WorldWideScience

Sample records for participatory research approach

  1. Community-Based Participatory Research; an approach to Deal with Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Majdzadeh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nIn Iran, Population Research Centers, which were established in medical universities in 2001, were working for the aim of health promotion in particular and human development in general. These centers were based on community participation in their activities to develop the necessary capacity to allow people "more control over their own health and development". Iran's experience reveals that Community-Based Participatory Research is an approach that uses community knowledge and local resources. Its objective is to empower all stakeholders of development. The priority in local communities and the grass-root of health problems were mainly social determinants of health. On the other hand, both approaches of top-down and bottom-up approaches must be simultaneously considered for dealing with these determinants. Establishment of such centers can create good opportunities for developing original solutions for dealing with social determinants of health. The success of Population Research Centers depends on policy makers' concepts and attitude toward social determinants of health and the role of community participation in this regard. It seems that a more extensive engagement of different sectors including universities, governmental and non-governmental organizations is also vital for such movements.

  2. Perceptions of Tuberculosis Among Immigrants and Refugees at an Adult Education Center: A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wieland, Mark L.; Weis, Jennifer A.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Sullivan, Susan M.; Millington, Kendra L.; Smith, Christina M.; Bertram, Susan; Nigon, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2012-01-01

    English as a Second Language programs serve large foreign-born populations in the US with elevated risks of tuberculosis (TB), yet little is known about TB perceptions in these settings. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we elicited perceptions about TB among immigrant and refugee learners and staff at a diverse adult education center. Community partners were trained in focus groups moderation. Ten focus groups were conducted with 83 learners and staff...

  3. Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methodological approaches for ‘Design-Based Participatory Research'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke; SØrensen, Birgitte Holm

    2010-01-01

    The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today's teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

  4. Development of Nutrient Management Strategies for ASAL using Participatory Learning and Action Research (PLAR) Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Participatory diagnosis of soil fertility problems and subsequent experimentation was carried out at Kibwezi Division, Makweni district, using Participatory learning and Action Research (PLAR) methodologies. results of the soil analysis showed that nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) were the most limiting nutrients to the crop production. Farmers were excited to learn how to identify deficiency symptoms of N and P by looking at plant leaves. Farmers also identified and implemented practical options under rain-fed and irrigated conditions for solving the soil fertility problems such as use of manure, fertilisers or a combination of both. Fertiliser application at the rate of 40N + 40P2O5 ha-1 and 60N + 60P2O5 ha-1 produced significantly yield responses under rain-fed conditions. However, application of 20 t ha-1 and 40 t ha-1 of farm yard manure had no effect on grain yield of maize. Maize gross margins were positive with increasing fertilizer application. Similarly, fresh yields of Chili showed marked yield increasing with increasing fertility conditions. In contrast, onions and tomatoes showed a corresponding smaller yield increase with fertility improvement. Chili, onions and tomatoes had positive gross margins as nutrient application was increased indicating that benefit was higher with increasing fertiliser inputs. The PLAR methodology provided farmers with knowledge ahodology provided farmers with knowledge and skills that helped them to change their attitude towards soil fertility improvement interventions

  5. Indicators of radioecological sensitivity of contaminated territories: a proactive and participatory research approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financed partly by the French ministry in charge of environment, PRIME is a participative research coordinated by IRSN. The aim is to develop with stakeholders and experts a prospective method to build a multicriteria decision tool for ranking specificities of territories which identifies its vulnerability in case of nuclear accident. The method is elaborated through the participation of experts, decision-makers and local actors in order to enable the risk managers to choose the appropriate strategy in case of an accident involving radioactive substances. The method establishes the hierarchy of factors of the sensitivity of a territory to radioactive pollution. The studied zone is situated within the radius of about 50 km around three nuclear sites in the South of France. The main questions of this project are the following: Does the sensitivity of the territory of 50 km radius around a nuclear site depend only on the distance from the source or, alternatively, can it vary depending on the type and the use of the soils? Which criteria are important for the people living in the area and how are they balanced? Which of them would be particularly useful for decision-making? Can the multi criteria method be an appropriate tool to treat the data and make them visible and accessible? The characteristic of the project is to combine different opinion of the vulnerability of a territory in a participatory approach. The first step is to identify, alongside with stakeholders, th identify, alongside with stakeholders, the factors of the sensitivity of a territory and to establish correlation between them. The second step is to provide the managers and people who have to decide in such case with data necessary for working out the preparation and action plans for rationalizing the decision-making in the field of post-accidental management. As expected results, we hope to simplify the representation about territorial consequences of radiological contamination and to elaborate management tools common for different actors who a priori speak different 'languages', tools showing the evaluation of radio ecological sensitivity of a territory for further exploration. We will also share the main findings concerning the way to manage such a challenging social process. (author)

  6. Seeing beyond fertiliser trees : a case study of a community based participatory approach to agroforestry research and development in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kiptot, E.

