the GP training community. This was done by developing a faculty, giving teaching skills to GP academics, and research skills to GP clinicians; and creating an awareness of the potential benefits of critical appraisal in training GP surgeries. METHODS: Development and implementation of a faculty and a programme through a participatory action research-inspired project, with process evaluation from the beginning of the planning phase. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2009, we built a teaching faculty of 25 teachers among clinical GPs and GP academics; developed the training programme; and delivered the programme to 95 GP trainees. Some of the GP trainees later showed an interest in more substantial research projects, and GP trainers with no previous association with the research environment started to show an interest through their function as GP trainers. The GP academics of the faculty, however, felt that it was difficult to continue the engagement because of the still increasing demand for published knowledge production in academia. CONCLUSION: It is possible to support the development of general academic capacity in general practice using participatory design in collaboration with GP academics and clinicians, building bridges between academia and clinical work, as well as within academia between research publication and teaching. There is, however, a generic barrier in the regulation of academia itself.

Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen

2012-01-01

192

Use of an interdisciplinary, participatory design approach to develop a usable patient self-assessment tool in atrial fibrillation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lori MacCallum,1,2 Heather McGaw,1 Nazanin Meshkat,3 Alissia Valentinis,4 Leslie Beard Ashley,5 Rajan Sacha Bhatia,3,6,7 Kaye Benson,7 Noah Ivers,6,8 Kori Leblanc,2,7 Dante Morra3,5,7 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, 4Taddle Creek Family Health Team, Toronto, 5Trillium Health Partners, Mississauga, 6Women's College Hospital, Toronto, 7Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, University Health Network, Toronto, 8Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: After identifying that significant care gaps exist within the management of atrial fibrillation (AF, a patient-focused tool was developed to help patients better assess and manage their AF. This tool aims to provide education and awareness regarding the management of symptoms and stroke risk associated with AF, while engaging patients to identify if their condition is optimally managed and to become involved in their own care. An interdisciplinary group of health care providers and designers worked together in a participatory design approach to develop the tool with input from patients. Usability testing was completed with 22 patients of varying demographics to represent the characteristics of the patient population. The findings from usability testing interviews were used to further improve and develop the tool to improve ease of use. A physician-facing tool was also developed to help to explain the tool and provide a brief summary of the 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines. By incorporating patient input and human-centered design with the knowledge, experience, and medical expertise of health care providers, we have used an approach in developing the tool that tries to more effectively meet patients' needs. Keywords: patient education, atrial fibrillation, care gaps, patient care tools, patient self-assessment

MacCallum L

2013-11-01

193

Using community-based participatory mixed methods research to understand preconception health in African American communities of Arizona.  

Science.gov (United States)

The article discusses Arizona's strategic implementation and evaluation of the first time motherhood initiative grant (FTMI) to understand preconception health among African American men and women in Arizona. Longitudinal focus groups assessed whether African American men and women in the targeted areas comprehended and recalled the messages related to preconception health. Matched pre and posttests assessed community members' knowledge of preconception as well as physicians' perceptions on preconception health and care. Focus-group data were transcribed and coded by independent coders to conduct content analyses. Inter-rater reliability and agreement among coders, bivariate and multivariate statistics were conducted for quantitative matched pre and posttests data using SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The social marketing campaign had limited impact in recall and comprehension of the preconception health message among African American men and women. Data from focus groups revealed that African American men and women perceived preconception health to be vital. And results from the pretest and posttests of community-based presentations, further supported this finding. Evidence from Grand Round presentations indicated that practitioners and health care providers had diverging views on preconception health. Use of community-based participatory mixed methods research can facilitate better understanding of the efficacy of strategic interventions such as FTMI and can provide valuable information on preconception health. Cost limitations often prohibit extensive evaluation of social marketing campaigns, hence, evaluators and researchers should assess the feasibility of conducting an efficacy study versus an effectiveness study in evaluating social marketing campaigns. PMID:23229170

Hussaini, Khaleel S; Hamm, Eric; Means, Toni

2013-12-01

194

Eight years of building community partnerships and trust: the UCLA family medicine community-based participatory research experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acknowledging the growing disparities in health and health care that exist among immigrant families and minority populations in large urban communities, the UCLA Department of Family Medicine (DFM) sought a leadership role in the development of family medicine training and community-based participatory research (CBPR). Performing CBPR requires that academic medicine departments build sustainable and long-term community partnerships. The authors describe the eight-year (2000-2008) process of building sustainable community partnerships and trust between the UCLA DFM and the Sun Valley community, located in Los Angeles County.The authors used case studies of three research areas of concentration (asthma, diabetes prevention, and establishing access to primary care) to describe how they established community trust and sustained long-term community research partnerships. In preparing each case study, they used an iterative process to review qualitative data.Many lessons were common across their research concentration areas. They included the importance of (1) having clear and concrete community benefits, (2) supporting an academic-community champion, (3) political advocacy, (4) partnering with diverse organizations, (5) long-term academic commitment, and (6) medical student involvement. The authors found that establishing a long-term relationship and trust was a prerequisite to successfully initiate CBPR activities that included an asthma school-based screening program, community walking groups, and one of the largest school-based primary care clinics in the United States.Their eight-year experience in the Sun Valley community underscores how academic-community research partnerships can result in benefits of high value to communities and academic departments. PMID:19881437

Moreno, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Michael A; Lopez, Glenn A; Bholat, Michelle A; Dowling, Patrick T

2009-10-01

195

“Complexities of holistic community based participatory research for a low-income, multi-ethnic population exposed to multiple built-environment stressors in Worcester, Massachusetts”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Low income, multi-ethnic communities in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts are exposed to cumulative, chronic built-environment stressors, and have limited capacity to respond, magnifying their vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. “Neighborhood STRENGTH”, our community based participatory research (CBPR) project, comprised four partners: a youth center; an environmental non-profit; a community based health center; and a university. Unlike most CBPR projects...

Downs, Timothy J.; Ross, Laurie; Patton, Suzanne; Rulnick, Sarah; Sinha, Deb; Mucciarone, Danielle; Calvache, Maria; Parmenter, Sarah; Subedi, Rajendra; Wysokenski, Donna; Anderson, Erin; Dezan, Rebecca; Lowe, Kate; Bowen, Jennifer; Tejani, Amee

2009-01-01

196

Benevolent Paradox: Integrating Community-Based Empowerment and Transdisciplinary Research Approaches into Traditional Frameworks to Increase Funding and Long-Term Sustainability of Chicano-Community Research Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS) is a 5-year multi-intervention study aimed at preventing childhood obesity among Mexican-origin children in rural California. Using a transdisciplinary approach and community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology, NSFS's development included a diversely trained team working in collaboration with…

de la Torre, Adela

2014-01-01

197

Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

2014-01-01

198

Technology support for participatory budgeting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting initiatives and couples them together in a generic process model. Two cases studies are examined for different purposes. The well known Porto Alegre case is analysed to show how the generic process model is implemented in a practical example. The more recent Berlin-Lichtenberg initiative, however, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different eParticipation activities and match them to the generic participatory budgeting processes. This results in a comprehensive picture of how known eParticipation technologies can be used to support participatory budgeting. The next research question (unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) is how to choose - which technologies fit which local circumstances and conditions?

Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus

2010-01-01

199

Thirty Years of Participatory Watershed Research: Engaging Citizen Scientists Through the NH Lakes Lay Monitoring Program (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

While it began as a citizen water quality monitoring program to document long-term trends and find problem areas impacting lake watersheds the New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program soon evolved into a model effort for engaging the participants to help investigate a wide range of scientific questions primarily derived through their concerns. As a true participatory effort, community members were involved in the design as well as the implementation of the research and also in the interpretation of the results. The research outcomes have provided benefits to both the local and scientific communities. In many cases productive partnerships between the research community and participants were initiated that continue to last to this day. In addition, participants have been empowered through their experience and have become local experts and community leaders. Collaborative research projects to date have explored fish condition, recreational impacts, nutrient loadings from watershed land use, morphometric determinants of lake productivity, ground truth for remote sensing of water quality, biological controls for invasive aquatic plants, in-lake resource co-occurrences, and cyanobacteria bloom toxin ecology. Participants were also instrumental in confirming a more accurate method for water clarity measurement. Results have not only provided the community with the information they require for the informed local stewardship of their resources but also have been useful to state agencies and decision-makers. Our success can be attributed to the development of quality assured methods acceptable to regional and state agencies, the cost efficiencies of using volunteer scientists, support from the University and Cooperative Extension, capturing the "local expertise" of our participants, providing timely feedback and support, and making sure the study results are reported back to the local community through the participants involved.

Schloss, J. A.

2009-12-01

200

Resilience Management in Social-ecological Systems: a Working Hypothesis for a Participatory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approaches to natural resource management are often based on a presumed ability to predict probabilistic responses to management and external drivers such as climate. They also tend to assume that the manager is outside the system being managed. However, where the objectives include long-term sustainability, linked social-ecological systems (SESs behave as complex adaptive systems, with the managers as integral components of the system. Moreover, uncertainties are large and it may be difficult to reduce them as fast as the system changes. Sustainability involves maintaining the functionality of a system when it is perturbed, or maintaining the elements needed to renew or reorganize if a large perturbation radically alters structure and function. The ability to do this is termed “resilience.” This paper presents an evolving approach to analyzing resilience in SESs, as a basis for managing resilience. We propose a framework with four steps, involving close involvement of SES stakeholders. It begins with a stakeholder-led development of a conceptual model of the system, including its historical profile (how it got to be what it is and preliminary assessments of the drivers of the supply of key ecosystem goods and services. Step 2 deals with identifying the range of unpredictable and uncontrollable drivers, stakeholder visions for the future, and contrasting possible future policies, weaving these three factors into a limited set of future scenarios. Step 3 uses the outputs from steps 1 and 2 to explore the SES for resilience in an iterative way. It generally includes the development of simple models of the system’s dynamics for exploring attributes that affect resilience. Step 4 is a stakeholder evaluation of the process and outcomes in terms of policy and management implications. This approach to resilience analysis is illustrated using two stylized examples.

Jon Norberg

2002-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Game over or play it again and again. : participatory design approach within Special Housing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Activities that are fun, social, engaging and put something at stake are positive for your health no matter age or condition. What can you do if you suffer from dementia and are living at a Special Housing? According to research you should dance, visit the garden, get tactile massage discuss artworks etc. Still, despite all these proposals there are many voices from this domain, telling stories about living without live. Suffering from dementia may affect your ability to speak for your self a...

Tobiasson, Helena

2010-01-01

202

Priority water research questions for South Africa developed through participatory processes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper describes a collaborative process of identifying and prioritising current and future water research questions from a wide range of water specialists within South Africa. Over 1 600 questions were collected, reduced in number and prioritised by specialists working in water research and pra [...] ctice. A total of 59 questions were finally proposed as an outcome of the study and are categorised under the themes of change, data, ecosystems, governance, innovation and resources. The questions range in scale, challenge and urgency, and are also aligned with prevailing paradigms in water research. The majority of the questions dealt with relatively short- to medium-term research requirements and most focused on immediate issues such as water supply, service delivery and technical solutions. Formulations of long-term research questions were sparse, partly because some of the principles and methods used in this study were difficult to apply in the South African context, and also because researchers are influenced by addressing what are believed to be the more immediate, short-term water-related challenges in South Africa. This is the first initiative of its kind to produce a comprehensive and inclusive list of research priorities for water in South Africa.

RM, Siebrits; K, Winter; J, Barnes; MC, Dent; G, Ekama; M, Ginster; J, Harrison; B, Jackson; I, Jacobs; A, Jordaan; HC, Kasan; W, Kloppers; R, le Roux; J, Maree; MNB, Momba; AV, Munnik; J, O' Keeffe; R, Schulze; M, Silberbauer; D, Still; JE, van Zyl.

2014-04-03

203

Scandinavian Participatory Design : Dialogic curation with Teenagers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

2012-01-01

204

Community health workers support community-based participatory research ethics: lessons learned along the research-to-practice-to-community continuum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)--specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability--stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502

Smith, Selina A; Blumenthal, Daniel S

2012-11-01

205

Participatory systems mapping for sustainable consumption: Discussion of a method promoting systemic insights  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper describes our usage of and experience with the method of participatory systems mapping. The method, developed for the purpose of facilitating knowledge brokerage, builds on participatory modelling approaches and applications and was used in several events involving both researchers and policy makers. The paper presents and discusses examples of how different types of participatory interaction with causal loop diagrams (‘system maps’) produced different insights on issues related to sustainable consumption and enabled participatory reflection and sharing of knowledge. Together, these insights support a systemic understanding of the issues and Thus the method provides instruments for coping with complexity when formulating policies for sustainable consumption. Furthermore the paper discusses the ability of the method—and its limits—to connect mental models of participants through structured discussion and thus bridge boundaries between different communities.

Sedlacko, Michal; Martinuzzi, Andre

2014-01-01

206

Moving towards Participatory Adult Education: Involving Family Literacy Students in Meaningful Leadership Experiences. Research Brief #4  

Science.gov (United States)

Although adult educators espouse values such as inclusion and ownership, adult learners seldom play a substantive role in programmatic decision making. This collaborative research project explored family literacy participants' experiences in their program's parent advisory council (PAC). The study shows that involvement in the PAC enhanced program…

Toso, Blaire Willson; Prins, Esther; Drayton, Brendaly; Gungor, Ramazan; Gnanadass, Edith

2008-01-01

207

Participatory Research in Support of Quality Public Education in New Orleans  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2007, two years after Hurricane Katrina, several education and child advocacy groups began discussing the depleted conditions of the New Orleans public school district. These groups came together to discuss how to create a sustainable education reform movement post Katrina. New Orleans-based community groups and outside university researchers

Johnson-Burel, Deirdre; Drame, Elizabeth; Frattura, Elise

2014-01-01

208

On the diversity of actors involved in community-based participatory action research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The following considerations arise from confrontations among the researchers involved in activities carried out by the FOIST Laboratory for Social Policies and Formative Processes, directed by Prof. Alberto Merler: a laboratory of the Department of Economy, Institutions and Society (DEIS) in the University of Sassari (Italy). In 2007, the FOIST Laboratory commemorated the thirtieth anniversary of its existence. Activities carried out throughout the years are most diverse as to the...

Merler, Alberto; Vargiu, Andrea

2008-01-01

209

The thai-Australian alliance: developing a rural health management curriculum by participatory action research.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2006, the Thai National Health Security Office and the Ministry of Public Health, through the Nakhonratchasima Provincial Health Office in Thailand, asked the Thai-Australian Health Alliance to identify competencies and skills for a health management curriculum for health professionals working in primary healthcare in rural Thailand. The study was conducted in Nakhonratchasima province, Thailand, utilizing questionnaires, focus group discussions and an intensive 3-day workshop involving a purposive sample of 35 participants drawn from various sectors in the health industry. Findings identified the core curriculum competencies and skills required by rural doctors, nurses and public health officers. Critical issues regarding continuing education for health professionals in primary healthcare were also examined. This study found that a primary healthcare approach should include the principles of sustainability and capacity building, and incorporate team-based, interprofessional and long-term continuous learning. PMID:20357555

Yanggratoke, S; Briggs, David; Alexander, Christian; Taytiwat, Prawit; Cruickshank, Mary; Fraser, John; Ditton, Mary; Gaul, Marianne

2010-01-01

210

From fire in the belly to a boiling heart: fuel for participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been said that governmental bureaucracies lack the animating life force that is normally provided by the human conscience. Research efforts that include patients and their representatives in the planning and regulatory process can add back this animating life force, a force Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche describes "... that your self be in your deed as the mother is in her child-let that be your word concerning virtue." This paper comprises our invited introductory remarks as patient activists at this symposium, entitled "The Menstrual Cycle and Adolescent Health" and held in Potomac, Maryland in mid October 2007. Attendees included patients, patient advocates, and experts from a variety of fields and disciplines. While our stories have their share of pain, that pain developed into a passion to help others in similar circumstances. A consortium of passionate community activists interested in the menstrual cycle could play the role as a "governmental conscience" around this issue. Developing a community consortium initiated via partnerships between patient advocates and investigators could direct more attention and funding toward menstrual cycle research. PMID:18574202

Hijane, Karima; Heyman, Carly; Bell, Maureen; Busby, Mary Beth

2008-01-01

211

Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

Pamela K. Miller

2013-08-01

212

Participatory Budgeting in High School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes and analyzes a participatory approach to budgetary decision-making used by an exemplary high school. In spite of the budgetary forces dividing instructional departments, support units, and administration, an equitable division of resources provided to the school was consistently achieved each year. Includes 29 references. (MLH)

Harman, William T.

1989-01-01

213

Enabling the powerful? Participatory action research with local policymakers and professionals for physical activity promotion with women in difficult life situations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enabling is a concept central to health promotion. It is perceived as a mechanism that can help people gain control over determinants of health. Little is known, however, about enabling among policy-makers and professionals. This case study investigates enabling among policy-makers and professionals who engaged in a specific participatory approach, cooperative planning. We define 'enabling' as creating action situations that allow policy-makers and professionals to (i) build individual capacities for health promotion and to (ii) apply these capacities to concrete organizational and political action at the institutional level. This case study followed policy-makers and professionals as they participated in a local physical activity promotion action research project in Germany. We conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative data gathered in that project (2005-2011). Methods included participant observation, document analysis, focus groups and qualitative interviews. All data were revisited for the case study and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings include examples of enabling among policy-makers and professionals related to the cooperative planning process. Individual capacities were developed in perceived project roles, interactions with target groups and decision-making procedures. Findings also demonstrated municipal policy changes. Access to physical activity infrastructures improved, and an intersectoral job position was funded to support physical activity promotion among target group participants. Findings were analyzed using a model that links cooperative planning with a framework on policy change from a political science perspective. We conclude that cooperative planning might be a pathway to negotiated agreements that foster systematic enabling and health-promoting policy change. PMID:22987843

Frahsa, Annika; Rütten, Alfred; Roeger, Ulrike; Abu-Omar, Karim; Schow, Diana

2014-03-01

214

Participatory IT-support  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beyond the initial phases of systems design Participatory Design has potentiality to include operation and maintenance of IT systems in organizations. The paper presents this argument through reports from case studies of local IT-support coined ‘participatory IT-support’. The paper presents characteristics of participatory Itsupport and suggests a method for identifying qualified candidates for the support position in the organization.

Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

2006-01-01

215

Music Therapy’s Effects on Mexican Migrant Farmworkers’ Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Social Isolation: A Mixed Methods Randomized Control Trial Utilizing Participatory Action Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the United States, the agricultural industry is dependent on men and women from Mexico who migrate throughout the country to participate in the care and harvest of crops. They often migrate independently of their families and leave loved ones behind. Separation from families and difficult working conditions create high frequencies of mental health issues. When available, the farmworkers seek out treatment for the somatic symptoms such as high heart rate, upset stomachs, and difficult breathing often associated with depression and anxiety. Mental health counselors and facilities often are not able to meet the needs in culturally sensitive ways presented by this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on Mexican farmworkers’ levels of depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition, this study sought to examine how the migrant farmworkers used music-making sessions between music therapy sessions as a coping skill to further improve their overall mental health. Finally, this study sought to examine how migrant farmworkers engaged in the research process and how they valued their relationship with the researcher. This study utilized a mixed methods approach incorporating a randomized control trial with repeated measures and participatory action research. A total of 125 farmwokers participated in this study over the course of two distinct phases. Farmworkers in Phase I were randomly assigned to music therapy, English as a second language classes, and a stress education (control) group. Farmworkers in Phase II were randomly assigned to music therapy or a comparison stress education group. Farmworkers in the music therapy condition participated in 6-10 music therapy sessions during which time they learned how to play an instrument, engaged in song writing and lyric analysis, and group music-making. Results indicated that participants in the music therapy condition across both phases did not significantly improve their depression, anxiety, and social isolationscores compared to the control/comparison group. The farmworkers who did participate in group musicmaking between sessions did improve their scores more so than participants who did not engage in weekly group music-making. The farmworkers identified helpful and impeding aspects of the research through focus group interviews. They also identified components of their relationship to the music therapist/researcher that were helpful in establishing and developing a relationship with her.

Swantes, Melody

2011-01-01

216

O Comitê Cidadão como estratégia cogestiva em uma pesquisa participativa no campo da saúde mental / The Citizen Committee as a co-management strategy in participatory research in the field of mental health in Quebec  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O tema dos direitos dos usuários ganha centralidade na discussão contemporânea no campo da saúde mental. A partir da criação de um Comitê Cidadão, composto por usuários e familiares em uma aliança de pesquisa internacional entre Brasil e Canadá, propomos discutir os efeitos, nestes sujeitos, da expe [...] riência de cogestão promovida pela pesquisa participativa "Gestão Autônoma da Medicação (GAM)". Através de descrição detalhada do histórico do Comitê e de entrevista e análise de transcrição da voz de seus membros, problematizamos a relação dialogada entre o saber científico e o saber advindo da experiência singular destes sujeitos, em uma perspectiva metodológica de pesquisa participativa. Como resultado da pesquisa, observamos que a experiência do Comitê Cidadão na cogestão da pesquisa em saúde pode ser propiciadora do aumento nos graus de autonomia, maior empoderamento e exercício de protagonismo e cidadania, com a consequente emergência de sujeitos de direitos. Abstract in english The theme of users' rights has become a central issue in contemporary debate on mental health. Drawing from the experiences of "Comitê Cidadão" (Citizen Committee), consisting of users and family members in an international research alliance between Brazil and Canada, an attempt is made to discuss t [...] he effects of the experience of co-management of the so-called Autonomous Medication Administration (GAM - Gestão Autônoma da Medicação) participatory research project on these individuals. By means of a detailed description of the background of the Committee and interviews and analysis of the voice transcriptions of its members, the problems raised by the relation of dialogue between scientific knowledge and users' knowledge are examined in a methodological approach of participatory research. As a result of the research, it was established that the experience of the Citizens Committee in co-management of health research can be propitious to the increase in the degree of autonomy, greater empowerment and the exercise of leadership and citizenship, with the consequent emergence of subjects with rights.

Eduardo, Passos; Thais Mikie de Carvalho, Otanari; Bruno Ferrari, Emerich; Lorena, Guerini.

217

O Comitê Cidadão como estratégia cogestiva em uma pesquisa participativa no campo da saúde mental / The Citizen Committee as a co-management strategy in participatory research in the field of mental health in Quebec  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O tema dos direitos dos usuários ganha centralidade na discussão contemporânea no campo da saúde mental. A partir da criação de um Comitê Cidadão, composto por usuários e familiares em uma aliança de pesquisa internacional entre Brasil e Canadá, propomos discutir os efeitos, nestes sujeitos, da expe [...] riência de cogestão promovida pela pesquisa participativa "Gestão Autônoma da Medicação (GAM)". Através de descrição detalhada do histórico do Comitê e de entrevista e análise de transcrição da voz de seus membros, problematizamos a relação dialogada entre o saber científico e o saber advindo da experiência singular destes sujeitos, em uma perspectiva metodológica de pesquisa participativa. Como resultado da pesquisa, observamos que a experiência do Comitê Cidadão na cogestão da pesquisa em saúde pode ser propiciadora do aumento nos graus de autonomia, maior empoderamento e exercício de protagonismo e cidadania, com a consequente emergência de sujeitos de direitos. Abstract in english The theme of users' rights has become a central issue in contemporary debate on mental health. Drawing from the experiences of "Comitê Cidadão" (Citizen Committee), consisting of users and family members in an international research alliance between Brazil and Canada, an attempt is made to discuss t [...] he effects of the experience of co-management of the so-called Autonomous Medication Administration (GAM - Gestão Autônoma da Medicação) participatory research project on these individuals. By means of a detailed description of the background of the Committee and interviews and analysis of the voice transcriptions of its members, the problems raised by the relation of dialogue between scientific knowledge and users' knowledge are examined in a methodological approach of participatory research. As a result of the research, it was established that the experience of the Citizens Committee in co-management of health research can be propitious to the increase in the degree of autonomy, greater empowerment and the exercise of leadership and citizenship, with the consequent emergence of subjects with rights.

Eduardo, Passos; Thais Mikie de Carvalho, Otanari; Bruno Ferrari, Emerich; Lorena, Guerini.

218

Researching intercultural participatory design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What impact does culture have on tools and techniques that are used to facilitate cooperation amongst stakeholders in Information Communication Technology (ICT) design projects? This is a question facing the ICT development activities at the World Maritime University in Malmö, Sweden. At the university around 300 staff and students from 90 different countries come together every year. Continuously finding ways to improve how they can actively participate in design activitie...

Bolmsten, Johan

2010-01-01

219

Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

220

Orçamento participativo: uma abordagem na perspectiva da Ciência da Informação / Participatory budgeting: an approach from an Information Science perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetiva destacar a importância do orçamento participativo como fonte de inclusão social na sociedade intensiva de informação, em conjunto com os postulados da Ciência da Informação. O modelo participativo de gestão do orçamento participativo apresenta sinais de possibilidades de const [...] rução de um método provedor de democracia, e, nesse processo, a informação torna-se insumo inestimável. Nesse contexto, a Ciência da Informação surge como uma teia de formulações com laços concomitantes para que o acesso, a disseminação, o registro e a organização das informações produzidas sejam transformadas em realidades, sugerindo, ademais, proposições de ordem educativa para a cidadania. No atual momento de transição histórica e cultural da sociedade brasileira, comunidades e pessoas excluídas econômica e socialmente têm a possibilidade de participar do processo de gestão democrática mediante o orçamento participativo. Esses núcleos de compartilhamento de informações, conhecimentos e saberes tendem a contribuir para criar alternativas de transformação do espaço social, de modo a promover a inclusão dos grupos sociais menos favorecidos no acesso à informação. Abstract in english This work proposes highlighting the importance of participatory budgeting as a source of social inclusion in the intensive information society, in conjunction with the premises of Information Science. The model of participatory budget management shows signs of the possibility of constructing a metho [...] d that provides democracy, in which case the information becomes an invaluable input. In this context, information science emerges as a web of formulations with concurrent ties, permitting the dissemination, recording and organization of the information produced to be transformed into reality, suggesting, moreover, propositions of an educational order for citizens. At the present moment of historical and cultural transition through which we are passing in Brazilian society, communities and economically and socially excluded individuals have the chance to participate in the process of democratic management through participatory budgeting. These clusters of information sharing, knowledge and wisdom tend to contribute to the creation of alternatives for the transformation of social space in order to promote the inclusion of disadvantaged social groups in terms of access to information.

Alex de Araujo, Lopes; Isa Maria, Freire.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Orçamento participativo: uma abordagem na perspectiva da Ciência da Informação / Participatory budgeting: an approach from an Information Science perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetiva destacar a importância do orçamento participativo como fonte de inclusão social na sociedade intensiva de informação, em conjunto com os postulados da Ciência da Informação. O modelo participativo de gestão do orçamento participativo apresenta sinais de possibilidades de const [...] rução de um método provedor de democracia, e, nesse processo, a informação torna-se insumo inestimável. Nesse contexto, a Ciência da Informação surge como uma teia de formulações com laços concomitantes para que o acesso, a disseminação, o registro e a organização das informações produzidas sejam transformadas em realidades, sugerindo, ademais, proposições de ordem educativa para a cidadania. No atual momento de transição histórica e cultural da sociedade brasileira, comunidades e pessoas excluídas econômica e socialmente têm a possibilidade de participar do processo de gestão democrática mediante o orçamento participativo. Esses núcleos de compartilhamento de informações, conhecimentos e saberes tendem a contribuir para criar alternativas de transformação do espaço social, de modo a promover a inclusão dos grupos sociais menos favorecidos no acesso à informação. Abstract in english This work proposes highlighting the importance of participatory budgeting as a source of social inclusion in the intensive information society, in conjunction with the premises of Information Science. The model of participatory budget management shows signs of the possibility of constructing a metho [...] d that provides democracy, in which case the information becomes an invaluable input. In this context, information science emerges as a web of formulations with concurrent ties, permitting the dissemination, recording and organization of the information produced to be transformed into reality, suggesting, moreover, propositions of an educational order for citizens. At the present moment of historical and cultural transition through which we are passing in Brazilian society, communities and economically and socially excluded individuals have the chance to participate in the process of democratic management through participatory budgeting. These clusters of information sharing, knowledge and wisdom tend to contribute to the creation of alternatives for the transformation of social space in order to promote the inclusion of disadvantaged social groups in terms of access to information.

Alex de Araujo, Lopes; Isa Maria, Freire.

222

Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts.

Heinrich, Falk

2014-01-01

223

Using Participatory Action Research to Develop a Course Module on Education for Sustainable Development in Pre-Service Chemistry Teacher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a course module on sustainability issues and Education for Sustainable Development in German pre-service chemistry teacher education. The module was inspired by empirical research findings about the knowledge base of student teachers. It was created and cyclically refined using Participatory Action Research. Experience gained during its three-year application will be reflected upon here, including feedback collected from student evaluation sheets. In the end, the participants responded extremely positively to the course. The student teachers stated that the module was interesting, relevant and valuable for their later profession as high school chemistry teachers. They also emphasised that they now felt more competent in the area of sustainability and ESD.

Mareike Burmeister

2013-01-01

224

Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

2014-01-01

225

Images and the Ethics of Inclusion and Exclusion: Learning through Participatory Photography in Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research methods directly engage with the topics that they set out to address. It is therefore no surprise that participatory research practice on the topic of educational inclusion and exclusion raises ethical issues for the participatory researcher that are themselves about inclusion and exclusion. This paper describes and analyses…

Kaplan, Ian; Miles, Susie; Howes, Andy

2011-01-01

226

Investigating the Design Process : Participatory Design in Agile Software Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/approach – Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players and future users in the customer organization. The interview data were supplemented with company and project documents. Findings – The paper found genuine customer and user participation carried out by onsite customers and by other operational staff in the form of direct and indirect participation and with functional and democratic empowerment. The onsite customers played informative, consultative and participativeroles. The analysis revealed that planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the customer and user participation. This form of user participation supported a balance between flexibility and project progress and resulted in a project and a product which were considered a success by the customer and the development organization. The analysis showed that the integrative framework for user participation can also fruitfully be used in a new context to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory design contributes to the successful completion of the investigated project. By drawing on innovation theory it was found that participatory design in agile development bears the characteristics of a successful organizational innovation. Grounding further explanations in complex adaptive systems theory the paper provides an additional argument why participatory design despite some identified challenges fosters project staff to successfully carry out the agile development project.

Kautz, Karlheinz

2011-01-01

227

Benchmarks in Tacit Knowledge Skills Instruction : The European Undergraduate Research-Oriented Participatory Education (EU-ROPE) At Copenhagen Business School  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While the knowledge management literature has addressed the explicit and tacit skills needed for successful performance in the modern enterprise, little attention has been paid to date in this particular literature as to how these wide-ranging skills may be suitably acquired during the course of an undergraduate business school education. This paper presents case analysis of the research-oriented participatory education curriculum developed at Copenhagen Business School because it appears uniquely suited, by a curious mix of Danish education tradition and deliberate innovation, to offer an educational experience more empowering of essential tacit knowledge skills than that found in educational institutions in other national settings. We specify the program forms and procedures for consensus-based governance and group work (as benchmarks) that demonstrably instruct undergraduates in the tacit skill dimensions of knowledge thought to be essential for success following graduation.

Tackney, Charles T.; Sato, Toyoko

2006-01-01

228

Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

Pieter Bots

2012-03-01

229

Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527

Seyednezami Nasrin

2007-08-01

230

A pesquisa-ação participante como estratégia metodológica para o estudo do empreendedorismo social em administração de empresas / Participatory action research as a methodological strategy for the study of social entrepreneurship in business administration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente ensaio tem como objetivo analisar e discutir como a pesquisa-ação participante pode ganhar espaço como estratégia metodológica em administração. Esta análise enfoca em especial o campo do empreendedorismo, e mais especificamente o campo do empreendedorismo social, ressaltando as vantagens [...] e limitações da aplicação dessa estratégia de pesquisa. Procede-se, inicialmente, à análise dos principais paradigmas de pesquisa em administração e define-se a pesquisa-ação participante como modalidade de pesquisa crítica, inserida no paradigma humanista radical. A seguir, passa-se à identificação das características da pesquisa participante e ao seu contraste com outras modalidades de pesquisa, em especial com a observação participante e a pesquisa-ação. Os conceitos da pesquisa-ação participante são apresentados e os autores prosseguem apresentando uma revisão dos mais recentes trabalhos em que essa foi usada para apoiar pesquisas na área do empreendedorismo social. Concluem com a proposta de que a avaliação desses trabalhos se dê por outros conceitos que não os da pesquisa tradicional. Abstract in english This essay aims to analyze and discuss how participatory action research can be applied as a methodological strategy in business administration. This analysis focuses mainly on the field of entrepreneurship and, more specifically, social entrepreneurship, highlighting the advantages and limitations [...] of this research strategy. Firstly, the main research paradigms in business administration are analyzed and participatory-action research is defined as a research modality set within the radical humanist paradigm. Then, the characteristics of participatory research are identified and it is contrasted with other research modalities, specially with participant observation and action research. Participatory action research is then presented and the authors proceed with the presentation of a review of recent researches which it was used. They finish the work proposing that avaliation of works with this kind of methodology must be different then those used for traditional research.

Marcos Bidart Carneiro de, Novaes; Antonio Carlos, Gil.

2009-02-01

231

A pesquisa-ação participante como estratégia metodológica para o estudo do empreendedorismo social em administração de empresas / Participatory action research as a methodological strategy for the study of social entrepreneurship in business administration  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente ensaio tem como objetivo analisar e discutir como a pesquisa-ação participante pode ganhar espaço como estratégia metodológica em administração. Esta análise enfoca em especial o campo do empreendedorismo, e mais especificamente o campo do empreendedorismo social, ressaltando as vantagens [...] e limitações da aplicação dessa estratégia de pesquisa. Procede-se, inicialmente, à análise dos principais paradigmas de pesquisa em administração e define-se a pesquisa-ação participante como modalidade de pesquisa crítica, inserida no paradigma humanista radical. A seguir, passa-se à identificação das características da pesquisa participante e ao seu contraste com outras modalidades de pesquisa, em especial com a observação participante e a pesquisa-ação. Os conceitos da pesquisa-ação participante são apresentados e os autores prosseguem apresentando uma revisão dos mais recentes trabalhos em que essa foi usada para apoiar pesquisas na área do empreendedorismo social. Concluem com a proposta de que a avaliação desses trabalhos se dê por outros conceitos que não os da pesquisa tradicional. Abstract in english This essay aims to analyze and discuss how participatory action research can be applied as a methodological strategy in business administration. This analysis focuses mainly on the field of entrepreneurship and, more specifically, social entrepreneurship, highlighting the advantages and limitations [...] of this research strategy. Firstly, the main research paradigms in business administration are analyzed and participatory-action research is defined as a research modality set within the radical humanist paradigm. Then, the characteristics of participatory research are identified and it is contrasted with other research modalities, specially with participant observation and action research. Participatory action research is then presented and the authors proceed with the presentation of a review of recent researches which it was used. They finish the work proposing that avaliation of works with this kind of methodology must be different then those used for traditional research.

Marcos Bidart Carneiro de, Novaes; Antonio Carlos, Gil.

232

ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

Brîndu?a-Antonela SBÎRCEA

2011-01-01

233

Indicators of radioecological sensitivity of contaminated territories: a proactive and participatory research approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

identify, alongside with stakeholders, the factors of the sensitivity of a territory and to establish correlation between them. The second step is to provide the managers and people who have to decide in such case with data necessary for working out the preparation and action plans for rationalizing the decision-making in the field of post-accidental management. As expected results, we hope to simplify the representation about territorial consequences of radiological contamination and to elaborate management tools common for different actors who a priori speak different 'languages', tools showing the evaluation of radio ecological sensitivity of a territory for further exploration. We will also share the main findings concerning the way to manage such a challenging social process. (author)

234

The realization of conscientisation during sustainable community development : a participatory research approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many community development programmes are initiated without taking the community members and their needs into consideration. The question arose as to whether, by implementing Paolo Freire's theory concerning the process of conscientisation, sustainable community development could be successfully accomplished in Ivory Park, a developing community in Midrand. The conscientisation process has four components: desocialization, critical thinking, power awareness and self-organization. The p...

