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PARTICIPATORY DEPRESSION. A CAVEAT FOR PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH APPROACHES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory approaches have become de rigueur in research for development. A goal of many participatory projects is to generally empower beneficiaries, beyond the scope of the immediate project. The technical and organizational learning, the social contacts, and the prestige that result from parti...

Vaughan, Gregory; Lançon, Jacques

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A Participatory Action Research Approach To Evaluating Inclusive School Programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…

Dymond, Stacy K.

2001-01-01

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Tackling perinatal loss, a participatory action research approach: research protocol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: ? The aim of this study was to promote changes to improve the care provided to parents who have experienced a perinatal loss through participatory action research. BACKGROUND: ? The birth of a child is a joyful event for most families, however, unfortunately some pregnancies end in loss. Perinatal loss creates a heavy emotional impact not only on parents but also on health professionals, where in most cases there is an evident lack of skills, strategies and resources to cope with these kinds of situations. DESIGN: ? Participatory action research is the methodology proposed to achieve the purpose of this study. METHODS: ? Participatory action research consists of five stages: outreach and awareness, induction, interaction, implementation and systematization. The working group will include professionals from the Mother and Child Unit for patients at a tertiary level public hospital in Spain. The duration of the study will be 3?years since the approval of the protocol in January 2011. The qualitative techniques used will include group dynamics such as the SWOT analysis the nominal group technique, focus groups and brainstorming, among others that will be recorded and transcribed, generating reports throughout the evolution of the group sessions and about the consensus reached. Content analysis will be conducted on the field diaries kept by the participants and researchers. This project has been funded by the Andalusian Regional Ministry of Health. DISCUSSION: ? Participatory action research is a methodological strategy that allows changes in clinical practice to conduct a comprehensive transformative action in the care process for perinatal loss.

Pastor-Montero SM; Romero-Sánchez JM; Paramio-Cuevas JC; Hueso-Montoro C; Paloma-Castro O; Lillo-Crespo M; Castro-Yuste C; Toledano-Losa AC; Carnicer-Fuentes C; Ortegón-Gallego JA; Frandsen AJ

2012-11-01

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The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

2008-01-01

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The field of Participatory Design : Issues and approaches in dynamic constellations of use, design and research.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this chapter, the field of Participatory Design is introduced, including the description of a number of its specific approaches. After an introduction in some of the issues in Participatory Design, approaches within the field of Participatory Design and relevant for the field of Participatory Design are outlined.

Törpel, Bettina

2007-01-01

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What is participatory research?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research strategies which emphasize participation are increasingly used in health research. Breaking the linear mould of conventional research, participatory research focuses on a process of sequential reflection and action, carried out with and by local people rather than on them. Local knowledge and perspectives are not only acknowledged but form the basis for research and planning. Many of the methods used in participatory research are drawn from mainstream disciplines and conventional research itself involves varying degrees of participation. The key difference between participatory and conventional methodologies lies in the location of power in the research process. We review some of the participatory methodologies which are currently being popularized in health research, focusing on the issue of control over the research process. Participatory research raises personal, professional and political challenges which go beyond the bounds of the production of information. Problematizing "participation', we explore the challenges and dilemmas of participatory practice.

Cornwall A; Jewkes R

1995-12-01

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LINKING SERVICE AND NUTRITION RESEARCH: AN APPROACH TO COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN COMMUNITY BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper outlines how community service activities can evolve as a mechanism to identify and initiate community-based participatory research projects in diet/healthy eating. Background: The Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (NIRI) is sponsored by the United States Departm...

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Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the research method of participatory action research, first by examining the roots of this approach and then analysing the shift to using more participatory approaches than in former years. It begins by considering the reasoning and theoretical underpinning for adopting this approach and provides an overview of the steps to be…

Savin-Baden, Maggi; Wimpenny, Katherine

2007-01-01

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Practicing Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of several core theoretical and practical aspects of participatory action research (PAR). An effort is made to define PAR and the types of work that fall under that rubric. Historical underpinnings, roles of the individuals involved, contexts, methods, and the challenges and benefits of this mode of inquiry are…

Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

2005-01-01

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Using a Participatory Action Research Approach to Create a Universally Designed Inclusive High School Science Course: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Case study methodology was used in combination with a participatory action research (PAR) approach to examine the process of redesigning one high school science course to incorporate the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and to promote access to the general curriculum. The participants included one general education teacher and two…

Dymond, Stacy K.; Renzaglia, Adelle; Rosenstein, Amy; Chun, Eul Jung; Banks, Ronald A.; Niswander, Vicki; Gilson, Christie L.

2006-01-01

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Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and local resources. Its objective is to empower all stakeholders of development. The priority in local communities and the grass-root of health problems were mainly social determinants of health. On the other hand, both approaches of top-down and bottom-up approaches must be simultaneously considered for dealing with these determinants. Establishment of such centers can create good opportunities for developing original solutions for dealing with social determinants of health. The success of Population Research Centers depends on policy makers' concepts and attitude toward social determinants of health and the role of community participation in this regard. It seems that a more extensive engagement of different sectors including universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations is also vital for such movements.

R Majdzadeh; A Setareh Forouzan; F Pourmalek; H Malekafzali

2009-01-01

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A Community-Based Approach to Health Literacy Using Participatory Research  

Science.gov (United States)

|Literacy is considered one of the most important determinants of health among Canadians (Ronson & Rootman, 2004). Engaging communities in identifying the critical connections between literacy and health is an important aspect of addressing health literacy. This article describes how participatory research, undertaken through a…

Gillis, Doris E.

2004-01-01

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Sexual education for adolescents: a participatory research approach in the school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the perception of adolescents about sexuality within the school. Methods: this is a qualitative research, from participatory approach, adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UNIFRA under protocol number 313.2007.2. It had been developed group dynamics and semi-structured questionnaire with adolescents from a public school in southern Brazil, a total of 48 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from December 2007 to May 2008. Results: the adolescents present themselves uninformed regarding prevention of STD'S, HIV/AIDS and pregnancy, do not talk to parents/family members about their questions about sex and sexuality; value feelings when it comes to staying or dating someone, but denote prejudice and taboos regarding the subject addressed in the study. Conclusion: it is recommended the development of educational activities with teenagers in schools, including health professionals, teachers and family to allow for a sharing of ideas and ways of teaching and learning about sex and sexuality.

Andressa da Silveira; Joanita Cechin Donaduzzi; Adriana Dall’Asta Pereira; Eliane Tatsch Neves

2010-01-01

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Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methodological approaches for ‘Design-Based Participatory Research'  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

Magnussen, Rikke; SØrensen, Birgitte Holm

2010-01-01

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Development of Nutrient Management Strategies for ASAL using Participatory Learning and Action Research (PLAR) Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Participatory diagnosis of soil fertility problems and subsequent experimentation was carried out at Kibwezi Division, Makweni district, using Participatory learning and Action Research (PLAR) methodologies. results of the soil analysis showed that nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) were the most limiting nutrients to the crop production. Farmers were excited to learn how to identify deficiency symptoms of N and P by looking at plant leaves. Farmers also identified and implemented practical options under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for solving the soil fertility problems such as use of manure, fertilisers or a combination of both. Fertiliser application at the rate of 40N + 40P2O5 ha-1 and 60N + 60P2O5 ha-1 produced significantly yield responses under rain-fed conditions. However, application of 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1 of farm yard manure had no effect on grain yield of maize. Maize gross margins were positive with increasing fertilizer application. Similarly, fresh yields of Chili showed marked yield increasing with increasing fertility conditions. In contrast, onions and tomatoes showed a corresponding smaller yield increase with fertility improvement. Chili, onions and tomatoes had positive gross margins as nutrient application was increased indicating that benefit was higher with increasing fertiliser inputs. The PLAR methodology provided farmers with knowledge and skills that helped them to change their attitude towards soil fertility improvement interventions

2002-01-01

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Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.

Vaughn NA; Jacoby SF; Williams T; Guerra T; Thomas NA; Richmond TS

2013-03-01

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Participatory Action Research: A View from Xerox.  

Science.gov (United States)

|Describes the Quality of Work Life (QWL) program at the North American Manufacturing Division of Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. States that the story of QWL is a description of participatory action research. Notes that the process has become an integral and flexible approach to solving problems and…

Pace, Larry A.; Argona, Dominick R.

1989-01-01

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Using qualitative inquiry and participatory research approaches to develop prevention research: validating a life course perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Application of life course theory (LCT) holds promise for advancing knowledge toward the elimination of health disparities. This article validates the usefulness of employing a life course perspective when conducting health disparities research. We provide an overview of LCT as it applies to our research program in prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among Latino teen parents. We illustrate the goodness-of-fit of our research with the basic premises of LCT. Though early adverse life experiences impact health over the lifespan, strength-based HIV prevention programs designed for Latino teen parents that recognize the reality of their lives may alter their health trajectory.

Lesser J; Koniak-Griffin D

2013-01-01

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Methodological Immaturity in Childhood Research?: Thinking through "Participatory Methods"  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of the recent literature on social research with children advocates the use of participatory techniques. This article attempts to rethink such techniques in several ways. The authors argue that participatory approaches, in their insistence that children should take part in research, may in fact involve children in processes that aim to…

Gallacher, Lesley-Anne; Gallagher, Michael

2008-01-01

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Evaluation of Community Health Education Workshops among Chinese Older Adults in Chicago: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Health education is one of the proven ways to improve knowledge and change health attitudes and behaviors. This study is intended to assess the effectiveness of five health workshops in a Chinese community, focusing on depression, elder abuse, nutrition, breast cancer and stroke. Methods: A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to plan and organize the workshops. A total of 236 Chinese community-dwelling older adults participated in different health workshops. Quantitative questionnaires on knowledge, risk factors and outcomes of each health topic were distributed before and after the workshop. Pre and post workshop comparison analyses were conducted to examine the effectiveness of the workshops on knowledge and learning. Results: Overall, the health workshops have significantly improved participants’ understanding throughout the five health themes (P Conclusion: This study sheds light on the importance of promoting health education, and the complexity and challenges of designing health education for community dwelling Chinese older adults. Significant implications for researchers, community service providers, health service workers and policy makers are discussed.

Xinqi Dong; Yawen Li; Ruijia Chen; E-Shien Chang; Melissa Simon

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Participatory research and service-learning among farmers, health professional students, and experts: an agromedicine approach to farm safety and health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agromedicine developments in Alabama rest heavily on the interest and support of the farm community. Participatory approaches have been advocated in order to impact the safety and health of farms. The University of Alabama Agromedicine Research Team, working closely with and guided by farmers, places emphasis on identifying areas of farmer concern related to agricultural health and safety and on developing jointly with the farmers plans to address their concerns. Agricultural extension agents were key to developing the trust relationships among farmers, health professionals, and extension personnel required for these successful agricultural safety and health developments. In this article the authors describe how the research team engaged farmers in participatory research to develop service learning activities for graduate students studying Agricultural Safety and Health at The University of Alabama. Accepting farmers' active role in research processes creates an environment that is favorable to change, while providing farmers reassurance that their health and safety is of utmost importance to the researchers. PMID:22191500

Guin, Susan M; Wheat, John R; Allinder, Russell S; Fanucchi, Gary J; Wiggins, Oscar S; Johnson, Gwendolyn J

2012-01-01

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Investigating Learning Space with Photography in Early Childhood Education: A Participatory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary research in early childhood education turned from adult-centered orientations to investigations based on children’s views, involved in data collection as competent research informants. Within this context, a variety of creative methodological frames and tools infused specific research. The present contribution discusses and exemplifies one of the innovative research tools in early education research, namely photography, through a small-scale qualitative study conducted with preschoolers as main data collectors. The study focuses on children’s perceptions of their learning space, in its very material understanding, in an attempt to challenge at the same time anthropocentric tendencies in early education research. Data are discussed mainly against the methodological framework, but discussions also emphasize materiality and material surroundings as sources and determinants of early learning experiences. Photographs produced by preschoolers as research participants illustrate their balanced orientation towards human and material determinants of their learning processes: although instructed to take photos of their learning space, final data included a large percentage of photos with human figures as central points of interest (either early education professionals or peers). These results are consistent with findings of similar studies, as well as participants’ preference for outdoor settings and indoor objects with aesthetic value.

Nicoleta Laura POPA; Liliana STAN

2013-01-01

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Participatory Innovation : A research agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must be ad...

Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

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Participatory Workflow Analysis: Unveling Scientific Research Processes with Physical Scientists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are working with physical scientists from a diversity of domains to design and develop problem-solving environments for scientific research. This paper describes our current efforts in conducting domain analysis with different classes of physical scientists. We have employed a method we call participatory workflow analysis, which allows scientists to easily construct, evolve, and decompose workflow diagrams. Using this analysis approach, the scientists have been able to elucidate and document their various research and problem-solving functions and processes. The motivation of this paper is to share our general experiences and findings from our application of participatory workflow analysis with physical scientists. We will describe the participatory workflow analysis approach, show examples from its usage, and present some of our findings from the analysis.

Chin, George; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Myers, James D.; Gracio, Deborah K.

2002-06-01

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Community-based participatory evaluation: the healthy start approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of community-based participatory research has gained momentum as a viable approach to academic and community engagement for research over the past 20 years. This article discusses an approach for extending the process with an emphasis on evaluation of a community partnership-driven initiative and thus advances the concept of conducting community-based participatory evaluation (CBPE) through a model used by the Healthy Start project of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., in Augusta, Georgia. Application of the CBPE approach advances the importance of bilateral engagements with consumers and academic evaluators. The CBPE model shows promise as a reliable and credible evaluation approach for community-level assessment of health promotion programs.

Braithwaite RL; McKenzie RD; Pruitt V; Holden KB; Aaron K; Hollimon C

2013-03-01

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Community-based participatory research: its role in future cancer research and public health practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009-2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research.

Simonds VW; Wallerstein N; Duran B; Villegas M

2013-01-01

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'Now we call it research': participatory health research involving marginalized women who use drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we discuss and analyse the strategies employed and challenges encountered when conducting a recent feminist participatory action research study with highly marginalized women who were illicit drug users in an inner city area of Vancouver, Canada. Through an analysis of the political economy of participatory praxis within current neoliberal contexts, we focus on three main areas: (i) reconceptualizing the pragmatics of participation; (ii) the microeconomic implications of participatory research, including ethical issues in payment for research participation; and (iii) the value and limits of using research as a tool for activism and empowerment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what we see to be some of the most salient social justice implications arising from feminist and participatory approaches to health research within neoliberal political spaces. PMID:21059151

Salmon, Amy; Browne, Annette J; Pederson, Ann

2010-12-01

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'Now we call it research': participatory health research involving marginalized women who use drugs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we discuss and analyse the strategies employed and challenges encountered when conducting a recent feminist participatory action research study with highly marginalized women who were illicit drug users in an inner city area of Vancouver, Canada. Through an analysis of the political economy of participatory praxis within current neoliberal contexts, we focus on three main areas: (i) reconceptualizing the pragmatics of participation; (ii) the microeconomic implications of participatory research, including ethical issues in payment for research participation; and (iii) the value and limits of using research as a tool for activism and empowerment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what we see to be some of the most salient social justice implications arising from feminist and participatory approaches to health research within neoliberal political spaces.

Salmon A; Browne AJ; Pederson A

2010-12-01

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Photovoice as Participatory Action Research Tool for Engaging People with Intellectual Disabilities in Research and Program Development  

Science.gov (United States)

People with intellectual disabilities have few opportunities to actively participate in research affecting programs and policies. Employment of participatory action research has been recommended. Although use of this approach with people who have intellectual disabilities is growing, articles on specific participatory research methods are rare.…

Jurkowski, Janine M.

2008-01-01

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Community Capacity Assessment in Preventing Substance Abuse: A Participatory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to address health issues. Few evidence exist to indicate how builds the capacity of communities to function as health promoter and what resources are required to promote successful efforts. This article presents the result of a capacity assessment for preventing drug abuse through CBPR, which working with rather than in communities, to strengthen a community's problem-solving capacity. For exploring the perception of stakeholders, a dynamic model of the dimensions of community and partnership capacity served as the theoretical framework. Methods: In this descriptive research, stakeholder analysis helps us to identify appropriate of stakeholders (Key stakeholders). Data were collected using a topic guide concerned with capacity for preventing drug abuse. Interviews were audiotape and transcribed. Data were analyzed thematically. Results: CBPR has been undertaken to involve local people in making decisions about the kind of change they want in their community and the allocation of resources to reduce substance abuse. We identified key stakeholders and examining their interests, resources and constraints of different stakeholders. Conclusion: The current study has shown the benefits of community-based participatory approach in assessing capacity. Through CBPR process people who affected by Drug issue engaged in analysis of their own situation and helps identity innovative solutions for their complex problem. This participatory approach to a capacity assessment resulted in a synergistic effort that provided a more accurate picture of community issues and concerns.

KH Shahandeh; R Majdzadeh; E Jamshidi; N Loori

2012-01-01

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Teachers' Stories: Expanding the Boundaries with the Participatory Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compiled by a group of teachers new to the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) field, this volume contains writing samples from teachers involved in the participatory approach to ESL classroom instruction. Introductory notes by Lee Hewitt cite the participatory approach as the most compelling method for teaching ESL adult learners. The "teaching…

Hewitt, Lee; And Others

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The Challenges of Participatory Research with "Tech-Savvy" Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on participatory research and how it can be understood and employed when researching children and youth. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretically and empirically grounded discussion of participatory research methodologies with respect to investigating the dynamic and evolving phenomenon of young people growing up in…

Mallan, Kerry Margaret; Singh, Parlo; Giardina, Natasha

2010-01-01

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A Framework for Clarifying Participation in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants' acceptance of participatory resear...

Barreteau, O.; Bots, P.; Daniell, K.

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A Framework for Clarifying “Participation” in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory resear...

Barreteau, O.; Bots, P.W.G.; Daniell, K.A.

35

A Framework for Clarifying “Participation” in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory ...

Olivier Barreteau; Pieter W. G. Bots; Katherine A. Daniell

36

A framework for the selection of participatory approaches for SEA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is now adopted as a formal procedure in various organisations. Nevertheless, the question of how to choose the most suitable SEA participatory approach for a given situation is far from being resolved. To shed light on this question, we briefly describe several participatory approaches used in environmental management and decision-making. A framework for evaluating these approaches is then adapted to SEA and used to assess the approaches selected. We conclude that participatory approaches within the SEA implementation process need to be chosen more systematically and we put forward our framework as a way of doing so.

2005-01-01

37

Reinvigorating Multicultural Education through Youth Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores youth participatory action research as a promising instructional practice with the potential to reverse the depoliticizing and "softening" of multicultural education. It demonstrates how, with its explicit commitment to action, youth participatory action research can help to improve the educational experiences and outcomes…

Irizarry, Jason G.

2009-01-01

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An Attractive Choice: Education Researchers' Use of Participatory Methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory methodologies are often favoured in education research. This study aimed to determine collaborative partnership trends between education researchers and teachers in order to understand the use of participatory theory and practice in education studies. Seven symposium presentations by education scholars from various higher education…

Ebersohn, L.; Ferreira, R.; Beukes, J.

2012-01-01

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Implementation research design: integrating participatory action research into randomized controlled trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. Discussion We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. Summary The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process.

Leykum Luci K; Pugh Jacqueline A; Lanham Holly J; Harmon Joel; McDaniel Reuben R

2009-01-01

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Implementation research design: integrating participatory action research into randomized controlled trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. DISCUSSION: We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. SUMMARY: The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process.

Leykum LK; Pugh JA; Lanham HJ; Harmon J; McDaniel RR Jr

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Evaluation of a workshop to improve community involvement in community-based participatory research efforts  

Science.gov (United States)

Community based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that has gained attention in health and public health research. Community members and researchers partnering in a CBPR project recognized the need for community education about the research process and research eth...

42

Participatory Action Research for Dealing with Disasters on Islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much disaster research has a basis in non-island case studies, although mono-disciplinary disaster-related research across past decades has often used case studies of individual islands. Both sets of work contribute to contemporary ‘participatory action research’ which investigates ways of dealing with disasters on islands. This paper asks what might be gained through combining disaster research, island studies, and participatory action research. What value does island studies bring to participatory action research for dealing with disasters? Through a critical (not comprehensive) overview of participatory action research for dealing with disasters on islands, three main lessons emerge. First, the island context matters to a certain degree for disaster-related research and action. Second, islandness has much more to offer disaster-related research than is currently appreciated. Third, more studies are needed linking theory to evidence found on the ground on islanders’ terms. Limitations of the analyses here and future research directions are provided.

Ilan Kelman; James Lewis; JC Gaillard; Jessica Mercer

2011-01-01

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Employing a Community Based Participatory Research Approach to Bear Witness: Psycho-Social Impact of the 2010 Earthquake on Haitians in Somerville, MA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We employed a community-based participatory research approach to assess mental health among the Haitian community in the Somerville, MA area. The development of the survey coincided with the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and so several questions related to the natural disaster were included in the analysis to increase understanding of the impact locally. We surveyed a convenience sample of 64 Haitians recruited with the assistance of the Somerville Haitian Coalition. The survey assessed demographic data, reasons for migrating to the area, response to the 2010 earthquake, and mental health. Mental health measures included the short versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Perceived Stress Scale. Participants reported high rates of stress and depression post-earthquake. On the CES-D, men reported higher average depression and stress scores than women (13.8 vs. 11 and 20.6 vs. 17.6). Our results suggest that social and family support resources may be beneficial to Haitians in our sample.

Martinez LS; Reich AJ; Ndulue UJ; Dalembert F; Gute DM; Peréa FC

2013-03-01

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SCIENTIFIC SAMPLING IN SMALL RURAL COMMUNITY PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To adapt and modify scientific sampling appropriately in a community participatory set ting. Background: Surveys may be used in community participatory research to assess the state of a community prior to intervention, readiness to participate in an intervention, and post intervention to ...

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Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: insights based on participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning. PMID:23438266

Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C

2013-02-25

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SOCIALANALYSIS-PARTICIPATORY APPROACH: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The core aims of participatory development planning are to give people a say in the development decisions that may affect them and to ensure that development interventions are appropriate to the needs and preferences of the population that they are intended to benefit. Participatory development can be undertaken by government agencies or other development agencies and NGOs at the national, regional, municipal or community level.

V. V. KULKARNI

2013-01-01

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Using participatory approaches with older people in a residential home in Guyana: challenges and tensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory approaches are a popular and entrenched strategy in community development, yet a number of unresolved issues and tensions persist regarding the definition, rationales, outcomes and ethics of participation. Despite its popularity there are relatively few examples of participatory projects with older people or in institutional settings so their potential with this group is poorly understood. This case study presents some of the practical and ethical challenges that arose over the course of a participatory project that aimed to analyse and improve quality of life in a residential home for older people in Guyana. Through a qualitative process evaluation it examines the degree of participation achieved, the determinants of the participatory process, the benefits the approach brought and the ethical dilemmas encountered. Although the degree of participation achieved was limited, beneficial outcomes were observed, notably the selection of appropriate and desirable interventions and the effect on the residents themselves, who valued their part in the project. The participatory process was unpredictable and complex, however, and key determinants of it included the organizational dynamics of the home and the skills, actions and attitudes of the researcher. Adopting a participatory approach brought valuable benefits in a residential home, but others adopting the approach should ensure they critically consider at the outset the ethical and practical dilemmas the setting and approach may produce and have realistic expectations of participation. PMID:23143161

Hewitt, Gillian; Draper, Alizon K; Ismail, Suraiya

2013-03-01

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Using participatory approaches with older people in a residential home in Guyana: challenges and tensions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory approaches are a popular and entrenched strategy in community development, yet a number of unresolved issues and tensions persist regarding the definition, rationales, outcomes and ethics of participation. Despite its popularity there are relatively few examples of participatory projects with older people or in institutional settings so their potential with this group is poorly understood. This case study presents some of the practical and ethical challenges that arose over the course of a participatory project that aimed to analyse and improve quality of life in a residential home for older people in Guyana. Through a qualitative process evaluation it examines the degree of participation achieved, the determinants of the participatory process, the benefits the approach brought and the ethical dilemmas encountered. Although the degree of participation achieved was limited, beneficial outcomes were observed, notably the selection of appropriate and desirable interventions and the effect on the residents themselves, who valued their part in the project. The participatory process was unpredictable and complex, however, and key determinants of it included the organizational dynamics of the home and the skills, actions and attitudes of the researcher. Adopting a participatory approach brought valuable benefits in a residential home, but others adopting the approach should ensure they critically consider at the outset the ethical and practical dilemmas the setting and approach may produce and have realistic expectations of participation.

Hewitt G; Draper AK; Ismail S

2013-03-01

49

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

Naydene de Lange; Mart-Mari Geldenhuys

2012-01-01

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The utility of concept mapping for actualizing participatory research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concept Mapping (CM) is a methodology designed for researching group processes;one its main features is the participatory nature of the technique and its use in new contexts, using methods rooted in traditional applied research. A strong feature of CM is the inclusion of different groups of people interested inreaching meanings and consensus to generate commitment oriented to the development of the communities involved. Another strength, is the overcoming of the shortcomings of ethnographic techniques, because it includes all groups of interest (stakeholders) to combine knowledge, actions and change. Its use (CM)requires to develop of multilevel relationships among the groups, and the valuing of different perspectives, as well as the balancing of the researcher´s approach and that of the participants, using robust models and analytics that yield objective data.

Scott R. Rosas

2012-01-01

51

Urban Forestry Research Needs: A Participatory Assessment Process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

New research initiatives focusing on urban ecology and natural resources are underway. Such programs coincide with increased local government action in urban forest planning and management, activities that are enhanced by scientific knowledge. This project used a participatory stakeholder process to explore and understand urban forestry research and technology transfer needs in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. The approach can be readily used for any geographic region or metropolitan area. A two-phase, abbreviated Delphi process was conducted, inviting input from urban forestry professionals, academics, and agency-based managers. Research issues were identified and prioritized within three themes: urban forest resource, resource management, and community framework. The results serve as a stakeholder relevant research framework to guide science proposals for funding initiatives at regional and national levels. Notable is major support by respondents for a better understanding of the transactional dynamics of human systems and urban natural resources.

Wolf KathleenL; Kruger LindaE

2010-01-01

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Participatory research for adaptive water management in a transition country. A case study from Uzbekistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches...

Hirsch, D.; Abrami, G.; Giordano, R.; Liersch, S.; Matin, N.; Schlüter, M.

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Participatory development and implementation of a community research workshop: Experiences from a community based participatory research (CBPR) partnership  

Science.gov (United States)

While community based participatory research (CBPR) principles stress the importance of "equitable partnerships" and an "empowering and power-sharing process that attends to social inequalities", descriptions of actual projects often cite the challenges confronted in academic–-community partnerships...

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Community-based participatory research (CBPR) with indigenous communities: producing respectful and reciprocal research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in Canada continue to grow despite an expanding body of research that attempts to address these inequalities, including increased attention from the field of health geography. Here, we draw upon a case study of our own community-based approach to health research with Anishinabe communities in northern Ontario as a means of advocating the growth of such participatory approaches. Using our own case as an example, we demonstrate how a collaborative approach to respectful and reciprocal research can be achieved, including some of the challenges we faced in adopting this approach.

Tobias JK; Richmond CA; Luginaah I

2013-04-01

55

Participatory Evaluation: Implications for Improving Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the participatory approach used by a group of academic support staff in evaluating an academic professional development resource designed to support e-learning and teaching. The resource, titled Designing Electronic Learning and Teaching Approaches (DELTA), showcases examples of electronic learning and teaching approaches

Benson, Robyn; Samarawickrema, Gayani; O'Connell, Margaret

2009-01-01

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A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

|A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

2011-01-01

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An assessment of gender inequitable norms and gender-based violence in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Following decades of conflict, South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011. Prolonged conflict, which included gender-based violence (GBV), exacerbated gender disparities. This study aimed to assess attitudes towards gender inequitable norms related to GBV and to estimate the frequency of GBV in sampled communities of South Sudan. METHODS: Applying a community-based participatory research approach, 680 adult male and female household respondents were interviewed in seven sites within South Sudan in 2009-2011. Sites were selected based on program catchment area for a non-governmental organization and respondents were selected by quota sampling. The verbally-administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Results were stratified by gender, age, and education. RESULTS: Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and 2 did not provide gender data. Among respondents, 82% of females and 81% of males agreed that 'a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together'. The majority, 68% of females and 63% of males, also agreed that 'there are times when a woman deserves to be beaten'. Women (47%) were more likely than men (37%) to agree that 'it is okay for a man to hit his wife if she won't have sex with him' (p=0.005). Agreement with gender inequitable norms decreased with education. Across sites, 69% of respondents knew at least one woman who was beaten by her husband in the past month and 42% of respondents knew at least one man who forced his wife or partner to have sex. CONCLUSION: The study reveals an acceptance of violence against women among sampled communities in South Sudan. Both women and men agreed with gender inequitable norms, further supporting that GBV programming should address the attitudes of both women and men. The results support promotion of education as a strategy for addressing gender inequality and GBV. The findings reveal a high frequency of GBV across all assessment sites; however, population-based studies are needed to determine the prevalence of GBV in South Sudan. South Sudan, the world's newest nation, has the unique opportunity to implement policies that promote gender equality and the protection of women.

Scott J; Averbach S; Modest AM; Hacker MR; Cornish S; Spencer D; Murphy M; Parmar P

2013-01-01

58

Youth researching youth: benefits, limitations and ethical considerations within a participatory research process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the benefits, limitations and ethical issues associated with conducting participatory research on tobacco use using youth to research other youth. Study design. Community-based participatory research. Methods. Research on tobacco use was conducted with students in the K’àlemì Dene School and Kaw Tay Whee School in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using PhotoVoice. The Grade 9–12 students acted as researchers. Researcher reflections and observations were assessed using “member checking,” whereby students, teachers and community partners could agree or disagree with the researcher's interpretation. The students and teachers were further asked informally to share their own reflections and observations on this process. Results and conclusions. Using youth to research other youth within a participatory research framework had many benefits for the quality of the research, the youth researchers and the community. The research was perceived by the researchers and participants to be more valid and credible. The approach was more appropriate for the students, and the youth researchers gained valuable research experience and a sense of ownership of both the research process and results. Viewing smoking through their children's eyes was seen by the community to be a powerful and effective means of creating awareness of the community environment. Limitations of the approach were residual response bias of participants, the short period of time to conduct the research and failure to fully explore student motivations to smoke or not to smoke. Ethical considerations included conducting research with minors, difficulties in obtaining written parental consent, decisions on cameras (disposable versus digital) and representation of all participants in the final research product.

Cynthia G. Jardine; Angela James

2012-01-01

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Participatory research from the angle of empowerment-theory: Some critical reflections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the relation of research and praxis. In applying a community psychology perspective, the author tries to analyze contradictions in the participatory praxis of organizations and research projects. He argues for a combined approach which includes empowerment and participation. Two empirical examples shed light on the author's theoretical explications.

Olaf Neumann

2011-01-01

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Maculate Conceptions: Power, Process, and Creativity in Participatory Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Justifiably concerned about power dynamics between researchers and participants in participatory research, much of the literature proposes guidelines for including participant voices at every step of the research process. We find these guidelines insufficient for dealing with constraints set up by the social organizational structures in which…

Lyon, Alexandra; Bell, Michael; Croll, Nora Swan; Jackson, Randall; Gratton, Claudio

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Vocational rehabilitation: facilitating evidence based practice through participatory action research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Improving vocational rehabilitation in line with the current evidence base is an area of considerable interest. Aims To describe the strategies used by a multidisciplinary team in the initial stages of a participatory action research (PAR) approach to improving a vocational rehabilitation service. METHOD: A literature review and PAR process were completed. One hundred and fifteen participants engaged in multifaceted data collection and analysis, building consensus around key principles for a new vocational rehabilitation service. RESULTS: A synthesis of our literature review and PAR process was developed into a set of principles for practice which we plan to implement across the service. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed methodologies in interdisciplinary collaborations spanning statutory and non-statutory services. We have developed a set of principles for practice and detailed plans for implementation are being drawn up to inform provision in the future.

Maciver D; Prior S; Forsyth K; Walsh M; Meiklejohn A; Irvine L; Pentland D

2013-04-01

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A Framework for Clarifying “Participation” in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory research processes is key to their implementation. Our first assumption is that this positive view and acceptance of participation in research processes is a public good for the whole participatory research community. We also assume that the diversity of participatory forms of research is rarely considered by potential participants when they make their decisions about whether or not to participate in a proposed process. We specifically address how to avoid stakeholders’ reluctance to be involved in participatory research projects based on disillusion with past experiences. We argue that the disappointment experienced by stakeholders and other participants (i.e., researchers and policy makers) can be avoided by being upfront and precise about how “participation” will be implemented, and what kind of involvement is expected from participants. Such a collective effort from the research community can also clarify the variety of possible implementations for potential participants. Building on earlier efforts to characterize and categorize the diversity of participatory research approaches, we develop a conceptual analytic procedural framework to make participants’ roles explicit in the implementation of different participatory research processes. This framework consists of three facets: (1) the flows of information among participants and the control over these flows for each step in a process, i.e., who will be expected to produce information, who will use this information, and who will receive the results; (2) the timing of the involvement of participants in the different steps of the research process, and the framing power that is associated with each process step; and (3) the organization of communication among participants for each information flow, i.e., in what configuration (bilaterally or as a group, mediated or face to face) the interactions among researchers, stakeholders, and policy makers will take place. This framework can accommodate a wide variety of research methods, and highlights exactly how participants are involved in research processes. We are prescriptive in dealing with the need to be procedurally explicit when engaging in participatory research. We anticipate that using this framework will lead to more thoughtful acceptances or refusals to participate in proposed research processes. Our framework is based on various experiences with participatory research. It is intended to be used from the very beginning of a participatory research process as a conceptual guide for researchers. We suggest a protocol to transform it into more practical guidelines for communicating about upcoming participatory research processes. The leader of such processes should propose at each key stage an explicit, yet adaptive, plan for the following stages. This plan should also specify in what ways participants will be involved, and how the plan itself can be questioned and revised.

Olivier Barreteau; Pieter W. G. Bots; Katherine A. Daniell

2010-01-01

63

The value and limitations of Participatory Action Research methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory Action Research (PAR) was used to trial engagement tools. The method ensured the trials addressed specific in situ water planning issues. PAR directed the research towards policy and stakeholder relevant outcomes. In contested political contexts, PAR requires expert-level skills in facilitation.