    2007-01-01

    Key words: village committee approach, agroforestry, improved tree fallows, biomass transfer, realist evaluation, soil fertility, adoption, dissemination.   The thesis explores and describes various processes that take place in the implementation of a community based participatory initiative known as the village committee approach by a collaborative agroforestry programme between the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI), Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and the World Agrofor...

  7. Community-Based Participatory Evaluation: The Healthy Start Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Braithwaite, Ronald L.; McKenzie, Robetta D.; Pruitt, Vikki; Holden, Kisha B.; Aaron, Katrina; Hollimon, Chavone

    2012-01-01

    The use of community-based participatory research has gained momentum as a viable approach to academic and community engagement for research over the past 20 years. This article discusses an approach for extending the process with an emphasis on evaluation of a community partnership–driven initiative and thus advances the concept of conducting community-based participatory evaluation (CBPE) through a model used by the Healthy Start project of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., in A...

  8. Evaluation Criteria for Participatory Research: Insights from Coastal Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila

    2014-07-01

    Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.

  9. Community-Based Participatory Research for Improved Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Smikowski, Jane; Dewane, Sarah; JOHNSON, MARK E.; BREMS, CHRISTIANE; Bruss, Catherine; Roberts, Laura W.

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) focuses on specific community needs, and produces results that directly address those needs. Although conducting ethical CBPR is critical to its success, few academic programs include this training in their curricula. This paper describes the development and evaluation of an online training course designed to increase the use of CBPR in mental health disciplines. Developed using a participatory approach involving a community of experts, this cours...

  10. An assessment of gender inequitable norms and gender-based violence in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Jennifer Ann; Averbach, Sarah Helene; Modest, Anna; Hacker, Michele Renee; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Following decades of conflict, South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011. Prolonged conflict, which included gender-based violence (GBV), exacerbated gender disparities. This study aimed to assess attitudes towards gender inequitable norms related to GBV and to estimate the frequency of GBV in sampled communities of South Sudan. Methods: Applying a community-based participatory research approach, 680 adult male and female household respondents were interviewed in seven si...

  11. An assessment of attitudes toward gender inequitable sexual and reproductive health norms in South Sudan: a community-based participatory research approach

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Jennifer; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna Merport; Hacker, Michele; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Communities in South Sudan have endured decades of conflict. Protracted conflict exacerbated reproductive health disparities and gender inequities. This study, conducted prior to the country’s 2011 independence, aimed to assess attitudes toward gender inequitable norms related to sexual relationships and reproductive health and the effects of sex, age, and education on these attitudes. Methods: Applying a community-based participatory research approach and quota sampling, 680 ad...

  12. Participatory Action Research and Environmental Learning: Implications for Resilient Forests and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…

  13. Social Experiments and Participatory Research as Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope with this kind of complexity in regards to technology development and design projects. Based on experiences and lessons learned from the project "The Digital North Denmark (DDN), the chapter reflects on participatory research in a complex organizational setting of researchers, stakeholders and users emphasising practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. 

  14. An attractive choice : education researchers’ use of participatory methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ebersohn, L. (Liesel); Ferreira, Ronel; Beukes, J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory methodologies are often favoured in education research. This study aimed to determine collaborative partnership trends between education researchers and teachers in order to understand the use of participatory theory and practice in education studies. Seven symposium presentations by education scholars from various higher education institutions were analysed using trend analysis from a community of practice theoretical framework. It emerged that participatory meth...

  15. Participatory research in psychology - A practical example in the field of drug counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Vandreier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article gives insights into the work of the self-help- and research-group of the "Projekt Selbstverständigung über Drogengebrauch" as an example of participatory research in psychology. In a first step the basics of the project will be discussed by distinguishing it from other approaches in drug research, positioning it within the field of participatory research and analyzing it in regard to its theoretical basics. In a second step the practical work of the project will be described to illustrate problems that emerged as well as first solutions that could be helpful for further development of participatory research.

  16. The Palouse Basin Participatory Model Pilot Project: A Participatory Approach to Bi-state Groundwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.

    2008-12-01

    In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.

  17. Participatory Approaches to Program Development and Engaging Youth in Research: The Case of an Inter-Generational Urban Community Gardening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne; Doyle, Rebekah

    2002-01-01

    Community educators in six cities involved youth in documenting ethnic gardening practices with master gardeners. Interviews with 29 educators, 28 participating youth, and 4 gardeners found that youth learned about gardening, developed positive relationships with elders, and enhanced skills. Implementing participatory research required more…

  18. Participatory action research in antimicrobial stewardship: a novel approach to improving antimicrobial prescribing in hospitals and long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, Laura W; Sikkens, Jonne J; van Agtmael, Michiel A; Kramer, Mark H H; van der Steen, Jenny T; Hertogh, Cees M P M