Templeton, Lynette

2007-01-01

235

A participatory approach to sustainable energy strategy development in a carbon-intensive jurisdiction: The case of Nova Scotia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: ? Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. ? We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. ? The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. ? The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. ? In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.

236

A participatory approach to sustainable energy strategy development in a carbon-intensive jurisdiction: The case of Nova Scotia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: {yields} Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. {yields} We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. {yields} The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. {yields} The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. {yields} In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.

Adams, Michelle, E-mail: adamsm@dal.c [School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, Halifax, NS, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Wheeler, David [Plymouth Business School, University of Plymouth, Cookworthy Building, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Woolston, Genna [School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, Halifax, NS, B3H 3J5 (Canada)

2011-05-15

237

A systematic community-based participatory approach to refining an evidence-based community-level intervention: the HOLA intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our community-based participatory research partnership engaged in a multistep process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were the following: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership, (2) establish an Intervention Team, (3) review the existing sexual health literature, (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM, (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable, (6) blend health behavior theory with Latino MSM's lived experiences, (7) design an intervention conceptual model, (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials, and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. The developed intervention contains four modules to train Latino MSM to serve as lay health advisors known as Navegantes. These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data; blend health behavior theory, the lived experiences, and cultural values of immigrant Latino MSM; and harness the informal social support Latino MSM provide one another. This community-level intervention is designed to meet the expressed sexual health priorities of Latino MSM. It frames disease prevention within sexual health promotion. PMID:23075504

Rhodes, Scott D; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Duck, Stacy; García, Manuel; Downs, Mario; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Alegría-Ortega, José; Miller, Cindy; Boeving Allen, Alex; Gilbert, Paul A; Marsiglia, Flavio F

2013-07-01

238

Assessing Vital Signs: Applying Two Participatory Evaluation Frameworks to the Evaluation of a College of Nursing  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation research has been in progress to clarify the concept of participatory evaluation and to assess its impact. Recently, two theoretical frameworks have been offered--Daigneault and Jacob's participatory evaluation measurement index and Champagne and Smits' model of practical participatory evaluation. In this case report, we apply these…

Connors, Susan C.; Magilvy, Joan K.

2011-01-01

239

Participatory archive : towards decentralised curation, radical user orientation, and broader contextualisation of records management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The user perspective and user studies have received noticeably little practical attention in archives and archival science. The purpose of this article is to address the issues of communication and user participation in archival contexts. Two action research projects based digital archives are discussed. The insights gained during the research and development work are used to formulate a new approach to a participatory archive. In spite of the historical nature of the archives discussed, the ...

Huvila, Isto

2008-01-01

240

Collective form generation through visual participatory representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive information from participatory research takes a form manifestation in collective form conceptualization by a set of designers.

Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant

 
 
 
 
241

O desenho de um centro de saúde para jovens: um exemplo de investigação participativa / The design of a health center for youth: an example of participatory research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O direito dos jovens à participação afigura-se como um meio para exprimirem necessidades e reclamarem os seus direitos. Contudo, a perspetiva dos jovens continua sub-representada na investigação aplicada à definição das políticas e práticas no âmbito dos serviços de saúde, sendo pouco utilizada na m [...] elhoria dos mesmos. Neste artigo apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação participativa, na qual os jovens identificaram alguns fatores que promovem ou inibem a utilização dos serviços de saúde, e contribuíram para o desenho de um centro de saúde ideal para jovens. Abstract in english The right of youth to participation is a means for young people to express their needs and claim their rights. However, the perspectives of youth remain underrepresented in research applied to the definition of policies and practices within the health services and are seldom used to improve them. In [...] this article we present the results of a participatory research in the design of a health service with young people. The results indicate the reasons for the recurrence of young people to health services, as well as the characteristics of an ideal health center in their perspective.

Maria Manuel, Calheiros; Joana Nunes, Patrício; Sónia, Bernardes.

2014-03-01

242

A Retrospective Analysis of the Capacity Built through a Community-Based Participatory Research Project Addressing Diabetes and Obesity in South and East Los Angeles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronic diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, are more prevalent in low-income and minority communities. One promising method to understand and address these chronic conditions is through Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR. CBPR engages and empowers community members to identify risk factors and work toward solutions as equal partners with researchers. One positive and lasting outcome may be an increase in the community capacity which includes individual and community leadership development, policy making, creating connections and utilizing existing community resources. Evaluating community capacity created as a result of a CBPR project is one way to measure its effectiveness. This paper is a retrospective analysis of the capacity built during a CBPR study of diabetes and obesity in East and South Los Angeles which are two low-income and minority neighborhoods. Four people, who were heavily involved in the project, completed a retrospective analysis of the capacity built utilizing a validated instrument. There was consensus about the capacity built, which included: excellent participation by community members, inclusion of members’ ideas to leverage additional funding, and pride of community members in their participation in the project. One area that could have been strengthened was increased access for leadership and research experience among community members, especially since the project ended prematurely. There were differences among the two community groups with East Los Angeles members focusing more on tangible interventions and grant writing, while South Los Angeles members had a greater policy focus. Communities and researchers who are embarking on a CBPR project can learn from those who have implemented the strategy. Measuring capacity built during and after the project, can be one way to understanding the contributions of a project in a community. CBPR is an empowering research methodology which, done correctly, can build community capacity and have long-term impacts on individuals and communities.

Kathryn Hillstrom

2014-06-01

243

Scientific Approach to Empirical Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every piece of research aims to produce an answer to a scientific question. And it is reasonable to ask just how good an answer the research provides. Research is a form of learning, a way of increasing one's knowledge about the world. A novice in research always has some pressing questions – How to start a research project? In what order to proceed with the empirical study? How to make the empirical research more reliable one?

V. Vinod Kumar

2013-11-01

244

Facilitating innovation: an action-oriented approach and participatory methodology to improve innovative social practice in agriculture.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses upon the social organization of innovation. It makes use of insights from knowledge and information systems research, development sociology, management science and applied philosophy and seeks answers to the following questions: What do social actors, individuals and/or organizations, actually do to innovate their practices? How do they organize themselves? Can this be managed or facilitated, and if so, how? The research is exploratory rather than conclusion-oriented and sy...

Engel, P. G. H.

1995-01-01

245

Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

2008-01-01

246

The participatory patient  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper introduces the concept of the “participatory patient” as a vehicle to promote attention to patients¿ dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship between a patient¿s work on the project as a co-designer and his work of being a patient using a prototype. I conclude by arguing for the importance of being aware of the ways in which patients inscribe patient work and non-work and thinking of what kind of working or non-working patients it implies.

Andersen, Tariq Osman

2013-01-01

247

Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center of the University of Sassari (Italy and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the project, all actors own/share all choices made and the technology used participating thus to the intervention sustainability.

Oumelkheir Belkheiri

2012-10-01

248

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

249

Youth Participatory Action Research and School Counseling Practice: A School-Wide Framework for Student Well-Being  

Science.gov (United States)

The professional school counseling literature has proposed innovative frameworks for practice including social justice/multicultural approaches, school-wide counseling initiatives, and school-community partnerships. In this article, we propose a programmatic intervention that can be a vehicle for all three: the implementation of school-based youth…

Smith, Laura; Beck, Katharine; Bernstein, Erinn; Dashtguard, Pasha

2014-01-01

250

Approaches to Research in HRD. Symposium.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains three papers from a symposium on approaches to research in human resource development (HRD). "HRD, Feminism, and Adult Education: A Foundation for Collaborative Approaches to Research and Practice" (Yvonne M. Johnson) identifies common interests among HRD professionals, feminists, and practitioners in the field of adult…

2002

251

Building a low carbon scenario for France. How a participatory approach can enhance social and economic acceptability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication presents the French case study of the European ENCI-LowCarb research project: Engaging Civil Society in Low Carbon scenarios. The core activity of this project was the development of a methodology for the transparent integration of stakeholders' contributions in the scenario design process to enhance the stakeholders' acceptance of the resulting low carbon pathways. This attempt at integrating acceptability in scenario-making constitutes an important step to distinguish what is technically and economically feasible from what is acceptable. Today, a wide range of published scenarios emphasize the fact that they are built on public consultations or stakeholders' contributions. However, transparency is lacking concerning the methodology relative to how contributions were taken into account and translated into assumptions that can be used by the modeling tool. The project ENCI-LowCarb aimed at exploring this scientific gap. Energy scenarios outline possible low-carbon futures built around assumptions on fossil fuels prices evolution, technological choices and the mechanisms of energy demand and supply, among others. Scenarios are influential tools in political decision-making processes since they shed light on the long-term impacts of today's investment decisions, especially regarding infrastructures. This is why it is crucial that these pathways derive from discussions with main stakeholders. In this report, the French project team (CIRED and RAC-F) has the pleasure to present energy scenarios for France which derive from a collaborative scenario design process including the participation of a wide range of French stakeholders (civil society organizations including trade unions and non-governmental organizations, private companies, banks, statewide and local authorities). Participating stakeholders were asked to define or select acceptable CO2 emissions mitigation measures. Their contributions were implemented in the technico-economic model Imaclim-R France to create a scenario that is economically and technically consistent as well as acceptable by stakeholders. This methodology allowed an assessment of the level of achievable emissions reductions with stakeholders' 'acceptable' measures. This project report is organized as follows: part 2 presents the methodology of the collaborative scenario design process in detail, part 3 describes the low carbon scenario - the outcome of the stakeholder discussions. In part 4, other drivers of CO2 emissions and additional measures are explored. Chapter 5 introduces additional sensitivity analysis. Part 6 concludes

252

Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic Consensus panel - Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. Deliverable 11  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important part of the ARGONA project is the testing and application of novel participation and dialogue approaches. The ways in this is being done include a series of events involving different stakeholders such as a focused science shop, a consensus panel and an interaction panel. In the framework of these activities in the Czech Republic the consensus panel was held on June 12, 2008 in Rez and addressed the theme: 'Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives'. The main goals of this consensus panel were: 1. Identification of the main criteria relevant to the assessment of the existing alternatives and determination their importance (weight) from the perspective of all stakeholders; 2. Achieving at least a partial consensus on selecting the most suitable alternative (management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel). A broader audience was selected with a suitable mixture of specialists and interested technical and non-technical peers including representatives from NRI, universities, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of the Environment, State Office for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, representatives of municipalities and NGOs, and waste producers such as CEZ plc etc. In opinion of all participants, there was a 'safe space' for debate ensured and everyone had the same opportunity to express his opinion. All participants also agreed that the whole course of seminar was transparent and correct. From this perspective, the chosen format of dialogue seems appropriate to ensure the exchange of new information and mutual discussion among the interested parties on the contentious issues in the NWM and nuclear energy in general. It was also found, however, that at present the social and political problems are the most important and the most urgent problems in the field of the nuclear waste management in the Czech Republic. It is very important not only to ensure a safe space for meaningful communication, but also: - To increase the activities of relevant state institutions in communication with the public in the field of NWM and enhance public confidence in the state institutions. - To develop motivation programs as another way how to incite the public interest and to positively influence their attitude towards the radioactive waste disposal, siting of the geological repository, and nuclear power production in general. - To strengthen the political responsibility - a long-lasting consistent and clear political attitude of the government and government parties concerning the problems of the final disposal of spent fuel is lacking in the Czech Republic. The general public misses the necessary long-term guarantees. Recommendations for the organization of further activities: - To select appropriate topics with clearly formulated questions taking into account the character of participants - other issues can be discussed within the scientific community and others in the wider discussion with the public participation. - To use service a professional mediator (as an impartial and independent person managing the whole course of the discussion) to facilitate communication among interested parties during the discussion. This applies mainly in the discussions on contentious issues such as selection of appropriate nuclear waste management alternative or the deep repository siting. - To ensure participation of representatives of state institution such as Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry for Regional Development and also representatives of government parties. This is one of the most important prerequisites in order that discussion would be relevant and meaningful and the conclusions obtained could be used practically. - To proceed step by step and set smaller goals - The current situation in the field of NWM in the Czech Republic makes it impossible to achieve consensus among all stakeholders on controversial issues, such as the siting of the deep repository or selecting the optimal alternative to nuclear waste management. Therefore in the present stage it is important

253

A Black feminist approach to nursing research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the presence of a body of Black feminist literature, the growing body of nursing literature on feminism and the feminist approach to research remains narrowly focused on White feminist concerns. By essentially ignoring the realities of Black women, nursing has reproduced the errors of previous White feminists. This article demonstrates the relevance of the Black feminist approach to nursing by applying it in combination with general feminist research principles and anthropological theory in research concerned with low-income Black women's experiences with dysphoria and depression. The findings of the research suggest that a combination approach more clearly illuminates how context effects dysphoria in poor Black women. PMID:7992489

Barbee, E L

1994-10-01

254

Lydia J. Roberts's Nutrition Research and the Rhetoric of "Democratic" Science  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines nutritionist Lydia J. Roberts's use of the "democratic approach" as a rhetorical strategy both to build solidarity among scientists and to enact participatory research in a rural Puerto Rican community. This example suggests that participatory scientific methodologies are not necessarily democratic but may function…

Jack, Jordynn

2009-01-01

255

Participatory research to design a novel telehealth system to support the night-time needs of people with dementia: NOCTURNAL.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the "smart home" to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities. PMID:24304507

Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; McCullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice

2013-12-01

256

Participatory Research to Design a Novel Telehealth System to Support the Night-Time Needs of People with Dementia: NOCTURNAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the “smart home” to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.

Suzanne Martin

2013-12-01

257

A pesquisa participante e a intervenção comunitária no cotidiano do Pibid/CAPES / Participatory research and community intervention in the everyday life of Pibid/CAPES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo analisa as dimensões psicossociais do processo de participação e formação de um grupo de alunos da licenciatura de pedagogia, filosofia e ciências sociais, junto ao projeto Interdisciplinar-Pedagogia, no Programa Institucional de Bolsa de Iniciação à Docência (PIBID)/CAPES-UFPR. A atuação d [...] os graduandos em duas escolas da rede pública de Curitiba-PR privilegiou a construção e a implementação conjunta de um plano de ação em direitos humanos e redes de solidariedade na comunidade. Os trabalhos de intervenção foram desenvolvidos apoiados na proposta de pesquisa participante de Orlando Fals Borda, nos aportes filosóficos da educação conscientizadora de Paulo Freire e na perspectiva teórico-metodológica da psicologia social comunitária latino-americana. Foram realizadas, com os participantes do projeto, reuniões e oficinas semanais de capacitação, grupos focais temáticos e conversações críticas avaliativas. As informações obtidas foram sistematizadas e submetidas à análise de conteúdo, nos seguintes eixos: razões para ingresso no projeto Pibid; atividades realizadas e metodologias para formação e sensibilização; e dificuldades sentidas nas atividades e geração dos produtos. O desenvolvimento das atividades contribuiu para um envolvimento e compromisso com a realidade educacional, colaborando para a quebra de mitos a respeito dessa realidade, com a diminuição de receios e eliminação de preconceitos sobre as escolas públicas. Observou-se que as práticas participativas, comunitárias e educacionais fortaleceram uma proximidade entre universidade e escola, colocando a docência como possível escolha futura desses estudantes e, consequentemente, colaborando para o reconhecimento social do trabalho do professor. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the psychosocial dimensions of the participation and training process of a group of students of bachelor's degree in pedagogy, philosophy and social sciences, in the Interdisciplinary Pedagogy project from the Institutional Program of Teaching Initiation Scholarship (PIBID)/CAPES [...] -UFPR. The work of the students in two public schools in Curitiba-PR favored the construction and implementation of a joint action plan on human rights and solidarity networks in the community. The intervention works were developed supported by the participatory research proposal by Orlando Fals Borda, the philosophical contributions of Paulo Freire's awareness wakening education and the theoretical and methodological perspectives of Latin American Community social psychology. The project participants attended weekly meetings and training workshops, thematic focus groups and evaluative critical conversations. The information collected has been systematized and submitted to content analysis in the following areas: motives to join the Pibid project; activities carried out and methodologies for training and awareness; and difficulties in activities and generation of products. The development of the activities contributed to an involvement and commitment to the educational reality, collaborating to break myths about this reality, reducing prejudices and eliminating fears about state schools. It was observed that participatory, community and educational practices strengthened proximity between universities and schools, putting teaching as a possible future choice for these students and thus contributing to the social recognition of the teachers' work.

Maria de Fatima Quintal de, Freitas.

