WorldWideScience
1

The Participatory Research Approach in Non-Western Countries: Practical Experiences from Central Asia and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…

Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari

2008-01-01

2

Focus Groups with Young People: A Participatory Approach to Research Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present our experiences of conducting focus groups with young people as part of a participatory approach to research design and participant recruitment. The research is a prospective, 10-year, qualitative, longitudinal project investigating young people's daily lives, relationships, and identities, and the ways these change over…

Bagnoli, Anna; Clark, Andrew

2010-01-01

3

A transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented research approach: Sounds nice but what do you mean?  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses transdisciplinary, participatory and action-oriented approaches to research on urbansustainable development. Phronetic planning research, as described by Bent Flyvberg (2004), is highlighted as one interesting approach which combines many of the general themes here dealt with. A special section is devoted to discuss quality criteria of transdisciplinary research. The paper is written as a background to a thesis in progress on Malmö and urban sustainable development.

Andre?n, Sabina

2010-01-01

4

Review: Community-based participatory research approach to address mental health in minority populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, a synthesis of studies employing community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address mental health problems of minorities, strengths and challenges of the CBPR approach with minority populations are highlighted. Despite the fact that minority community members voiced a need for innovative approaches to address culturally unique issues, findings revealed that most researchers continued to use the traditional methods in which they were trained. Moreover, researchers continued to view mental health treatment from a health service perspective. PMID:20464489

Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Shattell, Mona M; Coady, Maria; Wiens, Brenda

2011-10-01

5

Exploring Action Research as an Approach to Interactive (Participatory) Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation seeks to understand "action research" as an approach to "interactive form of evaluation". The first half of the investigation illuminates the approach with the help of the selective body of literature and the second half draws attention to its application in the field with the help of an authentic evaluation plan. Action…

Chaudary, Imran Anjum; Imran, Shahida

2012-01-01

6

Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health  

OpenAIRE

"nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and loc...

Majdzadeh, R.; Setareh Forouzan, A.; Pourmalek, F.; Malekafzali, H.

2009-01-01

7

System-Based Participatory Research in Health Care: An Approach for Sustainable Translational Research and Quality Improvement  

OpenAIRE

Translational research seeks to improve health care by promoting action and change in real-world health care settings. Although translational research advocates a break from the traditional researcher-initiated approach to science, strategies to successfully engage clinicians and leaders of health care delivery organizations in research are still under development. We propose that applying the principles of community-based participatory research in a way that considers delivery systems—incl...

Schmittdiel, Julie A.; Grumbach, Kevin; Selby, Joe V.

2010-01-01

8

LINKING SERVICE AND NUTRITION RESEARCH: AN APPROACH TO COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN COMMUNITY BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This paper outlines how community service activities can evolve as a mechanism to identify and initiate community-based participatory research projects in diet/healthy eating. Background: The Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative (NIRI) is sponsored by the United States Departm...

9

Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and local resources. Its objective is to empower all stakeholders of development. The priority in local communities and the grass-root of health problems were mainly social determinants of health. On the other hand, both approaches of top-down and bottom-up approaches must be simultaneously considered for dealing with these determinants. Establishment of such centers can create good opportunities for developing original solutions for dealing with social determinants of health. The success of Population Research Centers depends on policy makers' concepts and attitude toward social determinants of health and the role of community participation in this regard. It seems that a more extensive engagement of different sectors including universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations is also vital for such movements.

R Majdzadeh

2009-03-01

10

Participatory approach in forest planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper stresses the importance of public participation in natural resources planning and management, with particular concern for forest planning. The function of participation is defined, main methods and tools are reviewed, pointing out, for each of them, the possibility of application in participatory forest planning. Finally opportunities and limits of the participatory approach are taken into consideration particularly concerning the Italian situation.

2006-01-01

11

Sexual education for adolescents: a participatory research approach in the school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to characterize the perception of adolescents about sexuality within the school. Methods: this is a qualitative research, from participatory approach, adopted by the Ethics in Research of the UNIFRA under protocol number 313.2007.2. It had been developed group dynamics and semi-structured questionnaire with adolescents from a public school in southern Brazil, a total of 48 adolescents between 12 and 19 years of age from December 2007 to May 2008. Results: the adolescents present themselves uninformed regarding prevention of STD'S, HIV/AIDS and pregnancy, do not talk to parents/family members about their questions about sex and sexuality; value feelings when it comes to staying or dating someone, but denote prejudice and taboos regarding the subject addressed in the study. Conclusion: it is recommended the development of educational activities with teenagers in schools, including health professionals, teachers and family to allow for a sharing of ideas and ways of teaching and learning about sex and sexuality.

Adriana Dall’Asta Pereira

2010-01-01

12

Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methodological approaches for ‘Design-Based Participatory Research'  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

Magnussen, Rikke; SØrensen, Birgitte Holm

2010-01-01

13

Participatory Action Research: A View from Xerox.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the Quality of Work Life (QWL) program at the North American Manufacturing Division of Xerox Corporation and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union. States that the story of QWL is a description of participatory action research. Notes that the process has become an integral and flexible approach to solving problems and…

Pace, Larry A.; Argona, Dominick R.

1989-01-01

14

Development of Nutrient Management Strategies for ASAL using Participatory Learning and Action Research (PLAR) Approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Participatory diagnosis of soil fertility problems and subsequent experimentation was carried out at Kibwezi Division, Makweni district, using Participatory learning and Action Research (PLAR) methodologies. results of the soil analysis showed that nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) were the most limiting nutrients to the crop production. Farmers were excited to learn how to identify deficiency symptoms of N and P by looking at plant leaves. Farmers also identified and implemented practical options under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for solving the soil fertility problems such as use of manure, fertilisers or a combination of both. Fertiliser application at the rate of 40N + 40P2O5 ha-1 and 60N + 60P2O5 ha-1 produced significantly yield responses under rain-fed conditions. However, application of 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1 of farm yard manure had no effect on grain yield of maize. Maize gross margins were positive with increasing fertilizer application. Similarly, fresh yields of Chili showed marked yield increasing with increasing fertility conditions. In contrast, onions and tomatoes showed a corresponding smaller yield increase with fertility improvement. Chili, onions and tomatoes had positive gross margins as nutrient application was increased indicating that benefit was higher with increasing fertiliser inputs. The PLAR methodology provided farmers with knowledge ahodology provided farmers with knowledge and skills that helped them to change their attitude towards soil fertility improvement interventions

15

A review of community-based participatory research: a promising approach to address depression among Latinos?  

Science.gov (United States)

US Latinos are almost twice as likely as Whites to experience depression in a given year, and to date, there is a gap in understanding how to effectively address depression in this population. This study reviews community-based participatory research (CBPR) publications involving Latinos and depression. The specific aims were to: (1) describe studies using CBPR for addressing depression among Latinos, and (2) identify challenges and lessons learned when using CBPR for addressing depression among Latinos. Electronic databases and the grey literature were reviewed for publications that included CBPR, Latinos, and depression, published between 1990 and 2008. Although few studies were identified, this review provides a baseline synopsis that can serve mental health researchers when developing studies to test/validate CBPR with this underserved population. PMID:19916809

Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R

2009-12-01

16

Indicators of radioecological sensitivity of contaminated territories: a proactive and participatory research approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Financed partly by the French ministry in charge of environment, PRIME is a participative research coordinated by IRSN. The aim is to develop with stakeholders and experts a prospective method to build a multicriteria decision tool for ranking specificities of territories which identifies its vulnerability in case of nuclear accident. The method is elaborated through the participation of experts, decision-makers and local actors in order to enable the risk managers to choose the appropriate strategy in case of an accident involving radioactive substances. The method establishes the hierarchy of factors of the sensitivity of a territory to radioactive pollution. The studied zone is situated within the radius of about 50 km around three nuclear sites in the South of France. The main questions of this project are the following: Does the sensitivity of the territory of 50 km radius around a nuclear site depend only on the distance from the source or, alternatively, can it vary depending on the type and the use of the soils? Which criteria are important for the people living in the area and how are they balanced? Which of them would be particularly useful for decision-making? Can the multi criteria method be an appropriate tool to treat the data and make them visible and accessible? The characteristic of the project is to combine different opinion of the vulnerability of a territory in a participatory approach. The first step is to identify, alongside with stakeholders, th identify, alongside with stakeholders, the factors of the sensitivity of a territory and to establish correlation between them. The second step is to provide the managers and people who have to decide in such case with data necessary for working out the preparation and action plans for rationalizing the decision-making in the field of post-accidental management. As expected results, we hope to simplify the representation about territorial consequences of radiological contamination and to elaborate management tools common for different actors who a priori speak different 'languages', tools showing the evaluation of radio ecological sensitivity of a territory for further exploration. We will also share the main findings concerning the way to manage such a challenging social process. (author)

17

Participatory Innovation : A research agenda  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovation.

Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

18

Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

2014-07-01

19

Participatory research and service-learning among farmers, health professional students, and experts: an agromedicine approach to farm safety and health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agromedicine developments in Alabama rest heavily on the interest and support of the farm community. Participatory approaches have been advocated in order to impact the safety and health of farms. The University of Alabama Agromedicine Research Team, working closely with and guided by farmers, places emphasis on identifying areas of farmer concern related to agricultural health and safety and on developing jointly with the farmers plans to address their concerns. Agricultural extension agents were key to developing the trust relationships among farmers, health professionals, and extension personnel required for these successful agricultural safety and health developments. In this article the authors describe how the research team engaged farmers in participatory research to develop service learning activities for graduate students studying Agricultural Safety and Health at The University of Alabama. Accepting farmers' active role in research processes creates an environment that is favorable to change, while providing farmers reassurance that their health and safety is of utmost importance to the researchers. PMID:22191500

Guin, Susan M; Wheat, John R; Allinder, Russell S; Fanucchi, Gary J; Wiggins, Oscar S; Johnson, Gwendolyn J

2012-01-01

20

Evaluation of Community Health Education Workshops among Chinese Older Adults in Chicago: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Health education is one of the proven ways to improve knowledge and change health attitudes and behaviors. This study is intended to assess the effectiveness of five health workshops in a Chinese community, focusing on depression, elder abuse, nutrition, breast cancer and stroke. Methods: A community-based participatory research approach was implemented to plan and organize the workshops. A total of 236 Chinese community-dwelling older adults participated in different health workshops. Quantitative questionnaires on knowledge, risk factors and outcomes of each health topic were distributed before and after the workshop. Pre and post workshop comparison analyses were conducted to examine the effectiveness of the workshops on knowledge and learning. Results: Overall, the health workshops have significantly improved participants’ understanding throughout the five health themes (P<0.05. Whereas Chinese older adults have limited knowledge on depression, nutrition and stroke, their health knowledge regarding depression and elder abuse were significantly improved after attending the workshops. In addition, health education workshops increased older adults’ understanding of the risk factors and consequences of depression, elder abuse and breast cancer. Conclusion: This study sheds light on the importance of promoting health education, and the complexity and challenges of designing health education for community dwelling Chinese older adults. Significant implications for researchers, community service providers, health service workers and policy makers are discussed.

Xinqi Dong

2013-01-01

21

Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

2010-01-01

22

Developing a national health research system: participatory approaches to legislative, institutional and networking dimensions in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract For many sub-Saharan African countries, a National Health Research System (NHRS) exists more in theory than in reality, with the health system itself receiving the majority of investments. However, this lack of attention to NHRS development can, in fact, frustrate health systems in achieving their desired goals. In this case study, we discuss the ongoing development of Zambia’s NHRS. We reflect on our experience in the ongoing consultative development of Zambia’s NHRS a...

Chanda-Kapata Pascalina; Campbell Sandy; Zarowsky Christina

2012-01-01

23

Community-Based Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice  

OpenAIRE

The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009–2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impac...

Simonds, Vanessa W.; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia

2013-01-01

24

Participatory Research: An Emerging Alternative Methodology in Social Science Research. Participatory Research Network Series No. 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book, consisting of a series of discussion papers and case studies, is a compilation of the papers presented at a region 1 workshop on participatory research in Africa. Included in the volume are the following discussion papers: "The Concept of Development in the Social Sciences," by Kemal Mustafa and Deborah Bryceson; "The Politics of…

Kassam, Yusuf, Ed.; Mustafa, Kemal, Ed.

25

Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to ...

Kamanda Allan; Embleton Lonnie; Ayuku David; Atwoli Lukoye; Gisore Peter; Ayaya Samuel; Vreeman Rachel; Braitstein Paula

2013-01-01

26

'Now we call it research': participatory health research involving marginalized women who use drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we discuss and analyse the strategies employed and challenges encountered when conducting a recent feminist participatory action research study with highly marginalized women who were illicit drug users in an inner city area of Vancouver, Canada. Through an analysis of the political economy of participatory praxis within current neoliberal contexts, we focus on three main areas: (i) reconceptualizing the pragmatics of participation; (ii) the microeconomic implications of participatory research, including ethical issues in payment for research participation; and (iii) the value and limits of using research as a tool for activism and empowerment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what we see to be some of the most salient social justice implications arising from feminist and participatory approaches to health research within neoliberal political spaces. PMID:21059151

Salmon, Amy; Browne, Annette J; Pederson, Ann

2010-12-01

27

Children's perspectives on cyberbullying: Insights based on participatory research  

OpenAIRE

Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged...

Baas, Niels; Jong, Menno D. T.; Drossaert, Constance H. C.

2013-01-01

28

Participatory research in psychology - A practical example in the field of drug counseling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article gives insights into the work of the self-help- and research-group of the "Projekt Selbstverständigung über Drogengebrauch" as an example of participatory research in psychology. In a first step the basics of the project will be discussed by distinguishing it from other approaches in drug research, positioning it within the field of participatory research and analyzing it in regard to its theoretical basics. In a second step the practical work of the project will be described to illustrate problems that emerged as well as first solutions that could be helpful for further development of participatory research.

Christoph Vandreier

2011-08-01

29

Setting Up Participatory Research: A Discussion of the Initial Stages.  

Science.gov (United States)

A participatory research project was designed to teach eight British adults with learning disabilities about keeping healthy. The development of the project, the recruitment of the participants, and the involvement of the participants in the project are discussed, along with the role of researchers and support workers in participatory research.…

Burke, Anne; McMillan, Jane; Cummins, Lorraine; Thompson, Agnes; Forsyth, Watson; McLellan, James; Snot, Linda; Fraser, Anne; Fraser, Mary; Fulton, Charity; McGrindel, Elizabeth; Gillies, Lorraine; LeFort, Shelley; Miller, Gail; Whitehall, John; Wilson, John; Smith, Janet; Wright, David

2003-01-01

30

Using a Community Partnered Participatory Research Approach to Implement a Randomized Controlled Trial: Planning the Design of Community Partners in Care  

OpenAIRE

Quality improvement programs for depression in primary care can reduce disparities in outcomes. We describe how community-partnered participatory research was used to design Community Partners in Care, a randomized trial of community engagement to activate a multiple-agency network versus support for individual agencies to implement depression QI in underserved communities.

Chung, Bowen; Jones, Loretta; Dixon, Elizabeth L.; Miranda, Jeanne; Wells, Kenneth

2010-01-01

31

Participatory action research in antimicrobial stewardship: a novel approach to improving antimicrobial prescribing in hospitals and long-term care facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is challenging to change physicians' antimicrobial prescribing behaviour. Although antimicrobial prescribing is determined by contextual (e.g. a lack of guidelines), cultural (e.g. peer practice) and behavioural (e.g. perceived decision making autonomy) factors, most antimicrobial stewardship programmes fail to consider these factors in their approach. This may lead to suboptimal intervention effectiveness. We present a new approach in antimicrobial stewardship programme development that addresses relevant determinants of antimicrobial prescribing: participatory action research (PAR). PAR is a collaborative process that aims to bring about change in social situations by producing practical knowledge that is useful in local practice. It requires substantial involvement of relevant stakeholders to address determinants of the studied behaviour and to facilitate empowerment. PAR is well suited for complex problems in multidisciplinary settings as it adapts to local needs, delivering a tailored approach to improving local practice. We describe how PAR can be applied to antimicrobial stewardship, and describe the PAR design of two ongoing multicentre antimicrobial stewardship projects, in the acute care setting and the long-term care setting, respectively. PMID:24648505

van Buul, Laura W; Sikkens, Jonne J; van Agtmael, Michiel A; Kramer, Mark H H; van der Steen, Jenny T; Hertogh, Cees M P M

2014-07-01

32

The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

2013-01-01

33

Planning and implementation of a participatory evaluation strategy: A viable approach in the evaluation of community-based participatory programs addressing cancer disparities  

OpenAIRE

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been posited as a promising methodology to address health concerns at the community level, including cancer disparities. However, the major criticism to this approach is the lack of scientific grounded evaluation methods to assess development and implementation of this type of research. This paper describes the process of development and implementation of a participatory evaluation framework within a CBPR program to reduce breast, cervical, an...

Scarinci, Isabel C.; Johnson, Rhoda E.; Hardy, Claudia; Marron, John; Partridge, Edward E.

2009-01-01

34

Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates  

Science.gov (United States)

Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved socially and politically. The PAREU model empowers the community to take action from the research they, themselves, conducted, and enables them to carry out future research. Finally, many of these communities (and the general public) lack the understanding of the nature of science, which leads to ignorance on the part of citizens in areas of science such as climate change. By participating in science/social science research, community members gain a better understanding of the nature of science, making them more informed citizens. The PAREU model is theoretically grounded in decades of research in social science and documented impacts of student research experiences. In addition to providing practical benefits for communities with needs solvable by scientific research, the model builds on and expands student skills gained from traditional REU programs Deep and sustained engagement among scientists, social scientists, and community leaders is expected to create better informed citizens and improve their ability to solve problems.

Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

2013-12-01

35

Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements : The Strengths and Challenges of Participatory Methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging research relationships and generate.

Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde

2014-01-01

36

Participatory Design in the Developing World : Issues and opportunities from case studies of adapting Nordic participatory approaches to a South African context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the field of participatory design originating in Scandinavia, where approaches are developed for actively engaging local stakeholders in change processes, a major part of the research has been confined to Western contexts. The need to study participatory design in broader settings outside Western organisations has been stressed in the research community over the last decade, but later research indicates that still relatively few studies are done in developing countries. Researchers recognise that participatory design approaches cannot simply be transferred to developing country settings as there are numerous challenges for enabling participation, e.g. power distance, cultural barriers, low educational levels and geographical distances. However, participatory design offers substantial opportunities for developing countries, regarding empowerment in local communities and democratisation of change processes. Arguably, the appropriation of participatory design approaches and methods to developing world settings is an important priority in research cooperation between Nordic and Southern African universities. This work presents issues and opportunities for introducing participatory design in a South African context, based on two case studies. In the first case, concepts for new information technology were developed for a small-scale wine farm in the Western Cape, engaging multiple stakeholders on the farm. In the second case, hyper-local storytelling distributed through Bluetooth technology was explored in a socially challenged suburb in the Cape Flats area of Cape Town. Issues on appropriation of strategies and methods for participation are discussed, and directions for further research in the field are identified.

Messeter, Jörn; Claassen, Hester

37

Health survey instrument development through a community-based participatory research approach: Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) and Brazilian immigrants in Greater Boston.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazilians are among the fastest growing segment of immigrant populations in several states of the United States. Culturally appropriate and validated health survey instruments do not exist to adequately assess the health needs of this population. Through a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, a cross-cultural pilot project was conducted to develop and test a culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese-version of the health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP-II) instrument with a convenience sample of 60 bilingual and bicultural Brazilian immigrants using a combined quasi experimental and focus group design. The project evaluated HPLP-II instrument's psychometric properties of equivalency, reliability, and score distribution in Portuguese and English. This pilot test supports equivalency, consistency, and reliability of the English and culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese versions of the instrument. CBPR is an effective approach in health instrument development. This instrument is an important first step in designing other appropriate instruments to explore health conditions of Brazilian immigrants in the U.S. PMID:19011964

Tajik, Mansoureh; Galvão, Heloisa M; Eduardo Siqueira, C

2010-06-01

38

Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey  

OpenAIRE

Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease pr...

E Richard Brown, Phd; Sue Holtby, Mph; Elaine Zahnd, Phd; George B Abbott, Md

2005-01-01

39

Participatory Action Research for Dealing with Disasters on Islands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much disaster research has a basis in non-island case studies, although mono-disciplinary disaster-related research across past decades has often used case studies of individual islands. Both sets of work contribute to contemporary ‘participatory action research’ which investigates ways of dealing with disasters on islands. This paper asks what might be gained through combining disaster research, island studies, and participatory action research. What value does island studies bring to participatory action research for dealing with disasters? Through a critical (not comprehensive overview of participatory action research for dealing with disasters on islands, three main lessons emerge. First, the island context matters to a certain degree for disaster-related research and action. Second, islandness has much more to offer disaster-related research than is currently appreciated. Third, more studies are needed linking theory to evidence found on the ground on islanders’ terms. Limitations of the analyses here and future research directions are provided.

Ilan Kelman

2011-05-01

40

Participatory Action Research for Dealing with Disasters on Islands  

OpenAIRE

Much disaster research has a basis in non-island case studies, although mono-disciplinary disaster-related research across past decades has often used case studies of individual islands. Both sets of work contribute to contemporary ‘participatory action research’ which investigates ways of dealing with disasters on islands. This paper asks what might be gained through combining disaster research, island studies, and participatory action research. What value does island studies bring to pa...

Ilan Kelman; James Lewis; Jc, Gaillard; Jessica Mercer

2011-01-01

41

Teaching Community-Based Participatory Research Principles to Physicians Enrolled in a Health Services Research Fellowship  

OpenAIRE

To improve health and reduce disparities through health services research, investigators are increasingly turning to techniques that actively involve individuals and institutions who would be affected by the research. In one such approach, community-based participatory research (CBPR), community members participate in every aspect of designing and implementing research with the expectation that this process will enhance the translation of research into practice in communities. Because few phy...

Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Lucas, Georgina I.; Tinney, Barbara; Mangione, Carol; Schuster, Mark A.; Wells, Ken; Wong, Marlene; Schwarz, Donald; Tuton, Lucy W.; Howell, Joel D.; Heisler, Michelle

2009-01-01

42

SOCIALANALYSIS-PARTICIPATORY APPROACH: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES  

OpenAIRE

The core aims of participatory development planning are to give people a say in the development decisions that may affect them and to ensure that development interventions are appropriate to the needs and preferences of the population that they are intended to benefit. Participatory development can be undertaken by government agencies or other development agencies and NGOs at the national, regional, municipal or community level.

Kulkarni, V. V.

2013-01-01

43

SOCIALANALYSIS-PARTICIPATORY APPROACH: TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The core aims of participatory development planning are to give people a say in the development decisions that may affect them and to ensure that development interventions are appropriate to the needs and preferences of the population that they are intended to benefit. Participatory development can be undertaken by government agencies or other development agencies and NGOs at the national, regional, municipal or community level.

V. V. KULKARNI

2013-06-01

44

Using participatory approaches with older people in a residential home in Guyana: challenges and tensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory approaches are a popular and entrenched strategy in community development, yet a number of unresolved issues and tensions persist regarding the definition, rationales, outcomes and ethics of participation. Despite its popularity there are relatively few examples of participatory projects with older people or in institutional settings so their potential with this group is poorly understood. This case study presents some of the practical and ethical challenges that arose over the course of a participatory project that aimed to analyse and improve quality of life in a residential home for older people in Guyana. Through a qualitative process evaluation it examines the degree of participation achieved, the determinants of the participatory process, the benefits the approach brought and the ethical dilemmas encountered. Although the degree of participation achieved was limited, beneficial outcomes were observed, notably the selection of appropriate and desirable interventions and the effect on the residents themselves, who valued their part in the project. The participatory process was unpredictable and complex, however, and key determinants of it included the organizational dynamics of the home and the skills, actions and attitudes of the researcher. Adopting a participatory approach brought valuable benefits in a residential home, but others adopting the approach should ensure they critically consider at the outset the ethical and practical dilemmas the setting and approach may produce and have realistic expectations of participation. PMID:23143161

Hewitt, Gillian; Draper, Alizon K; Ismail, Suraiya

2013-03-01

45

Employing a community based participatory research approach to bear witness: psycho-social impact of the 2010 earthquake on Haitians in Somerville, MA.  

Science.gov (United States)

We employed a community-based participatory research approach to assess mental health among the Haitian community in the Somerville, MA area. The development of the survey coincided with the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, and so several questions related to the natural disaster were included in the analysis to increase understanding of the impact locally. We surveyed a convenience sample of 64 Haitians recruited with the assistance of the Somerville Haitian Coalition. The survey assessed demographic data, reasons for migrating to the area, response to the 2010 earthquake, and mental health. Mental health measures included the short versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Perceived Stress Scale. Participants reported high rates of stress and depression post-earthquake. On the CES-D, men reported higher average depression and stress scores than women (13.8 vs. 11 and 20.6 vs. 17.6). Our results suggest that social and family support resources may be beneficial to Haitians in our sample. PMID:23515968

Martinez, Linda Sprague; Reich, Amanda J; Ndulue, Uchenna J; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M; Peréa, Flavia C

2014-12-01

46

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

Naydene de Lange

2012-01-01

47

Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary s [...] chools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

Naydene, de Lange; Mart-Mari, Geldenhuys.

48

Report literature research geo-visualization and participatory spatial planning  

OpenAIRE

The use of geo-visualization for participatory planning purposes is a challenging field of research. Reason for this is that researchers involved with the subject currently lack a common rationale for the integration of the two complementary domains: participatory planning and geo-visualization. Consequently existing knowledge still needs to be extracted from various relevant sub-domains of research. Therefore a literature research was conducted to make an inventory of aspects that influence ...

Bloemmen, M. H. I.; Fransen, H.; Hoogerwerf, T. C.; Ligtenberg, A.; Lammeren, R. J. A.

2005-01-01

49

Developing a logic model for youth mental health: participatory research with a refugee community in Beirut  

OpenAIRE

Although logic models are now touted as an important component of health promotion planning, implementation and evaluation, there are few published manuscripts that describe the process of logic model development, and fewer which do so with community involvement, despite the increasing emphasis on participatory research. This paper describes a process leading to the development of a logic model for a youth mental health promotion intervention using a participatory approach in a Palestinian re...

Afifi, Rema A.; Makhoul, Jihad; El Hajj, Taghreed; Nakkash, Rima T.

2011-01-01

50

New Approaches to Urban Planning - Insights from Participatory Communities  

OpenAIRE

The new approaches to urban planning, such as participatory time and e-planning, comprise methods that allow us to analyse, develop, implement and monitor physical, functional and participatory structures at the neighbourhood level and beyond. They enable models of planning that may bring about an architecture of opportunities. This means the building of a supportive infrastructure of everyday life that encourages citizens to participate not only in formal decision-making, but actually in th...

Horelli, Liisa; Jarenko, Karoliina; Kuoppa, Jenni; Saad-sulonen, Joanna; Wallin, Sirkku

2013-01-01

51

Embedded, Participatory Research: Creating a Grounded Theory with Teenagers  

OpenAIRE

Objective – This project, based on a study of the impact of art programs in public libraries on the teenaged participants, sought to show how library practitioners can perform embedded, participatory research by adding participants to their research team. Embedded participatory techniques, when paired with grounded theory methods, build testable theories from the ground up, based on the real experiences of those involved, including the librarian. This method offers practical solution...

Shannon Crawford Barniskis

2013-01-01

52

Masihambisane, lessons learnt using participatory indigenous knowledge research approaches in a school-based collaborative project of the Eastern Cape  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Masihambisane is an Nguni word, loosely meaning "let us walk the path together". The symbolic act of walking together is conceptually at the heart of a funded1 research project conducted in rural schools of Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape. The project focuses on promoting the direct participation of t [...] eachers in planning, researching, and developing learning and teaching materials (LTSMs), with a view to aligning these materials with indigenous and local knowledge. In this paper we make explicit our learning, and the manner in which we carried out the collaborated research activities, using the Reflect process.

Thenjiwe, Meyiwa; Tebello, Letsekha; Lisa, Wiebesiek.

53

Participation and power : In participatory research and action research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We would like to welcome you to a series of dialogues within the framework of action research (AR) and participatory research (PR), which will be focused on the relationship between participation and power. The basic question in this anthology is ‘What are the possibilities and barriers to participation conceptualised as various degrees of codetermination in organisations and in research processes?’ The anthology is part of a follow-up on an initiative taken in 2010 by Professor Werner Fricke, editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Action Research for many years. His vision was to create an academy of AR and PR.

2014-01-01

54

Using Community-Based Participatory Research as a Guiding Framework for Health Disparities Research Centers  

OpenAIRE

There has been growing interest in conducting community-based health research using a participatory approach that involves the active collaboration of academic and community partners to address community-level health concerns. Project EXPORT (Excellence in Partnerships, Outreach, Research, and Training) is a National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) initiative focused on understanding and eliminating health disparities for racial and ethnic minorities and medically un...

Trinh-shevrin, Chau; Islam, Nadia; Tandon, S. Darius; Abesamis, Noilyn; Hoe-asjoe, Heniretta; Rey, Mariano

2007-01-01

55

The Healthy African American Families (HAAF) Project: From Community-Based Participatory Research To Community-Partnered Participatory Research  

OpenAIRE

During the past two decades, there has been an increased use of community-based participatory research in public health activities, especially as part of efforts to understand health disparities affecting communities of color. This article describes the history and lessons learned of a long-standing community participatory project, Healthy African American Families (HAAF), in Los Angeles, California. HAAF evolved from a partnership formed by a community advisory board, university, and federal...

Ferre?, Cynthia D.; Jones, Loretta; Norris, Keith C.; Rowley, Diane L.

2010-01-01

56

Community Writing, Participatory Research, and an Anthropological Sensibility  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research is a radical praxis through which marginalized people acquire research capabilities that they use to transform their own lives. In this article, I examine how parent writers incorporated facets of community writing into their research practice as they developed their practices and identities as researchers. I also consider…

Hurtig, Janise

2008-01-01

57

Addressing Perinatal Disparities Using Community-Based Participatory Research: Data into Action  

Science.gov (United States)

Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers that are focused on developing…

Masho, Saba; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara; Singleton, Rose; Bradford, Judith; Chapman, Derek; Svikis, Dace

2011-01-01

58

Democratic and Participatory Approaches: Exemplars from Early Childhood Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The argument presented in this paper is that understanding and appreciating participatory approaches in early childhood education may serve as a basis for further development of such practices within the early years sector, and also provide examples and challenges for the leadership and management of schools and other educational institutions.…

Luff, Paulette; Webster, Rebecca

2014-01-01

59

Hearing a Voice: Results of a Participatory Action Research Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in participatory action research (PAR) is rising among academics, researchers, families, and youth themselves who are involved in the system of care. PAR combines systematic research and professional guidance with the development of a practical intervention tailored to the user population in collaboration with the user population. We…

Dold, Claudia J.; Chapman, Richard A.

2012-01-01

60

A Framework for Clarifying “Participation” in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory research processes is key to their implementation. Our first assumption is that this positive view and acceptance of participation in research processes is a public good for the whole participatory research community. We also assume that the diversity of participatory forms of research is rarely considered by potential participants when they make their decisions about whether or not to participate in a proposed process. We specifically address how to avoid stakeholders’ reluctance to be involved in participatory research projects based on disillusion with past experiences. We argue that the disappointment experienced by stakeholders and other participants (i.e., researchers and policy makers can be avoided by being upfront and precise about how “participation” will be implemented, and what kind of involvement is expected from participants. Such a collective effort from the research community can also clarify the variety of possible implementations for potential participants. Building on earlier efforts to characterize and categorize the diversity of participatory research approaches, we develop a conceptual analytic procedural framework to make participants’ roles explicit in the implementation of different participatory research processes. This framework consists of three facets: (1 the flows of information among participants and the control over these flows for each step in a process, i.e., who will be expected to produce information, who will use this information, and who will receive the results; (2 the timing of the involvement of participants in the different steps of the research process, and the framing power that is associated with each process step; and (3 the organization of communication among participants for each information flow, i.e., in what configuration (bilaterally or as a group, mediated or face to face the interactions among researchers, stakeholders, and policy makers will take place. This framework can accommodate a wide variety of research methods, and highlights exactly how participants are involved in research processes. We are prescriptive in dealing with the need to be procedurally explicit when engaging in participatory research. We anticipate that using this framework will lead to more thoughtful acceptances or refusals to participate in proposed research processes. Our framework is based on various experiences with participatory research. It is intended to be used from the very beginning of a participatory research process as a conceptual guide for researchers. We suggest a protocol to transform it into more practical guidelines for communicating about upcoming participatory research processes. The leader of such processes should propose at each key stage an explicit, yet adaptive, plan for the following stages. This plan should also specify in what ways participants will be involved, and how the plan itself can be questioned and revised.

Katherine A. Daniell

2010-06-01

61

Academic Incentives for Faculty Participation in Community-based Participatory Research  

OpenAIRE

Recognizing the need to overcome the obstacles of traditional university- and discipline-oriented research approaches, a variety of incentives to promote community-based participatory research (CBPR) are presented. Experiences of existing CBPR researchers are used in outlining how this methodological approach can appeal to faculty: the common ground shared by faculty and community leaders in challenging the status quo; opportunities to have an impact on local, regional, and national policy; a...

Nyden, Philip

2003-01-01

62

A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

Bridgelall, Raj

2014-03-01

63

Seeking Renewal, Finding Community: Participatory Action Research in Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…

Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey

2011-01-01

64

A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community  

Science.gov (United States)

The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

2008-01-01

65

Using Participatory Action Research and Photo Methods to Explore Higher Education Administration as an Emotional Endeavor  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we build on Wood's (2010, 2012) recent call to consider higher education as a work place that conjures emotion among constituents, particularly positional leaders, like department chairs. Using a participatory action research and photo-enhanced methodological approach, we illustrate the emotional labor that was poured into the…

Gonzales, Leslie D.; Rincones, Rodolfo

2013-01-01

66

Best Practices in the Reporting of Participatory Action Research: Embracing Both the Forest and the Trees  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory action research (PAR) represents an approach that is deeply consonant with counseling psychology's commitments to social equity and action. However, counseling psychologists who would like to study this literature, or who would like to write about a project of their own, may discover that the reporting of PAR is not straightforward:…

Smith, Laura; Rosenzweig, Lisa; Schmidt, Marjorie

2010-01-01

67

Participatory research for adaptive water management in a transition country. A case study from Uzbekistan  

OpenAIRE

Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provid...

Hirsch, D.; Abrami, G.; Giordano, R.; Liersch, S.; Matin, N.; Schlu?ter, M.

2010-01-01

68

Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan  

OpenAIRE

Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provid...