Mackenzie, John; Tan, Poh-Ling; Hoverman, Suzanne; Baldwin, Claudia

2012-12-01

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Integrating Participatory Action Research and GIS Education: Negotiating Methodologies, Politics and Technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges of integrating participatory action research into undergraduate GIS courses, drawing evidence from two undergraduate courses that contributed to a long-term participatory action research project. The author shows that incorporating participatory action research in undergraduate…

Elwood, Sarah

2009-01-01

65

Assessing Participatory and Dialogue Approaches. Deliverable 15  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report presents the results of work carried out ARGONA project. The main objective has been to gain some appreciation of the success, or otherwise, of several public involvement approaches associated with radioactive waste disposal facility siting in general and of various involvement activities and techniques in particular, especially any that appear to be novel in their content and/or application. The main focus of the analysis has been to examine three case studies. Firstly the use of stakeholder panels as part of the consultation about the BPEO (Best Practicable Environmental Option) study for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) management at Britain's former centre for fast reactor research and development at Dounreay in northern Scotland; secondly, the series of subsequent 'drop-in' meetings held to communicate information about the development of the agreed solution for these wastes (namely a near-surface disposal facility); thirdly, work carried out by the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez (NRI) in the Czech Republic, as part of ARGONA WP5.1, involving a series of stakeholder meetings to examine radioactive waste management in the context of plans for the management of spent fuel. In order to evaluate the success or usefulness of the approaches, techniques and meetings involved, we have developed a participation process 'Evaluation Matrix'. This has involved the use of criteria against which particular approaches and activities may be judged. In order to develop these we have adapted criteria developed as part of the RISCOM II project and developed a parallel set of descriptions to enable us to examine each activity through the 'lens' of an appropriate Evaluation Matrix. We have then conducted an evaluation using these 'ARGONA criteria' for the three separate case studies. It is recognised that the literature currently fails to offer a methodology for comparing approaches and allowing selection of appropriate techniques for use in particular circumstances. The methodology adopted here has shown that it is however possible to map approaches and techniques against RISCOM-type criteria using a range of information, including feedback forms, questionnaires and interviews. This can inform about how particular approaches are perceived by both sides and assist in development of more suitable methods for the future. Evaluation of the different activities and techniques employed in the three case studies has allowed insight into several common factors, such as timing, purpose of the involvement, scale of the involvement, and development of suitable discussion arenas. We consider that this work makes a contribution to responding to the absence of a comparison methodology by proposing the development of a 'knowledge base' as a basis for reporting participation studies in a manner that would facilitate comparisons and selection of methods appropriate to particular issues. We consider that the resulting knowledge base should be developed in the form of a library of relevant approaches (techniques, meeting types etc) that can be 'indexed' in terms of what the desired end result might be (a requirement for advice; development of societal consensus; provision of clarity regarding a contentious issue etc) and cross referenced as to their suitability at different stages of an involvement process. The intention would then be that a 'customer' agency could consult the knowledge base and identify possible approaches and techniques that would be suitable for use (and adaptation) in the particular situation and at the relevant process stage in question. The approach could be developed more widely to include a large number of processes and a large number of 'requirement criteria' as components in the knowledge base. It should be emphasised, however, that such an approach should be used for communication about what it means to use certain processes, and not as a calculation tool to decide on which method to use in a simple objective manner

2009-01-01

66

Translating community-based participatory research principles into practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although academics are trained in research methods, few receive formal training in strategies for implementing equitable community engaged research. Academics and their community partners can benefit from such direction and assistance as they establish and maintain community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Research partners from the University of Pittsburgh, the Johns Hopkins Center for Injury Research and Policy, and the House of Ruth Maryland, one of the nation's leading domestic violence centers serving Baltimore and the surrounding areas, joined together to design, implement, and evaluate a series of activities to increase local CPBR capacity. OBJECTIVES: This article provides an overview of process and findings from two CBPR workshops jointly held for academic and community members and explores specific suggestions from the workshop participants about how to put the CBPR principles into practice to promote community engaged research to address intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: Twenty-four academic and community partners with experience addressing IPV participated in the two workshops. Facilitators led discussions based on the core CPBR principles. Participants were asked to interpret those principles, identify actions that could help to put the principles into practice, and discuss challenges related to CBPR approaches for IPV research. Observational notes and transcripts of the discussions and workshop evaluations are summarized. RESULTS: The CBPR principles were interpreted and revised through consensus into common language that reflected the group discussion of the core CBPR principles. Workshop participants provided a range of actions for putting the principles into practice and identified the need for sensitivity in relation to IPV research. A majority of participants felt that the workshop generated novel ideas about how they could use CPBR in their own work. CONCLUSIONS: Translating CBPR principles into common, action-oriented language is a useful first step when building a new academic-community research partnership.

Burke JG; Hess S; Hoffmann K; Guizzetti L; Loy E; Gielen A; Bailey M; Walnoha A; Barbee G; Yonas M

2013-01-01

67

Embedded, Participatory Research: Creating a Grounded Theory with Teenagers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – This project, based on a study of the impact of art programs in public libraries on the teenaged participants, sought to show how library practitioners can perform embedded, participatory research by adding participants to their research team. Embedded participatory techniques, when paired with grounded theory methods, build testable theories from the ground up, based on the real experiences of those involved, including the librarian. This method offers practical solutions for other librarians while furthering a theoretical research agenda.Methods – This example of embedded, participatory techniques used grounded theory methods based on the experiences of teens who participated in art programs at a public library. Fourteen teens participated in interviews, and six of them assisted in coding,analyzing, and abstracting the data, and validating the resulting theory.Results – Employing the teenagers within the research team resulted in a teen-validated theory. The embedded techniques of the practitioner-researcher resulted in a theory that can be applied to practice.Conclusions – This research framework develops the body of literature based on real world contexts and supports hands-on practitioners. It also provides evidence-based theory for funding agencies and assessment. In addition, practitioner-based research that incorporates teens as research partners activates teens’ voices. It gives them a venue to speak for themselves with support from an interested and often advocacy-minded adult.

Shannon Crawford Barniskis

2013-01-01

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Research for Change versus Research as Change: Lessons from a "Mujerista" Participatory Research Team  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, I aim to further the discussion of engaged research in anthropology and education by examining the unique changes promoted by participatory research in contrast to policy-oriented activist research models. Drawing on my work with Latina immigrant mothers in a school reform movement, I argue for a Latina feminist view of…

Dyrness, Andrea

2008-01-01

69

[Concept analysis of a participatory approach to occupational safety and health].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to analyze a participatory approach to occupational safety and health, and to examine the possibility of applying the concept to the practice and research of occupational safety and health. METHODS: According to Rodger's method, descriptive data concerning antecedents, attributes and consequences were qualitatively analyzed. A total of 39 articles were selected for analysis. RESULTS: Attributes with a participatory approach were: "active involvement of both workers and employers", "focusing on action-oriented low-cost and multiple area improvements based on good practices", "the process of emphasis on consensus building", and "utilization of a local network". Antecedents of the participatory approach were classified as: "existing risks at the workplace", "difficulty of occupational safety and health activities", "characteristics of the workplace and workers", and "needs for the workplace". The derived consequences were: "promoting occupational safety and health activities", "emphasis of self-management", "creation of safety and healthy workplace", and "contributing to promotion of quality of life and productivity". CONCLUSIONS: A participatory approach in occupational safety and health is defined as, the process of emphasis on consensus building to promote occupational safety and health activities with emphasis on self-management, which focuses on action-oriented low-cost and multiple area improvements based on good practices with active involvement of both workers and employers through utilization of local networks. We recommend that the role of the occupational health professional be clarified and an evaluation framework be established for the participatory approach to promote occupational safety and health activities by involving both workers and employers.

Yoshikawa E

2013-01-01

70

Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR) project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. Methods The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR’s Health and Well-being Project’s corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1) community engagement, 2) sampling and recruitment, 3) retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4) analysis, interpretation and dissemination. Results To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the research agenda. Conclusion CBPR methods have the ability to enable and strengthen epidemiological and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa within the social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the diverse communities on the continent. This project demonstrates that adaptation of these methods is crucial to the successful implementation of a community-based project involving a highly vulnerable population.

Kamanda Allan; Embleton Lonnie; Ayuku David; Atwoli Lukoye; Gisore Peter; Ayaya Samuel; Vreeman Rachel; Braitstein Paula

2013-01-01

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Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children's Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR) project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. METHODS: The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR's Health and Well-being Project's corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1) community engagement, 2) sampling and recruitment, 3) retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4) analysis, interpretation and dissemination. RESULTS: To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the research agenda. CONCLUSION: CBPR methods have the ability to enable and strengthen epidemiological and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa within the social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the diverse communities on the continent. This project demonstrates that adaptation of these methods is crucial to the successful implementation of a community-based project involving a highly vulnerable population.

Kamanda A; Embleton L; Ayuku D; Atwoli L; Gisore P; Ayaya S; Vreeman R; Braitstein P

2013-01-01

72

A participatory action research methodology in the management of self-harm in prison.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Self-harm in custody is a well-researched phenomenon. This is particularly true for women in prison who demonstrate disproportionately high rates of self-harm. Despite the growing body of prison research, there has been a lack of service user involvement (SUI). Aims To outline the first use of SUI in a custodial setting in developing care pathways for self-harm. METHODOLOGY: A participatory action research approach was used to engage women prisoners and staff. RESULTS: Participants were able to identify strengths and weaknesses of current care pathways and offer suggestions for service development based upon their experience of receiving and delivering care. CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that despite participatory approaches being in their infancy in prisons the engagement of service users when aimed at effecting positive change can be successful.

Ward J; Bailey D

2013-08-01

73

A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b) work practice improvement, and c) working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR) method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1) the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2) the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (p=sig). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives.

Aniruth Manothum; Jittra Rukijkanpanich

2010-01-01

74

A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers, a) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b) work practice improvement, and c) working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR) method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1) the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2) the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (P less than 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives. ?

Manothum A; Rukijkanpanich J

2010-06-01

75

Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i) the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii) their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii) their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1) the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2) in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well), four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good information about the participants and the context in which the method will be applied, knowledge of the local language(s), and careful training of local moderators. While these aspects are relevant to any application of participatory methods, they become even more important in a political and socio-cultural setting such as that found in Uzbekistan. One added value of the activities and a crucial aspect of a participatory research processes was the capacity building of local scientists and practitioners, which facilitates the further application of the methods.

Darya Hirsch; Geraldine Abrami; Raffaele Giordano; Stefan Liersch; Nilufar Matin; Maja Schlüter

2010-01-01

76

Developing, testing, and sustaining rehabilitation interventions via participatory action research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few published intervention studies in the rehabilitation literature have included consumers in the research process other than as study participants. This lack of consumer involvement in intervention research may contribute to the challenges encountered developing, translating, disseminating, and sustaining evidence-based rehabilitation interventions in clinical practice. The overall objective of this article is to promote the integration of participatory action research (PAR) into rehabilitation intervention research as a mechanism for addressing these gaps. First, we outline essential components of a PAR model across 5 key phases of intervention research, specifically: agenda setting, methods, implementation, diffusion/dissemination, and sustainability. Second, we describe the use of PAR in rehabilitation intervention research within each of these phases by reviewing relevant literature and by providing an illustrative research example from a randomized controlled trial that integrated PAR throughout the research process. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of 5 specific recommendations for promoting the integration of PAR into rehabilitation intervention research.

Ehde DM; Wegener ST; Williams RM; Ephraim PL; Stevenson JE; Isenberg PJ; MacKenzie EJ

2013-01-01

77

Supporting a community-based participatory evaluation approach to violence prevention in kansas city.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disparities in rates of firearm-related homicide exist for some segments of the population and by geographic area. There are interrelated factors across multiple social-ecological levels that increase the risk of violence for some individuals and groups, which may suggest the importance of comprehensive community intervention approaches for addressing violence. Participatory approaches can aid in the implementation of community interventions by engaging community and researcher partners in collaboratively addressing community-identified concerns. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the application of a participatory evaluation framework used to support the Aim4Peace Violence Prevention Project in Kansas City, Missouri. The study presents data from the second year of program implementation to examine the contributions of the program in addressing violence.

Watson-Thompson J; Jones MD; Colvin JD; McClendon-Cole T; Schober DJ; Johnson AM

2013-01-01

78

Workplace health protection and promotion through participatory ergonomics: an integrated approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A multidisciplinary team of researchers at the Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace (CPH-NEW) developed an evidence-based approach to address three recognized challenges to workplace programs designed to improve employee health: establishing employee ownership, integrating with work organization, and sustainability. The two main innovations being introduced in combination were (1) integrating traditional workplace health protection (e.g., ergonomics, industrial hygiene) with health promotion (e.g., assisting workers in improving health behaviors) and (2) introducing a bottom-up participatory model for engaging employees in innovative iterative design efforts to enhance both components of this integrated program. In the program, which was modeled after participatory ergonomics programs, teams of workers engage in the iterative design of workplace interventions to address their prioritized health concerns with the support of a multilevel steering committee. The integrated approach being tested can complement existing worksite safety and health initiatives and promote organizational learning, with expected synergistic effects.

Henning R; Warren N; Robertson M; Faghri P; Cherniack M

2009-07-01

79

Special issue: three models of community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative process between community-based organizations and academic investigators. It has the potential to make research more responsive to existing needs and to enhance a community's ability to address important health issues. But CBPR is often unfamiliar territory to academic investigators and community organizations alike. We interviewed CBPR investigators at Penn and community leaders to ascertain best practices in CBPR and to compare academic and community perspectives. A number of models of community-academic partnerships emerged, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The perspectives of the investigators sometimes matched those of the community leaders, but diverged in important ways.

Weiner J; McDonald JA

2013-04-01

80

The impact of participatory research on urban teens: an experimental evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although there is much practice of community-based participatory research in economically-developing countries and increasingly in North America, there has been little systematic assessment of empowerment effects. Youth-led participatory research holds particular promise for fostering positive development and civic participation among economically disadvantaged urban youth. The present investigation uses a clustered-randomized, within-school experimental design to test the effects of youth-led participatory research on the psychological empowerment of 401 students attending urban public schools. We find that attending a participatory research elective class during the school day was associated with increases in sociopolitical skills, motivation to influence their schools and communities, and participatory behavior. We found no significant effects for perceived control at school. The implications for participatory research and related youth development interventions are discussed.

Ozer EJ; Douglas L

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC) Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH; Jo Anne Grunbaum, EdD; Barbara Sajor Gray, MIA; Adele Franks, MD; Eduardo Simoes, MD, MS, MPH

2007-01-01

82

For a public sociology on participatory democracy. Reflexive feedback on research conducted in an association  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper develops a reflexive approach on the relations between research and action in works on participatory democracy; a topic in which bridges are numerous between academic, political and activist fields. It aims at analyzing the impact of the close links between sociologists and actors on the methods and results of research and, reciprocally, the role of sociology in developing participatory practices. Relying on Michael Burawoy’s reflection on “public sociology”, our own research experience in an association, and other research studies conducted in Europe, we define five ways sociologists carry out research on participatory democracy in collaboration with the actors. Beyond a reflection on the social reception of our research, the challenge is to develop a critical and committed sociology on participatory democracy with a view to contributing to the political debate and public action from a critical viewpoint.Este artículo desarrolla un enfoque reflexivo sobre las relaciones entre investigación y acción en los trabajos sobre democracia participativa, una temática en la que los vínculos entre los campos académicos, políticos y militantes son numerosos. El objetivo es analizar el impacto de las estrechas relaciones entre sociólogos y actores sociales en los métodos y resultados de la investigación y, al mismo tiempo, el papel de la sociología en el desarrollo de las prácticas participativas. Apoyándose en la reflexión de Michael Burawoy sobre la “sociología pública”, en nuestra propia experiencia de investigación en una asociación y en otras investigaciones en Europa, se definen cinco posturas de sociólogos que trabajan en colaboración con los actores sociales sobre la democracia participativa. Más allá de una reflexión sobre la receptividad social de nuestras investigaciones, el desafío consiste en desarrollar una sociología a la vez crítica y comprometida sobre la democracia participativa, para contribuir al debate político y a la acción pública a partir de una capacidad de distancia crítica.

Nez, Héloïse

2012-01-01

83

From Voice to Knowledge: Participatory Action Research, Inclusive Debate and Feminism  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the relations between participatory action research and feminist research, through an examination of the metaphor of "voice" and its possible replacement with the idea of "knowledge." The article describes in detail a participatory action research project undertaken in Israel, which was aimed at forging an inclusive debate…

Krumer-Nevo, Michal

2009-01-01

84

Theory and Practice in Participatory Research: Lessons from the Native Elder Care Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian…

Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Manson, Spero M.

2011-01-01

85

Some considerations on the attractiveness of participatory processes for researchers from natural science  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory modeling and participatory scenario development have become an essential part of environmental impact assessment and planning in the field of water resources management. But even if most people agree that participation is required to solve environmental problems in a way that satisfies both the environmental and societal needs, success stories are relatively rare, while many attempts to include stakeholders in the development of models are still reported to have failed. This paper proposes the hypothesis, that the lack of success in participatory modeling can partly be attributed to a lack of attractiveness of participatory approaches for researchers from natural sciences (subsequently called 'modelers'). It has to be pointed out that this discussion is mainly concerned with natural scientists in academia and not with modelers who develop models for commercial purposes or modelers employed by public agencies. The involvement of modelers and stakeholders in participatory modeling has been intensively studied during recent years. However, such analysis is rarely made from the viewpoint of the modelers themselves. Modelers usually don't see participatory modeling and scenario development as scientific targets as such, because the theoretical foundations of such processes usually lie far outside their own area of expertise. Thus, participatory processes are seen mainly as a means to attract funding or to facilitate the access to data or (relatively rarely) as a way to develop a research model into a commercial product. The majority of modelers very likely do not spend too much time on reflecting whether or not their new tools are helpful to solve real world problems or if the results are understandable and acceptable for stakeholders. They consider their task completed when the model they developed satisfies the 'scientific requirements', which are essentially different from the requirements to satisfy a group of stakeholders. Funding often stops before a newly developed model can actually be tested in a stakeholder process. Therefore the gap between stakeholders and modelers persists or is even growing. A main reason for this probably lies in the way that the work of scientists (modelers) is evaluated. What counts is the number of journal articles produced, while applicability or societal impact is still not a measure of scientific success. A good journal article on a model requires an exemplary validation but only very rarely would a reviewer ask if a model was accepted by stakeholders. So why should a scientist go through a tedious stakeholder process? The stakeholder process might be a requirement of the research grant, but whether this is taken seriously, can be questioned, as long as stakeholder dialogues do not lead to quantifiable scientific success. In particular for researchers in early career stages who undergo typical, publication-based evaluation processes, participatory research is hardly beneficial. The discussion in this contribution is based on three pillars: (i) a comprehensive evaluation of the literature published on participatory modeling and scenario development, (ii) a case study involving the development of an integrated model for water and land use management including an intensive stakeholder process and (iii) unstructured, personal communication - with mainly young scientists - about the attractiveness of multidisciplinary, applied research.

Barthel, Roland

2013-04-01

86

From patient to participant: enhancing the validity and ethics of cancer research through participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory health research involves a wide spectrum of participation from the population of study. We describe the participatory research processes of a large mixed method study on the psychosocial impact of dragon boating in individuals with breast cancer. In particular, we discuss the involvement of a Community Advisory Group (consisting of five breast cancer patients/survivors) in the development of the research study, data collection and analysis, and dissemination of the study results. We also outline the elements of a research workshop, in which 13 breast cancer patients/survivors were involved in the development of a provincial survey for the study. The purpose of this article is to share our experience of engaging cancer patients/survivors in a participatory research study. We discuss the value-based elements of participatory research (power sharing, voice and respect, reciprocity, and mutual benefit), and provide a case-based example of how these participatory elements were employed to potentially increase the validity of the survey instrument, to enhance the ethics of working with a cancer population, and ultimately contributed to a high survey response rate.

Chiu CG; Mitchell TL; Fitch MI

2013-06-01

87

From patient to participant: enhancing the validity and ethics of cancer research through participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory health research involves a wide spectrum of participation from the population of study. We describe the participatory research processes of a large mixed method study on the psychosocial impact of dragon boating in individuals with breast cancer. In particular, we discuss the involvement of a Community Advisory Group (consisting of five breast cancer patients/survivors) in the development of the research study, data collection and analysis, and dissemination of the study results. We also outline the elements of a research workshop, in which 13 breast cancer patients/survivors were involved in the development of a provincial survey for the study. The purpose of this article is to share our experience of engaging cancer patients/survivors in a participatory research study. We discuss the value-based elements of participatory research (power sharing, voice and respect, reciprocity, and mutual benefit), and provide a case-based example of how these participatory elements were employed to potentially increase the validity of the survey instrument, to enhance the ethics of working with a cancer population, and ultimately contributed to a high survey response rate. PMID:23605172

Chiu, Connie G; Mitchell, Terry L; Fitch, Margaret I

2013-06-01

88

Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In (more) so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.

Loewenson, Rene; Flores, Walter; Shukla, Abhay; Kagis, Maija; Baba, Amuda; Ryklief, Ashraf; Mbwili-Muleya, Clara; Kakde, Dhananjay

2011-07-01

89

Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.

Rene Loewenson; Walter Flores; Abhay Shukla; Maija Kagis; Amuda Baba; Ashraf Ryklief; Clara Mbwili-Muleya; Dhananjay Kakde

2011-01-01

90

A PARTICIPATORY APPROACH TO INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY OF MAIZE THROUGH STRIGA HERMONTHICA CONTROL IN NORTHEAST NIGERIA  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Striga hermonthica is a parasitic weed that attacks maize, sorghum and other staple cereal crops and has long been considered one of the greatest biotic constraints to cereal production in Africa. Use of resistant or tolerant maize varieties, a maize-legume rotation using trap crops that stimulate suicidal germination of Striga and the application of nitrogen fertilizer are all effective in reducing infestation and damage. This paper reports on the use of a participatory research and extension approach in assessing the performance and scaling-up of integrated Striga control packages in three agro-ecological zones in Borno State, Nigeria. The participatory process which encourages close interaction between research, extension and farmers, involved 30 local communities and 228 farmers representing 193 farmer groups in identifying their own problems and seeking solutions to them. Results showed not only effective Striga control but productivity increases of over 200%. The involvement of local farmers and groups in the evaluation process, firstly, helped to confirm that Striga control can best be achieved using soyabean followed by Striga-resistant maize together with productivity-increasing management practices and, secondly, promoted farmer-to-farmer extension. A participatory adoption assessment exercise indicated widespread adoption of new varieties and management practices, despite the need for increased labour. Great potential exists to scale out the results to similar areas of Guinea and Sudan savannas in the West Africa region.

Kamara AY; Ellis-Jones J; Amaza P; Omoigui LO; Helsen J; Dugje IY; Kamai N; Menkir A; White RW

2008-07-01

91

Participatory approach for integrated basin planning with focus on disaster risk reduction: the case of the Limpopo river  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper defends the idea that a participatory approach is a suitable method for basin planning integrating both water and land aspects. Assertions made are based on scientific literature review and corroborated by field experience and research carried out in the Limpopo River basin, a transbounda...

Spaliviero, Mathias; De Dapper, Morgan; Mannaerts, Chris M; Yachan, Antonio

92

Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR) as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing ...

Tara Ford; Stacy Rasmus; James Allen

93

Exciting but exhausting: experiences with participatory research with chronically ill adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Adolescents with chronic conditions are major users of paediatric hospitals, but seldom participate in the evaluation of services or in research. Little is known about the usefulness of the participatory approach in adolescent health research. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, benefits and limitations of a participatory research (PR) project involving chronically ill adolescents as co-researchers. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Nine adolescents, aged 15-17 years, acted as co-researchers in a hospital-based PR project. They co-developed an interview protocol and during a disco party held for this purpose interviewed each other and 25 fellow patients (12-19 years). They provided advice on the draft report and participated in the dissemination of the results, but were not involved in the design of the project or analysis of results. RESULTS: Involving adolescents in participatory health research was feasible and appreciated by researchers and youth alike, but had its drawbacks too. The peer-research attracted few participants, the interviews lacked depth and did not yield substantial new insights. Maintaining a high level of participation of the chronically ill co-researchers also proved difficult. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with chronic conditions like to have a say in the design and evaluation of hospital services. But their participation as co-researchers demands ample resources from all parties involved without automatically improving research quality. PR does not seem the most effective and efficient way to make services more responsive. We therefore recommend further exploration of other creative and sustainable ways for involving youth in health-care service development and innovation.

van Staa A; Jedeloo S; Latour JM; Trappenburg MJ

2010-03-01

94

Participatory action research: Involving students in parent education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Competition for scarce clinical placements has increased requiring new and innovative models to be developed to meet the growing need. A participatory action research project was used to provide a community nursing clinical experience of involvement in parent education. Nine Hong Kong nursing students self-selected to participate in the project to implement a parenting program called Parenting Young Children in a Digital World. Three project cycles were used: needs identification, skills development and program implementation. Students were fully involved in each cycle's planning, action and reflection phase. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to inform the project. The overall outcome of the project was the provision of a rich and viable clinical placement experience that created significant learning opportunities for the students and researchers. This paper will explore the student's participation in this PAR project as an innovative clinical practice opportunity.

Fowler C; Wu C; Lam W

2013-07-01

95

Participatory Methods in Health Research with elderly People  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Institut für Gerontologische Forschung e.V. investigated the "Primary Prevention Effects of the Märkisches Viertel Network" in Berlin in a research project funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The study integrates various participatory methods to investigate the health promotion effects of the volunteer Märkisches Viertel Network, an organisation that brings together different local actors working to assist and encourage older people to live independent lives. In this project participation was realised in two different levels: Firstly, in the cooperation between the team of investigators and the network, secondly, in the handling with the target group of (socially disadvantaged) elderly people. The experiences in both processes will be explained and critically discussed after a brief overview about the project.

Kerstin Kammerer; Josefine Heusinger

2011-01-01

96

Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease prevention, and other health issues in California. The survey is used for policy and program development, advocacy, and research. Methods The development of the California Health Interview Survey involves more than 145 people from more than 60 state and local policymaking bodies, public health agencies, advocacy groups, research organizations, and health care organizations. They participate as volunteers in an advisory board, on technical advisory committees, and in work groups that interact with California Health Interview Survey research staff in an accountable advisory process that shapes survey topics, measures, and sample design and determines languages selected for translation. Survey results and data are provided to the communities involved in the survey. Results California Health Interview Survey data have been widely used by local, state, and national public health leaders, policymakers, advocates, and researchers to improve access to health insurance and health care services and to develop and target prevention programs for obesity and chronic illnesses. Conclusion The California Health Interview Survey participatory research model has been an effective approach to planning and implementing a health survey and should be considered by developers of other large health surveys.

E. Richard Brown, PhD; Sue Holtby, MPH; Elaine Zahnd, PhD; George B. Abbott, MD, MPH

2005-01-01

97

Participatory research: opportunities and challenges for research with women in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The basic underlying principles of participatory research have long been found to be useful and meaningful for conducting women oriented research. In South Africa, with its history of inequality on both the gender and the political front, the conspicuous scarcity of programmes utilizing participator...

Penzhorn, Cecilia

98

Can participatory ergonomics become 'the way we do things in this firm' - the Scandinavian approach to participatory ergonomics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Under the label 'participatory ergonomics' the idea of establishing changes in working conditions through participatory approaches has been a central issue within ergonomics. Tools and procedures have been developed and demonstrated beneficial. But how this approach can be established as the way changes are made in firms have only had limited attention. In the Scandinavian countries legislation has, through mandatory joint working environment committees, tried to establish an organizational unit promoting direct participation. Several studies have showed that the intentions of the legislators are not automatically fulfilled, and they have reviled preconditions for more successful achievement. This opens for many supplementary regulatory strategies to improve activities in firms, but one has been in focus: establishing formalized management systems within occupational health and safety. This strategy may be contrary to the general intentions in the laws. Some of the conditions which must be taken into consideration are discussed.

Jensen, Per Langaa

1997-01-01

99

A review of community-based participatory research in child health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To review published studies that use an authentic community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in child health to highlight the benefits, barriers, and scope of this approach with pediatric populations. METHOD: Studies using CBPR in child health were identified using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science through MeSH heading and keyword searches. Keywords included "community-based participatory research" and "child," "youth," and "adolescent." Literature reviews and community-placed articles were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 34 CBPR studies focused on child health were identified and analyzed for this review. The most common child health issue in these studies was obesity/diabetes. Other child health topics included health needs assessments, reproductive health, female health, HIV treatment, physical activity, mental health, maternal/child health, substance abuse, asthma, and youth with disabilities/special healthcare needs. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSION: CBPR offers a unique approach for translating evidence-based models and research knowledge from child health into effective and sustainable interventions.

Vaughn LM; Wagner E; Jacquez F

2013-01-01

100

Personalizing nutrigenomics research through community based participatory research and omics technologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals. PMID:19040372

McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Lovera, Dalia; Nuss, Henry; Wise, Carolyn; Ning, Baitang; Teitel, Candee; Clark, Beatrice Shelby; Toennessen, Terri; Green, Bridgett; Bogle, Margaret L; Kaput, Jim

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Personalizing nutrigenomics research through community based participatory research and omics technologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Personal and public health information are often obtained from studies of large population groups. Risk factors for nutrients, toxins, genetic variation, and more recently, nutrient-gene interactions are statistical estimates of the percentage reduction in disease in the population if the risk were to be avoided or the gene variant were not present. Because individuals differ in genetic makeup, lifestyle, and dietary patterns than those individuals in the study population, these risk factors are valuable guidelines, but may not apply to individuals. Intervention studies are likewise limited by small sample sizes, short time frames to assess physiological changes, and variable experimental designs that often preclude comparative or consensus analyses. A fundamental challenge for nutrigenomics will be to develop a means to sort individuals into metabolic groups, and eventually, develop risk factors for individuals. To reach the goal of personalizing medicine and nutrition, new experimental strategies are needed for human study designs. A promising approach for more complete analyses of the interaction of genetic makeups and environment relies on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodologies. CBPR's central focus is developing a partnership among researchers and individuals in a community that allows for more in depth lifestyle analyses but also translational research that simultaneously helps improve the health of individuals and communities. The USDA-ARS Delta Nutrition Intervention Research program exemplifies CBPR providing a foundation for expanded personalized nutrition and medicine research for communities and individuals.

McCabe-Sellers B; Lovera D; Nuss H; Wise C; Ning B; Teitel C; Clark BS; Toennessen T; Green B; Bogle ML; Kaput J

2008-12-01

102

Promoting the Adoption of Innovations through Participatory Approaches: Example from Northern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operated for 4 years (2005-2008) in Borno state of Nigeria. Survey results indicated that farmers who participated in project activities' have been successful in increasing crop yields. Both yields and per capita production of major crops were statistically significantly higher (ñ? 0.05) in project communities compared to non-project ones. It is also estimated that there was a decline in percentage of households in food insecurity situation in project communities. Probit regression revealed that participation in project activities had a positive and significant effect on household food security (ñ? 0.05). It is then concluded that development interventions that involve multiple stakeholder partnership, use of participatory research and extension approach can help increase technology uptake among resourcepoor farmers as well as increase food production and food security in a region.

Abdoulaye, T.; Amaza, PS.; Olanrewaju, AS.; Ellis-Jones, J.

2012-01-01

103

Participatory workspace design : A new approach for ergonomists?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually based methods such as workbooks, layout workshops and use scenarios. Employees, management and external design engineersalike took actively part in the design process. The general outcome of the inter-vention was some very concrete changes in the proposed design layout, an enhanced clarity of the production procedures in the new plant, and an identification of potential future ergonomic problems. This case study indi-cates that workspace design can be a new approach for OHS consultants.

Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole

2010-01-01

104

The use of a participatory approach to develop a framework for assessing quality of care in children's mental health services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for assessing the quality of children's mental health services that reflects the primary concerns and perspectives of diverse stakeholders. A participatory research approach was adopted in order to incorporate caregivers of children with mental health problems, mental health service providers, and managed care administrators in identifying and developing quality of care indicators and methods for assessment. This research occurred in three phases that moved from very qualitative and exploratory to more quantitative as we sought to refine and verify the resulting Quality of Care Framework. We found that the use of a participatory approach was beneficial in ensuring the validity of research tools and utility of the framework, and also greatly increased the sense of ownership of research findings among participants.

Vargo AC; Sharrock PJ; Johnson MH; Armstrong MI

2013-07-01

105

Promoting mental health care in a rural paediatric unit through participatory action research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore, advance and evaluate mental health practices in a rural general paediatric unit through participatory action research. DESIGN: A participatory action research approach guided this study, providing an opportunity for nursing staff to become actively involved in the design, direction and outcomes of the research. SETTING: A 16-bed paediatric unit of a rural general hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A purposive convenience sample of all paediatric nursing staff (n = 20; of 24 nurses). OUTCOME MEASURES: In the first phase of this study, focus groups were conducted to explore the experiences of nurses. RESULTS: Participants considered mental health to be a specialist discipline area and the role of the mental health nurse to be complex. They felt that their lack of training and experience with mental health issues was detrimental to the delivery of optimal patient care. There was concern about differing approaches to treatment, relationships with other mental health services and the suitability of the ward environment for young people with a mental health problem. Participants called for training by qualified mental health staff and the development of policies and clinical guidelines to facilitate their delivery of care to patients with a mental health problem in an acute medical environment. CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear need for nursing specialities to work together to ensure that optimal care is given to patients admitted to general hospital with a mental health issue. Given the absence of accessible specialist child mental health inpatient units in regional and remote areas, upskilling paediatric nurses must be a priority.

Happell B; Moxham L; Reid-Searl K; Dwyer T; Kahl J; Morris J; Wheatland N

2009-06-01

106

Participatory Provocation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper I revisit the provotyping approach and apply it in a participatory innovation setting. Through a case study within the field of indoor climate I describe the implications for the approach when it becomes part of a participatory innovation process, next to the opportunities it creates.

Boer, Laurens

107

Place and Situated Deliberation in Participatory Planning – A Research Proposal  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Within the domain of participatory urban planning, this position paper argues for a focus on the notion of place in the design of mobile and/or ubiquitous systems that are used in deliberation processes with central spatial references. I discuss (1) leveraging properties of place as a resource for users in the design of such systems and (2) situating, or merely co-locating, deliberation activities within the places these discussions are concerned with. To support my argument, I outline two exemplary cases that explore this focus on place and situated deliberation to further motivate research in that direction. The first case concerns the different qualities of in-situ reflection and action on proposed changes to the cityscape in contrast to ex-situ reflection and action on those changes. The second case focuses on providing immersive information about citizens’ own living environment on the spot for everyone and everywhere through a mobile augmented reality application that visualizes future, planned buildings on capable mobile phones. I conclude with the central questions and problems for future research that focuses on place and situated deliberation.