258

A pesquisa participante e a intervenção comunitária no cotidiano do Pibid/CAPES / Participatory research and community intervention in the everyday life of Pibid/CAPES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo analisa as dimensões psicossociais do processo de participação e formação de um grupo de alunos da licenciatura de pedagogia, filosofia e ciências sociais, junto ao projeto Interdisciplinar-Pedagogia, no Programa Institucional de Bolsa de Iniciação à Docência (PIBID)/CAPES-UFPR. A atuação d [...] os graduandos em duas escolas da rede pública de Curitiba-PR privilegiou a construção e a implementação conjunta de um plano de ação em direitos humanos e redes de solidariedade na comunidade. Os trabalhos de intervenção foram desenvolvidos apoiados na proposta de pesquisa participante de Orlando Fals Borda, nos aportes filosóficos da educação conscientizadora de Paulo Freire e na perspectiva teórico-metodológica da psicologia social comunitária latino-americana. Foram realizadas, com os participantes do projeto, reuniões e oficinas semanais de capacitação, grupos focais temáticos e conversações críticas avaliativas. As informações obtidas foram sistematizadas e submetidas à análise de conteúdo, nos seguintes eixos: razões para ingresso no projeto Pibid; atividades realizadas e metodologias para formação e sensibilização; e dificuldades sentidas nas atividades e geração dos produtos. O desenvolvimento das atividades contribuiu para um envolvimento e compromisso com a realidade educacional, colaborando para a quebra de mitos a respeito dessa realidade, com a diminuição de receios e eliminação de preconceitos sobre as escolas públicas. Observou-se que as práticas participativas, comunitárias e educacionais fortaleceram uma proximidade entre universidade e escola, colocando a docência como possível escolha futura desses estudantes e, consequentemente, colaborando para o reconhecimento social do trabalho do professor. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the psychosocial dimensions of the participation and training process of a group of students of bachelor's degree in pedagogy, philosophy and social sciences, in the Interdisciplinary Pedagogy project from the Institutional Program of Teaching Initiation Scholarship (PIBID)/CAPES [...] -UFPR. The work of the students in two public schools in Curitiba-PR favored the construction and implementation of a joint action plan on human rights and solidarity networks in the community. The intervention works were developed supported by the participatory research proposal by Orlando Fals Borda, the philosophical contributions of Paulo Freire's awareness wakening education and the theoretical and methodological perspectives of Latin American Community social psychology. The project participants attended weekly meetings and training workshops, thematic focus groups and evaluative critical conversations. The information collected has been systematized and submitted to content analysis in the following areas: motives to join the Pibid project; activities carried out and methodologies for training and awareness; and difficulties in activities and generation of products. The development of the activities contributed to an involvement and commitment to the educational reality, collaborating to break myths about this reality, reducing prejudices and eliminating fears about state schools. It was observed that participatory, community and educational practices strengthened proximity between universities and schools, putting teaching as a possible future choice for these students and thus contributing to the social recognition of the teachers' work.

Maria de Fatima Quintal de, Freitas.

2014-09-01

259

Design Anthropology in Participatory Design : From Ethnography to Anthropological Critique?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do conventional distinctions between research and design. This half-day workshop invites participant to discuss and explore opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical.

Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

260

Participatory GIS for Soil Conservation in Phewa Watershed of Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.

Bhandari, K. P.

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

2011-01-01

262

Rural Development Practice in Nigeria: How Participatory and What Challenges?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory rural development has evolved in the past 60 years as a development process and discourse that should encapsulate a wide range of views, voices and stakeholder contributions. How has this approach been followed in Nigeria?s rural development practice? This paper reviews the practices and challenges of participatory rural development in Nigeria from a historical perspective emphasizing on the colonial system and post-colonial military and civilian governance. The paper observes...

Akpan, Nseabasi S.

2012-01-01

263

Improving adherence to ante-retroviral treatment for people with harmful alcohol use in Kariobangi, Kenya through participatory research and action  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful alcohol use has been linked to the spread of HIV in Kenya. It also adversely affects those on antiretroviral (ARV treatment through poor compliance. This study using participatory research and action (PRA methods sought to understand factors related to alcohol abuse and non-adherence and to formulate appropriate interventions in a sample of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA who were also abusing alcohol, at Kariobangi in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Entry into the community was gained through previous PRA work in that community and PLWHA were recruited through snowballing. Working together with the community members, the researchers explored the participants’ understanding of alcohol use problem, its effects on compliance to ARV treatment and discussed possible action areas through PRA techniques that included focus group and market place discussions; visual aids such as spider diagrams, community mapping and ranking. Follow-up meetings were held to discuss the progress. Results By the final meeting, 67 PLWHA and 19 community members had been recruited. Through discussions, misconceptions regarding alcohol use were identified. It emerged that alcohol abuse was poorly recognised among both the community and health workers. Screening for alcohol use was not routinely done and protocols for managing alcohol related disorders were not available at the local health centres providing ARVs. The study participants identified improving communication, psychoeducation and screening for alcohol use as possible action areas. Poverty was identified as a major problem but the interventions to mitigate this were not easy to implement. Conclusion We propose that PRA could be useful in improving communication between the health workers and the clients attending primary health care (PHC facilities and can be applied to strengthen involvement of support groups and community health workers in follow up and counselling. Integrating these features into primary health care (PHC would be important not only to PLWHA but also to other diseases in the PHC setting . Longer term follow up is needed to determine the sustained impact of the interventions. Problems encountered in the PRA work included great expectations at all levels fostered by handouts from other donors and cognitive impairment that interfered with constructive engagement in some of the PLWHA.

Othieno Caleb J

2012-08-01

264

O lugar da investigação participada de base comunitária na promoção da saúde mental / The role of community-based participatory research in mental health promotion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A saúde mental é imprescindível ao desenvolvimento social e económico das comunidades. Envolver as comunidades no desenho e desenvolvimento de planos locais de promoção da saúde mental é um importante desafio para garantir mais e melhor saúde mental a cada comunidade. De 2009 a 2012 desenvolveu-se u [...] m estudo de caso baseado nos pressupostos de uma investigação participada de base comunitária numa comunidade urbana da região metropolitana de Lisboa, com o objetivo de fundamentar o desenho de um plano local de promoção da saúde mental local. O resultado deste trabalho de parceria, que envolveu habitantes e organizações governamentais e não-governamentais da comunidade urbana, fundamentado na capacitação individual e comunitária da comunidade e dos seus membros, confirmou a necessidade de uma participação ativa e efetiva da comunidade no desenvolvimento de políticas locais de promoção da saúde e concluiu pela definição de 6 eixos estratégicos de intervenção pelo período temporal 2012/2015: uma escola com saúde mental; uma comunidade ativa e segura; uma comunidade solidária e inclusiva; uma comunidade atenta; uma organização económico-laboral promotora de saúde mental; uma senioridade mentalmente saudável. Abstract in english Mental health is essential to community social and economic development. Involving communities in the design and development of mental health promotion local plans is a major challenge to ensure more and better mental health in each community. From 2009 to 2012 a case study was developed based on th [...] e assumptions of a community-based participatory research in an urban community in the metropolitan area of Lisbon, in order to support the design of a mental health promotion local plan. The result of this partnership, which involved inhabitants and governmental and non-governmental organizations of the urban community, based on individual and community empowerment of the community and its members, confirmed the need for an active and effective participation of the community in the development of health promotion local policies and concluded by defining six strategic areas of intervention between 2012 and 2015: a school with mental health, an active and safe community, a supportive and inclusive community, a community aware, an organization promoting economic and work mental health, a seniority mentally healthy.

José Carlos Rodrigues, Gomes; Maria Isabel Guedes, Loureiro.

265

Factors influencing performance of health workers in the management of seriously sick children at a Kenyan tertiary hospital - participatory action research  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Implementation of World Health Organization case management guidelines for serious childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. Facilitators of and barriers to implementation of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have not been explored. Methods This ethnographic study based on the theory of participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya’s largest teaching hospital. The primary intervention consisted of dissemination of locally adapted CPGs. The PRECEDE-PROCEED health education model was used as the conceptual framework to guide and examine further reinforcement activities to improve the uptake of the CPGs. Activities focussed on introduction of routine clinical audits and tailored educational sessions. Data were collected by a participant observer who also facilitated the PAR over an eighteen-month period. Naturalistic inquiry was utilized to obtain information from all hospital staff encountered while theoretical sampling allowed in-depth exploration of emerging issues. Data were analysed using interpretive description. Results Relevance of the CPGs to routine work and emergence of a champion of change facilitated uptake of best-practices. Mobilization of basic resources was relatively easily undertaken while activities that required real intellectual and professional engagement of the senior staff were a challenge. Accomplishments of the PAR were largely with the passive rather than active involvement of the hospital management. Barriers to implementation of best-practices included i) mismatch between the hospital’s vision and reality, ii) poor communication, iii) lack of objective mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating quality of clinical care, iv) limited capacity for planning strategic change, v) limited management skills to introduce and manage change, vi) hierarchical relationships, and vii) inadequate adaptation of the interventions to the local context. Conclusions Educational interventions, often regarded as ‘quick-fixes’ to improve care in low-income countries, may be necessary but are unlikely to be sufficient to deliver improved services. We propose that an understanding of organizational issues that influence the behaviour of individual health professionals should guide and inform the implementation of best-practices. PMID:24507629

2014-01-01

266

O lugar da investigação participada de base comunitária na promoção da saúde mental / The role of community-based participatory research in mental health promotion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A saúde mental é imprescindível ao desenvolvimento social e económico das comunidades. Envolver as comunidades no desenho e desenvolvimento de planos locais de promoção da saúde mental é um importante desafio para garantir mais e melhor saúde mental a cada comunidade. De 2009 a 2012 desenvolveu-se u [...] m estudo de caso baseado nos pressupostos de uma investigação participada de base comunitária numa comunidade urbana da região metropolitana de Lisboa, com o objetivo de fundamentar o desenho de um plano local de promoção da saúde mental local. O resultado deste trabalho de parceria, que envolveu habitantes e organizações governamentais e não-governamentais da comunidade urbana, fundamentado na capacitação individual e comunitária da comunidade e dos seus membros, confirmou a necessidade de uma participação ativa e efetiva da comunidade no desenvolvimento de políticas locais de promoção da saúde e concluiu pela definição de 6 eixos estratégicos de intervenção pelo período temporal 2012/2015: uma escola com saúde mental; uma comunidade ativa e segura; uma comunidade solidária e inclusiva; uma comunidade atenta; uma organização económico-laboral promotora de saúde mental; uma senioridade mentalmente saudável. Abstract in english Mental health is essential to community social and economic development. Involving communities in the design and development of mental health promotion local plans is a major challenge to ensure more and better mental health in each community. From 2009 to 2012 a case study was developed based on th [...] e assumptions of a community-based participatory research in an urban community in the metropolitan area of Lisbon, in order to support the design of a mental health promotion local plan. The result of this partnership, which involved inhabitants and governmental and non-governmental organizations of the urban community, based on individual and community empowerment of the community and its members, confirmed the need for an active and effective participation of the community in the development of health promotion local policies and concluded by defining six strategic areas of intervention between 2012 and 2015: a school with mental health, an active and safe community, a supportive and inclusive community, a community aware, an organization promoting economic and work mental health, a seniority mentally healthy.

José Carlos Rodrigues, Gomes; Maria Isabel Guedes, Loureiro.

2013-01-01

267

Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

2011-01-01

268

Foresight Analysis at the Regional Level - A Participatory Methodological Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of the present paper is on the potential of participatory scenario planning as a tool for regional future studies. More specifically, a methodological framework for participatory scenario planning is presented, integrating an analytical participatory scenario planning approach (the LIPSOR model with the Focus Groups and Future Workshop participatory tools. This framework is applied to a Greek rural region, for building scenarios and structuring policies for its future rural development. The specific region is in front of a great challenge referring to the potential location of a large infrastructure (airport, which can drive a considerable socio-economic restructuring, affecting mostly the agricultural sector due to the land loss and the pressures exerted from competitive land uses around the airport area.

Anastasia Stratigea

2013-05-01

269

Participatory Practices in Adult Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory education is a collective effort in which the participants are committed to building a just society through individual and socieoeconomic transformation and to ending domination through changing power relations. This book describes participatory practices in many environments, including educational and penal institutions,…

Campbell, Pat, Ed.; Burnaby, Barbara, Ed.

270

Participatory visualization with Wordle.  

Science.gov (United States)

We discuss the design and usage of "Wordle," a web-based tool for visualizing text. Wordle creates tag-cloud-like displays that give careful attention to typography, color, and composition. We describe the algorithms used to balance various aesthetic criteria and create the distinctive Wordle layouts. We then present the results of a study of Wordle usage, based both on spontaneous behaviour observed in the wild, and on a large-scale survey of Wordle users. The results suggest that Wordles have become a kind of medium of expression, and that a "participatory culture" has arisen around them. PMID:19834182

Viégas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin; Feinberg, Jonathan

2009-01-01

271

The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

272

A Participation Paradox: Seeking the Missing Link between Free/Open Source Software and Participatory Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The success of Free Open Source Software (FOSS has resulted in thousands of robust and ubiquitous products such as Linux, Firefox and Apache. However, the usability of many other FOSS products is often poor, and the most successful projects are the ones where the user and the developer are one and the same. The lack of broader participation is worrying, because it threatens the entire production model of FOSS. In this paper we investigate the reasons for this situation, drawing extensively from research on participatory design and commons based peer production (CBPP, and on a case study of three FOSS projects. Potential lessons are also drawn from the CBPP model in general, and the FOSS approach in particular, to mitigate the challenges facing distributed participatory design (DPD.

Zegaye Seifu Wubishet

2013-11-01

273

Community-based participatory irrigation management at local government level in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ghana has attempted to decentralise the management of irrigation schemes to communities at local government level. This study examines the existing local participatory management structures and the principles of the Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM strategy designed to promote sustainable management of irrigation schemes in Ghana. Two community-based irrigation projects, Bontanga and Golinga in the Northern Region of Ghana were selected for the research. The study demonstrated that farmers’ participation was minimal and limited to the discussion of irrigation service charges at the expense of other issues related to the sustainability of the projects/schemes. The study also established that there was less participation of women, and more than half of all the crop farmers on the two irrigation projects were reluctant to assume additional responsibilities without remuneration. The study therefore concluded that the sustainability of the PIM strategy depends on the adoption of an integrated management approach involving all stakeholders including local government, with appropriate incentives.

I Braimah

2014-07-01

274

Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind this model in combination with other theories which have been used successfully in other interventions. The project is only in its initial phases in conducting the intervention, but so far the preliminary results indicate that management support and allocation of resources is vital, that internal facilitators are important drivers of the change process and that easy-to-use tools are requested from the involved company actors. Given that the interventions in the selected companies are conducted successfully we argue that a new organizational capability to address work-related stress in a collective and collaborative manner is developed in the participating companies. With a successfully conducted intervention we mean that the companies have been able to implement their own change proposals in a collective and collaborative process. By developing this organizational capability we expect that the companies would be able to repeat the process with new change proposals. The research builds on observations, participatory action research, interviews and surveys.

Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

2013-01-01

275

Computational Approaches for Predicting Biomedical Research Collaborations  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomedical research is increasingly collaborative, and successful collaborations often produce high impact work. Computational approaches can be developed for automatically predicting biomedical research collaborations. Previous works of collaboration prediction mainly explored the topological structures of research collaboration networks, leaving out rich semantic information from the publications themselves. In this paper, we propose supervised machine learning approaches to predict research collaborations in the biomedical field. We explored both the semantic features extracted from author research interest profile and the author network topological features. We found that the most informative semantic features for author collaborations are related to research interest, including similarity of out-citing citations, similarity of abstracts. Of the four supervised machine learning models (naïve Bayes, naïve Bayes multinomial, SVMs, and logistic regression), the best performing model is logistic regression with an ROC ranging from 0.766 to 0.980 on different datasets. To our knowledge we are the first to study in depth how research interest and productivities can be used for collaboration prediction. Our approach is computationally efficient, scalable and yet simple to implement. The datasets of this study are available at https://github.com/qingzhanggithub/medline-collaboration-datasets. PMID:25375164

Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hong

2014-01-01

276

Steering vaccinomics innovations with anticipatory governance and participatory foresight.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st century is occurring in the face of uncertainties where the "facts are uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high and decisions urgent and where no single one of these dimensions can be managed in isolation from the rest." This article concludes, however, that uncertainty is not an accident of the scientific method, but its very substance. Anticipatory governance with participatory foresight offers a mechanism to respond to such inherent sociotechnical uncertainties in the emerging field of vaccinomics by making the coproduction of scientific knowledge by technology and the social systems explicit. Ultimately, this serves to integrate scientific and social knowledge thereby steering innovations to coproduce results and outputs that are socially robust and context sensitive. PMID:21848419

Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M

2011-09-01

277

Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

2014-01-01

278

La Investigación participativa como práctica social y su aportación al mundo laboral a través del modelo obrero Participatory Research as Social Practice, and Its Contribution to the Workplace Through Worker Models.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La investigación participativa (IP, también llamada investigación-acción (IA ha sido un aporte teórico-metodológico muy valioso para explorar y transformar diferentes contextos sociales: salud, educación, comunidades, procesos de comunicación y el sector laboral, entre otros. Sus principios implican la reflexión sobre diferentes prácticas por parte de los grupos sociales, la generación de nuevos conocimientos y la adquisición de un nuevo status tanto del investigador como del grupo “investigado”, ya que se asume la capacidad de ambos para generar y compartir conocimiento, entraña la intencionalidad de modificar dichas prácticas en beneficio de las colectividades, como una forma de alcanzar objetivos inmediatos pero también satisfactores a largo plazo. La instrumentación de la investigación-acción atraviesa por recobrar su enorme riqueza epistemológica, política, ideológica y ética. Una modalidad de la investigación participante ha sido el Modelo Obrero Italiano, el cual se ha impulsado, en diferentes momentos históricos, al interior de diversos centros de trabajo y distintos contextos sociales. Su puesta en operación en algunos países lo perfila aún como viable, aunque las actuales condiciones sociales, políticas y económicas, señalan la necesidad de la generación de propuestas que permitan, bajo la lógica de la investigación participante, generar un nuevo modelo que de respuesta a las necesidades que la realidad plantea.Participatory research, also known as “actionoriented research” has made valuable theoretical and methodological contributions that allow us to explore and transform different social contexts: in health, education, communities, communication processes and the labor sector, among others. Its underpinnings allow thoughtful reflection on different practices by social groups, the generation of new knowledge and the acquisition of a new status for both the researcher as well as the group being researched, since both contribute to the generation and sharing of knowledge, and it includes the intent of changing practices to the benefit of a collective, as a way of achieving both immediate and long-term objectives. The articulation of actionoriented research goes through a process of recovering its enormous epistemological, political, ideological and ethical value. One example of participatory research is the Italian Worker Model, which has been implemented, at different times in history, in diverse workplaces and in different social contexts. Its use in some countries makes it still viable, although current social, political and economic conditions indicate the need to develop new proposals that allow, under the framework of participatory research, the generation of a new mode that is responsive to these new realities.