Nilufar Matin; Maja Schlüter; Stefan Liersch; Raffaele Giordano; Geraldine Abrami; Darya Hirsch

2010-01-01

69

Balancing Scientific and Community Interests in Community-Based Participatory Research  

OpenAIRE

Community-based participatory research is an approach to studying human populations that emphasizes extensive partnerships between researchers and community members. While there are many advantages of this approach, it also faces a number of conceptual and practical challenges, one of which is managing the conflict that sometimes arises between promoting scientific and community interests. This essay explores the potential conflict between scientific and community interests in several differe...

Resnik, David B.; Kennedy, Caitlin E.

2010-01-01

70

Community-Based Participatory Research and Smoking Cessation Interventions: A Review of the Evidence  

OpenAIRE

This article presents a review of the evidence on the use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and smoking cessation interventions. An overview of CBPR is provided, along with a description of the search methods and quality scoring. Research questions are explored to determine: if CBPR improves the quality of research methods and community involvement in cessation intervention studies; and, cessation outcomes when using CBPR approaches. Results of the review are provided along wit...

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Heath, Janie; Williams, Lovoria B.; Tingen, Martha S.

2011-01-01

71

Embedded, Participatory Research: Creating a Grounded Theory with Teenagers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – This project, based on a study of the impact of art programs in public libraries on the teenaged participants, sought to show how library practitioners can perform embedded, participatory research by adding participants to their research team. Embedded participatory techniques, when paired with grounded theory methods, build testable theories from the ground up, based on the real experiences of those involved, including the librarian. This method offers practical solutions for other librarians while furthering a theoretical research agenda.Methods – This example of embedded, participatory techniques used grounded theory methods based on the experiences of teens who participated in art programs at a public library. Fourteen teens participated in interviews, and six of them assisted in coding,analyzing, and abstracting the data, and validating the resulting theory.Results – Employing the teenagers within the research team resulted in a teen-validated theory. The embedded techniques of the practitioner-researcher resulted in a theory that can be applied to practice.Conclusions – This research framework develops the body of literature based on real world contexts and supports hands-on practitioners. It also provides evidence-based theory for funding agencies and assessment. In addition, practitioner-based research that incorporates teens as research partners activates teens’ voices. It gives them a venue to speak for themselves with support from an interested and often advocacy-minded adult.

Shannon Crawford Barniskis

2013-03-01

72

A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b work practice improvement, and c working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1 the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2 the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (p=sig. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives.

Jittra Rukijkanpanich

2010-07-01

73

Youth researching youth: benefits, limitations and ethical considerations within a participatory research process  

OpenAIRE

Objectives. To examine the benefits, limitations and ethical issues associated with conducting participatory research on tobacco use using youth to research other youth. Study design. Community-based participatory research. Methods. Research on tobacco use was conducted with students in the K’àlemì Dene School and Kaw Tay Whee School in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using PhotoVoice. The Grade 9–12 students acted as researchers. Researcher reflections and obse...

Jardine, Cynthia G.; Angela James

2012-01-01

74

Addressing Perinatal Disparities in Urban Setting: Using Community Based Participatory Research  

OpenAIRE

Striking racial disparities in infant mortality exist in the United States, with rates of infant death among African Americans (AA) nearly twice the national average. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches have been successful in fostering collaborative relationships between communities and researchers focused on developing effective and sustainable interventions and programs targeting needs of the community. The current paper details use of the Perinatal Period of Risk (PPO...

Masho, Saba W.; Keyser-marcus, Lori; Varner, Sara B.; Chapman, Derek; Singleton, Rose; Svikis, Dace

2011-01-01

75

Investigating Health Disparities through Community-Based Participatory Research: Lessons Learned from a Process Evaluation  

OpenAIRE

This article describes one university's efforts to partner with a local agency (the “Coalition”) within a disadvantaged, predominantly African American neighborhood, to assist them with studying their community's health disparities and health care access. The final, mutually agreed-upon plan used a community-based participatory research approach, wherein university researchers prepared neighborhood volunteers and Coalition members to conduct face-to-face interviews with residents about th...

Bryan, Valerie; Brye, Willette; Hudson, Kenneth; Dubose, Leevones; Hansberry, Shantisha; Arrieta, Martha

2014-01-01

76

Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good information about the participants and the context in which the method will be applied, knowledge of the local language(s, and careful training of local moderators. While these aspects are relevant to any application of participatory methods, they become even more important in a political and socio-cultural setting such as that found in Uzbekistan. One added value of the activities and a crucial aspect of a participatory research processes was the capacity building of local scientists and practitioners, which facilitates the further application of the methods.

Nilufar Matin

2010-09-01

77

Harnessing the power of the grassroots to conduct public health research in sub-Saharan Africa: a case study from western Kenya in the adaptation of community-based participatory research (CBPR approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a collaborative approach to research that involves the equitable participation of those affected by an issue. As the field of global public health grows, the potential of CBPR to build capacity and to engage communities in identification of problems and development and implementation of solutions in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to be fully tapped. The Orphaned and Separated Children’s Assessments Related to their Health and Well-Being (OSCAR project is a longitudinal cohort of orphaned and non-orphaned children in Kenya. This paper will describe how CBPR approaches and principles can be incorporated and adapted into the study design and methods of a longitudinal epidemiological study in sub-Saharan Africa using this project as an example. Methods The CBPR framework we used involves problem identification, feasibility and planning; implementation; and evaluation and dissemination. This case study will describe how we have engaged the community and adapted CBPR methods to OSCAR’s Health and Well-being Project’s corresponding to this framework in four phases: 1 community engagement, 2 sampling and recruitment, 3 retention, validation, and follow-up, and 4 analysis, interpretation and dissemination. Results To date the study has enrolled 3130 orphaned and separated children, including children living in institutional environments, those living in extended family or other households in the community, and street-involved children and youth. Community engagement and participation was integral in refining the study design and identifying research questions that were impacting the community. Through the participation of village Chiefs and elders we were able to successfully identify eligible households and randomize the selection of participants. The on-going contribution of the community in the research process has been vital to participant retention and data validation while ensuring cultural and community relevance and equity in the research agenda. Conclusion CBPR methods have the ability to enable and strengthen epidemiological and public health research in sub-Saharan Africa within the social, political, economic and cultural contexts of the diverse communities on the continent. This project demonstrates that adaptation of these methods is crucial to the successful implementation of a community-based project involving a highly vulnerable population.

Kamanda Allan

2013-01-01

78

Farmworker pesticide exposure and community-based participatory research: rationale and practical applications.  

OpenAIRE

The consequences of agricultural pesticide exposure continue to be major environmental health problems in rural communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important approach to redressing health disparities resulting from environmental causes. In this article we introduce a collection of articles that describe projects using CBPR to address the health disparities resulting from pesticide exposure in agricultural communities, particularly the communities of migrant and se...

Arcury, T. A.; Quandt, S. A.; Dearry, A.

2001-01-01

79

The impact of participatory research on urban teens: an experimental evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is much practice of community-based participatory research in economically-developing countries and increasingly in North America, there has been little systematic assessment of empowerment effects. Youth-led participatory research holds particular promise for fostering positive development and civic participation among economically disadvantaged urban youth. The present investigation uses a clustered-randomized, within-school experimental design to test the effects of youth-led participatory research on the psychological empowerment of 401 students attending urban public schools. We find that attending a participatory research elective class during the school day was associated with increases in sociopolitical skills, motivation to influence their schools and communities, and participatory behavior. We found no significant effects for perceived control at school. The implications for participatory research and related youth development interventions are discussed. PMID:22875686

Ozer, Emily J; Douglas, Laura

2013-03-01

80

Kwanzaa Park: Discerning Principles of Kwanzaa through Participatory Action Research as a Basis for Culturally Relevant Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the use of participatory action research (PAR) in a graduate teacher education research course. It presents data on how the Principles of Kwanzaa are exemplified in community activities in an African American community in Toledo, Ohio. Using a case study approach, the PAR focused on two questions: (1) In what ways do…

Hamer, Lynne; Chen, Wenting; Plasman, Kellie; Sheth, Susan; Yamazaki, Kasumi

2013-01-01

81

For a public sociology on participatory democracy. Reflexive feedback on research conducted in an association  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper develops a reflexive approach on the relations between research and action in works on participatory democracy; a topic in which bridges are numerous between academic, political and activist fields. It aims at analyzing the impact of the close links between sociologists and actors on the methods and results of research and, reciprocally, the role of sociology in developing participatory practices. Relying on Michael Burawoy’s reflection on “public sociology”, our own research experience in an association, and other research studies conducted in Europe, we define five ways sociologists carry out research on participatory democracy in collaboration with the actors. Beyond a reflection on the social reception of our research, the challenge is to develop a critical and committed sociology on participatory democracy with a view to contributing to the political debate and public action from a critical viewpoint.

Este artículo desarrolla un enfoque reflexivo sobre las relaciones entre investigación y acción en los trabajos sobre democracia participativa, una temática en la que los vínculos entre los campos académicos, políticos y militantes son numerosos. El objetivo es analizar el impacto de las estrechas relaciones entre sociólogos y actores sociales en los métodos y resultados de la investigación y, al mismo tiempo, el papel de la sociología en el desarrollo de las prácticas participativas. Apoyándose en la reflexión de Michael Burawoy sobre la “sociología pública”, en nuestra propia experiencia de investigación en una asociación y en otras investigaciones en Europa, se definen cinco posturas de sociólogos que trabajan en colaboración con los actores sociales sobre la democracia participativa. Más allá de una reflexión sobre la receptividad social de nuestras investigaciones, el desafío consiste en desarrollar una sociología a la vez crítica y comprometida sobre la democracia participativa, para contribuir al debate político y a la acción pública a partir de una capacidad de distancia crítica.

Nez, Héloïse

2012-12-01

82

Theory and Practice in Participatory Research: Lessons from the Native Elder Care Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian…

Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Manson, Spero M.

2011-01-01

83

Applications of Participatory Action Research with Students Who Have Disabilities. ERIC/OSEP Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief paper defines participatory action research, reviews the literature on its use, and offers examples of how researchers and practitioners are applying principles of participatory action research data to select effective practices and support change and innovation in schools. Generation of data-based strategies in natural environments is…

Warger, Cynthia; Burnette, Jane

84

Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach  

OpenAIRE

Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also...

Bitso, Constance

2006-01-01

85

Participatory rural appraisal approaches: an overview and an exemplary application of focus group discussion in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies  

OpenAIRE

Different tools and techniques of participatory approaches are the basic way of conducting qualitative research especially in the field of applied social science. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) is one of the main Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) technique often used in combination with others to achieve desired goals. Considering this concept, this paper attempts to review the PRA approach and then application of FGD, in combination with matrix scoring and ranking to identify problems and ca...

Uddin, M. N.

2013-01-01

86

Mathematics, critical literacy, and youth participatory action research.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines mathematics education as both the site and object of transformation for a youth PAR project in which students researched and evaluated their urban high school in Oakland, California. These youth researchers were trained as part of a sociology course as well as a mathematics class designed to both remediate gaps in math preparation and accelerate students into higher-order math literacy. This study differs from and extends other studies that describe mathematics as a tool for social critique. It considers youth research in and through mathematics as a more ideologically open endeavor in that youth do not simply reproduce predetermined criticisms of social inequality. Thus, this project translates extensive work in critical literacy, new media literacy, and youth participatory action research to a mathematics context. PMID:19830806

Yang, K Wayne

2009-01-01

87

Starting with ourselves in deepening our understanding of generativity in participatory educational research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Participatory educational research is generally characterised by a commitment to making a difference in the lives of those who participate in the research and more broadly, to promoting social transformation. This suggests a potentially fruitful synergy between participatory educational research and [...] the multidisciplinary body of academic work on generativity as a human capacity that has at its core a desire to contribute to the well-being of others. As a research team of teacher educators from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, we seek to add an alternative dimension to current debates on participatory educational research by focusing on understanding the 'how' and 'what' of generativity in a participatory research process. The research question we address is: How does/can engagement in participatory educational research facilitate generativity? While participatory research literature often concentrates on collaboration between researchers and 'researched' communities, we are taking a reflexive stance by exploring our own participation in our dual roles as university community members and as researchers studying our colleagues' experiences in relation to integration of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related issues in university curricula. We describe how our use of the visual method of storyboarding facilitated insight into generativity in participatory educational research. Building on an earlier concept of generativity, we identify and discuss significant generativefeatures ofparticipation, playfulness, passion, and perspicacity in our research process.

Linda, van Laren; Ronicka, Mudaly; Kathleen, Pithouse-Morgan; Shakila, Singh.

88

Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.

Rene Loewenson

2011-07-01

89

Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes re [...] sults of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews case studies and experiences discussed, particularly their contribution to universal health coverage in different settings. The paper also reflects on challenges faced by participatory action research, and outlines recommendations from the two sessions, including creation of a learning network for participatory action research.

Rene, Loewenson; Walter, Flores; Abhay, Shukla; Maija, Kagis; Amuda, Baba; Ashraf, Ryklief; Clara, Mbwili-Muleya; Dhananjay, Kakde.

2011-07-01

90

Investigating Health Disparities through Community-Based Participatory Research: Lessons Learned from a Process Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes one university's efforts to partner with a local agency (the “Coalition”) within a disadvantaged, predominantly African American neighborhood, to assist them with studying their community's health disparities and health care access. The final, mutually agreed-upon plan used a community-based participatory research approach, wherein university researchers prepared neighborhood volunteers and Coalition members to conduct face-to-face interviews with residents about their health and health care access. Subsequently, the Coalition surveyed 138 residents, and the agency now possesses extensive data about the nature and extent of health problems in their community. Lessons learned from these experiences are offered. PMID:24871770

Bryan, Valerie; Brye, Willette; Hudson, Kenneth; Dubose, Leevones; Hansberry, Shantisha; Arrieta, Martha

2014-01-01

91

Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease prevention, and other health issues in California. The survey is used for policy and program development, advocacy, and research. Methods The development of the California Health Interview Survey involves more than 145 people from more than 60 state and local policymaking bodies, public health agencies, advocacy groups, research organizations, and health care organizations. They participate as volunteers in an advisory board, on technical advisory committees, and in work groups that interact with California Health Interview Survey research staff in an accountable advisory process that shapes survey topics, measures, and sample design and determines languages selected for translation. Survey results and data are provided to the communities involved in the survey. Results California Health Interview Survey data have been widely used by local, state, and national public health leaders, policymakers, advocates, and researchers to improve access to health insurance and health care services and to develop and target prevention programs for obesity and chronic illnesses. Conclusion The California Health Interview Survey participatory research model has been an effective approach to planning and implementing a health survey and should be considered by developers of other large health surveys.

E. Richard Brown, PhD

2005-09-01

92

Governing through community allegiance: a qualitative examination of peer research in community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The disappointing results of many public health interventions have been attributed in part to the lack of meaningful community engagement in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of these initiatives. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an alternative research paradigm that directly involves community members in all aspects of the research process. Their involvement is often said to be an empowering experience that builds capacity. In this paper, we interrogate these assumptions, drawing on interview data from a qualitative study investigating the experiences of 18 peer researchers (PRs) recruited from nine CBPR studies in Toronto, Canada. These individuals brought to their respective projects experience of homelessness, living with HIV, being an immigrant or refugee, identifying as transgender, and of having a mental illness. The reflections of PRs are compared to those of other research team members collected in separate focus groups. Findings from these interviews are discussed with an attention to Foucault's concept of 'governmentality', and compared against popular community-based research principles developed by Israel and colleagues. While PRs spoke about participating in CBPR initiatives to share their experience and improve conditions for their communities, these emancipatory goals were often subsumed within corporatist research environments that limited participation. Overall, this study offers a much-needed theoretical engagement with this popular research approach and raises critical questions about the limits of community engagement in collaborative public health research. PMID:24273389

Guta, Adrian; Flicker, Sarah; Roche, Brenda

2013-12-01

93

Participatory action research: involving students in parent education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Competition for scarce clinical placements has increased requiring new and innovative models to be developed to meet the growing need. A participatory action research project was used to provide a community nursing clinical experience of involvement in parent education. Nine Hong Kong nursing students self-selected to participate in the project to implement a parenting program called Parenting Young Children in a Digital World. Three project cycles were used: needs identification, skills development and program implementation. Students were fully involved in each cycle's planning, action and reflection phase. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to inform the project. The overall outcome of the project was the provision of a rich and viable clinical placement experience that created significant learning opportunities for the students and researchers. This paper will explore the student's participation in this PAR project as an innovative clinical practice opportunity. PMID:23849187

Fowler, Cathrine; Wu, Cynthia; Lam, Winsome

2014-01-01

94

Promoting the Adoption of Innovations through Participatory Approaches: Example from Northern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operated for 4 years (2005-2008 in Borno state of Nigeria. Survey results indicated that farmers who participated in project activities' have been successful in increasing crop yields. Both yields and per capita production of major crops were statistically significantly higher (ñ? 0.05 in project communities compared to non-project ones. It is also estimated that there was a decline in percentage of households in food insecurity situation in project communities. Probit regression revealed that participation in project activities had a positive and significant effect on household food security (ñ? 0.05. It is then concluded that development interventions that involve multiple stakeholder partnership, use of participatory research and extension approach can help increase technology uptake among resourcepoor farmers as well as increase food production and food security in a region.

Abdoulaye, T.

2012-01-01

95

Participatory workspace design : A new approach for ergonomists?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually based methods such as workbooks, layout workshops and use scenarios. Employees, management and external design engineersalike took actively part in the design process. The general outcome of the inter-vention was some very concrete changes in the proposed design layout, an enhanced clarity of the production procedures in the new plant, and an identification of potential future ergonomic problems. This case study indi-cates that workspace design can be a new approach for OHS consultants.

Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole

2010-01-01

96

Participatory research with youth: idealising safe social spaces or building transformative links in difficult environments?  

Science.gov (United States)

Freire's theory of social change informs analysis of youth-focused participatory research, with researchers describing links between participation and young people's critical thinking. There is less analysis of how youth move from the safe social space of a participatory research project to take health-promoting action in difficult real-world contexts. This article analyses a project conducted with Papua New Guinean youth, disrupting assumptions that critical thinking inevitably leads to critical action on health. Findings suggest the need to shift the focus of participatory research from supporting 'safe social spaces' to supporting 'transformative action in context' to concretely contribute to improving youth health. PMID:24058110

Vaughan, Cathy

2014-01-01

97

Using community-based participatory research to advocate for homeless children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The social determinants of health represent the societal and economic influences responsible for most health inequities. Advocacy to eliminate health inequities for homeless children oftentimes involves the use of community-based approaches. This article details the Floating Hospital's (TFH) community-based participatory research (CBPR) project that resulted in an advocacy brief. Within the project, the community practice concepts of a strengths perspective, empowerment, capacity building, and advocacy are embedded. The brief enhances TFH's capacity to advocate for the needs of homeless children. This example serves as a guide for social work and public health professionals to use CBPR to address health inequities within their communities. PMID:25317978

Fetherman, Debra L; Burke, Stephen C

2015-01-01

98

Participatory knowledge-management design: A semiotic approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this paper is to present a design strategy for collaborative knowledge-management systems based on a semiotic approach. The contents and structure of experts' knowledge is highly dependent on professional or individual practice. Knowledge-management systems that support cooperation between experts from different (sub-)fields need to be situated and tailored to provide effective support even if the common aspects of the data need to be described by ontologies that are generic in respect to the sub-disciplines involved. To understand and approach this design problem, we apply a semiotic perspective to computer application and human–computer interaction. From a semiotic perspective, the computer application is both a message from the designer to the user about the structure of the problem domain, as well as about interaction with it, and a structured channel for the user's communication with herself, himself or other users of the software. Tailoring or “end-user development” – i.e. adapting the knowledge-management system to a specific (sub-)discipline, task or context – then refines both the message and adapts the structure of the interaction to the situated requirements. The essential idea of this paper is to define a new perspective for designing and developing interactive systems to support collaborative knowledge management. The key concept is to involve domain experts in participatory knowledge design for mapping and translating their professional models into the proper vocabularies, notations, and suitable visual structures for navigating among interface elements. To this end, the paper describes how our semiotic approach supports processes for representing, storing, accessing, and transferring knowledge through which the information architecture of an interactive system can be defined. Finally, the results of applying our approach to a real-world case in an archaeological context are presented.

Valtolina, Stefano; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

2012-01-01

99

Participatory health research within a prison setting: a qualitative analysis of 'Paragraphs of passion'  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to engage, empower and enhance the health and well-being of incarcerated women. The integration of primary health care, community-based participatory research, a settings approach to health promotion, and transformative action research guided the design of this study. A partnership between incarcerated women who became peer-researchers, correctional staff, and academic researchers facilitated the equitable contribution of expertise and decision-making by all partners. The study was conducted in a short sentence (two years or less), minimum/medium security Canadian women's correctional centre. Of the approximately 200 women that joined the research team, 115 participated in writing a 'paragraph of passion' while incarcerated between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Participatory, inductive qualitative, narrative and content analysis were used to illuminate four themes: expertise, transformation, building self-esteem, as well as access and support. The women organized monthly health forums in the prison to share their new knowledge and life experience with other incarcerated women, correctional staff, academics, and community members, and in doing so have built bridges and relationships, some of which have lasted to the present day. PMID:25312768

Ramsden, Vivian; Martin, Ruth; McMillan, Jennifer; Granger-Brown, Alison; Tole, Brenda

2014-10-13

100

Using community-based participatory research to address social determinants of health: lessons learned from Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seattle Partners for Healthy Communities (SPHC) is a multidisciplinary collaboration of community agencies, community activists, public health professionals, academics, and health providers who conduct research aimed at improving the health of urban, socioeconomically marginalized Seattle communities. SPHC uses a community-based participatory research approach to address social factors that affect the health of these communities. This article describes three SPHC projects that focus on social determinants of health, particularly the development of social support and improving housing quality. The characteristics of community participation in each of these projects are discussed and show a spectrum of participation. Although projects successfully addressed proximal social factors affecting health, influencing more distal underlying factors was more difficult. Implications for researchers using a community-based participatory research approach and public health practitioners seeking to engage communities in addressing social determinants of health are presented. PMID:12038744

Krieger, James; Allen, Carol; Cheadle, Allen; Ciske, Sandra; Schier, James K; Senturia, Kirsten; Sullivan, Marianne

2002-06-01

101

Theory and Practice in Participatory Research: Lessons from the Native Elder Care Study  

OpenAIRE

Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian communities. This paper draws upon authors’ collaboration with one American Indian tribe to recommend theoretical revision and practical strategies for ...

Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Dee Geiger, Sarah; Manson, Spero M.

2011-01-01

102

Participatory action research and the construction of academic identity among postgraduate research students  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses the construction of academic identity among postgraduate research students who emerged from a participatory action research (PAR) project. The article reports on how postgraduate research students constructed their academic identity deliberately, as they pursue their studies in a sustainable learning environment (SuLE) project. The aim is to contribute towards an understanding of the impact PAR has on research work of postgraduate students in the Faculty of...

Tshelane, Molaodi David

2013-01-01

103

Creating a Novel Video Vignette Stroke Preparedness Outcome Measure Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions for rare outcomes is a challenge. One such topic is stroke preparedness, defined as inteventions to increase stroke symptom recognition and behavioral intent to call 911. Current stroke preparedness intermediate outcome measures are centered on written vignettes or open-ended questions and have been shown to poorly reflect actual behavior. Given that stroke identification and action requires aural and visual processing, video vignettes may improve on current measures. This article discusses an approach for creating a novel stroke preparedness video vignette intermediate outcome measure within a community-based participatory research partnership. A total of 20 video vignettes were filmed of which 13 were unambiguous (stroke or not stroke) as determined by stroke experts and had test discrimination among community participants. Acceptable reliability, high satisfaction, and cultural relevance were found among the 14 community respondents. A community-based participatory approach was effective in creating a video vignette intermediate outcome. Future projects should consider obtaining expert and community feedback prior to filming all the video vignettes to improve the proportion of vignettes that are usable. While content validity and preliminary reliability were established, future studies are needed to confirm the reliability and establish construct validity. PMID:25367896

Skolarus, Lesli E; Murphy, Jillian B; Dome, Mackenzie; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B

2014-11-01

104

Dealing with Messiness and Uncertainty in Practitioner Research: The Nature of Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the experiences and perceptions of K-12 teachers as they engaged in a participatory action research (PAR) project, "Science Across the Curriculum." Although the experiences and professional learning of two of the project participants are highlighted, the challenges that all participants experienced as they conceptualized…

Goodnough, Karen

2008-01-01

105

Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture  

Science.gov (United States)

Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia

Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

2014-05-01

106

Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commlders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs

107

Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also provides information about Lesotho Environmental Information Network as the body that drove the networking process. The paper discusses cycles of the participatory process undertaken for the EE networking in Mafeteng schools, including identification of problems, problem solving, and reflective workshop and study tour. Finally the paper outlines issues that emerged in participatory EE networking, which include school governance, teachers’ existing knowledge, and communication, decision-making and power relations.

Constance BITSO

2006-01-01

108

Engaging and sustaining adolescents in community-based participatory research: structuring a youth-friendly community-based participatory research environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners. PMID:25423241

LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J

2015-01-01

109

Participatory Design : An introduction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this book is to provide a current account of the commitments and contributions of research and practice in the Participatory Design of information technologies. An overview of the central concepts that have defined and shaped the field is provided as an introduction to the more detailed focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter concludes with some guidance and recommendations for further reading. An introduction to Participatory Design is followed by explanations of how practitioners and researchers in the field understand participation and practice and how design is approached as a process driven by social interaction and engagement. The structure of the book is described, individual chapters introduced and further relevant publications listed. Essentially this chapter introduces, motivates, and grounds the book and the chapters that follow. It provides basic definitions of the core concepts of Participatory Design and explains both their origins and ongoing relations to the motivations and commitments of researchers and practitioners who use participatory approaches in their work. The chapter provides the foundation to account for the structure of the book: one section focusing on some of the different perspectives in the field and their particular contributions and challenges and another section that presents case studies of three outstanding applications of Participatory Design. If we are to design the futures we wish to live then we need those, whose futures they will be, to actively participate in their design. This is why it is so important that Participatory Design keeps developing the design processes, tools, techniques, and methods needed to enable full and active participation in all kinds of design activities.

Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper

2012-01-01

110

Reception research 2.0 : A multidimensional model of participatory media culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Some might argue that reception analysis is a remnant of the past in an age where “people formerly known as the audience” (Rosen, 2006) are producing and circulating content on a diversity of interactive and participatory media platforms. Far from being the case, reception research must continue to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored as an empirical reality. Knowing about the meanings produced and circulated on social media can help us better understand the participatory media culture that has established itself over the past decade. To properly address the question of meaning, however, reception research needs to be adapted to the current media landscape. Taking my point of departure in the multi-dimensional model of reception developed by Kim Schrøder (2003, 2000), I suggest a revision of the model and its dimensions in light of notions such as produsage (Bruns, 2008), convergence (Jenkins, 2008), participation (Carpentier, 2011) and networked culture (Castells, 1996). The model suggested by Schrøder is itself an elaboration, establishing both continuity and critique with Hall’s original suggestion (1973/1980). In the same spirit, I wish to build on the multidimensional model for it offers a systematic approach to the complexity of sense-making processes surrounding media use. Yet I wish to develop the model for its potential to provide a portrait of the participatory media culture that stands in contrast to its understanding as exploitation of labor (Scholz, 2013) or as a business model (van Dicjk, 2013) disguised as false consciousness. The paper will revisit the five dimensions of the model (motivation, comprehension, discrimination, position, implementation) for their relevance and explanatory power in today’s media landscape, suggesting new interpretations and new formulations. A revision of reception research does not only concern the notion of reception itself, but also that of the text, which appears increasingly complex, multi-formed and integrated to the audience. The original dimensions of Schrøder’s model need to be looked at with reference to both reception and circulation (Jenkins et al., 2013), and to the network that binds participatory media culture. It appears that with media 2.0, phenomena which traditionally fell under the labels of interpretation or reception are increasingly taking part in the media text itself. As audiences become textual matters, they contribute to set a new agenda for media research.

Mathieu, David

111

Cultivating Communication: Participatory Approaches in Land Restoration in Iceland  

OpenAIRE

Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Staff of environmental agencies, however, often lack training in communication and in conducting participatory processes. Their interpretation of “participation” is of interest because interpretation affects how participation is practiced. We explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland and how the interpretation affected how participation was carried out in two land ...

Brita Berglund 1958; Lars Hallgren; Arado?ttir, A?sa L.

2013-01-01

112

Cultivating Communication: Participatory Approaches in Land Restoration in Iceland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stakeholder participation in environmental management is increasing. Staff of environmental agencies, however, often lack training in communication and in conducting participatory processes. Their interpretation of “participation” is of interest because interpretation affects how participation is practiced. We explored how participation was interpreted within the Soil Conservation Service of Iceland and how the interpretation affected how participation was carried out in two land restoration projects. Our methods included semi-structured interviews with agency staff and involved stakeholders, participant observations, and document review. The findings showed that participation was seen as a method to accomplish the agency’s tasks, and the focus was primarily on the outputs, or products, of the participatory processes. This interpretation worked well and created positive outcomes as long as process factors, such as interaction with other stakeholders and shared influence, were adequately attended to and joint gains were assured, but other stakeholders expressed dissatisfaction when they were not. We conclude that, although tangible outcomes are necessary for environmental agencies, maintaining a balance between product and process focus in participatory projects is important for optimal results. To increase their ability to deal with process factors, environmental agencies, and ultimately environmental management, would benefit from enhancing their personnel’s understanding of participation, and capacity to conduct participatory processes. To facilitate participation, this understanding should also be integrated in the institutional framework the agencies work within.

Brita Berglund

2013-06-01

113

Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

Martin Johansson

2005-01-01

114

Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps  

Science.gov (United States)

Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, as well as key challenges for the future are also discussed.

Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

2012-04-01

115

Participatory Approach for Integrated Basin Planning with Focus on Disaster Risk Reduction: The Case of the Limpopo River  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper defends the idea that a participatory approach is a suitable method for basin planning integrating both water and land aspects. Assertions made are based on scientific literature review and corroborated by field experience and research carried out in the Limpopo River basin, a transboundary river located in southern Africa which is affected by periodical floods. The paper explains how a basin strategic plan can be drafted and disaster risk reduction strategies derived by combining different types of activities using a bottom-up approach, despite an institutional context which operates through traditional top-down mechanisms. In particular, the “Living with Floods” experience in the lower Limpopo River, in Mozambique, is described as a concrete example of a disaster adaptation measure resulting from a participatory planning exercise. In conclusion, the adopted method and obtained results are discussed and recommendations are formulated for potential replication in similar contexts of the developing world.

Morgan De Dapper

2011-06-01

116

Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

XinQi Dong

2011-11-01

117

Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

XinQi Dong

2011-11-01

118

Using community-based participatory research to identify potential interventions to overcome barriers to adolescents’ healthy eating and physical activity  

OpenAIRE

Using a community-based participatory research approach, we explored adolescent, parent, and community stakeholder perspectives on barriers to healthy eating and physical activity, and intervention ideas to address adolescent obesity. We conducted 14 adolescent focus groups (n = 119), 8 parent focus groups (n = 63), and 28 interviews with community members (i.e., local experts knowledgeable about youth nutrition and physical activity). Participants described ecological and psychosocial barrie...

Goh, Ying-ying; Bogart, Laura M.; Sipple-asher, Bessie Ko; Uyeda, Kimberly; Hawes-dawson, Jennifer; Olarita-dhungana, Josephina; Ryan, Gery W.; Schuster, Mark A.

2009-01-01

119

A Participatory Design Approach for the Support of Collaborative Learning and Knowledge Building in Networked Organizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Engagement in collaborative learning and knowledge building activities is still a big challenge for many workplace-learning designers. Especially in highly competitive environments people might be reluctant to give away too much of their tacit knowledge. A feeling of ownership and an involvement of the individual in the planning of the learning activities can be important motivational factors. In an international research project called IntelLEO – Intelligent Learning Extended Organization we intend to follow a participatory design approach involving individual workers from the very beginning of the development process. The planned user participation will range from the first conceptual design phase through the different development stages until the final validation of the system. Our hypothesis is that this involvement will increase the motivation of the individuals for collaborative learning and knowledge building activities.

Barbara Kieslinger

2009-08-01

120

A participatory approach to design a toolbox to support forest management planning at regional level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim of the study: Forest management planning in a region typically involves multiple stake holders. Decisions processes are idiosyncratic, driven by individual goals and supported by segmented forest-based information. Nevertheless, stake holders' decisions do impact one another leading to complex interaction networks where communication, cooperation and negotiation play a key role. This research addresses the need to develop decision tools to support these roles. Emphasis is on the integration of participatory planning tools and techniques in the architecture of a regional decision support toolbox. Area of the study: The proposed approach was applied in the Chamusca County in Central Portugal although it is easily extended to other regions. Material and methods: This research proposes an Enterprise Architecture methodological approach to design a toolbox that may address distinct stake holders' interests and decision processes, while enabling communication, cooperation, negotiation and information sharing among all those involved in the regional interactions network. Main results: the proposed approach was tested in a regional network involving decision processes and information shared by 22 entities clustered into 13 stake holders groups, including industrial owners, and non-industrial private forest land owners (NIPF) acting individually or grouped into associations and federations, national and regional offices of the forest authority, forest services providers, non-governmental organizations and research centers. Results suggest that the proposed approach may provide a toolbox that may effectively address stake holders decision processes and goals and support the regional interaction network. (Author)

Marques, A. F.; Borges, J. G.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Lucas, B.; Melo, I.