Korn, Matthias

2011-01-01

108

Being useful: achieving indigenous youth involvement in a community-based participatory research project in Alaska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives. To report on a participatory research process in southwest Alaska focusing on youth involvement as a means to facilitate health promotion. We propose youth-guided community-based participatory research (CBPR) as way to involve young people in health promotion and prevention strategizing as part of translational science practice at the community-level. Study design. We utilized a CBPR approach that allowed youth to contribute at all stages. Methods. Implementation of the CBPR approach involved the advancement of three key strategies including: (a) the local steering committee made up of youth, tribal leaders, and elders, (b) youth-researcher partnerships, and (c) youth action-groups to translate findings. Results. The addition of a local youth-action and translation group to the CBPR process in the southwest Alaska site represents an innovative strategy for disseminating findings to youth from a research project that focuses on youth resilience and wellbeing. This strategy drew from two community-based action activities: (a) being useful by helping elders and (b) being proud of our village. Conclusions. In our study, youth informed the research process at every stage, but most significantly youth guided the translation and application of the research findings at the community level. Findings from the research project were translated by youth into serviceable action in the community where they live. The research created an experience for youth to spend time engaged in activities that, from their perspectives, are important and contribute to their wellbeing and healthy living. Youth-guided CBPR meant involving youth in the process of not only understanding the research process but living through it as well.

Tara Ford; Stacy Rasmus; James Allen

2012-01-01

109

Patients as partners in a health research agenda setting: the feasibility of a participatory methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article deals with the participation of patients in setting the agenda of health research that potentially directly affects their lives. The focus is on the communication problems encountered between lay people and medical professionals in developing a joint research agenda. The author argues that a participatory methodology can address these problems and thereby give patients "a say" in the types of health research that have the greatest chance of affecting them personally. The article uses a case example of people with spinal cord injuries participating in research to support the importance and value of patient participation. The case example also helps to rethink appropriate methodologies or at least to modify existing approaches by paying more attention to required social conditions, diversity, and the life world of patients to foster meaningful participation. PMID:17102064

Abma, Tineke A

2006-12-01

110

Patients as partners in a health research agenda setting: the feasibility of a participatory methodology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article deals with the participation of patients in setting the agenda of health research that potentially directly affects their lives. The focus is on the communication problems encountered between lay people and medical professionals in developing a joint research agenda. The author argues that a participatory methodology can address these problems and thereby give patients "a say" in the types of health research that have the greatest chance of affecting them personally. The article uses a case example of people with spinal cord injuries participating in research to support the importance and value of patient participation. The case example also helps to rethink appropriate methodologies or at least to modify existing approaches by paying more attention to required social conditions, diversity, and the life world of patients to foster meaningful participation.

Abma TA

2006-12-01

111

Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

Martin Johansson; Per Linde

2005-01-01

112

Identifying superior wheat cultivars in participatory research on resource poor farms  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Improving livelihood of resource poor farmers is an important goal of wheat research in developing countries. Although remarkable success has been achieved to date in developing widely adapted wheat cultivars, many resource poor farmers in marginal areas in developing world have not benefited. Participatory research could greatly enhance identifying cultivars according to the choice of the poor farmers. This study was conducted to examine how farmers' selection criteria could assist breeders in identifying superior wheat cultivars, and determine if a new statistical analysis tool, GGE biplot, could be effectively used in selection of improved cultivar based on quantitative (grain yield) and qualitative data (farmers' preference score). The field experiments were conducted in 3 years (2003-2005) in three mid-hill districts in the central Nepal involving resource poor wheat farmers. Sixteen wheat genotypes, including a long-term and a current commercial cultivar, were used in the study. Data were collected on agronomic traits considered important by the participating farmers. These included days to heading and maturity, plant height, effective tiller number, spike length, kernel per spike, 1000-kernel weight and grain yield. Farmers also qualitatively scored each genotype for multiple traits based on their preference. In general, the farmers used the same traits in selecting a superior cultivar that are used by breeders. However, relative importance of different traits differed, not necessarily following in line with the breeder preference. The cultivar superiority based on quantitative agronomic data (breeders' criteria) and qualitative preference scores (farmers' criteria) often showed synergies, however, there were differences as well. This indicates farmers' ability to choose superior cultivars based on qualitative observation compared to tedious quantitative data recording in the on-station testing. In the first year, a greater number of farmers selected improved check as a better choice than recent advanced breeding lines. In the 2nd and 3rd years, the farmers preferred genotypes other than the checks. This underlines the importance of testing of advanced materials in farmers' fields in multiple years. Principal component analysis using GGE-biplot was useful in identifying superior genotypes based on both quantitative and qualitative data recorded across environments. This approach could be useful in analyzing data from participatory agricultural research conducted under highly diverse farmers' field conditions where it is easier to record observations on qualitative than quantitative scale. This technique can also be extended to on-farm participatory testing of other technologies. The findings bear implications for a broad range of participatory research and technology evaluation and verification.

Thapa DB; Sharma RC; Mudwari A; Ortiz-Ferrara G; Sharma S; Basnet RK; Witcombe JR; Virk DS; Joshi KD

2009-06-01

113

Going With the Flow: Participatory Action Research and River Catchment Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Public participation, now mainstreamed as a desirable goal in research and policy has a wide variety of different models, classifications, approaches, tools, mechanisms and processes that are utilized across science and social science utilise. Demands for public participation in environmental issues have found particular resonance within recent European water legislation, specifically the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). In the UK River Basin Plans are under the jurisdiction of the Environment Agency (EA) and the practice of their management is currently being trialed through the EA's management of 10 trial catchments. In these trials, the Environment Agency has outlined its wish to explore improved ways of engaging with people so as to develop shared understandings of problems within catchments. In this work, we report on project outcomes funded under the Rural Economy and Land Use Program (Relu) in which we worked with the Lune Rivers Trust. The project was the first in the UK to use a Participatory Action Research (PAR) approach to understanding and creating tools to address problems in river catchments. PAR is a distinct approach to participation because it is driven by participants (people who have a stake in the issue being researched) rather than an outside sponsor, funder or academic (although they may be invited to help); it offers a democratic model of who can produce, own and use knowledge; it is collaborative at every stage, involving discussion, pooling skills and working together; and it is intended to result in some action, change or improvement on the issue being researched, towards more socially and environmentally just outcomes. Both the project and the tools we coproduced resonate very strongly with current policy objects for river catchments as outlined above. We argue that PAR has particular resonance with the above focus of catchment management particularly in light of future uncertainties with climate change. As such, it offers a critical reflection on approaches to catchment management that characterize themselves as 'participatory'.

Whitman, G.; Pain, R.

2012-04-01

114

Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs.

2000-01-01

115

Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs.

Van den Hove, S. [C3ED, Universite de Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 47, bd. Vauban, 78047, Guyancourt Cedex (France)

2000-06-01

116

Cross-cultural considerations in the conduct of community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article explores cross-cultural challenges that arise when university and community members collaborate in community-based participatory research. As part of a project for primary prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, researchers trained community leaders to jointly develop a research question and conduct a pilot qualitative study in a Puerto Rican community in Massachusetts. Different priorities of the community and university members about HIV as a research topic underscored the need to continuously reflect on developing a research question in community-based participatory research. Recognizing the cultural assumptions of both university and community members is an important component of capacity building among collaborative research teams.

Foster J; Stanek K

2007-01-01

117

Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also provides information about Lesotho Environmental Information Network as the body that drove the networking process. The paper discusses cycles of the participatory process undertaken for the EE networking in Mafeteng schools, including identification of problems, problem solving, and reflective workshop and study tour. Finally the paper outlines issues that emerged in participatory EE networking, which include school governance, teachers’ existing knowledge, and communication, decision-making and power relations.

Constance BITSO

2006-01-01

118

Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR) places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

XinQi Dong; E-Shien Chang; Melissa Simon; Esther Wong

2011-01-01

119

Developing a strategy for studying critical thinking in a nurse telehealth setting: a participatory approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Telehealth nursing is a specialized area of nursing practice that has grown in response to the emergence of new technologies and consumer demand for health care services in the community. HealthLinkBC Nursing Services provides symptom triage and health education to residents of British Columbia and Yukon over the phone. Unlike traditional nursing care, telenurses are limited in terms of information they receive from callers. Therefore, there is a need for critical thinking skills to be developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe a participatory approach towards identifying: (1) the factors that affect telehealth nursing practice including critical thinking, and (2) developing a research strategy aimed at identifying the ways in which critical thinking can be supported in a telehealth nursing environment. A HealthLinkBC working group has begun work in developing a definition of critical thinking specific to nursing, identifying future research opportunities and methodologies.

Tuden D; Gidora H; Quick PD; Ebdon N; Glover K; Harmer S; Miller W; Taylor M; Borycki EM

2013-01-01

120

Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps  

Science.gov (United States)

Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, as well as key challenges for the future are also discussed.

Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

Community-based participatory research in complex settings: clean mind-dirty hands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the abundance of the literature which discusses factors supporting or inhibiting effective participation of community members in community-based research, there is a paucity of publications analysing challenges to participation in complex settings. This manuscript describes an intervention built on researcher-community partnership amid complex social conditions which challenged participation of community members at different stages of the research process. The research took place in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon and 1 of 12 in Lebanon which suffer from deteriorating social, economic and physical conditions perpetuated by state-imposed restrictions. The research team developed a community coalition which was involved in all stages of planning, designing, implementation and dissemination. In all those stages the aim was to maintain rigorous research, to follow a 'clean mind' approach to research, but maintain principles of community participation which necessitate 'a dirty hand'. Despite commitment to the principles of community-based participatory research, participation of community members (including youth, parents and teachers) was affected to a great extent by the social, physical and structural conditions of the community context. Characteristics of the context where research is conducted and how it affects community members should not be overlooked since multiple factors beyond the researchers' control could interfere with the rigour of scientific research. Researchers need to develop a plan for participation with the community from the beginning with an understanding of the community forces that affect meaningful participation and address possible deterrence.

Makhoul J; Nakkash R; Harpham T; Qutteina Y

2013-07-01

122

Participatory Approach for Integrated Basin Planning with Focus on Disaster Risk Reduction: The Case of the Limpopo River  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper defends the idea that a participatory approach is a suitable method for basin planning integrating both water and land aspects. Assertions made are based on scientific literature review and corroborated by field experience and research carried out in the Limpopo River basin, a transboundary river located in southern Africa which is affected by periodical floods. The paper explains how a basin strategic plan can be drafted and disaster risk reduction strategies derived by combining different types of activities using a bottom-up approach, despite an institutional context which operates through traditional top-down mechanisms. In particular, the “Living with Floods” experience in the lower Limpopo River, in Mozambique, is described as a concrete example of a disaster adaptation measure resulting from a participatory planning exercise. In conclusion, the adopted method and obtained results are discussed and recommendations are formulated for potential replication in similar contexts of the developing world.

Mathias Spaliviero; Morgan De Dapper; Chris M.Mannaerts; Antonio Yachan

2011-01-01

123

Lapses, infidelities, and creative adaptations: lessons from evaluation of a participatory market development approach in the Andes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory approaches are frequently recommended for international development programs, but few have been evaluated. From 2007 to 2010 the Andean Change Alliance evaluated an agricultural research and development approach known as the "Participatory Market Chain Approach" (PMCA). Based on a study of four cases, this paper examines the fidelity of implementation, the factors that influenced implementation and results, and the PMCA change model. We identify three types of deviation from the intervention protocol (lapses, creative adaptations, and true infidelities) and five groups of variables that influenced PMCA implementation and results (attributes of the macro context, the market chain, the key actors, rules in use, and the capacity development strategy). There was insufficient information to test the validity of the PMCA change model, but results were greatest where the PMCA was implemented with highest fidelity. Our analysis suggests that the single most critical component of the PMCA is engagement of market agents - not just farmers - throughout the exercise. We present four lessons for planning and evaluating participatory approaches related to the use of action and change models, the importance of monitoring implementation fidelity, the limits of baseline survey data for outcome evaluation, and the importance of capacity development for implementers. PMID:23619235

Horton, Douglas; Rotondo, Emma; Paz Ybarnegaray, Rodrigo; Hareau, Guy; Devaux, André; Thiele, Graham

2013-03-20

124

Lapses, infidelities, and creative adaptations: lessons from evaluation of a participatory market development approach in the Andes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory approaches are frequently recommended for international development programs, but few have been evaluated. From 2007 to 2010 the Andean Change Alliance evaluated an agricultural research and development approach known as the "Participatory Market Chain Approach" (PMCA). Based on a study of four cases, this paper examines the fidelity of implementation, the factors that influenced implementation and results, and the PMCA change model. We identify three types of deviation from the intervention protocol (lapses, creative adaptations, and true infidelities) and five groups of variables that influenced PMCA implementation and results (attributes of the macro context, the market chain, the key actors, rules in use, and the capacity development strategy). There was insufficient information to test the validity of the PMCA change model, but results were greatest where the PMCA was implemented with highest fidelity. Our analysis suggests that the single most critical component of the PMCA is engagement of market agents - not just farmers - throughout the exercise. We present four lessons for planning and evaluating participatory approaches related to the use of action and change models, the importance of monitoring implementation fidelity, the limits of baseline survey data for outcome evaluation, and the importance of capacity development for implementers.

Horton D; Rotondo E; Paz Ybarnegaray R; Hareau G; Devaux A; Thiele G

2013-08-01

125

Nuclear emergency response planning based on participatory decision analytic approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was undertaken in order to develop methods and techniques for evaluating systematically and comprehensively protective action strategies in the case of a nuclear or radiation emergency. This was done in a way that the concerns and issues of all key players related to decisions on protective actions could be aggregated into decision- making transparently and in an equal manner. An approach called facilitated workshop, based on the theory of Decision Analysis, was tailored and tested in the planning of actions to be taken. The work builds on case studies in which it was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant had led to a release of considerable amounts of radionuclides and therefore different types of protective actions should be considered. Altogether six workshops were organised in which all key players were represented, i.e., the authorities, expert organisations, industry and agricultural producers. The participants were those responsible for preparing advice or presenting matters for those responsible for the formal decision-making. Many preparatory meetings were held with various experts to prepare information for the workshops. It was considered essential that the set-up strictly follow the decision- making process to which the key players are accustomed. Key players or stakeholders comprise responsible administrators and organisations, politicians as well as representatives of the citizens affected and other persons who will and are likely to take part in decision-making in nuclear emergencies. The realistic nature and the disciplined process of a facilitated workshop and commitment to decision-making yielded up insight in many radiation protection issues. The objectives and attributes which are considered in a decision on protective actions were discussed in many occasions and were defined for different accident scenario to come. In the workshops intervention levels were derived according justification and optimisation principles in radiation protection. Insight was also gained in what information should be collected or subject studied for emergency management. It was proved to be essential that information is in the proper form for decision-making. Therefore, methods and models to assess realistically the radiological and cost implications of different countermeasures need to be further developed. In the consequent assessments, it is necessary to take production, economic, demographic and geographical information into account. Also, the feasibility and constraints of protective actions, such as logistics, require further investigation. For example, there seems to exist no plans in the EU or Nordic countries to dispose radioactive waste that may result from decontamination. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop for tackling a decision problem that concerns many different key players. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in planning actions in advance. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although its suitability was not rated as highly as for planning. The suitability of the approach in the early phase of an accident was rated the lowest. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises in order to revise emergency plans or identify issues that need to be resolved. The pros and cons of the facilitated workshop method can be compared with the conventional approaches. The general goal in all methods is that key players would be better prepared for an accident situation. All participatory methods, when practiced in advance, also create a network of key players. Facilitated workshops provide the participants with an forum for structured dialogue to discuss openly the values behind the decision. Stakeholder network can evaluate and augment generic countermeasures but all the possible and feasible protective actions cannot be justified and optimised in depth. The ranking of protective actions depends on weigh

2004-01-01

126

A participatory approach to design a toolbox to support forest management planning at regional level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of the study: Forest management planning in a region typically involves multiple stake holders. Decisions processes are idiosyncratic, driven by individual goals and supported by segmented forest-based information. Nevertheless, stake holders' decisions do impact one another leading to complex interaction networks where communication, cooperation and negotiation play a key role. This research addresses the need to develop decision tools to support these roles. Emphasis is on the integration of participatory planning tools and techniques in the architecture of a regional decision support toolbox. Area of the study: The proposed approach was applied in the Chamusca County in Central Portugal although it is easily extended to other regions. Material and methods: This research proposes an Enterprise Architecture methodological approach to design a toolbox that may address distinct stake holders' interests and decision processes, while enabling communication, cooperation, negotiation and information sharing among all those involved in the regional interactions network. Main results: the proposed approach was tested in a regional network involving decision processes and information shared by 22 entities clustered into 13 stake holders groups, including industrial owners, and non-industrial private forest land owners (NIPF) acting individually or grouped into associations and federations, national and regional offices of the forest authority, forest services providers, non-governmental organizations and research centers. Results suggest that the proposed approach may provide a toolbox that may effectively address stake holders decision processes and goals and support the regional interaction network. (Author)

Marques, A. F.; Borges, J. G.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Lucas, B.; Melo, I.

2013-09-01

127

Involving deprived communities in improving the quality of primary care services: does participatory action research work?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation by communities in improving the quality of health services has become a feature of government policy in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study was to involve a deprived community in the UK in shaping quality improvements of local primary care services. The specific objectives were firstly to create participation by local people in evaluating the primary care services available in the area and secondly to bring about change as a result of this process. Methods The methods of participatory action research was used. The study was set in an area of high socio-economic deprivation served by a 'Local Health Care Co-operative' in a peripheral housing estate in Glasgow, Scotland. 72 local residents took part in 11 focus groups: eight of these were with community groups and three with other residents. 372 local residents completed questionnaires either by brief face-to-face interviews (114) or by self or carer completion (258). Results The study group produced recommendations on physical access to the health centre, time constraints in accessing services and problems encountered in individual relationships with health staff. They also highlighted the social gap between health service providers and the daily life of community residents. Action was taken to bring these recommendations to the attention of the Primary Care Organisation. Conclusion Participatory action research was used to involve a deprived community in the UK in a 'bottom-up' approach aimed at improving quality of local primary care services. Although successful in creating a partnership between academic researchers and lay researchers and participation by local people in evaluating the primary care services available in the area, the impact of the study in terms of immediate action taken over specific issues has been modest. The possible reasons for this are discussed.

Cawston Peter G; Mercer Stewart W; Barbour Rosaline S

2007-01-01

128

Women's experiences in a community-based participatory research randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating community-based participatory research (CBPR) into traditional study designs can enhance outcomes in studies with disadvantaged groups. Little is known, however, about study participants' experiences with these approaches, the underlying processes involved in creating more positive outcomes, and whether undesirable effects on study outcomes occur simultaneously. We conducted focus group interviews with 31 disadvantaged women who participated in a CBPR-driven randomized controlled trial (RCT) both to explore their study experiences and to obtain their interpretations of select study findings. Using dimensional analysis, we found the tailored health questionnaire, treatment by study staff members, and RCT participants' understandings of and responses to randomization were salient to what women described as transformative experiences that occurred over the course of the RCT. These findings have implications for understanding how CBPR and non-CBPR aspects of interventions and study designs have the potential to affect both process and endpoint study outcomes. PMID:23567297

Kneipp, Shawn M; Lutz, Barbara J; Levonian, Catherine; Cook, Christa; Hamilton, Jill B; Roberson, Dawne

2013-04-08

129

Women's experiences in a community-based participatory research randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Integrating community-based participatory research (CBPR) into traditional study designs can enhance outcomes in studies with disadvantaged groups. Little is known, however, about study participants' experiences with these approaches, the underlying processes involved in creating more positive outcomes, and whether undesirable effects on study outcomes occur simultaneously. We conducted focus group interviews with 31 disadvantaged women who participated in a CBPR-driven randomized controlled trial (RCT) both to explore their study experiences and to obtain their interpretations of select study findings. Using dimensional analysis, we found the tailored health questionnaire, treatment by study staff members, and RCT participants' understandings of and responses to randomization were salient to what women described as transformative experiences that occurred over the course of the RCT. These findings have implications for understanding how CBPR and non-CBPR aspects of interventions and study designs have the potential to affect both process and endpoint study outcomes.

Kneipp SM; Lutz BJ; Levonian C; Cook C; Hamilton JB; Roberson D

2013-06-01

130

How Can Primary Health Care System and Community-Based Participatory Research Be Complementary?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health statistics leave little doubt that the current health system in Iran,which is mainly based on primary health care (PHC), is a functioningone, and that health in Iran has improved far beyond where it was 40years ago. However, this system has its limitations too. While PHC isvery effective in reducing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseasesand other acute conditions, it is far less effective in addressingchronic and multi-factorial conditions which are now emerging in Iran.In this article, we review some of the salient features of the currenthealth system in Iran, its strengths and limitations, and then introducecommunity-based participatory research (CBPR) as a method thatcould potentially fill some of the gaps in the system. We will discussthe definition and steps needed to implement CBPR, provide someimportant references, and discuss how this approach may not onlyimprove the health system but it could also lead to improvement inother fields in the society too.

Payam Sheikhattari; Farin Kamangar

2010-01-01

131

Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management.

Trimble M; Berkes F

2013-10-01

132

Participatory research towards co-management: Lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management. PMID:23860379

Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret

2013-07-13

133

Interpretations of interpretations: combining community-based participatory research and interpretive inquiry to improve health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Latina immigrants from Mexico suffer significantly increased morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer when compared with non-Hispanic White women, largely owing to lack of screening and appropriate treatment. OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that by combining the tools of community-based participatory research (CBPR) with the tools of interpretive inquiry, it is possible to address explicit community concerns surrounding a particular problem such as cervical cancer while also examining what other, perhaps less immediately visible, matters consume the time and attention of community members. METHODS: We first briefly discuss and compare CBPR as an approach to research and interpretive inquiry as a qualitative research method. We then provide a case study from our own research using a CBPR approach to examine beliefs and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention among Oregon Latinos. Methods in that study included extensive discussions with our community advisory board (CAB) and promotores (community health workers) regarding barriers to cervical cancer screening for Latinas and community health concerns in general, and in-depth interviews with more than 50 Latino immigrants. CONCLUSION: Combining the tools of CBPR with the tools of interpretive qualitative inquiry may allow researchers to address explicit community concerns while also examining what other, less immediately visible, issues consume the time and attention of community members. In our specific case, combining the insights of our community partners with the results of our interpretive analysis helped us shift the focus from cervical cancer alone to a focus on gender relations and family health as we design future interventions.

Gregg J; Centurion L; Maldonado J; Aguillon R; Celaya-Alston R; Farquhar S

2010-01-01

134

Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

2013-01-01

135

Participation and Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Environmental Education Processes: For What Are People Empowered?  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory action research (PAR) derived from anti-colonial struggles in the third world in the 1960s. Traditionally it has been a method of the margins because of its commitment to linking social justice to research. Because of its counter-hegemonic tendency it has had great appeal among environmental educators advocating a socially critical…

Le Grange, Lesley

2009-01-01

136

A Case Study of a Community-Based Participatory Evaluation Research (CBPER) Project: Reflections on Promising Practices and Shortcomings  

Science.gov (United States)

This instrumental case study documents a community-based participatory evaluation research (CBPER) project that involved a community partner, two graduate students, a faculty member, and an external funder. It highlights the fact that a participatory evaluation model is a viable way to conduct community-based research (CBR) when a community…

Puma, Jini; Bennett, Laurie; Cutforth, Nick; Tombari, Chris; Stein, Paul

2009-01-01

137

Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations.

Lillehagen I; Vøllestad N; Heggen K; Engebretsen E

2013-01-01

138

Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. Methods and analysis The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. Ethics and dissemination The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations.

Lillehagen, Ida; V?llestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

2013-01-01

139

Local renewable energy planning: a participatory multi-criteria approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy sources today can provide a promising alternative to conventional power generation, provided some economic, institutional, social and technical barriers could be overcome, and the appropriate planning instruments for their deployment are developed. In Greece, contemporary practice seems inadequate to address the multiple character of renewables and the need to 'open up' the decision-making process to actively include all stakeholders. A number of case studies has been examined in order to formulate a new regulatory framework. The results suggested that participatory multi-criteria decision aiding techniques can capture renewable energy and local stakeholders values as reflected in the weights and criteria. A new framework is established and proposed as a complement to current practice. (author)

Heracles Polatidis; Dias Haralambopoulos [University of the Aegean Mytilene (Greece). Dept. of Environmental Studies

2004-11-15

140

HYDROLOGY-PRESERVATION OF WATER THROUGH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer) to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management of Irrigation system and included the provisions in the National Water Policy act as under: ``Efforts should be made to involve farmers progressively in various aspects of management of irrigation systems, particularly in water distribution and collection of water rates.Assisitance of voluntary agencies should be enlisted in educating the farmers in efficient water-use and water management`` The constraints, success and other setbacks in the system are analyzed in the paper.

PROF.B.SUNDARARAMAN; Dr.KL.MUTHURAMU

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007) brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems, such as forums, blogs, and sites of the open source type. In this study we produce a preliminary survey of thematic concentration and methodologies of research on blogs and other interactive models of journalistic publication in recent Brazilian contributions in this area.

André Holanda; Claudia Quadros; Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva; Marcos Palacios

2008-01-01

142

RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007) brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems, such as forums, blogs, and sites of the open source type. In this study we produce a preliminary survey of thematic concentration and methodologies of research on blogs and other interactive models of journalistic publication in recent Brazilian contributions in this area.

André Holanda; Claudia Quadros; Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva; Marcos Palacios

2011-01-01

143

Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and address disparities in breast cancer and cancer care. PMID:24000307

Yonas, Michael A; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

2013-09-02

144

Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and address disparities in breast cancer and cancer care.

Yonas MA; Aronson R; Schaal J; Eng E; Hardy C; Jones N

2013-10-01

145

Power, Ethics, and the IRB: Dissonance over Human Participant Review of Participatory Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research operates in a complex, dynamic social milieu and seeks to share the power inherent in knowledge generation with community partners. Institutional review boards (IRBs), however, typically operate from a framework that assumes asymmetrical power relations, hierarchically structured. This article argues that these differing…

Boser, Susan

2007-01-01

146

Power, Agency and Participatory Agendas: A Critical Exploration of Young People's Engagement in Participative Qualitative Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article critically explores data generated within a participatory research project with young people in the care of a local authority, the (Extra)ordinary Lives project. The project involved ethnographic multi-media data generation methods used in groups and individually with eight participants (aged 10-20) over a school year and encouraged…

Holland, Sally; Renold, Emma; Ross, Nicola J.; Hillman, Alexandra

2010-01-01

147

Effects of a Long-Term Participatory Action Research Project on Science Teachers' Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the potential of long-term co-operation between science educators and science teachers concerning the teachers' continuous professional development, based on Participatory Action Research in science education. The discussion is based on a six-year case study observing a group of about ten German chemistry teachers by chemistry…

Eilks, Ingo; Markic, Silvija

2011-01-01

148

Designing adverse event forms for real-world reporting: participatory research in Uganda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV) relies on adverse event (AE) reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings to improve quality and quantity of drug safety reports as new medicines are scaled-up.

Davies EC; Chandler CI; Innocent SH; Kalumuna C; Terlouw DJ; Lalloo DG; Staedke SG; Haaland A

2012-01-01

149

Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC). The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy) or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action research is an effective method for community assessments. However, researchers must rigorously embrace principles of mutual cooperation, respect for public ideas, and a robust belief in community empowerment in order to pave the way for responsible and active citizen participation in the various stages of research.

Ahari Saeid; Habibzadeh Shahram; Yousefi Moharram; Amani Firouz; Abdi Reza

2012-01-01

150

Community-based participatory research: a collaborative study to measure capabilities towards recovery in mental health community organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this article is to offer a theoretical review on community based research, namely about collaborative processes and qualitative participatory methodologies, and to present an application of this framework to the research design. Method: It is provided a review on community-based research methodology, university-community partnerships, and is described the qualitative participatory methodology used in one collaborative study. Conclusion: following the partnership guidelines for collaborative community-university research, we highlight the participatory and qualitative process that intended to develop a measure of user’s capability gains fostered by mental health community based organizations.

José Ornelas; Rita Aguiar; Beatrice Sacchetto; Maria F. Jorge-Monteiro

151

A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students.

Bottomley S; Denny P

2011-09-01

152

A realist-constructionist perspective on participatory research in health promotion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clarifying the contours of research in health promotion (HP) is an ongoing challenge. Research in this action-oriented field has traditionally been developed based on values such as participation and empowerment. Consequently, many forms of participatory research have emerged throughout the years, and participatory research has positioned itself as a core competency of HP and public health. This paper argues that participation as a normative stance guiding methodology, or as value, is a fragile posture upon which to position research practices. The argument is based on a realist-constructionist perspective of science and specifically uses Law and Latour's notion of inscription device and Callon's actor-network theory to suggest that participation is an epistemological necessity and that participatory research practices may be considered as inscription devices. These theoretical notions help clarify the consequences of participation on knowledge production. Finally, the article refers to Stengers's work to propose an ecology of research practices that defines obligations and exigencies for HP with respect to knowledge production and that are more consistent with the field's values of social justice and equity.

Mantoura P; Potvin L

2013-03-01

153

Using participatory action research to foster nurse leadership in Australian rural hospitals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper outlines the processes and results of a participatory action research study undertaken to identify issues that may impact on strategies to foster nurse leadership in rural hospitals. Five Directors of Nursing from rural regions of Victoria, Australia participated. The group activities involved discussion and analysis of previous research, a review of current literature and critical reflection of the leadership performance of their organization. The analysis identified five key themes; dispel the myths, adopt big-picture thinking, connect with colleagues, reflect on your own conduct, and create organizational buy-in. It is essential to have an awareness of contextual challenges, an understanding of the importance of your own conduct as a visible leader, and the need for effective communication to inform the development of strategies that may be used to foster nurse leadership in rural hospitals. The platform to discuss and critically analyze leadership saw a group consensus that affirmed the need for any approach to nursing leadership to be tailored to the individual healthcare organization.

Bish M; Kenny A; Nay R

2013-09-01

154

Using participatory action research to foster nurse leadership in Australian rural hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines the processes and results of a participatory action research study undertaken to identify issues that may impact on strategies to foster nurse leadership in rural hospitals. Five Directors of Nursing from rural regions of Victoria, Australia participated. The group activities involved discussion and analysis of previous research, a review of current literature and critical reflection of the leadership performance of their organization. The analysis identified five key themes; dispel the myths, adopt big-picture thinking, connect with colleagues, reflect on your own conduct, and create organizational buy-in. It is essential to have an awareness of contextual challenges, an understanding of the importance of your own conduct as a visible leader, and the need for effective communication to inform the development of strategies that may be used to foster nurse leadership in rural hospitals. The platform to discuss and critically analyze leadership saw a group consensus that affirmed the need for any approach to nursing leadership to be tailored to the individual healthcare organization. PMID:23490407

Bish, Melanie; Kenny, Amanda; Nay, Rhonda

2013-03-11

155

[The Citizen Committee as a co-management strategy in participatory research in the field of mental health in Quebec].  

Science.gov (United States)

The theme of users' rights has become a central issue in contemporary debate on mental health. Drawing from the experiences of "Comitê Cidadão" (Citizen Committee), consisting of users and family members in an international research alliance between Brazil and Canada, an attempt is made to discuss the effects of the experience of co-management of the so-called Autonomous Medication Administration (GAM - Gestão Autônoma da Medicação) participatory research project on these individuals. By means of a detailed description of the background of the Committee and interviews and analysis of the voice transcriptions of its members, the problems raised by the relation of dialogue between scientific knowledge and users' knowledge are examined in a methodological approach of participatory research. As a result of the research, it was established that the experience of the Citizens Committee in co-management of health research can be propitious to the increase in the degree of autonomy, greater empowerment and the exercise of leadership and citizenship, with the consequent emergence of subjects with rights. PMID:24061018

Passos, Eduardo; Otanari, Thais Mikie de Carvalho; Emerich, Bruno Ferrari; Guerini, Lorena

2013-10-01

156

Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.

Lindamer Laurie A; Lebowitz Barry; Hough Richard L; Garcia Piedad; Aguirre Alfredo; Halpain Maureen C; Depp Colin; Jeste Dilip V

2009-01-01

157

Is Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) Useful? A Systematic Review on Papers in a Decade.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been applied by health researchers and practitioners to address health disparities and community empowerment for health promotion. Despite the growing popularity of CBPR projects, there has been little effort to synthesize the literature to evaluate CBPR projects. The present review attempts to identify appropriate elements that may contribute to the successful or unsuccessful interventions. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken using evidence identified through searching electronic databases, web sites, and reference list checks. Predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed by reviewers. Levels of evidence, accounting for methodologic quality, were assessed for 3 types of CBPR approaches, including interventional, observational, and qualitative research design as well as CBPR elements through separate abstraction forms. Each included study was appraised with 2 quality grades, one for the elements of CBPR and one for research design. RESULTS: Of 14,222 identified articles, 403 included in the abstract review. Of these, 70 CBPR studies, that 56 intervention studies had different designs, and finally 8 studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings show that collaboration among community partners, researchers, and organizations led to community-level action to improve the health and wellbeing and to minimize health disparities. It enhanced the capacity of the community in terms of research and leadership skills. The result provided examples of effective CBPR that took place in a variety of communities. However, little has been written about the organizational capacities required to make these efforts successful. CONCLUSION: Some evidences were found for potentially effective strategies to increase the participant's levels of CBPR activities. Interventions that included community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of activities and should be promoted.

Salimi Y; Shahandeh K; Malekafzali H; Loori N; Kheiltash A; Jamshidi E; Frouzan AS; Majdzadeh R

2012-06-01

158

Perceptions of community-based participatory research in the delta nutrition intervention research initiative:an academic perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is an academic-community partnership between seven academic institutions and three communities in Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana. A range of community-based participatory methods have been employed to develop susta...

159

Participatory action research, strengthening institutional capacity and governance: Confronting the urban challenge in Kampala  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban governance presents the most daunting and challenging task for sub-Saharan African countries in this century (Rakodi, 1997: 3; Rakodi, 2001; 5; McGill, 1988; 6). Africa is urbanizing faster than any other region. The level of urbanization stands at 39.1%, with annual rates of growth ranging between 8% and 13%. It is estimated that by 2025 half of the African population will be urban. This demographic shift, particularly in the sub-Saharan region, presents major problems for urban management. Although urban management programs of infrastructure development, financial management, economic development, environmental planning, spatial development mechanisms and social services provision continue to be enhanced, there is a mismatch between the program outcomes and need. Due to this shortfall, alternative strategies have been sought but with little documented evidence of successes, failures and lessons because of limited evaluation. The importance of research-informed policy is underscored by the apparent disconnect between actors in the urban field. These actors include city managers, researchers, political leaders and most important, communities. The latter are often disregarded yet they largely influence the development path and shape the fabric of urban space. Even where communities are engaged, they exert less influence than other actors on urban policies and programs. This paper examines how participatory action research is changing the relationships between researchers, communities and city authorities in a search for alternative approaches to address urban poverty and environmental challenges in Kampala – in particular service delivery, solid waste management and flood control. Based on an action-research and development project conducted in Kampala since 2006, there is evidence that communities can be galvanized not only to design solutions to their problems, but also to engage with city authorities through information sharing platforms about their needs and thus bolster outcomes of urban development programs through improved governance.