Susana Martínez Alcántara

2007-12-01

279

Introduction of Participatory Conservation in Croatia, Residents' Perceptions: A Case Study from the Istrian Peninsula  

Science.gov (United States)

Croatia, like many other transition countries has undergone radical changes in its nature protection models. This paper discusses a historical overview, present situation and future possibilities for nature conservation in Croatia. A conservative top-down approach to nature protection was applied in the past in Croatia and is now being replaced by a prevalent bottom-up approach. Social context is crucial to introducing participatory conservation, therefore special concern is given to the perception of the local population towards protected area management in Istria as a case study in Croatia. Survey data were used to assess the conservation knowledge of local populations and their perception towards Protected Areas (PAs), leadership activities and management authorities in Istria County. This paper examines the perceptions of 313 residents living in and around six natural PAs located in Istria. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about PAs in Istria and environmental issues, and a low awareness of institutions managing PAs, eagerness to participate in the activities of PAs and general support for the conservation cause. Understanding the perception of local residents enables the creation of feasible, long-term strategies for the implementation of participatory conservation. The research identifies the need for greater human, technical and financial efforts to strengthen the management capabilities of local agencies responsible for PAs. The process of participatory conservation optimization in Croatia is underway and world experiences must be observed in order to create a congruent, site-specific model with the best possible results.

Sladonja, Barbara; Brš?i?, Kristina; Poljuha, Danijela; Fanuko, Neda; Grgurev, Marin

2012-06-01

280

Systems biology approaches in aging research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aging is a systemic process which progressively manifests itself at multiple levels of structural and functional organization from molecular reactions and cell-cell interactions in tissues to the physiology of an entire organ. There is ever increasing data on biomedical relevant network interactions for the aging process at different scales of time and space. To connect the aging process at different structural, temporal and spatial scales, extensive systems biological approaches need to be deployed. Systems biological approaches can not only systematically handle the large-scale datasets (like high-throughput data) and the complexity of interactions (feedback loops, cross talk), but also can delve into nonlinear behaviors exhibited by several biological processes which are beyond intuitive reasoning. Several public-funded agencies have identified the synergistic role of systems biology in aging research. Using one of the notable public-funded programs (GERONTOSYS), we discuss how systems biological approaches are helping the scientists to find new frontiers in aging research. We elaborate on some systems biological approaches deployed in one of the projects of the consortium (ROSage). The systems biology field in aging research is at its infancy. It is open to adapt existing systems biological methodologies from other research fields and devise new aging-specific systems biological methodologies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25341520

Chauhan, Anuradha; Liebal, Ulf W; Vera, Julio; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanß, Christian; Tiedge, Markus; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Köhling, Rüdiger

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

An action research approach to curriculum development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.

Phil Riding

1995-01-01

282

Reflections on a participatory documentary process : constructing territorial histories of dispossession among Afro-descendant youth in Colombia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper seeks to discuss the use of a participatory documentary process (PDP) in human geography as a method of constructing critical visual information on territorial histories of dispossession. The process was also used to enhance social change both in conjunction with local communities and within the communities themselves. The project involved 14 local young participants and four professionals who collectively produced a documentary on the rural context of violence in La Toma District, Colombia. By enabling the reflections and intentions of young participants in the research process, PDP gave special value to their social and political commitment to supporting community social organisation, and provided fresh research insights into comprehending territorial conflict. The paper concludes that this method amplifies participatory and action research approaches in geography by producing knowledge that is academically and socially relevant. Such collective, emancipatory and anti-hegemonic visual representations and actions for social change in PDP are especially pertinent in spaces of conflict and violence.

Velez Torres, Irene

2013-01-01

283

Learning outcomes from participatory modelling: A case study in the Tamar catchment, UK  

Science.gov (United States)

Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others and discovering shared interests, but not necessarily changing their own view, behaviour or institutional practice. We conclude the paper with a discussion of two learning aspects of the participatory modelling process for which conflicting results were obtained: the question of depth of model scrutiny and the question of trust in the model, in the modeller and between the participants. References Krueger, T, Inman, A, Chilvers, J. 2012. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling. Paper Number EGU2012-5958. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, April 22nd-27th: Vienna, Austria.

Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason

2014-05-01

284

La investigación-acción-participativa: Una forma de investigar en la práctica enfermera Investigação-ação-participativa: Uma forma de pesquisar na prática enfermeira The Participatory-Action-Research: A way to research in the nursing practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentro del paradigma cualitativo de la investigación, la Investigación- Acción-Participativa (IAP integra el conocimiento y la acción; no hay que esperar a que tras producir el conocimiento se produzca la traslación de este a la práctica. Es un método que se utiliza desde hace varias décadas en disciplinas como la educación o la sociología, sin embargo es emergente en el ámbito de la salud. Existen una gran variedad de definiciones, clasificaciones y modelos de IAP y con este artículo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigación, su historia, su filosofía y su utilización, dados su potencial y novedad en el ámbito de las ciencias de la salud.Dentro do paradigma qualitativo da investigação, a Investigação-Ação-Participativa (IAP integra o conhecimento e a ação; não há que esperar a que depois de produzir o conhecimento se produza a translação deste à prática. É um método que se utiliza desde faz várias décadas em disciplinas como a educação ou a sociologia, no entanto é emergente no âmbito da saúde. Existem uma grande variedade de definições, classificações e modelos de IAP e com este artigo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigação, sua história, sua filosofia e sua utilização, dados seu potencial e novidade no âmbito das ciências da saúde.Within the qualitative research paradigm, the Participatory-Action- Research (PAR integrates knowledge and action. It is not necessary to wait for knowledge to be produced to transfer it into practice. It is a method used for decades in disciplines such as education and sociology; however it is emerging in the health field. There are a variety of definitions, classifications and PAR models; this article aims to shed light upon this method of research, its history, philosophy and its use, given its potential and innovation in the field of health sciences.

Eva Abad Corpa

2010-11-01

285

La investigación-acción-participativa: Una forma de investigar en la práctica enfermera / The Participatory-Action-Research: A way to research in the nursing practice / Investigação-ação-participativa: Uma forma de pesquisar na prática enfermeira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Dentro do paradigma qualitativo da investigação, a Investigação-Ação-Participativa (IAP) integra o conhecimento e a ação; não há que esperar a que depois de produzir o conhecimento se produza a translação deste à prática. É um método que se utiliza desde faz várias décadas em disciplinas como a educ [...] ação ou a sociologia, no entanto é emergente no âmbito da saúde. Existem uma grande variedade de definições, classificações e modelos de IAP e com este artigo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigação, sua história, sua filosofia e sua utilização, dados seu potencial e novidade no âmbito das ciências da saúde. Abstract in spanish Dentro del paradigma cualitativo de la investigación, la Investigación- Acción-Participativa (IAP) integra el conocimiento y la acción; no hay que esperar a que tras producir el conocimiento se produzca la traslación de este a la práctica. Es un método que se utiliza desde hace varias décadas en dis [...] ciplinas como la educación o la sociología, sin embargo es emergente en el ámbito de la salud. Existen una gran variedad de definiciones, clasificaciones y modelos de IAP y con este artículo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigación, su historia, su filosofía y su utilización, dados su potencial y novedad en el ámbito de las ciencias de la salud. Abstract in english Within the qualitative research paradigm, the Participatory-Action- Research (PAR) integrates knowledge and action. It is not necessary to wait for knowledge to be produced to transfer it into practice. It is a method used for decades in disciplines such as education and sociology; however it is eme [...] rging in the health field. There are a variety of definitions, classifications and PAR models; this article aims to shed light upon this method of research, its history, philosophy and its use, given its potential and innovation in the field of health sciences.

Eva, Abad Corpa; Pilar, Delgado Hito; Julio, Cabrero García.

2010-11-01

286

Intracortical visual prosthesis research - approach and progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the early work of Brindley in the late 1960's, the NIH began intramural and extramural funding for stimulation of the primary visual coretex using fine-wire electrodes that are inserted into area VI for the prupose of restoring vision in individuals with blindness. More recently researchers with experience in this projectbecame part of our multi-institutional team with the intention to identify and close technological gaps so that the intracortical approach might be tested in humans on a chronic basis. Our team has formulated an approach for testing a prototype system in a human volunteer. Here, we describe our progress and expectations. PMID:17281985

Troyk, P R; Bradley, D; Bak, M; Cogan, S; Erickson, R; Hu, Z; Kufta, C; McCreery, D; Schmidt, E; Sung, S; Towle, V

2005-01-01

287

Augmenting the Participatory Design Concept in Systems Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory Design (PD is an effective tool for designing organizational systems where views, aspirations and the input of both the system users and developers are sought and reconciled in the development of a system. This paper attempts to highlight and identify the fit between the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM as applied in systems development and the tools of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD as applied in manufacturing and how that fit does enhance Participatory Design in systems development. By recognizing the complementarities of the tools of these two approaches (SSM and QFD, we can enhance Participatory Design in systems development. Findings from literature review show that a comprehensive application of this concept is yet to be done in information systems development. The approach builds on the seven phases of Soft Systems Methodology by applying the Quality Function Deployment techniques to elicit information from complex and amorphous real-world situations to augment the Participatory Design process.Keywords: Participatory Design; Soft Systems Methodology; Quality Function Deployment; House of Quality

Zheng QIN

2010-06-01

288

The Impact of Participatory-Democratic Work Experience on Adolescent Development: A Methodological Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives of a study of the impact of participatory-democratic work experience on adolescent development are (1) to explore the possibilities for facilitating adolescent development by promoting participatory-democratic work structure in Youth Conservation Corps (YCC) programs and to augment past research on YCC by monitoring the structure of…

Basseches, Michael; Hamilton, Stephen F.

289

Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation : The Hermeneutic Interplay of Complexity, Relations ans Institutions in Knowledge Transformation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A conceptual framework for a coherent understanding of knowledge as a socially constructed resource in flux over boundaries when innovating with others is constructed. Starting with an overview of different perspectives on innovation, showing a development towards a more iterative social process perspective on innovation. Then, a similar development in the field of knowledge and knowing is presented, where the perspective changes from a divisional systemthinking towards a more relational view of complementing combinations of knowledge and knowing, recognizing the challenge of boundaries. Further, relating, cognitive social capital and the justification of knowledge are described as different but interdependent dimensions of transforming knowledge across boundaries in participatory innovation. A multi-level concept of social dynamics of participatory innovation is proposed, and a model that illustrates the generic process of how new knowledge moves between individuals, and groups within organizations when itis transformed across boundaries is offered. Next, limitations are presented, and future research is discussed, pointing towards play and games as conceptually and practically promising approaches towards grasping the social dynamics of participatory innovation.

Sproedt, Henrik

290

Capacity-building and Participatory Research Development of a Community-based Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP for Pregnant and Postpartum Aboriginal Women:Information Gathered from Talking Circles.  

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Full Text Available Objectives were to gather information from Talking Circles of Aboriginal women who participated in a maternal Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP to identify strategies to bring NELIP into the community. Twelve First Nations women participated. Several main themes were identified regarding health: balance, knowledge/education and time management. Benefits of the NELIP were improvement in health, stamina, stress, and a healthy baby, no gestational diabetes and a successful home birth, with social support as an important contributing factor for success. Suggestions for improvement for the NELIP included group walking, and incorporating more traditional foods into the meal plan. The information gathered is the first step in determining strategies using participatory research and capacity-building to develop a community-based NELIP for pregnant Aboriginal women.

Katie Big-Canoe

2011-05-01

291

Plataforma de investigación en salud: una experiencia de formación participativa en una universidad mexicana / Health research platform: a participatory training experience in a mexican university / Plataforma de pesquisa em saúde: uma experiência de formação participativa numa universidade mexicana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresenta uma experiência de formação em investigação desenvolvida em uma faculdade de enfermagem do México, designada de Plataforma de Investigação em Saúde. Esta Plataforma está baseada em princípios de colaboração e participação. Além de promover um processo de inclusão, a iniciativ [...] a começou mediante a recuperação das experiências, práticas e propostas do pessoal interessado na investigação. O produto foi a identificação de prioridades e a elaboração de um programa de trabalho anual. Entre as atividades propostas estão um seminário permanente de investigação, cursos sob a forma de oficinas, mecanismos de apoio e assessorias individualizadas e o fortalecimento de redes. Após quase um ano da implementação da Plataforma são observados avanços em aspectos como as assessorias, os cursos e o seminário; mas, persistem dificuldades para realizar outras ações planejadas. São destacadas áreas que podem ser fortalecidas e são identificadas situações nas quais se poderia replanejar o trabalho futuro. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo presenta una experiencia de formación en investigación la cual se llevó a cabo en una facultad de enfermería de México. La Plataforma de Investigación en Salud, denominación dada a la iniciativa, se basa en principios de colaboración y participación. Además de impulsar un proceso incluy [...] ente, la Plataforma comenzó mediante la recuperación de experiencias, prácticas y propuestas del personal. El producto fue la identificación de prioridades y la elaboración de un programa de trabajo anual. Entre las actividades propuestas se encuentran un seminario permanente de investigación, cursos talleres, mecanismos de apoyo y asesorías individualizadas y el fortalecimiento de redes. A casi un año de la implementación de la Plataforma se observan avances en rubros como las asesorías, los cursos y el seminario; empero, persisten dificultades para realizar otras acciones planeadas. Se destacan áreas que se pueden fortalecer e identifican situaciones en las cuales se podría replantear el trabajo en el futuro. Abstract in english This paper presents a training experience on research in a Mexican nursing school. The Health Research Platform, as the initiative was called, was carried out using a participatory and collaborative approach. Besides its interest in an inclusive process, the Platform started by retrieving experience [...] s, practices and suggestions of those involved in the research. The product was the identification of priorities and the elaboration of an annual plan. The latter included a permanent research seminar, courses, and mechanisms of support at an individual level as well as the strengthening of networks. Almost one year after having started the Platform, some advances can be seen in certain areas such as in counseling, coursework and the permanent seminar. However, there are other activities which have not been implemented due to problems of diverse nature. In addition, some areas stand out in need of further development and they bring to light situations where future programs can be redefined.

Francisco Javier, Mercado-Martínez; Sandra Olimpia, Gutiérrez-Enríquez; Yolanda, Terán-Figueroa.

2007-12-01

292

Plataforma de investigación en salud: una experiencia de formación participativa en una universidad mexicana / Health research platform: a participatory training experience in a mexican university / Plataforma de pesquisa em saúde: uma experiência de formação participativa numa universidade mexicana  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresenta uma experiência de formação em investigação desenvolvida em uma faculdade de enfermagem do México, designada de Plataforma de Investigação em Saúde. Esta Plataforma está baseada em princípios de colaboração e participação. Além de promover um processo de inclusão, a iniciativ [...] a começou mediante a recuperação das experiências, práticas e propostas do pessoal interessado na investigação. O produto foi a identificação de prioridades e a elaboração de um programa de trabalho anual. Entre as atividades propostas estão um seminário permanente de investigação, cursos sob a forma de oficinas, mecanismos de apoio e assessorias individualizadas e o fortalecimento de redes. Após quase um ano da implementação da Plataforma são observados avanços em aspectos como as assessorias, os cursos e o seminário; mas, persistem dificuldades para realizar outras ações planejadas. São destacadas áreas que podem ser fortalecidas e são identificadas situações nas quais se poderia replanejar o trabalho futuro. Abstract in spanish Este trabajo presenta una experiencia de formación en investigación la cual se llevó a cabo en una facultad de enfermería de México. La Plataforma de Investigación en Salud, denominación dada a la iniciativa, se basa en principios de colaboración y participación. Además de impulsar un proceso incluy [...] ente, la Plataforma comenzó mediante la recuperación de experiencias, prácticas y propuestas del personal. El producto fue la identificación de prioridades y la elaboración de un programa de trabajo anual. Entre las actividades propuestas se encuentran un seminario permanente de investigación, cursos talleres, mecanismos de apoyo y asesorías individualizadas y el fortalecimiento de redes. A casi un año de la implementación de la Plataforma se observan avances en rubros como las asesorías, los cursos y el seminario; empero, persisten dificultades para realizar otras acciones planeadas. Se destacan áreas que se pueden fortalecer e identifican situaciones en las cuales se podría replantear el trabajo en el futuro. Abstract in english This paper presents a training experience on research in a Mexican nursing school. The Health Research Platform, as the initiative was called, was carried out using a participatory and collaborative approach. Besides its interest in an inclusive process, the Platform started by retrieving experience [...] s, practices and suggestions of those involved in the research. The product was the identification of priorities and the elaboration of an annual plan. The latter included a permanent research seminar, courses, and mechanisms of support at an individual level as well as the strengthening of networks. Almost one year after having started the Platform, some advances can be seen in certain areas such as in counseling, coursework and the permanent seminar. However, there are other activities which have not been implemented due to problems of diverse nature. In addition, some areas stand out in need of further development and they bring to light situations where future programs can be redefined.

Francisco Javier, Mercado-Martínez; Sandra Olimpia, Gutiérrez-Enríquez; Yolanda, Terán-Figueroa.

293

YouTube as a participatory culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is an explosion of youth subscriptions to original content-media-sharing Web sites such as YouTube. These Web sites combine media production and distribution with social networking features, making them an ideal place to create, connect, collaborate, and circulate. By encouraging youth to become media creators and social networkers, new media platforms such as YouTube offer a participatory culture in which youth can develop, interact, and learn. As youth development researchers, we must be cognizant of this context and critically examine what this platform offers that might be unique to (or redundant of) typical adolescent experiences in other developmental contexts. PMID:21240954

Chau, Clement

2010-01-01

294

Local Democracy, Rural Community, and Participatory School Governance  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers the indigenization of democracy in India by conceptualizing participatory deliberative decision-making practice as a tool to strengthen the functioning of local schools and to enhance democratic responsiveness within communities. Drawing on case-studies of bottom-up approaches to school governance, this study examines an…

Arvind, Gaysu R.