2013-09-01

121

Community-based participatory research in complex settings: clean mind-dirty hands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the abundance of the literature which discusses factors supporting or inhibiting effective participation of community members in community-based research, there is a paucity of publications analysing challenges to participation in complex settings. This manuscript describes an intervention built on researcher-community partnership amid complex social conditions which challenged participation of community members at different stages of the research process. The research took place in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon and 1 of 12 in Lebanon which suffer from deteriorating social, economic and physical conditions perpetuated by state-imposed restrictions. The research team developed a community coalition which was involved in all stages of planning, designing, implementation and dissemination. In all those stages the aim was to maintain rigorous research, to follow a 'clean mind' approach to research, but maintain principles of community participation which necessitate 'a dirty hand'. Despite commitment to the principles of community-based participatory research, participation of community members (including youth, parents and teachers) was affected to a great extent by the social, physical and structural conditions of the community context. Characteristics of the context where research is conducted and how it affects community members should not be overlooked since multiple factors beyond the researchers' control could interfere with the rigour of scientific research. Researchers need to develop a plan for participation with the community from the beginning with an understanding of the community forces that affect meaningful participation and address possible deterrence. PMID:23872385

Makhoul, Jihad; Nakkash, Rima; Harpham, Trudy; Qutteina, Yara

2014-09-01

122

The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group.Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

Cheryl Forchuk

2014-06-01

123

Hearing Voices: Participatory Research with Preschool Children with and without Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study seeks to extend current thinking on participatory research by actively engaging 36 young children with and without a known disability in all aspects of a research project. Matched according to age and gender, six dyads of children attending four early years settings in Northern Ireland chose the research question, selected the…

Gray, Colette; Winter, Eileen

2011-01-01

124

Community-Based Participatory Research with Hispanic/Latino Leaders and Members  

Science.gov (United States)

Hispanic/Latinos (H/L) are being studied for healthcare disparities research utilizing community-based participatory research (CBPR). CBPR's active participation of community members and researchers suggests improvement in community health. Yet there are no known studies that inductively investigated the lived experience of H/L community leaders…

Amendola, Mary Grace

2013-01-01

125

The Promise of a Community-Based, Participatory Approach to Service-Learning in Teacher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on how one teacher education program utilized a Learn and Serve America grant to embed service-learning experiences into its practices. Included are narrative reflections on how the program faculty developed a community-based, participatory approach to service-learning in order to act as a responsive partner to the needs of…

Tinkler, Alan; Tinkler, Barri; Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia; Mugisha, Vincent M.

2014-01-01

126

New Partnerships Require New Approaches to Participatory Program Evaluations: Planning for the Future.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses this era of transition in program evaluation, which is marked by growing cooperation between government and civil society, and suggests participatory program evaluation as an approach to lessen undue influence by any one partner and promote a positive culture of evaluation. (SLD)

McHardy, Joan

2002-01-01

127

Adult Education State Plan Development: Approaches to Participatory Planning in Selected States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the major approaches to participatory planning used by seven states in responding to the requirement for a three-year Adult Education State Plan of the 1978 Amendments to the Adult Education Act. (Information was collected during two visits per state to California, Delaware, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, and New…

Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

128

Stakeholders' perspectives on community-based participatory research to enhance mental health services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, consumers of mental health services have not been given meaningful roles in research and change efforts related to the services they use. This is quickly changing as scholars and a growing number of funding bodies now call for greater consumer involvement in mental health services research and improvement. Amidst these calls, community-based participatory research (CBPR) has emerged as an approach which holds unique promise for capitalizing on consumer involvement in mental health services research and change. Yet, there have been few discussions of the value added by this approach above and beyond that of traditional means of inquiry and enhancement in adult mental health services. The purpose of this paper is to add to this discussion an understanding of potential multilevel and multifaceted benefits associated with consumer-involved CBPR. This is accomplished through presenting the first-person accounts of four stakeholder groups who were part of a consumer-involved CBPR project purposed to improve the services of a local community mental health center. We present these accounts with the hope that by illustrating the unique outcomes associated with CBPR, there will be invigorated interest in CBPR as a vehicle for consumer involvement in adult mental health services research and enhancement. PMID:25245601

Case, Andrew D; Byrd, Ronald; Claggett, Eddrena; DeVeaux, Sandra; Perkins, Reno; Huang, Cindy; Sernyak, Michael J; Steiner, Jeanne L; Cole, Robert; LaPaglia, Donna M; Bailey, Margaret; Buchanan, Candace; Johnson, Avon; Kaufman, Joy S

2014-12-01

129

"From Worse to Better": How Kenyan Student-Teachers Can Use Participatory Action Research in Health Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This study focuses on Kenyan student-teachers' professional learning and development in health education in a participatory action research project conducted in one Kenyan teacher training college. The aim was to explore the potential of participatory action research to instigate change in student-teachers' health education practices in…

Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume

2014-01-01

130

Participation and Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Environmental Education Processes: For What Are People Empowered?  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory action research (PAR) derived from anti-colonial struggles in the third world in the 1960s. Traditionally it has been a method of the margins because of its commitment to linking social justice to research. Because of its counter-hegemonic tendency it has had great appeal among environmental educators advocating a socially critical…

Le Grange, Lesley

2009-01-01

131

Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

2013-01-01

132

A Signature Pedagogy for Leadership Education: Preparing Principals through Participatory Action Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This study proposes participatory action research as a signature pedagogy for principal preparation programs. Signature pedagogies bring professional knowledge and core values together in distinctive teaching and learning arrangements. A rationale and learning results are presented that describe key components of action research intended to help…

Sappington, Neil; Baker, Paul J.; Gardner, Dianne; Pacha, Joe

2010-01-01

133

Messy Ethics: Conducting Moral Participatory Action Research in the Crucible of University-School Relations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…

Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.

2011-01-01

134

HYDROLOGY-PRESERVATION OF WATER THROUGH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management of Irrigation system and included the provisions in the National Water Policy act as under: ``Efforts should be made to involve farmers progressively in various aspects of management of irrigation systems, particularly in water distribution and collection of water rates.Assisitance of voluntary agencies should be enlisted in educating the farmers in efficient water-use and water management`` The constraints, success and other setbacks in the system are analyzed in the paper.

PROF.B.SUNDARARAMAN

2013-04-01

135

Developing a community-based participatory research model to engage transition age youth using mental health service in research.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a model for the development and conduct of a community-based participatory research project with transition age youth (TAY) mental health service users. Community-based participatory research frameworks can facilitate equitable partnerships and meaningful inclusion but have not been fully drawn upon in mental health research. The model included TAY as trained research associates involved in every aspect of the research process. We describe the development of the project, creation of the research team, training, the design and conduct of the study, and challenges faced. The methods developed successfully provided support for the meaningful participation of TAY in the project. PMID:25423247

Lincoln, Alisa K; Borg, Ryan; Delman, Jonathan

2015-01-01

136

Investigating the Benefits of Participatory Action Research for Environmental Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental education (EE) continues to focus on enhancing people's ecological knowledge to encourage sustainable actions. This deficit approach presumes that once informed about environmental harms, people will work towards sustainable solutions for healthy societies. Yet research overwhelmingly demonstrates that knowledge of environmental…

Bywater, Krista

2014-01-01

137

RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007 brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems, such as forums, blogs, and sites of the open source type. In this study we produce a preliminary survey of thematic concentration and methodologies of research on blogs and other interactive models of journalistic publication in recent Brazilian contributions in this area.

Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva

2008-12-01

138

Scientific rigour and innovations in participatory action research investigating workplace learning in continuing interprofessional education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The persistent theory-practice gap shows how challenging it can be for healthcare professionals to keep updating their practices. The continuing education challenges are partly explained by the tremendous stream of new discoveries in health and the epidemic of multi-morbid conditions. Participatory action research (PAR) is used in healthcare as a research approach that capitalizes on people's resources to better understand and enhance their professional practices. PAR thus can consolidate our knowledge on workplace learning in continuing interprofessional education while directly improving quality of care. However, PAR lacks clear scientific criteria to ensure the consistency between the investigators' methodology and philosophy, which jeopardize its credibility. This paper outlines the principles of rigour in PAR and describes the additions of a preliminary planning phase to Kemmis and McTaggart's PAR description as well as the use of the professional co-development group, an action-oriented data collection method. We believe that this will help PAR co-participants achieve improved scientific rigour and encourage more investigators to collaborate through this research approach contributing to the advancement of knowledge on workplace learning in continuing interprofessional education. PMID:24559150

Langlois, Sophie; Goudreau, Johanne; Lalonde, Lyne

2014-05-01

139

Mobile Applications for Participatory Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

Drill, Sabrina L.

2013-01-01

140

Participatory process management  

OpenAIRE

Although the process of public and stakeholder participation continues to be intensively investigated and discussed in academic circles, the implementation of participatory methods in practice remains problematic. This can be attributed to the lack of knowledge transfer on the one hand, and the general underestimation of participatory approaches in planning processes on the other. A possible solution - participatory processmanagement - is introduced in this article. Participatory process m...

Krywkow, J.; Hare, M.

2008-01-01

141

Urban Indian Voices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Health and Needs Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other…

Johnson, Chad V.; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A.; Hellman, Chan M.; Burkhart, Russell

2010-01-01

142

Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

2009-01-01

143

Participatory Mapping with Urban Youth: The Visual Elicitation of Socio-Spatial Research Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory mapping attempts to engage youth in the generation of personalized maps, as a way to both harness the value of individual knowledge about geographic space, and to concurrently empower the research participants by inviting them to take an active stake in the representation and explication of their spatial environment. Engagement in…

Literat, Ioana

2013-01-01

144

Knowledge and Transformative Social Action: The Encounter of Selected Traditions of Participatory (Action) Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The argument in this paper is that action and participatory research developed within the context of social and political movements aimed at promoting democratic relationships and institutions represents a methodological strategy for deconstructing and reconstructing the hegemonic perspective of knowledge and knowledge production. After a brief…

Streck, Danilo Romeu

2014-01-01

145

Communication between people with schizophrenia and their medical professionals: a participatory research project.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors describe a participatory research project undertaken by a group of people with schizophrenia under the guidance of a university researcher. Participatory research involves members of the research group in meaningful participation in all stages of the research process. In this study, group members chose the topic-experiences with medical professionals-and method of data collection-in-depth interviews that they conducted with each other. They developed and performed a readers' theater presentation of the results and their recommendations for how they would like to be treated by medical professionals. The results indicate that good communication with medical professionals is essential to people with schizophrenia; it helps them accept the fact that they are ill and learn to live with the illness. The research offered a transformative experience to group members and is contributing to change in the practice of health care for people with severe mental illnesses. PMID:15068580

Schneider, Barbara; Scissons, Hannah; Arney, Laurie; Benson, George; Derry, Jeff; Lucas, Ken; Misurelli, Michele; Nickerson, Dana; Sunderland, Mark

2004-04-01

146

Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action research is an effective method for community assessments. However, researchers must rigorously embrace principles of mutual cooperation, respect for public ideas, and a robust belief in community empowerment in order to pave the way for responsible and active citizen participation in the various stages of research.

Ahari Saeid

2012-03-01

147

Participatory approach to data warehousing in health care: UGANDA’S Perspective  

OpenAIRE

This licentiate thesis presents the use of participatory approach to developing a data warehouse for data mining in health care. Uganda is one of the countries that faced the largest brunt of the HIV/AIDS epidemic at its inception in the early 1980s with reports of close to a million deaths. Government and nongovernmental interventions over the years saw massive reductions in HIV prevalence rates over the years. This reduction in HIV prevalence rates led to great pra...

Otine, Charles

2011-01-01

148

Using Participatory Action Research to Design an Intervention Integrity System in the Urban Schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

While integrity is often thought of as the degree to which a program is applied as intended, researchers have recently widened the lens to include not only monitoring of program content, but also evaluating the process by which interventions are implemented and the extent to which the intervention is received as intended. Further, a partnership-based approach has been identified to be as critical to facilitating appropriate and accurate monitoring and interpretation of intervention integrity in the cultural context. Building on these expanded definitions of intervention integrity, this study describes how an intervention monitoring system was developed through participatory research in the context of a classroom-based aggression prevention program for students in an inner-city elementary school. The system highlighted evaluation of the quality of intervention delivery and participant responsiveness. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, and comparison to a less nuanced integrity monitoring system provided information on the informativeness of this new system. Preliminary investigation, however, suggested that future research is necessary to examine the extent to which differences in quality of implementation across classrooms predict clinically significant differences in program outcomes. PMID:20428475

Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Feinberg, Betsy E; Freedman, Melanie A; Jawad, Abbas; Leff, Stephen S

2009-09-01

149

EFFECTIVENESS OF A PARTICIPATORY ACTION ORIENTED TRAINING INTERVENTION APPROACH AMONG HARVESTERS IN OIL PALM PLANTATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consistent with the global demand for palm oil, the intensified upstream harvesting activities of oil palms’ fresh fruit bunches, despite the harvesters evidences of various ergonomics risk factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders should be a cause for concern. Thus, this study describes the effectiveness of a modified and locally adapted Participatory Action-Oriented Training intervention program in improving the working environment of the harvesters. A training program modified and customized to the harvesters’ working in oil palm plantation consist of 3 primary instrument (awareness video, interactive lecture and action checklist with 3 reinforcing activities (to increase knowledge, enhance understanding and practical application. Based on the result of post-intervention assessment, the self-reported prevalence of MSD and KAP score among Intervention Group (IG did not significantly differ from Control Group (CG. Instead of decreasing, the prevalence of MSD in the past 12 months and 7 days increased within IG. Qualitative findings in this research show that the negative psychosocial and organizational climate has severely affected the implementation of PAOT rendering the effect of the intervention approach. The interventions were ineffective on the IG as this study suffers from various situational barriers as obstacles to benefit the full extent of PAOT advantages.

Ng Yee Guan

2014-01-01

150

The Role of Participatory Modeling in Landscape Approaches to Reconcile Conservation and Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conservation organizations are increasingly turning to landscape approaches to achieve a balance between conservation and development goals. We use six case studies in Africa and Asia to explore the role of participatory modeling with stakeholders as one of the steps towards implementing a landscape approach. The modeling was enthusiastically embraced by some stakeholders and led to impact in some cases. Different stakeholders valued the modeling exercise differently. Noteworthy was the difference between those stakeholders connected to the policy process and scientists; the presence of the former in the modeling activities is key to achieving policy impacts, and the latter were most critical of participatory modeling. Valued aspects of the modeling included stimulating cross-sector strategic thinking, and helping participants to confront the real drivers of change and to recognize trade-offs. The modeling was generally considered to be successful in building shared understanding of issues. This understanding was gained mainly in the discussions held in the process of building the model rather than in the model outputs. The model itself reflects but a few of the main elements of the usually rich discussions that preceded its finalization. Problems emerged when models became too complex. Key lessons for participatory modeling are the need for good facilitation in order to maintain a balance between "models as stories" and technical modeling, and the importance of inviting the appropriate stakeholders to achieve impact.

Habtemariam Kassa

2010-06-01

151

[The Citizen Committee as a co-management strategy in participatory research in the field of mental health in Quebec].  

Science.gov (United States)

The theme of users' rights has become a central issue in contemporary debate on mental health. Drawing from the experiences of "Comitê Cidadão" (Citizen Committee), consisting of users and family members in an international research alliance between Brazil and Canada, an attempt is made to discuss the effects of the experience of co-management of the so-called Autonomous Medication Administration (GAM - Gestão Autônoma da Medicação) participatory research project on these individuals. By means of a detailed description of the background of the Committee and interviews and analysis of the voice transcriptions of its members, the problems raised by the relation of dialogue between scientific knowledge and users' knowledge are examined in a methodological approach of participatory research. As a result of the research, it was established that the experience of the Citizens Committee in co-management of health research can be propitious to the increase in the degree of autonomy, greater empowerment and the exercise of leadership and citizenship, with the consequent emergence of subjects with rights. PMID:24061018

Passos, Eduardo; Otanari, Thais Mikie de Carvalho; Emerich, Bruno Ferrari; Guerini, Lorena

2013-10-01

152

Incorporating Youth-Led Community Participatory Research into School Health Center Programs and Policies  

OpenAIRE

Training adolescents as student researchers is a strategy that can improve the delivery of care at school-based health centers (SBHCs) and significantly shift school health policies impacting students. From 2003 to 2006, the University of California, San Francisco, in partnership with Youth In Focus, implemented a participatory student research project to enhance the existing evaluation of the Alameda County SBHC Coalition and its participating clinic members, and to help develop and implemen...

Soleimanpour, Samira; Brindis, Claire; Geierstanger, Sara; Kandawalla, Spenta; Kurlaender, Tamar

2008-01-01

153

Urban Indian voices: a community-based participatory research health and needs assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project utilized a mixed-methods survey design to identify urban (Tulsa, OK) American Indian (AI) strengths and needs. Six hundred fifty AIs (550 adults and 100 youth) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and beliefs about their community. These results were used in conjunction with other community research efforts to inform program development, support proposals for external funding, and develop a comprehensive service system model to be implemented in the community. PMID:20683823

Johnson, Chad V; Bartgis, Jami; Worley, Jody A; Hellman, Chad M; Burkhart, Russell

2010-01-01

154

Tailoring science outreach through E-matching using a community-based participatory approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to increase science exposure for pre-college (K-12) students and as part of the science education reform agenda, many biomedical research institutions have established university-community partnerships. Typically, these science outreach programs consist of pre-structured, generic exposure for students, with little community engagement. However, the use of a medium that is accessible to both teachers and scientists, electronic web-based matchmaking (E-matching) provides an opportunity for tailored outreach utilizing a community-based participatory approach (CBPA), which involves all stakeholders in the planning and implementation of the science outreach based on the interests of teachers/students and scientists. E-matching is a timely and urgent endeavor that provides a rapid connection for science engagement between teachers/students and experts in an effort to fill the science outreach gap. National Lab Network (formerly National Lab Day), an ongoing initiative to increase science equity and literacy, provides a model for engaging the public in science via an E-matching and hands-on learning approach. We argue that science outreach should be a dynamic endeavor that changes according to the needs of a target school. We will describe a case study of a tailored science outreach activity in which a public school that serves mostly under-represented minority students from disadvantaged backgrounds were E-matched with a university, and subsequently became equal partners in the development of the science outreach plan. In addition, we will show how global science outreach endeavors may utilize a CBPA, like E-matching, to support a pipeline to science among under-represented minority students and students from disadvantaged backgrounds. By merging the CBPA concept with a practical case example, we hope to inform science outreach practices via the lens of a tailored E-matching approach. PMID:21408195

Rumala, Bernice B; Hidary, Jack; Ewool, Linda; Emdin, Christopher; Scovell, Ted

2011-03-01

155

Visual Participatory Approach to Violent Behaviour amongst Zimbabwean Students: Forms and Prevalence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the perceptions of students on forms and prevalence of violent behavior in Gweru urban district of Zimbabwe. Visual participatory methodology premised on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was used. Drawings with focus group discussions were the main data collecting instruments. Participants were fifteen conveniently selected students attending a typical urban high school (females = 7, age range 15-17, males = 8, age range 14-18. Data on forms and prevalence of violence were collected from the students. The majority of the participants portrayed physical violence, vandalism and sexual harassment. It was recommended that schools must develop clear policies in an endeavor to reduce or eliminate violence. Schools Psychological Services must provide psychotherapy to individuals concerned. Visual participatory methodology, a new body of knowledge in Zimbabwe, is a vital tool for future researchers.

Ephias Gudyanga

2014-04-01

156

Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.

Garcia Piedad

2009-03-01

157

Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self-determination, through better-informed policy based on community-level holistic responses and solutions as opposed to an exclusive focus on single-issue deficit approaches. PMID:25310135

Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

2014-10-01

158

Participatory action research, strengthening institutional capacity and governance: Confronting the urban challenge in Kampala  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Urban governance presents the most daunting and challenging task for sub-Saharan African countries in this century (Rakodi, 1997: 3; Rakodi, 2001; 5; McGill, 1988; 6. Africa is urbanizing faster than any other region. The level of urbanization stands at 39.1%, with annual rates of growth ranging between 8% and 13%. It is estimated that by 2025 half of the African population will be urban. This demographic shift, particularly in the sub-Saharan region, presents major problems for urban management. Although urban management programs of infrastructure development, financial management, economic development, environmental planning, spatial development mechanisms and social services provision continue to be enhanced, there is a mismatch between the program outcomes and need. Due to this shortfall, alternative strategies have been sought but with little documented evidence of successes, failures and lessons because of limited evaluation. The importance of research-informed policy is underscored by the apparent disconnect between actors in the urban field. These actors include city managers, researchers, political leaders and most important, communities. The latter are often disregarded yet they largely influence the development path and shape the fabric of urban space. Even where communities are engaged, they exert less influence than other actors on urban policies and programs. This paper examines how participatory action research is changing the relationships between researchers, communities and city authorities in a search for alternative approaches to address urban poverty and environmental challenges in Kampala – in particular service delivery, solid waste management and flood control. Based on an action-research and development project conducted in Kampala since 2006, there is evidence that communities can be galvanized not only to design solutions to their problems, but also to engage with city authorities through information sharing platforms about their needs and thus bolster outcomes of urban development programs through improved governance.

Shuaib Lwasa

2010-03-01

159

African primary care research: Participatory action research / La recherche sur les soins de santé primaire en Afrique: la recherche sur l'action participative  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in [...] detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal.

Bob, Mash.

2014-01-01

160

Community–University Partnerships: Using Participatory Action Learning and Action Research (PALAR)  

OpenAIRE

This article positions participatory action learning and action research (PALAR) as a preferred methodology for community-university partnerships to achieve a holistic outcome that benefits the common interest. Evidence for this claim is illustrated through case studies of two community engagement programs, one in South Africa and the other in Australia. The South African study explains how relationships, reflection and recognition (the three R’s of PALAR) are important elements that promot...

Judith Kearney; Lesley Wood; Ortrun Zuber-Skerritt

2013-01-01

161

Development and Evaluation of a Toolkit to Assess Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research  

OpenAIRE

An earlier investigation by academic and community co-investigators led to the development of the Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Model, which defined major dimensions and key indicators of partnership readiness. As a next step in this process, we used qualitative methods, cognitive pretesting, and expert reviews to develop a working guide, or toolkit, based on the model for academic and community partners to assess and leverage their readiness for CBPR...

Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha

2011-01-01

162

Prisons, Pipelines, and the President: Developing Critical Math Literacy through Participatory Action Research  

OpenAIRE

Academic success, and the economic well-being it usually affords, is closely tied to math achievement. Key national indicators reveal decades of underperformance of African American males in mathematics. Scholars argue that the schooling experiences of Black males are highly-racialized, are often bereft of significance, and result in academic and social marginalization. The author reports findings from an eight-month participatory action research (PAR) project involving seven high-school aged...

Terry, Clarence L.

2010-01-01

163

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health p...

Felipone, Sonia M. N.; Dos Santos, Tereza L. F.; Pontuschka, Ni?dia N.; Baeder, Angela M.; Jutta Gutberlet

2013-01-01

164

Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

165

A Stepwise, Participatory Approach to Design and Implement Community Based Adaptation to Drought in the Peruvian Andes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participatory design with physical measurements, modeling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña River basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey (n = 94 we explore how a vulnerability index (risk divided by response efficacy can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households, and how socio-economic factors determine this vulnerability. Water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlated with vulnerability to drought. The research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency is low. The selected adaptation measures aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency of farmers and households.

Ralph Lasage

2015-02-01

166

Assessing the outcomes of participatory research: protocol for identifying, selecting, appraising and synthesizing the literature for realist review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory Research (PR entails the co-governance of research by academic researchers and end-users. End-users are those who are affected by issues under study (e.g., community groups or populations affected by illness, or those positioned to act on the knowledge generated by research (e.g., clinicians, community leaders, health managers, patients, and policy makers. Systematic reviews assessing the generalizable benefits of PR must address: the diversity of research topics, methods, and intervention designs that involve a PR approach; varying degrees of end-user involvement in research co-governance, both within and between projects; and the complexity of outcomes arising from long-term partnerships. Methods We addressed the above mentioned challenges by adapting realist review methodology to PR assessment, specifically by developing inductively-driven identification, selection, appraisal, and synthesis procedures. This approach allowed us to address the non-uniformity and complexity of the PR literature. Each stage of the review involved two independent reviewers and followed a reproducible, systematic coding and retention procedure. Retained studies were completed participatory health interventions, demonstrated high levels of participation by non-academic stakeholders (i.e., excluding studies in which end-users were not involved in co-governing throughout the stages of research and contained detailed descriptions of the participatory process and context. Retained sets are being mapped and analyzed using realist review methods. Results The librarian-guided search string yielded 7,167 citations. A total of 594 citations were retained after the identification process. Eighty-three papers remained after selection. Principle Investigators (PIs were contacted to solicit all companion papers. Twenty-three sets of papers (23 PR studies, comprising 276 publications, passed appraisal and are being synthesized using realist review methods. Discussion The systematic and stage-based procedure addressed challenges to PR assessment and generated our robust understanding of complex and heterogeneous PR practices. To date, realist reviews have focussed on evaluations of relatively uniform interventions. In contrast our PR search yielded a wide diversity of partnerships and research topics. We therefore developed tools to achieve conceptual clarity on the PR field, as a beneficial precursor to our theoretically-driven synthesis using realist methods. Findings from the ongoing review will be provided in forthcoming publications.

Greenhalgh Trish

2011-03-01

167

Using community-based participatory research to identify health issues for cambodian american youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lack of data disaggregated by ethnic group and the widespread perception of Asian Americans as "model minorities" often masks the health needs of specific groups within the Asian American population. Limited research focuses on health and psychological well-being among Cambodian American youth despite risk of negative educational and behavioral outcomes as well as high levels of trauma and psychiatric symptoms among first-generation Cambodian refugee adults. This article describes the development of a health survey with Cambodian American youth using community-based participatory research (and illustrates how youth can actively engage in research to inform change in health-related programs and policies. PMID:25423244

Sangalang, Cindy C; Ngouy, Suely; Lau, Anna S

2015-01-01

168

Ambitious mitigation scenarios for Germany: A participatory approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the challenge of engaging civil society stakeholders in the development process of ambitious mitigation scenarios that are based on formal energy system modeling, allowing for the explicit attachment of normative considerations to technology-focused mitigation options. It presents the definition and model results for a set of mitigation scenarios for Germany that achieve 85% CO2 emission reduction in 2050 relative to 1990. During consecutive dialogues, civil society stakeholders from the transport and electricity sector framed the definition of boundary conditions for the energy-economy model REMIND-D and evaluated the scenarios with regard to plausibility and social acceptance implications. Even though the limited scope of this research impedes inferential conclusions on the German energy transition as a whole, it demonstrates that the technological solutions to the mitigation problem proposed by the model give rise to significant societal and political implications that deem at least as challenging as the mere engineering aspects of innovative technologies. These insights underline the importance of comprehending mitigation of energy-related CO2 emissions as a socio-technical transition embedded in a political context. - Highlights: ? Preferences of German civil society stakeholders are elicited in dialogues. ? Three scenarios represent likely, desirable and controversial key developments. ? A carbon lock-in from freipments. ? A carbon lock-in from freight transport and coal electrification is deemed likely. ? Stakeholders advocate major paradigm shifts for resolving the carbon lock-in. ? Institutional and societal factors are decisive for achieving ambitious mitigation.

169

Local Community Development and the Participatory Planning Approach: A Review of Theory and Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study tries to put forward the argument that, much as the Participatory Approach has in theory been praised and given high international prominence as a possible solution to addressing community development issues, its practical application still leaves a lot to be desired. Practically, it remains to be seen as an approach whose islands of knowledge continue to be unknown, some invisible and yet others denied from the mainstream of practice. The paper makes this observation from a study conducted in Ghana on the use of the approach to address local community development needs. Specifically, the aim was to establish the link between the theoretical knowledge of the approach and its practical application.

Daniel Wandera Clief Naku

2013-09-01

170

Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. ? Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. ? Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. ? A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. ? Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

171

Integrating participatory engagement and scientific research to inform causes and solutions to water problems in the River Njoro Watershed Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the course of 9 years, an international multidisciplinary team of US and Kenyan scientists under the Sustainable Management of Rural Watersheds (SUMAWA) Project, based at Egerton University in Kenya, worked with Kenyan public agencies to apply a variety of participatory methods and outreach activities combined with land use mapping, hydrologic and water system modeling, and other scientific tools and evaluations to investigate and identify solutions to declining water quantity and quality problems affecting communities and environmental and productive sectors in the River Njoro Watershed in Kenya. Traditional participatory rural appraisal techniques were modified to engage low income, informal, and tribal communities in identification of local services, benefits, and groups linked to water and riparian resources and collect their perceptions of water-related problems, priorities, and solution options throughout the watershed. Building on this foundation of insights, information, and engagement on water issues with local communities and other stakeholders, the project designed a research agenda aimed at creating shared scientific understanding of the causes of identified problems and developing and testing promising interventions to address community and stakeholder priority concerns. This presentation will share lessons from the SUMAWA experience of using a problem-driven, solution-oriented, community-based watershed approach to address water resource problems at local scale in a semi-arid African developing country setting.

Jenkins, M.

2012-12-01

172

Iterative participatory design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The theoretical background in this chapter is information systems development in an organizational context. This includes theories from participatory design, human-computer interaction, and ethnographically inspired studies of work practices. The concept of design is defined as an experimental iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design.

Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

2010-01-01

173

Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

2014-01-01

174

Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions outside its original domain. When possible, the points are illustrated through a recent research project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne

175

Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods: cultural transect, problem-tree analysis and focus-group discussion. The paper concludes by categorizing the barriers identified at different levels: micro (roughly the individual level at which the lack of knowledge and motivation are significant barriers), meso (roughly the school level at which the lack of teachers and computers are significant barriers) and macro (roughly the national level at which the lack of government planning and the lack of training of teachers are significant barriers). Finally, the paper also concludes that applied participatory learning and action-oriented techniques showed potential to provide researchers and local practitioners with situated insights that could not just have been lifted out of existing research literature.

Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

2013-01-01

176

Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. PMID:24668583

Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A

2014-09-01

177

Engaging youth in bullying prevention through community-based participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies that engage youth in community-based participatory research (CBPR) focus on issues of safety/violence, include elementary school-aged youth, or quantitatively assess outcomes of the CBPR process. This article expands understanding of CBPR with youth by describing and evaluating the outcomes of a project that engaged fifth-grade students at 3 schools in bullying-focused CBPR. Results suggest that the project was associated with decreases in fear of bullying and increases in peer and teacher intervention to stop bullying. We conclude with implications for the engagement of elementary school-aged youth in CBPR to address bullying and other youth issues. PMID:25423250

Gibson, Jennifer E; Flaspohler, Paul D; Watts, Vanessa

2015-01-01

178

Participatory Communication : A Practical Guide  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate social processes, decision-making processes, and any change process for that matter. Participatory approaches are nothing new. At a time when institutions, both governmental and non-governmental, increasingly seek participatory approaches in their development initative, this guide provides perspectives, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society.

Tufte, Thomas

2009-01-01

179

Participatory telerobotics  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

2013-05-01

180

Using Reflective Practice to Incorporate Formative Assessment in a Middle School Science Classroom: A Participatory Action Research Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Our purpose was to investigate the efficacy of using reflective practice to guide our action research study of incorporating formative assessment into middle school science teaching and learning. Using participatory action research, we worked collaboratively to incorporate formative assessment into two instructional units, and then engaged in…

Trauth-Nare, Amy; Buck, Gayle

2011-01-01

181

Participatory Action Research and the Reconstruction of Teachers' Practical Thinking: Lesson Studies and Core Reflection. An Experience in Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the thoughts and topics we have discussed and worked on for a very long time with Bridget Somekh, we would like to present the theoretical relationship between lesson studies, action research and practical knowledge in teacher education. Inspired by the pedagogical philosophy of lesson studies, participatory action research, and core…

Perez, Angel I.; Soto, Encarnacion; Servan, M. Jose

2010-01-01

182

Participatory approach in planning for low carbon and eco-village: A case of Felda Taib Andak  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory approaches have becoming an important tool in planning of sustainable communities. Although participation is conceived as a malleable concept there are certain methods that planners can adopt to ensure a meaningful participation. This paper will provide some experiences and lessons on how participatory planning could be carried out with local people, the role of planners in the process of plan preparation, implementation and the outcome. This paper first explores some of the meanings of participation, the criteria of participation and the approaches of participation in planning for sustainable community. The second part is a description and discussion of how participatory approach in planning was applied in planning for low carbon and eco-village in Iskandar Malaysia based on a case study of planning of Felda Taib Andak scheme. The participatory approach involved a series of meetings, site visit and focus group discussions with representative of the Felda Village to come out with action plan and actual implementation. From focus group discussions a roadmap consisted of a vision and objectives and a dozen actions were formulated and adopted. In the process of implementation the main implementation & coordination committee was form in which the author (planner) is one of its members to look into fund raising & implementation strategies together with the local people. Several task forces or sub committees responsible to implement the dozen actions were also formed. The outcome was encouraging in which some of the actions such as planting of bamboo trees, reduction of pollution from oil palm factory and bicycling activities has been implemented and shown progress. The paper also highlights some of the issues and challenges in participatory planning.

Ngah, I.; Zulkifli, A. S.

2014-02-01

183

Community-Based Participatory Research Conceptual Model: Community Partner Consultation and Face Validity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A national community-based participatory research (CBPR) team developed a conceptual model of CBPR partnerships to understand the contribution of partnership processes to improved community capacity and health outcomes. With the model primarily developed through academic literature and expert consensus building, we sought community input to assess face validity and acceptability. Our research team conducted semi-structured focus groups with six partnerships nationwide. Participants validated and expanded on existing model constructs and identified new constructs based on "real-world" praxis, resulting in a revised model. Four cross-cutting constructs were identified: trust development, capacity, mutual learning, and power dynamics. By empirically testing the model, we found community face validity and capacity to adapt the model to diverse contexts. We recommend partnerships use and adapt the CBPR model and its constructs, for collective reflection and evaluation, to enhance their partnering practices and achieve their health and research goals. PMID:25361792

Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie E; Duran, Bonnie; Tafoya, Greg; Baker, Elizabeth A; Chan, Domin; Chang, Charlotte; Greene-Moton, Ella; Kelley, Michele A; Wallerstein, Nina

2014-10-31

184

A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed mannertransparent, timely, and informed manner

185

Challenges of youth participation in participatory action research. : methodological considerations of the Paamiut Youth Voice research project.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Paamiut Youth Voice (PYV) is a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, exploring youth perceptions, experiences, and the promotion of well-being in Paamiut, Greenland. Active youth participation remained a key challenge in the development of the local community through the locally initiated community mobilisation programme Paamiut Asasara. The challenges of youth participation in PYV are investigated in order to explore the implications of youth participation in PAR projects. The discussion of challenges is based on a methodological account of experiences from the research process clarifying how youth participation in the PYV project took place. Results are presented, concerning the young people’s understandings and experiences of engagement and participation.

Wattar, Laila; Fanous, Sandrine

2012-01-01

186

What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.

Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.