    2014-07-01

    It is challenging to change physicians' antimicrobial prescribing behaviour. Although antimicrobial prescribing is determined by contextual (e.g. a lack of guidelines), cultural (e.g. peer practice) and behavioural (e.g. perceived decision making autonomy) factors, most antimicrobial stewardship programmes fail to consider these factors in their approach. This may lead to suboptimal intervention effectiveness. We present a new approach in antimicrobial stewardship programme development that addresses relevant determinants of antimicrobial prescribing: participatory action research (PAR). PAR is a collaborative process that aims to bring about change in social situations by producing practical knowledge that is useful in local practice. It requires substantial involvement of relevant stakeholders to address determinants of the studied behaviour and to facilitate empowerment. PAR is well suited for complex problems in multidisciplinary settings as it adapts to local needs, delivering a tailored approach to improving local practice. We describe how PAR can be applied to antimicrobial stewardship, and describe the PAR design of two ongoing multicentre antimicrobial stewardship projects, in the acute care setting and the long-term care setting, respectively. PMID:24648505

  19. The Maine Garlic Project: A Participatory Research and Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…

  20. An Attractive Choice: Education Researchers' Use of Participatory Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersohn, L.; Ferreira, R.; Beukes, J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory methodologies are often favoured in education research. This study aimed to determine collaborative partnership trends between education researchers and teachers in order to understand the use of participatory theory and practice in education studies. Seven symposium presentations by education scholars from various higher education…

  1. Participatory Design in the Developing World : Issues and opportunities from case studies of adapting Nordic participatory approaches to a South African context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Claassen, Hester

    In the field of participatory design originating in Scandinavia, where approaches are developed for actively engaging local stakeholders in change processes, a major part of the research has been confined to Western contexts. The need to study participatory design in broader settings outside Western organisations has been stressed in the research community over the last decade, but later research indicates that still relatively few studies are done in developing countries. Researchers recognise that participatory design approaches cannot simply be transferred to developing country settings as there are numerous challenges for enabling participation, e.g. power distance, cultural barriers, low educational levels and geographical distances. However, participatory design offers substantial opportunities for developing countries, regarding empowerment in local communities and democratisation of change processes. Arguably, the appropriation of participatory design approaches and methods to developing world settings is an important priority in research cooperation between Nordic and Southern African universities. This work presents issues and opportunities for introducing participatory design in a South African context, based on two case studies. In the first case, concepts for new information technology were developed for a small-scale wine farm in the Western Cape, engaging multiple stakeholders on the farm. In the second case, hyper-local storytelling distributed through Bluetooth technology was explored in a socially challenged suburb in the Cape Flats area of Cape Town. Issues on appropriation of strategies and methods for participation are discussed, and directions for further research in the field are identified.

  2. Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved socially and politically. The PAREU model empowers the community to take action from the research they, themselves, conducted, and enables them to carry out future research. Finally, many of these communities (and the general public) lack the understanding of the nature of science, which leads to ignorance on the part of citizens in areas of science such as climate change. By participating in science/social science research, community members gain a better understanding of the nature of science, making them more informed citizens. The PAREU model is theoretically grounded in decades of research in social science and documented impacts of student research experiences. In addition to providing practical benefits for communities with needs solvable by scientific research, the model builds on and expands student skills gained from traditional REU programs Deep and sustained engagement among scientists, social scientists, and community leaders is expected to create better informed citizens and improve their ability to solve problems.

  3. Health survey instrument development through a community-based participatory research approach: Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) and Brazilian immigrants in Greater Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Mansoureh; Galvão, Heloisa M; Eduardo Siqueira, C

    2010-06-01

    Brazilians are among the fastest growing segment of immigrant populations in several states of the United States. Culturally appropriate and validated health survey instruments do not exist to adequately assess the health needs of this population. Through a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, a cross-cultural pilot project was conducted to develop and test a culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese-version of the health-promoting lifestyle profile II (HPLP-II) instrument with a convenience sample of 60 bilingual and bicultural Brazilian immigrants using a combined quasi experimental and focus group design. The project evaluated HPLP-II instrument's psychometric properties of equivalency, reliability, and score distribution in Portuguese and English. This pilot test supports equivalency, consistency, and reliability of the English and culturally-adapted Brazilian Portuguese versions of the instrument. CBPR is an effective approach in health instrument development. This instrument is an important first step in designing other appropriate instruments to explore health conditions of Brazilian immigrants in the U.S. PMID:19011964

  4. Understanding Participatory Action Research: A Qualitative Research Methodology Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…

  5. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements : The Strengths and Challenges of Participatory Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging research relationships and generate.

  6. Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey

    OpenAIRE

    E. Richard Brown, PhD; Sue Holtby, MPH; Elaine Zahnd, PhD; George B. Abbott, MD, MPH

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease pr...

  7. Participatory approaches and the measurement of human well-being

    OpenAIRE

    White, Sarah; Pettit, Jethro

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the use of participatory methods in international development research, and asks what contribution these can make to the definition and measurement of well-being. It draws on general lessons arising from the project level, two larger-scale policy research processes sponsored by the World Bank, and the experience of quality of life studies. It also considers emerging experiments with using participatory methods to generate quantitative data. The paper closes by assessing t...

  8. Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naydene, de Lange; Mart-Mari, Geldenhuys.