2009-01-01

295

Community-based participatory action research: transforming multidisciplinary practice in primary health care / Investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad: transformación de la práctica multidisciplinaria en atención primaria de salud  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: Los sistemas de salud de todo el mundo se encuentran en un proceso de reestructuración y reforma de sus sistemas de prestación de servicios, reorientándose hacia el modelo de atención primaria de salud (APS) que utiliza equipos de consultorios multidisciplinarios (CMD) para brindar un con [...] junto de servicios coordinados e integrados. En este estudio se exploran los retos de poner en práctica el enfoque de CMD en una comunidad urbana de Canadá. MÉTODOS:Los datos analizados se tomaron de un proyecto de investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad (IAPBC) llevado a cabo en 2004. Su objetivo era perfeccionar un CMD colaborativo en un centro de APS que atiende a una comunidad de 11 000 personas, compuesta por una zona residencial y pequeños negocios, en una ciudad canadiense de aproximadamente 300 000 personas. La IAPBC permite abordar de manera planificada y sistemática problemas importantes para la comunidad en cuestión, requiere la participación de la comunidad, se enfoca hacia la solución de los problemas, se dirige a lograr cambios en la sociedad y hace contribuciones duraderas a la comunidad. Se partió de un aspecto de este complejo proyecto de varios años, para transformar la defensa retórica de la reforma de la APS en una práctica real y sustentable. La comunidad estudiada era diversa en cuanto a la edad, las características socioeconómicas y los estilos de vida. Su equipo multidisciplinario atendía aproximadamente a 3 000 pacientes al año, 30% de los cuales tenían 65 años o más. Gracias a su enfoque multidisciplinario e integrado con respecto a la atención, este centro de APS pasó a formar parte de un selecto grupo dentro del extenso sistema de atención primaria de Canadá. RESULTADOS: El análisis del trabajo de APS puso de manifiesto ideas arraigadas e inconcientes acerca de los límites y las limitaciones de la atención prestada. En el sentido retórico de la APS, el CMD era elogiado por muchos. En la práctica, sin embargo, era difícil lograr el enfoque de equipo colaborativo multidisciplinario. CONCLUSIONES: La exitosa implementación de un enfoque de CMD en la APS exige apartarse del estilo de atención centrada en el médico. Esto sólo puede lograrse cuando cambian las estructuras subyacentes, los valores, las relaciones de poder y los papeles a desempeñar, definidos por los sistemas de salud y la comunidad en general, donde los médicos tienen tradicionalmente una posición por encima de la de otros proveedores de atención sanitaria. La metodología de IAPBC permite a los miembros de la comunidad y a los profesionales relacionados con la salud que los atienden apropiarse de la investigación y reflejarse críticamente en ciclos iterativos de evaluación. Esto ofrece a los médicos una oportunidad de implementar cambios importantes basados en análisis generados internamente. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Health care systems throughout the world are in the process of restructuring and reforming their health service delivery systems, reorienting themselves to a primary health care (PHC) model that uses multidisciplinary practice (MDP) teams to provide a range of coordinated, integrated ser [...] vices. This study explores the challenges of putting the MDP approach into practice in one community in a city in Canada. METHODS: The data we analyzed were derived from a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) project, conducted in 2004, that was used to enhance collaborative MDP in a PHC center serving a residential and small-business community of 11 000 within a medium-sized city of approximately 300 000 people in Canada. CBPAR is a planned, systematic approach to issues relevant to the community of interest, requires community involvement, has a problem-solving focus, is directed at societal change, and makes a lasting contribution to the community. We drew from one aspect of this complex, multiyear project aimed at transforming the rhetoric advocating PHC re

Marcia, Hills; Jennifer, Mullett; Simon, Carroll.

296

The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

2010-01-01

297

Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triang...

Sudarshan Mishra; Passi, B. K.

2004-01-01

298

Empowering Smallholder Women Farmers through Participatory Seed Potato Management: Lessons from Welmera District, Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Women are often ignored from research and development agenda although they play key roles in agriculture in developing countries. They are excluded from decision making and as a result, they frequently do not have access to resources, technologies and extension services, credits, inputs and markets. This paper aims to document, using qualitative methods, how participatory approach through Farmers Research Group (FRG can address gender inequalities and subsequently empower women smallholder farmers using a case study from Ethiopia. Through the participatory intervention, women farmers have enhanced their skills and knowledge of improved agricultural technologies as well as their collective capacity (social capital in accessing input and output markets. As a result, the number of FRG members increased from 25 women farmers organized in one FRG in 2006 to 253 women farmers organized in 11 village-level Farmers Research Extension Groups (FREGs in 2013. The participatory intervention in the study area has improved women’s productivity of seed potatoes and marketing; enabled them to earn cash an average of Ethiopian Birr (ETB 11 000 per year only from the sale of seed potatoes; and this has created more options to improve the livelihoods of women farmers and their households by diversifying into higher-value farm and off-farm work. Consequently, women decision making in the household as well as in the community has been enhanced. Women farmers are now heard at national level for their innovative experiences and have become one of the national seed potato and knowledge sources. There is a need to replicate this model approach to enhance the productivity of smallholder women farmers and subsequently empower them to facilitate exit pathways out of poverty and ensure sustainable development.

Ali Mohammed Oumer

2014-09-01

299

An evaluation framework for participatory modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in the UK.

Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

2012-04-01

300

Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nasimudeen R Jabir,1 Shams Tabrez,1 Ghulam Md Ashraf,2 Shazi Shakil,3 Ghazi A Damanhouri,4 Mohammad A Kamal11Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, 2Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, 3Enzoinformatics Unit, 4Hematology Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer.Keywords: cancer, diagnosis, drug delivery, nanoparticle, nanotechnology, treatment

Jabir NR

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

Recent approaches in tooth engineering research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tooth absence and defects caused by various reasons are frequent events in humans. They are not life threatening but may bring about social consequences. Recent dentistry provides solutions in the form of prosthetics or dental implants; however, several complications and distinct limitations favour bioengineering of dental and periodontal structures. At least two types of cells (epithelial and mesenchymal) have to be recombined to produce a new functional tooth. Moreover, the tooth must be vascularized, innervated and properly anchored in the bone. To study these issues, different approaches have been established in both basic and applied research. In this review, recent strategies and techniques of tooth engineering are comprehensively summarized and discussed, particularly regarding manipulation using stem cells. PMID:25369337

Svandová, E; Veselá, B; K?ivánek, J; Hampl, A; Matalová, E

2014-01-01

302

Educação, pesquisa participante e saúde: as ideias de Carlos Rodrigues Brandão / Education, participatory research, and health: the ideas of Carlos Rodrigues Brandão / Educación, investigación participante y salud: las ideas de Carlos Rodrigues Brandão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as obras do autor brasileiro Carlos Rodrigues Brandão relacionadas ao campo da educação e da pesquisa participante, destacando os seus pressupostos teóricos e estabelecendo relações com o campo da saúde. Realizamos uma investigação de caráter qualitativo e de t [...] ipo exploratório-descritivo, adotando a pesquisa bibliográfica como procedimento metodológico. 'Educação' foi a categoria teórica principal. Ademais, obtivemos as seguintes categorias empíricas advindas das análises textuais: 'educações'; 'sempre aprendemos uns com os outros'; 'uma antropologia participante'; 'liberdade, autonomia e esperança'; 'pesquisa participante'; 'diálogo: (re)construção do conhecimento ou construção de saberes'; 'pesquisa, conhecimento e tempo'; 'o sentido da palavra: direito de pronunciar o sentido do mundo'. Verificamos importantes fundamentos de uma concepção crítica de educação que podem contribuir como base para práticas democráticas de saúde, como, por exemplo, a ideia de 'diálogo' como pedra angular pedagógica, que possibilita processos de interação de sujeitos e a construção social do conhecimento. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las obras del autor brasileño Carlos Rodrigues Brandão, relacionadas al campo de la educación y de la investigación participante, destacando sus premisas teóricas y estableciendo relaciones con el campo de la salud. Se realizó una investigación de carácter [...] cualitativo y de tipo exploratorio-descriptivo, adoptando la investigación bibliográfica como procedimiento metodológico. "Educación" fue la categoría teórica principal. Además, se obtuvieron las siguientes categorías empíricas surgidas de los análisis textuales: "educaciones"; "siempre aprendeemos unos con otros"; "una antropología participante"; "libertad, autonomía y esperanza"; "investigación participante"; "diálogo: (re)construcción del conocimiento o construcción de saberes"; "investigación, conocimiento y tiempo"; "el sentido de la palabra: derecho de pronunciar el sentido del mundo". Se verificaron fundamentos importantes de una concepción crítica de educación que pueden contribuir como base para prácticas democráticas de salud como, por ejemplo, la idea de "diálogo" como piedra angular pedagógica, que permite procesos de interacción de individuos y la construcción social del conocimiento. Abstract in english This article aims to analyze the work of Brazilian author Carlos Rodrigues Brandão as related to the field of education and participatory research, highlighting his theoretical assumptions and establishing relationships with the field of healthcare. We conducted a qualitative, exploratory-descriptiv [...] e investigation, using literature research as a methodological procedure. 'Education' was the main theoretical category. Additionally, we obtained the following empirical categories arising from textual analysis: 'Educations;' 'always learn from each other;' 'a participatory anthropology;' 'freedom, autonomy, and hope;' 'participatory research;' 'dialog: (Re)construction of knowledge or construction of knowledge;' 'research, knowledge, and time;' 'The sense of the word: the right to pronounce the meaning of the world.' We checked important foundations of a critical conception of education that can contribute as a basis for democratic health practices, such as the idea of 'dialog' as a pedagogical cornerstone that enables interaction processes among individuals and the social construction of knowledge.

Aline Almeida da, Silva; Kátia Reis de, Souza.

2014-09-01

303

Educação, pesquisa participante e saúde: as ideias de Carlos Rodrigues Brandão / Education, participatory research, and health: the ideas of Carlos Rodrigues Brandão / Educación, investigación participante y salud: las ideas de Carlos Rodrigues Brandão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as obras do autor brasileiro Carlos Rodrigues Brandão relacionadas ao campo da educação e da pesquisa participante, destacando os seus pressupostos teóricos e estabelecendo relações com o campo da saúde. Realizamos uma investigação de caráter qualitativo e de t [...] ipo exploratório-descritivo, adotando a pesquisa bibliográfica como procedimento metodológico. 'Educação' foi a categoria teórica principal. Ademais, obtivemos as seguintes categorias empíricas advindas das análises textuais: 'educações'; 'sempre aprendemos uns com os outros'; 'uma antropologia participante'; 'liberdade, autonomia e esperança'; 'pesquisa participante'; 'diálogo: (re)construção do conhecimento ou construção de saberes'; 'pesquisa, conhecimento e tempo'; 'o sentido da palavra: direito de pronunciar o sentido do mundo'. Verificamos importantes fundamentos de uma concepção crítica de educação que podem contribuir como base para práticas democráticas de saúde, como, por exemplo, a ideia de 'diálogo' como pedra angular pedagógica, que possibilita processos de interação de sujeitos e a construção social do conhecimento. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las obras del autor brasileño Carlos Rodrigues Brandão, relacionadas al campo de la educación y de la investigación participante, destacando sus premisas teóricas y estableciendo relaciones con el campo de la salud. Se realizó una investigación de carácter [...] cualitativo y de tipo exploratorio-descriptivo, adoptando la investigación bibliográfica como procedimiento metodológico. "Educación" fue la categoría teórica principal. Además, se obtuvieron las siguientes categorías empíricas surgidas de los análisis textuales: "educaciones"; "siempre aprendeemos unos con otros"; "una antropología participante"; "libertad, autonomía y esperanza"; "investigación participante"; "diálogo: (re)construcción del conocimiento o construcción de saberes"; "investigación, conocimiento y tiempo"; "el sentido de la palabra: derecho de pronunciar el sentido del mundo". Se verificaron fundamentos importantes de una concepción crítica de educación que pueden contribuir como base para prácticas democráticas de salud como, por ejemplo, la idea de "diálogo" como piedra angular pedagógica, que permite procesos de interacción de individuos y la construcción social del conocimiento. Abstract in english This article aims to analyze the work of Brazilian author Carlos Rodrigues Brandão as related to the field of education and participatory research, highlighting his theoretical assumptions and establishing relationships with the field of healthcare. We conducted a qualitative, exploratory-descriptiv [...] e investigation, using literature research as a methodological procedure. 'Education' was the main theoretical category. Additionally, we obtained the following empirical categories arising from textual analysis: 'Educations;' 'always learn from each other;' 'a participatory anthropology;' 'freedom, autonomy, and hope;' 'participatory research;' 'dialog: (Re)construction of knowledge or construction of knowledge;' 'research, knowledge, and time;' 'The sense of the word: the right to pronounce the meaning of the world.' We checked important foundations of a critical conception of education that can contribute as a basis for democratic health practices, such as the idea of 'dialog' as a pedagogical cornerstone that enables interaction processes among individuals and the social construction of knowledge.

Aline Almeida da, Silva; Kátia Reis de, Souza.

304

Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

Reid, Alban E.

305

A participatory and capacity-building approach to healthy eating and physical activity – SCIP-school: a 2-year controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools can be effective settings for improving eating habits and physical activity, whereas it is more difficult to prevent obesity. A key challenge is the “implementation gap”. Trade-off must be made between expert-driven programmes on the one hand and contextual relevance, flexibility, participation and capacity building on the other. The aim of the Stockholm County Implementation Programme was to improve eating habits, physical activity, self-esteem, and promote a healthy body weight in children aged 6–16 years. We describe the programme, intervention fidelity, impacts and outcomes after two years of intervention. Methods Nine out of 18 schools in a middle-class municipality in Sweden agreed to participate whereas the other nine schools served as the comparison group (quasi-experimental study. Tailored action plans were developed by school health teams on the basis of a self-assessment questionnaire called KEY assessing strengths and weaknesses of each school’s health practices and environments. Process evaluation was carried out by the research staff. Impacts at school level were assessed yearly by the KEY. Outcome measures at student level were anthropometry (measured, and health behaviours assessed by a questionnaire, at baseline and after 2 years. All children in grade 2, 4 and 7 were invited to participate (n=1359 of which 59.8% consented. The effect of the intervention on health behaviours, self-esteem, weight status and BMIsds was evaluated by unilevel and multilevel regression analysis adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results Programme fidelity was high demonstrating feasibility, but fidelity to school action plans was only 48% after two years. Positive and significant (p Conclusions School staff has the capacity to create their own solutions and make changes at school level on the basis of self-assessment and facilitation by external agents. However these changes were challenging to sustain over time and had little impact on student behaviours or weight status. Better student outcomes could probably be attained by a more focused and evidence-based approach with stepwise implementation of action plans.

Elinder Liselotte Schäfer

2012-12-01

306

Research Notes ~ Selecting Research Areas and Research Design Approaches in Distance Education: Process Issues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the process used for selecting research areas and methodological approaches in distance education in India. Experts from the field of distance education in India were interviewed at length, with the aim of collecting qualitative data on opinions on process-issues for selecting areas for research, research design, and appropriate methodological approaches in distance education. Data collected from these interviews were subjected to content analysis; triangulation and peer consultation techniques were used for cross-checking and data verification. While the findings and recommendations of this study have limited application in that they can only be used in the specific context outlined in this paper, respondents in this study nonetheless revealed the pressing need for more process-oriented research in examining media and technology, learners and learning, and distance learning evaluation processes. Our research, which yielded interesting empirical findings, also determined that a mixed approach – one that involves both quantitative and qualitative methods – is more appropriate for conducting research in distance education in India. Qualitative evidence from our research also indicates that respondents interviewed felt that emphasis should be placed on interdisciplinary and systemic research, over that of traditional disciplinary research. Research methods such as student self-reporting, extensive and highly targeted interviews, conversation and discourse analysis, were determined to as useful for data collection for this study.

Sudarshan Mishra

2004-11-01

307

How sustainable is participatory watershed development in India?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Watershed conservation is widely recognized as a major strategy for rural development throughout the developing world. In India, the apparent success of participatory approaches to watershed development resulted in a decentralization of project planning, implementation, and management to local communities at the village scale. We explore the effectiveness of this so-called community-based approach in achieving sustainable soil and water conservation in four semi-arid regions in India, and ana...

Bouma, J. A.; Soest, D. P.; Bulte, E. H.

2007-01-01

308

The Main Advantages of Community Based Participatory Health Programs: An Experience from the Islamic Republic of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

 Introduction: Community based participatory program is an approach that emphasize on community empowerment as an important tool in health promotion especially in low and middle income countries. This article presents findings from a study of assessing performed participatory community based health programs in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods: This study was a qualitative study using focus group discussions. Thirteen co...

Arash Mirabzadeh; Noot Heydari; Hossein Malek Afzali; Ameneh Setareh Forouzan; Masoumeh Dejman; Katayoun Falahat; Monir Baradarn Eftekhari

2013-01-01

309

An Interdisciplinary and Intersectoral Action-research Method: Case-Study of Climate Change Adaptation by Cities Using Participatory Web 2.0 Urban Design  

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Full Text Available This paper discusses the last segment of a three-year interdisciplinary and intersectoral action research on climate change and urban transformation. The project had, as one of its core missions, the role of imagining urban and architectural adaptations for urban neighbourhoods that would contribute to minimizing the negative impacts of climate change on people’s comfort, health and safety. The first part of the paper describes the collaborative design and augmented participation method used in the context of Québec City, Canada. These include the design process conducted to imagine adaptation scenarios, the visual strategies undertaken to make these understandable for the population, and the Web 2.0 crowdsourcing approach forwarded to measure feasibility and social acceptability of the design and visualization strategies. The second part discusses three positive outcomes of the process. First, collaborative design conducted with intersectoral groups of experts constitutes a promising avenue to identify adaptations and evaluate their relevance. Second, crowdsourcing is a powerful tool to inform the general public about climate change including both negative and potential aspects. As well, the crowdsource model allows access to particular knowledge which empowered users to make changes around their homes and neighbourhoods or advocating action from their local government. Crowdsourcing is also an efficient tool to help understand what people know about the potential impact of climate change and how it bears on their comfort, health and safety. Third and finally, the design proposals and the evaluation comments generated by working closely with various stakeholders, along with the public on-line consultation, allow for the induction of pragmatic recommendations that can be used as decision aids by elected officials and civil servants to better prepare their municipalities for climate change. 