187

Ethical Considerations of Community-based Participatory Research: Contextual Underpinnings for Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The nature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) poses distinctive ethical challenges. In the absence of organized guidelines, a remarkable amount of researchers’ time and energy will be spent tackling these ethical challenges. The study aimed to explore ethical issues and principles potentially arising when conducting CBPR. Methods: This qualitative study conducted in CBPR Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Required data were gathered through systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews. Representatives of community, academia, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) participated in our study. Ten interviews with representatives of partner organizations, four group interviews with academic staff, and four with representatives of community were conducted. Repeated thematic analysis was used to elicit ethics-related overarching themes from transcribed interviews. As recommendations, these themes were then organized into a set of CBPR-related ethical issues and principles. Results: Four CBPR ethical guidelines (including 173 articles) were selected from a systematic review. Overarching themes relating to ethical principles which emerged from interviews were as follows: Trust, transparency and accountability, equity and inclusion, power imbalance, tolerance and conflict management, and attention to cultural sensitivity. Practical principles that emerged included: Consensus rather than informed consent, ownership of data and research achievements, and sustainability and maintenance of relationships. According to findings and in comparison to international guidelines, the present study put more emphasis on cultural sensitivity and sustainability as CBPR ethical tangles. Conclusions: Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. However, some discrepancies exist that calls for local scrutiny. Future use and critic of current explored ethical issues and principles are highly encouraged. PMID:25400893

Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Morasae, Esmaeil Khedmati; Shahandeh, Khandan; Majdzadeh, Reza; Seydali, Elham; Aramesh, Kiarash; Abknar, Nina Loori

2014-01-01

188

Challenges of Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research in Boston’s Neighborhoods to Reduce Disparities in Asthma  

OpenAIRE

Boston is one of the preeminent health care and research centers in the world, but for much of its urban core, these resources are largely out of reach. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) provides a model with the potential to bridge the gaps between its research prominence and the health of its residents. We report here two case studies of major research projects that were partnerships between universities in Boston and community based organizations and city agencies. The Healthy ...

Freeman, Elmer R.; Brugge, Doug; Bennett-bradley, Willie Mae; Levy, Jonathan I.; Carrasco, Edna Rivera

2006-01-01

189

Large-Scale Participation: A Case Study of a Participatory Approach to Developing a New Public Library  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we present a case study of a participatory project that focuses on interaction in large-scale design, namely, the development of the new Urban Mediaspace Aarhus. This project, which has been under way for ten years, embodies a series of issues that arise when participatory design approaches are applied to large-scale, IT-oriented projects. At the same time, it highlights the issues public knowledge institutions face, when interactive technologies challenge their fundamental roles and practices; by extension, this case offers examples of how these challenges may be explored and addressed through IT-based participatory initiatives. We present a range of such activities carried out during the past ten years, and present the main lessons from the project, based on interviews with three key stakeholders. These lessons focus on how to make participation work in practice, how to align different paradigms of inquiry and practice in a project of this scale, and how to capture and anchor the insights from participatory events to inform the ongoing design process.

Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

2013-01-01

190

Utilizing Participatory Action Research to Foster Effective Family/School Collaboration at an Urban PreK-8 Catholic School  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a study focused on promoting culturally responsive collaboration practices at an urban preK-8 Catholic school. Using participatory action research (PAR) as its framework, a team of school stakeholders and university faculty and students from the psychology department partnered to create a participant-driven data collection and…

Shriberg, David; Schumacher, Ruth; McMahon, Kara C.; Flores, Sofia; Moy, Gregory E.; Swidzinski, Joanna; Tompkins, Nicole A.

2012-01-01

191

Collaborative Research in Child Welfare: A Rationale for Rigorous Participatory Evaluation Designs to Promote Sustained Systems Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Expansion of the child welfare evidence base is a major challenge. The field must establish how organizational systems and practice techniques yield outcomes for children and families. Needed research must be grounded in practice and must engage practitioners and administrators via participatory evaluation. The extent to which successful practices…

Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Shackelford, Kim; Kelly, Michael; Martin-Galijatovic, Ramie

2011-01-01

192

Mapping a Strategic Plan for Health: Community-Based Participatory Research with Underserved, Low-Income, Urban Neighborhoods  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2002, community-based participatory research methods have been used by the Calvin College Nursing Department to map out a strategic health plan for three urban, low-income, underserved neighborhoods. Nine focus groups and 449 door-to-door health surveys were completed across the three urban neighborhoods between 2002 and 2004. Neighborhood…

Zandee, Gail

2012-01-01

193

A Participatory Action Research Study of Nature Education in Nature: Towards Community-Based Eco-Pedagogy  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary nature education is exploring different ways to develop awareness for change and initiate action. Such educational activities go beyond creating understanding and awareness in order to develop a sense of commitment for individual and collective action. This participatory action research study aimed to improve teachers' sensitiveness…

Eryaman, Mustafa Yunus; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sukran; Okur, Emel; Cetinkaya, Zeynep; Uygun, Selcuk

2010-01-01

194

Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems : Extending the Iterative PD Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD approach applied throughout design and organizational implementation. To pursue this aim we extend the iterative PD prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing stepwise implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. The extended approach is exemplified through a large-scale PD experiment in the Danish healthcare sector. We reflect on our experiences from this experiment and discuss four challenges PD must address in dealing with large-scale systems development.

Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

2008-01-01

195

Investigação participativa baseada na comunidade em saúde pública: potencialidades e desafios / Community-based participatory research in public health: potentials and challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No campo da saúde pública, advoga-se uma mudança de paradigma de investigação que possibilite maior tradução do conhecimento científico em ações e políticas de saúde mais adaptadas às comunidades. Especial atenção tem sido dada à investigação participativa baseada na comunidade, pelo seu potencial e [...] m possibilitar um maior conhecimento sobre as questões complexas de saúde. Neste ensaio, refletiu-se sobre a contribuição da investigação participativa em saúde, analisando as suas perspectivas teóricas, princípios e potencialidades. Também se examinarom alguns aspectos críticos na sua implementação, realçando-se possíveis estratégias para superar esses desafios. A investigação participativa integra uma abordagem colaborativa de envolvimento das comunidades, profissionais, decisores políticos e acadêmicos na produção de conhecimento, incorporando as suas diferentes perspectivas e experiências. Essa abordagem favorece a aceitação do projeto, a adesão das comunidades ao estudo e, consequentemente, a qualidade dos dados coletados. A investigação participativa pode ser, em si só, uma intervenção: o envolvimento das comunidades pode aumentar a sua tomada de consciência sobre a importância das temáticas abordadas e capacitá-las para definir e responder às problemáticas de saúde, promovendo o seu empoderamento. Contudo, os investigadores encontram desafios na utilização dessa abordagem, relacionados com o estabelecimento e manutenção das parcerias de investigação, a partilha de controle da tomada de decisão e a conciliação das motivações e interesses dos parceiros. Mais evidência sobre o processo de implementação da investigação participativa reforçará o seu quadro teórico, a compreensão das suas potencialidades e limitações no estudo de diferentes problemáticas, contextos e populações, e o seu papel benéfico para as comunidades. Abstract in english A change in the research paradigm towards a method that more readily allows the translation of scientific knowledge into more community-oriented health actions and policies has been advocated in the field of public health. Special attention has been paid to community-based participatory research, wh [...] ich has the potential to allow the production of deeper knowledge of complex health issues. The present essay reflects on the contributions of participatory research in health, analyzing its theoretical perspectives, principles, and strengths. Some key aspects relating to the implementation of participatory research are also examined, underscoring possible strategies to face this challenge. Participatory research integrates a collaborative approach with involvement of communities, professionals, political decision-makers, and academics to produce knowledge, incorporating the different perspectives and experiences of these stakeholders. This approach facilitates acceptance of the project and engagement of communities, and consequently enhances the quality of the data collected. Participatory research may work in and of itself as an intervention: the involvement of communities may increase their awareness about the importance of the research themes and serve as training to define and address health issues, promoting empowerment. Nevertheless, researchers face challenges in applying this approach. Such challenges are related to the establishment and maintenance of research partnerships, the sharing of decision-making control, and the reconciliation of the motivations and interests of partners. More evidence regarding the process of implementation of participatory research will strengthen the method's theoretical framework and provide further understanding regarding its potential and limitations to address various problems, contexts, and populations, and clarify its beneficial role for communities.

Sónia, Dias; Ana, Gama.

2014-02-01

196

Indigenous youth participatory action research: re-visioning social justice for social work with indigenous youths.  

Science.gov (United States)

The NASW Code of Ethics identifies social justice as one of six foundational values of the social work profession. Indigenous communities have long questioned the authenticity of this commitment and rightly so, given the historical activities of social work and social workers. Still, the commitment persists as an inspiration for an imperfect, yet determined, profession. This article presents a theoretical discussion of questions pertinent for social justice in social work practice in Native American communities: Whose definition of social justice should prevail in work with and in Indigenous communities? What can a revisioning of social justice mean to the development of Native communities and for Native youths in particular? What methods or processes of social work are most appropriate for this social justice work? This article presents a case for the practice of youth participatory action research as one method to work for social justice in Native communities. PMID:24450018

Johnston-Goodstar, Katie

2013-10-01

197

Innovating Science Teaching by Participatory Action Research – Reflections from an Interdisciplinary Project of Curriculum Innovation on Teaching about Climate Change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes a three-year curriculum innovation project on teaching about climate change. The innovation for this study focused on a socio-critical approach towards teaching climate change in four different teaching domains (biology, chemistry, physics and politics. The teaching itself explicitly aimed at general educational objectives, i.e., fostering students’ communication and evaluation abilities as essential components for preparing young people for active participation in society. Participatory Action Research has been used as a collaborative strategy of cyclical curriculum innovation and research. Using past experiences and selected results from accompanying research, this project and its methodology will be reflected upon from the viewpoint of the chemistry group taking part in the project. Core issues reflected upon include how the project contributed to the creation of feasible curriculum materials, how it led to innovative structures in practice, and whether it supported experienced teachers’ ongoing professional development. General considerations for the process of curriculum innovation will also be derived.

Timo Feierabend

2011-01-01

198

Participatory Action Research: creating an effective prevention curriculum for adolescents in the Southwestern US.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing research confirms a need to seek strategies that combine the strengths of researchers and community to create effective prevention curricula for youth. This article describes how components of Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology were used to create the keepin' it REAL Drug Resistance Strategies (DRS) curriculum designed for a diverse Southwestern US youth population. School community participants were involved in multiple stages of creation and implementation. The research team developed a systematic process for creating lessons built upon strong theoretical foundations, while teachers and students contributed lesson modifications and evaluations, suggestions for supplemental activities, and the actual production of instructional videos. While the experimental design and some methodological constraints served to limit school community involvement in some phases of the DRS project, this article describes how PAR methodology ensured that researchers collaborated with school community members to create this promising drug prevention curriculum. Results of the REAL experiment, discussion of the use of this methodology, implications and recommendations for future research also are included. PMID:12828237

Gosin, M N; Dustman, P A; Drapeau, A E; Harthun, M L

2003-06-01

199

Municipal Benefits of Participatory Urban Sensing: A Simulation Approach and Case Validation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Involving citizens in public affairs through the use of participatory sensing applications is an emerging theme in Pervasive Computing and mobile E-Government (M-Government). Prior work, however, suggests that local governments place more emphasis on internal than on external M-Government projects. [...] This paper takes an action design research perspective to provide insight into the often overlooked potential of citizen-centric, external M-Government services. We consider the scenario of a sensing application for reporting urban infrastructure issues to the municipality and present a System Dynamics model to estimate the diffusion, use, and municipal impacts of such service. The model is validated based on the case of a large German city, a dedicated survey, and further data sources. The simulation results indicate that, compared to internal information acquisition procedures, the use of urban sensing can improve a municipality's availability of environmental information at a comparable level of cost. Furthermore, we discuss a number of aspects and learnings related to an urban sensing implementation and provide an empirical estimation of the diffusion model. Our results provide an impetus for researchers and government practitioners to reconsider the benefits of urban sensing applications in E-Government endeavors.

Till J., Winkler; Holger, Ziekow; Martin, Weinberg.

2012-12-01

200

Economic aspects in landscape decision-making: a participatory planning tool based on a representative approach  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we develop a method for spatial decision support that combines economic efficiency â¿¿ measured by the concept op willingness to pay â¿¿ with a participatory planning tool, that allows for an active collaboration among the actors involved, in such a way that decision makers can draw on the outcomes in their spatial planning and design process. The method is called RITAM, a Dutch acronym for spatially explicit, participatory and interdisciplinary trade-off meth...

Heide, C. M.; Blaeij, A. T.; Heijman, W. J. M.

2008-01-01

201

Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands  

OpenAIRE

The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS) is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-...

Yee Ming Chen ,; Bo-Yuan Wang

2009-01-01

202

A Review of Bayesian Networks as a Participatory Modeling Approach in Support of Sustainable Environmental Management  

OpenAIRE

To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN) modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition,...

Meike Duespohl; Sina Frank; Petra Doell

2012-01-01

203

The Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) Program: Design of a participatory research intervention to increase physical activity and improve dietary habits in African American churches  

Science.gov (United States)

Background African Americans are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer morbidity and mortality. Physical activity and healthy dietary practices can reduce this risk. The church is a promising setting to address health disparities, and community-based participatory research is a preferred approach. Objectives Using a community-based participatory approach and the social ecologic model, the FAN trial aims to increase self-reported moderate-intensity physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption and reduce blood pressure in African American church members. Secondary aims are to increase objectively measured moderate-intensity physical activity and fiber/whole grain consumption and reduce fat consumption. Design FAN is a group randomized trial (GRT) with two levels of clustering: participants (N=1,279; n=316 accelerometer subgroup) within church and church within church cluster. In the first wave, seven clusters including 23 churches were randomized to an immediate intervention or delayed intervention. In subsequent waves, 51 churches were randomized to an immediate or delayed intervention. Methods Church committee members, pastors, and cooks participate in full-day trainings to learn how to implement physical activity and dietary changes in the church. Monthly mailings and technical assistance calls are delivered over the 15-month intervention. Members complete measurements at baseline and 15-months. A detailed process evaluation is included. Summary FAN focuses on modifying the social, cultural, and policy environment in a faith-based setting. The use of a community-based participatory research approach, engagement of church leaders, inclusion of a detailed process evaluation, and a formal plan for sustainability and dissemination make FAN unique. PMID:20359549

Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; Parrott, Allen W.; Condrasky, Margaret; Saunders, Ruth; Addy, Cheryl L.; Evans, Rebecca; Baruth, Meghan; Samuel, May

2010-01-01

204

Feasibility of adolescents to conduct community-based participatory research on obesity and diabetes in rural Appalachia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) has been advocated to translate advances in health care sciences to the community. We describe a novel approach applied to obesity management and diabetes prevention. This takes advantage of a network of science clubs organized by the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) for extracurricular activity of disadvantaged high school students in rural Appalachia. Physician scientists and educators provided an intensive summer course on CBPR, ethics, and study design on obesity management and diabetes prevention. Ethical certification for CBPR investigation was obtained for 210 students and 18 mentors for a study on the prevalence of obesity and Type II diabetes within their community. Over a 6-month period, 989 had a collection of complete analyzable data, of which 103 had diabetes. The proportion with obesity (BMI > or = 30) was over 50%. The frequency of diabetes was related to increasing BMI. When BMI > or = 40, the frequency approached 50%, and exhibited a clear familial distribution. We conclude that trained adolescents can effectively conduct CBPR, and obesity and diabetes are more prevalent than previously reported in this community. This experience provides encouragement to conduct future studies to infl uence weight management from high-risk populations in this medically disadvantaged community. PMID:20443917

Bardwell, Genevieve; Morton, Cathy; Chester, Ann; Pancoska, Petr; Buch, Shama; Cecchetti, Alfred; Vecchio, Marcella; Paulsen, Stephanie; Groark, Stephen; Branch, Robert A

2009-10-01

205

Using Community Based Participatory Research to Create a Culturally Grounded Intervention for Parents and Youth to Prevent Risky Behaviors  

OpenAIRE

The principal goal of this article is to contribute to the field of prevention science by providing a sequential description of how Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) was used to develop a parent education curriculum aimed at preventing and decreasing adolescent drug use and risky sexual behaviors. CBPR principles are outlined, and information is provided on the unique contributions of researchers and community members who came together to develop this parent education program. Foc...

Parsai, Monica Bermu?dez; Castro, Felipe Gonza?lez; Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Harthun, Mary L.; Valdez, Hector

2011-01-01

206

Assessing the Health Needs of Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Community-Based Participatory Research Study in Chicago's Chinatown  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+) adults (n = 78). We used a grounded theory framework to syst...

Dong, Xinqi; Chang, E-shien; Wong, Esther; Wong, Bernarda; Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Simon, Melissa A.

2011-01-01

207

Transformative 'cultural shifts' in nursing: participatory action research and the 'project of possibility'.  

Science.gov (United States)

For some time scholars have called for changes in nursing in order to address the subjugated position of nurses within health care. This paper argues that through an engagement with participatory action research, nurses open up a possibility to bring about transformative shifts in nursing culture. The motivation for nurses to engage with this research process arises out of an acknowledgement that they can no longer live with the sense of pain and crisis endemic in much of their nursing practice, and a desire to take action to bring about transformative change within their local ward cultures. However, their participation in critical reflective and collaborative processes that underpin action research exposes an array of minor scattered nursing practices which frustrate possibilities for transformative change. Drawing on empirical accounts from research conducted by the author, the paper argues that once made explicit, these minor practices and the regimes of truth that nurture and sustain them, can be reconstructed and the possibility of transformative cultural shifts in nursing will then emerge. PMID:7664151

Robinson, A

1995-06-01

208

A Scandinavian approach to designing with children in a developing country - Exploring the applicability of participatory methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory Design (PD) offers a democratic approach to design by creating a platform for active end-user participation in the design process. Since its emergence, the field of PD has been shaped by the Scandinavian context, in which many early PD projects took place. In this paper we discuss the challenges that arise from employing participatory methods in a different socio-cultural setting with participants who have had comparatively limited exposure to digital technologies. We offer a comparative study of two PD projects carried out with school classes in Scandinavia and India. While the setup for the two projects was identical, they unfolded in very different ways. We present and discuss this study, which leads us to conclude that PD can be a useful approach in both settings, but that there is a distinct difference as to which methods bring about fruitful results. The most prominent difference is the ways in which abstract and manifest participatory methods led to different outcomes in the two settings.

Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.

2013-01-01

209

Assessing the Influence of Researcher-Partner Involvement on the Process and Outcomes of Participatory Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Scoping Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify…

Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

2014-01-01

210

Towards a Creative Synthesis of Participant Observation and Participatory Research: Reflections on Doing Research "with" and "on" Young Bhutanese Refugees in Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

This article responds to Wright and Nelson's (1995) call for a "creative synthesis" of participant observation and participatory research, which may allow the limitations of both methods to be addressed. It does so by reflecting on the experience of doing long-term research both with and on young Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Although participant…

Evans, Rosalind

2013-01-01

211

Participatory research revealing the work and occupational health hazards of cooperative recyclers in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives. PMID:24084672

Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M; Pontuschka, Nídia N; Felipone, Sonia M N; Dos Santos, Tereza L F

2013-10-01

212

Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

Sonia M. N. Felipone

2013-09-01

213

African American community leaders' policy recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV infection, treatment, and care: results from a community-based participatory research project in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.  

Science.gov (United States)

African Americans account for 45% of new HIV infections in the United States. Little empirical research investigates African American community leaders' normative recommendations for addressing these disparities. Philadelphia's HIV infection rate is 5 times the national average, nearly 70% of new infections are among African Americans, and 2% of African Americans in Philadelphia are living with HIV/AIDS. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we convened focus groups among 52 African American community leaders from diverse backgrounds to solicit normative recommendations for reducing Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection. Leaders recommended that (a) Philadelphia's city government should raise awareness about HIV/AIDS with media campaigns featuring local leaders, (b) local HIV-prevention interventions should address social and structural factors influencing HIV risks rather than focus exclusively on mode of HIV transmission, (c) resources should be distributed to the most heavily affected neighborhoods of Philadelphia, and (d) faith institutions should play a critical role in HIV testing, treatment, and prevention efforts. We developed a policy memo highlighting these normative recommendations for how to enhance local HIV prevention policy. This policy memo led to Philadelphia City Council hearings about HIV/AIDS in October 2010 and subsequently informed local HIV/AIDS prevention policy and development of local HIV prevention interventions. This community-based participatory research case study offers important lessons for effectively engaging community leaders in research to promote HIV/AIDS policy change. PMID:24879446

Nunn, Amy; Sanders, Julia; Carson, Lee; Thomas, Gladys; Cornwall, Alexandra; Towey, Caitlin; Lee, Hwajin; Tasco, Marian; Shabazz-El, Waheedah; Yolken, Annajane; Smith, Tyrone; Bell, Gary; Feller, Sophie; Smith, Erin; James, George; Shelton Dunston, Brenda; Green, Derek

2015-01-01

214

Participatory rural appraisal approaches: an overview and an exemplary application of focus group discussion in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Different tools and techniques of participatory approaches are the basic way of conducting qualitative research especially in the field of applied social science. Focus Group Discussion (FGD is one of the main Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA technique often used in combination with others to achieve desired goals. Considering this concept, this paper attempts to review the PRA approach and then application of FGD, in combination with matrix scoring and ranking to identify problems and causes of climate change along with possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. A group of 20 students at post graduate level under the faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture at Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany those from different corner of the world was considered as target people of the study. The results concluded that “unpredictable weather events” was ranked as the present outstanding visible climate change problem caused by “human activities”. However, it was noted that if alternative renewable energy sources are exploited, this could contribute to solving the present climate change problem. This finding might have the good reference for the policy makers in the same line not only for developing countries but also for developed countries.

M.N. Uddin

2013-12-01

215

Engaging homeless youth in community-based participatory research: a case study from Skid Row, Los Angeles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing evidence highlights the benefits to youth of involvement in community-based participatory research. Less attention has been paid, however, to the contributions youth can make to helping change health-promoting policy through such work. We describe a multi-method case study of a policy-focused community-based participatory research project in the Skid Row area of downtown Los Angeles, California, where a small group of homeless youth worked with adult mentors to develop and conduct a survey of 96 homeless youth and used the findings to help secure health-promoting policy change. We review the partnership's work at each stage of the policy-making process; its successes in changing policy regarding recreation, juvenile justice, and education; and the challenges encountered, especially with policy enforcement. We share lessons learned, including the importance of strong adult mentors and of policy environments conducive to sustainable, health-promoting change for marginalized youth. PMID:23384969

Garcia, Analilia P; Minkler, Meredith; Cardenas, Zelenne; Grills, Cheryl; Porter, Charles

2014-01-01

216

A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

2011-04-01

217

RESEARCH ON PARTICIPATORY JOURNALISM IN BRAZIL: A survey of the state of the art  

OpenAIRE

Worldwide interest in the study of participatory journalism has been growing in recent years and it is generally accepted that journalistic practices are undergoing considerable transformations as a result of this expanding conversational dimension (Gillmor, 2004; Bowman and Willis 2003; Brums, 2005; Deuze et al. 2006; Rutigliano, Hyun and Jeong, 2007) brought forwards by mechanisms that facilitate production and circulation of information through different participatory communication systems...

André Holanda; Claudia Quadros; Jan Alyne Barbosa Silva; Marcos Palacios

2008-01-01

218

The One-Pager: A Practical Policy Advocacy Tool for Translating Community-Based Participatory Research Into Action  

OpenAIRE

The multiple and diverse perspectives, skills, and experiences inherent in community–academic partnerships make them uniquely positioned to educate policy makers and advocate for health equity. Effective communication tools are critical to successfully engage in the policy-making process. Yet few resources emphasize the development and use of practical tools for translating community-based participatory research (CBPR) findings into action. The purpose of this article is to describe a CBPR ...

Izumi, Betty T.; Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Reyes, Angela G.; Martin, Jenifer; Lichtenstein, Richard L.; Wilson, Christine; Sand, Sharon L.

2010-01-01

219

Facilitating War-Affected Young Mothers’ Reintegration: Lessons from a Participatory Action Research Study in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda  

OpenAIRE

Young women and girls formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups face multiple challenges. Many become pregnant or have children while they are associated and face stigma and marginalization upon reintegration into civilian communities. This article describes a multi-year participatory action research study that took place in twenty communities in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and northern Uganda from 2006 – 2009 and included more than 650 young mother participants. We find that this c...

Miranda Worthen; Grace Onyango; Mike Wessells; Angela Veale; Susan McKay

2013-01-01

220

How Gender Influences the Use of Space: A Participatory Research on Spatial Planning in Fishing Villages in Central Java and West Aceh, Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

The significance of participatory research for achieving a participatory spatial planning may be strengthened by the involvement of gender in the analysis of space. The structuring of space in the Javanese and Acehnese fishing villages shows how gender role greatly influences the use of space. This represents the fragmentation of village both socially and spatially. A comprehensive understanding of such a structure is important for relevant development agencies to make a just spatial planning.

Wiyatiningsih

2010-01-01

221

Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic. Guidelines on approaches to siting a deep repository. Deliverable D21  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the review of experiences in SEA and EIA in the Czech Republic summarized in Deliverable No.3 and the testing of novel participatory and dialogue approaches summarized in Deliverables No.7, 11 and 12 in this report a model for the siting process specifically in the Czech Republic, that takes into account the need for transparency and interaction with the public, within the framework of legal requirements is outlined. Lessons learnt are summarised and a road map specified. The guidelines / recommendations in this report are proposed based on mapping the situation in the Czech Republic and experience gained in connection with the testing and application of novel participatory approaches and dialogue, but many of them are of general validity and can be applied in other countries outside the Czech Republic. This reports links directly to Work package 6, where general guidelines for participation and transparency, reflecting institutional and cultural differences, are given - Deliverable No.22

222

A Comparison of a Centralized Versus De-centralized Recruitment Schema in Two Community-Based Participatory Research Studies for Cancer Prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches is increasing with the goal of making more meaningful and impactful advances in eliminating cancer-related health disparities. While many reports have espoused its advantages, few investigations have focused on comparing CBPR-oriented recruitment and retention. Consequently, the purpose of this analysis was to report and compare two different CBPR approaches in two cancer prevention studies. We utilized frequencies and Chi-squared tests to compare and contrast subject recruitment and retention for two studies that incorporated a randomized, controlled intervention design of a dietary and physical activity intervention among African Americans (AA). One study utilized a de-centralized approach to recruitment in which primary responsibility for recruitment was assigned to the general AA community of various church partners whereas the other incorporated a centralized approach to recruitment in which a single lay community individual was hired as research personnel to lead recruitment and intervention delivery. Both studies performed equally well for both recruitment and retention (75 and 88 % recruitment rates and 71 and 66 % retention rates) far exceeding those rates traditionally cited for cancer clinical trials (~5 %). The de-centralized approach to retention appeared to result in statistically greater retention for the control participants compared to the centralized approach (77 vs. 51 %, p approaches appeared to greatly enhance recruitment and retention rates of AA populations. We further note lessons learned and challenges to consider for future research opportunities. PMID:25086566

Adams, Swann Arp; Heiney, Sue P; Brandt, Heather M; Wirth, Michael D; Khan, Samira; Johnson, Hiluv; Davis, Lisa; Wineglass, Cassandra M; Warren-Jones, Tatiana Y; Felder, Tisha M; Drayton, Ruby F; Davis, Briana; Farr, Deeonna E; Hébert, James R

2014-08-01

223

Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed into ergonomic training that address the issues originally raised. This training includes intervention methods, ergonomic tools used, dam acquired, and effects of waste container handling techniques on lower back, shoulder, and wrists and methods to help proactively reduce injuries associated with this profession.

Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

2000-02-07

224

Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-a-vis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

Yee Ming Chen

2009-09-01

225

Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands  

CERN Document Server

The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS) is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers' understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-avis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

Chen, Yee Ming

2009-01-01

226

Action research als relevante vorm van interventieonderzoek: Verslag van het World Congress on Action Learning and Action Research & Participatory Action Research 2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Eind augustus 2006 vond in Groningen het gecombineerde internationale congress over Action Learning and Action Research/Participatory Action Research (ALARPM 7th/PAR 11th plaats. Onderzoekers van over de hele wereld namen deel om te luisteren naar key-note speakers, om een workshop te geven of bij te wonen en om ervaringen uit te wisselen. De 290 deelnemers hadden een ruime keus: naast de zeven centrale lezingen was er een scala aan workshops over thema’s uit vijf verschillende stromingen (Standards/Ethics, Education/Action Learning, Organizational Development, Rural Development/Developmental Cooperation/Social Innovation, Health. Een impressie van het congres.

Coyan Tromp

2008-10-01

227

Application of Participatory Approach in Community Forest Resource Management Based on a Case Study Performed in Fujian Province, China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After China’s collective forest right system reform, cooperation organizations have played an important role in the development of community forestry. In order to analyze the demands and attitudes of stakeholders of community forests, a participatory approach which included brainstorming, material collection, PRA tools, semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys, was used in a forest management survey involving four village cases. According to the application of the participatory approach it can be seen that the different types of stakeholders had different demands and attitudes toward community forest management. Farmers were more focused on economic benefit while forestry bureaus were more concerned about attaining the maximum level of forestry farmers’ ecological, economic and social efficiency. Cooperative members had more positive attitudes than non-cooperative members. According to all stakeholders, the harvest quota control system is the most unreasonable policy. In addition, based on the results of the SWOT strategy analysis matrix for forest management policies and systems at the level of forestry farmers, four strategy selections are proposed.

Yilei Hou

2013-01-01

228

Communities of practice in participatory approaches to environmental regulation : Prerequisites for implementation of environmental knowledge in agricultural context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes for change in agricultural contexts. The hypothesis is that the processes in the case project can be analysed by applying concepts of the theory of communities of practice. The first analytical component is a test for learning prerequisites conducted by the concepts of domain, community and practice. The second component concerns identity changes among involved farmers and the third component introduces the concept of boundary objects to concrete cooperative processes in the case project. We find that the stakeholder approach is problematic in catchment areas because communities of practice are rare in interest groups and organisations. On the basis of the theory of communities of practice, we suggest to integrate both knowledge production and knowledge implementation in the work-related social setting of each individual farm.

Madsen, Mads Lægdsgaard; Noe, Egon

2012-01-01

229

The Oregon migrant farmworker community: an evolving model for participatory research.  

OpenAIRE

Migrant farmworker communities present distinct challenges that require new approaches for community participation in research. In the State of Oregon an agency that advocates for the migrant farmworker community has collaborated successfully with university researchers to implement a research program directed to reducing pesticide exposures among the children of migrant farmworkers. The research process has included both qualitative research methods with members of the community and quantita...

Mccauley, L. A.; Beltran, M.; Phillips, J.; Lasarev, M.; Sticker, D.

2001-01-01

230

Participatory Planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

A synopsis of a Planning Assistance Kit designed by the Council of Educational Facility Planners (CEFP) and Educational Facilities Laboratories (EFL) to assist local communities in participatory planning. (MLF)

DeJong, William S.

1980-01-01

231

Developing participatory research in radiology: the use of a graffiti wall, cameras and a video box in a Scottish radiology department  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Participatory research is increasingly advocated for use in health and health services research and has been defined as a 'process of producing new knowledge by systematic enquiry, with the collaboration of those being studied'. The underlying philosophy of participatory research is that those recruited to studies are acknowledged as experts who are 'empowered to truly participate and have their voices heard'. Research methods should enable children to express themselves. This has led to the development of creative approaches of working with children that offer alternatives to, for instance, the structured questioning of children by researchers either through questionnaires or interviews. To examine the feasibility and potential of developing participatory methods in imaging research. We employed three innovative methods of data collection sequentially, namely the provision of: 1) a graffiti wall; 2) cameras, and 3) a video box for children's use. While the graffiti wall was open to all who attended the department, for the other two methods children were allocated to each 'arm' consecutively until our target of 20 children for each was met. The study demonstrated that it was feasible to use all three methods of data collection within the context of a busy radiology department. We encountered no complaints from staff, patients or parents. Children were willing to participate but we did not collect data to establish if they enjoyed the activities, were pleased to have tyed the activities, were pleased to have the opportunity to make comments or whether anxieties about their treatment inhibited their participation. The data yield was disappointing. In particular, children's contributions to the graffiti wall were limited, but did reflect the nature of graffiti, and there may have been some 'copycat' comments. Although data analysis was relatively straightforward, given the nature of the data (short comments and simple drawings), the process proved to be extremely time-consuming. This was despite the modest amount of data collected. Novel methods of engaging with children have been shown to be feasible although further work is needed to establish their full potential. (orig.)

232

Participatory development of an extension approach and policy for Limpopo Province, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

The near collapse of extension services in Limpopo Department of Agriculture (LDA) particularly evident in its failure to respond to the needs of the majority of small-scale farmers, presents a major problem from an agricultural and rural development point of view. This calls for an urgent and holistic intervention, in terms of an appropriate extension approach and policy, and prompted this research focusing on the search and development of an appropriate extension approach and corresponding ...

Zwane, Elliot Mahlengule

2009-01-01

233

Applying community-based participatory research to better understand and improve kinship care practices: insights from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the principles behind community-based participatory research are firmly established, the process of taking community-based participatory research with children and youth to scale and integrating it into the programming of non-governmental organizations has been scarcely documented. This article reflects on the experiences of Save the Children in implementing a multicountry community-based participatory research program to increase understanding of kinship care in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The article discusses challenges faced and lessons learned and highlights how the research process enabled action and advocacy initiatives at different levels-leading to an increase in support and policy attention for children living in kinship care. PMID:25423249

Chukwudozie, Oge; Feinstein, Clare; Jensen, Celina; O?Kane, Claire; Pina, Silvia; Skovdal, Morten; Smith, Rebecca

2015-01-01

234

A participatory approach of flood vulnerability assessment in the Banat Plain, Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

The Banat Plain (western Romania) is a low, alluvial plain affected by neotectonic subsidence movements, being a critical region in terms of exposure to floods. The latest extreme event was the historic floods occcured in the spring of 2005, which caused significant economic damage in several rural communities. The response to 2005 floods has highlighted a number of weaknesses in the management of hazards, such as the deficiencies of the early warning system, people awareness or the inefficiency of some mitigation measures, besides the past structural measures which are obsolete. For a better understanding of the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to floods, the quantitative assessment of human vulnerability to floods was supplemented with a participatory research, in which there were involved five rural settlements from the Banat Plain (comprising 15 villages and a population of over 12,000 inhabitants). Thus, in the spring of 2013, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in approx. 100 households of the affected communities and structured interviews were held with local authorities, in the framework of VULMIN project, funded by the Ministry of National Education. The questionnaire was designed based on a pilot survey conducted in 2005, several months after the flood, and was focused on two major issues: a) perception of the local context of vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events; b) perception of human vulnerability to floods (personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding). The results were correlated with a number of specific variables of the households included in the sample, such as: household structure; income source; income level; location of the dwelling in relation to floodplains. In this way, we were able to draw general conclusions about the way in which local people perceive the extreme events, such as floods, on the one hand. On the other hand, there were highlighted differences in perception between the respondents, caused by their different degree of socio-economic vulnerability. Although exposure to floods remains a significant problem in the Banat Plain, statistical analysis of the results revealed that respondents tended to relate mainly to newly produced extreme climatic events (droughts, heat waves, storms), when being asked to mention natural hazards threatening the studied region. Moreover, the comparison of the results of the two surveys conducted in the region (in 2005 and 2013) indicated that the relationship between the components of risk perception has changed over time. Thus, the directly proportional relationship between awareness, worry and preparedness, emphasized in 2005, is currently absent. The implementation of flood mitigation measures appears to be only the result of mechanisms put into service at the institutional level, after the events of 2005. Although currently there may be an improvement in flood response and mitigation in the region, compared to 2005, the low level of awareness and the fact that exposure to floods is not yet perceived as a threat can jeopardize the resilience and adaptation of rural communities to floods in the Banat Plain.