Shuaib Lwasa; Gilbert Kadilo

2010-01-01

160

The Role of Participatory Modeling in Landscape Approaches to Reconcile Conservation and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conservation organizations are increasingly turning to landscape approaches to achieve a balance between conservation and development goals. We use six case studies in Africa and Asia to explore the role of participatory modeling with stakeholders as one of the steps towards implementing a landscape approach. The modeling was enthusiastically embraced by some stakeholders and led to impact in some cases. Different stakeholders valued the modeling exercise differently. Noteworthy was the difference between those stakeholders connected to the policy process and scientists; the presence of the former in the modeling activities is key to achieving policy impacts, and the latter were most critical of participatory modeling. Valued aspects of the modeling included stimulating cross-sector strategic thinking, and helping participants to confront the real drivers of change and to recognize trade-offs. The modeling was generally considered to be successful in building shared understanding of issues. This understanding was gained mainly in the discussions held in the process of building the model rather than in the model outputs. The model itself reflects but a few of the main elements of the usually rich discussions that preceded its finalization. Problems emerged when models became too complex. Key lessons for participatory modeling are the need for good facilitation in order to maintain a balance between "models as stories" and technical modeling, and the importance of inviting the appropriate stakeholders to achieve impact.

Marieke Sandker; Bruce M. Campbell; Manuel Ruiz-Pérez; Jeffrey A. Sayer; Richard Cowling; Habtemariam Kassa; Andrew T. Knight

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Community-based participatory research within the Latino health for all coalition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite widespread recognition that Latinos and other minorities are at higher risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, much less is known about how to create conditions for health and health equity. This report presents information about implementation of the Health for All Model in accordance with principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Using an empirical case study design, we reported on community changes (i.e., new or modified programs, policies, or practices) facilitated by the coalition and their distribution among primary goal areas (i.e., healthy nutrition, physical activity, and access to health services) and in different community sectors and ecological levels. Qualitative information suggested that the community and scientific partners shared decision making and control, as well as adherence to other principles of community-based participatory research. Such systematic efforts contribute to our understanding of how collaborative action can achieve the changes in conditions necessary to assure health for all.

Fawcett SB; Collie-Akers V; Schultz JA; Cupertino P

2013-01-01

162

Community-based participatory research within the Latino health for all coalition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite widespread recognition that Latinos and other minorities are at higher risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, much less is known about how to create conditions for health and health equity. This report presents information about implementation of the Health for All Model in accordance with principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Using an empirical case study design, we reported on community changes (i.e., new or modified programs, policies, or practices) facilitated by the coalition and their distribution among primary goal areas (i.e., healthy nutrition, physical activity, and access to health services) and in different community sectors and ecological levels. Qualitative information suggested that the community and scientific partners shared decision making and control, as well as adherence to other principles of community-based participatory research. Such systematic efforts contribute to our understanding of how collaborative action can achieve the changes in conditions necessary to assure health for all. PMID:23751058

Fawcett, Stephen B; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Schultz, Jerry A; Cupertino, Paula

2013-01-01

163

More than training: Community-based participatory research to reduce injuries among hispanic construction workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Workplace mortality and severe injury are disproportionately distributed among foreign born and Hispanic construction workers. Worker Centers (WCs) provide services and advocacy for low-wage workers and a way for investigators to reach them. The goal of this project is to prevent occupational injuries by increasing awareness of hazards and self-efficacy among foreign born, Hispanic construction workers and by expanding the agenda of WCs to include occupational health and safety (H&S). METHODS: Investigators partnered with eight WCs in seven cities to train worker leaders to deliver a modified OSHA 10-hr curriculum to their peers. RESULTS: Thirty-two worker leaders trained 446 workers over 3 years. There was a demonstrated improvement in knowledge, hazard identification, self-efficacy, and sustainable H&S activities. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for successful implementation of a training intervention for low wage, low literacy Hispanic construction workers using a community-based participatory research approach. Am. J. Ind. Med. 56:827-837, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Forst L; Ahonen E; Zanoni J; Holloway-Beth A; Oschner M; Kimmel L; Martino C; Rodriguez E; Kader A; Ringholm E; Sokas R

2013-08-01

164

Participatory Research for Preventing Pesticide-Related DSH and Suicide in Sundarban, India: A Brief Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major public health problem in the Sundarban region, India. This study is aimed to develop a DSH-suicide prevention programme based on the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Perception and opinion of community about the problem of pesticide-related DSH and suicide were elicited in a series of facilitated focus group discussions in Namkhana block of Sundarban region. Based on their suggestion, a broad preventive programme was launched involving the development of information, education, and communication (IEC) and training modules and training of the stakeholders of the block. Most of the members of each target group found that the IEC materials were culture fair (message is acceptable, understandable, and meaningful in the local context) and very useful. Analysis of Dwariknagar BPHC, DSH admission data showed a definite reduction of DSH incidents after this CBPR approach to prevention was initiated. Similar model of DSH prevention in the other blocks of Sundarban region or in agricultural community may help to reduce the enormous mortality and morbidity from pesticide-related DSH and suicide.

Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Banerjee, Sohini; Brahma, Arabinda; Biswas, Mrinal K.

2013-01-01

165

Participatory Research for Preventing Pesticide-Related DSH and Suicide in Sundarban, India: A Brief Report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major public health problem in the Sundarban region, India. This study is aimed to develop a DSH-suicide prevention programme based on the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Perception and opinion of community about the problem of pesticide-related DSH and suicide were elicited in a series of facilitated focus group discussions in Namkhana block of Sundarban region. Based on their suggestion, a broad preventive programme was launched involving the development of information, education, and communication (IEC) and training modules and training of the stakeholders of the block. Most of the members of each target group found that the IEC materials were culture fair (message is acceptable, understandable, and meaningful in the local context) and very useful. Analysis of Dwariknagar BPHC, DSH admission data showed a definite reduction of DSH incidents after this CBPR approach to prevention was initiated. Similar model of DSH prevention in the other blocks of Sundarban region or in agricultural community may help to reduce the enormous mortality and morbidity from pesticide-related DSH and suicide.

Chowdhury AN; Banerjee S; Brahma A; Biswas MK

2013-01-01

166

Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design ...

Simonsen, Jesper

167

Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

2011-01-01

168

Assessing the outcomes of participatory research: protocol for identifying, selecting, appraising and synthesizing the literature for realist review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory Research (PR) entails the co-governance of research by academic researchers and end-users. End-users are those who are affected by issues under study (e.g., community groups or populations affected by illness), or those positioned to act on the knowledge generated by research (e.g., clinicians, community leaders, health managers, patients, and policy makers). Systematic reviews assessing the generalizable benefits of PR must address: the diversity of research topics, methods, and intervention designs that involve a PR approach; varying degrees of end-user involvement in research co-governance, both within and between projects; and the complexity of outcomes arising from long-term partnerships. Methods We addressed the above mentioned challenges by adapting realist review methodology to PR assessment, specifically by developing inductively-driven identification, selection, appraisal, and synthesis procedures. This approach allowed us to address the non-uniformity and complexity of the PR literature. Each stage of the review involved two independent reviewers and followed a reproducible, systematic coding and retention procedure. Retained studies were completed participatory health interventions, demonstrated high levels of participation by non-academic stakeholders (i.e., excluding studies in which end-users were not involved in co-governing throughout the stages of research) and contained detailed descriptions of the participatory process and context. Retained sets are being mapped and analyzed using realist review methods. Results The librarian-guided search string yielded 7,167 citations. A total of 594 citations were retained after the identification process. Eighty-three papers remained after selection. Principle Investigators (PIs) were contacted to solicit all companion papers. Twenty-three sets of papers (23 PR studies), comprising 276 publications, passed appraisal and are being synthesized using realist review methods. Discussion The systematic and stage-based procedure addressed challenges to PR assessment and generated our robust understanding of complex and heterogeneous PR practices. To date, realist reviews have focussed on evaluations of relatively uniform interventions. In contrast our PR search yielded a wide diversity of partnerships and research topics. We therefore developed tools to achieve conceptual clarity on the PR field, as a beneficial precursor to our theoretically-driven synthesis using realist methods. Findings from the ongoing review will be provided in forthcoming publications.

Jagosh Justin; Pluye Pierre; Macaulay Ann C; Salsberg Jon; Henderson Jim; Sirett Erin; Bush Paula L; Seller Robbyn; Wong Geoff; Greenhalgh Trish; Cargo Margaret; Herbert Carol P; Seifer Sarena D; Green Lawrence W

2011-01-01

169

Using community-based participatory research to prevent HIV disparities: assumptions and opportunities identified by the Latino partnership.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: HIV disproportionately affects vulnerable populations in the United States, including recently arrived immigrant Latinos. However, the current arsenal of effective approaches to increase adherence to risk-reduction strategies and treatment within Latino populations remains insufficient. METHODS: Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership blends multiple perspectives of community members, organizational representatives, local business leaders, and academic researchers to explore and intervene on HIV risk within Latino populations. We used CBPR to develop, implement, and evaluate 2 interventions that were found to be efficacious. RESULTS: We identified 7 assumptions of CBPR as an approach to research, including more authentic study designs, stronger measurement, and improved quality of knowledge gained; increased community capacity to tackle other health disparities; the need to focus on community priorities; increased participation and retention rates; more successful interventions; reduced generalizability; and increased sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the advancement of CBPR as an approach to research, key assumptions remain. Further research is needed to compare CBPR with other more-traditional approaches to research. Such research would move us from assuming the value of CBPR to identifying its actual value in health disparity reduction. After all, communities carrying a disproportionate burden of HIV, including immigrant Latino communities, deserve the best science possible.

Rhodes SD; Duck S; Alonzo J; Ulloa JD; Aronson RE

2013-06-01

170

Participatory research and capacity building for community health and development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report describes engagement of the Work Group for Community Health and Development at the University of Kansas in pursuing its mission of collaborative research, teaching, and public service. In research, this team uses capabilities for community measurement to help discover factors and conditions that affect community change and improvement. In teaching and training, it prepares new generations of leadership for collaborative research and community practice. As part of its public service mission, the team serves as home base for the Community Tool Box, the largest Web resource of its kind for community building. This work reflects the two-fold aim of engaged scholarship: to contribute to understanding about what affects community health and development and to apply that knowledge to assure conditions that promote well-being for all those living in our communities.

Fawcett SB; Schultz JA; Holt CM; Collie-Akers V; Watson-Thompson J

2013-01-01

171

Applying grounded theory to data collected through participatory research on African Independent Churches’ liturgical rituals: A comparative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reported on two research projects, the first conducted in the early 1990s and the second, a project currently in progress. In essence, the article was an attempt to compare the theology of African Independent Churches in the two respective periods by making use of a grounded theory approach to their worship services. Significant similarities and differences were identified and reported on.How to cite this article: Müller, B.A. & Wepener, C.J., 2011, ‘Applying grounded theory to data collected through participatory research on AIC liturgical rituals: A comparative study’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(2), Art. #1034, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v67i2.1034

Bethel A. Müller; Cas J. Wepener

2011-01-01

172

Measuring quality of work-life: a participatory approach in a Canadian cancer center.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Quality of work-life (QWL) has been gaining increasing attention in health care settings. To our knowledge, no QWL data for cancer centers have been published. METHODS: A participatory approach was used to develop a QWL survey that was administered to staff in Year 1 (Y1) and Year 2 (Y2) in a Canadian ambulatory cancer center. RESULTS: Overall staff QWL scores were moderate in Y1 and Y2; however, there was considerable variation among four main employee groups (physicians, nurses, physicists, radiation therapists). CONCLUSIONS: The survey data provide a benchmark against which other cancer centers can be compared.

Sale JE; Smoke M

2007-01-01

173

Rural Oregon community perspectives: introducing community-based participatory research into a community health coalition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships.

Young-Lorion J; Davis MM; Kirks N; Hsu A; Slater JK; Rollins N; Aromaa S; McGinnis P

2013-01-01

174

Rural Oregon community perspectives: introducing community-based participatory research into a community health coalition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Community Health Improvement Partnership (CHIP) model has supported community health development in more than 100 communities nationally. In 2011, four rural Oregon CHIPs collaborated with investigators from the Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network (ORPRN), a component of the Oregon Clinical and Translational Research Institute (OCTRI), to obtain training on research methods, develop and implement pilot research studies on childhood obesity, and explore matches with academic partners. This article summarizes the experiences of the Lincoln County CHIP, established in 2003, as it transitioned from CHIP to Community Health Improvement and Research Partnership (CHIRP). Our story and lessons learned may inform rural community-based health coalitions and academicians who are engaged in or considering Community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Utilizing existing infrastructure and relationships in community and academic settings provides an ideal starting point for rural, bidirectional research partnerships. PMID:24056513

Young-Lorion, Julia; Davis, Melinda M; Kirks, Nancy; Hsu, Anna; Slater, Jana Kay; Rollins, Nancy; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul

2013-01-01

175

Development of an intervention to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders among hospital nurses based on the participatory approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The participatory approach has been widely used to improve the work environment. The purpose of this study was to develop an intervention to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders in hospital nurses using the participatory approach. Based on the Participatory Action Oriented Training (PAOT) approach, the multidisciplinary team conducted the trainer workshop to develop a comprehensive intervention protocol, which yielded several practical and low-cost solutions to reduce the risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. Structured tools that were focused on the hospital environment were developed. The developed action checklist consisted of 43 items that were focused on five areas of nursing tasks (i.e., patient care and treatment; safe handling of drugs, medical devices, and equipment; workstation design; physical environment; and welfare facilities and administration). The final intervention protocol consisted of a series of structured participant workshop, follow-up visits, and presentation of achievements.

Kim SL; Lee JE

2010-05-01

176

Physicians as Part of the Solution? Community-Based Participatory Research as a Way to Get Shared Decision Making into Practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although support among policy makers and academics for the wide scale adoption of shared decision making (SDM) is growing, actual implementation is slow, and faces many challenges. Extensive systemic barriers exist that prevent physicians from being able to champion SDM and lead practice change. In other areas of public health where implementation has been a challenge, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has effectively engaged resistant stakeholders to improve practice and the delivery of care. Might CBPR, defined broadly as research that engages participants in the conception, design, and implementation of relevant health programs, be a more effective way to engage physicians, patients, and managers in the implementation process? Consequently, we argue that adopting a participatory approach may help to overcome recognized barriers to progress in this area.

Grande SW; Durand MA; Fisher ES; Elwyn G

2013-09-01

177

Intervention mapping as a participatory approach to developing an HIV prevention intervention in rural African American communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few multilevel HIV interventions that have been developed, tailored or tested in rural communities for African Americans. We describe how Project GRACE integrated intervention mapping (IM) methodology with community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles to develop a multilevel, multigenerational HIV prevention intervention. IM was carried out in a series of steps from review of relevant data through producing program components. Through the IM process, all collaborators agreed that we needed a family-based intervention involving youth and their caregivers. We found that the structured approach of IM can be adapted to incorporate the principles of CBPR.

Corbie-Smith G; Akers A; Blumenthal C; Council B; Wynn M; Muhammad M; Stith D

2010-06-01

178

Community-Based Participatory Research: How Do Academicians Rate Success in Iran?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nCommunity-based participatory research (CBPR) is believed to be a potent means for the promotion of health in the com­munity. To that end, Iran has conducted several CBPR projects in various community research centers (CRCs). We aimed to assess the quality of some of these CBPR projects in Iran from the perspective of Iranian academicians. In this cross-sec­tional study, carried out during 2005, five CBPR projects implemented in Iranian CRCs (Tehran, n=3; Qazvin, n=1; and Bandar Abbas, n=1) were selected. Three academic members involved in each project were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that appraised the extent to which the research project was aligned with the principles of participatory re­search. Results show that the CRCs and the academic members in our CBPR projects should receive further training and consultation. Quality assessment of CBPR projects seems essential from the view point of other participants of such pro­jects, namely community and stakeholders.

H Malekafzali; A Forouzan; M Baradaran Eftekhari; M Azizabadi Farahani; HR Khoddami Vishteh

2009-01-01

179

Building community-based participatory research partnerships with a Somali refugee community.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The U.S. has become home to growing numbers of immigrants and refugees from countries where the traditional practice of female genital cutting (FGC) is prevalent. These women under-utilize reproductive health care, and challenge healthcare providers in providing culturally appropriate care. PURPOSE: This study examined Somali immigrant women's experiences with the U.S. healthcare system, exploring how attitudes, perceptions, and cultural values, such as FGC, influence their use of reproductive health care. METHODS: A mixed-method community-based participatory research (CBPR) collaboration with a Somali refugee community was conducted from 2005 to 2008 incorporating surveys, semi-structured focus groups, and individual interviews. Providers caring for this community were also interviewed to gain their perspectives and experiences. RESULTS: The process of establishing a partnership with a Somali community is described wherein the challenges, successes, and lessons learned in the process of conducting CBPR are examined. Challenges obtaining informed consent, language barriers, and reliance on FGC self-report were surmounted through mobilization of community social networks, trust-building, and the use of a video-elicitation device. The community partnership collaborated around shared goals of voicing unique healthcare concerns of the community to inform the development of interventional programs to improve culturally-competent care. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based participatory research using mixed-methods is critical to facilitating trust-building and engaging community members as active participants in every phase of the research process, enabling the rigorous and ethical conduct of research with refugee communities.

Johnson CE; Ali SA; Shipp MP

2009-12-01

180

Tobacco environment for Southeast Asian American youth: results from a participatory research project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite reports of high rates of smoking among Southeast Asian refugees in the United States, few studies have described the environmental aspects of tobacco use among this population, particularly for the second-generation youths. This absence is notable because the social environment within which second-generation youths are exposed to tobacco products differs radically from the natal environment of their parents. We describe results of a youth-led community participatory research project for Southeast Asians in Northern California. Using multiple data sources, second-generation youths documented the salience of tobacco products in their social environment, notably products such as blunts and mentholated cigarettes.

Lee JP; Lipperman-Kreda S; Saephan S; Kirkpatrick S

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. ? Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. ? Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. ? A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. ? Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

2012-01-01

182

Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

Blengini, Gian Andrea, E-mail: blengini@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); CNR-IGAG - Institute of Environmental Geology and Geo-Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Fantoni, Moris, E-mail: moris.fantoni@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Busto, Mirko, E-mail: mirko.busto@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission - Joint Research Centre, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Genon, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe.genon@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Zanetti, Maria Chiara, E-mail: mariachiara.zanetti@polito.it [DIATI - Department of Environment, Land and Infrastructures Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

2012-09-15

183

Community Advisory Boards in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Synthesis of Best Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a paradigm to study and reduce disparities in health outcomes related to chronic disease. Community advisory boards (CABs) commonly formalize the academic–community partnerships that guide CBPR by providing a mechanism for community members to have representation in research activities. Researchers and funding agencies increasingly recognize the value of the community’s contribution to research and acknowledge that community advisory boards are a key component of successful CBPR projects. In this article, we describe the best processes for forming, operating, and maintaining CABs for CBPR. We synthesize the literature and offer our professional experiences to guide formation, operation, and maintenance of CABs.

Susan D. Newman, PhD, RN, CRRN; Jeannette O. Andrews, PhD, APRN-BC, FNP; Gayenell S. Magwood, PhD, RN; Carolyn Jenkins, DrPH, APRN, BC-ADM, RD, LD, FAAN; Melissa J. Cox, MPH; Deborah C. Williamson, DHA, MSN, CNM

2011-01-01

184

Workplace-based participatory approach to weight loss for correctional employees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a participatory approach using an employee design team for a 12-week weight-loss program with an 8-week follow-up. METHODS: Twenty-four employees with mean [standard error (SE)] for weight 233.24 lb [8.16], body mass index 33.29 kg/cm [0.82], and age 42.7 years [1.5] participated in the study, among whom 75% were men and 25% women. RESULTS: Significant reductions in weight, body mass index, and waist circumference (among men) were observed before and after intervention (P < 0.05). About 73% and 68% of the variation in weight change (P < 0.01) and waist circumference (P < 0.01), respectively, were explained by Nutrition Knowledge and Exercise Confidence scores after controlling for gender and age. CONCLUSIONS: A participatory program with employee involvement resulted in positive outcomes. Increasing participants' knowledge and providing skills to manage their weight seem to change their attitudes, resulting in better outcomes.

Ferraro L; Faghri PD; Henning R; Cherniack M

2013-02-01

185

Iterative participatory design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The theoretical background in this chapter is information systems development in an organizational context. This includes theories from participatory design, human-computer interaction, and ethnographically inspired studies of work practices. The concept of design is defined as an experimental iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design.

Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

2010-01-01

186

Participatory action research: Addressing social vulnerability of rural women through income-generating activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory action research (PAR) is a robust and versatile research and development strategy. It can be utilised to: understand complex community structures and interaction; determine various types of vulnerability; assist in community capacity building and skills transfer; ensure community participation,and allow for the strengthening of livelihoods. This article focuses on PAR as a strategy, applying various methods and specific participatory tools to understand social vulnerability, within the context of women as rural farm dwellers in the North-West Province, South Africa. It emphasises the need for continued participation and highlights the practical principles and benefits derived from PAR. The PAR process cycles are discussed and parallels are drawn with the practical setting. In conclusion, the article emphasises that the application of the PAR process can make a multi-dimensional contribution towards the development of a community by creating an understanding of social vulnerability, by building capacity and by ensuring participation, and also addresses income-generating activities.

Liezel van Niekerk; Dewald van Niekerk

2009-01-01

187

Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities.

Jernigan VB; Salvatore AL; Styne DM; Winkleby M

2012-08-01

188

Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities. PMID:21994709

Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Salvatore, Alicia L; Styne, Dennis M; Winkleby, Marilyn

2011-10-11

189

Farmer-participatory integrated watershed management: Adarsha watershed, Kothapally India - an innovative and upscalable approach: case 7  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a reprint from the book entitled "Research Towards Integrated Natural Resources Management: Examples of Research Problems, Approaches and Partnerships in Action in the CGIAR" ( Hat-wood, R.R.; Kassam, A.H. eds.).which briefly describes the tools and methods used in research and development for integrated natural resources management. They have been evolving over the years in order to tackle the complexities of farming systems in marginal areas, and the issues of environmental change in ecoregional research. The integrated farmer-participatory watershed management process involves: agro-ecological zoning, farming systems research, systems analysis to select best-bet options, upscaling research results, identification of products with competitive advantage for iocal and regional markets, and the design and implementation of a science-based action plan. The plan includes technical assistance, supervised credit, strengthening communal cohesion through women's and farmers' groups, increasing marketing opportunities by concentrating the supply in quantity and quality, quality control of the products, product development to add value, and market studies for the products developed. The impact on the production systems is briefly described.

SP Wani; HP Singh; TK Sreedevi; P Pathak; TJ Rego; B Shiferaw; SR Iyer

2006-01-01

190

Prospective and participatory integrated assessment of agricultural systems from farm to regional scales: Comparison of three modeling approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evaluating the impacts of the development of alternative agricultural systems, such as organic or low-input cropping systems, in the context of an agricultural region requires the use of specific tools and methodologies. They should allow a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account the field, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multicriteria) and participatory assessment, abbreviated PIAAS (for Participatory Integrated Assessment of Agricultural System). In this paper, we compare the possible contribution to PIAAS of three modeling approaches i.e. Bio-Economic Modeling (BEM), Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) and statistical Land-Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) models. After a presentation of each approach, we analyze their advantages and drawbacks, and identify their possible complementarities for PIAAS. Statistical LUCC modeling is a suitable approach for multi-scale analysis of past changes and can be used to start discussion about the futures with stakeholders. BEM and ABM approaches have complementary features for scenarios assessment at different scales. While ABM has been widely used for participatory assessment, BEM has been rarely used satisfactorily in a participatory manner. On the basis of these results, we propose to combine these three approaches in a framework targeted to PIAAS.

Sylvestre D; Lopez-Ridaura S; Barbier JM; Wery J

2013-09-01

191

Prospective and participatory integrated assessment of agricultural systems from farm to regional scales: Comparison of three modeling approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluating the impacts of the development of alternative agricultural systems, such as organic or low-input cropping systems, in the context of an agricultural region requires the use of specific tools and methodologies. They should allow a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account the field, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multicriteria) and participatory assessment, abbreviated PIAAS (for Participatory Integrated Assessment of Agricultural System). In this paper, we compare the possible contribution to PIAAS of three modeling approaches i.e. Bio-Economic Modeling (BEM), Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) and statistical Land-Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) models. After a presentation of each approach, we analyze their advantages and drawbacks, and identify their possible complementarities for PIAAS. Statistical LUCC modeling is a suitable approach for multi-scale analysis of past changes and can be used to start discussion about the futures with stakeholders. BEM and ABM approaches have complementary features for scenarios assessment at different scales. While ABM has been widely used for participatory assessment, BEM has been rarely used satisfactorily in a participatory manner. On the basis of these results, we propose to combine these three approaches in a framework targeted to PIAAS. PMID:24013558

Delmotte, Sylvestre; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Barbier, Jean-Marc; Wery, Jacques

2013-09-06

192

Participatory and Action-Oriented Dissertations:The Challenges and Importance of Community-Engaged Graduate Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Graduate students commonly experience isolation and estrangement when conducting their final research projects, which can contribute to difficulties in completion. A creative and socially beneficial way to offset academic isolation is for graduate students to engage in participatory and action-oriented research projects with local communities.…

van der Meulen, Emily

2011-01-01

193

Participatory research and capacity building for community health and development. Introduction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is my pleasure to introduce this themed issue on "Participatory Research and Capacity Building for Community Health and Development." While most of the literature is still dominated by targeted interventions, run by researchers, that have a limited reach (usually affecting change among much less than 100 persons), these community interventions affect the broader social ecology. Even further, there is a growing literature on community-engaged scholarship that calls for this kind of active partnership but often falls far short of its goals (Calleson, Jordan, & Seifer, 2005 ). The articles in this themed issue represent the possibility of collaborations between university researchers, state-level policy makers, and community-based groups to affect widespread changes in the social and physical environment.

Francisco VT

2013-01-01

194

An innovative approach to facilitating nursing research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Competing demands on the clinical time of nurses and midwives presents challenges to developing a research active culture. AIM: To engage nurses and midwives in a trust-wide research project. METHOD: A needs assessment of the local obstacles to participating in research was undertaken and a nursing and midwifery research strategy developed by representatives from clinical, research and academic departments. Following consultation with nursing and midwifery groups, an infection control research project was initiated and participatory workshops established. FINDINGS: In total 50 nurses and midwives contributed to questionnaire design, data collection and analysis. Initial results were discussed at nursing/midwifery forums and presented at a newly formed grand round. Overall there were 573 nursing and midwifery contacts throughout the research process. CONCLUSIONS: This approach to facilitating nursing and midwifery research across an NHS trust has enabled large numbers of clinical staff to experience and contribute to a 'live' research project.

Nixon E; Young S; Sellick V; Wright K

2013-02-01

195

Does visual participatory research have resilience-promoting value? Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds) intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV & AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambivalence in teacher experiences of drawings to highlight the complexity of employing drawings as visual method. Then, I interpret the teachers' methodological experiences through the lens ofsocial-ecological understandings of resilience in order to address the question of how drawings, as form of visual participatory methodology, may make a positive difference and nurture participant resilience. What the teachers' experiences suggest is that drawings offer methodological opportunities for participants to make constructive meaning of adversity, to take action, to experience mastery, and to regulate emotion associated with adversity. All of the aforementioned are well documented pathways to resilience. I theorise, therefore, that researchers with a social conscience would be well advised to use drawings, albeit in competent and participatory ways, as this methodology potentiates participant resilience and positive change.

Linda C Theron

2012-01-01

196

Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions outside its original domain. When possible, the points are illustrated through a recent research project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne

197

Community-based participatory research and policy advocacy to reduce diesel exposure in West Oakland, California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We conducted a multimethod case study analysis of a community-based participatory research partnership in West Oakland, California, and its efforts to study and address the neighborhood's disproportionate exposure to diesel air pollution. We employed 10 interviews with partners and policymakers, participant observation, and a review of documents. Results of the partnership's truck count and truck idling studies suggested substantial exposure to diesel pollution and were used by the partners and their allies to make the case for a truck route ordinance. Despite weak enforcement, the partnership's increased political visibility helped change the policy environment, with the community partner now heavily engaged in environmental decision-making on the local and regional levels. Finally, we discussed implications for research, policy, and practice.

Gonzalez PA; Minkler M; Garcia AP; Gordon M; Garzón C; Palaniappan M; Prakash S; Beveridge B

2011-12-01

198

Participatory Communication : A Practical Guide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate social processes, decision-making processes, and any change process for that matter. Participatory approaches are nothing new. At a time when institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, increasingly seek participatory approaches in their development initative, this guide provides perspectives, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society.

Tufte, Thomas

2009-01-01

199

Participatory telerobotics  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

2013-05-01

200

A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed manner. (author)

Buchholz, Thomas S.; Volk, Timothy A.; Luzadis, Valerie A. [State University of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). College of Environmental Sciences and Forestry, Department of Forest and Natural Resource Management

2007-12-15

202

How Gender Influences the Use of Space: A Participatory Research on Spatial Planning in Fishing Villages in Central Java and West Aceh, Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The significance of participatory research for achieving a participatory spatial planning may be strengthened by the involvement of gender in the analysis of space. The structuring of space in the Javanese and Acehnese fishing villages shows how gender role greatly influences the use of space. This ...

Wiyatiningsih

203

Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), user-centered design (UCD), and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. OBJECTIVES: This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants' homes. METHODS: The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include a user-focused or community approach, equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases, an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders, and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. RESULTS: Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the program's design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional CHW tools. CONCLUSIONS: The principles of CBPR and UCD can be successfully applied in developing health information tools that are easy to use and understand, interactive, and target health disparities.

Henderson VA; Barr KL; An LC; Guajardo C; Newhouse W; Mase R; Heisler M

2013-01-01

204

Exploring the challenges of implementing Participatory Action Research in the context of HIV and poverty  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is having a devastating impact on South Africa and particularly on poor communities. Empowerment of communities has been identified as an important step towards mitigating the consequences and helping communities to overcome the challenges presented. Participatory Action Research (PAR) has been identified as a useful methodology for the purpose of facilitating empowerment. This study explores the challenges involved in implementing PAR in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty. In this article, the author describes a PAR project that took place in 2003/ 2004 with a group of five Xhosa speaking people living with HIV/AIDS in Masiphumelele, Cape Town. The aims of the study were to: 1. Create an opportunity for the participants to engage in a participatory process aimed at self-awareness and empowerment. 2. To record and analyse this process with the intention of producing insight into the use of PAR in the context of poverty and HIV/AIDS and to identify the challenges involved. The findings of this study highlight some important insights into the process of engaging people in the PAR process and the experiences of HIV positive people living in the context of poverty. The study explores the challenges involved in the process of empowerment and examines the process of “transferring” power and control from the researcher to the participants. Challenges were uncovered both from the point of view of the researcher who had to “let go of control” and participants who had to take on control. Participants struggled with issues of low self-efficacy and learned helplessness. Fluctuations in health also contributed towards alternating periods of hope and despair and these problems had an impact on their motivation to participate in the study. Lack of motivation to participate is a challenge highlighted in the literature and explored in this study. Participation is necessary for a study of this nature to be of benefit to the community, but unfortunately those most in need were found to be least likely to participate.The study also critically examines the research process that was conducted and highlights the positive and negative contribution of the process towards empowerment. Certain aspects of the research process, including the contracting process, were identified as being problematic as they emphasize the power and control of the researcher rather than the participants. Recommendations for future research include: Promoting participation among the disempowered; the Contracting process and Power relations in PAR

W.A. Rosenthal; D.D. Khalil

2010-01-01

205

Innovating Science Teaching by Participatory Action Research – Reflections from an Interdisciplinary Project of Curriculum Innovation on Teaching about Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a three-year curriculum innovation project on teaching about climate change. The innovation for this study focused on a socio-critical approach towards teaching climate change in four different teaching domains (biology, chemistry, physics and politics). The teaching itself explicitly aimed at general educational objectives, i.e., fostering students’ communication and evaluation abilities as essential components for preparing young people for active participation in society. Participatory Action Research has been used as a collaborative strategy of cyclical curriculum innovation and research. Using past experiences and selected results from accompanying research, this project and its methodology will be reflected upon from the viewpoint of the chemistry group taking part in the project. Core issues reflected upon include how the project contributed to the creation of feasible curriculum materials, how it led to innovative structures in practice, and whether it supported experienced teachers’ ongoing professional development. General considerations for the process of curriculum innovation will also be derived.

Timo Feierabend; Ingo Eilks

2011-01-01

206

Participatory approaches to improving safety and health under trade union initiative--experiences of POSITIVE training program in Asia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The participatory, action-oriented training program in occupational safety and health named POSITIVE (Participation-Oriented Safety Improvements by Trade Union InitiatiVE) was established in Pakistan and extended to other countries in Asia. The steps taken in the development of the POSITIVE program included collecting local good examples in safety and health, developing an action-checklist, testing a participatory training program, and conducting follow-up activities to examine local achievements. Training manuals were compiled to provide workers with the practical, easy-to-understand information on safety and health improvements and on the positive roles of trade unions. Trade union trainers trained in the methodology conducted serial POSITIVE training workshops in Pakistan and then in Bangladesh, Mongolia, Nepal, the Philippines and Thailand and recently in China. These workshops resulted in many low-cost improvements at the workplace level. These improvements were carried out in the technical areas of materials handling, workstations, machine safety, physical environment, and welfare facilities. The trade union networks have been vital in reaching an increasing number of grass-root workplaces and in expanding the program to other countries. This included the visits to Mongolia and Thailand of Pakistani trade union trainers to demonstrate the POSITIVE training. The participatory training tools used in the POSITIVE program such as the action checklist and group discussion methods were commonly applied in different local situations. Participatory approaches adopted in the POSITIVE program have proven useful for providing practical problem-solving measures based on the local trade union initiative.

Kawakami T; Kogi K; Toyama N; Yoshikawa T

2004-04-01

207

Large-Scale Participation: A Case Study of a Participatory Approach to Developing a New Public Library  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we present a case study of a participatory project that focuses on interaction in large-scale design, namely, the development of the new Urban Mediaspace Aarhus. This project, which has been under way for ten years, embodies a series of issues that arise when participatory design approaches are applied to large-scale, IT-oriented projects. At the same time, it highlights the issues public knowledge institutions face, when interactive technologies challenge their fundamental roles and practices; by extension, this case offers examples of how these challenges may be explored and addressed through IT-based participatory initiatives. We present a range of such activities carried out during the past ten years, and present the main lessons from the project, based on interviews with three key stakeholders. These lessons focus on how to make participation work in practice, how to align different paradigms of inquiry and practice in a project of this scale, and how to capture and anchor the insights from participatory events to inform the ongoing design process.

Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

2013-01-01

208

Developing participatory research in radiology: the use of a graffiti wall, cameras and a video box in a Scottish radiology department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Participatory research is increasingly advocated for use in health and health services research and has been defined as a 'process of producing new knowledge by systematic enquiry, with the collaboration of those being studied'. The underlying philosophy of participatory research is that those recruited to studies are acknowledged as experts who are 'empowered to truly participate and have their voices heard'. Research methods should enable children to express themselves. This has led to the development of creative approaches of working with children that offer alternatives to, for instance, the structured questioning of children by researchers either through questionnaires or interviews. To examine the feasibility and potential of developing participatory methods in imaging research. We employed three innovative methods of data collection sequentially, namely the provision of: 1) a graffiti wall; 2) cameras, and 3) a video box for children's use. While the graffiti wall was open to all who attended the department, for the other two methods children were allocated to each 'arm' consecutively until our target of 20 children for each was met. The study demonstrated that it was feasible to use all three methods of data collection within the context of a busy radiology department. We encountered no complaints from staff, patients or parents. Children were willing to participate but we did not collect data to establish if they enjoyed the activities, were pleased to have the opportunity to make comments or whether anxieties about their treatment inhibited their participation. The data yield was disappointing. In particular, children's contributions to the graffiti wall were limited, but did reflect the nature of graffiti, and there may have been some 'copycat' comments. Although data analysis was relatively straightforward, given the nature of the data (short comments and simple drawings), the process proved to be extremely time-consuming. This was despite the modest amount of data collected. Novel methods of engaging with children have been shown to be feasible although further work is needed to establish their full potential. (orig.)

2010-01-01

209

Reflections on a participatory project: the rewards and challenges for the lead researchers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Participatory action research (PAR) offers potential for people with an intellectual disability to have an active voice in service provision. However, ensuring their meaningful engagement is not without challenges. Guided by PAR, a recent project to develop a quality of life tool provided learning opportunities for the lead researchers. This paper addresses 3 issues raised by Ramcharan, Grant, and Flynn (2004) in relation to participation of people with intellectual disability in research. METHOD: Informed by reflective practice, this paper draws on a combination of field notes and written reports to critically examine the 3 issues related to effective participation. RESULTS: Although the project achieved its goal of people with intellectual disability authoring a quality of life tool, there was variation in participants' contribution. With both data collection and analysis, prior experience and confidence influenced the participation of co-researchers. The financial and the practical support of the contracting organisation were crucial to enabling people to take part. CONCLUSIONS: For researchers interested in PAR, planning well whilst maintaining flexibility would appear to be key to achieving maximum participation.

Conder J; Milner P; Mirfin-Veitch B

2011-03-01

210

Accounting for the Ecological Dimension in Participatory Research and Development: Lessons Learned from Indonesia and Madagascar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The lack of understanding on how to integrate ecological issues into so-called social-ecological natural resource management hampers sustainability in tropical forest landscape management. We build upon a comparison of three cases that show inverse gradients of knowledge and perceptions of the environment and human pressure on natural resources. We discuss why the ecological dimension currently lags behind in the management of tropical forest landscapes and to what extent participatory development can enhance the fit among ecological, socio-cultural, and economic systems. For each case study, socio-cultural and anthropological aspects of society and indigenous knowledge of the environment, the distribution of natural resources, classification, and management are documented in parallel with biophysical studies. Our results confirm that the ecological dimension remains weakly addressed and difficult to integrate into development actions when dealing with tropical forested landscape management in developing countries. We discuss three issues to understand why this is so: the disdain for traditional ecological knowledge and practices, the antagonism between economy and ecology, and the mismatch between traditional and modern governance systems. Participatory development shows potential to enhance the fit among ecological, socio-cultural, and economic systems through two dimensions: the generation and sharing of information to understand trends and the generation of new coordination practices that allow stakeholders to voice environmental concerns. In the absence of a "champion," institutions, and financial resources, the expected outcomes remain on paper, even when changes are negotiated. Future research in natural resource management must emphasize better integration at the interface of ecology and governance. Finally, we identify three challenges: the design of operational tools to reconcile ecology with social and economic concerns, the creation of governance systems to institutionalize collaborative and integrated resource management, and the design of enabler organizations close to local communities.

Yves Laumonier; Robin Bourgeois; Jean-Laurent Pfund

2008-01-01

211

Building Partnerships in Community-Based Participatory Research: Budgetary and Other Cost Considerations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers.

Hoeft TJ; Burke W; Hopkins SE; Charles W; Trinidad SB; James RD; Boyer BB

2013-04-01

212

Participatory action research: moving beyond the mental health 'service user' identity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary models of involvement within statutory services pay little regard to the identity of individuals beyond the 'service user' label and in doing so unwittingly perpetuate and sustain the negative impact of mental illness. The aim of this paper is to discuss the process of a 3-year participatory action research study facilitated by a mental health nurse. It highlights the perspective of those involved as co-researchers, all having experience of accessing statutory mental health services. It identifies both the process and the impact of this type of involvement on them illustrating their move beyond an illness identity. The study involved them undertaking a series of interviews with other service users in relation to their life stories. They subsequently mapped and analysed the transcripts. In order that the people were enabled to undertake these roles the study included a process of interviewing and appointing service user researchers followed by a programme of training workshops, supervision and discussion group/peer support. The accounts provided reflect the six researchers' attempts to make sense of their experience and reveal the path of transformation through collaboration. PMID:23167824

Hutchinson, A; Lovell, A

2012-11-21

213

Participatory tools working with crops, varieties and seeds. A guide for professionals applying participatory approaches in agrobiodiversity management, crop improvement and seed sector development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in fi...

Boef, W.S., de; Thijssen, M.H.

214

Visual Methodologies in Community-Based Participatory Research for Health: Using Photography, Video, and New Media to Engage Communities in Research and Action  

Science.gov (United States)

|The challenges facing public health today are too vast, complex, and urgent to be met by public health professionals alone. To improve the health and wellbeing of diverse communities around the globe, public health leaders are developing tools that engage communities in research and action, most particularly community-based participatory research

Catalani, Caricia Eleanora Celebes

2009-01-01

215

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

Gutberlet J; Baeder AM; Pontuschka NN; Felipone SM; Dos Santos TL

2013-01-01

216

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

Jutta Gutberlet; Angela M. Baeder; Nídia N. Pontuschka; Sonia M. N. Felipone; Tereza L. F. dos Santos

2013-01-01

217

Participatory research revealing the work and occupational health hazards of cooperative recyclers in Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

Gutberlet J; Baeder AM; Pontuschka NN; Felipone SM; Dos Santos TL

2013-01-01

218

RESEARCH ON THE EFFICACY OF ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY LESSONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One reason for the success or failure of students in each class is the difference in the use of teaching methods. Student-centered or active-learning approaches to instruction have increasingly been promoted worldwide and valued because they are perceived to better prepare future citizens and often include the production of tangible result that can be immediately appreciated. Active-learning methods can be contrasted with traditional approaches emphasizing teacher lecturing or direct transmission of factual knowledge. In this study, the traditional methods and modern techniques were used and tested in rural school. Learning and competence levels of students in each of these classes (traditional and modern) were evaluated separately. Using participatory teaching and assessment methods prove to be effective, reducing the number of low and very low notes. Written tests give lower results than the annual average for each student in Biology. Early age students (girls and boys equally) considers knowledge of Biology and in the future would choose a profession in this field. To manage their classrooms, teachers increasingly seek methods to motivate students but some teachers may prefer didactic instruction because they are more comfortable in the role of information giver. It is not sufficient for teachers merely to be told about a different way to teach and to evaluate: is the necessity for teacher training.

Mihaela ROTUNDU

2012-01-01

219

Approaches to occupational health based on participatory methodology in small workplaces.  

Science.gov (United States)

An intervention based on the methodology developed by the International Labour Office, the Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE) was carried out to improve work condition of small-scale enterprises and the informal sector in the Philippines, Thailand and Japan. Through the evaluation of the efficacy of the approaches based on participatory methodology, it is concluded that the method is an efficient measure to improve work condition in small workplaces. It is also pointed out that the activities of supporting experts such as introduction of the methodology and evaluation of the activity are necessary. The important roles of the experts are 1) to encourage managers and workers to sustain the activities for work improvement, 2) to analyse the effectiveness and problems of the implemented improvements, 3) to give appropriate suggestions for the further improvement, and 4) to get materials for demonstrating the effectiveness of WISE activities on improving work conditions and productivity to other managers and workers who have not participated in the activity. PMID:16610527

Itani, Toru; Tachi, Norihide; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Ebara, Takeshi; Takanishi, Toshimasa; Murata, Kensaburo; Inoue, Tatsuki; Suzumura, Hatsuko; Kurungkraiong, Sudthida; Khuvasanont, Tanavadee; Batino, Jose Maria

2006-01-01

220

Approaches to occupational health based on participatory methodology in small workplaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An intervention based on the methodology developed by the International Labour Office, the Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE) was carried out to improve work condition of small-scale enterprises and the informal sector in the Philippines, Thailand and Japan. Through the evaluation of the efficacy of the approaches based on participatory methodology, it is concluded that the method is an efficient measure to improve work condition in small workplaces. It is also pointed out that the activities of supporting experts such as introduction of the methodology and evaluation of the activity are necessary. The important roles of the experts are 1) to encourage managers and workers to sustain the activities for work improvement, 2) to analyse the effectiveness and problems of the implemented improvements, 3) to give appropriate suggestions for the further improvement, and 4) to get materials for demonstrating the effectiveness of WISE activities on improving work conditions and productivity to other managers and workers who have not participated in the activity.

Itani T; Tachi N; Takeyama H; Ebara T; Takanishi T; Murata K; Inoue T; Suzumura H; Kurungkraiong S; Khuvasanont T; Batino JM

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Prisons, Pipelines, and the President: Developing Critical Math Literacy through Participatory Action Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Academic success, and the economic well-being it usually affords, is closely tied to math achievement. Key national indicators reveal decades of underperformance of African American males in mathematics. Scholars argue that the schooling experiences of Black males are highly-racialized, are often bereft of significance, and result in academic and social marginalization. The author reports findings from an eight-month participatory action research (PAR) project involving seven high-school aged Black males in South Los Angeles; students undertook research to empirically verify and qualitatively explore narratives concerning incarceration and university enrollment. Utilizing a critical ethnographic methodology to privilege student voice, the author shares how „low-performing? students in an urban setting utilize their mathematical knowledge to become critically literate about these narratives. Highlighting two student-constructed counternarratives he terms mathematical counterstories, the author shows how students used data analysis to contradict dominant understandings about young Black males. The author argues math counterstories are a unique synthesis of critical and mathematical literacies that are supported through PAR. Implications for the re-orientation of high school-aged Black males towards mathematics are discussed.

Clarence L. Terry

2010-01-01

222

Academic partnerships and key leaders emerging from communities in the lower mississippi delta (LMD): a community-based participatory research model  

Science.gov (United States)

Collaboratively, the nutritional health problems of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region were examined and opportunities identified for conducting research interventions. To combat the nutritional health problems in the LMD, community residents yielded to a more comprehensive and participatory a...

223

Engaging Homeless Youth in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study From Skid Row, Los Angeles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growing evidence highlights the benefits to youth of involvement in community-based participatory research. Less attention has been paid, however, to the contributions youth can make to helping change health-promoting policy through such work. We describe a multi-method case study of a policy-focused community-based participatory research project in the Skid Row area of downtown Los Angeles, California, where a small group of homeless youth worked with adult mentors to develop and conduct a survey of 96 homeless youth and used the findings to help secure health-promoting policy change. We review the partnership's work at each stage of the policy-making process; its successes in changing policy regarding recreation, juvenile justice, and education; and the challenges encountered, especially with policy enforcement. We share lessons learned, including the importance of strong adult mentors and of policy environments conducive to sustainable, health-promoting change for marginalized youth.

Garcia AP; Minkler M; Cardenas Z; Grills C; Porter C

2013-02-01

224

Developing a leadership laboratory for nurse managers based on lived experiences: a participatory action research model for leadership development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the pilot study was to design an innovative model of leadership development, Leadership Laboratory (LL), grounded in the lived experiences and peer best practices of 43 cross-disciplinary nurse managers. BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine/Robert Wood Johnson Foundation study, The Future of Nursing, reinforces the need to prepare nurses for leadership positions. METHODS: A 1-year participatory action research study was designed to develop 3 LLs involving nurse managers as participants, co-creators, and evaluators of the unique learning format. RESULTS: Analysis of qualitative and quantitative data revealed consistent and significantly positive results in leadership skill areas in all 3 LLs. Participants identified elements that distinguished LLs from traditional seminars and trainings sessions, including opportunities to gain from peer-to peer consultation, strategies, and support. CONCLUSIONS: Participants in the 1-year pilot demonstrated significant learning based on postsession and postproject assessments of the LLs. Data also described the unique attributes of a peer-driven approach to leadership development.

Mackoff BL; Glassman K; Budin W

2013-09-01

225

A Review of Bayesian Networks as a Participatory Modeling Approach in Support of Sustainable Environmental Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN) modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition, strengths and limitations of BNs are synthesized. We found that BNs were successfully applied for knowledge integration and identification of sustainable management strategies within participatory processes. Due to many favorable characteristics, BNs have the potential to become a core method of transdisciplinary knowledge integration in environmental management.

Meike Duespohl; Sina Frank; Petra Doell

2012-01-01

226

A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN) that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) within a practice-based research network (PBRN) to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB), and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

Dulin Michael F; Tapp Hazel; Smith Heather A; Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa; Furuseth Owen J

2011-01-01

227

Participatory approaches to improving safety and health under trade union initiative--experiences of POSITIVE training program in Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The participatory, action-oriented training program in occupational safety and health named POSITIVE (Participation-Oriented Safety Improvements by Trade Union InitiatiVE) was established in Pakistan and extended to other countries in Asia. The steps taken in the development of the POSITIVE program included collecting local good examples in safety and health, developing an action-checklist, testing a participatory training program, and conducting follow-up activities to examine local achievements. Training manuals were compiled to provide workers with the practical, easy-to-understand information on safety and health improvements and on the positive roles of trade unions. Trade union trainers trained in the methodology conducted serial POSITIVE training workshops in Pakistan and then in Bangladesh, Mongolia, Nepal, the Philippines and Thailand and recently in China. These workshops resulted in many low-cost improvements at the workplace level. These improvements were carried out in the technical areas of materials handling, workstations, machine safety, physical environment, and welfare facilities. The trade union networks have been vital in reaching an increasing number of grass-root workplaces and in expanding the program to other countries. This included the visits to Mongolia and Thailand of Pakistani trade union trainers to demonstrate the POSITIVE training. The participatory training tools used in the POSITIVE program such as the action checklist and group discussion methods were commonly applied in different local situations. Participatory approaches adopted in the POSITIVE program have proven useful for providing practical problem-solving measures based on the local trade union initiative. PMID:15128169

Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Kogi, Kazutaka; Toyama, Naoki; Yoshikawa, Toru

2004-04-01

228

A Situated Practice of Ethics for Participatory Visual and Digital Methods in Public Health Research and Practice: A Focus on Digital Storytelling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article explores ethical considerations related to participatory visual and digital methods for public health research and practice, through the lens of an approach known as "digital storytelling." We begin by briefly describing the digital storytelling process and its applications to public health research and practice. Next, we explore 6 common challenges: fuzzy boundaries, recruitment and consent to participate, power of shaping, representation and harm, confidentiality, and release of materials. We discuss their complexities and offer some considerations for ethical practice. We hope this article serves as a catalyst for expanded dialogue about the need for high standards of integrity and a situated practice of ethics wherein researchers and practitioners reflexively consider ethical decision-making as part of the ongoing work of public health. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print August 15, 2013: e1-e9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301310).

Gubrium AC; Hill AL; Flicker S

2013-08-01

229

Community capacity building and sustainability: outcomes of community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: For communities, the value of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is often manifested in the outcomes of increased capacity and sustainable adoption of evidence-based practices for social change. Educational opportunities that promote discourse between community and academic partners can help to advance CBPR and better define these outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This paper describes a community-academic conference to develop shared definitions of community capacity building and sustainability related to CBPR and to identify obstacles and facilitators to both. METHODS: "Taking It to the Curbside: Engaging Communities to Create Sustainable Change for Health" was planned by five Clinical Translational Science Institutes and four community organizations. After a keynote presentation, breakout groups of community and academic members met to define community capacity building and sustainability, and to identify facilitators and barriers to achieving both. Groups were facilitated by researcher-community partner teams and conversations were recorded and transcribed. Qualitative analysis for thematic content was conducted by a subset of the planning committee. RESULTS: Important findings included learning that (1) the concepts of capacity and sustainability were considered interconnected; (2) partnership was perceived as both a facilitator and an outcome of CBPR; (3) sustainability was linked to "transfer of knowledge" from one generation to another within a community; and (4) capacity and sustainability were enhanced when goals were shared and health outcomes were achieved. CONCLUSIONS: Community capacity building and sustainability are key outcomes of CBPR for communities. Co-learning opportunities that engage and mutually educate both community members and academics can be useful strategies for identifying meaningful strategies to achieve these outcomes.

Hacker K; Tendulkar SA; Rideout C; Bhuiya N; Trinh-Shevrin C; Savage CP; Grullon M; Strelnick H; Leung C; DiGirolamo A

2012-01-01

230

Youth as partners, participants or passive recipients: a review of children and adolescents in community-based participatory research (CBPR).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an orientation to research that places value on equitable collaborations between community members and academic partners, reflecting shared decision making throughout the research process. Although CBPR has become increasingly popular for research with adults, youth are less likely to be included as partners. In our review of the literature, we identified 399 articles described by author or MeSH keyword as CBPR related to youth. We analyzed each study to determine youth engagement. Not including misclassified articles, 27 % of percent of studies were community-placed but lacked a community partnership and/or participatory component. Only 56 (15 %) partnered with youth in some phase of the research process. Although youth were most commonly involved in identifying research questions/priorities and in designing/conducting research, most youth-partnered projects included children or adolescents in several phases of the research process. We outline content, methodology, phases of youth partnership, and age of participating youth in each CBPR with youth project, provide exemplars of CBPR with youth, and discuss the state of the youth-partnered research literature.

Jacquez F; Vaughn LM; Wagner E

2013-03-01

231

An Approach to Participatory Instructional Design in Secondary Education: An Exploratory Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Teachers have limited insight in students' perspectives on education, although these perspectives influence quality of learning. As students' and teachers' perspectives differ considerably, there is a need for teachers to learn more about students' experiences and ideas about education. Participatory design might be a good strategy for…

Konings, Karen D.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2010-01-01

232

Testing the efficacy of culturally adapted coping skills training for Chinese American immigrants with type 2 diabetes using community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese Americans demonstrate greater prevalence of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites and find standard diabetes care disregards their cultural health beliefs. Academic researchers and Chinatown agencies collaborated to culturally adapt and test an efficacious cognitive-behavioral intervention using community-based participatory research. Using a delayed-treatment repeated-measures design, 145 adult Chinese immigrants with Type 2 diabetes completed treatment. Immediate benefits of treatment were evident in the improvement (p?approach enabled the development of a culturally acceptable, efficacious behavioral intervention, and provides a model for working with communities that demonstrate health disparities. PMID:23606271

Chesla, Catherine A; Chun, Kevin M; Kwan, Christine M L; Mullan, Joseph T; Kwong, Yulanda; Hsu, Lydia; Huang, Peggy; Strycker, Lisa A; Shum, Tina; To, Diana; Kao, Rudy; Waters, Catherine M

2013-04-19

233

Testing the efficacy of culturally adapted coping skills training for Chinese American immigrants with type 2 diabetes using community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chinese Americans demonstrate greater prevalence of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites and find standard diabetes care disregards their cultural health beliefs. Academic researchers and Chinatown agencies collaborated to culturally adapt and test an efficacious cognitive-behavioral intervention using community-based participatory research. Using a delayed-treatment repeated-measures design, 145 adult Chinese immigrants with Type 2 diabetes completed treatment. Immediate benefits of treatment were evident in the improvement (p?approach enabled the development of a culturally acceptable, efficacious behavioral intervention, and provides a model for working with communities that demonstrate health disparities.

Chesla CA; Chun KM; Kwan CM; Mullan JT; Kwong Y; Hsu L; Huang P; Strycker LA; Shum T; To D; Kao R; Waters CM

2013-08-01

234

Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic. Guidelines on approaches to siting a deep repository. Deliverable D21  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on the review of experiences in SEA and EIA in the Czech Republic summarized in Deliverable No.3 and the testing of novel participatory and dialogue approaches summarized in Deliverables No.7, 11 and 12 in this report a model for the siting process specifically in the Czech Republic, that takes into account the need for transparency and interaction with the public, within the framework of legal requirements is outlined. Lessons learnt are summarised and a road map specified. The guidelines / recommendations in this report are proposed based on mapping the situation in the Czech Republic and experience gained in connection with the testing and application of novel participatory approaches and dialogue, but many of them are of general validity and can be applied in other countries outside the Czech Republic. This reports links directly to Work package 6, where general guidelines for participation and transparency, reflecting institutional and cultural differences, are given - Deliverable No.22

Vojtechova, Hana (Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (Czech Republic))

2009-10-15

235

Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic. Guidelines on approaches to siting a deep repository. Deliverable D21  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the review of experiences in SEA and EIA in the Czech Republic summarized in Deliverable No.3 and the testing of novel participatory and dialogue approaches summarized in Deliverables No.7, 11 and 12 in this report a model for the siting process specifically in the Czech Republic, that takes into account the need for transparency and interaction with the public, within the framework of legal requirements is outlined. Lessons learnt are summarised and a road map specified. The guidelines / recommendations in this report are proposed based on mapping the situation in the Czech Republic and experience gained in connection with the testing and application of novel participatory approaches and dialogue, but many of them are of general validity and can be applied in other countries outside the Czech Republic. This reports links directly to Work package 6, where general guidelines for participation and transparency, reflecting institutional and cultural differences, are given - Deliverable No.22

2009-01-01

236

Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed into ergonomic training that address the issues originally raised. This training includes intervention methods, ergonomic tools used, dam acquired, and effects of waste container handling techniques on lower back, shoulder, and wrists and methods to help proactively reduce injuries associated with this profession.

Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

2000-02-07

237

Developing participatory research in radiology: the use of a graffiti wall, cameras and a video box in a Scottish radiology department  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Participatory research is increasingly advocated for use in health and health services research and has been defined as a 'process of producing new knowledge by systematic enquiry, with the collaboration of those being studied'. The underlying philosophy of participatory research is that those recruited to studies are acknowledged as experts who are 'empowered to truly participate and have their voices heard'. Research methods should enable children to express themselves. This has led to the development of creative approaches of working with children that offer alternatives to, for instance, the structured questioning of children by researchers either through questionnaires or interviews. To examine the feasibility and potential of developing participatory methods in imaging research. We employed three innovative methods of data collection sequentially, namely the provision of: 1) a graffiti wall; 2) cameras, and 3) a video box for children's use. While the graffiti wall was open to all who attended the department, for the other two methods children were allocated to each 'arm' consecutively until our target of 20 children for each was met. The study demonstrated that it was feasible to use all three methods of data collection within the context of a busy radiology department. We encountered no complaints from staff, patients or parents. Children were willing to participate but we did not collect data to establish if they enjoyed the activities, were pleased to have the opportunity to make comments or whether anxieties about their treatment inhibited their participation. The data yield was disappointing. In particular, children's contributions to the graffiti wall were limited, but did reflect the nature of graffiti, and there may have been some 'copycat' comments. Although data analysis was relatively straightforward, given the nature of the data (short comments and simple drawings), the process proved to be extremely time-consuming. This was despite the modest amount of data collected. Novel methods of engaging with children have been shown to be feasible although further work is needed to establish their full potential. (orig.)

Mathers, Sandra A. [Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); The Robert Gordon University, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Anderson, Helen [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); McDonald, Sheila [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Chesson, Rosemary A. [University of Aberdeen, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

2010-03-15

238

Using community-based participatory research to develop a culturally sensitive smoking cessation intervention with public housing neighborhoods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To describe surface and deep structure dimensions of a culturally sensitive smoking cessation intervention developed with southeastern US public housing neighborhoods. PROCEDURES: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods were used to develop this culturally sensitive smoking cessation intervention by the following research partners: academicians, neighborhood residents, community health workers, and community advisory board. This CBPR involved a cyclical process with the following phases: assembling a research team; identifying smoking cessation as the health need of interest; developing the research method; establishing evaluation, feedback, and dissemination mechanisms; implementing the initial "Sister to Sister" community trial; analyzing and interpreting the data; disseminating the results; revising the intervention; and, establishing mechanisms to sustain outcomes. Culturally sensitive dimensions emerged during this process and were categorized as surface structure and deep structure. FINDINGS: Surface structure dimensions included written materials, incentives and food, and protocol delivery strategies. Deep structure dimensions included kinships, collectivism, storytelling, and spiritual expressions. Community health workers and the advisory board contributed to the identification and integration of both surface and deep structure dimensions. The six-month continuous smoking abstinence outcomes from the initial community trial were 27.5% vs 5.77% for the intervention and comparison groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods facilitate processes in which culturally sensitive dimensions can be effectively identified and integrated into health promotion interventions for marginalized populations. The incorporation of surface structure dimensions increases acceptance and feasibility, while deep structure improves overall impact and efficacy of the intervention.

Andrews JO; Bentley G; Crawford S; Pretlow L; Tingen MS

2007-01-01

239

Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS) is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-a-vis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

Yee Ming Chen; Bo-Yuan Wang

2009-01-01

240

Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands  

CERN Document Server

The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS) is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers' understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-avis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

Chen, Yee Ming

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Growing up with expectations. Better understanding the expectations of community partners in participatory action research projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper challenges the assumption that youth and youth agencies are in a condition of equality when entering a participatory action research (PAR). By asserting that it is not a state of equality that practitioners nor youth should assume nor be immediately striving for, but a consistently equitable process, this article draws from and reflects on the relationship between young people and researchers who have used a PAR methodology in action oriented projects. Using the UNESCO Growing up in Cities Canada project as a case example, this review extrapolates from and reflects on challenges faced by the project as a whole. Using semi-structured interviews to explore the roles of adults and youth, a number of strategies are highlighted as the techniques used to overcome these challenges. The discussion concludes with further reflection on the complexities of equality and equity, recommending a number of actions that have the potential to create an equitable environment in PAR projects similar to the one examined. Le présent article examine la condition supposée d’égalité des jeunes et des agences de jeunes engagés dans des projets participatifs de recherche-action. L’article se base sur la relation entre des jeunes et des chercheurs dans le cadre de démarches de recherche-action participative pour affirmer que ce n’est pas une condition d’égalité que les praticiens et les jeunes devraient assumer ou rechercher en premier lieu, mais plutôt des processus équitables. Le cas d’étude utilisé est le projet Grandir en Ville Canada, de l’UNESCO. À partir d’entrevues semi-dirigées visant à explorer les rôles des adultes et des jeunes, plusieurs stratégies employées pour surmonter les défis soulevés par le projet sont soulignées. L’article termine avec une réflexion sur les complexités de l’égalité et de l’équité, et propose plusieurs actions ayant le potentiel de créer un environnement d’équité lors des démarches participatives similaires de recherche-action.

Doug Ragan; Clarissa Wilkinson

2009-01-01

242

Mental health consumers and providers dialogue in an institutional setting: a participatory approach to promoting recovery-oriented care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This brief report presents the preliminary findings of a participatory project, to answer a question raised by stakeholders in mental health services: How can providers and patients create a process for knowledge exchange to support recovery-oriented care? METHOD: Participatory action research (PAR) and narrative phenomenological methodology guided the selection of methods, which consisted of an iterative process between telling stories and dialoguing about personal values related to recovery. The sample consisted of three occupational therapists, a psychiatrist, an academic-clinician, and five consumers of mental health services who were involved in each stage of the research, including design, interpretation, dissemination, and implementation. RESULTS: Significant interpersonal and intrapersonal tensions were named, and conditions for a more sustainable process of knowledge exchange were explored. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The project revealed both the challenges with situating research within an institution (hierarchy of knowledge, power, and vulnerability) and face-to-face dialogue, as well as positive changes in professional attitudes and consumer empowerment, as providers and patients came to understand what was at stake for each other. The project underscored the need for provider-consumer dialogue as a process to explore tensions and values in promoting recovery-oriented care.

Schwartz R; Estein O; Komaroff J; Lamb J; Myers M; Stewart J; Vacaflor L; Park M

2013-06-01

243

Beyond Borders: Participatory Design Research and the Changing Role of Design  

Science.gov (United States)

University art and design programs are branching out and creating cross-disciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to…

Blair-Early, Adream

2010-01-01

244

Communities of practice in participatory approaches to environmental regulation : Prerequisites for implementation of environmental knowledge in agricultural context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes for change in agricultural contexts. The hypothesis is that the processes in the case project can be analysed by applying concepts of the theory of communities of practice. The first analytical component is a test for learning prerequisites conducted by the concepts of domain, community and practice. The second component concerns identity changes among involved farmers and the third component introduces the concept of boundary objects to concrete cooperative processes in the case project. We find that the stakeholder approach is problematic in catchment areas because communities of practice are rare in interest groups and organisations. On the basis of the theory of communities of practice, we suggest to integrate both knowledge production and knowledge implementation in the work-related social setting of each individual farm.

Madsen, Mads Lægdsgaard; Noe, Egon

2012-01-01

245

"Bounded" empowerment: analyzing tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research in urban public schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This multi-method study examines tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research (YPAR) in urban high schools among 15 semester-cohorts. Student participants in the present study were 77 ethnically diverse youth from four high schools in a major metropolitan school district. Data were gathered using systematic classroom observations, interviews with teachers and students involved in the projects, and participant observation. The two most commonly-constrained phases of the YPAR project were issue selection and action steps. A central tension in the issue selection phase for projects enacted across multiple semester cohorts was the tension between original inquiry and "traction:" Sticking with the same topic enabled sustained building of strategic alliances and expertise for making change, but limited the incoming cohort's power to define the problem to be addressed. In further analyses, we identified processes that promoted student power despite continuity-related constraints-teachers' framing and buy-in strategies, "micro-power" compensation, and alignment of students' interests with the prior cohort-as well as constraints in other phases of the projects. This study's findings regarding the promotion of youth power in the face of constraints advance the integration of theory and practice in youth-led research and have implications for participatory research more broadly.

Ozer EJ; Newlan S; Douglas L; Hubbard E

2013-09-01

246

"Bounded" empowerment: analyzing tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research in urban public schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

This multi-method study examines tensions in the practice of youth-led participatory research (YPAR) in urban high schools among 15 semester-cohorts. Student participants in the present study were 77 ethnically diverse youth from four high schools in a major metropolitan school district. Data were gathered using systematic classroom observations, interviews with teachers and students involved in the projects, and participant observation. The two most commonly-constrained phases of the YPAR project were issue selection and action steps. A central tension in the issue selection phase for projects enacted across multiple semester cohorts was the tension between original inquiry and "traction:" Sticking with the same topic enabled sustained building of strategic alliances and expertise for making change, but limited the incoming cohort's power to define the problem to be addressed. In further analyses, we identified processes that promoted student power despite continuity-related constraints-teachers' framing and buy-in strategies, "micro-power" compensation, and alignment of students' interests with the prior cohort-as well as constraints in other phases of the projects. This study's findings regarding the promotion of youth power in the face of constraints advance the integration of theory and practice in youth-led research and have implications for participatory research more broadly. PMID:23444005

Ozer, Emily J; Newlan, Sami; Douglas, Laura; Hubbard, Elizabeth

2013-09-01

247

Action-learning collaboratives as a platform for community-based participatory research to advance obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although process elements that define community-based participatory research (CBPR) are well articulated and provide guidance for bringing together researchers and communities, additional models to implement CBPR are needed. One potential model for implementing and monitoring CBPR is Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs); short term, team-based learning processes that are grounded in quality improvement. Since 2010, the Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth (PRCD) has used ALCs with three communities as a platform to design, implement and evaluate CBPR. The first ALC provided an opportunity for academia and community leadership to strengthen their relationships and knowledge of respective assets through design and evaluation of community-based QI projects. Building on this work, we jointly designed and are implementing a second ALC, a cross-community research project focused on obesity prevention in vulnerable populations. An enhanced community capacity now exists to support CBPR activities with a high degree of sophistication and decreased reliance on external facilitation. PMID:23727965

Bazos, Dorothy A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime; Ruggles, Laural; Goldsberry, Yvonne

2013-01-01

248

Qualitative options in political psychology and gender. Participatory Action Research studies on child abuse and forms of political violence that affects children and young people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: since the revision of some criteria of the Participatory Action Research (p a r): the researcher`s influence, agrees, transparency and coupling, we try to point out the significance that this approach is qualitative research to address problems like abuse and some forms of political violence that affect children and young people. Issues that are cross to the interests of investigative work and intervention of a political psychology and psychology of gender, since the focus of a critical social psychology. Methodology: the goals of this task requiring the deployment of methodologies analyzes recognize the pattern of meaning as a space in which meanings emerge on triggers of the problems and factors that enable the development of alternative solution. The empirical component consists of some research findings on racism, women’s identity in subjects with experience of abuse, the construction of subjectivities and the phenomenon of political participation in children and young people demobilized from illegal armed groups. The text shows dates of abuse and the untying of young children and armed conflict as a way of forms of political violence and some thoughts about the commitment of psychologists in handling these problems. Results: a summary of some historical background to the par and its significant elements as proposed critical and qualitative research and intervention, and ends the text to mean scientific criteria of the p a r, the influence of the researcher, agreement and transparency, based on empirical findings of the component.

Olga L. Obando S

2009-01-01

249

Using community surveys to inform the planning and implementation of environmental change strategies: participatory research in 12 Washington communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of environmental change strategies (ECS) in effecting community-level change on attitudes and behaviors related to underage drinking (Treno and Lee in Alcohol Res Health 26:35-40, 2002; Birckmayer et al. in J Drug Educ 34(2):121-153, 2004). Primary data collection to inform the design of these strategies, however, can be resource intensive and exceed the capacity of community stakeholders. This study describes the participatory planning and implementation of community-level surveys in 12 diverse communities in the state of Washington. These surveys were conducted through collaborations among community volunteers and evaluation experts assigned to each community. The surveys were driven by communities' prevention planning needs and interests; constructed from collections of existing, field-tested items and scales; implemented by community members; analyzed by evaluation staff; and used in the design of ECS by community-level leaders and prevention practitioners. The communities varied in the content of their surveys, in their sampling approaches and in their data collection methods. Although these surveys were not conducted using traditional rigorous population survey methodology, they were done within limited resources, and the participatory nature of these activities strengthened the communities' commitment to using their results in the planning of their environmental change strategies.