Geneviève VACHON

2014-01-01

310

Values-led Participatory Design - Mediating the Emergence of Values  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There is a growing interest in values-led inquiries within participatory design. One approach argues that working with values is a recursive 3-phase process that supports the emergence, development and grounding of values. In this paper we focus solely upon the emergence phase, proposing an approach that can support the emergence of values during the initial phase of a values-led inquiry. To illustrate this approach and to ground our discussion, we draw from a recent participatory design case where we were engaged in the design of digital technology to support the experiences of young adults with severe intellectual disabilities, in an art museum. By describing how we establish, negotiate and the debrief values during this initial phase of a values-led inquiry. By foregrounding both explicit and implicit mediation in the PD process we show how a theoretical understanding of mediation can potentially

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Leong, Tuck Wah

2012-01-01

311

The Research Journey: A "Lonely Planet" Approach  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article the authors discuss the impact of research on a neophyte researcher and the research supervisor. The methodology which is applied throughout this article is autoethnographic narrative. It represents retrospective reflection on the part of the authors and thus to some extent is about retrospective meaning making. It centres upon the…

Mackenzie, Noella M.; Ling, Lorraine M.

2009-01-01

312

Structured Approaches to Participatory Design for Children: Can Targeting the Needs of Children with Autism Provide Benefits for a Broader Child Population?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past technology products created to overcome accessibility and usability issues experienced by individuals with special needs have also resulted in greater usability for the wider population. Technology is increasingly being seen as a key component within the education of children with special needs and recently researchers have developed…

Benton, Laura; Johnson, Hilary

2014-01-01

313

Multi-method and innovative approaches to researching the learning and social practices of young digital users  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the most significant challenges in researching the social aspects of contemporary societies is to adapt the methodological approach to complex digital media environments. Learning processes take place in this complex environment, and they include formal and informal experiences (learning in school, home, and real-virtual communities), peer cultures and intergenerational connections, production and creation as relevant activities, and personal interests as a focal point. Methods used in the study of learning and the social practices of young people must take into account four key issues: boundaries between online and offline experiences are blurring; young people act performatively; young people act knowingly or reflexively; and the activities of young people cannot be understood through the use of a single method but require the use of multiple tools of investigation. The article discusses three methodological issues: research design aimed at following people along their transmedia paths, the relevanceof participatory research, and the epistemological implications of multi-method research. The article presents a theoretical discussion of the research issues and some examples of research projects for each topic.

Vittadini, Nicoletta; Carlo, Simone

2012-01-01

314

The role of health education in addressing the health divide : evidence from two European health-promotion projects employing a participatory and action-oriented education approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people with opportunities (as part of teaching and learning processes) to critically examine health issues, including social determinants of health, and to gain experience with initiating health-promoting changes within the everyday realms of their school or its adjacent community.

Simovska, Venka

2013-01-01

315

Alternatives to peer review: novel approaches for research evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we review several novel approaches for research evaluation. We start with a brief overview of the peer review, its controversies, and metrics for assessing efficiency and overall quality of the peer review. We then discuss five approaches, including reputation-based ones, that come out of the research carried out by the LiquidPub project and research groups collaborated with LiquidPub. Those approaches are alternative or complementary to traditional peer review. We discuss pros and cons of the proposed approaches and conclude with a vision for the future of the research evaluation, arguing that no single system can suit all stakeholders in various communities.

AliaksandrBirukou

2011-12-01

316

Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research  

Science.gov (United States)

The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN, completed in 2011) which found that up to an 80% decarbonization of the global economy was possible if we can enable and launch a large-scale transition to a clean energy system consistent with what a number of 'leading edge' cities, regions, and nations have already accomplished or started. Note, in particular, that as the physical climate change metrics have progressed, the words—shown on the right—have also progressed. In 1990, at the time of the FAR the strongest scientific consensus statement was that another decade of data would likely be needed to clearly observe climate change. Through the second to fourth (SAR, TAR, and AR4) reports, increasing clarity on the science of climate change translated into a consensus of overwhelming blame on human activities. The key statements from each report are not only about the growing evidence for anthropogenically driven climate change, but they have moved into the ecological and social impacts of this change. AR4 critically concluded that climate change would lead to climate injustice as the poor, globally, bear the brunt of the impacts. Despite this 'Rosetta Stone' translating science to language, we have failed to act collectively. One area where ERL can advance the overall conversation is on this science/action interface. As AR5 emerges, the climate change/climate response interface will need deep, substantive, action that responds rapidly to new ideas and opportunities. The rapid publication and open access features of ERL are particularly critical here as events a such as Hurricane Sandy, economic or political advances in climate response made by cities, regions or nations, all warrant assessment and response. This is one of many areas where ERL has been at the forefront of the conversation, through not only research letters, but also commentary-style Perspective pieces and the conversation that ERL's sister community website environmentalresearchweb can facilitate. This process of translating proposed solutions—innovations—between interest groups, has been in far too short supply rece

Kammen, Daniel M.

2013-03-01

317

A Hybrid Approach for Translational Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Translational research has proven to be a powerful process that bridges the gap between basic science and medical practice. The complexity of translational research is two-fold: integration of vast amount of information in disparate silos, and dissemination of discoveries to stakeholders with different interests. We designed and implemented a…

Webster, Yue Wang

2010-01-01

318

Interdisciplinarity and participatory approaches to environmental health: reflections from a workshop on social, economic and behavioural factors in the genesis and health impact of environmental hazards.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews a workshop discussion postulated on the notion that social, economic and behavioural factors are responsible for the creation of environmental hazards and benefits that, in turn, can affect human health, with concomitant effects on future social well-being. The workshop case study centred on environmental health investigations, public engagement and partnership work undertaken following the death of two neighbouring children in Cheshire. Discussion included questions of causality and generalisability. It revealed how the attribution of responsibility for environmental damage to health is fraught with difficulties. It may often militate against an informed and open debate among interested parties, with concomitant implications for reducing the danger from environmental hazards. To improve communication, vocabulary needs to be free from jargon and acronyms, and differences in conceptual approach between different disciplines need to be better understood. The definition of the 'community' is itself far from clear-cut, yet questions of how to involve this community in intervention processes are important ones. The workshop identified a clear need for better, more considered forms of communication with communities and the public if fears are to be allayed, but recognised the additional costs that this would incur. PMID:18958398

Huby, Meg; Adams, Rupert

2009-04-01

319

Moving Beyond the Systems Approach in SCM and Logistics Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a paradigmatic reflection on theoretical approaches recently identified in logistics and supply chain management (SCM); namely complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking, and to compare it to the dominant approach in logistics and SCM research, namely the systems approach. By analyzing the basic assumptions of the three approaches, SCM and logistics researchers are guided in their choice of research approaches which increases their awareness of the consequences different approaches have on theory and practice. Design/methodology/approach – The point of departure for the research presented is conceptualization based on literature reviews. Furthermore, years of observations, discussions and empirical studies of logistics operations and management have also influenced the design of this research. Findings – With a discourse set in relation to the dominant approach in SCM and logistics research, the systems approach, it is concluded that the underlyingassumptions of complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking are more appropriate than systems approach for contemporary challenges of organizational complexity in SCM and logistics. It is found that the two complexity-based approaches can advance SCM and logistics research and practice especially when focusing on innovation, learning and sense-making. Research limitations/implications – Reflections of underlying assumptions when considering and selecting methodological approaches have implications for research results. This paper provides both a framework for and an analysis of such reflection which contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research. Future research is needed to empirically provide insights on how complexity approaches can advance the area of SCM and logistics. Practical implications – For logistics researchers and practitioners dealing with creativity, innovation, learning and sense-making and other human-related aspects, the complexity approaches, with underlying assumptions, presented will provide reflection, inspiration and guidance for further development. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research and practice by providing a reflective analysis and discussion of established and new research approaches with potential benefits for the SCM and logistics community.

Nilsson, Fredrik; Gammelgaard, Britta

2012-01-01

320

Teaching mathematical modelling: a research based approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A collaborative, research based laboratory experiment in mathematical modelling was included in a bioprocess engineering laboratory module, taught as part of an interdisciplinary program in biotechnology. The class was divided into six groups of three students and given the task of investigating a novel diafiltration process that is currently the focus of international research. Different aspects of the problem were assigned to each group and inter-group communication via email was required t...

Foley, Greg

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Participation and the State: Towards an Anthropological View of the “New Participatory Paradigms”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reveals how certain academics approaching terms such as participation, or the state and civil society/community/masses/population, have re/conceptualized both the concepts themselves as well as the positions from which they can be studied. The paper traces the rise of critiques concerning participation in development - examining the particular issues of concern to anthropologists - before turning to the current debates taking place on the borderlines between anthropology and development. In this context, the work being produced as part of the Development Research Centre at the Institute of Development studies in the UK is a central focus. Raising here the types of questions currently being asked about participation, the analysis addresses increasing concerns with governance, democracy as well as citizenship, and finally, anthropological views of the State, for there appears to be an emergence within participatory development of a rejection of the anti-statist development approach.

Kathy A. Riley

2009-04-01

322

Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1 that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2 that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.

Pascal Perez

2010-12-01

323

Participatory testing and reporting in an environmental-justice community of Worcester, Massachusetts: a pilot project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite indoor home environments being where people spend most time, involving residents in testing those environments has been very limited, especially in marginalized communities. We piloted participatory testing and reporting that combined relatively simple tests with actionable reporting to empower residents in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts. We answered: 1 How do we design and implement the approach for neighborhood and household environments using participatory methods? 2 What do pilot tests reveal? 3 How does our experience inform testing practice? Methods The approach was designed and implemented with community partners using community-based participatory research. Residents and researchers tested fourteen homes for: lead in dust indoors, soil outdoors, paint indoors and drinking water; radon in basement air; PM2.5 in indoor air; mold spores in indoor/outdoor air; and drinking water quality. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates by residents and researchers used real-time data to stimulate dialogue. Results Given the newness of our partnership and unforeseen conflicts, we achieved moderate-high success overall based on process and outcome criteria: methods, test results, reporting, lessons learned. The conflict burden we experienced may be attributable less to generic university-community differences in interests/culture, and more to territoriality and interpersonal issues. Lead-in-paint touch-swab results were poor proxies for lead-in-dust. Of eight units tested in summer, three had very high lead-in-dust (>1000 ?g/ft2, six exceeded at least one USEPA standard for lead-in-dust and/or soil. Tap water tests showed no significant exposures. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates raised awareness of environmental health risks, especially asthma. Conclusions Timely reporting back home-toxics' results to residents is ethical but it must be empowering. Future work should fund the active participation of a few motivated residents as representatives of the target population. Although difficult and demanding in time and effort, the approach can educate residents and inform exposure assessment. It should be considered as a core ingredient of comprehensive household toxics' testing, and has potential to improve participant retention and the overall positive impact of long-term environmental health research efforts.

Calvache Maria-Camila

2010-07-01

324

Using Participatory Action Research to Share Knowledge of the Local Environment and Climate Change: Case Study of Erub Island, Torres Strait  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading seasons and environments has been a long-held practice for Torres Strait Islanders through their close relationships with their islands and seas. This research project worked with elders on Erub (Darnley) Island, in the eastern group of islands in the Torres Strait, to document and synthesise their knowledge of seasonal patterns and…

McNamara, Karen Elizabeth; McNamara, John Patrick

2011-01-01

325

Community-based participatory research to decrease smoking prevalence in a high-risk young adult population: an evaluation of the Students Against Nicotine and Tobacco Addiction (SANTA) project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Students Against Nicotine and Tobacco Addiction is a community-based participatory research project that engages local medical and mental health providers in partnership with students, teachers, and administrators at the Minnesota-based Job Corps. This intervention contains multiple and synchronous elements designed to allay the stress that students attribute to smoking, including physical activities, nonphysical activities, purposeful modifications to the campus's environment and rules/policies, and on-site smoking cessation education and peer support. The intent of the present investigation was to evaluate (a) the types of stress most predictive of smoking behavior and/or nicotine dependence, (b) which activities students are participating in, and (c) which activities are most predictive of behavior change (or readiness to change). Quantitative data were collected through 5 campus-wide surveys. Response rates for each survey exceeded 85%. Stressors most commonly cited included struggles to find a job, financial problems, family conflict, lack of privacy or freedom, missing family or being homesick, dealing with Job Corps rules, and other-unspecified. The most popular activities in which students took part were physically active ones. However, activities most predictive of beneficent change were nonphysical. Approximately one third of respondents were nicotine dependent at baseline. Nearly half intended to quit within 1 month and 74% intended to quit within 6 months. Interventions perceived as most helpful toward reducing smoking were nonphysical in nature. Future efforts with this and comparable populations should engage youth in advancing such activities within a broader range of activity choices, alongside conventional education and support. PMID:24079815

Mendenhall, Tai J; Harper, Peter G; Henn, Lisa; Rudser, Kyle D; Schoeller, Bill P

2014-03-01

326

Addressing Health and Well-Being of U.S. Chinese Older Adults Through Community-Based Participatory Research: Introduction to the PINE Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The PINE Study-the P: opulation Study of Ch IN: ese E: lderly in Chicago (, s?ng nián yán ji?) is a population-based epidemiological study of U.S. Chinese older adults in the greater Chicago area with primary aims to examine their health status and well-being. This special issue is designed to expand our current understanding on the health status, medical conditions, and well-being of U.S. Chinese older adults using findings from the PINE Study. In this article, we present research design, study findings, and important implications for researchers, community gatekeepers, and health care professionals. Through the information reported in this special issue, we call for increased family and community care, improved delivery of care, practice changes, and policy reform, to prepare for the growing numbers of minority older adults in dire need of culturally and linguistically appropriate health and social services. PMID:25378444

Dong, XinQi

2014-11-01

327

Barbershop Talk With Brothers: Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Develop and Pilot Test a Program to Reduce HIV Risk Among Black Heterosexual Men.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a need for feasible, evidence-based interventions that support HIV risk reduction among heterosexual Black men. In this article, we describe the process for development of the Barbershop Talk With Brothers (BTWB) program and evaluation. The BTWB program is a theoretically grounded and community-based HIV prevention program that seeks to improve individual skills and motivation to decrease sexual risk, and that builds men's interest in and capacity for improving their community's health. Formative data collection included barbershop observations and barber focus groups, brief behavioral risk assessments of men in barbershops, and focus groups and individual interviews. Based on this information and in consultation with our steering committee, we developed the BTWB program and accompanying program evaluation. From April through November 2011, 80 men were recruited and completed a baseline assessment of a pilot test of the program; 78 men completed the program and 71 completed a 3-month assessment. The pilot evaluation procedures were feasible to implement, and assessments of pre- and post-test measures indicate that key behavioral outcomes and proposed mediators of those outcomes changed in hypothesized directions. Specifically, attitudes and self-efficacy toward consistent condom use improved, and respondents reported lower levels of sexual risk behavior from baseline to follow-up (all p stigma decreased, this difference did not reach statistical significance. Our approach to community-engaged program development resulted in an acceptable, feasible approach to reaching and educating heterosexual Black men about HIV prevention in community settings. PMID:25299804

Wilson, Tracey E; Fraser-White, Marilyn; Williams, Kim M; Pinto, Angelo; Agbetor, Francis; Camilien, Brignel; Henny, Kirk; Browne, Ruth C; Gousse, Yolene; Taylor, Tonya; Brown, Humberto; Taylor, Raekiela; Joseph, Michael A

2014-10-01

328

Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…

Eikeland, Olav

2012-01-01

329

Researching media through practices: an ethnographic approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anthropological and ethnographic research on media have been largely focused on analyzing reception of media products (television, radio, press and film and media consumption related to domestic appropriation of technologies (Rothenbuhler et al., 2005. There is also a wide body of research devoted to the study of the political dimension of alternative and indigenous media (Ginsburg, 2002. However, there has been a separation between media and internet studies, and between the analysis of media reception and practices of self-production, such as family photography or home video. Current digital media practices urge reexamination of self-produced content and media flows from a broader perspective that cuts across divisions between public and private, corporative media products and people's releases, home production and cultural industry, political activism and everyday life.

Antoni Roig

2009-05-01

330

Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions, but both have something to teach each other about how to define and executedesign-oriented research in information systems and management science.

Piirainen, Kalle

2013-01-01

331

Future research directions: theoretical approach and perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is difficult to provide a comprehensive theoretical explanation for the activity of red dwarf stars. Among particular problems that are ripe for further investigation are: the production of steady, cyclic or irregular patterns of activity by nonlinear dynamo action in stars; the effect of magnetic buoyancy in producing photospheric magnetic fields; the formation of isolated flux tubes and their interaction with convection. These topics are discussed and some future lines of research are suggested. (Auth.)

332

Decentralization and Participatory Rural Development: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the developing nations are still struggling for efficient use of their resources. In order to overcome physical and administrative constraints of the development, it is necessary to transfer the power from the central government to local authorities. Distribution of power from improves the management of resources and community participation which is considered key to sustainable development. Advocates of decentralization argue that decentralized government is source to improve community participation in rural development. Decentralized government is considered more responsive towards local needs and development of poor peoples. There are many obstacles to expand the citizen participation in rural areas. There are many approaches for participatory development but all have to face the same challenges. Current paper highlights the literature about Decentralization and participatory rural development. Concept and modalities of Decentralization, dimensions of participation, types of rural participation and obstacles to participation are also the part of this paper.

Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

2011-12-01

333

BARBERSHOP TALK WITH BROTHERS: USING COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH TO DEVELOP AND PILOT TEST A PROGRAM TO REDUCE HIV RISK AMONG BLACK HETEROSEXUAL MEN  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a need for feasible, evidence-based interventions that support HIV risk reduction among heterosexual Black men. In this article, we describe the process for development of the Barbershop Talk With Brothers (BTWB) program and evaluation. The BTWB program is a theoretically grounded and community-based HIV prevention program that seeks to improve individual skills and motivation to decrease sexual risk, and that builds men’s interest in and capacity for improving their community’s health. Formative data collection included barbershop observations and barber focus groups, brief behavioral risk assessments of men in barbershops, and focus groups and individual interviews. Based on this information and in consultation with our steering committee, we developed the BTWB program and accompanying program evaluation. From April through November 2011, 80 men were recruited and completed a baseline assessment of a pilot test of the program; 78 men completed the program and 71 completed a 3-month assessment. The pilot evaluation procedures were feasible to implement, and assessments of pre- and post-test measures indicate that key behavioral outcomes and proposed mediators of those outcomes changed in hypothesized directions. Specifically, attitudes and self-efficacy toward consistent condom use improved, and respondents reported lower levels of sexual risk behavior from baseline to follow-up (all p < 0.05). Perceptions of community empowerment also increased (p = 0.06). While HIV stigma decreased, this difference did not reach statistical significance. Our approach to community-engaged program development resulted in an acceptable, feasible approach to reaching and educating heterosexual Black men about HIV prevention in community settings. PMID:25299804

Wilson, Tracey E.; Fraser-White, Marilyn; Williams, Kim M.; Pinto, Angelo; Agbetor, Francis; Camilien, Brignel; Henny, Kirk; Browne, Ruth C.; Gousse, Yolene; Taylor, Tonya; Brown, Humberto; Taylor, Raekiela; Joseph, Michael A.

2014-01-01

334

Participatory Inovation Conference 2011 Proceedings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Industry and public agencies increasingly adopt user-driven innovation and open innovation, as they realise that innovation cannot come solely from within an organisation. Innovation happens in the ‘breaking of the waves’ between people outside and people inside – because they have different stakes and perspectives. In academia, new breakthrough contributions to understanding innovation – and supporting it – will also emerge in the borderlands between disciplines that traditionally do not collaborate: between languages and design, and between management and anthropology for instance. The new discipline of Participatory Innovation gathers theories and methods across such academic fields that describe how people outside an organisation can contribute to its innovation. The many papers in this volume have in common that they identify ways for industry and the public sector to expand innovation through the participation of users, employees, suppliers, customers etc. – both on a strategiclevel, in concrete methods, and in the day-to-day interactions. PINC 2011 is a forum where participants from different disciplines and organisations can meet and challenge each other to develop the field of participatory innovation.

Buur, Jacob

2011-01-01

335

A Congolese-US participatory action research partnership to rebuild the lives of rape survivors and their families in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) remains an all-too-potent reminder of how war, human rights violations and their related health and economic impacts can devastate a society. The last decade has seen the use of rape as a weapon of war in the DRC, where rebels and soldiers subject women and girls to brutalising attacks, rape, torture and mutilation. Survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) are often further traumatised by infections, disease, poverty, stigma and social isolation. Substantial evidence exists showing an association between social determinants (e.g., poverty, stress and trauma, stigma, lack of access to health care) and health; however, limited research has been conducted to elucidate these relationships or to develop and test interventions to change social determinants of health, especially in conflict and post-conflict settings such as the DRC. The purpose of this article is to present a Congolese-US community-academic research partnership to obtain evidence to develop and implement a sustainable intervention to begin to address the social determinants of health, including poverty and traumatic stress for survivors of SGBV and their families in the South Kivu province of eastern DRC. PMID:21732709

Glass, Nancy; Ramazani, Paul; Tosha, Mafille; Mpanano, Mitima; Cinyabuguma, Matthias

2012-01-01

336

Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective: To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design: A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results: New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions: Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action.

Michelle Redman-MacLaren

2014-08-01

337

Action research approach for gaining and providing feedback on ...  

Sep 21, 2011 ... ... and systemic change). EVALOC project and action research approach .... \\technical and occupants' perspective. To map occupants' ... The theoretical \\potential of the base building's fabric and services under standard ...

338

Participatory management in today's health care setting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the health care revolution progresses, so must the management styles of today's leaders. The authors must ask ourselves if we are managing tomorrow's work force or the work force of the past. Participatory management may better meet the needs of today's work force. This paper identifies the reasons participatory management is a more effective management style, the methods used to implement a participatory management program, its benefits (such as higher productivity and more efficient, effective implementation and acceptance of change), and the difficulties experienced

339

Design of Institution for Participatory Lake Singkarak Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to formulate policy and institution for Participatory Lake Singkarak management. This research was conducted in District Solok and District Tanah Datar, West Sumatera Province. This study object is focused in Lake Singkarak area. The results of research are: (1 interest and influence of stakeholders are varied based on institution, need, region, utility orientation, (2 policy alternatives for lake Singkarak management are firstly co-management and secondly lake management by multi stakeholder and (3 all stakeholders in the institution for lake management have to participate beginning from institutional building, policy decision making process, policy implementation, control and evaluation.

Genius Umar

2011-11-01

340

With the lifeworld as ground. A research approach for empirical research in education - the Gothenburg tradition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article is intended as a brief introduction to the lifeworld approach to empirical research in education. One decisive feature of this approach is the inclusion of an explicit discussion of its ontological assumptions in the research design. This does not yet belong to the routines of empirical [...] research in education. Some methodological consequences of taking the lifeworld ontology as a ground for empirical research are discussed as well as the importance of creativity in the choice of method for particular projects. In this way, the lifeworld approach has its own particular perspective in phenomenological, empirical research in education. The article concludes with a description of an empirical study based on the lifeworld approach in order to illuminate the possibilities for empirical research in education as well as the significance of this approach for education.

Jan, Bengtsson.

 
 
 
 
341

With the lifeworld as ground. A research approach for empirical research in education - the Gothenburg tradition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article is intended as a brief introduction to the lifeworld approach to empirical research in education. One decisive feature of this approach is the inclusion of an explicit discussion of its ontological assumptions in the research design. This does not yet belong to the routines of empirical [...] research in education. Some methodological consequences of taking the lifeworld ontology as a ground for empirical research are discussed as well as the importance of creativity in the choice of method for particular projects. In this way, the lifeworld approach has its own particular perspective in phenomenological, empirical research in education. The article concludes with a description of an empirical study based on the lifeworld approach in order to illuminate the possibilities for empirical research in education as well as the significance of this approach for education.

Jan, Bengtsson.

2013-09-01

342

Compare and Contrast Inductive and Deductive Research Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This discussion paper compares and contrasts "inductive" and "deductive" research approaches as described by Trochim (2006) and Plano Clark and Creswell (2007). It also examines the "exploratory" and "confirmatory" approaches by Onwueghuzie and Leech (2005) with respect to the assumption each holds about the nature of knowledge. The paper starts…

Soiferman, L. Karen

2010-01-01

343

PSALM for Empowering Educational Stakeholders: Participatory School Administration, Leadership and Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The paper aims to examine the effect of implementing participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) on the levels of empowerment among the educational stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method approach, combining the experimental design with empirical surveys, interviews and documentary analysis,…

San Antonio, Diosdado M.; Gamage, David T.

2007-01-01

344

Focus Groups: A Practical and Applied Research Approach for Counselors  

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Focus groups are becoming a popular research approach that counselors can use as an efficient, practical, and applied method of gathering information to better serve clients. In this article, the authors describe focus groups and their potential usefulness to professional counselors and researchers. Practical implications related to the use of…

Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie F.

2007-01-01

345

Prove Your Case: A New Approach to Teaching Research Papers  

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This article presents a new approach to teaching the process of writing research papers to college freshmen. Instructors explain the analogy that a student writing a research paper is like a lawyer defending a court case: lawyers frame their case (as students define their topic), search out evidence (as students search for sources), present the…

Broskoske, Stephen L.

2007-01-01

346

Respectful, Responsible, and Reciprocal Ruralities Research: Approaching and Positioning Educational Research Differently within Australian Rural Communities  

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One approach that is helpful in framing and facilitating effective and ethical rural education research projects is centred on ensuring that researcher-participant relations are respectful, responsible and reciprocal, predicated on the shared principles of CHE (connectivity, humanness and empathy). This approach derives from a strengths-based…

Brown, Alice; Danaher, P. A.

2012-01-01

347

Paniya Voices: A Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment among a marginalized South Indian tribal population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, indigenous populations, known as Adivasi or Scheduled Tribes (STs, are among the poorest and most marginalized groups. 'Deprived' ST groups tend to display high levels of resignation and to lack the capacity to aspire; consequently their health perceptions often do not adequately correspond to their real health needs. Moreover, similar to indigenous populations elsewhere, STs often have little opportunity to voice perspectives framed within their own cultural worldviews. We undertook a study to gather policy-relevant data on the views, experiences, and priorities of a marginalized and previously enslaved tribal group in South India, the Paniyas, who have little 'voice' or power over their own situation. Methods/design We implemented a Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment (PPHA. We adopted guiding principles and an ethical code that promote respect for Paniya culture and values. The PPHA, informed by a vulnerability framework, addressed five key themes (health and illness, well-being, institutions, education, gender using participatory approaches and qualitative methods. We implemented the PPHA in five Paniya colonies (clusters of houses in a small geographical area in a gram panchayat (lowest level decentralized territorial unit to generate data that can be quickly disseminated to decision-makers through interactive workshops and public forums. Preliminary findings Findings indicated that the Paniyas are caught in multiple 'vulnerability traps', that is, they view their situation as vicious cycles from which it is difficult to break free. Conclusion The PPHA is a potentially useful approach for global health researchers working with marginalized communities to implement research initiatives that will address those communities' health needs in an ethical and culturally appropriate manner.

Harikrishnadas CK

2010-03-01

348

Applying Participatory Methods to Address Motivational Aspects in Informal Workplace  

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Full Text Available Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.

Teresa Holocher

2011-02-01

349

A Research Strategy for Investigating Business Process Management Approaches  

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Full Text Available We are witnessing a revolution in industry which, if successful, will change forever how business systems are developed and the type of staff required. This paradigm shift has only recently become possible as business process conceptual understanding evolved, technologies have matured and higher abstraction levels have become possible. Industry leads Business Processing Systems research as it has the strategic imperative and resources to be effective. Academic research is faced with three challenges: firstly, how to do effective research in an area of such broad scope, secondly, how to make research relevant to practice, thirdly how to spend limited resources effectively. This paper defines the research framework for effective academic research at the University of Wollongong by the Software Effective Process group. Effective research is enabled by co-ordinating research based on the primacy of the business model and its resultant effective representation in executable systems. The framework aims to build a core research team, promote strong synergy with existing research areas, and create academic and industry relevant research.. We report on the results to date of our pilot program and seek feedback and advice to help us refine our approach. A major Australian project is utilising a new software development lifecycle for ‘system of systems’ development which has arisen out of this research strategy. Later papers will report on both the theoretical basis and practical impacts of this work and other research by the group.

James Gibson

2005-11-01

350

Developing digital technologies for university mathematics by applying participatory design methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included in this paper along with future research directions.

Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

2013-01-01

351

Mutual Support: A Model of Participatory Support by and for People with Learning Difficulties  

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Mutual Support, a model of peer support by and for people with learning difficulties, was constructed through a participatory research process. The research focussed on individual narratives from people with learning difficulties. These narratives were then brought together to form a collective model of support. This paper outlines the detailed…

Keyes, Sarah E.; Brandon, Toby

2012-01-01

352

Gender, sexuality and the participatory dimensions of a comparative life history policy study.  

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Gender, sexuality and the participatory dimensions of a comparative life history policy study In this paper, I explore how a critical feminist lens was a crucial element in creating a participatory policy study which used a qualitative design and comparative life history methodology. This study focused on Canadian nurses' political practice related to advocacy for lesbian health. Findings show that the combination of the gender lens and life history approach offers potential to create knowledge in ways aligned with health-promoting and emancipatory outcomes. However, the nature of participation and interaction by researcher and participants is contexualized and contested given complex dynamics of power that shape all aspects of this doctoral study process. The critical feminist lens with its focus on reflexivity informed the content and process of knowledge production in this study and shaped key turning points: the ways in which this policy study was conceptualized, the choice of comparative life history methodology, ethical considerations, data collection and analysis and representation of findings. Life history is unlikely to be the methodology that first comes to mind when undertaking a policy study. Its historical roots are associated with biographical, oral history and narrative approaches, which typically aim to elicit understanding of lived experience. Yet, it was this very aspect, this focus on lived experience, which rendered life history methodology fitting as I contemplated how to examine the relationship between nurses and policy. I was interested in understanding nurses' political practice, how policy influenced nurses' capacity to advocate in their everyday lives, as well as nurses' impacts on policy processes and their larger social worlds. PMID:22050617

Macdonnell, Judith A

2011-12-01

353

Notas sobre a segunda avaliação externa do programa de treinamento em epidemiologia aplicada aos serviços do sistema único de saúde do Brasil - EPISUS: potencialidades do enfoque qualitativo-participativo Notes on the second external evaluation of the training program in epidemiology applied to the services of brazil's national health system - EPISUS: potentialities of the qualitative-participatory approach  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva relatar o emprego do enfoque qualitativo-participativo, bem como discutir seus fundamentos e potencialidades, tomando como base a participação dos autores na segunda avaliação externa do Programa de Treinamento em Epidemiologia Aplicada aos Serviços do Sistema Único de Saúde - EPISUS. Finalizada em outubro de 2007, em parceria com a Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde e o Center for Diseases Control (CDC/Atlanta, a referida avaliação incorporou o enfoque da chamada quarta geração (fourth generation evaluation, no qual os avaliadores operam como mediadores, substituindo, assim, os fundamentos do enfoque tradicional antes utilizado. Para tanto, tornou-se necessária uma demarcação conceitual referente aos conceitos avaliação, qualitativo e participativo que orientariam o processo avaliativo focalizado. Quanto ao conceito avaliação, sua natureza conflui para as propostas de quarta geração e, portanto, transita de um caráter punitivo para um caráter construtivo. A dimensão participativa aponta para diferentes sentidos do que seja participar e, na experiência aqui relatada, adotou-se o sentido decisório, onde se busca reverter assimetrias de poder. O qualitativo é concebido na interface com a subjetividade, referindo-se a informações que não se submetem à quantificação. Tal modelo permitiu desvelar aspectos que, muitas vezes, se ocultam nos números e nas generalizações abstratas, tornando possível focalizar as relações que constituem o cotidiano dos programas e práticas em saúde, subsidiando, assim, sua transformação.This paper aims to present the authors' experience concerning the use of the qualitative-participatory approach in the second external evaluation of the Training Program in Epidemiology Applied to the Services of the National Health System - EPISUS. Completed in October 2007, in partnership with the Health Surveillance Department and the Center for Diseases Control (CDC / Atlanta, this evaluation incorporated the so-called fourth generation evaluation approach, in which the evaluators operate as mediators, thus replacing the foundations of the traditional approach used so far. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to carry out a conceptual delimitation referring to the concepts of evaluation, qualitative and participatory, which would guide the focused evaluative process. As for evaluation, its nature converges to the proposals of the fourth generation; therefore, it moved from a punitive character to a constructive one. The participatory dimension assumes different senses and, in the experiment reported here, this term is adopted in the decision sense, which attempts to reverse power asymmetries. The qualitative dimension is defined in the interface with subjectivity, referring to information that is not subject to quantification. This model revealed aspects that are often hidden in numbers and in abstract generalizations, enabling to focus on relationships that constitute the daily routine of the health programs and practices, and giving support to their transformation.

Maria Lúcia Magalhães Bosi

2009-09-01

354

Voices of the Caribou People: a participatory videography method to document and share local knowledge from the North American human-Rangifer systems  

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Full Text Available “Voices of the Caribou People” is a participatory videography project for documenting and sharing the local knowledge of caribou-user communities about social-ecological changes. The project was conducted in partnership with indigenous people who share a long and close relationship with caribou and self-identify as the “Caribou People.” The Caribou People desired to share their knowledge, experiences, challenges, and coping strategies with other indigenous communities and with scientists and wildlife managers. Six communities in the North American Arctic participated in the project, with 99 people interviewed about the ecological, cultural, spiritual, and nutritional aspects of their relationship with caribou. The Caribou People wished to tell their stories with their own voices, without the filter of a researcher’s interpretations of their messages. The communities defined three project goals, i.e., documentation, communication, and sharing of knowledge, and we identified methodological challenges associated with these goals. Through videography, we sought to overcome these challenges and accomplish community goals, which formed the basis for our project’s evaluation. Participants reported changes and concerns ranging from impacts of oil and gas exploration, mining activities, nonlocal hunting, and high energy costs to impacts of climate-related conditions. All interviews were made available in the public domain via the Internet for sharing. In the view of the communities, videography preserved their legacy and served as a repository of traditional knowledge in changing times; visual images were seen as a powerful medium to communicate with policy makers and the public at large and were seen as a preferred informal, unstructured approach. We have (1 described the approach of the Voices of the Caribou People project as a collaborative video methodology and (2 discussed the effectiveness of this method in meeting the goals of participatory research. General insights into the process of using videography as a participatory research tool to study social-ecological systems in partnership with indigenous communities have been provided.

Archana Bali

2014-06-01

355

A Spreadsheet-Based Approach for Operations Research Teaching  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper considers the use of spreadsheet for introducing students to a variety of quantitative models covered in an introductory Operations Research (OR) course at the University of Malaya, Malaysia. This approach allows students to develop skills in modeling as they learn to app...

Susila Munisamy

2009-01-01

356

FEATURES OF AN ECONOMIC APPROACH AT RESEARCH OF CORRUPTION PHENOMENON  

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Full Text Available In article features of an economic approach are considered when developing the anti-corruption measures directed on restriction of possibilities of any discretion and excessive intervention of civil servants in economic activity, including through differentiation of functions and specification of competences. The special urgency of researches of a problem of corruption as special social phenomenon is noted.

M.O. Izotov

2012-08-01

357

Music Teacher Effectiveness: Selected Historical and Contemporary Research Approaches  

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This article reviews and analyzes selected past and current research approaches in the study of music teacher effectiveness. Early "teacher characteristic studies" are discussed along with the role of these first-generation studies in attempting to identify personal qualities and characteristics of apparently effective or ineffective teachers.…

Brand, Manny

2009-01-01