Balteanu, Dan; Costache, Andra; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Dragota, Carmen; Grigorescu, Ines

2014-05-01

235

Farmers Participatory Research in the Evaluation of Maize Crop Residues for Improved Dairy Cattle Production in Eastern Kenya  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Informal and formal surveys, and participatory rural appraisal conducted within the coffee land-use system of Embu District in Eastern Kenya identified feed shortage as a major constraint to increased dairy production on small holder farms. To address this constraint, a two-year (1996-1998) on-farm research project involving 20 farms in Manyatta division, Embu District was initiated with broad objectives of developing components technologies that would use maize crop residues. This was due to the recognition of the fact that the greatest potential for improving field availability would be in the exploitation of crop residues, especially those derived from maize, the main staple crop in the region. Based on these reality appropriate technologies that would offer viable offers for the use of crop residues were identified and discussed during workshops and meetings with farmers. Component technologies considered included drying of maize leaves after defoliation and post-harvest storage methods for dry maize stover. this paper discussed the results of the participatory research in context of farmers' involvement in the technology development, testing, evaluation and promotion. The study demonstrated that involving farmers in all stages of the research process, enhanced their interest and participation in the testing and subsequent adoption of appropriate technologies

236

Power relations in participatory research and community development : a case study from northern England.  

OpenAIRE

This paper explores power relations within a participatory health and social needs project that took place in a South Asian community in northern England. The project involved a number of different individuals and agencies, each of which began with a rather different combination of interests, agendas, resources, and power bases. Drawing on detailed observations made during the project, together with a series of evaluation interviews, we explore the ways in which these were continually re-nego...

Hampshire, K.; Hills, E.; Iqbal, N.

2005-01-01

237

Establishment of a catchment monitoring network through a participatory approach in a rural community in South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The establishment of a catchment monitoring network is a process, from the inception of the idea to its implementation, the latter being the construction of relevant gauging structures and installation of the various instruments. It is useful that the local communities and other stakeholders are involved and participate in such a process, as was highlighted during the establishment of the hydrological monitoring network in the Potshini catchment in Bergville District in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. The paper highlights the participatory establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a small rural inhabited catchment, in line with the overall objective of the Smallholder System Innovations (SSI) research programme, to monitor hydrological processes at both field and catchment scale for water resources management research purposes. The engagement and participation of the Potshini community precipitated a learning opportunity for both the researchers and the local community on (i) the understanding of hydrological processes inherent in the catchment (ii) appreciating the inherent dynamics in establishing a catchment monitoring network in the midst of a community (iii) paradigm shift on how to engage different stakeholders at different levels of participation. The participatory engagement in the monitoring process led to appreciation and uptake of some of the research results by the Potshini community and ensured continued support from all stakeholders. This paper is of the view that the participation of the local community and other stakeholders in catchment monitoring and instilling a sense of ownership and management of natural resources to the local communities needs to be encouraged at all times. Success stories in water resources management by local communities can be realized if such a process is integrated with other development plans in the catchment at all forums, with due recognition of the social dynamics of the communities living in the catchment.

Kongo, V. M.; Kosgei, J. R.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Lorentz, S. A.

2010-12-01

238

Empowerment and regulation : Dilemmas in participatory fisheries science  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using a perspective from the sociology of knowledge, this study identifies some ‘dilemmas of participatory research’. We look at how social relationships between fishers and scientists develop around the exchange of fishers’ knowledge in particular institutional contexts. We survey the general types and global examples of fisher– scientist relationships in terms of how they approach the integration of fishers’ and scientists’ knowledge. Based on an empirical study of three European cases of participatory research, we then discuss five dilemmas that tend to characterize fisher– scientist relationships. These dilemmas centre on the relationship between fisheries research, fishery regulations and fishers as subjects of both regulation and participatory research endeavours. We argue that these dilemmas – experienced by both scientists and fishers – express an underlying tension between ‘empowering’ fishers to support the effective management of the fishing commons and the bureaucratic need to regulate the fishery as an industry.

Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

2012-01-01

239

Action-learning collaboratives as a platform for community-based participatory research to advance obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although process elements that define community-based participatory research (CBPR) are well articulated and provide guidance for bringing together researchers and communities, additional models to implement CBPR are needed. One potential model for implementing and monitoring CBPR is Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs); short term, team-based learning processes that are grounded in quality improvement. Since 2010, the Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth (PRCD) has used ALCs with three communities as a platform to design, implement and evaluate CBPR. The first ALC provided an opportunity for academia and community leadership to strengthen their relationships and knowledge of respective assets through design and evaluation of community-based QI projects. Building on this work, we jointly designed and are implementing a second ALC, a cross-community research project focused on obesity prevention in vulnerable populations. An enhanced community capacity now exists to support CBPR activities with a high degree of sophistication and decreased reliance on external facilitation. PMID:23727965

Bazos, Dorothy A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime; Ruggles, Laural; Goldsberry, Yvonne

2013-01-01

240

Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Research Consortium from the Perspective of Academics and Community Service Providers Focused on Child Health and Well-Being  

Science.gov (United States)

A process evaluation of a consortium of academic researchers and community-based service providers focused on the health and well-being of children and families provides empirical and practice-based evidence of those factors important for community-based participatory research (CBPR). This study draws on quantitative ratings of 33 factors…

Pivik, Jayne R.; Goelman, Hillel

2011-01-01

241

Workplace Health Protection and Promotion through Participatory Ergonomics: An Integrated Approach  

OpenAIRE

A multidisciplinary team of researchers at the Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace (CPH-NEW) developed an evidence-based approach to address three recognized challenges to workplace programs designed to improve employee health: establishing employee ownership, integrating with work organization, and sustainability. The two main innovations being introduced in combination were (1) integrating traditional workplace health protection (e.g., ergonomics, industrial hygi...

Henning, Robert; Warren, Nicholas; Robertson, Michelle; Faghri, Pouran; Cherniack, Martin

2009-01-01

242

Assessing the Health Needs of Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Community-Based Participatory Research Study in Chicago's Chinatown.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+) adults (n = 78). We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population. PMID:21253522

Dong, Xinqi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Wong, Bernarda; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Simon, Melissa A

2011-01-01

243

Participatory Privacy: Enabling Privacy in Participatory Sensing  

CERN Document Server

Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...

De Cristofaro, Emiliano

2012-01-01

244

Using community surveys to inform the planning and implementation of environmental change strategies: participatory research in 12 Washington communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of environmental change strategies (ECS) in effecting community-level change on attitudes and behaviors related to underage drinking (Treno and Lee in Alcohol Res Health 26:35-40, 2002; Birckmayer et al. in J Drug Educ 34(2):121-153, 2004). Primary data collection to inform the design of these strategies, however, can be resource intensive and exceed the capacity of community stakeholders. This study describes the participatory planning and implementation of community-level surveys in 12 diverse communities in the state of Washington. These surveys were conducted through collaborations among community volunteers and evaluation experts assigned to each community. The surveys were driven by communities' prevention planning needs and interests; constructed from collections of existing, field-tested items and scales; implemented by community members; analyzed by evaluation staff; and used in the design of ECS by community-level leaders and prevention practitioners. The communities varied in the content of their surveys, in their sampling approaches and in their data collection methods. Although these surveys were not conducted using traditional rigorous population survey methodology, they were done within limited resources, and the participatory nature of these activities strengthened the communities' commitment to using their results in the planning of their environmental change strategies. PMID:22864957

Gabriel, Roy M; Leichtling, Gillian J; Bolan, Marc; Becker, Linda G

2013-03-01

245

La violencia contra niños y niñas: un problema global de abordaje local, mediante la IAP / Violence against the child: A local approach to a global problem through participatory action research / A violência contra as crianças: um problema global de enfoque local  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este artigo trata sobre as dimensões e a seriedade da presença atual da violência contra as crianças, apresentada em vários estudos, relatórios e recomendações dos governos e dos organismos nacionais e internacionais, como também trata sobre a necessidade de recorrer à opções de trabalho, como aquel [...] a da IAP, que permitem enfocar a complexidade dos implicados. Tudo isto é possível pela particularidade que determina a convergência de fatores sociais, culturais, familiares, pessoais e jurídicos em cada contexto. Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo nos ocupamos de las dimensiones y gravedad de la presencia actual de la violencia¹ contra la niñez, reflejada en diferentes estudios, informes y recomendaciones de gobiernos y organismos nacionales e internacionales, y de la necesidad de recurrir a opciones de trabajo como la [...] Investigación Acción Participativa, IAP, que permitan abordar la complejidad de los sujetos implicados, por la particularidad que traza la convergencia de factores sociales, culturales, económicos, familiares, personales y jurídicos, en cada contexto. Abstract in english This article considers the different dimensions and gravity of actual violence against children that are reflected among different articles, studies, reports and recommendations of governments and national and international organizations and the necessity to work within participatory action research [...] . This allows us to get the complexity of what is implicated due to the particular convergence of social, cultural, economic, familiar, personal and legal factors in each context.

Ingrit, Gutiérrez-Vega; Alejandro, Acosta-Ayerbe.

2013-01-01

246

Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methological approches for design-based participatory reseach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today’s teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

SØrensen, Birgitte Holm; Magnussen, Rikke

2010-01-01

247

Systems Thinking and Participatory Research and Extension Skills: Can These Be Taught in the Classroom? Occasional Papers in Rural Extension, No. 10.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, there have been rapid developments in field methodologies within participatory approaches to rural and agricultural development. At the same time, the use of "soft systems" methodologies for bringing potentially conflictual or disparate actors together for action has spread from the business world to other applications. These…

Jiggins, Janice; Roling, Niels

248

Identification of people with disabilities using participatory rural appraisal and key informants: a pragmatic approach with action potential promoting validity and low cost.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Surveys have been the conventional methods used for identification of people with disabilities; however, they have been observed to be expensive and time-consuming that may not be affordable or practical. As a result, the participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and key informant (KI) approaches have been developed and increasingly used in the resource-poor countries. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the strengths and weaknesses of PRA and KI approaches in the identification of people with di...

Gona, Jk; Xiong, T.; Muhit, Ma; Newton, CR; Hartley, S.

2010-01-01

249

A Plea for a Child-Centered Approach in Research with Street Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that street children's public image does not consider root causes of homelessness or children's perceptions. Notes that the relationship of children to urban life is seldom analyzed, and that references to street girls commonly link them to prostitution. Advocates a more child-centered, participatory approach to research and discusses…

Van Beers, Henk

1996-01-01

250

How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.

M. Buchecker

2013-06-01

251

Gendered Risk Perceptions Associated with Human-Wildlife Conflict: Implications for Participatory Conservation  

OpenAIRE

This research aims to foster discourse about the extent to which gender is important to consider within the context of participatory approaches for biological conservation. Our objectives are to: (1) gender-disaggregate data about stakeholders' risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict (HWC) in a participatory conservation context, and (2) highlight insights from characterizing gendered similarities and differences in the way people think about HWC-related risks. Two communal c...

Gore, Meredith L.; Kahler, Jessica S.

2012-01-01

252

Using Participatory Action Research to Design an Intervention Integrity System in the Urban Schools  

OpenAIRE

While integrity is often thought of as the degree to which a program is applied as intended, researchers have recently widened the lens to include not only monitoring of program content, but also evaluating the process by which interventions are implemented and the extent to which the intervention is received as intended. Further, a partnership-based approach has been identified to be as critical to facilitating appropriate and accurate monitoring and interpretation of intervention integrity ...

Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Feinberg, Betsy E.; Freedman, Melanie A.; Jawad, Abbas; Leff, Stephen S.

2009-01-01

253

Improving eye safety in citrus harvest crews through the acceptance of personal protective equipment, community-based participatory research, social marketing, and community health workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the last 10 years, the Partnership for Citrus Workers Health (PCWH) has been an evidence-based intervention program that promotes the adoption of protective eye safety equipment among Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Florida. At the root of this program is the systematic use of community-based preventive marketing (CBPM) and the training of community health workers (CHWs) among citrus harvester using popular education. CBPM is a model that combines the organizational system of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the strategies of social marketing. This particular program relied on formative research data using a mixed-methods approach and a multilevel stakeholder analysis that allowed for rapid dissemination, effective increase of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and a subsequent impact on adoptive workers and companies. Focus groups, face-to-face interviews, surveys, participant observation, Greco-Latin square, and quasi-experimental tests were implemented. A 20-hour popular education training produced CHWs that translated results of the formative research to potential adopters and also provided first aid skills for eye injuries. Reduction of injuries is not limited to the use of safety glasses, but also to the adoption of timely intervention and regular eye hygiene. Limitations include adoption in only large companies, rapid decline of eye safety glasses without consistent intervention, technological limitations of glasses, and thorough cost-benefit analysis. PMID:24911686

Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; Esposito, Andrew; Wade, Mark; Ruiz, Omar; McDermott, Robert J

2014-01-01

254

Integrating multiple criteria decision analysis in participatory forest planning  

OpenAIRE

Forest planning in a participatory context often involves multiple stakeholders with conflicting interests. A promising approach for handling these complex situations is to integrate participatory planning and multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The objective of this paper is to analyze strengths and weaknesses of such an integrated approach, focusing on how the use of MCDA has influenced the participatory process. The paper outlines a model for a participatory MCDA process with five ...

Nordstro?m, Eva-maria; Eriksson, Ljusk Ola; O?hman, Karin

2010-01-01

255

From Water Poverty to Water Prosperity—A More Participatory Approach to Studying Local Water Resources Management  

OpenAIRE

The Water Poverty Index (WPI), a tool designed for integrated analysis of water issues, was set-up in a community in Madhya Pradesh, India through a transparent and participatory process. Though the aim of the WPI is to primarily use existing statistical data, quantitative information from census and local records was combined with qualitative data from community interviews and participatory exercises. The inclusion of community chosen indicators and the adjustment of values so that higher nu...

Wilk, Julie; Jonsson, Anna

2013-01-01

256

Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

2014-01-01

257

Focus group discussions in community-based participatory research to inform the development of a human papillomavirus (HPV) educational intervention for Latinas in San Diego.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of formative focus groups as a community-based participatory research (CBPR) method in developing cancer education programs. Two focus groups were conducted according to CBPR principles, in order to develop a community-competent human papillomavirus (HPV)/cervical cancer educational program for Latinas living in the USA/Mexico border region. Focus group participants were 18 female Mexican American community health advisors. Participants reported that there is limited information and many myths about HPV and the vaccine in the Latino/Latina community, along with many barriers to acceptance of HPV/cervical cancer-related information. Furthermore, participants discussed their recommendations for the development of a culturally appropriate HPV educational program. From these data, we have a better understanding of the HPV/cervical cancer educational approach that will be most accepted in the community and what key information needs to be provided to women who participate in the program, which reinforces the importance of the CBPR approach to the formative phase of cancer education program development. PMID:23857185

Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L; Garcini, Luz; Sanchez, Olga; Hernandez, Irma; Navarro, Ana M

2013-12-01

258

Enhancing Collaborative Rule-making on Global Sustainability Concerns Through Participatory Design : A Research Agenda Based Empirically on United Nations Developments on Business Conduct  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new opportunities for PD by pointing to social science oriented processes that may be strengthened by the theory and practice of PD. With a theoretical foundation in legal philosophy on legitimacy and steps towards a deliberative democratic evolution of norms of conduct for global concerns, the paper is concerned with opportunities to involve a global citizenry in the evolution of norms of conduct that may affect the lives and futures of individuals. The paper describes research potential for PD towards enhancing information technology assisted inclusion of views, needs and concerns of individuals in transnational rule-making. It does so by drawing on the process that led to the 2011 United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. This process exemplifies challenges in collaborative and inclusive global rule-making that that may be assisted by increased and informed deployment of IT in order to enhance broad and balanced participation in the rule-making process.

Buhmann, Karin

259

Enhancing collaborative rule-making on global sustainability concerns through Participatory Design : A research agenda based empirically on United Nations developments on business conduct  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new opportunities for PD by pointing to social science oriented processes that may be strengthened by the theory and practice of PD. With a theoretical foundation in legal philosophy on legitimacy and steps towards a deliberative democratic evolution of norms of conduct for global concerns, the paper is concerned with opportunities to involve a global citizenry in the evolution of norms of conduct that may affect the lives and futures of individuals. The paper describes research potential for PD towards enhancing information technology assisted inclusion of views, needs and concerns of individuals in transnational rule-making. It does so by drawing on the process that led to the 2011 United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. This process exemplifies challenges in collaborative and inclusive global rule-making that that may be assisted by increased and informed deployment of IT in order to enhance broad and balanced participation in the rule-making process

Buhmann, Karin

260

Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

Rudel Ruthann A

2010-07-01

261

Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Participatory Sex Education on the Dual Prevention of STI/HIV/AIDS and Unwanted Pregnancies among Adolescents in Kinshasa High Schools, DR Congo  

OpenAIRE

Context: With the view to reorient both STI/HIV/AIDS prevention and adolescents pregnancies, this research study aims at evaluating cognitive and behavioral acquisitions, as well as the process of interactive sex education participatory approach among adole...

Gabriel Vodiena Nsakala; Yves Coppieters; Patrick Kalambayi Kayembe

2014-01-01

262

Use of an interdisciplinary, participatory design approach to develop a usable patient self-assessment tool in atrial fibrillation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lori MacCallum,1,2 Heather McGaw,1 Nazanin Meshkat,3 Alissia Valentinis,4 Leslie Beard Ashley,5 Rajan Sacha Bhatia,3,6,7 Kaye Benson,7 Noah Ivers,6,8 Kori Leblanc,2,7 Dante Morra3,5,7 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, 4Taddle Creek Family Health Team, Toronto, 5Trillium Health Partners, Mississauga, 6Women's College Hospital, Toronto, 7Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, University Health Network, Toronto, 8Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: After identifying that significant care gaps exist within the management of atrial fibrillation (AF, a patient-focused tool was developed to help patients better assess and manage their AF. This tool aims to provide education and awareness regarding the management of symptoms and stroke risk associated with AF, while engaging patients to identify if their condition is optimally managed and to become involved in their own care. An interdisciplinary group of health care providers and designers worked together in a participatory design approach to develop the tool with input from patients. Usability testing was completed with 22 patients of varying demographics to represent the characteristics of the patient population. The findings from usability testing interviews were used to further improve and develop the tool to improve ease of use. A physician-facing tool was also developed to help to explain the tool and provide a brief summary of the 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines. By incorporating patient input and human-centered design with the knowledge, experience, and medical expertise of health care providers, we have used an approach in developing the tool that tries to more effectively meet patients' needs. Keywords: patient education, atrial fibrillation, care gaps, patient care tools, patient self-assessment

MacCallum L

2013-11-01

263

Foresight Analysis at the Regional Level - A Participatory Methodological Framework  

OpenAIRE

The focus of the present paper is on the potential of participatory scenario planning as a tool for regional future studies. More specifically, a methodological framework for participatory scenario planning is presented, integrating an analytical participatory scenario planning approach (the LIPSOR model) with the Focus Groups and Future Workshop participatory tools. This framework is applied to a Greek rural region, for building scenarios and structuring policies for its future rural develop...

Anastasia Stratigea; Aliki Papadopoulou, Chrysaida –.

2013-01-01

264

Increasing the general level of academic capacity in general practice: introducing mandatory research training for general practitioner trainees through a participatory research process  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: To obtain good quality evidence-based clinical work there needs to be a culture of critical appraisal, and strong bridges between the clinical and the academic worlds in general practice. AIM: The aim was to educate the general practitioner (GP) trainees to obtain critical appraisal skills, and through the development and implementation of the mandatory programme to gradually empower the GP community to achieve academic capacity by creating a link between the GP researchers and the GP training community. This was done by developing a faculty, giving teaching skills to GP academics, and research skills to GP clinicians; and creating an awareness of the potential benefits of critical appraisal in training GP surgeries. METHODS: Development and implementation of a faculty and a programme through a participatory action research-inspired project, with process evaluation from the beginning of the planning phase. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2009, we built a teaching faculty of 25 teachers among clinical GPs and GP academics; developed the training programme; and delivered the programme to 95 GP trainees. Some of the GP trainees later showed an interest in more substantial research projects, and GP trainers with no previous association with the research environment started to show an interest through their function as GP trainers. The GP academics of the faculty, however, felt that it was difficult to continue the engagement because of the still increasing demand for published knowledge production in academia. CONCLUSION: It is possible to support the development of general academic capacity in general practice using participatory design in collaboration with GP academics and clinicians, building bridges between academia and clinical work, as well as within academia between research publication and teaching. There is, however, a generic barrier in the regulation of academia itself.

Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen

2012-01-01

265

Focus Group Discussions in Community-Based Participatory Research to Inform the Development of a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Educational Intervention for Latinas in San Diego  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of formative focus groups as a community-based participatory research (CBPR) method in developing cancer education programs. Two focus groups were conducted according to CBPR principles, in order to develop a community-competent human papillomavirus (HPV)/cervical cancer educational program for Latinas living in the USA/Mexico border region. Focus group participants were 18 female Mexican American community health advisors. Participan...

Barnack-tavlaris, Jessica L.; Garcini, Luz; Sanchez, Olga; Hernandez, Irma; Navarro, Ana M.

2013-01-01

266

Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities  

OpenAIRE

The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatche...

Rebecca Zagozewski; Ian Judd-Henrey; Suzie Nilson; Lalita Bharadwaj

2011-01-01

267

Factors influencing performance of health workers in the management of seriously sick children at a Kenyan tertiary hospital--participatory action research.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Implementation of World Health Organization case management guidelines for serious childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. Facilitators of and barriers to implementation of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have not been explored. METHODS: This ethnographic study based on the theory of participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya's largest teaching hospital. The primary intervention c...

Irimu, Gw; Greene, A.; Gathara, D.; Kihara, H.; Maina, C.; Mbori-ngacha, D.; Zurovac, D.; Migiro, S.; English, M.

2014-01-01

268

Factors influencing performance of health workers in the management of seriously sick children at a Kenyan tertiary hospital - Participatory action research  

OpenAIRE

Background: Implementation of World Health Organization case management guidelines for serious childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. Facilitators of and barriers to implementation of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have not been explored. Methods. This ethnographic study based on the theory of participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya's largest teaching hospital. The primary intervention c...

Irimu, Gw; Greene, A.; Gathara, D.; Kihara, H.; Maina, C.; Mbori-ngacha, D.; Zurovac, D.; Migiro, S.; English, M.

2014-01-01

269

Scandinavian Participatory Design : Dialogic curation with Teenagers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

2012-01-01

270

Benevolent Paradox: Integrating Community-Based Empowerment and Transdisciplinary Research Approaches into Traditional Frameworks to Increase Funding and Long-Term Sustainability of Chicano-Community Research Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Niños Sanos, Familia Sana (NSFS) is a 5-year multi-intervention study aimed at preventing childhood obesity among Mexican-origin children in rural California. Using a transdisciplinary approach and community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology, NSFS's development included a diversely trained team working in collaboration with…

de la Torre, Adela

2014-01-01

271

A Framework for Participatory Science in High Schools that Supports Useful Scientific Research as Well as Student Learning: Requirements and Constraints  

Science.gov (United States)

For the past five years the Schoodic Education and Research Center (SERC) Institute, located at Acadia National Park, has collaborated with the Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Environmental and Watershed Research and Maine Sea Grant at the University of Maine to engage high school teachers and students in field work to collect samples and data used in a study of spatial patterns of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) across the northeastern US. This program's success in producing useful scientific research data at the same time that it achieves formal science education outcomes has resulted in new funding for both the scientific work and the education work. SERC Institute and the Mitchell Center have recently used the pedagogical and scientific framework underlying this work to address new research related to seasonal variation in nitrogen in watersheds, demonstrating that the framework has applicability beyond studies of Hg. This paper summarizes the core elements of the framework and reports on new research into student learning and teacher professional development that is essential to the success of this kind of participatory science. Specifically, this paper describes (1) approaches to structuring research designs to ensure that data collected by students is scientifically useful; (2) the need to assist teachers in supporting a research focus by students that differs from the research undertaken by working scientists; (3) pedagogical strategies to support this student research; (4) mechanisms to support peer review and publication of student research, creating over time a body of student work that supports new student research and that is a potentially useful resource for others; and (5) new research data related to student ability to use and make sense of the data that they collect. By connecting data on student data literacy with data collected from assessments of teacher content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, we are able to identify implications for teacher professional development. We conclude with a brief qualitative summary of our experiences with offering such professional development and a discussion of "next steps" emerging from these experiences.

Zoellick, B.; Nelson, S. J.; Bisson, B.; Schauffler, M.; Webber, H.

2011-12-01

272

Thirty Years of Participatory Watershed Research: Engaging Citizen Scientists Through the NH Lakes Lay Monitoring Program (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

While it began as a citizen water quality monitoring program to document long-term trends and find problem areas impacting lake watersheds the New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program soon evolved into a model effort for engaging the participants to help investigate a wide range of scientific questions primarily derived through their concerns. As a true participatory effort, community members were involved in the design as well as the implementation of the research and also in the interpretation of the results. The research outcomes have provided benefits to both the local and scientific communities. In many cases productive partnerships between the research community and participants were initiated that continue to last to this day. In addition, participants have been empowered through their experience and have become local experts and community leaders. Collaborative research projects to date have explored fish condition, recreational impacts, nutrient loadings from watershed land use, morphometric determinants of lake productivity, ground truth for remote sensing of water quality, biological controls for invasive aquatic plants, in-lake resource co-occurrences, and cyanobacteria bloom toxin ecology. Participants were also instrumental in confirming a more accurate method for water clarity measurement. Results have not only provided the community with the information they require for the informed local stewardship of their resources but also have been useful to state agencies and decision-makers. Our success can be attributed to the development of quality assured methods acceptable to regional and state agencies, the cost efficiencies of using volunteer scientists, support from the University and Cooperative Extension, capturing the "local expertise" of our participants, providing timely feedback and support, and making sure the study results are reported back to the local community through the participants involved.

Schloss, J. A.

2009-12-01

273

Requirements for Participatory Framework on Governmental Policy Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes’ expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.

Birut? PITR?NAIT?

2012-06-01

274

Children as Ethnographers: Reflections on the Importance of Participatory Research in Assessing Orphans' Needs  

Science.gov (United States)

Critiques of child participation within aid programming suggest that it is superficial and insubstantive for the fulfilment of children's rights. By employing former child research participants as youth research assistants, the collaborative research design developed for my research project on the survival strategies of African orphans and…

Cheney, Kristen E.

2011-01-01

275

Game over or play it again and again. : participatory design approach within Special Housing  

OpenAIRE

Activities that are fun, social, engaging and put something at stake are positive for your health no matter age or condition. What can you do if you suffer from dementia and are living at a Special Housing? According to research you should dance, visit the garden, get tactile massage discuss artworks etc. Still, despite all these proposals there are many voices from this domain, telling stories about living without live. Suffering from dementia may affect your ability to speak for your self a...

Tobiasson, Helena

2010-01-01

276

A Participatory Design Approach for the Support of Collaborative Learning and Knowledge Building in Networked Organizations  

OpenAIRE

Engagement in collaborative learning and knowledge building activities is still a big challenge for many workplace-learning designers. Especially in highly competitive environments people might be reluctant to give away too much of their tacit knowledge. A feeling of ownership and an involvement of the individual in the planning of the learning activities can be important motivational factors. In an international research project called IntelLEO – Intelligent Learning Extended Organization ...

Barbara Kieslinger; Kai Pata; Claudia Magdalena Fabian

2009-01-01

277

[Participatory Quality Development: Engaging Community Members in All Phases of Project Planning and Implementation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community participation, recognised as a central feature of successful health promotion and prevention, is often difficult to implement. In this research project internationally recognised methods of participatory health research were applied to demonstrate ways in which community members can be engaged. Participatory health research is characterised by a close collaboration between academic researchers, practitioners and community members in order to generate common knowledge. It is not a question of translating knowledge from research into practice, but rather a question of promoting a collective learning process on the part of all participants for the purpose of developing solutions which address the interests and needs of local people. The result of the project is a new approach for strengthening the quality of prevention and health promotion interventions: participatory quality development (PQD). PMID:24937351

Wright, M T; Kilian, H; Block, M; von Unger, H; Brandes, S; Ziesemer, M; Gold, C; Rosenbrock, R

2014-06-17

278

Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium), an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human...

Chovanova Hana; Van Campenhout Karen; Springael Johan; Loots Ilse; Koppen Gudrun; Colles Ann; Croes Kim; Morrens Bert; Keune Hans; Schoeters Greet; Nelen Vera; Baeyens Willy; van Larebeke Nik

2010-01-01

279

Digital publics and participatory education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.

Brian J. McNely

2010-10-01

280

An approach for the anticipatory and participatory management of current and future flood risks  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the fact that many measures to attenuate flood hazards and reduce vulnerabilities are being implemented, adverse effects of floods are ever-increasing in most parts of the world. On the one hand this holds true for economically and/or demographically growing regions. On the other hand this applies also to areas that face population shrinkage and economic problems. Such flood risks occur in human-environment systems and are subject to dynamics caused by a number of drivers such as climate change, land-use changes, and others. Many drivers evolve slowly over time or show time-lag effects and long return periods. Moreover, certain decisions may determine the control actions of the following decades. At present, current flood risks are mostly determined based on historic developments and the ex post analysis of flood events. Approaches that look at the future dynamics of both hazards and vulnerable elements ex ante in an integrated manner are rare. Instead, future hazard scenarios are often just overlaid with current socio-economic data, which poses a strong inconsistency. Usually the focus lies on rather short-term, specific or local problems. But many developments and measures show their effects only after long time periods and when considering the whole catchment area. This calls for a holistic and long-term view into the future and implies the challenge of dealing with many uncertainties due to the system's complexity. In order to anticipate and react to these developments, this contribution suggests developing a flexible, yet holistic approach to design, analyse and evaluate alternative futures of such human-environment systems. These futures follow a scenario understanding that considers both specific (current) factor constellations as well as consistent assumptions on autonomous developments (so-called development frameworks) and potentials for control (strategic alternatives) of the interacting entities that influence flood risk. Different scenario concepts and the application of respective techniques are thus reviewed and incorporated with regard to their suitability for an integrated management of current and future flood risks. In particular, "hybrid scenarios" with qualitative and quantitative components represented by nested models as well as assumptions across different spatiotemporal scales, respectively, are suggested for dealing with the uncertainties when assessing flood risks throughout a system's possible evolution. The (initially top-down developed) approach and its components will be briefly presented. These "scenario products" could later serve as a stimulus for discussions that bring together different actors and enhance - and eventually legitimise - the scenarios further in a "scenario process": (1) A first step is the conceptualisation of a flood risk system following the SPRC-model. Its physical geographical and anthropogenic factors may either be subject to autonomous trends, target-oriented control, or facultative system behaviour (e.g. dike breaches). With this concept, the integration of different processes and scales is aspired. (2) Secondly, it is conceptually shown how the risk cascade for present and future states of the flood risk system can be calculated based on coupled models ranging from climate change projections to a damage simulation models. (3) Thirdly, ways to develop socioeconomic storylines for the development frameworks and guiding principles for the strategic alternatives are presented and the futures are combined. This involves making plausible and consistent assumptions for many system factors and their drivers and finding ways to harmonise existing data for the same areas and time steps. (4) Fourthly, selected futures can be analysed and evaluated ex ante applying the coupled models of the second step to derive the emerging flood risks. The evaluation addresses, amongst other aspects, the identification of (i) the sensitivity of all scenarios against the current strategic alternative; (ii) the resulting risks when applying different str

Luther, J.

2012-04-01

281

Participatory research with street-involved youth in the Youth Injection Prevention Project (YIP)  

OpenAIRE

Youth participation in research has become increasingly popular, though there is still a paucity of examples in the literature that offer insight into the challenges and opportunities that such an endeavour offers. This is particularly true of research that includes street-involved populations of youth. This paper explores the experiences of six youth in the Youth Injection Prevention Project (YIP), a community-based research project with street-involved youth in the Metro Vancouver Region, u...

Coser, Larissa

2010-01-01

282

Metodologia de la Investigacion Participativa (The Methodology of Participatory Research). Cuadernos del CREFAL 16.  

Science.gov (United States)

The traditional educational method has focused on a passive stand from the learner. This passive stand can hinder creativity and analytical thinking. This work concentrates on a presentation of the Participant Research educational method. Participant Research is an adult-education method in which the learner can have an active role in his…

Yopo, Boris P.

283

Participatory IT-support  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Beyond the initial phases of systems design Participatory Design has potentiality to include operation and maintenance of IT systems in organizations. The paper presents this argument through reports from case studies of local IT-support coined ‘participatory IT-support’. The paper presents characteristics of participatory Itsupport and suggests a method for identifying qualified candidates for the support position in the organization.

Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

2006-01-01

284

Priority water research questions for South Africa developed through participatory processes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper describes a collaborative process of identifying and prioritising current and future water research questions from a wide range of water specialists within South Africa. Over 1 600 questions were collected, reduced in number and prioritised by specialists working in water research and pra [...] ctice. A total of 59 questions were finally proposed as an outcome of the study and are categorised under the themes of change, data, ecosystems, governance, innovation and resources. The questions range in scale, challenge and urgency, and are also aligned with prevailing paradigms in water research. The majority of the questions dealt with relatively short- to medium-term research requirements and most focused on immediate issues such as water supply, service delivery and technical solutions. Formulations of long-term research questions were sparse, partly because some of the principles and methods used in this study were difficult to apply in the South African context, and also because researchers are influenced by addressing what are believed to be the more immediate, short-term water-related challenges in South Africa. This is the first initiative of its kind to produce a comprehensive and inclusive list of research priorities for water in South Africa.

RM, Siebrits; K, Winter; J, Barnes; MC, Dent; G, Ekama; M, Ginster; J, Harrison; B, Jackson; I, Jacobs; A, Jordaan; HC, Kasan; W, Kloppers; R, le Roux; J, Maree; MNB, Momba; AV, Munnik; J, O' Keeffe; R, Schulze; M, Silberbauer; D, Still; JE, van Zyl.