Gabriel RM; Leichtling GJ; Bolan M; Becker LG

2013-03-01

250

"Stars in der Manege?" Demokratietheoretische Überlegungen zur Dynamik partizipativer Forschung "Stars in the Arena?" Democracy Theory and its Implications for Participatory Research "¿Estrellas en la arena?" Teoría de la democracia y sus implicaciones para la investigación participativa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partizipative Forschung hat einen demokratisierenden und damit zugleich einen gesellschaftskritischen Anspruch. Allerdings ist von den Anfängen der Aktionsforschung in den 1970er Jahren bis heute kaum reflektiert worden, welches Demokratieverständnis partizipativen Ansätzen zugrunde liegt: Wer partizipiert aus welchen Gründen, in welchem Umfang und zu welchem Zeitpunkt am Forschungsprozess? Wie stellen sich Machtverhältnisse zwischen den unterschiedlichen AkteurInnen dar? Wer sind die eigentlichen "Stars" in der Manege partizipativer qualitativer Forschung? Unter Hinzuziehung unterschiedlicher demokratietheoretischer Überlegungen wollen wir aufzeigen, wie der gesellschaftskritische Anspruch partizipativer Forschung nicht nur formuliert, sondern auch in der Praxis eingelöst werden kann.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120140 Participatory methods aim to democratize and critique societies. However, their understanding of democracy has never been questioned. It is crucial to undertake such an analysis in order to fullyrecognize the critical potential of research  employing a participatory approach. Looking at participatory research we raise the following questions: Who are the real “stars” within participatory research and why? Who is participating and for what reasons, to what extent of time and at which phase of the research process? We argue that participatory research can only reach its full potential if one applies for example insights of democracy theory to it. In our approach we reject conceptions of democracy that are based on one-sided majorities and polarizations of power. We see the essential indicator for participatory research of high quality in its capability to question power relations and power distributions within the socialarena. This implies that participatory research maintains a critical watch on the reciprocity between researchers and research participants.. It further calls for a transparent method and the possibility for different parties to contribute in order to render the research productive for everybody involved.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120140 Los métodos participativos buscan democratizar y criticar a las sociedades. Sin embrago, su entendimiento de la democracia nunca ha sido cuestionada. Es crucial emprender este análisis para poder reconocer completamente el potencial crítico de investigaciones que utilizan un enfoque participativo. Al mirar la investigación participativa nos surgen las siguientes preguntas: ¿Quiénes son las "estrellas" verdaderas dentro de la investigación participativa y por qué? ¿quién está participando y por qué razones?, ¿hasta cuándo y en qué fase del proceso de investigación? Planteamos que la investigación participativa solo puede alcanzar su potencial más alto si uno aplica, por ejemplo, las ideas de la teoría de la democracia. En nuestro enfoque rechazamos las concepciones de democracia basadas en mayorías unilaterales y polarizaciones del poder. Vemos el indicador esencial de la investigación participativa de alta calidad en su capacidad para cuestionar relaciones de poder y distribuciones de poder dentro de la arena social. Esto implica que la investigación participativa mantiene una visión crítica sobre la reciprocidad entre investigadores y participantes de una investigación. Se convoca, así, a un método transparente y la posibilidad de que diferentes partidos contribuyan a realizar una investigación productiva para todos los involucrados.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120140

Monika Götsch; Sabine Klinger; Andreas Thiesen

2011-01-01

251

Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936

Puffer, Eve S; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A

2013-04-01

252

Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence.

Puffer ES; Pian J; Sikkema KJ; Ogwang-Odhiambo RA; Broverman SA

2013-04-01

253

Participatory Action Research in the Implementing Process of Evidence-Based Intervention to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Project Design of the "Healthy Future" Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To describe the design of the developmental project Healthy Future that aims to implement a new evidence-based program for the prevention of childhood obesity and collaboration and sharing of work between specialist and community health care professionals in parts of a county in western Norway. Methods. Comprehensive participatory planning and evaluation (CPPE) process as an action-oriented research approach was chosen, using mixed data sources, mixed methods, and triangulation. Discussion. A bottom-up approach might decrease the barriers when new evidence-based childhood prevention interventions are going to be implemented. It is crucial not only to build partnership and shared understanding, motivation, and vision, but also to consider the frames of the organizations, such as competencies, and time to carry out the interventions at the right level of health care service and adapt to the overweight children and their families needs. Conclusion. The developmental process of new health care programs is complex and multileveled and requires a framework to guide the process. By CPPE approach evidence-based health care practice can be delivered based on research, user knowledge, and provider knowledge in the field of childhood overweight and obesity in a certain context.

Stormark, Kjell Morten

2013-01-01

254

Empowerment and regulation : Dilemmas in participatory fisheries science  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a perspective from the sociology of knowledge, this study identifies some ‘dilemmas of participatory research’. We look at how social relationships between fishers and scientists develop around the exchange of fishers’ knowledge in particular institutional contexts. We survey the general types and global examples of fisher– scientist relationships in terms of how they approach the integration of fishers’ and scientists’ knowledge. Based on an empirical study of three European cases of participatory research, we then discuss five dilemmas that tend to characterize fisher– scientist relationships. These dilemmas centre on the relationship between fisheries research, fishery regulations and fishers as subjects of both regulation and participatory research endeavours. We argue that these dilemmas – experienced by both scientists and fishers – express an underlying tension between ‘empowering’ fishers to support the effective management of the fishing commons and the bureaucratic need to regulate the fishery as an industry.

Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

2012-01-01

255

Implementing evidence in an onco-haematology nursing unit: a process of change using participatory action research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To implement evidence in a nursing unit and to gain a better understanding of the experience of change within a participatory action research. METHODS: Study design of a participatory action research type was use from the constructivist paradigm. The analytical-methodological decisions were inspired by Checkland Flexible Systems for evidence implementation in the nursing unit. The study was carried out between March and November 2007 in the isolation unit section for onco-haematological patients in a tertiary level general university hospital in Spain. Accidental sampling was carried out with the participation of six nurses. Data were collected using five group meetings and individual reflections in participants' dairies. The participant observation technique was also carried out by researchers. Data analysis was carried out by content analysis. The rigorous criteria were used: credibility, confirmability, dependence, transferability and reflexivity. RESULTS: A lack of use of evidence in clinical practice is the main problem. The factors involved were identified (training, values, beliefs, resources and professional autonomy). Their daily practice (complexity in taking decisions, variability, lack of professional autonomy and safety) was compared with an ideal situation (using evidence it will be possible to normalise practice and to work more effectively in teams by increasing safety and professional recognition). It was decided to create five working areas about several clinical topics (mucositis, pain, anxiety, satisfaction, nutritional assessment, nauseas and vomiting, pressure ulcers and catheter-related problems) and seven changes in clinical practice were agreed upon together with 11 implementation strategies. Some reflections were made about the features of the study: the changes produced; the strategies used and how to improve them; the nursing 'subculture'; attitudes towards innovation; and the commitment as participants in the study and as healthcare professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The findings throw light on the process of change in the healthcare sector. The results are useful to modify nursing practice based on evidence.

Abad-Corpa E; Delgado-Hito P; Cabrero-García J; Meseguer-Liza C; Zárate-Riscal CL; Carrillo-Alcaraz A; Martínez-Corbalán JT; Caravaca-Hernández A

2013-03-01

256

Communities of Practice and Participatory Action Research: The Formation of a Synergy for the Development of Museum Programmes for Early Childhood  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the integration of two key ideas and working frameworks: a community of educational practice formed by the synergy between a natural history museum and a university department of pre-school education, which undertook participatory action research aimed at the creation of innovative museum programmes for young children. Data…

Ampartzaki, Maria; Kypriotaki, Maria; Voreadou, Catherine; Dardioti, Antonia; Stathi, Iasmi

2013-01-01

257

Participatory public health research : a multi-method community-based study of TB in migrant African communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) has long been preventable and curable, yet it is far from being eradicated or even controlled. In the United Kingdom (UK), TB is a public health problem of growing concern because of the continued escalating prevalence of the disease concentrated in London; and because it disproportionately affects the foreign-born, particularly persons of black African origin. This thesis presents an evidence base describing the structural influences which may impact on the epidemiology and control of TB in migrant black African communities in the City of Westminster, London. This evidence is generated by drawing on the findings of a multi-method Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) study which combined both quantitative and qualitative methods, and which engaged as research partners, from the outset, members from the study population together with academic researchers and multiple sectors. The chosen theoretical foundation of this study consisted of several interlinked considerations. The concept of "structural violence" focused the investigation, while the principles of CBPR and context-specific Study Foundation Principles guided the entire research process. The thesis suggests that post-migration living conditions expose migrant black African communities to a range of inter-connected structural influences which are determined at, and operate across, community and sector level. The identified influences can be clustered into 6 main themes, each describing several structural influences with complex interplay: (a) access to TB information and healthcare, (b) stigmatisation, (c) unemployment and poverty, (d) poor housing and temporary accommodation, (e) general health status, and (f) community participation. These influences operate beyond the direct control of individuals but impede and/or facilitate the production of health and positive outcomes of TB control measures. The thesis suggests that these communities live under the continual weight of structural violence and that this may explain, at least in part, the manifestation of the differential rates of TB observed in migrant black Africans. Prioritised recommendations, grounded in the study findings, are presented for public health interventions toward both improved TB control and participatory public health research. The thesis suggests the importance and utility of CBPR in bridging the gap between knowledge produced through more conventional research and the translation of such knowledge into interventions which are relevant and beneficial to the study population, and for investigating context-specific structural influences and interventions. This signifies the need to focus research on contextual conditions and required interventions, and transform people hitherto regarded as passive research subjects into active co-researchers.

Marais F

258

Participatory Privacy: Enabling Privacy in Participatory Sensing  

CERN Multimedia

Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...

De Cristofaro, Emiliano

2012-01-01

259

Use of participatory research and photo-voice to support urban Aboriginal healthy eating.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this research was to work collaboratively with an urban Aboriginal community to understand meanings of food and food insecurity and strengthen responses to this issue. The project took place at the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative in Geelong, South Eastern Australia in 2009-2010. Photo-voice research methods were used to explore meanings of food and food insecurity. This identified that food selections were influenced by family harmony, collectivism and satiation of hunger with cheap high carbohydrate and fat foods. People were also proud of their hunter-gatherer heritage and saw the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative as leaders in healthy food provision. Action research cycles were used to develop responses including plates depicting healthy food portions, social cooking opportunities, development of a cooking television series and a specialised cook-book. The partnership required researchers to listen carefully to respond to needs of the Wathaurong Aboriginal Cooperative, and this meant adapting research plans to suit the local environment and community partner needs. There is potential for Aboriginal organisations to provide further leadership for healthy eating and food security through workplace food policies and partnerships with food security agencies. Use of Aboriginal nutrition knowledge to provide nutrition education may be useful in health promotion approaches.

Adams K; Burns C; Liebzeit A; Ryschka J; Thorpe S; Browne J

2012-09-01

260

How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.

Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.

M. Buchecker; S. Menzel; R. Home

2013-01-01

262

Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. This sustained participatory design and implementation approach is exemplified through a large-scale project in the Danish healthcare sector

Simonsen, Jesper

2010-01-01

263

Si se puede: using participatory research to promote environmental justice in a Latino community in San Diego, California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is seen as a potent tool for studying and addressing urban environmental health problems by linking place-based work with efforts to help effect policy-level change. This paper explores a successful CBPR and organizing effort, the Toxic Free Neighborhoods Campaign, in Old Town National City (OTNC), CA, United States, and its contributions to both local policy outcomes and changes in the broader policy environment, laying the groundwork for a Specific Plan to address a host of interlocking community concerns. After briefly describing the broader research of which the OTNC case study was a part, we provide background on the Environmental Health Coalition (EHC) partnership and the setting in which it took place, including the problems posed for residents in this light industrial/residential neighborhood. EHC's strong in-house research, and its training and active engagement of promotoras de salud (lay health promoters) as co-researchers and policy change advocates, are described. We explore in particular the translation of research findings as part of a policy advocacy campaign, interweaving challenges faced and success factors and multi-level outcomes to which these efforts contributed. The EHC partnership's experience then is compared with that of other policy-focused CBPR efforts in urban environmental health, emphasizing common success factors and challenges faced, as these may assist other partnerships wishing to pursue CBPR in urban communities.

Minkler M; Garcia AP; Williams J; LoPresti T; Lilly J

2010-09-01

264

A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies.

Perni A; Martínez-Paz JM

2013-08-01

265

A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).  

Science.gov (United States)

Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies. PMID:23669576

Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M

2013-05-10

266

Training partnership dyads for community-based participatory research: strategies and lessons learned from the Community Engaged Scholars Program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus-community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution's Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The CES-P provides simultaneous training to CBPR teams, with each team consisting of at least one community partner and one academic partner. Program elements include 12 months of monthly interactive group sessions, mentorship with apprenticeship opportunities, and funding for a CBPR pilot project. A modified RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework guides the process, impact, and outcome evaluation plan. Lessons learned include challenges of group instruction with varying levels of readiness among the CBPR partners, navigating the institutional review board process with community co-investigators, and finding appropriate academic investigators to match community research interests. Future directions are recommended for this promising and unique dyadic training of academic and community partners.

Andrews JO; Cox MJ; Newman SD; Gillenwater G; Warner G; Winkler JA; White B; Wolf S; Leite R; Ford ME; Slaughter S

2013-07-01

267

A case study of the development of environmental action projects from the framework of participatory action research within two middle school classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to understand student and teacher empowerment through a socially critical environmental education perspective. The main research question guiding this study was: How do participants make sense of a learning experience in which students design and carry out an environmental action project in their community? This study used participatory action research and critical theory as practical and theoretical frameworks. These frameworks were relevant as this study sought to examine social change, power, and relationships through participants' experiences. The context of this study was within one seventh and one eighth grade classroom participating in environmental projects. The study was conducted in spring 2005 with an additional follow-up data collection period during spring 2006. The school was located in a densely populated metropolitan suburb. Fifty-three students, a teacher researcher, and three science teachers participated. Data sources were written surveys, scores on Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey Instrument (MSELI), observations, interviews, and student work. This study used a mixed methodological approach. Quantitative data analysis involved dependent samples t-test scores on the MSELI before and after the completion of the projects. Qualitative data were analyzed using an inductive analysis approach. This study has implications for educators interested in democratic education. Environmental action projects provide a context for students and teachers to learn interdisciplinary content knowledge, develop personal beliefs, and learn ways to take action in their communities. This pedagogy has the potential to increase cooperation, communication, and tensions within school communities. Students' participation in the development of environmental action projects may lead to feelings of empowerment or being able to make a difference in their community, as an individual or member of a group. Future research is needed to discern why participants experience this type of educational experience differently, for example, how does the type of environmental action project influence individual and group empowerment?

Charmatz, Kim

268

Increasing the general level of academic capacity in general practice: introducing mandatory research training for general practitioner trainees through a participatory research process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: To obtain good quality evidence-based clinical work there needs to be a culture of critical appraisal, and strong bridges between the clinical and the academic worlds in general practice. AIM: The aim was to educate the general practitioner (GP) trainees to obtain critical appraisal skills, and through the development and implementation of the mandatory programme to gradually empower the GP community to achieve academic capacity by creating a link between the GP researchers and the GP training community. This was done by developing a faculty, giving teaching skills to GP academics, and research skills to GP clinicians; and creating an awareness of the potential benefits of critical appraisal in training GP surgeries. METHODS: Development and implementation of a faculty and a programme through a participatory action research-inspired project, with process evaluation from the beginning of the planning phase. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2009, we built a teaching faculty of 25 teachers among clinical GPs and GP academics; developed the training programme; and delivered the programme to 95 GP trainees. Some of the GP trainees later showed an interest in more substantial research projects, and GP trainers with no previous association with the research environment started to show an interest through their function as GP trainers. The GP academics of the faculty, however, felt that it was difficult to continue the engagement because of the still increasing demand for published knowledge production in academia. CONCLUSION: It is possible to support the development of general academic capacity in general practice using participatory design in collaboration with GP academics and clinicians, building bridges between academia and clinical work, as well as within academia between research publication and teaching. There is, however, a generic barrier in the regulation of academia itself.

Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen

2012-01-01

269

Increasing the general level of academic capacity in general practice: introducing mandatory research training for general practitioner trainees through a participatory research process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To obtain good quality evidence-based clinical work there needs to be a culture of critical appraisal, and strong bridges between the clinical and the academic worlds in general practice. AIM: The aim was to educate the general practitioner (GP) trainees to obtain critical appraisal skills, and through the development and implementation of the mandatory programme to gradually empower the GP community to achieve academic capacity by creating a link between the GP researchers and the GP training community. This was done by developing a faculty, giving teaching skills to GP academics, and research skills to GP clinicians; and creating an awareness of the potential benefits of critical appraisal in training GP surgeries. METHODS: Development and implementation of a faculty and a programme through a participatory action research-inspired project, with process evaluation from the beginning of the planning phase. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2009, we built a teaching faculty of 25 teachers among clinical GPs and GP academics; developed the training programme; and delivered the programme to 95 GP trainees. Some of the GP trainees later showed an interest in more substantial research projects, and GP trainers with no previous association with the research environment started to show an interest through their function as GP trainers. The GP academics of the faculty, however, felt that it was difficult to continue the engagement because of the still increasing demand for published knowledge production in academia. CONCLUSION: It is possible to support the development of general academic capacity in general practice using participatory design in collaboration with GP academics and clinicians, building bridges between academia and clinical work, as well as within academia between research publication and teaching. There is, however, a generic barrier in the regulation of academia itself.

Tulinius C; Nielsen AB; Hansen LJ; Hermann C; Vlasova L; Dalsted R

2012-01-01

270

Implementing a court diversion and liaison scheme in a remand prison by systematic screening of new receptions: a 6 year participatory action research study of 20,084 consecutive male remands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A mental health needs assessment in the Irish prison population confirmed findings from other jurisdictions showing high prevalence of severe mental illness, including psychosis amongst those newly committed. We implemented a participatory action research approach in order to provide an integrated mental health prison in-reach and court liaison service for this population. RESULTS: Following extensive consultation, a two stage screening process was developed which was supplemented by an inter-agency referral management system. During the six years 2006--2011, all 20,084 new remands to the main remand prison serving 58% of the national population were screened. Following the first stage screen, 3,195 received a comprehensive psychiatric assessment. Of these 561 (2.8%) had symptoms of psychosis -- corresponding to the prior research finding -- and 572 were diverted from the criminal justice system to mental health services (89 to a secure forensic hospital, 164 to community mental health hospitals and 319 to other community mental health services). CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that it is possible to match research findings in clinical practice by systematic screening, to sustain this over a long period and to achieve consistent levels of diversion from the criminal justice system to appropriate mental health services. The sustained and consistent performance of the model used is likely to reflect the use of participatory action research both to find the most effective model and to achieve wide ownership and cooperation with the model of care.

McInerney C; Davoren M; Flynn G; Mullins D; Fitzpatrick M; Caddow M; Caddow F; Quigley S; Black F; Kennedy HG; O Neill C

2013-06-01

271

Creating community-based participatory research in a diverse community: a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Communities struggle to create research guidelines for ethical collaborative research within their locale. In Lawrence, Massachusetts (USA) a collaborative group of community members and academic researchers, known as the Mayor's Health Task Force Research Initiative Working Group, took on the challenge of creating guidelines for ethical community-based research. This case study of the Task Force's work addresses questions of research ethics in a diverse community where families struggle with few resources and face many health disparities, under the often-intrusive and unhelpful scrutiny of researchers from the many nearby major research universities. Representatives from the city, community organizations, and research universities developed a set of core ethical principles for research partnerships, a list of criteria for agreements between partners, and a model to help guide researchers and community members toward equitable and mutually beneficial research. This model can be generalized to similar other communities. PMID:19385742

Silka, Linda; Cleghorn, G Dean; Grullón, Milagro; Tellez, Trinidad

2008-06-01

272

A Framework for Participatory Science in High Schools that Supports Useful Scientific Research as Well as Student Learning: Requirements and Constraints  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past five years the Schoodic Education and Research Center (SERC) Institute, located at Acadia National Park, has collaborated with the Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Environmental and Watershed Research and Maine Sea Grant at the University of Maine to engage high school teachers and students in field work to collect samples and data used in a study of spatial patterns of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) across the northeastern US. This program's success in producing useful scientific research data at the same time that it achieves formal science education outcomes has resulted in new funding for both the scientific work and the education work. SERC Institute and the Mitchell Center have recently used the pedagogical and scientific framework underlying this work to address new research related to seasonal variation in nitrogen in watersheds, demonstrating that the framework has applicability beyond studies of Hg. This paper summarizes the core elements of the framework and reports on new research into student learning and teacher professional development that is essential to the success of this kind of participatory science. Specifically, this paper describes (1) approaches to structuring research designs to ensure that data collected by students is scientifically useful; (2) the need to assist teachers in supporting a research focus by students that differs from the research undertaken by working scientists; (3) pedagogical strategies to support this student research; (4) mechanisms to support peer review and publication of student research, creating over time a body of student work that supports new student research and that is a potentially useful resource for others; and (5) new research data related to student ability to use and make sense of the data that they collect. By connecting data on student data literacy with data collected from assessments of teacher content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, we are able to identify implications for teacher professional development. We conclude with a brief qualitative summary of our experiences with offering such professional development and a discussion of "next steps" emerging from these experiences.

Zoellick, B.; Nelson, S. J.; Bisson, B.; Schauffler, M.; Webber, H.

2011-12-01

273

Technology support for participatory budgeting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting initiatives and couples them together in a generic process model. Two cases studies are examined for different purposes. The well known Porto Alegre case is analysed to show how the generic process model is implemented in a practical example. The more recent Berlin-Lichtenberg initiative, however, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different eParticipation activities and match them to the generic participatory budgeting processes. This results in a comprehensive picture of how known eParticipation technologies can be used to support participatory budgeting. The next research question (unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) is how to choose - which technologies fit which local circumstances and conditions?

Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus

2010-01-01

274

Metodologia de la Investigacion Participativa (The Methodology of Participatory Research). Cuadernos del CREFAL 16.  

Science.gov (United States)

The traditional educational method has focused on a passive stand from the learner. This passive stand can hinder creativity and analytical thinking. This work concentrates on a presentation of the Participant Research educational method. Participant Research is an adult-education method in which the learner can have an active role in his…

Yopo, Boris P.

275

Voting with their mice: personal genome testing and the "participatory turn" in disease research.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the availability of genome tests on the internet has given rise to heated debates about the likely impact on personal genome information on test-takers, on insurance, and on healthcare systems, in this article I argue that a more tangible effect of personal genomics is that it has started to change how participation in disease research is conceived and enacted. I examine three models of research participation that personal genomics customers are encouraged to engage in. I conclude with an evaluation of the pitfalls and benefits of "crowdsourcing" genetic disease research in the context of personal genomics. PMID:21574070

Prainsack, Barbara

2011-05-01

276

Voting with their mice: personal genome testing and the "participatory turn" in disease research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While the availability of genome tests on the internet has given rise to heated debates about the likely impact on personal genome information on test-takers, on insurance, and on healthcare systems, in this article I argue that a more tangible effect of personal genomics is that it has started to change how participation in disease research is conceived and enacted. I examine three models of research participation that personal genomics customers are encouraged to engage in. I conclude with an evaluation of the pitfalls and benefits of "crowdsourcing" genetic disease research in the context of personal genomics.

Prainsack B

2011-05-01

277

Resilience Management in Social-ecological Systems: a Working Hypothesis for a Participatory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approaches to natural resource management are often based on a presumed ability to predict probabilistic responses to management and external drivers such as climate. They also tend to assume that the manager is outside the system being managed. However, where the objectives include long-term sustainability, linked social-ecological systems (SESs) behave as complex adaptive systems, with the managers as integral components of the system. Moreover, uncertainties are large and it may be difficult to reduce them as fast as the system changes. Sustainability involves maintaining the functionality of a system when it is perturbed, or maintaining the elements needed to renew or reorganize if a large perturbation radically alters structure and function. The ability to do this is termed “resilience.” This paper presents an evolving approach to analyzing resilience in SESs, as a basis for managing resilience. We propose a framework with four steps, involving close involvement of SES stakeholders. It begins with a stakeholder-led development of a conceptual model of the system, including its historical profile (how it got to be what it is) and preliminary assessments of the drivers of the supply of key ecosystem goods and services. Step 2 deals with identifying the range of unpredictable and uncontrollable drivers, stakeholder visions for the future, and contrasting possible future policies, weaving these three factors into a limited set of future scenarios. Step 3 uses the outputs from steps 1 and 2 to explore the SES for resilience in an iterative way. It generally includes the development of simple models of the system’s dynamics for exploring attributes that affect resilience. Step 4 is a stakeholder evaluation of the process and outcomes in terms of policy and management implications. This approach to resilience analysis is illustrated using two stylized examples.

Brian Walker; Stephen R. Carpenter; John M. Anderies; Nick Abel; Graeme Cumming; Marco A. Janssen; Louis Lebel; Jon Norberg; Garry D. Peterson; Rusty Pritchard

2002-01-01

278

Participatory action research designs in applied disability and rehabilitation science: protecting against threats to social validity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Researchers and disability advocates have been debating consumer involvement in disability and rehabilitation science since at least 1972. Despite the length of this debate, much confusion remains. Consumer involvement may represent a spirit of democracy or even empowerment, but as a tool of science, it is necessary to understand how to judge its application. To realize consumer involvement as a design element in science, researchers need a framework for understanding how it can contribute to the scientific process. The thesis of this article is that a primary scientific function of consumer involvement is to reduce threats to the social validity of research, the extent to which those expected to use or benefit from research products judge them as useful and actually use them. Social validity has traditionally not been treated with the same rigor as concerns for internal and external validity. This article presents a framework that describes 7 threats to social validity and explains how 15 forms of consumer involvement protect against those threats. We also suggest procedures for reporting and reviewing consumer involvement in proposals and manuscripts. This framework offers tools familiar to all scientists for identifying threats to the quality of research, and for judging the effectiveness of strategies for protecting against those threats. It may also enhance the standing of consumer involvement strategies as tools for protecting research quality by organizing them in a way that allows for systematic criticism of their effectiveness and subsequent improvement.

Seekins T; White GW

2013-01-01

279

Scandinavian Participatory Design : Dialogic curation with Teenagers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

2012-01-01

280

Managing ethical dilemmas in community-based participatory research with vulnerable populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes two ethical dilemmas encountered by our research team during a project working with undocumented immigrants in Toronto, Canada. This article aims to be transparent about the problems the research team faced, the processes by which we sought to understand these problems, how solutions were found, and how the ethical dilemmas were resolved. Undocumented immigrants are a vulnerable community of individuals residing in a country without legal citizenship, immigration, or refugee status. There are more than half a million undocumented immigrants in Canada. Through an academic-community partnership, a study was conducted to understand the experiences of undocumented immigrants seeking health care in Toronto. The lessons outlined in this article may assist others in overcoming challenges and ethical dilemmas encountered while doing research with vulnerable communities.

Campbell-Page RM; Shaw-Ridley M

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Improving health services for residents through community-based participatory research: a public housing leadership perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In response to feedback from a health forum, resident leaders of public housing in Washington, DC, were inspired to create a health survey for and by the residents. OBJECTIVE: The survey was designed to document residents' concerns about health, health care, and environmental threats. It also explored tobacco use and support for smoke-free housing. METHODS: A newly created Health Planning Committee of the Citywide Advisory Board, including residents, academics, and representatives of health and housing organizations, facilitated the creation of a health needs assessment. Questionnaires were initially mailed, then hand-delivered to every public housing household. More than 1,000 completed questionnaires have now been returned. LESSONS LEARNED: This project highlights a model that places resident leaders in charge of health issues, including leading advocacy efforts for policies to reduce health disparities in public housing. It identifies research challenges and ways to overcome them and empowers the community for continued research.

Council KD; Wilson JC; Harris BM; O'Keefe AM; Henderson C; Dixon B; Merengwa E; Nwazue E; Weaks F

2013-01-01

282

Requirements for Participatory Framework on Governmental Policy Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes’ expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.

Birut? PITR?NAIT?; Birut? MIKULSKIEN?

2012-01-01

283

Comprehensive Participatory Planning and Evaluation (CPPE) Process Strengthens the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Method to Improve Health in Rural Delta Communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our purpose was to describe community workshops on the CPPE process to identify the top three nutrition- and health-related issues that could be addressed by nutrition and physical activity intervention research. The Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (Delta NIRI) is ...

284

Community Reading and Reading Community: Participatory Research on Social Cultural System in Mollo, Timor Tengah Selatan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is the first of a two-part serialized article in this issue. The first part presents the research results in Mollo communities, in South Central Timor, about the history of the formation of the villages (kuan) and the various systems that set the pattern of social life in the communities, such as kinship systems, marriage and inheritance patterns, as well as ownership and land use systems . In the second part presents further explanation regarding land management in relation to food production.

Matheos Messakh(a), Margareth Heo(a), Willem Anthony Siahaya(a), Simson Liubana(a), John Pandak(a), Anne Lado(a), Benedikta Dauth(a), Daniel Landu Praing(a), Angelinus(a), Alfred Kase(a), Mesakh Albertus(a), Yagar Toto,(a)

2010-01-01

285

Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e) a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

Pamela K. Miller; Viola Waghiyi; Gretchen Welfinger-Smith; Samuel Carter Byrne; Jane Kava; Jesse Gologergen; Lorraine Eckstein; Ronald Scrudato; Jeff Chiarenzelli; David O. Carpenter; Samarys Seguinot-Medina

2013-01-01

286

Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e) a study of traditional foods. Results Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

Miller, Pamela K.; Waghiyi, Viola; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Byrne, Samuel Carter; Kava, Jane; Gologergen, Jesse; Eckstein, Lorraine; Scrudato, Ronald; Chiarenzelli, Jeff; Carpenter, David O.; Seguinot-Medina, Samarys

2013-01-01

287

Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000-2012. METHODS: As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b-d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape--using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e) a study of traditional foods. RESULTS: Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. INTERVENTIONS: An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. CONCLUSIONS: As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

Miller PK; Waghiyi V; Welfinger-Smith G; Byrne SC; Kava J; Gologergen J; Eckstein L; Scrudato R; Chiarenzelli J; Carpenter DO; Seguinot-Medina S

2013-01-01

288

Comparing perceived and test-based knowledge of cancer risk and prevention among Hispanic and African Americans: an example of community participatory research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Most theoretical formulations acknowledge that knowledge and awareness of cancer screening and prevention recommendations significantly influence health behaviors. This study compares perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening with test-based knowledge in a community sample. We also examine demographic variables and self-reported cancer screening and prevention behaviors as correlates of both knowledge scores, and consider whether cancer related knowledge can be accurately assessed using just a few, simple questions in a short and easy-to-complete survey. METHODS: We used a community-partnered participatory research approach to develop our study aims and a survey. The study sample was composed of 180 predominantly African American and Hispanic community individuals who participated in a full-day cancer prevention and screening promotion conference in South Los Angeles, California, on July 2011. Participants completed a self-administered survey in English or Spanish at the beginning of the conference. RESULTS: Our data indicate that perceived and test-based knowledge scores are only moderately correlated. Perceived knowledge score shows a stronger association with demographic characteristics and other cancer related variables than the test-based score. Thirteen out of twenty variables that are examined in our study showed a statistically significant correlation with the perceived knowledge score, however, only four variables demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the test-based knowledge score. CONCLUSION: Perceived knowledge of cancer prevention and screening was assessed with fewer items than test-based knowledge. Thus, using this assessment could potentially reduce respondent burden. However, our data demonstrate that perceived and test-based knowledge are separate constructs.

Jones L; Bazargan M; Lucas-Wright A; Vadgama JV; Vargas R; Smith J; Otoukesh S; Maxwell AE

2013-01-01

289

Music Therapy’s Effects on Mexican Migrant Farmworkers’ Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Social Isolation: A Mixed Methods Randomized Control Trial Utilizing Participatory Action Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the United States, the agricultural industry is dependent on men and women from Mexico who migrate throughout the country to participate in the care and harvest of crops. They often migrate independently of their families and leave loved ones behind. Separation from families and difficult working conditions create high frequencies of mental health issues. When available, the farmworkers seek out treatment for the somatic symptoms such as high heart rate, upset stomachs, and difficult breathing often associated with depression and anxiety. Mental health counselors and facilities often are not able to meet the needs in culturally sensitive ways presented by this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on Mexican farmworkers’ levels of depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition, this study sought to examine how the migrant farmworkers used music-making sessions between music therapy sessions as a coping skill to further improve their overall mental health. Finally, this study sought to examine how migrant farmworkers engaged in the research process and how they valued their relationship with the researcher. This study utilized a mixed methods approach incorporating a randomized control trial with repeated measures and participatory action research. A total of 125 farmwokers participated in this study over the course of two distinct phases. Farmworkers in Phase I were randomly assigned to music therapy, English as a second language classes, and a stress education (control) group. Farmworkers in Phase II were randomly assigned to music therapy or a comparison stress education group. Farmworkers in the music therapy condition participated in 6-10 music therapy sessions during which time they learned how to play an instrument, engaged in song writing and lyric analysis, and group music-making. Results indicated that participants in the music therapy condition across both phases did not significantly improve their depression, anxiety, and social isolationscores compared to the control/comparison group. The farmworkers who did participate in group musicmaking between sessions did improve their scores more so than participants who did not engage in weekly group music-making. The farmworkers identified helpful and impeding aspects of the research through focus group interviews. They also identified components of their relationship to the music therapist/researcher that were helpful in establishing and developing a relationship with her.

Swantes, Melody

2011-01-01

290

H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94%) females (85%) with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1) years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84%) participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1) to 120.3 (SD = 17.9) mmHg; p Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach and representativeness of enrolled participants are discussed. Adherence to pedometer diary self-monitoring was better than education session participation. Significant decreases in the primary blood pressure outcomes demonstrate early effectiveness. Importantly, future analyses will evaluate long-term effectiveness of this CBPR behavioral intervention on health outcomes, and help inform the translational capabilities of CBPR efforts.