    Full Text Available Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary s [...] chools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual methodologies, which is the focus of this special issue, taps into the notion of 'research as intervention' and speaks to the potential of educational research contributing to social change. In this qualitative study we used participatory video to explore youths' understanding of gender-based violence, as well as how they envision making schools safe. Power theory is used as theoretic lens to frame the study and to make meaning of the findings, namely, that girls' bodies are sites for gender-based violence at unsafe schools; that the 'keepers of safety' are perpetuating gender-based violence at school; and that learners have a sound understanding of what can be done to address gender-based violence. This study, with its 'research as intervention' approach, enabled learners to make their voices heard and to reflect on what it is that they as youth can do to contribute to safe schooling.

  9. On the connection between sociological, artistic, and participatory practice in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Koch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Linking sociological, artistic, and participatory elements in research has far-reaching consequences for research practice on the whole. The artistic approach represents a difference to everyday and sociological manners of thinking and acting. This difference not only determines other questions and points of view, but also opens up special communication and reflection spaces in research fields. This, in turn, is of great value for both the participatory and the sociological approach. In this article I depict the relevance of the artistic approach for participatory practice in sociological research. My remarks are limited to the first phase of research. On the basis of a project example, I portray my own special research practice by reflecting on aspects of research design and aspects of communication among those involved.

  10. Participatory Action Research: Integrating Community Occupational Therapy Practice and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…

  11. Let Them do the Work : A Participatory Place Branding Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenker, Sebastian; Erfgen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This conceptual essay seeks to develop a participatory approach to place branding. In doing so, it offers guidance on how to implement a participatory place branding strategy within place management practice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on theoretical insights drawn from the combination of distinct literatures on place branding, general marketing, and collaborative governance. Findings: The paper highlights the importance of residents in the place branding process and argues that their special functions as ambassadors for the place constitute the most valuable assets in place branding. Thus, a participatory place branding approach involving residents is needed. To implement this approach, three stages are necessary: (stage 1) defining a shared vision for the place including core place elements; (stage 2) implementing a structure for participation; (stage 3) supporting residents in their own place branding projects. Originality/value: The inclusion of residents is often requested in contemporary place branding literature. Unfortunately, none of these articles offer a real strategy for participatory place branding so far. Thus, this conceptual essay provides a participatory place branding approach to help place managers implement such structure.

  12. Learning through Participatory Action Research for Community Ecotourism Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.

    1996-01-01

    Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)

  13. An Adaptive Community-Based Participatory Approach to Formative Assessment with High Schools for Obesity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…

  14. A participatory approach to healing and transformation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkel, Elize

    2011-12-01

    In this article I describe my personal journey from working as private practitioner to participating in the wider South African society. Post-apartheid South African society struggles with overwhelming problems related to poverty, illness, violence, sexism, and racism. Moreover, in those communities where the trauma is most severe, professional resources are scarce. I propose a participatory approach which invites therapists to respond to these socio-economic and political challenges and the problems that arise from them by thinking and acting outside the constraints of their consultation rooms and of traditional therapeutic conversations, into active participation in ways that might support healing and social transformation. I use two examples to illustrate and discuss the participatory approach with which I have engaged for over 10 years. The illustrative examples show how a participatory approach can create ripples that impact communities in healing and transformative ways. PMID:22145721

  15. Masihambisane, lessons learnt using participatory indigenous knowledge research approaches in a school-based collaborative project of the Eastern Cape

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thenjiwe, Meyiwa; Tebello, Letsekha; Lisa, Wiebesiek.

    Full Text Available Masihambisane is an Nguni word, loosely meaning "let us walk the path together". The symbolic act of walking together is conceptually at the heart of a funded1 research project conducted in rural schools of Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape. The project focuses on promoting the direct participation of t [...] eachers in planning, researching, and developing learning and teaching materials (LTSMs), with a view to aligning these materials with indigenous and local knowledge. In this paper we make explicit our learning, and the manner in which we carried out the collaborated research activities, using the Reflect process.

  16. La Investigacion Participativa en America Latina: Retablo de Papel, 10 (Participatory Research in Latin America: Series, 10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejarano, Gilberto M., Comp.

    The following papers (titles are translated into English) were presented at a conference on participatory research: "Participatory Research, Popular Knowledge, and Power"; "Participatory Research and Adult Literacy"; "Developments and Perspectives on Participatory Research"; "Popular Education and Participatory Research"; "The Researcher and the…