2014-04-03

285

FUTISTREFFIT : Participatory Action Research: analysis and evaluation of football as a community youth development tool  

OpenAIRE

Wesseh Cucu. Thesis: Futistreffit – analysis and evaluation. Language: English. Content: 53 pages, 2 appendices. Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. Focus: Community Development. Institution: Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Järvenpää The aim of this research is to examine football as a positive youth development tool for Learning-Integration. It focuses on community youth work and uses action research as the prime method of analysis and evaluation. The subject of re...

Wesseh, Cucu

2012-01-01

286

Battle at the Bridge: Developing Ecological Problem Solvers in Communities Through Participatory Research  

OpenAIRE

Land-based communities need problem solvers who can address ecological degradation by bridging gaps between community and outside knowledge systems. Through our experience working for the Watershed Program of the White Mountain Apache Tribe, we have wrestled with the challenge of making ecological research more useful to tribal communities, particularly those that have become highly skeptical of conventional research. Simply importing or exporting knowledge does little to solve long-term ecol...

Long, Jonathan W.; Endfield, B. Delbin; Lupe, Candy; Burnette, Mae

2004-01-01

287

Farmer-participatory integrated watershed management: Adarsha watershed, Kothapally India - an innovative and upscalable approach: case 7  

OpenAIRE

This is a reprint from the book entitled "Research Towards Integrated Natural Resources Management: Examples of Research Problems, Approaches and Partnerships in Action in the CGIAR" ( Hat-wood, R.R.; Kassam, A.H. eds.).which briefly describes the tools and methods used in research and development for integrated natural resources management. They have been evolving over the years in order to tackle the complexities of farming systems in marginal areas, and the issues of environmental change i...

Sp, Wani; Hp, Singh; Tk, Sreedevi; Pathak, P.; Tj, Rego; Shiferaw, B.; Sr, Iyer

2006-01-01

288

Creativity in ethnographic interviews : reflexive participatory observation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The article discusses interviews as participatory reflexive observation. It is based on experiences of interviewing policymakers and researchers about knowledge and evidence in health promotion. This particular group of informants challenged an approach to interviews as getting informants to describe their everyday work life. By employing a methodological framework focusing on reflexive processes, interviews became consensual interactions, and the content of the interviews turned out to be analyses, interpretations and meaning making, that is, knowledge production. Interpretation and meaning making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process.

Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

2014-01-01

289

Supporting Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals: Participatory Action Research in Human Rights Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Human rights education (HRE) holds the potential for educators to begin an honest dialogue with students and to connect local issues with international struggles for human rights. However, HRE and other teaching approaches that build understanding of systems of power and oppression that lead to human rights violations are not widely embraced in…

Hersey, Page Elizabeth

2012-01-01

290

Theoretical Framework for Cooperative Participatory Action Research (CPAR) in a Multicultural Campus: The Social Drama Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a long-term research seminar, developed in 2001 by Hertz-Lazarowitz at the University of Haifa (UH). The goal of the seminar was to involve students in a meaningful, experiential and cooperative-interactive learning environment, based on topics relevant to their development as individuals coming from diverse collectives to the…

Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel; Zelniker, Tamar; Azaiza, Faisal

2010-01-01

291

Elements that Impact Facilitation of an Asynchronous Professional Learning Community: A Participatory Action Research Exploration  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite that fact that the demand for asynchronous learning is booming, the literature on distance learning facilitation skills is lacking (Sherry, 1996). This study supports the premise that the use of paraphrasing strategies impacts learners in an asynchronous environment. The research question has been narrowed to inspect the particular…

Hofer, Marilyn

2009-01-01

292

Enabling the powerful? Participatory action research with local policymakers and professionals for physical activity promotion with women in difficult life situations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enabling is a concept central to health promotion. It is perceived as a mechanism that can help people gain control over determinants of health. Little is known, however, about enabling among policy-makers and professionals. This case study investigates enabling among policy-makers and professionals who engaged in a specific participatory approach, cooperative planning. We define 'enabling' as creating action situations that allow policy-makers and professionals to (i) build individual capacities for health promotion and to (ii) apply these capacities to concrete organizational and political action at the institutional level. This case study followed policy-makers and professionals as they participated in a local physical activity promotion action research project in Germany. We conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative data gathered in that project (2005-2011). Methods included participant observation, document analysis, focus groups and qualitative interviews. All data were revisited for the case study and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Findings include examples of enabling among policy-makers and professionals related to the cooperative planning process. Individual capacities were developed in perceived project roles, interactions with target groups and decision-making procedures. Findings also demonstrated municipal policy changes. Access to physical activity infrastructures improved, and an intersectoral job position was funded to support physical activity promotion among target group participants. Findings were analyzed using a model that links cooperative planning with a framework on policy change from a political science perspective. We conclude that cooperative planning might be a pathway to negotiated agreements that foster systematic enabling and health-promoting policy change. PMID:22987843

Frahsa, Annika; Rütten, Alfred; Roeger, Ulrike; Abu-Omar, Karim; Schow, Diana

2014-03-01

293

Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

Pamela K. Miller

2013-08-01

294

Cross-disciplinary Participatory & Contextual Design Research: Creating a Teacher Dashboard Application  

OpenAIRE

Concepts of Human Computer Interaction have crossed disciplinary boundaries allowing the discovery of underlying stakeholder affordances to emerge during the design research phase of system design. For the current scenario, middle school mathematics teachers as data-driven decision makers are inundated with diagnostic and assessment data, resulting in data deluge. The situation is unlikely to subside as digital technologies and media are broadly adopted for instruction and learning. Teachers ...

Abel, Troy D.; Michael Evans

2014-01-01

295

In the Midst of Participatory Action Research Practices: Moving towards Decolonizing and Decolonial Praxis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Where disenfranchised groups such as women, immigrants and people of color more generally were either excluded from the academy or not thought to have important 'stories' to tell, several qualitative methodologies now value these voices, in large measure because disenfranchised research participants have an understanding in their bodies of what it means to be exposed to patriarchy, racism, classism, heterosexism, ableism, xenophobia and other complex forms of oppression (Gitlin, 2007, p.1.

Hartej Gill

2012-07-01

296

Music Therapy’s Effects on Mexican Migrant Farmworkers’ Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Social Isolation: A Mixed Methods Randomized Control Trial Utilizing Participatory Action Research  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the United States, the agricultural industry is dependent on men and women from Mexico who migrate throughout the country to participate in the care and harvest of crops. They often migrate independently of their families and leave loved ones behind. Separation from families and difficult working conditions create high frequencies of mental health issues. When available, the farmworkers seek out treatment for the somatic symptoms such as high heart rate, upset stomachs, and difficult breathing often associated with depression and anxiety. Mental health counselors and facilities often are not able to meet the needs in culturally sensitive ways presented by this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on Mexican farmworkers’ levels of depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition, this study sought to examine how the migrant farmworkers used music-making sessions between music therapy sessions as a coping skill to further improve their overall mental health. Finally, this study sought to examine how migrant farmworkers engaged in the research process and how they valued their relationship with the researcher. This study utilized a mixed methods approach incorporating a randomized control trial with repeated measures and participatory action research. A total of 125 farmwokers participated in this study over the course of two distinct phases. Farmworkers in Phase I were randomly assigned to music therapy, English as a second language classes, and a stress education (control) group. Farmworkers in Phase II were randomly assigned to music therapy or a comparison stress education group. Farmworkers in the music therapy condition participated in 6-10 music therapy sessions during which time they learned how to play an instrument, engaged in song writing and lyric analysis, and group music-making. Results indicated that participants in the music therapy condition across both phases did not significantly improve their depression, anxiety, and social isolationscores compared to the control/comparison group. The farmworkers who did participate in group musicmaking between sessions did improve their scores more so than participants who did not engage in weekly group music-making. The farmworkers identified helpful and impeding aspects of the research through focus group interviews. They also identified components of their relationship to the music therapist/researcher that were helpful in establishing and developing a relationship with her.

Swantes, Melody

2011-01-01

297

Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

298

From fire in the belly to a boiling heart: fuel for participatory research.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been said that governmental bureaucracies lack the animating life force that is normally provided by the human conscience. Research efforts that include patients and their representatives in the planning and regulatory process can add back this animating life force, a force Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche describes "... that your self be in your deed as the mother is in her child-let that be your word concerning virtue." This paper comprises our invited introductory remarks as patient activists at this symposium, entitled "The Menstrual Cycle and Adolescent Health" and held in Potomac, Maryland in mid October 2007. Attendees included patients, patient advocates, and experts from a variety of fields and disciplines. While our stories have their share of pain, that pain developed into a passion to help others in similar circumstances. A consortium of passionate community activists interested in the menstrual cycle could play the role as a "governmental conscience" around this issue. Developing a community consortium initiated via partnerships between patient advocates and investigators could direct more attention and funding toward menstrual cycle research. PMID:18574202

Hijane, Karima; Heyman, Carly; Bell, Maureen; Busby, Mary Beth

2008-01-01

299

Estrategia intersectorial y participativa con enfoque de ecosalud para la prevención de la transmisión de dengue en el nivel local An inter-sector participatory strategy in Cuba using an ecosystem approach to prevent dengue transmission at the local level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cuba está ubicada en una zona de países con alta incidencia de dengue. En los últimos 10 años ha sido afectada por varias epidemias, es por ello que se diseñó, implementó y evaluó una estrategia participativa, basada en el enfoque de ecosalud, la cual estuvo dirigida a propiciar acciones intersectoriales en la gestión del ecosistema para disminuir las poblaciones del mosquito Aedes aegypti y prevenir la transmisión de dengue en el municipio Cotorro de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. Para el desarrollo de este trabajo se utilizó la metodología de investigación acción participativa. Como resultado del proceso se pudo describir una estrategia que garantiza la participación activa de la comunidad, los sectores y el gobierno en la producción de ecosistemas saludables, se desarrollaron acciones de prevención y control oportunas e integrados que disminuyeron los riesgos para la proliferación del vector y la transmisión local de la enfermedad. Este enfoque permitió el análisis holístico de los problemas, su priorización y la gestión de sus soluciones; la estrategia se sostiene dos años después de concluido el proceso.Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aedes aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process.

Cristina Díaz

2009-01-01

300

Cross-disciplinary Participatory & Contextual Design Research: Creating a Teacher Dashboard Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Concepts of Human Computer Interaction have crossed disciplinary boundaries allowing the discovery of underlying stakeholder affordances to emerge during the design research phase of system design. For the current scenario, middle school mathematics teachers as data-driven decision makers are inundated with diagnostic and assessment data, resulting in data deluge. The situation is unlikely to subside as digital technologies and media are broadly adopted for instruction and learning. Teachers could benefit from tools to quickly sift through this data to inform classroom instruction. Data should be visualized in a way that teachers can make real-time formative and summative assessments of student progress. The purpose of this article is to introduce a mixed-method mode of discovery to uncover affordances innate to classroom teachers during the design of an iPad data visualization application. These technology-assisted “dashboard” platforms could serve as efficient and effective interventions to deal with the copious amounts of data streams now available to teachers.

Troy D. Abel

2014-02-01

301

Development of community plans to enhance survivorship from colorectal cancer: community-based participatory research in rural communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2002, 10.4% of the 10 million persons alive who have ever been diagnosed with cancer had colorectal cancer (CRC). Barriers, such as distance, terrain, access to care and cultural differences, to CRC survivorship may be especially relevant in rural communities. We tested the hypothesis that teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals would develop a Community Plan (CP) to enhance CRC survivorship. We used community-based participatory research and the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to train teams from rural cancer coalitions and hospitals in Pennsylvania and New York. We measured knowledge at three points in time and tested the change with McNemar's test, corrected for multiple comparisons (p < 0.0167). We also conducted a qualitative review of the CP contents. Fourteen (93.3%) of the 15 coalitions or hospitals initially recruited to the study completed a CP. Knowledge in public health, sponsorship of A National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship, and CRC survivorship and treatment increased. Teams identified perceived barriers and community assets. All teams planned to increase awareness of community assets and almost all planned to enhance treatment-related care and psychosocial care for the CRC survivor; 50% planned to enhance primary care and CRC screening. The study demonstrated the interest and ability of rural organizations to plan to enhance CRC survivorship, including linkage of CRC survivorship to primary care. Rural cancer coalitions and hospitals may be a vehicle to develop local action for A National Action Plan. Access to more comprehensive care for CRC cancer survivors in rural communities appears to be facilitated by the community-based initiative described and investigated in this study. Efforts such as these could be replicated in other rural communities and may impact the care and quality of life of survivors with many types of cancers. While access to health services may be increased through community-based initiatives, we still need to measure the impact of such initiatives on the long term health and well being of cancer survivors in rural locations. PMID:18648971

Lengerich, Eugene J; Kluhsman, Brenda C; Bencivenga, Marcyann; Allen, Regina; Miele, Mary Beth; Farace, Elana

2007-09-01

302

Evaluation of a Participatory Resource Monitoring System for Nontimber Forest Products: the Case of Amla (Phyllanthus spp. Fruit Harvest by Soligas in South India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enhancing incomes from the sustainable harvest of nontimber forest products can help to maintain local livelihoods and provide local communities with economic incentives to conserve biodiversity. A key feature of a successful enterprise approach to the conservation of these products is a sound monitoring and evaluation program that involves all concerned stakeholders and leads to adaptive management. However, few studies have presented any of the approaches, successes, or challenges involved in participatory monitoring initiatives for nontimber forest products. We present our experiences using a participatory research model that we developed and used over a 10-yr (1995–2005 period for the wild harvesting of Phyllanthus spp. fruits (amla by indigenous Soliga harvesters in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. We describe the establishment and evolution of our participatory resource monitoring activities, compare some of the results of our activities to those obtained from monitoring using standard ecological approaches, and evaluate some of the successes and challenges associated with our participatory resource model. An initial step in this work was the establishment of Soliga-run enterprises for the processing and value addition of amla and other nontimber forest products. Participatory resource monitoring activities consisted of participatory mapping and assessments of fruit production, fruit harvest and regeneration combined with pre- and postharvesting meetings for sharing information, and adaptive management. Over the years, harvesters rejected, changed, and adapted various participatory resource monitoring methods to select those most appropriate for them. Visual estimates of fruit production made by harvesters at the forest level were very similar to estimates obtained using standard scientific monitoring protocols. Participatory research monitoring techniques that were effective included strategies for participatory resource mapping, fruit productivity estimation, and promotion of improved harvest techniques. Major challenges involved ensuring adequate incentives for monitoring activities that lead to benefits only over the longer term, such as monitoring of extraction and regeneration rates. Maintaining long-term participation and interest in the latter requires ensuring resource tenure.

Tamara Ticktin

2008-12-01

303

Researching intercultural participatory design  

OpenAIRE

What impact does culture have on tools and techniques that are used to facilitate cooperation amongst stakeholders in Information Communication Technology (ICT) design projects? This is a question facing the ICT development activities at the World Maritime University in Malmö, Sweden. At the university around 300 staff and students from 90 different countries come together every year. Continuously finding ways to improve how they can actively participate in design activitie...

Bolmsten, Johan

2010-01-01

304

Investigating the Design Process : Participatory Design in Agile Software Development  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/approach – Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players and future users in the customer organization. The interview data were supplemented with company and project documents. Findings – The paper found genuine customer and user participation carried out by onsite customers and by other operational staff in the form of direct and indirect participation and with functional and democratic empowerment. The onsite customers played informative, consultative and participativeroles. The analysis revealed that planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the customer and user participation. This form of user participation supported a balance between flexibility and project progress and resulted in a project and a product which were considered a success by the customer and the development organization. The analysis showed that the integrative framework for user participation can also fruitfully be used in a new context to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory design contributes to the successful completion of the investigated project. By drawing on innovation theory it was found that participatory design in agile development bears the characteristics of a successful organizational innovation. Grounding further explanations in complex adaptive systems theory the paper provides an additional argument why participatory design despite some identified challenges fosters project staff to successfully carry out the agile development project.

Kautz, Karlheinz

2011-01-01

305

Participatory advocacy: a counter to media imperialism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Western media have a history of defining news worldwide, presenting news from a Western perspective which distorts and denies the truth as perceived from developing countries. Western news coverage of developing countries seems to emphasize countries' fragility, instability, and corruption, leading people to believe that the economic problems of developing countries are due to internal failures. That view is then transferred back to indigenous peoples and communities through major Western news agencies and mass media. Participatory communication is based upon the notion that people have the right to decide how they want themselves and their situations to be portrayed, to decide what information is useful to them and their community, and to be integral players in the communication process. With regard to media imperialism, the author discusses implications for advocacy activities, participatory communication approaches, participatory advocacy, participatory advocacy in South Asia, girl child drama in Nepal, drug abuse television drama in Nepal, and the advocacy challenge. PMID:12291103

Brown, M

1996-01-01

306

Orçamento participativo: uma abordagem na perspectiva da Ciência da Informação / Participatory budgeting: an approach from an Information Science perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetiva destacar a importância do orçamento participativo como fonte de inclusão social na sociedade intensiva de informação, em conjunto com os postulados da Ciência da Informação. O modelo participativo de gestão do orçamento participativo apresenta sinais de possibilidades de const [...] rução de um método provedor de democracia, e, nesse processo, a informação torna-se insumo inestimável. Nesse contexto, a Ciência da Informação surge como uma teia de formulações com laços concomitantes para que o acesso, a disseminação, o registro e a organização das informações produzidas sejam transformadas em realidades, sugerindo, ademais, proposições de ordem educativa para a cidadania. No atual momento de transição histórica e cultural da sociedade brasileira, comunidades e pessoas excluídas econômica e socialmente têm a possibilidade de participar do processo de gestão democrática mediante o orçamento participativo. Esses núcleos de compartilhamento de informações, conhecimentos e saberes tendem a contribuir para criar alternativas de transformação do espaço social, de modo a promover a inclusão dos grupos sociais menos favorecidos no acesso à informação. Abstract in english This work proposes highlighting the importance of participatory budgeting as a source of social inclusion in the intensive information society, in conjunction with the premises of Information Science. The model of participatory budget management shows signs of the possibility of constructing a metho [...] d that provides democracy, in which case the information becomes an invaluable input. In this context, information science emerges as a web of formulations with concurrent ties, permitting the dissemination, recording and organization of the information produced to be transformed into reality, suggesting, moreover, propositions of an educational order for citizens. At the present moment of historical and cultural transition through which we are passing in Brazilian society, communities and economically and socially excluded individuals have the chance to participate in the process of democratic management through participatory budgeting. These clusters of information sharing, knowledge and wisdom tend to contribute to the creation of alternatives for the transformation of social space in order to promote the inclusion of disadvantaged social groups in terms of access to information.

Alex de Araujo, Lopes; Isa Maria, Freire.

2012-04-01

307

Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

2014-01-01

308

Using Participatory Action Research to Develop a Course Module on Education for Sustainable Development in Pre-Service Chemistry Teacher Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a course module on sustainability issues and Education for Sustainable Development in German pre-service chemistry teacher education. The module was inspired by empirical research findings about the knowledge base of student teachers. It was created and cyclically refined using Participatory Action Research. Experience gained during its three-year application will be reflected upon here, including feedback collected from student evaluation sheets. In the end, the participants responded extremely positively to the course. The student teachers stated that the module was interesting, relevant and valuable for their later profession as high school chemistry teachers. They also emphasised that they now felt more competent in the area of sustainability and ESD.

Mareike Burmeister

2013-01-01

309

Helping small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics: Linking participatory research, traditional research and simulation modelling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim was to link necessary research skills to increase the range of options available to resource-poor farmers in the study area. The research consisted of on-station research to evaluate and understand cropping-system options resulting from insertion of a legume crop into the sorghum and castor system, on-farm research whereby farmers evaluate cropping-system options that are of interest to them, use of 15N as a label to help understand the nitrogen (N) balance of the various options, and cropping-systems simulation to examine long-term climatic risks from possible options. Particular attention was placed on the option of sorghum/pigeon pea intercrops, and on quantifying the inputs of N from animal manure and by the pigeon-pea component. We were also interested in the process of linking on-station to on-farm research, and simulation modelling to the cropping system research. One important outcome was that different groups identified different problems and posed different questions. The problems identified and questions raised were examined by use of scenario analyses run for ten to thirty years which contrasted the existing practice with a range of alternative practices. The simulations were useful in guiding the design of on-farm experiments. Other likely outcomes are the setting of low-rate fertilizer recommendations specifically for the semi-arid tropics, the marketing of small packs of fertilizers, and increased use of manure resources for crop prodased use of manure resources for crop production. (author)

310

Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data  

OpenAIRE

Background: Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective: To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of exi...

Michelle Redman-MacLaren; Jane Mills; Rachael Tommbe

2014-01-01

311

A RFID specific participatory design approach to support design and implementation of real-time location systems in the operating room.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information technology, such as real-time location (RTL) systems using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) may contribute to overcome patient safety issues and high costs in healthcare. The aim of this work is to study if a RFID specific Participatory Design (PD) approach supports the design and the implementation of RTL systems in the Operating Room (OR). A RFID specific PD approach was used to design and implement two RFID based modules. The Device Module monitors the safety status of OR devices and the Patient Module tracks the patients' locations during their hospital stay. The PD principles 'multidisciplinary team', 'participation users (active involvement)' and 'early adopters' were used to include users from the RFID company, the university and the hospital. The design and implementation process consisted of two 'structured cycles' ('iterations'). The effectiveness of this approach was assessed by the acceptance in terms of level of use, continuity of the project and purchase. The Device Module included eight strategic and twelve tactical actions and the Patient Module included six strategic and twelve tactical actions. Both modules are now used on a daily basis and are purchased by the hospitals for continued use. The RFID specific PD approach was effective in guiding and supporting the design and implementation process of RFID technology in the OR. The multidisciplinary teams and their active participation provided insights in the social and the organizational context of the hospitals making it possible to better fit the technology to the hospitals' (future) needs. PMID:25503417

Guédon, A C P; Wauben, L S G L; de Korne, D F; Overvelde, M; Dankelman, J; van den Dobbelsteen, J J

2015-01-01

312

Community-Based Participatory Research: Lessons Learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research  

OpenAIRE

Over the past several decades there has been growing evidence of the increase in incidence rates, morbidity, and mortality for a number of health problems experienced by children. The causation and aggravation of these problems are complex and multifactorial. The burden of these health problems and environmental exposures is borne disproportionately by children from low-income communities and communities of color. Researchers and funding institutions have called for increased attention to the...

Israel, Barbara A.; Parker, Edith A.; Rowe, Zachary; Salvatore, Alicia; Minkler, Meredith; Lo?pez, Jesu?s; Butz, Arlene; Mosley, Adrian; Coates, Lucretia; Lambert, George; Potito, Paul A.; Brenner, Barbara; Rivera, Maribel; Romero, Harry; Thompson, Beti

2005-01-01

313

Assessing Vital Signs: Applying Two Participatory Evaluation Frameworks to the Evaluation of a College of Nursing  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation research has been in progress to clarify the concept of participatory evaluation and to assess its impact. Recently, two theoretical frameworks have been offered--Daigneault and Jacob's participatory evaluation measurement index and Champagne and Smits' model of practical participatory evaluation. In this case report, we apply these…

Connors, Susan C.; Magilvy, Joan K.

2011-01-01

314

Theory Building through Praxis Discourse: A Theory- and Practice-Informed Model of Transformative Participatory Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Stakeholder participation in evaluation, where the evaluator engages stakeholders in the process, is prevalent in evaluation practice and is an important focus of evaluation research. Cousins and Whitmore proposed a bifurcation of participatory evaluation into the two streams of transformative participatory and practical participatory evaluation…

Harnar, Michael A.

2012-01-01

315

A case study in the participatory design of a collaborative science-based learning environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.

Chin, George, Jr.

316

Empowering Smallholder Women Farmers through Participatory Seed Potato Management: Lessons from Welmera District, Ethiopia  

OpenAIRE

Women are often ignored from research and development agenda although they play key roles in agriculture in developing countries. They are excluded from decision making and as a result, they frequently do not have access to resources, technologies and extension services, credits, inputs and markets. This paper aims to document, using qualitative methods, how participatory approach through Farmers Research Group (FRG) can address gender inequalities and subsequently empower women smallholde...

Ali Mohammed Oumer; Wudineh Getahun Tiruneh; Chilot Yirga Tizale

2014-01-01

317

Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527

Seyednezami Nasrin

2007-08-01

318

Specifications of Participatory Activities  

OpenAIRE

This deliverable presents a common operational framework for activities in Go-Lab that aim to engage different stakeholders (teachers, teacher trainers, policy makers, lab owners etc.) with the goals and products of Go-Lab. The main mechanisms we use are participatory activities in the form of different kinds of workshops. This relates to task 6.2 of the Go-Lab project (Participatory Engagement Activities).

Dondi, Claudio

2013-01-01

319

Collective form generation through visual participatory representation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive information from participatory research takes a form manifestation in collective form conceptualization by a set of designers.

Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant

320

Community based participatory approaches to address health disparities in Hawai'i: recent applications in cancer prevention, detection and treatment programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Assessment of recent trends in the prevalence and incidence of cancer, and its associated risk and protective factors in the State of Hawai'i illustrate that there are definite ethnic, socio-economic, and geographic health disparities. Disparities in access to health care are reflected in decreased and under utilization of all types of preventive cancer screening tests and decreased proportions of people with health insurance coverage. Increases in obesity mirror U.S. national trends and disproportionately affect certain ethnic groups and those with low income. Tobacco use has increased among at-risk populations including: certain ethnic groups, those with low-income and/or low education and those in rural areas. Data that reveal continuing or worsening health disparities imply that either the old methods have not been effective and/or resources are not available or are not being applied to address such disparities. Promising methodologies and programmatic focuses to reduce health disparities are needed as mechanisms for improving the circumstances of at-risk populations. Community based participatory approaches are described here for cancer prevention, detection, and treatment programs that utilize culturally appropriate methods. PMID:16285097

Pobutsky, Ann M; Pordell, Paran; Yamashita, Barbara; Tomiyasu, Danette Wong; Nihoa, Wendy Ku'uipo; Kitagawa, Kent; Mikami, Judy; St John, Tonya Lowery; Leslie, Jodi Haunani

2004-09-01

321

Hacia un enfoque de investigación participativa para mejorar los sistemas de producción de caprinos en regiones semiáridas de México: una caracterización socioeconómica y ecológica / Towards a participatory research approach to improve goats production systems in semi arid Mexico: socioeconomic and ecological  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar opciones que permitan mejorar la productividad caprina en una microcuenca con dos poblados en las regiones áridas del norte mexicano. El estudio se realizó durante los años 2004 al 2007 y se basó en el enfoque de sistemas de producción. Se evaluaron aspect [...] os socioeconómicos y ecológicos al nivel de macrosistema para identificar diferencias socioeconómicas y con posibles opciones generadoras de ingresos, y determinar la idoneidad del área para producir cabras e identificar tierras bajo cultivo que pudieran reconvertirse en tierras de pastoreo. Además, en el estudio se midió la erosión hídrica y se evaluaron los cambios en la calidad de la vegetación en las tierras de pastoreo para identificar las intervenciones adecuadas en el manejo del suelo. Un aspecto diferenciador fue la escasa participación femenina en las actividades económicas del municipio, lo que dio lugar a que se recomendara investigar las opciones generadoras de ingresos para la mujer (i.e., procesar la leche y así obtener quesos que son demandados). Las 4,914 ha de la microcuenca fueron clasificadas como adecuadas para los sistemas de producción caprina, pero se detectaron necesidades tecnológicas para mejorarlas. Los análisis de erosión hídrica y degradación del suelo identificaron 807 ha que requieren ser reconvertidas de uso agrícola a campos de pastoreo y 208 ha de pastoreo a campos para vegetación nativa. Los resultados relacionados con la disponibilidad y calidad de la vegetación nativa a lo largo del año definieron consideraciones principales para el suplemento alimenticio con energía y proteínas, en particular durante la estación seca. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to identify research options which may lead to the improvement of goat productivity in a microwatershed involving two villages in the dry areas of northern Mexico. The study was carried out during 2004-2007 and was based on the systems theory. Socioeconomic and ecolog [...] ical aspects were evaluated at the macro-system level to identify socioeconomic differences and possible income generation options, to determine suitability of the area for goat production and to identify cropland areas to be reconverted to range production. In addition, the study assessed water erosion occurrence, evaluation of range vegetation and grazing quality changes to identify appropriate land management interventions. Poor participation of women in economic activities at the municipality level was a differentiating aspect that prompted recommendations for exploring gender-sensitive income-generation options (i.e. milk processing into highly demanded cheese). The microwatershed's 4914 ha of land were categorized as suitable for goat production systems, however in need of improvement interventions: results from water erosion and land degradation analysis identified 807 ha to be reconverted from agricultural uses to range and 208 ha from range use to native vegetation. The results concerning native vegetation availability and quality across the year defined major considerations for appropriate protein and energy feeding in particular during the dry season.

Francisco G., Echavarría-Chairez; Luis, Iñiguez; Homero, Salinas-González; Manuel de J., Flores-Najera; Aden, Aw-Hassan; Alfonso, Serna-Pérez; César A., Meza-Herrera.

322

A systematic community-based participatory approach to refining an evidence-based community-level intervention: the HOLA intervention for Latino men who have sex with men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our community-based participatory research partnership engaged in a multistep process to refine a culturally congruent intervention that builds on existing community strengths to promote sexual health among immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). The steps were the following: (1) increase Latino MSM participation in the existing partnership, (2) establish an Intervention Team, (3) review the existing sexual health literature, (4) explore needs and priorities of Latino MSM, (5) narrow priorities based on what is important and changeable, (6) blend health behavior theory with Latino MSM's lived experiences, (7) design an intervention conceptual model, (8) develop training modules and (9) resource materials, and (10) pretest and (11) revise the intervention. The developed intervention contains four modules to train Latino MSM to serve as lay health advisors known as Navegantes. These modules synthesize locally collected data with other local and national data; blend health behavior theory, the lived experiences, and cultural values of immigrant Latino MSM; and harness the informal social support Latino MSM provide one another. This community-level intervention is designed to meet the expressed sexual health priorities of Latino MSM. It frames disease prevention within sexual health promotion. PMID:23075504

Rhodes, Scott D; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Duck, Stacy; García, Manuel; Downs, Mario; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Alegría-Ortega, José; Miller, Cindy; Boeving Allen, Alex; Gilbert, Paul A; Marsiglia, Flavio F

2013-07-01

323

Improving Maternity Care in the Dominican Republic: A Pilot Study of a Community-Based Participatory Research Action Plan by an International Healthcare Team.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article is a report of the process and results of a feasibility pilot study to improve the quality of maternity care in a sample of 31 women and their newborns delivering in a public, tertiary hospital in the Dominican Republic. The pilot study was the first "action step" taken as a result of a formative, community-based participatory research (CBPR) study conducted between 2008 and 2010 by an interdisciplinary, international partnership of U.S. academic researchers, Dominican medical/nursing personnel, and Dominican community health workers. Health personnel and community health workers separately identified indicators most important to measure quality of antepartum maternity care: laboratory and diagnostic studies and respectful, interpersonal communication. At the midpoint and the completion of data collection, the CBPR team evaluated the change in quality indicators to assess improvement in care. The pilot study supports the idea that joint engagement of community health workers, health personnel, and academic researchers with data creation and patient monitoring is motivating for all to continue to improve services in the cultural context of the Dominican Republic. PMID:24793488

Foster, Jennifer; Gossett, Sarah; Burgos, Rosa; Cáceres, Ramona; Tejada, Carmen; Dominguez García, Luis; Ambrosio Rosario, Angel; Almonte, Asela; Perez, Lydia J

2014-05-01

324

A participatory approach to sustainable energy strategy development in a carbon-intensive jurisdiction: The case of Nova Scotia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: ? Fundamental transfosearch highlights: ? Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. ? We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. ? The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. ? The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. ? In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.

325

Community-Based Participatory Research Approaches for Hypertension Control and Prevention in Churches  

OpenAIRE

Hypertension (HTN) is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV), cerebrovascular, and renal diseases and disproportionately affects African Americans (AAs). It has been shown that promoting the adoption of healthy lifestyles, ones that involve best practices of diet and exercise and abundant expert support, can, in a healthcare setting, reduce the incidence of hypertension in those who are at high risk. In this paper, we will examine whether similar programs are effective in the...

Sunita Dodani

2011-01-01

326

Healthy Transitions: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach with Burundians with Refugee Status  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthy Transitions is a program of the University of Tennessee's Ready for the World initiative, a broad plan to transform campus culture and prepare students for the 21st century. Healthy Transitions partners the university with a local community of Burundian refugees. The university joined several community organizations interested in the…

Bates, Denise; Burman, Elizabeth; Ejike-King, Lacreisha; Rufyiri, Charlotte

2012-01-01

327

The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: A Multi-Level Framework on Maternal, Paternal, and Child Health Disparities Derived by Community-Based Participatory Research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emerging evidence supports the theoretical and clinical importance of the preconception period in influencing pregnancy outcomes and child health. Collectively, this evidence affirms the need for a novel, integrative theoretical framework to design future investigations, integrate new findings, and identify promising, evidence-informed interventions to improve intergenerational health and reduce disparities. This article presents a transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network (CCHN) through community-based participatory research processes. CCHN developed a Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways (PSRP) model by building local and multi-site community-academic participatory partnerships that established guidelines for research planning and decision-making; reviewed relevant findings diverse disciplinary and community perspectives; and identified the major themes of stress and resilience within the context of families and communities. The PSRP model focuses on inter-relating the multiple, complex, and dynamic biosocial influences theoretically linked to family health disparities. The PSRP model borrowed from and then added original constructs relating to developmental origins of lifelong health, epigenetics, and neighborhood and community influences on pregnancy outcome and family functioning (cf. MCHJ 2014). Novel elements include centrality of the preconception/inter-conception period, role of fathers and the parental relationship, maternal allostatic load (a composite biomarker index of cumulative wear-and-tear of stress), resilience resources of parents, and local neighborhood and community level influences (e.g., employment, housing, education, health care, and stability of basic necessities). CCHN's integrative framework embraces new ways of thinking about how to improve outcomes for future generations, by starting before conception, by including all family members, and by engaging the community vigorously at multiple levels to promote resiliency, reduce chronic and acute stressors, and expand individualized health care that integrates promotive and prevention strategies. If widely adopted, the PSRP model may help realize the goal of sustaining engagement of communities, health and social services providers, and scientists to overcome the siloes, inefficiencies, and lack of innovation in efforts to reduce family health disparities. Model limitations include tremendous breadth and difficulty measuring all elements with precision and sensitivity. PMID:25070734

Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Schafer, Peter; DeClerque, Julia L; Lanzi, Robin G; Hobel, Calvin; Shalowitz, Madeleine; Chinchilli, Vern; Raju, Tonse N K

2014-07-29

328

Landscape and Participation: Construction of a PhD Research Problem and an Analysis Method. Towards the Comparative Analysis of Participatory Processes of Landscape Management Projects Design on a Local Scale in the Walloon Region (Belgium).  