Zoellner Jamie M; Connell Carol C; Madson Michael B; Wang Bo; Reed Vickie; Molaison Elaine; Yadrick Kathleen

2011-01-01

291

O Comitê Cidadão como estratégia cogestiva em uma pesquisa participativa no campo da saúde mental/ The Citizen Committee as a co-management strategy in participatory research in the field of mental health in Quebec  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O tema dos direitos dos usuários ganha centralidade na discussão contemporânea no campo da saúde mental. A partir da criação de um Comitê Cidadão, composto por usuários e familiares em uma aliança de pesquisa internacional entre Brasil e Canadá, propomos discutir os efeitos, nestes sujeitos, da experiência de cogestão promovida pela pesquisa participativa "Gestão Autônoma da Medicação (GAM)". Através de descrição detalhada do histórico do Comitê e de (more) entrevista e análise de transcrição da voz de seus membros, problematizamos a relação dialogada entre o saber científico e o saber advindo da experiência singular destes sujeitos, em uma perspectiva metodológica de pesquisa participativa. Como resultado da pesquisa, observamos que a experiência do Comitê Cidadão na cogestão da pesquisa em saúde pode ser propiciadora do aumento nos graus de autonomia, maior empoderamento e exercício de protagonismo e cidadania, com a consequente emergência de sujeitos de direitos. Abstract in english The theme of users' rights has become a central issue in contemporary debate on mental health. Drawing from the experiences of "Comitê Cidadão" (Citizen Committee), consisting of users and family members in an international research alliance between Brazil and Canada, an attempt is made to discuss the effects of the experience of co-management of the so-called Autonomous Medication Administration (GAM - Gestão Autônoma da Medicação) participatory research project on (more) these individuals. By means of a detailed description of the background of the Committee and interviews and analysis of the voice transcriptions of its members, the problems raised by the relation of dialogue between scientific knowledge and users' knowledge are examined in a methodological approach of participatory research. As a result of the research, it was established that the experience of the Citizens Committee in co-management of health research can be propitious to the increase in the degree of autonomy, greater empowerment and the exercise of leadership and citizenship, with the consequent emergence of subjects with rights.

Passos, Eduardo; Otanari, Thais Mikie de Carvalho; Emerich, Bruno Ferrari; Guerini, Lorena

2013-10-01

292

Evaluation of a tuberculosis education video among immigrants and refugees at an adult education center: a community-based participatory approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tuberculosis disproportionately affects immigrants and refugees to the United States. Upon arrival to the United States, many of these individuals attend adult education centers, but little is known about how to deliver tuberculosis health information at these venues. Therefore, the authors used a participatory approach to design and evaluate a tuberculosis education video in this setting. The authors used focus group data to inform the content of the video that was produced and delivered by adult learners and their teachers. The video was evaluated by learners for acceptability through 3 items with a 3-point Likert scale. Knowledge (4 items) and self-efficacy (2 items) about tuberculosis were evaluated before and after viewing the video. A total of 159 learners (94%) rated the video as highly acceptable. Knowledge about tuberculosis improved after viewing the video (56% correct vs. 82% correct; p <.001), as did tuberculosis-related self-efficacy (77% vs. 90%; p <.001). Adult education centers that serve large immigrant and refugee populations may be excellent venues for health education, and a video may be an effective tool to educate these populations. Furthermore, a participatory approach in designing health education materials may enhance the efficacy of these tools.

Wieland ML; Nelson J; Palmer T; O'Hara C; Weis JA; Nigon JA; Sia IG

2013-01-01

293

Applying community-based participatory research principles to the development of a smoking-cessation program for American Indian teens: "telling our story".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community-based participatory research provides communities and researchers with opportunities to develop interventions that are effective as well as acceptable and culturally competent. The present project responds to the voices of the North Carolina American Indian (AI) community and the desire for their youth to recognize tobacco addiction and commercial cigarette smoking as debilitating to their health and future. Seven community-based participatory principles led to the AI adaptation of the Not On Tobacco teen-smoking-cessation program and fostered sound research and meaningful results among an historically exploited population. Success was attributed to values-driven, community-based principles that (a) assured recognition of a community-driven need, (b) built on strengths of the tribes, (c) nurtured partnerships in all project phases, (d) integrated the community's cultural knowledge, (e) produced mutually beneficial tools/products, (f) built capacity through co-learning and empowerment, (g) used an iterative process of development, and (h) shared findings/ knowledge with all partners.

Horn K; McCracken L; Dino G; Brayboy M

2008-02-01

294

Helping small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics: Linking participatory research, traditional research and simulation modelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim was to link necessary research skills to increase the range of options available to resource-poor farmers in the study area. The research consisted of on-station research to evaluate and understand cropping-system options resulting from insertion of a legume crop into the sorghum and castor system, on-farm research whereby farmers evaluate cropping-system options that are of interest to them, use of 15N as a label to help understand the nitrogen (N) balance of the various options, and cropping-systems simulation to examine long-term climatic risks from possible options. Particular attention was placed on the option of sorghum/pigeon pea intercrops, and on quantifying the inputs of N from animal manure and by the pigeon-pea component. We were also interested in the process of linking on-station to on-farm research, and simulation modelling to the cropping system research. One important outcome was that different groups identified different problems and posed different questions. The problems identified and questions raised were examined by use of scenario analyses run for ten to thirty years which contrasted the existing practice with a range of alternative practices. The simulations were useful in guiding the design of on-farm experiments. Other likely outcomes are the setting of low-rate fertilizer recommendations specifically for the semi-arid tropics, the marketing of small packs of fertilizers, and increased use of manure resources for crop production. (author)

2005-01-01

295

Integrated land management with participatory approach in Latin America; Chunanbei chiiki no jumin sanka gata ni yoru sogotekina dojosui kanri hozen keikaku  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soil in Latin America is getting to be poorer. FAO studied the causes and countermeasures from 1992 to 1995 under a project of preventing soil denudation in Latin America. FAO took up the next project, Farm Land Information for Assisting Durable Agriculture, in 1995 which will end in 2000. This paper reports the outline of these studies. The comparison of soil conservation projects in Japan and in Latin America is explained first. Then the contents of the farm land information project is described. It intend to prepare a durable agricultural development plan, managing massive information on farm lands and water resources utilizing GIS. The subject, land management with participatory approach, is described last. It is divided into the following headings, viz. the state of poor land, previous projects, and the new integrated approach. 6 refs., 1 fig.

Ago, H

1998-08-01

296

Estrategia intersectorial y participativa con enfoque de ecosalud para la prevención de la transmisión de dengue en el nivel local An inter-sector participatory strategy in Cuba using an ecosystem approach to prevent dengue transmission at the local level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cuba está ubicada en una zona de países con alta incidencia de dengue. En los últimos 10 años ha sido afectada por varias epidemias, es por ello que se diseñó, implementó y evaluó una estrategia participativa, basada en el enfoque de ecosalud, la cual estuvo dirigida a propiciar acciones intersectoriales en la gestión del ecosistema para disminuir las poblaciones del mosquito Aedes aegypti y prevenir la transmisión de dengue en el municipio Cotorro de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó la metodología de investigación acción participativa. Como resultado del proceso se pudo describir una estrategia que garantiza la participación activa de la comunidad, los sectores y el gobierno en la producción de ecosistemas saludables, se desarrollaron acciones de prevención y control oportunas e integrados que disminuyeron los riesgos para la proliferación del vector y la transmisión local de la enfermedad. Este enfoque permitió el análisis holístico de los problemas, su priorización y la gestión de sus soluciones; la estrategia se sostiene dos años después de concluido el proceso.Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aedes aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process.

Cristina Díaz; Yisel Torres; Ana Margarita de la Cruz; Ángel M. Álvarez; María Eugenia Piquero; Aida Valero; Omar Fuentes

2009-01-01

297

Rekindling Values in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Drawing from our PD projects, this paper shows how designers enact their appreciative judgment of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. The widespread of Participatory Design (PD), have meant that different approaches and conceptualization exist in this field today. We argue that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in PD. This requires focusing upon values as the engine that drives our activities in PD.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim

2010-01-01

298

Using Participatory Action Research to Develop a Course Module on Education for Sustainable Development in Pre-Service Chemistry Teacher Education  

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Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a course module on sustainability issues and Education for Sustainable Development in German pre-service chemistry teacher education. The module was inspired by empirical research findings about the knowledge base of student teachers. It was created and cyclically refined using Participatory Action Research. Experience gained during its three-year application will be reflected upon here, including feedback collected from student evaluation sheets. In the end, the participants responded extremely positively to the course. The student teachers stated that the module was interesting, relevant and valuable for their later profession as high school chemistry teachers. They also emphasised that they now felt more competent in the area of sustainability and ESD.

Mareike Burmeister; Ingo Eilks

2013-01-01

299

Evaluation of a Participatory Resource Monitoring System for Nontimber Forest Products: the Case of Amla (Phyllanthus spp.) Fruit Harvest by Soligas in South India  

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Full Text Available Enhancing incomes from the sustainable harvest of nontimber forest products can help to maintain local livelihoods and provide local communities with economic incentives to conserve biodiversity. A key feature of a successful enterprise approach to the conservation of these products is a sound monitoring and evaluation program that involves all concerned stakeholders and leads to adaptive management. However, few studies have presented any of the approaches, successes, or challenges involved in participatory monitoring initiatives for nontimber forest products. We present our experiences using a participatory research model that we developed and used over a 10-yr (1995–2005) period for the wild harvesting of Phyllanthus spp. fruits (amla) by indigenous Soliga harvesters in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. We describe the establishment and evolution of our participatory resource monitoring activities, compare some of the results of our activities to those obtained from monitoring using standard ecological approaches, and evaluate some of the successes and challenges associated with our participatory resource model. An initial step in this work was the establishment of Soliga-run enterprises for the processing and value addition of amla and other nontimber forest products. Participatory resource monitoring activities consisted of participatory mapping and assessments of fruit production, fruit harvest and regeneration combined with pre- and postharvesting meetings for sharing information, and adaptive management. Over the years, harvesters rejected, changed, and adapted various participatory resource monitoring methods to select those most appropriate for them. Visual estimates of fruit production made by harvesters at the forest level were very similar to estimates obtained using standard scientific monitoring protocols. Participatory research monitoring techniques that were effective included strategies for participatory resource mapping, fruit productivity estimation, and promotion of improved harvest techniques. Major challenges involved ensuring adequate incentives for monitoring activities that lead to benefits only over the longer term, such as monitoring of extraction and regeneration rates. Maintaining long-term participation and interest in the latter requires ensuring resource tenure.

R. Siddappa Setty; Kamal Bawa; Tamara Ticktin; C. Made Gowda

2008-01-01

300

Participatory ergonomics for ergonomists  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.

Bennett, C.L.

1997-04-03

 
 
 
 
301

Benchmarks in Tacit Knowledge Skills Instruction : The European Undergraduate Research-Oriented Participatory Education (EU-ROPE) At Copenhagen Business School  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While the knowledge management literature has addressed the explicit and tacit skills needed for successful performance in the modern enterprise, little attention has been paid to date in this particular literature as to how these wide-ranging skills may be suitably acquired during the course of an undergraduate business school education. This paper presents case analysis of the research-oriented participatory education curriculum developed at Copenhagen Business School because it appears uniquely suited, by a curious mix of Danish education tradition and deliberate innovation, to offer an educational experience more empowering of essential tacit knowledge skills than that found in educational institutions in other national settings. We specify the program forms and procedures for consensus-based governance and group work (as benchmarks) that demonstrably instruct undergraduates in the tacit skill dimensions of knowledge thought to be essential for success following graduation.

Tackney, Charles T.; Strömgren, Ole

2006-01-01

302

Evaluation of a participatory ergonomic intervention process in kitchen work.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated a participatory ergonomic intervention process applied in 59 municipal kitchens. In groups of three to five kitchens, the workers participated in eight workshops, and generated and evaluated solutions to optimize musculoskeletal load in their work. An ergonomist initiated and supported the process. By the end, 402 changes were implemented. Evaluative data were collected using research diaries, questionnaires, and focus group interviews. The intervention model proved feasible and the participatory approach was mostly experienced as motivating. The workers' knowledge and awareness of ergonomics increased, which improved their ability to tackle ergonomic problems by themselves. The changes in ergonomics were perceived to decrease physical load and improve musculoskeletal health. As hindering factors for implementation, lack of time and motivation, and insufficient financial resources were mentioned. In addition, the workers expressed a wish for more support from the management, technical staff, and ergonomists.

Pehkonen I; Takala EP; Ketola R; Viikari-Juntura E; Leino-Arjas P; Hopsu L; Virtanen T; Haukka E; Holtari-Leino M; Nykyri E; Riihimäki H

2009-01-01

303

Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation  

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Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1) What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2) How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3) How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

Yorck von Korff; Katherine A. Daniell; Sabine Moellenkamp; Pieter Bots; Rianne M. Bijlsma

2012-01-01

304

Criticism and Self-criticism: participatory evaluation in rural schools  

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Full Text Available This paper approaches some possibilities implementation of participatory evaluation,which is seen as an important dimension of the accomplished pedagogical work inrural schools organized according to politician-pedagogical principles of the movementof landless rural workers. Among the authors who base this study are Freitas (1995),Perrenoud (1986) and Pistrak (2002). The research of participant nature, whose maininstrument was the comment had with central objective to analyze where measuredcritical and the self-criticism as a proposition of participatory evaluation, reflected in thedaily life of rural schools. The results of the research show the value of systematicevaluation in the context of these schools. It was possible to see that a transformativeand emancipatory education can not do without the critical and participatory evaluation,which includes students and educators as subjects of the process of teaching andlearning. Although it is a practice complex and sometimes conflicting, participatoryevalution is essential tool for collective reflection and systematization of educationalactivities and actions triggered in school, so as to strengthen the educational project ofthe rural social movements

Ilma Ferreira Machado

2010-01-01

305

Participatory ergonomics: co-developing interventions to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal symptoms in business drivers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The participatory process within four case study organisations with a target population of high mileage business drivers is described. The aim was to work with drivers and their managers to co-develop intervention activities to raise awareness of musculoskeletal health in drivers, including use of the car as a mobile office and manual handling from the car. Train-the-trainer sessions were delivered in each organisation, along with the co-production of training materials. The effectiveness of these activities were evaluated using three sources of data: post-intervention questionnaires, interviews with organisation 'champions' and observations from the research team's diaries. The approach raised management awareness of the risks to drivers and was successful in affecting change, and as such, participatory research should consider the early stages of a project as part of any intervention activities. The research team also reflect on conducting applied longitudinal research in the field. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: Raising awareness of the risks of musculoskeletal disorders in drivers who work from their vehicle is important. This paper reflects on research in the field and provides guidance on the participatory process and evaluating intervention activities. The participatory process was successful in affecting change at management level.

Gyi D; Sang K; Haslam C

2013-01-01

306

ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING  

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Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

Brîndu?a-Antonela SBÎRCEA; Nicoleta IANOVICI

2011-01-01

307

Values-Led Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities in PD. Drawing from the authors‘ own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim

2012-01-01

308

Selbstreflexive Forscher/innen. Postmoderne Perspektiven auf partizipative Forschung mit Jugendlichen The Self-Conscious Researcher—Post-Modern Perspectives of Participatory Research with Young People El investigador consiente de sí mismo. Perspectivas post modernas en la investigación participativa con jóvenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ein Trend in der Jugendforschung findet sich in Studien, die von jungen Menschen selbst durchgeführt werden und einem demokratischen Selbstverständnis entsprechen. Qualitative Sozialforschung kann dabei als eine Möglichkeit betrachtet werden, den Machteinfluss innerhalb des Forschungsprozesses umzuverteilen, wobei Peer-Involvement-Modelle von vielen als ein demokratisches Forschungsparadigma angesehen werden. Obwohl Peer-Involvement-Modelle eine Sicht auf die Welt der anderen eröffnen können, sind sie geprägt von sozialen Abhängigkeiten und Beziehungen, die kontinuierlich (neu) verhandelt werden müssen und eine andauernde Selbstreflektion vonseiten der beteiligten Forscher/innen erfordern.Auf der Basis von Erfahrungsberichten über partizipative Forschungsprojekte versuchen wir in diesem Beitrag, die Machverhältnisse im Forschungsprozess aus der Perspektive aller Beteiligten – d.h. von akademischer Forscher/innen, Peer-Forscher/innen und Forschungsteilnehmer/innen – zu analysieren.  Wir untersuchen den selbstreflexiven Umgang mit Machtverhältnissen im Forschungsprozess und beschreiben, wie im Projektverlauf parallel zur zunehmenden Entwicklung von Selbstbewusstsein und  sicherheit aufseiten der Jugendlichen die Ausübung von Macht und Einfluss auf den Forschungsprozess von den Forscher/innen zurückgefordert wurde. In gemeinsamer Autor/innenschaft von zwei Sozialforscher/innen und einem jugendlichen Peer-Forscher illustriert dieser Beitrag an einer Reihe von praktischen Beispielen von Projekten mit Peer-Involvement-Modellen die Bemühungen um den Transfer der Einflussnahmemöglichkeiten auf die Gestaltung des Forschungsprojekts und dessen Konsequenzen. Wir argumentieren, dass, obwohl die Anfangsphase solcher Forschungsprozesse oft artifiziell und undemokratisch ist, das Ergebnis – namentlich die Erhöhung von Sozialkompetenz, sozialen Erfahrungen und sozialem Realitätssinn – diese Mittel rechtfertigen kann.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120192Research in young people by young people is a growing trend and considered a democratic approach to exploring their lives. Qualitative research is also seen as a way of redistributing power; with participatory research positioned by many as a democratic paradigm of qualitative inquiry. Although participatory research may grant a view on another world, it is fraught with a range of relationships that require negotiation and which necessitate constant self-reflection. Drawing on experiential accounts of participatory research with young people, this paper will explore the power relationship from the perspective of the adult researcher, the young peer researcher and also that of the researched. It will explore the self-conscious exchange of power; and describe how it is relinquished and reclaimed with increasing degrees of compliance as confidence and security develops. Co-authored by a peer researcher and adult researchers, this paper will illustrate a range of practical examples of participatory research with young people, decode the power struggle and consider the implications. It will argue that although the initial stages of the research process are artificial, self-conscious and undemocratic it concludes that the end may justify the means with the creation of social agency knowledge, experience and reality.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120192La investigación en personas jóvenes por personas jóvenes es una tendencia creciente y se considera una aproximación democrática para explorar sus vidas. La investigación cualitativa también es vista como una forma de redistribuir el poder; con la investigación participativa posicionada por muchos como un paradigma democrático de investigación cualitativa. Aunque la investigación participativa puede otorgar una visión de otro mundo, está lleno de una variedad de relaciones que requieren negociación y que necesitan constante auto reflexión. Al basarse en narraciones experimentales de investigación participativa con jóvenes, este documento explorará la

Claire McCartan; Dirk Schubotz; Jonathan Murphy

2011-01-01

309

Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries. PMID:16756940

Kogi, Kazutaka

2006-06-06

310

Participatory methods effective for ergonomic workplace improvement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries.

Kogi K

2006-07-01

311

A participatory approach to sustainable energy strategy development in a carbon-intensive jurisdiction: The case of Nova Scotia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: ? Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. ? We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. ? The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. ? The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. ? In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.

2011-01-01

312

A systematic community-based participatory approach to refining an evidence-based community-level intervention: the HOLA intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our community-based participatory research partnership engaged in a multistep process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were the following: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership, (2) establish an Intervention Team, (3) review the existing sexual health literature, (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM, (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable, (6) blend health behavior theory with Latino MSM's lived experiences, (7) design an intervention conceptual model, (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials, and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. The developed intervention contains four modules to train Latino MSM to serve as lay health advisors known as Navegantes. These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data; blend health behavior theory, the lived experiences, and cultural values of immigrant Latino MSM; and harness the informal social support Latino MSM provide one another. This community-level intervention is designed to meet the expressed sexual health priorities of Latino MSM. It frames disease prevention within sexual health promotion.

Rhodes SD; Daniel J; Alonzo J; Duck S; García M; Downs M; Hergenrather KC; Alegría-Ortega J; Miller C; Boeving Allen A; Gilbert PA; Marsiglia FF

2013-07-01

313

Female sex work within the rural immigrant Latino community in the southeast United States: an exploratory qualitative community-based participatory research study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the structure and context of, and the risks encountered in, sex work in the United States. OBJECTIVE: This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study explored female sex work and the feasibility of conducting a larger study of sex work within the immigrant Latino community in North Carolina. METHODS: Twelve abbreviated life story interviews were conducted with Latina women who sold sex, other women who sold sex to Latino men, and Latino men who hired sex workers. Content analysis was used to analyze narrative data. Results: Themes emerged to describe the structure of sex work, motivations to sell and hire sex, and the sexual health-related needs of sex workers. Lessons learned included the ease of recruiting sex workers and clients, the need to develop relationships with controllers and bar owners/managers, and the high compensation costs to reimburse sex workers for participation. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that it is possible to identify and recruit sex workers and clients and collect formative data within this highly vulnerable and neglected community; the prevention of HIV and STDs is a priority among sex workers, and the need for a larger study to include non-Latino men who report using Latina sex workers, other community insiders (e.g., bartenders), and service providers for Latina sex workers.

Rhodes SD; Tanner A; Duck S; Aronson RE; Alonzo J; Garcia M; Wilkin AM; Cashman R; Vissman AT; Miller C; Kroeger K; Naughton MJ

2012-01-01

314

Double helix of research and practice-developing a practice model for crisis resolution and home treatment through participatory action research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the last five years Crisis Resolution/Home Treatment (CR/HT) teams have been established in Norway. These teams provide an alternative to in-patient acute care services offering assessment as well as direct care. This paper addresses a method of examining the nature of practice models that are being developed in a CR/HT team incorporating the philosophy of open dialogue and the open lifeworld approach. The overall design of this research is action research applying a cooperative inquiry perspective. Multistage focus group interviews are used as a method for generating data, followed by phenomenological-hermeneutic approach in analyzing the data. Three themes were identified: (a) "keeping the dialogue open" referring to the emphasis of openness in dialogues and opening up for a variety of perspectives on what's going on; (b) "tolerance of uncertainty" referring to the need to accept and deal with uncertainty and multiplicity; and (c) "nurturing everyday life issues" referring to the emphasis on illustrating clinical situations in detail through remaking of stories. The on-going co-processes of research and practice was a double helix that links the happenings in the practice with the findings in the research revealing the knowledge in practice and further developing that knowledge.

Borg M; Karlsson B; Suzie Kim H

2010-01-01

315

People's Participation and Action Research in Community Development: Experiences from Nicaragua.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes projects of the School of Social Work at Central America University, Nicaragua: (1) development of a postgraduate course for professionals; (2) discovery learning and participatory action research in a fishing village; and (3) application of participatory approaches to rural development. (SK)

Lammerink, Marc P.

1994-01-01

316

Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme) financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center) of the University of Sassari (Italy) and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna) in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the project, all actors own/share all choices made and the technology used participating thus to the intervention sustainability.

Maurizio Mulas; Davide Bellavite; Marcello Lubino; Oumelkheir Belkheiri; Giuseppe Enne

2012-01-01

317

The participatory patient  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper introduces the concept of the “participatory patient” as a vehicle to promote attention to patients¿ dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship between a patient¿s work on the project as a co-designer and his work of being a patient using a prototype. I conclude by arguing for the importance of being aware of the ways in which patients inscribe patient work and non-work and thinking of what kind of working or non-working patients it implies.

Andersen, Tariq Osman

2013-01-01

318

Innovating science teaching by participatory action research - reflections from an interdisciplinary project of curriculum innovation on teaching about climate change  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes a three-year curriculum innovation project on teaching about climate change. The innovation for this study focused on a socio-critical approach towards teaching climate change in four different teaching domains (biology, chemistry, physics and politics). The teaching itself expl...

Feierabend, Timo; Eilks, Ingo

319

Pesquisa-intervenção e a produção de novas análises Participatory action research and the production of new analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Partindo de um histórico das pesquisas participativas nos seus diferentes momentos de constituição e propostas relativas às mudanças na produção de conhecimento, este trabalho tem como perspectiva apresentar e discutir os pressupostos teórico-metodológicos da pesquisa-intervenção. A pesquisa-intervenção vem constituindo-se em um dispositivo de transformação vinculado tanto à formação acadêmica dos psicólogos, quanto às práticas nas instituições, possibilitando novas análises construídas entre a macro e a micropolítica.On the basis of a historical review of participative research along its different moments of constitution, and assuming some proposals related to transformation in the production of knowledge, this paper aims to discuss the theoretical and methodological presumptions of intervention-research. Intervention-research can be seen as a means of achieving trans-formation in what concerns academic formation of professionals in Psychology as well as the practices in institutions, offering the possibility of new analysis grounded on macro and micropolitics.

Marisa Lopes da Rocha; Katia Faria de Aguiar

2003-01-01

320

Improving a workstation in an existing cab by means of a participatory approach: the case of subway operators' workstations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to identify possible solutions for redesigning a subway cab in order to improve the posture of drivers working in a restricted space. The approach used included the participation of a working group comprised of operations, maintenance, and engineering managers as well as several drivers. After 6 meetings in which different simulation techniques were used, the working group proposed changes for increasing the available space inside the cab and three seat designs. The involvement of the actors from the three departments affected by the changes, as well as the operators, throughout the process, was a determining factor in the advancement and acceptance of the projects. The fact that 400 cars are currently in service and must be modified means that it will take several years to implement the modifications in the entire fleet. PMID:19759434

Bellemare, Marie; Beaugrand, Sylvie; Larue, Christian; Champoux, Danièle

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Improving a workstation in an existing cab by means of a participatory approach: the case of subway operators' workstations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study was conducted to identify possible solutions for redesigning a subway cab in order to improve the posture of drivers working in a restricted space. The approach used included the participation of a working group comprised of operations, maintenance, and engineering managers as well as several drivers. After 6 meetings in which different simulation techniques were used, the working group proposed changes for increasing the available space inside the cab and three seat designs. The involvement of the actors from the three departments affected by the changes, as well as the operators, throughout the process, was a determining factor in the advancement and acceptance of the projects. The fact that 400 cars are currently in service and must be modified means that it will take several years to implement the modifications in the entire fleet.

Bellemare M; Beaugrand S; Larue C; Champoux D

2009-01-01

322

USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small numbers of available subjects, heterogeneity, ethical and moral problems, etc.

Natasa GALEVSKA

1998-01-01

323

Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to develop a community-level HIV prevention intervention for Latinas: a local response to a global challenge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: The arsenal of interventions to reduce the disproportionate rates of HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) infection among Latinos in the United States lags behind what is available for other populations. The purpose of this project was to develop an intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latinas. METHODS: Our community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership engaged in a multistep intervention development process. The steps were to (1) increase Latina participation in the existing partnership, (2) establish an intervention team, (3) review the existing sexual health literature, (4) explore health-related needs and priorities of Latinas, (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable, (6) blend health behavior theory with Latinas' lived experiences, (7) design an intervention conceptual model, (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials, and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. RESULTS: The MuJEReS intervention contains five modules to train Latinas to serve as lay health advisors (LHAs) known as "Comadres." These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data, blend health behavior theory with the lived experiences of immigrant Latinas, and harness a powerful existing community asset, namely, the informal social support Latinas provide one another. CONCLUSION: This promising intervention is designed to meet the sexual health priorities of Latinas. It extends beyond HIV and STDs and frames disease prevention within a sexual health promotion framework. It builds on the strong, preexisting social networks of Latinas and the preexisting, culturally congruent roles of LHAs.

Rhodes SD; Kelley C; Simán F; Cashman R; Alonzo J; McGuire J; Wellendorf T; Hinshaw K; Allen AB; Downs M; Brown M; Martínez O; Duck S; Reboussin B

2012-05-01

324

Participatory Innovation in SMEs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several case studies in literature and handbooks about participatory design (PD) suggest that the use of emerging methods to generate user information is common practice. However, these authors address practices in academia or in leading companies and not necessarily the practice of the majority of ...

Buur, Jacob; de Lille, Christine

325

Forms and Functions of Participatory Evaluation in International Development: A Review of the Empirical and Theoretical Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Since the late 1970s participatory approaches have been widely promoted to evaluate international development programs. However, there is no universal agreement of what is meant by participatory evaluation. For some evaluators, participatory evaluations involve the extensive participation of all stakeholder groups (from donor to…

Cullen, Anne; Coryn, Chris L. S.

2011-01-01

326

Building a low carbon scenario for France. How a participatory approach can enhance social and economic acceptability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication presents the French case study of the European ENCI-LowCarb research project: Engaging Civil Society in Low Carbon scenarios. The core activity of this project was the development of a methodology for the transparent integration of stakeholders' contributions in the scenario design process to enhance the stakeholders' acceptance of the resulting low carbon pathways. This attempt at integrating acceptability in scenario-making constitutes an important step to distinguish what is technically and economically feasible from what is acceptable. Today, a wide range of published scenarios emphasize the fact that they are built on public consultations or stakeholders' contributions. However, transparency is lacking concerning the methodology relative to how contributions were taken into account and translated into assumptions that can be used by the modeling tool. The project ENCI-LowCarb aimed at exploring this scientific gap. Energy scenarios outline possible low-carbon futures built around assumptions on fossil fuels prices evolution, technological choices and the mechanisms of energy demand and supply, among others. Scenarios are influential tools in political decision-making processes since they shed light on the long-term impacts of today's investment decisions, especially regarding infrastructures. This is why it is crucial that these pathways derive from discussions with main stakeholders. In this report, the French project team (CIRED and RAC-F) has the pleasure to present energy scenarios for France which derive from a collaborative scenario design process including the participation of a wide range of French stakeholders (civil society organizations including trade unions and non-governmental organizations, private companies, banks, statewide and local authorities). Participating stakeholders were asked to define or select acceptable CO2 emissions mitigation measures. Their contributions were implemented in the technico-economic model Imaclim-R France to create a scenario that is economically and technically consistent as well as acceptable by stakeholders. This methodology allowed an assessment of the level of achievable emissions reductions with stakeholders' 'acceptable' measures. This project report is organized as follows: part 2 presents the methodology of the collaborative scenario design process in detail, part 3 describes the low carbon scenario - the outcome of the stakeholder discussions. In part 4, other drivers of CO2 emissions and additional measures are explored. Chapter 5 introduces additional sensitivity analysis. Part 6 concludes

2012-01-01

327

Exploring Approaches to Researching Visual Literacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that visual literacy should be studied through a cognitive approach, and describes principles of punctuating and structuring that can be used to develop a new standard of experimental validity. Triadic interaction theory and the role of strategies in research are discussed, as well as a new orientation to research. (BK)

Cochran, Lida M.; And Others

1980-01-01

328

Finding the voice of clinical experience: participatory action research with registered nurses in developing a child critical care nursing curriculum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The voice of clinical nurses is important to find and hear in the design of curricula. A participative action research project proposed to add this voice to the design of a new Critical Care Child Nursing programme at the University of Cape Town (UCT). Nurses' experiences of nursing critically ill children and their perceived learning needs in this context, were the central focus of the study. Participants were registered nurses working in the paediatric intensive care unit at the Red Cross Children's Hospital (a specialist hospital), which offers secondary and tertiary care in the Cape Town region and beyond. Data were gathered in five focussed group discussions. Findings indicate that the Critical Care Child Nurse needs not only a specialised knowledge base and acutely developed assessment skills, but also astute interpersonal skills. The nurse's professional identity and integration into the multidisciplinary team need exploring. Together with the development of interpersonal skills, the nurse needs to engage the child and family.

Coetzee M; Britton M; Clow SE

2005-04-01

329

Implementation of the participatory approach to increase supervisors' self-efficacy in supporting employees at risk for sick leave; design of a randomised controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The burden of sick leave for society and organisations underlines the urgent need to prevent sick leave. An effective workplace intervention for organisations to shorten sick leave episodes is the Participatory Approach (PA). In this study, we hypothesize that implementation of the PA for supervisors within organisations may prevent sick leave as well. However, implementation of the PA within an organisation is difficult, and barriers at different levels (employee, supervisor and organisational) exist. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy of the PA. METHODS: In a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) a multifaceted implementation of the PA will be compared with a minimal implementation strategy of the PA. Participating organisations are a university medical centre, a university and a steel factory. Randomisation will take place at department level. Intervention departments will receive a multifaceted implementation strategy of the PA, which incorporates a working group, supervisor training, and supervisor coaching. Control departments will receive the minimal implementation strategy of the PA, consisting of written information only. The primary outcome measure is self-efficacy of supervisors in joint problem solving to improve work functioning of employees with health complaints and to prevent sick leave. A secondary outcome measure at supervisor level is self-efficacy in communicating with employees about situations of reduced work functioning or being at risk for sick leave. Secondary outcome measures at employee level are attitude, self-efficacy, and social influence, with regard to addressing situations of reduced work functioning or being at risk for sick leave, as well as work functioning, psychological well being, and sick leave. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after six and twelve months follow-up. A process evaluation will be performed as well. DISCUSSION: This study will be relevant for all organisations with employees at risk for sick leave in health care, education, and industry. Study results will give an insight into the effectiveness of the multifaceted implementation strategy of the PA for supervisors to improve work functioning of employees with health complaints, and to prevent sick leave.

Kraaijeveld RA; Schaafsma FG; Boot CR; Shaw WS; Bültmann U; Anema JR

2013-01-01

330

Implementation of the Participatory Approach to increase supervisors' self-efficacy in supporting employees at risk for sick leave; design of a randomised controlled trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The burden of sick leave for society and organisations underlines the urgent need to prevent sick leave. An effective workplace intervention for organisations to shorten sick leave episodes is the Participatory Approach (PA). In this study, we hypothesize that implementation of the PA for supervisors within organisations may prevent sick leave as well. However, implementation of the PA within an organisation is difficult, and barriers at different levels (employee, supervisor and organisational) exist. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy of the PA. Methods In a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) a multifaceted implementation of the PA will be compared with a minimal implementation strategy of the PA. Participating organisations are a university medical centre, a university and a steel factory. Randomisation will take place at department level. Intervention departments will receive a multifaceted implementation strategy of the PA, which incorporates a working group, supervisor training, and supervisor coaching. Control departments will receive the minimal implementation strategy of the PA, consisting of written information only. The primary outcome measure is self-efficacy of supervisors in joint problem solving to improve work functioning of employees with health complaints and to prevent sick leave. A secondary outcome measure at supervisor level is self-efficacy in communicating with employees about situations of reduced work functioning or being at risk for sick leave. Secondary outcome measures at employee level are attitude, self-efficacy, and social influence, with regard to addressing situations of reduced work functioning or being at risk for sick leave, as well as work functioning, psychological well being, and sick leave. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after six and twelve months follow-up. A process evaluation will be performed as well. Discussion This study will be relevant for all organisations with employees at risk for sick leave in health care, education, and industry. Study results will give an insight into the effectiveness of the multifaceted implementation strategy of the PA for supervisors to improve work functioning of employees with health complaints, and to prevent sick leave. Trial registration NTR3733

2013-01-01

331

Improving adherence to ante-retroviral treatment for people with harmful alcohol use in Kariobangi, Kenya through participatory research and action  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful alcohol use has been linked to the spread of HIV in Kenya. It also adversely affects those on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment through poor compliance. This study using participatory research and action (PRA) methods sought to understand factors related to alcohol abuse and non-adherence and to formulate appropriate interventions in a sample of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) who were also abusing alcohol, at Kariobangi in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Entry into the community was gained through previous PRA work in that community and PLWHA were recruited through snowballing. Working together with the community members, the researchers explored the participants’ understanding of alcohol use problem, its effects on compliance to ARV treatment and discussed possible action areas through PRA techniques that included focus group and market place discussions; visual aids such as spider diagrams, community mapping and ranking. Follow-up meetings were held to discuss the progress. Results By the final meeting, 67 PLWHA and 19 community members had been recruited. Through discussions, misconceptions regarding alcohol use were identified. It emerged that alcohol abuse was poorly recognised among both the community and health workers. Screening for alcohol use was not routinely done and protocols for managing alcohol related disorders were not available at the local health centres providing ARVs. The study participants identified improving communication, psychoeducation and screening for alcohol use as possible action areas. Poverty was identified as a major problem but the interventions to mitigate this were not easy to implement. Conclusion We propose that PRA could be useful in improving communication between the health workers and the clients attending primary health care (PHC) facilities and can be applied to strengthen involvement of support groups and community health workers in follow up and counselling. Integrating these features into primary health care (PHC) would be important not only to PLWHA but also to other diseases in the PHC setting . Longer term follow up is needed to determine the sustained impact of the interventions. Problems encountered in the PRA work included great expectations at all levels fostered by handouts from other donors and cognitive impairment that interfered with constructive engagement in some of the PLWHA.