  17. Comprehensive Case Analysis on Participatory Approaches, from Nexus Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuhara, N.; Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    According to Messages from the Bonn2011 Conference, involving local communities fully and effectively in the planning and implementation processes related to water, energy and food nexus for local ownership and commitment should be strongly needed. The participatory approaches such as deliberative polling, "joint fact-finding" and so on have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes, however the drivers and barriers in such processes have not been necessarily enough analyzed in a comprehensive manner, especially in Japan. Our research aims to explore solutions for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus in local communities. To achieve it, we clarify drivers and barriers of each approaches applied so far in water, energy and food policy, focusing on how to deal with scientific facts. We generate hypotheses primarily that multi-issue solutions through policy integration will be more effective for conflicts in the context of water-energy-food nexus than single issue solutions for each policy. One of the key factors to formulate effective solutions is to integrate "scientific fact (expert knowledge)" and "local knowledge". Given this primary hypothesis, more specifically, we assume that it is effective for building consensus to provide opportunities to resolve the disagreement of "framing" that stakeholders can offer experts the points for providing scientific facts and that experts can get common understanding of scientific facts in the early stage of the process. To verify the hypotheses, we develop a database of the cases which such participatory approaches have been applied so far to resolve various environmental disputes based on literature survey of journal articles and public documents of Japanese cases. At present, our database is constructing. But it's estimated that conditions of framing and providing scientific information are important driving factors for problem solving and consensus building. And it's important to refine the driving factors, evaluating if components of database are enough to present each process or not.

  18. Harnessing the Power of Community-Based Participatory Research: Examining Knowledge, Action, and Consciousness in the PROUD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Daina; Marshall, Zack; Lazarus, Lisa; LeBlanc, Sean; Heighton, Tarah; Preater, Beverley; Tyndall, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach to research that recognizes the specific knowledge and abilities that individuals from diverse backgrounds bring to the generation of new knowledge for the purpose of social action aimed at improving public health and health equity. In this article, the authors apply Gaventa and Cornwall's dimensions of participatory research to the analysis of 12 semistructured interviews with members of our Community Advisory Committee for the Participatory Research in Ottawa: Understanding Drugs (PROUD) study. This process-to-outcomes framework may help projects more systematically explore their experiences in relation to common CBPR principles and lead to greater conceptual clarity. PMID:25774651

  19. Youth researching youth: benefits, limitations and ethical considerations within a participatory research process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Jardine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To examine the benefits, limitations and ethical issues associated with conducting participatory research on tobacco use using youth to research other youth. Study design. Community-based participatory research. Methods. Research on tobacco use was conducted with students in the K’àlemì Dene School and Kaw Tay Whee School in the Northwest Territories, Canada, using PhotoVoice. The Grade 9–12 students acted as researchers. Researcher reflections and observations were assessed using “member checking,” whereby students, teachers and community partners could agree or disagree with the researcher's interpretation. The students and teachers were further asked informally to share their own reflections and observations on this process. Results and conclusions. Using youth to research other youth within a participatory research framework had many benefits for the quality of the research, the youth researchers and the community. The research was perceived by the researchers and participants to be more valid and credible. The approach was more appropriate for the students, and the youth researchers gained valuable research experience and a sense of ownership of both the research process and results. Viewing smoking through their children's eyes was seen by the community to be a powerful and effective means of creating awareness of the community environment. Limitations of the approach were residual response bias of participants, the short period of time to conduct the research and failure to fully explore student motivations to smoke or not to smoke. Ethical considerations included conducting research with minors, difficulties in obtaining written parental consent, decisions on cameras (disposable versus digital and representation of all participants in the final research product.

  20. A participatory sensing approach to characterize ride quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgelall, Raj

    2014-03-01

    Rough roads increase vehicle operation and road maintenance costs. Consequently, transportation agencies spend a significant portion of their budgets on ride-quality characterization to forecast maintenance needs. The ubiquity of smartphones and social media, and the emergence of a connected vehicle environment present lucrative opportunities for cost-reduction and continuous, network-wide, ride-quality characterization. However, there is a lack of models to transform inertial and position information from voluminous data flows into indices that transportation agencies currently use. This work expands on theories of the Road Impact Factor introduced in previous research. The index characterizes road roughness by aggregating connected vehicle data and reporting roughness in direct proportion to the International Roughness Index. Their theoretical relationships are developed, and a case study is presented to compare the relative data quality from an inertial profiler and a regular passenger vehicle. Results demonstrate that the approach is a viable alternative to existing models that require substantially more resources and provide less network coverage. One significant benefit of the participatory sensing approach is that transportation agencies can monitor all network facilities continuously to locate distress symptoms, such as frost heaves, that appear and disappear between ride assessment cycles. Another benefit of the approach is continuous monitoring of all high-risk intersections such as rail grade crossings to better understand the relationship between ride-quality and traffic safety.

  1. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  2. Promoting the Adoption of Innovations through Participatory Approaches: Example from Northern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdoulaye, T.; Amaza, Ps; Olanrewaju, As; Ellis-jones, J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operate...

  3. Youth Participatory Action Research Groups as School Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika

    2010-01-01

    Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…

  4. Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Newman, Susan D.; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

    2012-01-01

    The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions…

  5. Participatory Action Research: Collective Reflections on Gender, Culture, and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alice; Chatzopoulos, Nikolaos; Politi, Anastasia; Roz, Julieta

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this article is the experiences of three undergraduate students who engaged in a participatory action research (PAR) project with a group of preadolescent Latina girls attending a public school in Boston, MA, USA. The aim of the 2-year project was to explore how the girls constructed knowledge about girlhood and other gender-related…

  6. A participatory approach to health promotion for informal sector workers in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittra Rukijkanpanich

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b work practice improvement, and c working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1 the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2 the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (p=sig. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives.