OpenAIRE

A preliminary reflection to the definition of a PhD research problem on the concepts of participation, landscape and project, led the student to be interested in the participatory processes of landscape management projects design, and in the inhabitants landscapes representations. The method includes the comparative analysis of local processes of projects design, and the direct observation of two Walloon landscape management projects design (investigation conducted with stakeholders implied i...

Droeven, Emile

2008-01-01

329

Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal  

Science.gov (United States)

Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

2010-02-01

330

The participatory patient  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper introduces the concept of the “participatory patient” as a vehicle to promote attention to patients¿ dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship between a patient¿s work on the project as a co-designer and his work of being a patient using a prototype. I conclude by arguing for the importance of being aware of the ways in which patients inscribe patient work and non-work and thinking of what kind of working or non-working patients it implies.

Andersen, Tariq Osman

2010-01-01

331

Facilitating innovation: an action-oriented approach and participatory methodology to improve innovative social practice in agriculture.  

OpenAIRE

This study focuses upon the social organization of innovation. It makes use of insights from knowledge and information systems research, development sociology, management science and applied philosophy and seeks answers to the following questions: What do social actors, individuals and/or organizations, actually do to innovate their practices? How do they organize themselves? Can this be managed or facilitated, and if so, how? The research is exploratory rather than conclusion-oriented and sy...

Engel, P. G. H.

1995-01-01

332

Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center of the University of Sassari (Italy and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the project, all actors own/share all choices made and the technology used participating thus to the intervention sustainability.

Oumelkheir Belkheiri

2012-10-01

333

From conflict to ownership: Participatory approaches to the re-integration of ex-combatants in Sierra Leone  

OpenAIRE

The demobilisation and re-integration of ex-combatants has become an important element in peace-building. The need for a more holistic, integrated approach, in which there is greater local ownership of the process, has long been recognised. However, putting this into practice remains a challenge. Re-integration ultimately takes place in the community, merging with development and post-conflict reconstruction. This study of re-integration in Sierra Leone uses the concept of ‘participation’...

Kilroy, Walt

2011-01-01

334

Participatory development approach in local governance - its relevance for economic development: a case study of Sri Lanka  

OpenAIRE

This research paper seeks to examine to what extent local governance iseffective in alleviating the vicious circle of poverty. Furthermore, traditional social relationships in Sri Lankan society are relatively and critically discussed in the notion of social capital. In Sri Lanka, local government institutions, administrative divisional secretaries, the Gramaseva division, civil society and the business community are the entities of local governance at the grass roots governance level that di...

Withanachchi, Sisira Saddhamangala

2011-01-01

335

A Community-Based Participatory Critique of Social Isolation Intervention Research for Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

OpenAIRE

This article examines the dialogue that occurred within the structure of a Research-to-Practice Consensus Workshop that critiqued academic research priorities regarding social isolation among community-dwelling older adults and identified practice-based suggestions for a social isolation research agenda. The investigators adapted the scientific consensus workshop model to include expert practitioners and researchers in a discussion of the current state and future directions of social isolatio...

Sabir, Myra; Wethington, Elaine; Breckman, Risa; Meador, Rhoda; Reid, M. C.; Pillemer, Karl

2009-01-01

336

Using Participatory Paradigm to Learn Human Behaviour  

OpenAIRE

Since the end of the seventies, the utilisation of multi-agents simulations has spread out. A typical use of these simulations concerns the modelling of human behaviour. In this application case, a key point to ensure the simulation realism is the definition of the agent behaviour. Unfortunately, designing such behaviour is often complex. In order to help the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on the participatory paradigm. In our approach, a human actor directly plays...

Taillandier, Patrick; Chu, Thanh-quang

2009-01-01

337

Design Anthropology in Participatory Design : From Ethnography to Anthropological Critique?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between physical, digital and hybrid spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do conventional distinctions between research and design. This half-day workshop invites participant to discuss and explore opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical.

Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

338

Improving the nutritional resource environment for healthy living through community-based participatory research. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

339

Building a low carbon scenario for France. How a participatory approach can enhance social and economic acceptability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication presents the French case study of the European ENCI-LowCarb research project: Engaging Civil Society in Low Carbon scenarios. The core activity of this project was the development of a methodology for the transparent integration of stakeholders' contributions in the scenario design process to enhance the stakeholders' acceptance of the resulting low carbon pathways. This attempt at integrating acceptability in scenario-making constitutes an important step to distinguish what is technically and economically feasible from what is acceptable. Today, a wide range of published scenarios emphasize the fact that they are built on public consultations or stakeholders' contributions. However, transparency is lacking concerning the methodology relative to how contributions were taken into account and translated into assumptions that can be used by the modeling tool. The project ENCI-LowCarb aimed at exploring this scientific gap. Energy scenarios outline possible low-carbon futures built around assumptions on fossil fuels prices evolution, technological choices and the mechanisms of energy demand and supply, among others. Scenarios are influential tools in political decision-making processes since they shed light on the long-term impacts of today's investment decisions, especially regarding infrastructures. This is why it is crucial that these pathways derive from discussions with main stakeholders. In this report, the French project team (CIRED and RAC-F) has the pleasure to present energy scenarios for France which derive from a collaborative scenario design process including the participation of a wide range of French stakeholders (civil society organizations including trade unions and non-governmental organizations, private companies, banks, statewide and local authorities). Participating stakeholders were asked to define or select acceptable CO2 emissions mitigation measures. Their contributions were implemented in the technico-economic model Imaclim-R France to create a scenario that is economically and technically consistent as well as acceptable by stakeholders. This methodology allowed an assessment of the level of achievable emissions reductions with stakeholders' 'acceptable' measures. This project report is organized as follows: part 2 presents the methodology of the collaborative scenario design process in detail, part 3 describes the low carbon scenario - the outcome of the stakeholder discussions. In part 4, other drivers of CO2 emissions and additional measures are explored. Chapter 5 introduces additional sensitivity analysis. Part 6 concludes

340

Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic Consensus panel - Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. Deliverable 11  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important part of the ARGONA project is the testing and application of novel participation and dialogue approaches. The ways in this is being done include a series of events involving different stakeholders such as a focused science shop, a consensus panel and an interaction panel. In the framework of these activities in the Czech Republic the consensus panel was held on June 12, 2008 in Rez and addressed the theme: 'Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives'. The main goals of this consensus panel were: 1. Identification of the main criteria relevant to the assessment of the existing alternatives and determination their importance (weight) from the perspective of all stakeholders; 2. Achieving at least a partial consensus on selecting the most suitable alternative (management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel). A broader audience was selected with a suitable mixture of specialists and interested technical and non-technical peers including representatives from NRI, universities, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of the Environment, State Office for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, representatives of municipalities and NGOs, and waste producers such as CEZ plc etc. In opinion of all participants, there was a 'safe space' for debate ensured and everyone had the same opportunity to express his opinion. All participants also agreed that the whole course of seminar was transparent and correct. From this perspective, the chosencorrect. From this perspective, the chosen format of dialogue seems appropriate to ensure the exchange of new information and mutual discussion among the interested parties on the contentious issues in the NWM and nuclear energy in general. It was also found, however, that at present the social and political problems are the most important and the most urgent problems in the field of the nuclear waste management in the Czech Republic. It is very important not only to ensure a safe space for meaningful communication, but also: - To increase the activities of relevant state institutions in communication with the public in the field of NWM and enhance public confidence in the state institutions. - To develop motivation programs as another way how to incite the public interest and to positively influence their attitude towards the radioactive waste disposal, siting of the geological repository, and nuclear power production in general. - To strengthen the political responsibility - a long-lasting consistent and clear political attitude of the government and government parties concerning the problems of the final disposal of spent fuel is lacking in the Czech Republic. The general public misses the necessary long-term guarantees. Recommendations for the organization of further activities: - To select appropriate topics with clearly formulated questions taking into account the character of participants - other issues can be discussed within the scientific community and others in the wider discussion with the public participation. - To use service a professional mediator (as an impartial and independent person managing the whole course of the discussion) to facilitate communication among interested parties during the discussion. This applies mainly in the discussions on contentious issues such as selection of appropriate nuclear waste management alternative or the deep repository siting. - To ensure participation of representatives of state institution such as Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry for Regional Development and also representatives of government parties. This is one of the most important prerequisites in order that discussion would be relevant and meaningful and the conclusions obtained could be used practically. - To proceed step by step and set smaller goals - The current situation in the field of NWM in the Czech Republic makes it impossible to achieve consensus among all stakeholders on controversial issues, such as the siting of the deep repository or selecting the optimal alternative to nuclear waste management. There

341

Sustainability and power in health promotion: community-based participatory research in a reproductive health policy case study in New Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health promotion programs are commonly viewed as value-free initiatives which seek to improve health, often through behavior change. An opposing view has begun to emerge that health promotion efforts, especially ones seeking to impact health policy and social determinants of health, are vulnerable to political contexts and may depend on who is in power at the time. This community-based participatory research study attempts to understand these interactions by applying a conceptual model focused on the power context, diverse stakeholder roles within this context, and the relationship of political levers and other change strategies to the sustainability of health promotion interventions aimed at health policy change. We present a case study of a health promotion coalition, New Mexico for Responsible Sex Education (NMRSE), as an example of power dynamics and change processes. Formed in 2005 in response to federal policies mandating abstinence-only education, NMRSE includes community activists, health promotion staff from the New Mexico Department of Health, and policy-maker allies. Applying an adapted Mayer's 'power analysis' instrument, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews and triangulated political-context analyses from the perspective of the stakeholders. We identified multiple understandings of sustainability and health promotion policy change, including: the importance of diverse stakeholders working together in coalition and social networks; their distinct positions of power within their political contexts; the role of science versus advocacy in change processes; the particular challenges for public sector health promotion professionals; and other facilitators versus barriers to action. One problem that emerged consisted of the challenges for state employees to engage in health promotion advocacy due to limitations imposed on their activities by state and federal policies. This investigation's results include a refined conceptual model, a power-analysis instrument, and new understandings of the intersection of power and stakeholder strategies in the sustainability of health promotion and health in all policies. PMID:25432963

Mendes, Rosilda; Plaza, Veronica; Wallerstein, Nina

2014-11-28

342

Impact of a community gardening project on vegetable intake, food security and family relationships: a community-based participatory research study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This community-based participatory research project used popular education techniques to support and educate Hispanic farmworker families in planting and maintaining organic gardens. Measures included a pre- post gardening survey, key informant interviews and observations made at community-based gardening meetings to assess food security, safety and family relationships. Thirty-eight families enrolled in the study during the pre-garden time period, and four more families enrolled in the study during the post-garden period, for a total of 42 families enrolled in the 2009 gardening season. Of the families enrolled during the pre-gardening time period there were 163 household members. The mean age of the interviewee was 44.0, ranging from 21 to 78 years of age. The median number of occupants in a household was 4.0 (range: 2-8), Frequency of adult vegetable intake of "Several time a day" increased from 18.2 to 84.8%, (P < 0.001) and frequency of children's vegetable intake of "Several time a day" increased from 24.0 to 64.0%, (P = 0.003). Before the gardening season, the sum of the frequencies of "Sometimes" and "Frequently" worrying in the past month that food would run out before money was available to buy more was 31.2% and the sum of these frequencies dropped to 3.1% during the post garden period, (P = 0.006). The frequency of skipping meals due to lack of money was not statistically significantly different before and after the gardening season for either adults or children. Analysis of text responses and key informant interviews revealed that physical and mental health benefits were reported as well as economic and family health benefits from the gardening study, primarily because the families often worked in their gardens together. A community gardening program can reduce food insecurity, improve dietary intake and strengthen family relationships. PMID:22194063

Carney, Patricia A; Hamada, Janet L; Rdesinski, Rebecca; Sprager, Lorena; Nichols, Katelyn R; Liu, Betty Y; Pelayo, Joel; Sanchez, Maria Antonia; Shannon, Jacklien

2012-08-01

343

Participatory Innovation in SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several case studies in literature and handbooks about participatory design (PD) suggest that the use of emerging methods to generate user information is common practice. However, these authors address practices in academia or in leading companies and not necessarily the practice of the majority of product development companies. The mentioned companies like for example Microsoft (Sanders, 2004) are in a privileged position, having the possibilities to spend time, manpower and budget on extensive user studies and explore participatory design projects. But how does the Small-to-Medium sized Enterprise (SME) fare in this respect? Some literature is known in this context, Heiskanen et al. (2007) provide many insights on working with SMEs, especially on technology oriented SMEs. De Lille et al. (2009) gives an overview of problems designers experience when conducting user studies. Asboe (2009) provides an anthropologists perspective on user studies within SMEs.

Buur, Jacob; de Lille, Christine

2010-01-01

344

Relational Expertise in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social status. We illustrate our theoretical argument for a relational expertise with a running example from a participatory design process engaging an interprofessional group of participants in a project on future technology enabled learning environments.

Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

2014-01-01

345

Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia  

OpenAIRE

A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme) financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco a...

Oumelkheir Belkheiri; Maurizio Mulas; Giuseppe Enne; Marcello Lubino; Davide Bellavite

2012-01-01

346

Evaluation of the capacity development of actors within participatory planning process  

OpenAIRE

This paper focuses on measuring the capacity development within the participatory planning process of formulation of development strategy. It starts with the discussion of how individual, collaborative and governance capacities became a part of collaborative and consensus planning, and continues with proposing the mixed method approach. Quantitative methods have been used to measure the level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction that participatory approach had o...

?oli? Ratka

2014-01-01

347

Scientific Approach to Empirical Research  

OpenAIRE

Every piece of research aims to produce an answer to a scientific question. And it is reasonable to ask just how good an answer the research provides. Research is a form of learning, a way of increasing one's knowledge about the world. A novice in research always has some pressing questions – How to start a research project? In what order to proceed with the empirical study? How to make the empirical research more reliable one?

Vinod Kumar, V.

2013-01-01

348

Can We Talk? Using Community-Based Participatory Action Research to Build Family and School Partnerships with Families of Color  

Science.gov (United States)

Research has demonstrated persistent, disproportionally negative educational outcomes for students of color, causing national concern in this area. School personnel increasingly understand the need to engage with parents as educational partners, but parents of color may feel marginalized in these efforts. This paper presents findings from a series…

Yull, Denise; Blitz, Lisa V.; Thompson, Tonia; Murray, Carla

2014-01-01

349

A pesquisa participante e a intervenção comunitária no cotidiano do Pibid/CAPES / Participatory research and community intervention in the everyday life of Pibid/CAPES  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O artigo analisa as dimensões psicossociais do processo de participação e formação de um grupo de alunos da licenciatura de pedagogia, filosofia e ciências sociais, junto ao projeto Interdisciplinar-Pedagogia, no Programa Institucional de Bolsa de Iniciação à Docência (PIBID)/CAPES-UFPR. A atuação d [...] os graduandos em duas escolas da rede pública de Curitiba-PR privilegiou a construção e a implementação conjunta de um plano de ação em direitos humanos e redes de solidariedade na comunidade. Os trabalhos de intervenção foram desenvolvidos apoiados na proposta de pesquisa participante de Orlando Fals Borda, nos aportes filosóficos da educação conscientizadora de Paulo Freire e na perspectiva teórico-metodológica da psicologia social comunitária latino-americana. Foram realizadas, com os participantes do projeto, reuniões e oficinas semanais de capacitação, grupos focais temáticos e conversações críticas avaliativas. As informações obtidas foram sistematizadas e submetidas à análise de conteúdo, nos seguintes eixos: razões para ingresso no projeto Pibid; atividades realizadas e metodologias para formação e sensibilização; e dificuldades sentidas nas atividades e geração dos produtos. O desenvolvimento das atividades contribuiu para um envolvimento e compromisso com a realidade educacional, colaborando para a quebra de mitos a respeito dessa realidade, com a diminuição de receios e eliminação de preconceitos sobre as escolas públicas. Observou-se que as práticas participativas, comunitárias e educacionais fortaleceram uma proximidade entre universidade e escola, colocando a docência como possível escolha futura desses estudantes e, consequentemente, colaborando para o reconhecimento social do trabalho do professor. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the psychosocial dimensions of the participation and training process of a group of students of bachelor's degree in pedagogy, philosophy and social sciences, in the Interdisciplinary Pedagogy project from the Institutional Program of Teaching Initiation Scholarship (PIBID)/CAPES [...] -UFPR. The work of the students in two public schools in Curitiba-PR favored the construction and implementation of a joint action plan on human rights and solidarity networks in the community. The intervention works were developed supported by the participatory research proposal by Orlando Fals Borda, the philosophical contributions of Paulo Freire's awareness wakening education and the theoretical and methodological perspectives of Latin American Community social psychology. The project participants attended weekly meetings and training workshops, thematic focus groups and evaluative critical conversations. The information collected has been systematized and submitted to content analysis in the following areas: motives to join the Pibid project; activities carried out and methodologies for training and awareness; and difficulties in activities and generation of products. The development of the activities contributed to an involvement and commitment to the educational reality, collaborating to break myths about this reality, reducing prejudices and eliminating fears about state schools. It was observed that participatory, community and educational practices strengthened proximity between universities and schools, putting teaching as a possible future choice for these students and thus contributing to the social recognition of the teachers' work.

Maria de Fatima Quintal de, Freitas.

2014-09-01

350

Foresight Analysis at the Regional Level - A Participatory Methodological Framework  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of the present paper is on the potential of participatory scenario planning as a tool for regional future studies. More specifically, a methodological framework for participatory scenario planning is presented, integrating an analytical participatory scenario planning approach (the LIPSOR model with the Focus Groups and Future Workshop participatory tools. This framework is applied to a Greek rural region, for building scenarios and structuring policies for its future rural development. The specific region is in front of a great challenge referring to the potential location of a large infrastructure (airport, which can drive a considerable socio-economic restructuring, affecting mostly the agricultural sector due to the land loss and the pressures exerted from competitive land uses around the airport area.

Anastasia Stratigea

2013-05-01

351

Geo-information tools for participatory spatial planning : fulfilling the criteria for 'good' governance ?  

OpenAIRE

The last few decades have seen increasing attempts to foster ‘collaborative’ and ‘participatoryapproaches to spatial planning and decision-making, with a more sophisticated conceptualisation of the contested term, participation. Participatory, ‘bottom-up’ geo-information technologies have been concurrently developing and these are expected to strengthen participatory spatial planning; important among these has been the transformation of conventional mapping and GIS tools into Pa...

Mccall, M. K.; Dunn, C. E.

2012-01-01

352

Participatory Research to Design a Novel Telehealth System to Support the Night-Time Needs of People with Dementia: NOCTURNAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the “smart home” to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.

Suzanne Martin

2013-12-01

353

Community-based participatory irrigation management at local government level in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ghana has attempted to decentralise the management of irrigation schemes to communities at local government level. This study examines the existing local participatory management structures and the principles of the Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM strategy designed to promote sustainable management of irrigation schemes in Ghana. Two community-based irrigation projects, Bontanga and Golinga in the Northern Region of Ghana were selected for the research. The study demonstrated that farmers’ participation was minimal and limited to the discussion of irrigation service charges at the expense of other issues related to the sustainability of the projects/schemes. The study also established that there was less participation of women, and more than half of all the crop farmers on the two irrigation projects were reluctant to assume additional responsibilities without remuneration. The study therefore concluded that the sustainability of the PIM strategy depends on the adoption of an integrated management approach involving all stakeholders including local government, with appropriate incentives.

I Braimah

2014-07-01

354

Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind this model in combination with other theories which have been used successfully in other interventions. The project is only in its initial phases in conducting the intervention, but so far the preliminary results indicate that management support and allocation of resources is vital, that internal facilitators are important drivers of the change process and that easy-to-use tools are requested from the involved company actors. Given that the interventions in the selected companies are conducted successfully we argue that a new organizational capability to address work-related stress in a collective and collaborative manner is developed in the participating companies. With a successfully conducted intervention we mean that the companies have been able to implement their own change proposals in a collective and collaborative process. By developing this organizational capability we expect that the companies would be able to repeat the process with new change proposals. The research builds on observations, participatory action research, interviews and surveys.

Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

2013-01-01

355

Play. Learn. Innovate : Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

„Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes – which always entail change – were people and how they relate to each other, I became curious to understand this from a management perspective. When I did not find any satisfying answers in the world of practice, I decided to return to the world of theory hoping to find answers there. However, I did not. After extensive literature studies mainly in the fields of social capital, organizations, complexity, and knowledge – but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy – I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function was interdependent with other people‘s roles and functions and that uncertainty was omnipresent. While I found many interesting and enlightening studies with brilliant concepts, methods and implications in each respective field, they typically either addressed the individual, or the group level, or the institutional level and they often were ignoring or excluding other disciplines and perspectives – in short they seemed unconnected. My impression was – in order to understand why this was the case – I had to go to the very foundations of management thinking – the research philosophy of management. The aims of my study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that Iwas interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social interaction across different units of analysis. Drawing on explorative projects I had the opportunity to conduct with students – we involved firms and used interviews and video analysis – I explored different theoretical perspectives in relation to practice. In further workshops and experiments I found evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose a multi-level conceptual framework to understand and analyze social dynamics of participatory innovation in organizations – complementing research on knowledge transformation when facing novelty (Carlile, 2004) and participatory innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008; Buur and Larsen, 2010). Further, based on this I carve out theoretical and practical links between innovation as a social process across boundaries, play and games, learning, and design in organizational settings. Thus, confirming and complement work in the field of play (e.g. Kaark, 2011; Sandelands, 2010; Mainemelis and Ronson, 2006;), learning and play (e.g. Brown and Vaughaun, 2010; Thomas and Brown, 2011; Kolb and Kolb, 2010), games (e.g. McGonigal, 2011; Mäyrä, 2008), and innovation across knowledge boundaries (e.g. Carlile, 2004; Nicolini et al, 2011; Buur and Matthews, 2008). I clarify how the proposed approach differs from system thinking and game theory – and I provide first evidence for that playful games are promising as a tool, a method, and a process to grasp and research social dynamics of participatory innovation theoretically and practically. I believe that the idea to use playful games in the proposed way is new and can provide new insights in participatory innovation. Further, I argue that this approach opens up promising way

Sproedt, Henrik

2012-01-01

356

Improving adherence to ante-retroviral treatment for people with harmful alcohol use in Kariobangi, Kenya through participatory research and action  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful alcohol use has been linked to the spread of HIV in Kenya. It also adversely affects those on antiretroviral (ARV treatment through poor compliance. This study using participatory research and action (PRA methods sought to understand factors related to alcohol abuse and non-adherence and to formulate appropriate interventions in a sample of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA who were also abusing alcohol, at Kariobangi in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Entry into the community was gained through previous PRA work in that community and PLWHA were recruited through snowballing. Working together with the community members, the researchers explored the participants’ understanding of alcohol use problem, its effects on compliance to ARV treatment and discussed possible action areas through PRA techniques that included focus group and market place discussions; visual aids such as spider diagrams, community mapping and ranking. Follow-up meetings were held to discuss the progress. Results By the final meeting, 67 PLWHA and 19 community members had been recruited. Through discussions, misconceptions regarding alcohol use were identified. It emerged that alcohol abuse was poorly recognised among both the community and health workers. Screening for alcohol use was not routinely done and protocols for managing alcohol related disorders were not available at the local health centres providing ARVs. The study participants identified improving communication, psychoeducation and screening for alcohol use as possible action areas. Poverty was identified as a major problem but the interventions to mitigate this were not easy to implement. Conclusion We propose that PRA could be useful in improving communication between the health workers and the clients attending primary health care (PHC facilities and can be applied to strengthen involvement of support groups and community health workers in follow up and counselling. Integrating these features into primary health care (PHC would be important not only to PLWHA but also to other diseases in the PHC setting . Longer term follow up is needed to determine the sustained impact of the interventions. Problems encountered in the PRA work included great expectations at all levels fostered by handouts from other donors and cognitive impairment that interfered with constructive engagement in some of the PLWHA.

Othieno Caleb J

2012-08-01

357

Planning: The Participatory Process Model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The participatory planning process model developed by Peirce Junior College is described in this paper. First, the rationale for shifting from a traditional authoritarian style of institutional leadership to a participatory style which encourages a broader concern for the institution and lessens morale problems is offered. The development of a new…

McDowell, Elizabeth V.

358

Participatory Practices in Adult Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

Participatory education is a collective effort in which the participants are committed to building a just society through individual and socieoeconomic transformation and to ending domination through changing power relations. This book describes participatory practices in many environments, including educational and penal institutions,…

Campbell, Pat, Ed.; Burnaby, Barbara, Ed.

359

"I Don't Know What Literacy Is": Uncovering Hidden Literacies in a Community Library Using Ecological and Participatory Research Methodologies with Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes an ecological study in Eastside, a particular area of Rotherham, a town in the north of England, UK. The purpose of the study was to collect information about literacy practices in a community setting, focusing on a library. The researchers used an ecological approach to data collection. The methodology included approaches

Pahl, Kate; Allan, Chloe

2011-01-01

360

Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.

Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

2014-01-01

361

O lugar da investigação participada de base comunitária na promoção da saúde mental / The role of community-based participatory research in mental health promotion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A saúde mental é imprescindível ao desenvolvimento social e económico das comunidades. Envolver as comunidades no desenho e desenvolvimento de planos locais de promoção da saúde mental é um importante desafio para garantir mais e melhor saúde mental a cada comunidade. De 2009 a 2012 desenvolveu-se u [...] m estudo de caso baseado nos pressupostos de uma investigação participada de base comunitária numa comunidade urbana da região metropolitana de Lisboa, com o objetivo de fundamentar o desenho de um plano local de promoção da saúde mental local. O resultado deste trabalho de parceria, que envolveu habitantes e organizações governamentais e não-governamentais da comunidade urbana, fundamentado na capacitação individual e comunitária da comunidade e dos seus membros, confirmou a necessidade de uma participação ativa e efetiva da comunidade no desenvolvimento de políticas locais de promoção da saúde e concluiu pela definição de 6 eixos estratégicos de intervenção pelo período temporal 2012/2015: uma escola com saúde mental; uma comunidade ativa e segura; uma comunidade solidária e inclusiva; uma comunidade atenta; uma organização económico-laboral promotora de saúde mental; uma senioridade mentalmente saudável. Abstract in english Mental health is essential to community social and economic development. Involving communities in the design and development of mental health promotion local plans is a major challenge to ensure more and better mental health in each community. From 2009 to 2012 a case study was developed based on th [...] e assumptions of a community-based participatory research in an urban community in the metropolitan area of Lisbon, in order to support the design of a mental health promotion local plan. The result of this partnership, which involved inhabitants and governmental and non-governmental organizations of the urban community, based on individual and community empowerment of the community and its members, confirmed the need for an active and effective participation of the community in the development of health promotion local policies and concluded by defining six strategic areas of intervention between 2012 and 2015: a school with mental health, an active and safe community, a supportive and inclusive community, a community aware, an organization promoting economic and work mental health, a seniority mentally healthy.

José Carlos Rodrigues, Gomes; Maria Isabel Guedes, Loureiro.

2013-01-01

362

Views of biobanking research among Alaska native people: the role of community context | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors used a community based participatory research approach when conducting this study. They engaged members of the Alaska Area Specimen Bank Working Group, tribal leaders and community liaisons in the design, development and implementation of the study.

363

Paradox Lost and Paradox Regained: Comments on Chouinard's "The Case for Participatory Evaluation..."  

Science.gov (United States)

Jill Chouinard, in her article "The Case for Participatory Evaluation in an Era of Accountability" (this issue, p. 237), may be re-iterating what has often been claimed and arguably is infused already in much of our theory and practice: the value of participatory approaches in some, perhaps many situations. She summarizes these claims eloquently…

Datta, Lois-ellin

2013-01-01

364

Participatory organizational change in community-based health and human services: from tokenism to political engagement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community psychologists have long worked with community-based human service organizations to build participatory processes. These efforts largely aim at building participatory practices within the current individual-wellness paradigm of human services. To address collective wellness, human service organizations need to challenge their current paradigm, attend to the social justice needs of community, and engage community participation in a new way, and in doing so become more openly political. We use qualitative interviews, focus groups, organizational documents, and participant observation to present a comparative case study of two organizations involved in such a process through an action research project aimed at transforming the organizations' managerial and practice paradigm from one based on first-order, ameliorative change to one that promotes second-order, transformative change via strength-based approaches, primary prevention, empowerment and participation, and focuses on changing community conditions. Four participatory tensions or dialectics are discussed: passive versus active participation, partners versus clients, surplus powerlessness versus collective efficacy, and reflection/learning versus action/doing. PMID:19142722

Bess, Kimberly D; Prilleltensky, Isaac; Perkins, Douglas D; Collins, Leslie V

2009-03-01

365

Community-based participatory action research: transforming multidisciplinary practice in primary health care Investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad: transformación de la práctica multidisciplinaria en atención primaria de salud  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Health care systems throughout the world are in the process of restructuring and reforming their health service delivery systems, reorienting themselves to a primary health care (PHC model that uses multidisciplinary practice (MDP teams to provide a range of coordinated, integrated services. This study explores the challenges of putting the MDP approach into practice in one community in a city in Canada. METHODS: The data we analyzed were derived from a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR project, conducted in 2004, that was used to enhance collaborative MDP in a PHC center serving a residential and small-business community of 11 000 within a medium-sized city of approximately 300 000 people in Canada. CBPAR is a planned, systematic approach to issues relevant to the community of interest, requires community involvement, has a problem-solving focus, is directed at societal change, and makes a lasting contribution to the community. We drew from one aspect of this complex, multiyear project aimed at transforming the rhetoric advocating PHC reform into actual sustainable practices. The community studied was diverse with respect to age, socioeconomics, and lifestyle. Its interdisciplinary team serves approximately 3 000 patients annually, 30% of whom are 65 years or older. This PHC center's multidisciplinary, integrated approach to care makes it a member of a very distinct minority within the larger primary care system in Canada. RESULTS: Analysis of practice in PHC revealed entrenched and unconscious ideas of the limitations and boundaries of practice. In the rhetoric of PHC, MDP was lauded by many. In practice, however, collaborative, multidisciplinary team approaches to care were difficult to achieve. CONCLUSIONS: The successful implementation of an MDP approach to PHC requires moving away from physician-driven care. This can only be achieved once there is a change in the underlying structures, values, power relations, and roles defined by the health care system and the community at large, where physicians are traditionally ranked above other care providers. The CBPAR methodology allows community members and the health-related professionals who serve them to take ownership of the research and to critically reflect on iterative cycles of evaluation. This provides an opportunity for practitioners to implement relevant changes based on internally generated analyses.OBJETIVOS: Los sistemas de salud de todo el mundo se encuentran en un proceso de reestructuración y reforma de sus sistemas de prestación de servicios, reorientándose hacia el modelo de atención primaria de salud (APS que utiliza equipos de consultorios multidisciplinarios (CMD para brindar un conjunto de servicios coordinados e integrados. En este estudio se exploran los retos de poner en práctica el enfoque de CMD en una comunidad urbana de Canadá. MÉTODOS:Los datos analizados se tomaron de un proyecto de investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad (IAPBC llevado a cabo en 2004. Su objetivo era perfeccionar un CMD colaborativo en un centro de APS que atiende a una comunidad de 11 000 personas, compuesta por una zona residencial y pequeños negocios, en una ciudad canadiense de aproximadamente 300 000 personas. La IAPBC permite abordar de manera planificada y sistemática problemas importantes para la comunidad en cuestión, requiere la participación de la comunidad, se enfoca hacia la solución de los problemas, se dirige a lograr cambios en la sociedad y hace contribuciones duraderas a la comunidad. Se partió de un aspecto de este complejo proyecto de varios años, para transformar la defensa retórica de la reforma de la APS en una práctica real y sustentable. La comunidad estudiada era diversa en cuanto a la edad, las características socioeconómicas y los estilos de vida. Su equipo multidisciplinario atendía aproximadamente a 3 000 pacientes al año, 30% de los cuales tenían 65 años o más. Gracias a su enfoque multidisciplinario e integrado con respecto a la atención, este centr

Marcia Hills

2007-03-01

366

Ethics and Participatory Water Planning  

OpenAIRE

Greater attention needs to be given to ethics related to the use, organisation and coordination of participatory forms of water planning. Working with diverse groups of people on water management issues requires the ability to understand and collectively make a range of decisions on the content, design and implementation of participatory processes. Ethical questions and sensitivities arise in such work including issues of changing existing power structures, privacy conditions and cultural sen...

Daniell, K. A.; White, I.; Rollin, D.

2009-01-01

367

Participatory Evaluation with Youth Leads to Community Action Project  

Science.gov (United States)

4-H has long emphasized the importance of civic engagement and community service for positive youth development. One pathway to this ideal is youth action research and evaluation. This article demonstrates how participatory youth research and evaluation can lead to the successful implementation of community action projects. It describes the…

Ashton, Carolyn; Arnold, Mary E.; Wells, Elissa E.

2010-01-01

368

La investigación-acción-participativa: Una forma de investigar en la práctica enfermera / The Participatory-Action-Research: A way to research in the nursing practice / Investigação-ação-participativa: Uma forma de pesquisar na prática enfermeira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Dentro do paradigma qualitativo da investigação, a Investigação-Ação-Participativa (IAP) integra o conhecimento e a ação; não há que esperar a que depois de produzir o conhecimento se produza a translação deste à prática. É um método que se utiliza desde faz várias décadas em disciplinas como a educ [...] ação ou a sociologia, no entanto é emergente no âmbito da saúde. Existem uma grande variedade de definições, classificações e modelos de IAP e com este artigo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigação, sua história, sua filosofia e sua utilização, dados seu potencial e novidade no âmbito das ciências da saúde. Abstract in spanish Dentro del paradigma cualitativo de la investigación, la Investigación- Acción-Participativa (IAP) integra el conocimiento y la acción; no hay que esperar a que tras producir el conocimiento se produzca la traslación de este a la práctica. Es un método que se utiliza desde hace varias décadas en dis [...] ciplinas como la educación o la sociología, sin embargo es emergente en el ámbito de la salud. Existen una gran variedad de definiciones, clasificaciones y modelos de IAP y con este artículo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigación, su historia, su filosofía y su utilización, dados su potencial y novedad en el ámbito de las ciencias de la salud. Abstract in english Within the qualitative research paradigm, the Participatory-Action- Research (PAR) integrates knowledge and action. It is not necessary to wait for knowledge to be produced to transfer it into practice. It is a method used for decades in disciplines such as education and sociology; however it is eme [...] rging in the health field. There are a variety of definitions, classifications and PAR models; this article aims to shed light upon this method of research, its history, philosophy and its use, given its potential and innovation in the field of health sciences.