Othieno Caleb J; A Obondo; M Mathai

2012-01-01

332

Participatory Innovation in SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several case studies in literature and handbooks about participatory design (PD) suggest that the use of emerging methods to generate user information is common practice. However, these authors address practices in academia or in leading companies and not necessarily the practice of the majority of product development companies. The mentioned companies like for example Microsoft (Sanders, 2004) are in a privileged position, having the possibilities to spend time, manpower and budget on extensive user studies and explore participatory design projects. But how does the Small-to-Medium sized Enterprise (SME) fare in this respect? Some literature is known in this context, Heiskanen et al. (2007) provide many insights on working with SMEs, especially on technology oriented SMEs. De Lille et al. (2009) gives an overview of problems designers experience when conducting user studies. Asboe (2009) provides an anthropologists perspective on user studies within SMEs.

Buur, Jacob; de Lille, Christine

2010-01-01

333

Provotypes for Participatory Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Central to multi-stakeholder processes of participatory innovation is to generate knowledge about ‘users’ and to identify business opportunities accordingly. In these processes of collaborative analysis and synthesis, conflicting perceptions within and about a field of interest are likely to surface. Instead of the natural tendency to avoid these tensions, we demonstrate how tensions can be utilized by embodying them in provocative types (provotypes). Provotypes expose and embody tensions that surround a field of interest to support collaborative analysis and collaborative design explorations across stakeholders. In this paper we map how provotyping contributes to four related areas of contemporary Interaction Design practice. Through a case study that brings together stakeholders from the field of indoor climate, we provide characteristics of design provocations and design guidelines for provotypes for participatory innovation.

Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared

334

O lugar da investigação participada de base comunitária na promoção da saúde mental/ The role of community-based participatory research in mental health promotion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A saúde mental é imprescindível ao desenvolvimento social e económico das comunidades. Envolver as comunidades no desenho e desenvolvimento de planos locais de promoção da saúde mental é um importante desafio para garantir mais e melhor saúde mental a cada comunidade. De 2009 a 2012 desenvolveu-se um estudo de caso baseado nos pressupostos de uma investigação participada de base comunitária numa comunidade urbana da região metropolitana de Lisboa, com o objet (more) ivo de fundamentar o desenho de um plano local de promoção da saúde mental local. O resultado deste trabalho de parceria, que envolveu habitantes e organizações governamentais e não-governamentais da comunidade urbana, fundamentado na capacitação individual e comunitária da comunidade e dos seus membros, confirmou a necessidade de uma participação ativa e efetiva da comunidade no desenvolvimento de políticas locais de promoção da saúde e concluiu pela definição de 6 eixos estratégicos de intervenção pelo período temporal 2012/2015: uma escola com saúde mental; uma comunidade ativa e segura; uma comunidade solidária e inclusiva; uma comunidade atenta; uma organização económico-laboral promotora de saúde mental; uma senioridade mentalmente saudável. Abstract in english Mental health is essential to community social and economic development. Involving communities in the design and development of mental health promotion local plans is a major challenge to ensure more and better mental health in each community. From 2009 to 2012 a case study was developed based on the assumptions of a community-based participatory research in an urban community in the metropolitan area of Lisbon, in order to support the design of a mental health promotion (more) local plan. The result of this partnership, which involved inhabitants and governmental and non-governmental organizations of the urban community, based on individual and community empowerment of the community and its members, confirmed the need for an active and effective participation of the community in the development of health promotion local policies and concluded by defining six strategic areas of intervention between 2012 and 2015: a school with mental health, an active and safe community, a supportive and inclusive community, a community aware, an organization promoting economic and work mental health, a seniority mentally healthy.

Gomes, José Carlos Rodrigues; Loureiro, Maria Isabel Guedes

2013-01-01

335

A lifelogging approach to automated market research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Market research companies spend large amounts of money carrying out time-intensive processes to gather information about peo- ple’s activities, such as the place they frequent and the activities in which they partake. Due to high costs and logistical difficulties, an automated approach to this pract...

Hughes, Mark; Newman, Eamonn; Smeaton, Alan F.; O'Connor, Noel E.

336

An action research approach to curriculum development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.

Phil Riding; Sue Fowell; Phil Levy

1995-01-01

337

The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

2005-01-01

338

Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind this model in combination with other theories which have been used successfully in other interventions. The project is only in its initial phases in conducting the intervention, but so far the preliminary results indicate that management support and allocation of resources is vital, that internal facilitators are important drivers of the change process and that easy-to-use tools are requested from the involved company actors. Given that the interventions in the selected companies are conducted successfully we argue that a new organizational capability to address work-related stress in a collective and collaborative manner is developed in the participating companies. With a successfully conducted intervention we mean that the companies have been able to implement their own change proposals in a collective and collaborative process. By developing this organizational capability we expect that the companies would be able to repeat the process with new change proposals. The research builds on observations, participatory action research, interviews and surveys.

Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

2013-01-01

339

Play. Learn. Innovate : Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes – which always entail change – were people and how they relate to each other, I became curious to understand this from a management perspective. When I did not find any satisfying answers in the world of practice, I decided to return to the world of theory hoping to find answers there. However, I did not. After extensive literature studies mainly in the fields of social capital, organizations, complexity, and knowledge – but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy – I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function was interdependent with other people‘s roles and functions and that uncertainty was omnipresent. While I found many interesting and enlightening studies with brilliant concepts, methods and implications in each respective field, they typically either addressed the individual, or the group level, or the institutional level and they often were ignoring or excluding other disciplines and perspectives – in short they seemed unconnected. My impression was – in order to understand why this was the case – I had to go to the very foundations of management thinking – the research philosophy of management. The aims of my study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that Iwas interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social interaction across different units of analysis. Drawing on explorative projects I had the opportunity to conduct with students – we involved firms and used interviews and video analysis – I explored different theoretical perspectives in relation to practice. In further workshops and experiments I found evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose a multi-level conceptual framework to understand and analyze social dynamics of participatory innovation in organizations – complementing research on knowledge transformation when facing novelty (Carlile, 2004) and participatory innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008; Buur and Larsen, 2010). Further, based on this I carve out theoretical and practical links between innovation as a social process across boundaries, play and games, learning, and design in organizational settings. Thus, confirming and complement work in the field of play (e.g. Kaark, 2011; Sandelands, 2010; Mainemelis and Ronson, 2006;), learning and play (e.g. Brown and Vaughaun, 2010; Thomas and Brown, 2011; Kolb and Kolb, 2010), games (e.g. McGonigal, 2011; Mäyrä, 2008), and innovation across knowledge boundaries (e.g. Carlile, 2004; Nicolini et al, 2011; Buur and Matthews, 2008). I clarify how the proposed approach differs from system thinking and game theory – and I provide first evidence for that playful games are promising as a tool, a method, and a process to grasp and research social dynamics of participatory innovation theoretically and practically. I believe that the idea to use playful games in the proposed way is new and can provide new insights in participatory innovation. Further, I argue that this approach opens up promising way

Sproedt, Henrik

2012-01-01

340

La Investigación participativa como práctica social y su aportación al mundo laboral a través del modelo obrero Participatory Research as Social Practice, and Its Contribution to the Workplace Through Worker Models.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La investigación participativa (IP), también llamada investigación-acción (IA) ha sido un aporte teórico-metodológico muy valioso para explorar y transformar diferentes contextos sociales: salud, educación, comunidades, procesos de comunicación y el sector laboral, entre otros. Sus principios implican la reflexión sobre diferentes prácticas por parte de los grupos sociales, la generación de nuevos conocimientos y la adquisición de un nuevo status tanto del investigador como del grupo “investigado”, ya que se asume la capacidad de ambos para generar y compartir conocimiento, entraña la intencionalidad de modificar dichas prácticas en beneficio de las colectividades, como una forma de alcanzar objetivos inmediatos pero también satisfactores a largo plazo. La instrumentación de la investigación-acción atraviesa por recobrar su enorme riqueza epistemológica, política, ideológica y ética. Una modalidad de la investigación participante ha sido el Modelo Obrero Italiano, el cual se ha impulsado, en diferentes momentos históricos, al interior de diversos centros de trabajo y distintos contextos sociales. Su puesta en operación en algunos países lo perfila aún como viable, aunque las actuales condiciones sociales, políticas y económicas, señalan la necesidad de la generación de propuestas que permitan, bajo la lógica de la investigación participante, generar un nuevo modelo que de respuesta a las necesidades que la realidad plantea.Participatory research, also known as “actionoriented research” has made valuable theoretical and methodological contributions that allow us to explore and transform different social contexts: in health, education, communities, communication processes and the labor sector, among others. Its underpinnings allow thoughtful reflection on different practices by social groups, the generation of new knowledge and the acquisition of a new status for both the researcher as well as the group being researched, since both contribute to the generation and sharing of knowledge, and it includes the intent of changing practices to the benefit of a collective, as a way of achieving both immediate and long-term objectives. The articulation of actionoriented research goes through a process of recovering its enormous epistemological, political, ideological and ethical value. One example of participatory research is the Italian Worker Model, which has been implemented, at different times in history, in diverse workplaces and in different social contexts. Its use in some countries makes it still viable, although current social, political and economic conditions indicate the need to develop new proposals that allow, under the framework of participatory research, the generation of a new mode that is responsive to these new realities.

Susana Martínez Alcántara

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Qualitative approaches in occupational therapy research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Development of research in occupational therapy requires a continuous critical discussion concerning methodological approaches. In this paper the authors wish to contribute to such a discussion by introducing the formal data-structure analysis approach (FDSA) as a method for understanding people's experiences. METHODS AND RESULTS: A review of selected publications from occupational therapy journals between 2003 and 2005 illustrated that qualitative articles within occupational therapy publications were mainly descriptive in nature. This finding raises questions about how to develop new knowledge that contributes to occupational therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this paper the authors suggest that it is possible to apply the FDSA approach not only when describing and categorizing qualitative phenomena, but also when aiming to reach an in-depth understanding of issues related to human meaning-making; for example, how we understand engagement in occupations or living with a disability. Examples of the application of the FDSA approach are included and discussed.

Borell L; Nygård L; Asaba E; Gustavsson A; Hemmingsson H

2012-11-01

342

A participatory process for designing cooking energy programmes with women  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Women in rural areas of India play an important role in household energy management. Programmes designed to help them administer these needs more effectively by providing alternative, sustainable energy solutions, however, have met with limited success. Women's roles and energy needs are rarely a main focus of rural energy programmes and there are few mechanisms for creating a more meaningful role for them throughout the programme lifecycle. This paper presents the results of a joint Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI), India and University of Waterloo (UW), Canada project, which aimed to develop a participatory rural energy planning methodology that defines and creates a space for women in the rural energy development process. The paper begins with a brief background on the rural energy scenario in India, the official responses and programme performances. We discuss the role of women in household energy management with respect to gender variations in roles and decision-making and the failure to recognise these differences in policy formulation. Within this context, we present a participatory process for designing household energy programmes with rural women. A case study drawn from work in rural Haryana, India illustrates the method. This methodology fills an existing need for tools and approaches within the rural energy sector to provide concrete ways to include women as full partners in the development process. (author)

Malhotra, P. [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India). Rural Energy Group; Neudoerffer, R.C. [University of Guelph, ON (Canada). Rural Studies; Dutta, S.

2004-02-01

343

Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

344

Implementing Participatory Decision Making in Forest Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.

Ananda, Jayanath

2007-04-01

345

Community-based participatory action research: transforming multidisciplinary practice in primary health care Investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad: transformación de la práctica multidisciplinaria en atención primaria de salud  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Health care systems throughout the world are in the process of restructuring and reforming their health service delivery systems, reorienting themselves to a primary health care (PHC) model that uses multidisciplinary practice (MDP) teams to provide a range of coordinated, integrated services. This study explores the challenges of putting the MDP approach into practice in one community in a city in Canada. METHODS: The data we analyzed were derived from a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) project, conducted in 2004, that was used to enhance collaborative MDP in a PHC center serving a residential and small-business community of 11 000 within a medium-sized city of approximately 300 000 people in Canada. CBPAR is a planned, systematic approach to issues relevant to the community of interest, requires community involvement, has a problem-solving focus, is directed at societal change, and makes a lasting contribution to the community. We drew from one aspect of this complex, multiyear project aimed at transforming the rhetoric advocating PHC reform into actual sustainable practices. The community studied was diverse with respect to age, socioeconomics, and lifestyle. Its interdisciplinary team serves approximately 3 000 patients annually, 30% of whom are 65 years or older. This PHC center's multidisciplinary, integrated approach to care makes it a member of a very distinct minority within the larger primary care system in Canada. RESULTS: Analysis of practice in PHC revealed entrenched and unconscious ideas of the limitations and boundaries of practice. In the rhetoric of PHC, MDP was lauded by many. In practice, however, collaborative, multidisciplinary team approaches to care were difficult to achieve. CONCLUSIONS: The successful implementation of an MDP approach to PHC requires moving away from physician-driven care. This can only be achieved once there is a change in the underlying structures, values, power relations, and roles defined by the health care system and the community at large, where physicians are traditionally ranked above other care providers. The CBPAR methodology allows community members and the health-related professionals who serve them to take ownership of the research and to critically reflect on iterative cycles of evaluation. This provides an opportunity for practitioners to implement relevant changes based on internally generated analyses.OBJETIVOS: Los sistemas de salud de todo el mundo se encuentran en un proceso de reestructuración y reforma de sus sistemas de prestación de servicios, reorientándose hacia el modelo de atención primaria de salud (APS) que utiliza equipos de consultorios multidisciplinarios (CMD) para brindar un conjunto de servicios coordinados e integrados. En este estudio se exploran los retos de poner en práctica el enfoque de CMD en una comunidad urbana de Canadá. MÉTODOS:Los datos analizados se tomaron de un proyecto de investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad (IAPBC) llevado a cabo en 2004. Su objetivo era perfeccionar un CMD colaborativo en un centro de APS que atiende a una comunidad de 11 000 personas, compuesta por una zona residencial y pequeños negocios, en una ciudad canadiense de aproximadamente 300 000 personas. La IAPBC permite abordar de manera planificada y sistemática problemas importantes para la comunidad en cuestión, requiere la participación de la comunidad, se enfoca hacia la solución de los problemas, se dirige a lograr cambios en la sociedad y hace contribuciones duraderas a la comunidad. Se partió de un aspecto de este complejo proyecto de varios años, para transformar la defensa retórica de la reforma de la APS en una práctica real y sustentable. La comunidad estudiada era diversa en cuanto a la edad, las características socioeconómicas y los estilos de vida. Su equipo multidisciplinario atendía aproximadamente a 3 000 pacientes al año, 30% de los cuales tenían 65 años o más. Gracias a su enfoque multidisciplinario e integrado con respecto a la atención, este

Marcia Hills; Jennifer Mullett; Simon Carroll

2007-01-01

346

La investigación-acción-participativa: Una forma de investigar en la práctica enfermera Investigação-ação-participativa: Uma forma de pesquisar na prática enfermeira The Participatory-Action-Research: A way to research in the nursing practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dentro del paradigma cualitativo de la investigación, la Investigación- Acción-Participativa (IAP) integra el conocimiento y la acción; no hay que esperar a que tras producir el conocimiento se produzca la traslación de este a la práctica. Es un método que se utiliza desde hace varias décadas en disciplinas como la educación o la sociología, sin embargo es emergente en el ámbito de la salud. Existen una gran variedad de definiciones, clasificaciones y modelos de IAP y con este artículo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigación, su historia, su filosofía y su utilización, dados su potencial y novedad en el ámbito de las ciencias de la salud.Dentro do paradigma qualitativo da investigação, a Investigação-Ação-Participativa (IAP) integra o conhecimento e a ação; não há que esperar a que depois de produzir o conhecimento se produza a translação deste à prática. É um método que se utiliza desde faz várias décadas em disciplinas como a educação ou a sociologia, no entanto é emergente no âmbito da saúde. Existem uma grande variedade de definições, classificações e modelos de IAP e com este artigo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigação, sua história, sua filosofia e sua utilização, dados seu potencial e novidade no âmbito das ciências da saúde.Within the qualitative research paradigm, the Participatory-Action- Research (PAR) integrates knowledge and action. It is not necessary to wait for knowledge to be produced to transfer it into practice. It is a method used for decades in disciplines such as education and sociology; however it is emerging in the health field. There are a variety of definitions, classifications and PAR models; this article aims to shed light upon this method of research, its history, philosophy and its use, given its potential and innovation in the field of health sciences.

Eva Abad Corpa; Pilar Delgado Hito; Julio Cabrero García

2010-01-01

347

Envisioning Adaptive Strategies to Change: Participatory Scenarios for Agropastoral Semiarid Systems in Nicaragua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historically, the semiarid social–ecological systems of the dry Central American corridor have proven resilient to pressures. However, in the last century, these systems have experienced huge environmental and socioeconomic changes that have increased the vulnerability of local livelihoods to shocks. New approaches are needed to capture complex, uncertain, cross-scale and nonlinear relationships among drivers of change and vulnerability. Therefore, to tackle this challenge, we have applied a participatory and interdisciplinary methodological framework of vulnerability assessment to a case study in northern Nicaragua. We triangulated a range of information and data from participatory and scientific research to explore historical and current drivers of changes that affect the system’s components and indicators of vulnerability, represented in a 3-dimensional space in terms of ecological resilience, the socioeconomic ability of individuals to adapt to change, and an institutional capacity to buffer and respond to crisis. A projection of climatic changes combined with a participatory scenario analysis helped, then, to heuristically analyze tendencies of vulnerability in the future and to explore what policy options might enhance the system’s adaptive capacity to face new pressures. Our work primarily contributes to an empirical understanding of key factors that influence vulnerability and learning about local strategies to adapt to change in semiarid agropastoral systems in Central America. We also make a methodological contribution by testing the use of a multidimensional vulnerability framework as a way of stimulating discussion among researchers, local stakeholders, and policy makers.

Federica Ravera; David Tarrasón; Elisabeth Simelton

2011-01-01

348

Paradox Lost and Paradox Regained: Comments on Chouinard's "The Case for Participatory Evaluation..."  

Science.gov (United States)

Jill Chouinard, in her article "The Case for Participatory Evaluation in an Era of Accountability" (this issue, p. 237), may be re-iterating what has often been claimed and arguably is infused already in much of our theory and practice: the value of participatory approaches in some, perhaps many situations. She summarizes these claims eloquently…

Datta, Lois-ellin

2013-01-01

349

Social Media for the Promotion of Holistic Self-Participatory Care: An Evidence Based Approach. Contribution of the IMIA Social Media Working Group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: As health information is becoming increasingly accessible, social media offers ample opportunities to track, be informed, share and promote health. These authors explore how social media and holistic care may work together; more specifically however, our objective is to document, from different perspectives, how social networks have impacted, supported and helped sustain holistic self-participatory care. METHODS: A literature review was performed to investigate the use of social media for promoting health in general and complementary alternative care. We also explore a case study of an intervention for improving the health of Greek senior citizens through digital and other means. RESULTS: The Health Belief Model provides a framework for assessing the benefits of social media interventions in promoting comprehensive participatory self-care. Some interventions are particularly effective when integrating social media with real-world encounters. Yet not all social media tools are evidence-based and efficacious. Interestingly, social media is also used to elicit patient ratings of treatments (e.g., for depression), often demonstrating the effectiveness of complementary treatments, such as yoga and mindfulness meditation. CONCLUSIONS: To facilitate the use of social media for the promotion of complementary alternative medicine through self-quantification, social connectedness and sharing of experiences, exploration of concrete and abstract ideas are presented here within. The main mechanisms by which social support may help improve health - emotional support, an ability to share experiences, and non-hierarchal roles, emphasizing reciprocity in giving and receiving support - are integral to social media and provide great hope for its effective use.

Miron-Shatz T; Hansen MM; Grajales FJ 3rd; Martin-Sanchez F; Bamidis PD

2013-01-01

350

Materiomics: an -omics approach to biomaterials research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The past fifty years have seen a surge in the use of materials for clinical application, but in order to understand and exploit their full potential, the scientific complexity at both sides of the interface--the material on the one hand and the living organism on the other hand--needs to be considered. Technologies such as combinatorial chemistry, recombinant DNA as well as computational multi-scale methods can generate libraries with a very large number of material properties whereas on the other side, the body will respond to them depending on the biological context. Typically, biological systems are investigated using both holistic and reductionist approaches such as whole genome expression profiling, systems biology and high throughput genetic or compound screening, as already seen, for example, in pharmacology and genetics. The field of biomaterials research is only beginning to develop and adopt these approaches, an effort which we refer to as "materiomics". In this review, we describe the current status of the field, and its past and future impact on the biomedical sciences. We outline how materiomics sets the stage for a transformative change in the approach to biomaterials research to enable the design of tailored and functional materials for a variety of properties in fields as diverse as tissue engineering, disease diagnosis and de novo materials design, by combining powerful computational modelling and screening with advanced experimental techniques. PMID:23297023

Cranford, Steven W; de Boer, Jan; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Buehler, Markus J

2013-01-07

351

Embracing the local: enriching scientific research, education, and outreach on the Texas-Mexico border through a participatory action research partnership.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cameron Park, Texas, is a colonia (an isolated, unincorporated rural settlement without municipal improvements) on the Texas-Mexico border in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in Cameron County near Brownsville, Texas. Cameron Park has a population of 5,961 residents, 99.3% of whom are Hispanic. The annual median income is 16,934 US dollars, about one-half of the state median. Fifty-eight percent of families generally and 68% of those with children younger than 5 years have incomes below poverty level. Cameron Park resides geographically in a region where agriculture has been, and continues to be, a dominant industry, a fact consistent with the intensive use of pesticides and increased potential for air, water, and ground contamination. The practice of good environmental health is extremely difficult under these conditions. In 1999 the Texas A&M University Center for Housing and Urban Development's Colonias Program and the Center for Environmental and Rural Health teamed up to create an environmental health education and outreach program called the Cameron Park Project (CPP). The CPP focused on how to reduce potential environmental exposures associated with human illness by providing residents with scientifically sound information on positive health practices and how to deal with environmental hazards. In this article we discuss the research methodology used in the CPP, a methodology specifically chosen to address four challenges presented by colonias to conducting valid and reliable research. PMID:14527834

May, Marlynn L; Bowman, Gloria J; Ramos, Kenneth S; Rincones, Larry; Rebollar, Maria G; Rosa, Mary L; Saldana, Josephine; Sanchez, Adelina P; Serna, Teresa; Viega, Norma; Villegas, Gregoria S; Zamorano, Maria G; Ramos, Irma N

2003-10-01

352

Partizipative Forschung in Argentinien: drei Erfahrungen aus dem Bereich der Erziehungswissenschaften im Zusammenhang mit der Wiederherstellung der Demokratie Participatory Research in Argentina: Three Experiences in the Educational Field within the Context of the Reinstatement of Democracy Investigación participativa en Argentina: tres experiencias del campo educativo en el contexto de la restitución de la democracia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Die Wiedereinführung der Demokratie in Argentinien ab 1983 wurde von der Wiederbelebung vieler, während des Militärregimes verbotener Beteiligungsformen der Bürger/innen und von der Eröffnung neuer Partizipationskanäle begleitet. Diese Veränderungen kamen auch im Hochschulbereich zum Ausdruck, und zwar nicht allein in der Demokratisierung dieser Bildungsinstitutionen, sondern auch in der wachsenden Bedeutung partizipativer Forschungsmethoden. In diesem Zusammenhang wurden auch partizipative Projekte von internationalen Organisationen und seltener von nationalen und regionalen Ministerien gefördert. Trotzdem erhielt die partizipative Forschung in Argentinien nie die akademische Bedeutung, die sie in anderen Ländern Südamerikas erreichte.Ziel dieses Beitrages ist es, die Besonderheiten der Wissensproduktion bei Gebrauch partizipativer Forschungsmethoden im Feld der Erziehung und Bildung in Argentinien darzustellen. Außerdem werden einige erste Überlegungen zu den Legitimationsproblemen dieser Forschungsmethoden in den Sozialwissenschaften zur Diskussion gestellt.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120133 The reinstatement of democracy in Argentina in 1983 was accompanied by the re-opening of channels for political participation, as well as the creation of spaces for civil participation, such as NGOs and initiatives of the Catholic Church, which had been closed during the military regime. These transformations also have affected the university, not only by democratization, but also by a renewed interest in participatory research strategies. In this context, participatory approaches have grown in importance, not only in academic circles, but also in experiences financed by international organizations like UNESCO, OAS (Organization of American States) IDB (Inter-American Development Bank), and less so by those organized by national or provincial ministries. However, participatory research has never reached the same academic status in Argentina as it has in other countries of South America. The aim of this article is to analyze the main facets  of knowledge production using participatory research methodologies in the educational field in Argentina. I define the concept of educational field in BOURDIEU's sense, that is, as a structured space of positions, as a force field that imposes its own rules, regularities and forms of authority, but also as an arena of struggle wherein the existing distribution of capital is disputed.Finally, I present some initial reflections on why these kinds of methodologies are being resisted in the social sciences.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120133 La restitución de la democracia en la Argentina a partir del año 1983 estuvo acompañada por la revitalización de gran parte de los canales de participación ciudadana que habían sido censurados durante la dictadura militar y por la creación de nuevos espacios de participación. Estas transformaciones, entre otras cosas, afectaron a las instituciones universitarias, donde no solamente se reflejaron en la democratización del ámbito universitario sino también en un renovado auge de estrategias participativas de investigación. En este contexto también se llevaron adelante experiencias promovidas por organismos internacionales y, en menor medida, por Ministerios nacionales y provinciales. Sin embargo, en la Argentina, la investigación participativa nunca alcanzó la trascendencia académica que ha tenido en otros países de América del Sur. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las particularidades que adquirió la producción de conocimiento a partir de metodologías participativas de investigación social en el campo de la educación en Argentina y presentar algunas reflexiones iniciales en relación a las dificultades que estas estrategias presentan para ser reconocidas como legítimas en el campo científico de las ciencias sociales.URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120133

Sylvia Lenz

2011-01-01

353

Capacity-building and Participatory Research Development of a Community-based Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP) for Pregnant and Postpartum Aboriginal Women:Information Gathered from Talking Circles.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives were to gather information from Talking Circles of Aboriginal women who participated in a maternal Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP) to identify strategies to bring NELIP into the community. Twelve First Nations women participated. Several main themes were identified regarding health: balance, knowledge/education and time management. Benefits of the NELIP were improvement in health, stamina, stress, and a healthy baby, no gestational diabetes and a successful home birth, with social support as an important contributing factor for success. Suggestions for improvement for the NELIP included group walking, and incorporating more traditional foods into the meal plan. The information gathered is the first step in determining strategies using participatory research and capacity-building to develop a community-based NELIP for pregnant Aboriginal women.

Michelle F. Mottola; Maggie M. Sopper; Lindsay Doxtator; Katie Big-Canoe; Harry Prapavessis

2011-01-01

354

The Concept of "Silencing the Self" in Low-Income, Aging, HIV-Infected African American Women: A 10-Year Community-Based Participatory Program of Research With Results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite a resilient spirit, the challenges that face low-income, aging Black women living with HIV infection are immense. This article describes a 10-year iterative history of using the Theory of Silencing the Self (TSTS) as an explanatory model that was found to be gender sensitive, culturally relevant, and helpful in guiding a community-based participatory research group of low-income, HIV-infected Black women living in Boston, Massachusetts. The group, called Sistah Powah, used the TSTS to design and implement a structured writing intervention in a women's drop-in center targeting low-income, aging Black women living with HIV infection as a way to give them and others a voice.

Demarco RF; Lanier LR

2013-02-01

355

Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation : The Hermeneutic Interplay of Complexity, Relations ans Institutions in Knowledge Transformation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A conceptual framework for a coherent understanding of knowledge as a socially constructed resource in flux over boundaries when innovating with others is constructed. Starting with an overview of different perspectives on innovation, showing a development towards a more iterative social process perspective on innovation. Then, a similar development in the field of knowledge and knowing is presented, where the perspective changes from a divisional systemthinking towards a more relational view of complementing combinations of knowledge and knowing, recognizing the challenge of boundaries. Further, relating, cognitive social capital and the justification of knowledge are described as different but interdependent dimensions of transforming knowledge across boundaries in participatory innovation. A multi-level concept of social dynamics of participatory innovation is proposed, and a model that illustrates the generic process of how new knowledge moves between individuals, and groups within organizations when itis transformed across boundaries is offered. Next, limitations are presented, and future research is discussed, pointing towards play and games as conceptually and practically promising approaches towards grasping the social dynamics of participatory innovation.

Sproedt, Henrik

356

Participatory organizational change in community-based health and human services: from tokenism to political engagement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Community psychologists have long worked with community-based human service organizations to build participatory processes. These efforts largely aim at building participatory practices within the current individual-wellness paradigm of human services. To address collective wellness, human service organizations need to challenge their current paradigm, attend to the social justice needs of community, and engage community participation in a new way, and in doing so become more openly political. We use qualitative interviews, focus groups, organizational documents, and participant observation to present a comparative case study of two organizations involved in such a process through an action research project aimed at transforming the organizations' managerial and practice paradigm from one based on first-order, ameliorative change to one that promotes second-order, transformative change via strength-based approaches, primary prevention, empowerment and participation, and focuses on changing community conditions. Four participatory tensions or dialectics are discussed: passive versus active participation, partners versus clients, surplus powerlessness versus collective efficacy, and reflection/learning versus action/doing.

Bess KD; Prilleltensky I; Perkins DD; Collins LV

2009-03-01

357

Findings from a participatory evaluation of a smart home application for older adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this paper is to present a participatory evaluation of an actual "smart home" project implemented in an independent retirement facility. Using the participatory evaluation process, residents guided the research team through development and implementation of the initial phase of a smart home project designed to assist residents to remain functionally independent and age in place. We recruited nine residents who provided permission to install the technology in their apartments. We conducted a total of 75 interviews and three observational sessions. Residents expressed overall positive perceptions of the sensor technologies and did not feel that these interfered with their daily activities. The process of adoption and acceptance of the sensors included three phases, familiarization, adjustment and curiosity, and full integration. Residents did not express privacy concerns. They provided detailed feedback and suggestions that were integrated into the redesign of the system. They also reported a sense of control resulting from their active involvement in the evaluation process. Observational sessions confirmed that the sensors were not noticeable and residents did not change their routines. The participatory evaluation approach not only empowers end-users but it also allows for the implementation of smart home systems that address residents' needs.

Demiris G; Oliver DP; Dickey G; Skubic M; Rantz M

2008-01-01

358

Findings from a participatory evaluation of a smart home application for older adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper is to present a participatory evaluation of an actual "smart home" project implemented in an independent retirement facility. Using the participatory evaluation process, residents guided the research team through development and implementation of the initial phase of a smart home project designed to assist residents to remain functionally independent and age in place. We recruited nine residents who provided permission to install the technology in their apartments. We conducted a total of 75 interviews and three observational sessions. Residents expressed overall positive perceptions of the sensor technologies and did not feel that these interfered with their daily activities. The process of adoption and acceptance of the sensors included three phases, familiarization, adjustment and curiosity, and full integration. Residents did not express privacy concerns. They provided detailed feedback and suggestions that were integrated into the redesign of the system. They also reported a sense of control resulting from their active involvement in the evaluation process. Observational sessions confirmed that the sensors were not noticeable and residents did not change their routines. The participatory evaluation approach not only empowers end-users but it also allows for the implementation of smart home systems that address residents' needs. PMID:18487857

Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Dickey, Geraldine; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

2008-01-01

359

Participatory organizational change in community-based health and human services: from tokenism to political engagement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community psychologists have long worked with community-based human service organizations to build participatory processes. These efforts largely aim at building participatory practices within the current individual-wellness paradigm of human services. To address collective wellness, human service organizations need to challenge their current paradigm, attend to the social justice needs of community, and engage community participation in a new way, and in doing so become more openly political. We use qualitative interviews, focus groups, organizational documents, and participant observation to present a comparative case study of two organizations involved in such a process through an action research project aimed at transforming the organizations' managerial and practice paradigm from one based on first-order, ameliorative change to one that promotes second-order, transformative change via strength-based approaches, primary prevention, empowerment and participation, and focuses on changing community conditions. Four participatory tensions or dialectics are discussed: passive versus active participation, partners versus clients, surplus powerlessness versus collective efficacy, and reflection/learning versus action/doing. PMID:19142722

Bess, Kimberly D; Prilleltensky, Isaac; Perkins, Douglas D; Collins, Leslie V

2009-03-01

360

Office ergonomics education: a comparison of traditional and participatory methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health and safety literature stresses the value of programs aimed at preventing musculoskeletal injuries. The concepts of empowerment learning are often recommended as guidelines for worker education yet these approaches are largely untested. The present study compares the traditional approach involving lecture and discussion with a participatory method. A sample of 102 participants employed at a centralized reservation facility was used. Participants were randomly assigned to either the traditional education group or the participatory education group. Data collection utilized surveys completed by study participants and observational checklists completed by a trained observer. Data were collected prior to intervention and at approximately 3, 6, and 12 months post intervention. Results of data analysis provide no evidence that participatory methods are more effective than traditional methods in encouraging workers to position their work equipment correctly or to maintain good working postures to prevent musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:12454450

Bohr, Paula C

2002-01-01

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