  7. Learning through Situated Innovation : Why the specific is crucial for Participatory Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why and in which ways the specificity and situatedness of PD practices are crucial for PD research. We do so by developing the notion of PD as situated innovation based on a pragmatic epistemology. PD research aims at devel oping and continuously unfolding what PD can, might and should be. We show implications of such a pragmatic epistemology of PD on understanding and arguing for PD research approaches. These concepts are illustrated referring to PD practices as experienced in PD research projects. Our epistemological argumentation supports the emphasis on exploring new PD practices and learning and theorizing about PD from the specificities, in line with recent debate contributions.

  8. Participatory Research for Adaptive Water Management in a Transition Country - a Case Study from Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufar Matin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research has in recent years become a popular approach for problem-oriented scientific research that aims to tackle complex problems in a real management context. Within the European Union project NeWater, stakeholder processes were initiated in seven case studies to develop approaches for adaptive water management. The Uzbek part of the Amudarya River basin was one of the studied river basins. However, given the current political and cultural context in Uzbekistan, which provides little room for stakeholder participation, it was unclear to what extent participation could be realized there. In this paper, we present an evaluation of the participatory research carried out in the Amudarya case study with respect to (i the choice and application of different participatory methods and their adaptation to the given political, socioeconomic, and cultural environment, (ii their usefulness in improving system understanding and developing strategies and measures to improve water management and monitoring, and (iii their acceptance and suitability for enhancing policy-making processes in the Amudarya River basin context. The main lessons learned from the comparison of the different participatory methods were (1 the stakeholder process provided an opportunity for meetings and discussions among stakeholders from different organizational levels and thus promoted communication between different levels and organizations, and (2 in a context where most stakeholders are not generally involved in policy-making, there is a danger of raising expectations that a research project cannot meet, e.g., of transferring local interests to higher levels. Our experience shows that in order to choose participatory methods and adapt them to the Uzbek cultural and political setting (and most likely this applies to other post-Soviet transition countries as well, four aspects should be taken into account: the time required to prepare and apply the method, good information about the participants and the context in which the method will be applied, knowledge of the local language(s, and careful training of local moderators. While these aspects are relevant to any application of participatory methods, they become even more important in a political and socio-cultural setting such as that found in Uzbekistan. One added value of the activities and a crucial aspect of a participatory research processes was the capacity building of local scientists and practitioners, which facilitates the further application of the methods.

  9. Partnership readiness for community-based participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannette O. Andrews; Newman, Susan D; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J.; Bunting, Shelia

    2010-01-01

    The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners’ readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions and key indicators necessary for academic and community partnership readiness to conduct CBPR. Key informant interviews and focus groups (n = 36 par...

  10. Beyond School Spirit: The Effects of Youth-Led Participatory Action Research in Two Urban High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J.; Wright, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Prior research highlights the mismatch between adolescents' growing capacities for autonomy and the limited opportunities for influence in U.S. secondary schools. Youth-led participatory research (YPAR), an approach in which young people research and advocate for change on problems of concern to them, could increase students' autonomy in secondary…

  11. Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Piedad; Hough Richard L; Lebowitz Barry; Lindamer Laurie A; Aguirre Alfredo; Halpain Maureen C; Depp Colin; Jeste Dilip V

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to implementation, a...

  12. Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zoellner Jamie; Hill Jennie L; Zynda Karen; Sample Alicia D; Yadrick Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim ...

  13. Preparing pre-service teachers as emancipatory and participatory action researchers in a teacher education programme

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Omar, Esau.

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyse the potential that participatory action research holds for educating pre-service teachers to become more critically reflective and socially conscious. I also describe the rationale for and process of engaging pre-service teachers in their teacher education programme. Involvin [...] g these candidate teachers in participatory action research (PAR) projects may provide opportunities for aspiring teachers to develop pedagogical content knowledge, examine their beliefs about teaching, and gain confidence in addressing social justice issues. More than merely exposing them to applying the technique of action research, the PAR project encouraged them to become more socially conscious, critical, imaginative and argumentative as teacher-researchers. In the project I used a participatory approach in action research to prepare the pre-service teachers to become emancipatory action researchers. Supporting and fostering inquiring practices is a strategy to help pre-service teachers move beyond just receiving hand-outs in a teacher education programme and beginning to focus on their work with learners and challenges in the real school environment.

  14. Participatory approaches in support of the decision-making processes. The ambivalence of participation

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Federica

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation concerns the analysis of participatory practices in support of the decision-making processes. In particular, the research work is based on an important consideration, according to which, traditional participatory processes do not work in practical terms. Indeed, the evolution of the concept of participation reveals that although the implementation of the participatory processes arose from the necessity of strongly criticizing the contemporary society of the 1960’s, nowad...