Eva, Abad Corpa; Pilar, Delgado Hito; Julio, Cabrero García.

2010-11-01

369

Local Democracy, Rural Community, and Participatory School Governance  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers the indigenization of democracy in India by conceptualizing participatory deliberative decision-making practice as a tool to strengthen the functioning of local schools and to enhance democratic responsiveness within communities. Drawing on case-studies of bottom-up approaches to school governance, this study examines an…

Arvind, Gaysu R.

2009-01-01

370

Actionable Ethnography in Participatory Innovation: A Case Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustrate how the stakeholders engaged in activities such as sense-making, co-analysis, and cross-comparison of the ethnographic materials, and the specification and mapping of innovation opportunities. We argue that these activities served to establish a shared understanding and ownership of the participatory research, design material.

Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens

2011-01-01

371

"It takes a village": multilevel approaches to recruit African Americans and their families for genetic research.  

Science.gov (United States)

One barrier to searching for novel mutations in African American families with breast cancer is the challenge of effectively recruiting families-affected and non-affected relatives-into genetic research studies. Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) orientation, we incorporated several evidence-based approaches through an iterative fashion to recruit for a breast cancer genetic epidemiology study in African Americans. Our combined methods allowed us to successfully recruit 341 African American women (247 with breast cancer and 94 relatives without breast cancer) from 127 families. Twenty-nine percent of participants were recruited through National Witness Project (NWP) sites, 11 % came from in-person encounters by NWP members, 34 % from the Love Army of Women, 24 % from previous epidemiologic studies, and 2 % from a support group. In terms of demographics, our varied recruitment methods/sources yielded samples of African American women that differ in terms of several sociodemographic factors such as education, smoking, and BMI, as well as family size. To successfully recruit African American families into epidemiological research, investigators should include community members in the recruitment processes, be flexible in the adoption of multipronged, iterative methods, and provide clear communication strategies about the underlying benefit to potential participants. Our results enhance our understanding of potential benefits and challenges associated with various recruitment methods. We offer a template for the design of future studies and suggest that generalizability may be better achieved by using multipronged approaches. PMID:25112899

Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Jandorf, Lina; Wang, Youjin; Johnson, Detric; Meadows Ray, Veronica; Willis, Mattye J; Erwin, Deborah O

2015-01-01

372

A lifelogging approach to automated market research  

OpenAIRE

Market research companies spend large amounts of money carrying out time-intensive processes to gather information about peo- ple’s activities, such as the place they frequent and the activities in which they partake. Due to high costs and logistical difficulties, an automated approach to this practice is needed. In this work we present an automated market research system based on computer vision and machine learning algorithms with visual lifelogging data, developed in collaboration wit...

Hughes, Mark; Newman, Eamonn; Smeaton, Alan F.; O Connor, Noel E.

2012-01-01

373

Handbook of Participatory Planning in Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This handbook is concerned with one specialized form of participation: participatory planning. It is based on several years of experience in participatory planning and is infused with the bias that sees a great deal of potential good in expanded participation in general and in participatory planning in particular. It is also recognized that…

Johnson, Rudolph

374

An evaluation framework for participatory modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in the UK.

Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

2012-04-01

375

Fairness and Social Welfare in Incentivizing Participatory Sensing  

OpenAIRE

Participatory sensing has emerged recently as a promising approach to large-scale data collection. However, without incentives for users to regularly contribute good quality data, this method is unlikely to be viable in the long run. In this paper, we link incentive to users' demand for consuming compelling services, as an approach complementary to conventional credit or reputation based approaches. With this demand-based principle, we design two incentive schemes, Incentive...

Luo, Tie; Tham, Chen-khong

2014-01-01

376

Systems biology approaches in aging research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aging is a systemic process which progressively manifests itself at multiple levels of structural and functional organization from molecular reactions and cell-cell interactions in tissues to the physiology of an entire organ. There is ever increasing data on biomedical relevant network interactions for the aging process at different scales of time and space. To connect the aging process at different structural, temporal and spatial scales, extensive systems biological approaches need to be deployed. Systems biological approaches can not only systematically handle the large-scale datasets (like high-throughput data) and the complexity of interactions (feedback loops, cross talk), but also can delve into nonlinear behaviors exhibited by several biological processes which are beyond intuitive reasoning. Several public-funded agencies have identified the synergistic role of systems biology in aging research. Using one of the notable public-funded programs (GERONTOSYS), we discuss how systems biological approaches are helping the scientists to find new frontiers in aging research. We elaborate on some systems biological approaches deployed in one of the projects of the consortium (ROSage). The systems biology field in aging research is at its infancy. It is open to adapt existing systems biological methodologies from other research fields and devise new aging-specific systems biological methodologies. PMID:25341520

Chauhan, Anuradha; Liebal, Ulf W; Vera, Julio; Baltrusch, Simone; Junghanß, Christian; Tiedge, Markus; Fuellen, Georg; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Köhling, Rüdiger

2015-01-01

377

An action research approach to curriculum development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement in the secondary education sector. This sought to bring the practising classroom teacher into the research process as the most effective person to identify problems and to find solutions.We believe that an action research approach can contribute very positively to activity within the tertiary sector concerned with teaching quality issues, and with national Teaching Quality Assessment initiatives. As 'reflective practitioners', we can achieve greater ownership of the evaluative process by becoming systematically self-assessing, alongside, and feeding into, external assessment processes.

Phil Riding

1995-01-01

378

Community-based participatory action research: transforming multidisciplinary practice in primary health care / Investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad: transformación de la práctica multidisciplinaria en atención primaria de salud  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: Los sistemas de salud de todo el mundo se encuentran en un proceso de reestructuración y reforma de sus sistemas de prestación de servicios, reorientándose hacia el modelo de atención primaria de salud (APS) que utiliza equipos de consultorios multidisciplinarios (CMD) para brindar un con [...] junto de servicios coordinados e integrados. En este estudio se exploran los retos de poner en práctica el enfoque de CMD en una comunidad urbana de Canadá. MÉTODOS:Los datos analizados se tomaron de un proyecto de investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad (IAPBC) llevado a cabo en 2004. Su objetivo era perfeccionar un CMD colaborativo en un centro de APS que atiende a una comunidad de 11 000 personas, compuesta por una zona residencial y pequeños negocios, en una ciudad canadiense de aproximadamente 300 000 personas. La IAPBC permite abordar de manera planificada y sistemática problemas importantes para la comunidad en cuestión, requiere la participación de la comunidad, se enfoca hacia la solución de los problemas, se dirige a lograr cambios en la sociedad y hace contribuciones duraderas a la comunidad. Se partió de un aspecto de este complejo proyecto de varios años, para transformar la defensa retórica de la reforma de la APS en una práctica real y sustentable. La comunidad estudiada era diversa en cuanto a la edad, las características socioeconómicas y los estilos de vida. Su equipo multidisciplinario atendía aproximadamente a 3 000 pacientes al año, 30% de los cuales tenían 65 años o más. Gracias a su enfoque multidisciplinario e integrado con respecto a la atención, este centro de APS pasó a formar parte de un selecto grupo dentro del extenso sistema de atención primaria de Canadá. RESULTADOS: El análisis del trabajo de APS puso de manifiesto ideas arraigadas e inconcientes acerca de los límites y las limitaciones de la atención prestada. En el sentido retórico de la APS, el CMD era elogiado por muchos. En la práctica, sin embargo, era difícil lograr el enfoque de equipo colaborativo multidisciplinario. CONCLUSIONES: La exitosa implementación de un enfoque de CMD en la APS exige apartarse del estilo de atención centrada en el médico. Esto sólo puede lograrse cuando cambian las estructuras subyacentes, los valores, las relaciones de poder y los papeles a desempeñar, definidos por los sistemas de salud y la comunidad en general, donde los médicos tienen tradicionalmente una posición por encima de la de otros proveedores de atención sanitaria. La metodología de IAPBC permite a los miembros de la comunidad y a los profesionales relacionados con la salud que los atienden apropiarse de la investigación y reflejarse críticamente en ciclos iterativos de evaluación. Esto ofrece a los médicos una oportunidad de implementar cambios importantes basados en análisis generados internamente. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Health care systems throughout the world are in the process of restructuring and reforming their health service delivery systems, reorienting themselves to a primary health care (PHC) model that uses multidisciplinary practice (MDP) teams to provide a range of coordinated, integrated ser [...] vices. This study explores the challenges of putting the MDP approach into practice in one community in a city in Canada. METHODS: The data we analyzed were derived from a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) project, conducted in 2004, that was used to enhance collaborative MDP in a PHC center serving a residential and small-business community of 11 000 within a medium-sized city of approximately 300 000 people in Canada. CBPAR is a planned, systematic approach to issues relevant to the community of interest, requires community involvement, has a problem-solving focus, is directed at societal change, and makes a lasting contribution to the community. We drew from one aspect of this complex, multiyear project aimed at transforming the rhetoric advocating PHC re

Marcia, Hills; Jennifer, Mullett; Simon, Carroll.

2007-03-01

379

Bayesian approaches for comparative effectiveness research  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A hallmark of comparative effectiveness research is the analysis of all the available evidence from different studies addressing a given question of medical risk versus benefit. The Bayesian statistical approach is ideally suited for such investigations because it is inherently synthetic and because it is philosophically uninhibited regarding the ability to analyze all the available evidence. Purpose To consider a variety of comparative effectiveness research settings and show how the Bayesian approach applies. Methods The Bayesian approach is described as it has been applied to the comparative analysis of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and mammographic screening, in the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network, in comparisons of patient outcomes data from different sources, and in designing adaptive clinical trials to support the development of ‘personalized medicine.’ Results Bayesian methods allow for continued learning as data accrue and for cumulating meta-analyses and the comparison of heterogeneous studies. Bayesian methods enable predictive probability distributions of the results of future studies. Limitations Bayesian posterior distributions are subject to potential bias – in the selection of ‘available’ evidence and in the choice of a likelihood model. Sensitivity analyses help to control this bias. Conclusions The Bayesian approach has much to offer comparative effectiveness research. It provides a mechanism for synthesizing various sources of information and for updating knowledge in an online fashion as evidence accumulates. PMID:21878446

Berry, Donald A

2015-01-01

380

Design of Institution for Participatory Lake Singkarak Management  

OpenAIRE

This research aims to formulate policy and institution for Participatory Lake Singkarak management. This research was conducted in District Solok and District Tanah Datar, West Sumatera Province. This study object is focused in Lake Singkarak area. The results of research are: (1) interest and influence of stakeholders are varied based on institution, need, region, utility orientation, (2) policy alternatives for lake Singkarak management are firstly co-management and secondly lake managem...

Genius Umar

2011-01-01

381

Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research gr...

Fuller Jeffrey; Hermeston Wendy; Passey Megan; Fallon Tony; Muyambi Kuda

2012-01-01

382

The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

2010-01-01

383

Disease maps as context for community mapping: a methodological approach for linking confidential health information with local geographical knowledge for community health research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health is increasingly understood as a product of multiple levels of influence, from individual biological and behavioral influences to community and societal level contextual influences. In understanding these contextual influences, community health researchers have increasingly employed both geographic methodologies, including Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and community participatory approaches. However, despite growing interest in the role for community participation and local knowledge in community health investigations, and the use of geographical methods and datasets in characterizing community environments, there exist few examples of research projects that incorporate both geographical and participatory approaches in addressing health questions. This is likely due in part to concerns and restrictions regarding community access to confidential health data. In order to overcome this barrier, we present a method for linking confidential, geocoded health information with community-generated experiential geographical information in a GIS environment. We use sophisticated disease mapping methodologies to create continuously defined maps of colorectal cancer in Iowa, then incorporate these layers in an open source GIS application as the context for a participatory community mapping exercise with participants from a rural Iowa town. Our method allows participants to interact directly with health information at a fine geographical scale, facilitating hypothesis generation regarding contextual influences on health, while simultaneously protecting data confidentiality. Participants are able to use their local, geographical knowledge to generate hypotheses about factors influencing colorectal cancer risk in the community and opportunities for risk reduction. This work opens the door for future efforts to integrate empirical epidemiological data with community generated experiential information to inform community health research and practice. PMID:20352481

Beyer, Kirsten M M; Comstock, Sara; Seagren, Renea

2010-12-01

384

How Sustainable is Participatory Watershed Development in India?  

OpenAIRE

Watershed conservation is widely recognized as a major strategy for rural development throughout the developing world. In India, the apparent success of participatory approaches to watershed development resulted in a decentralization of project planning, implementation, and management to local communities at the village scale. We explore the effectiveness of this so-called community-based approach in achieving sustainable soil and water conservation in four semi-arid regions in India, and ana...

Bouma, J. A.; Soest, D. P.; Bulte, E. H.

2007-01-01

385

Communicating citizenship - social positioning in participatory decision making  

OpenAIRE

"The proposed presentation has two aims: (a) It will outline a theoretical understanding of 'citizenship' that is rooted in sociological systems theory and in sociolinguistic approaches. With this approach it tries to develop a sociological supplement to the more normative notions of governance and citizenship in the legal and political sciences. (b) It will apply these theoretical considerations to a comparative view on forms of citizenship, which can be observed in participatory procedures ...

Bora, Alfons; Hausendorf, Heiko

2004-01-01

386

Educação, pesquisa participante e saúde: as ideias de Carlos Rodrigues Brandão / Education, participatory research, and health: the ideas of Carlos Rodrigues Brandão / Educación, investigación participante y salud: las ideas de Carlos Rodrigues Brandão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as obras do autor brasileiro Carlos Rodrigues Brandão relacionadas ao campo da educação e da pesquisa participante, destacando os seus pressupostos teóricos e estabelecendo relações com o campo da saúde. Realizamos uma investigação de caráter qualitativo e de t [...] ipo exploratório-descritivo, adotando a pesquisa bibliográfica como procedimento metodológico. 'Educação' foi a categoria teórica principal. Ademais, obtivemos as seguintes categorias empíricas advindas das análises textuais: 'educações'; 'sempre aprendemos uns com os outros'; 'uma antropologia participante'; 'liberdade, autonomia e esperança'; 'pesquisa participante'; 'diálogo: (re)construção do conhecimento ou construção de saberes'; 'pesquisa, conhecimento e tempo'; 'o sentido da palavra: direito de pronunciar o sentido do mundo'. Verificamos importantes fundamentos de uma concepção crítica de educação que podem contribuir como base para práticas democráticas de saúde, como, por exemplo, a ideia de 'diálogo' como pedra angular pedagógica, que possibilita processos de interação de sujeitos e a construção social do conhecimento. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las obras del autor brasileño Carlos Rodrigues Brandão, relacionadas al campo de la educación y de la investigación participante, destacando sus premisas teóricas y estableciendo relaciones con el campo de la salud. Se realizó una investigación de carácter [...] cualitativo y de tipo exploratorio-descriptivo, adoptando la investigación bibliográfica como procedimiento metodológico. "Educación" fue la categoría teórica principal. Además, se obtuvieron las siguientes categorías empíricas surgidas de los análisis textuales: "educaciones"; "siempre aprendeemos unos con otros"; "una antropología participante"; "libertad, autonomía y esperanza"; "investigación participante"; "diálogo: (re)construcción del conocimiento o construcción de saberes"; "investigación, conocimiento y tiempo"; "el sentido de la palabra: derecho de pronunciar el sentido del mundo". Se verificaron fundamentos importantes de una concepción crítica de educación que pueden contribuir como base para prácticas democráticas de salud como, por ejemplo, la idea de "diálogo" como piedra angular pedagógica, que permite procesos de interacción de individuos y la construcción social del conocimiento. Abstract in english This article aims to analyze the work of Brazilian author Carlos Rodrigues Brandão as related to the field of education and participatory research, highlighting his theoretical assumptions and establishing relationships with the field of healthcare. We conducted a qualitative, exploratory-descriptiv [...] e investigation, using literature research as a methodological procedure. 'Education' was the main theoretical category. Additionally, we obtained the following empirical categories arising from textual analysis: 'Educations;' 'always learn from each other;' 'a participatory anthropology;' 'freedom, autonomy, and hope;' 'participatory research;' 'dialog: (Re)construction of knowledge or construction of knowledge;' 'research, knowledge, and time;' 'The sense of the word: the right to pronounce the meaning of the world.' We checked important foundations of a critical conception of education that can contribute as a basis for democratic health practices, such as the idea of 'dialog' as a pedagogical cornerstone that enables interaction processes among individuals and the social construction of knowledge.

Aline Almeida da, Silva; Kátia Reis de, Souza.

2014-09-01

387

Playware Research – Methodological Considerations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several sub-disciplines of engineering are driven by the researchers’ aim of providing positive change to the society through their engineering. These researchers are challenged by the traditional research method of experimental research with a waterfall model which demands clearly defined project definition and functional requirements, and impose a sequential processes leading to the final system evaluation, which may lead to solutions which work in the lab, but have little impact in the messy real world. Based on two decades research in developing engineering systems with a societal impact (e.g. in robotics, embodied AI, and playware), in this paper we suggest a cyclic research method based on a mix between participatory and experimental processes. In particular, inspiration from the action research method applied to interdisciplinary technology development becomes a participatory approach characterized by rapid prototyping cycles which allow iterative technology specification and development together with people in their real world environment.

Lund, Henrik Hautop

2014-01-01

388

Integration of local participatory and regional planning for resources management using remote sensing and GIS  

OpenAIRE

With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) information used in the planning process, efficient geographic information gathering and relevant spatial analytical tools necessary to support the negotiation among the stakeholders are lacking. Besides, methods a...

Sedogo, L. G.

2002-01-01

389

Crossing Intentions in Participatory Innovation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we explore the role of 'crossing intentions' among participants involved in innovation processes with users. We use improvised theatre to investigate what happens in industrial (and other) organizations that embark on participatory activities, and to explore the barriers that hinder such activities. We propose that people who meet each other with different and conflicting intentions relevant to the theme together can create new insight (understood as movement of thought and action) that may become a driver of innovation. However, such meetings in which crossing intentions come to the surface are experienced as risky to participate in. We examine four examples of such meetings with the intent to disclose conceptual themes that show high potential for developing participatory innovation.

Buur, Jacob; Larsen, Henry

2010-01-01

390

Participatory Hazard Management System and Accident Prevention in the Bonny NLNG Construction Project  

OpenAIRE

The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be prima...

Mba Okechukwu Agwu; Cletus Izunwanne Emeti

2013-01-01

391

Linking participatory and GIS-based land use planning methods; A case study from Burkina Faso  

OpenAIRE

Sustainable land use planning is crucial for realizing the aim of food security and for combating land degradation in the Sahel. A participatory land use planning workshop was organised in a village in the eastern region of Burkina Faso to investigate land use problems, their causes, effects and possible solutions. Participatory research tools and GIS were combined to get insight into possible conflicts or synergies between different land use options as mapped by different ethnic groups. Pict...

Hessel, R.; Berg, J.; Kabore, O.; Kekem, A. J.; Verzandvoort, S. J. E.

2009-01-01

392

Community-based participatory irrigation management at local government level in Ghana  

OpenAIRE

Ghana has attempted to decentralise the management of irrigation schemes to communities at local government level. This study examines the existing local participatory management structures and the principles of the Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) strategy designed to promote sustainable management of irrigation schemes in Ghana. Two community-based irrigation projects, Bontanga and Golinga in the Northern Region of Ghana were selected for the research. The study demonstrated that f...

Braimah, I.; King, R. S.; Sulemana, D. M.

2014-01-01

393

Digital publics and participatory education  

OpenAIRE

This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983), or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, Americ...

Mcnely, Brian J.; Teston, Christa B.; Bolutife Olorunda; Noah Dunker

2010-01-01

394

Participatory Video as a Catalyst for Informal Learning and Expression: A Review of a PV Training in Uganda, 2012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previously, video production was a skill set practiced by trained individuals, but new technologies have opened the doors so that anyone can be a filmmaker. This paper explores the history and conceptual foundations of participatory video (PV, and offers a reflective perspective on its applicability as a teaching and learning tool. A review of a PV training in Uganda is featured to highlight the methodology used in practice and the challenges faced. The authors propose that an approach to PV which combines the best existing practices with a closer alignment to its foundational principles is worthy of further research.

Grady Walker

2013-06-01

395

Methodological approaches in the research of organizational culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the thirty-years-long research of organizational culture, two mutually opposed methodological approaches have emerged: objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative. These two approaches are based on opposite ontological and epistemological assumptions: they include different types of research, and use opposite, quantitative vs. qualitative, methods of research. Each of the methodological approaches has its advantages and disadvantages. For this reason a hybrid approach emerges as a legitimate choice in organizational culture research methodology. It combines elements of both subjectivistic and objectivistic methodological approaches, according to the goals, content, and context of the research and preferences of the researcher himself/herself. Since it is possible to combine the two principal methodological approaches in various ways, there are several possible hybrid methodologies in organizational culture research. After the review of objectivistic quantitative and subjectivistic-qualitative methodological approaches, one of possible hybrid approaches in the research of organizational culture is presented in this paper.

Jani?ijevi? Nebojša

2011-01-01

396

Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1 that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2 that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.

Pascal Perez

2010-12-01

397

Para Cerrar la Brecha: Un Enfoque Participativo para la Educacion en Salud y Nutricion (Bridging the Gap: A Participatory Approach to Health and Nutrition Education).  

Science.gov (United States)

A Spanish version of a manual on workshops for training nutrition and health field educators to approach communities more sensitively emphasizes techniques for involving community members in efforts to achieve better health and nutrition. Experiential workshop materials and techniques have been field-tested in several countries, including…

Keehn, Martha, Ed.

398

An Interdisciplinary and Intersectoral Action-research Method: Case-Study of Climate Change Adaptation by Cities Using Participatory Web 2.0 Urban Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the last segment of a three-year interdisciplinary and intersectoral action research on climate change and urban transformation. The project had, as one of its core missions, the role of imagining urban and architectural adaptations for urban neighbourhoods that would contribute to minimizing the negative impacts of climate change on people’s comfort, health and safety. The first part of the paper describes the collaborative design and augmented participation method used in the context of Québec City, Canada. These include the design process conducted to imagine adaptation scenarios, the visual strategies undertaken to make these understandable for the population, and the Web 2.0 crowdsourcing approach forwarded to measure feasibility and social acceptability of the design and visualization strategies. The second part discusses three positive outcomes of the process. First, collaborative design conducted with intersectoral groups of experts constitutes a promising avenue to identify adaptations and evaluate their relevance. Second, crowdsourcing is a powerful tool to inform the general public about climate change including both negative and potential aspects. As well, the crowdsource model allows access to particular knowledge which empowered users to make changes around their homes and neighbourhoods or advocating action from their local government. Crowdsourcing is also an efficient tool to help understand what people know about the potential impact of climate change and how it bears on their comfort, health and safety. Third and finally, the design proposals and the evaluation comments generated by working closely with various stakeholders, along with the public on-line consultation, allow for the induction of pragmatic recommendations that can be used as decision aids by elected officials and civil servants to better prepare their municipalities for climate change. 

Geneviève VACHON

2014-01-01

399

Teaching Participatory Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This full-day invitational pre-conference workshop is devoted to sharing experiences from teaching PD methods, approaches, issues and concerns to students and practitioners. Our experiences stem from teaching and coaching IT practitioners as well as students studying computer science or IT. However, people with experiences gained from working with other professions are also welcome. Short presentations from each of the participants form the starting point of the discussion to which most of the time will be devoted. The intend is not to suggest the way of teaching PD, rather we hope that each participant will receive valuable inspiration to help improve his or her own teaching.

Kensing, Finn; BØdker, Keld

2004-01-01

400

Multi-method and innovative approaches to researching the learning and social practices of young digital users  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the most significant challenges in researching the social aspects of contemporary societies is to adapt the methodological approach to complex digital media environments. Learning processes take place in this complex environment, and they include formal and informal experiences (learning in school, home, and real-virtual communities), peer cultures and inter-generational connections, production and creation as relevant activities, and personal interests as a focal point. Methods used in the study of learning and the social practices of young people must take into account four key issues: boundaries between online and offline experiences are blurring; young people act performatively, knowingly, or reflexively; and their activities cannot be understood through the use of a single method, but require the use of multiple tools of investigation. The article discusses three methodological issues: research design aimed at following people along their transmedia paths, the relevance of participatory research, and the epistemological implications of multi-method research. The article presents a theoretical discussion of the research issues and some examples of research projects for each topic.

Vittadini, Nicoletta; Carlo, Simone

2014-01-01

401

The role of health education in addressing the health divide : evidence from two European health-promotion projects employing a participatory and action-oriented education approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people with opportunities (as part of teaching and learning processes) to critically examine health issues, including social determinants of health, and to gain experience with initiating health-promoting changes within the everyday realms of their school or its adjacent community.

Simovska, Venka

2013-01-01

402

A participatory process for identifying and prioritizing policy-relevant research questions in natural resource management: a case study from the UK forestry sector  

OpenAIRE

There is growing interest in widening public participation in research and practice in environmental decision making and an awareness of the importance of framing research questions that reflect the needs of policy and practice. The Top Ten Questions for Forestry (T10Q) project was undertaken in 2008 to investigate a process for compiling and prioritizing a meaningful set of research questions, which were considered by participating stakeholders to have high policy relevance, using a collabor...

Petrokofsky, G.; Brown, Nd; Hemery, Ge; Woodward, S.; Wilson, E.; Weatherall, A.; Stokes, V.; Smithers, Rj; Sangster, M.; Russell, K.; Pullin, As; Price, C.; Morecroft, M.; Malins, M.; Lawrence, A.

2010-01-01

403

Participatory resource management and development in developing countries:" do the attributes of the organizing committee for local participation matter"? :evidence from the Bunyoro Kitara Diocese tree planting project, Uganda  

OpenAIRE

In the past few decades, local community participation has been viewed as one of the major ways through which sustainable resource management can be attained. Communities have been encouraged to take part in resource management projects in order to attain better results. However, there are still some concerns in academic and practitioner circles on how the participatory approach can be implemented in order to gain the most out of it. Hence, pointing to the need for further research on ways of...

Ahurra, Hope Ayebale

2011-01-01

404

Youths as partners in a community participatory project for substance use prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

This community-based participatory research project aimed to develop strategies to prevent youth substance use in a rural county. This article (1) describes the project phases, (2) examines unique contributions and considerations of youth involvement, and (3) explores the youths' perspective. Twelve youths, aged 16 to 18 years, joined parents, community leaders, and research specialists on the community-based participatory research team. The youths were integrally involved in all phases including the community assessment, community leader interviews, selection of a substance use prevention program, and program implementation. Youths reported sustained enthusiasm, experiences of authentic leadership, development of research skills, and greater awareness of their community. PMID:25423239

Kulbok, Pamela A; Meszaros, Peggy S; Bond, Donna C; Thatcher, Esther; Park, Eunhee; Kimbrell, Monica; Smith-Gregory, Tracey

2015-01-01

405

Participatory Design of the Participatory Culture: Students' Projections of e-Learning 2.0  

Science.gov (United States)

The participatory culture of Web 2.0 and the implicit empowerment of the learners have not been yet associated with participatory design projects that involve learners in the design and development of the new mediating tools. In this paper, we examine students' projections of Web 2.0 in higher education. Ninety seven undergraduate students participated in 20 design sessions exploiting two needs' elicitation techniques with the aim of envisioning of a course website that meets their learning particularities, that incorporates and exploits their new technological habits and which can be harmoniously situated in the daily routine of a modern, active student. 583 needs were produced and their abstract categorization is presented. Students proved that they had refined views about the elements that can render successful the next wave of e-learning applications and provided directions that can help designers and researchers in developing more informed designs. Students are the main agents of educational change and, hence, they deserve a more active and contributive role in the knowledge society.

Palaigeorgiou, George; Triantafyllakos, George; Tsinakos, Avgoustos

406

New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected demand about the real choice of customers with the proposal for a various architectural aspects. A survey was carries out by using statistical model to correlate a demand of multi game sport relating to various hypotheses, already designed with a different solution. A sample of 100 customers that have submitted questionnaire with the specific parameters about the architecture and engine was taken to apply the qualitative research method to the market research. Results and Conclusion: The result of this study concludes that it is not possible to the partially construct but it is useful the plenty reconstruction of game court. The local organization of Coni (Italian National Olympic Committee designed a new project according to a specific parameter that follows the same characteristic of old game court without searching the other engineer and architectural solutions. Thus the question is a mix of engine and architectural aspects, economical and functional elements of it. The data showed association between demand of multisport and new architectonical hypothesis and the association between demand of single sport and old architectural structure. The percentage of multi sport demand is higher than single sport and this orientation has to follow to design a new sport facilities.

Gaetano Raiola

2011-01-01

407

The Boston-area HASWIC Research Circle: an innovative participatory method for coloring in the picture of a special work environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent qualitative studies have investigated some of the hazards affecting women in non-traditional trades such as construction. However, one-time interactions among researcher participants, and between researchers and participants, in standard settings such as focus groups and interviews, cannot provide the time, space, and relationships to fully explore tradeswomen's in-depth knowledge of their work environment. This study applied a Scandinavian method called the Research Circle to convene a group of experienced women construction workers repeatedly over a period of two years so they could collaborate with researchers in explaining workplace issues. The results both validated and expanded upon previous findings about health and safety for women in construction, including gender discrimination, lack of access to sanitary facilities, retaliation for reporting hazards and injuries, and inadequate training and equipment. Especially important, findings illustrate some of the complex hierarchical social structures involved in both female and male construction workers responding to hazardous conditions. PMID:17434864

Moir, Susan; Azaroff, Lenore S

2007-01-01

408

Community-based participatory research to decrease smoking prevalence in a high-risk young adult population: an evaluation of the Students Against Nicotine and Tobacco Addiction (SANTA) project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Students Against Nicotine and Tobacco Addiction is a community-based participatory research project that engages local medical and mental health providers in partnership with students, teachers, and administrators at the Minnesota-based Job Corps. This intervention contains multiple and synchronous elements designed to allay the stress that students attribute to smoking, including physical activities, nonphysical activities, purposeful modifications to the campus's environment and rules/policies, and on-site smoking cessation education and peer support. The intent of the present investigation was to evaluate (a) the types of stress most predictive of smoking behavior and/or nicotine dependence, (b) which activities students are participating in, and (c) which activities are most predictive of behavior change (or readiness to change). Quantitative data were collected through 5 campus-wide surveys. Response rates for each survey exceeded 85%. Stressors most commonly cited included struggles to find a job, financial problems, family conflict, lack of privacy or freedom, missing family or being homesick, dealing with Job Corps rules, and other-unspecified. The most popular activities in which students took part were physically active ones. However, activities most predictive of beneficent change were nonphysical. Approximately one third of respondents were nicotine dependent at baseline. Nearly half intended to quit within 1 month and 74% intended to quit within 6 months. Interventions perceived as most helpful toward reducing smoking were nonphysical in nature. Future efforts with this and comparable populations should engage youth in advancing such activities within a broader range of activity choices, alongside conventional education and support. PMID:24079815

Mendenhall, Tai J; Harper, Peter G; Henn, Lisa; Rudser, Kyle D; Schoeller, Bill P

2014-03-01

409

Investigating the effect of clinical governess approach on patients' length of stay in emergency department: an action research study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, clinical governance approach with aims to improve the quality of health services has been proposed in Iran. Considering the obvious problems especially patients' length of stay (LOS) in the emergency departments (EDs); the present study has been carried out with the purpose of Investigating the effect of clinical governess approach on patients' LOS in the one of the largest medical centers in the country. After the problem was specified by the 17 interviews with employees and managers of the ED; the emergency clinical governance committee was formed by two academic researchers and seven ED staff (key participants) that had the most involvement with the subject of study. The activities of the committee, including planning, acting, observing and reflecting, was organized by using participatory action research approach and action research cycle (Kemmis 1995). During this time, three formal meetings with key participants were held in 6-month intervals. Monthly records of patients' average LOS and interview with ED staff were used to analyze the findings. The research was completed with two cycles in one year. Committee members took the following actions. As a result, the patients' LOS reduced from 2.68 days to 1.73 days. Make regular patients visits by medical groups especially orthopedists and neurologists; Decision making about patients situation by emergency physicians and transferring patients to the relevant units by bed managers; Refusing to admit elective patients during overcrowding times; to regulate the list of patients requiring ICU by anesthesiologists. Prolonged LOS can be due to various causes and a team approach, which is one of the requirements of clinical governance approach, is needed to manage it. The results showed that the multidisciplinary team could make positive changes and reduce LOS in emergency setting. PMID:24659072

Salehi, Tahmine; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Rashidian, Arash; Mohammadi, Eesa

2014-01-01

410

A community-based participatory approach and engagement process creates culturally appropriate and community informed pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: remote and isolated First Nations communities of sub-arctic Ontario, Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health emergencies have the potential to disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations due to pre-established social and economic inequalities. Internationally, prior to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, existing pandemic plans were created with limited public consultation; therefore, the unique needs and characteristics of some First Nations communities may not be ethically and adequately addressed. Engaging the public in pandemic planning can provide vital information regarding local values and beliefs that may ultimately lead to increased acceptability, feasibility, and implementation of pandemic plans. Thus, the objective of the present study was to elicit and address First Nations community members’ suggested modifications to their community-level pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Methods The study area included three remote and isolated First Nations communities located in sub-arctic Ontario, Canada. A community-based participatory approach and community engagement process (i.e., semi-directed interviews (n?=?13, unstructured interviews (n?=?4, and meetings (n?=?27 were employed. Participants were purposively sampled and represented various community stakeholders (e.g., local government, health care, clergy, education, etc. involved in the community’s pandemic response. Collected data were manually transcribed and coded using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. The data subsequently informed the modification of the community-level pandemic plans. Results The primary modifications incorporated in the community-level pandemic plans involved adding community-specific detail. For example, ‘supplies’ emerged as an additional category of pandemic preparedness and response, since including details about supplies and resources was important due to the geographical remoteness of the study communities. Furthermore, it was important to add details of how, when, where, and who was responsible for implementing recommendations outlined in the pandemic plans. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of the involved organizations were further clarified. Conclusions Our results illustrate the importance of engaging the public, especially First Nations, in pandemic planning to address local perspectives. The community engagement process used was successful in incorporating community-based input to create up-to-date and culturally-appropriate community-level pandemic plans. Since these pandemic plans are dynamic in nature, we recommend that the plans are continuously updated to address the communities’ evolving needs. It is hoped that these modified plans will lead to an improved pandemic response capacity and health outcomes, during the next public health emergency, for