  15. Somali Bantu refugees in southwest Idaho: assessment using participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Pamela J; Black, Mikal; Martz, Kim; Deckys, Cathy; Soelberg, Terri

    2010-01-01

    The Somali Bantu represent a subset of African refugees, many of whom are preliterate with no native written language. This population presents significant challenges for nurses and other healthcare providers. A community-based participatory research project using qualitative techniques to combine community and cultural assessment was conducted over 18 months. A thorough description of methodology and results are provided. The results of the assessment are discussed as well as implications for healthcare providers. The findings indicate that this is a vulnerable population, with limited resources placing them at high risk for health disparities. Further research should focus on obtaining actual health data. PMID:20460962

  16. Una experiencia de investigación participativa en Uruguay / An experience of participatory research in Uruguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Marta, Albicette-Bastreri; Marta, Chiappe-Hernández.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los enfoques participativos para el desarrollo y la investigación e innovación en el sector agrario han buscado respuestas adaptadas a las necesidades de los productores utilizando diferentes metodologías, entre las que se encuentra la investigación participativa (IP). Entre 2006 y 2009 tuvo lugar e [...] n Uruguay un proceso denominado Desarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones (DPI), llevado adelante por investigadores del Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria (INIA) y productores orgánicos hortícolas, focalizado en tecnología de abonos verdes; siendo el primer caso de IP iniciado y finalizado en el sector agrario uruguayo. En este ensayo se describe una investigación evaluativa del DPI a partir de entrevistas en profundidad a productores y técnicos participantes. Se analizan fortalezas y debilidades, aprendizajes y resultados del DPI, aportando sugerencias para un próximo ciclo o para su aplicación en otros procesos participativos. Como resultado del proceso fue posible introducir la metodología en INIA, progresar en su implementación, compartir saberes entre investigadores y productores y lograr innovación con la tecnología, permitiendo aprendizaje y apropiación social del conocimiento. Abstract in english Participatory approaches for development, and research and innovation in the agricultural sector have sought answers adapted to the needs of producers using different methodologies, among them participatory research (PR). Between 2006 and 2009, a process took place in Uruguay called Participatory In [...] novation Development (PID, Desarrollo Participativo de Innovaciones), carried out by researchers in the National Agriculture and Livestock Research Institute (Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria, INIA) and organic vegetable producers, focused on green fertilizer technologies; this was the first case of PR that began and was finished in the Uruguay agrarian sector. In this essay, we describe the evaluative research of PID, contributing suggestions for the next cycle or to apply in other participatory processes. As a result of the process, it was possible to introduce the INIA methodology, make progress in its implementation, share knowledge between researchers and farmers, and achieve innovation with technology, allowing learning and social appropriation of the knowledge.

  17. Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Constance BITSO

    2006-01-01

    Environmental Education and Networking in Mafeteng Primary Schools: A-Participatory Approach Constance BITSO Institute of Education National University of Lesotho Lesotho, SOUTHERN AFRICA ABSTRACT This paper explores a participatory process of Environmental Education (EE) networking in Mafeteng primary schools. It gives an overview of the existing EE efforts in Lesotho, particularly the models schools of the National Curriculum Development Centre. It also...

  18. Community-based Participatory Research: Necessary Next Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.

  19. Towards a participatory approach to Bible translation (PABT)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.O., Chemorion.

    Full Text Available It is generally acknowledged that the participation of the receptor community may enhance the community's ownership and acceptability of the translation. In spite of this acknowledgement, individuals and organisations engaged in mother tongue translations of the Bible often involve the members of th [...] e receptor community in secondary and non-technical aspects of the translation process. Crucial decisions regarding the nature of the translation are often made by the translation team without adequate input from the community. Part of the reason for non-involvement of the receptor communities in the technical aspects of Bible translation has been the lack of an adequate theoretical framework that explains how the community may fit in the translation process. On the basis of Christiane Nord's functionalist model of translation, this article proposes a "Participatory approach to Bible Translation (PABT)" as a strategy that can be applied to involve the receptor community in technical aspects of the translation.

  20. Can participatory ergonomics become 'the way we do things in this firm' - the Scandinavian approach to participatory ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Langaa

    1997-01-01

    Under the label 'participatory ergonomics' the idea of establishing changes in working conditions through participatory approaches has been a central issue within ergonomics. Tools and procedures have been developed and demonstrated beneficial. But how this approach can be established as the way changes are made in firms have only had limited attention. In the Scandinavian countries legislation has, through mandatory joint working environment committees, tried to establish an organizational unit promoting direct participation. Several studies have showed that the intentions of the legislators are not automatically fulfilled, and they have reviled preconditions for more successful achievement. This opens for many supplementary regulatory strategies to improve activities in firms, but one has been in focus: establishing formalized management systems within occupational health and safety. This strategy may be contrary to the general intentions in the laws. Some of the conditions which must be taken into consideration are discussed.

  1. Starting with ourselves in deepening our understanding of generativity in participatory educational research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Linda, van Laren; Ronicka, Mudaly; Kathleen, Pithouse-Morgan; Shakila, Singh.

    Full Text Available Participatory educational research is generally characterised by a commitment to making a difference in the lives of those who participate in the research and more broadly, to promoting social transformation. This suggests a potentially fruitful synergy between participatory educational research and [...] the multidisciplinary body of academic work on generativity as a human capacity that has at its core a desire to contribute to the well-being of others. As a research team of teacher educators from diverse disciplinary backgrounds, we seek to add an alternative dimension to current debates on participatory educational research by focusing on understanding the 'how' and 'what' of generativity in a participatory research process. The research question we address is: How does/can engagement in participatory educational research facilitate generativity? While participatory research literature often concentrates on collaboration between researchers and 'researched' communities, we are taking a reflexive stance by exploring our own participation in our dual roles as university community members and as researchers studying our colleagues' experiences in relation to integration of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related issues in university curricula. We describe how our use of the visual method of storyboarding facilitated insight into generativity in participatory educational research. Building on an earlier concept of generativity, we identify and discuss significant generativefeatures ofparticipation, playfulness, passion, and perspicacity in our research process.

  2. Community-based Participatory Research in the California Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Richard Brown, PhD

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The California Health Interview Survey, the largest state health survey in the United States, uses community-based participatory research principles to develop each cycle. Other large-scale health surveys rarely include participatory research approaches. Every 2 years, the California Health Interview Survey generates state and local population-based data on health insurance coverage, access to health care, chronic disease prevalence and management, health behaviors and disease prevention, and other health issues in California. The survey is used for policy and program development, advocacy, and research. Methods The development of the California Health Interview Survey involves more than 145 people from more than 60 state and local policymaking bodies, public health agencies, advocacy groups, research organizations, and health care organizations. They participate as volunteers in an advisory board, on technical advisory committees, and in work groups that interact with California Health Interview Survey research staff in an accountable advisory process that shapes survey topics, measures, and sample design and determines languages selected for translation. Survey results and data are provided to the communities involved in the survey. Results California Health Interview Survey data have been widely used by local, state, and national public health leaders, policymakers, advocates, and researchers to improve access to health insurance and health care services and to develop and target prevention programs for obesity and chronic illnesses. Conclusion The California Health Interview Survey participatory research model has been an effective approach to planning and implementing a health survey and should be considered by developers of other large health surveys.

  3. Developing theory from complexity: reflections on a collaborative mixed method participatory action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhues, Anne; Ochocka, Joanna; Jacobson, Nora; Simich, Laura; Maiter, Sarah; Janzen, Rich; Fleras, Augie

    2008-05-01

    Research studies are increasingly complex: They draw on multiple methods to gather data, generate both qualitative and quantitative data, and frequently represent the perspectives of more than one stakeholder. The teams that generate them are increasingly multidisciplinary. A commitment to engaging community members in the research process often adds a further layer of complexity. How to approach a synthesizing analysis of these multiple and varied data sources with a large research team requires considerable reflection and dialogue. In this article, we outline the strategies used by one multidisciplinary team committed to a participatory action research (PAR) approach and engaged in a mixed method program of research to synthesize the findings from four subprojects into a conceptual framework that could guide practice in community mental health organizations. We also summarize factors that hold promise for increasing productivity when managing complex research projects. PMID:18420539

  4. Promoting the Adoption of Innovations through Participatory Approaches: Example from Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye, T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Participatory research and development approaches involving all stakeholders along the value chain have recently been hypothesized to produce quicker outcomes than the linear technology transfer model. This paper analyzed the crop yield obtained by farmers and their uptake of improved technologies in a 2009 survey, one year after the completion of project field activities. It was a multi-stakeholder project involving research, extension, farmer groups, marketers and policymakers, that operated for 4 years (2005-2008 in Borno state of Nigeria. Survey results indicated that farmers who participated in project activities' have been successful in increasing crop yields. Both yields and per capita production of major crops were statistically significantly higher (ñ? 0.05 in project communities compared to non-project ones. It is also estimated that there was a decline in percentage of households in food insecurity situation in project communities. Probit regression revealed that participation in project activities had a positive and significant effect on household food security (ñ? 0.05. It is then concluded that development interventions that involve multiple stakeholder partnership, use of participatory research and extension approach can help increase technology uptake among resourcepoor farmers as well as increase food production and food security in a region.

  5. Participatory workspace design : A new approach for ergonomists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually based methods such as workbooks, layout workshops and use scenarios. Employees, management and external design engineersalike took actively part in the design process. The general outcome of the inter-vention was some very concrete changes in the proposed design layout, an enhanced clarity of the production procedures in the new plant, and an identification of potential future ergonomic problems. This case study indi-cates that workspace design can be a new approach for OHS consultants.

  6. Establishment of a hydrological monitoring network in a tropical African catchment: An integrated participatory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomani, M. C.; Dietrich, O.; Lischeid, G.; Mahoo, H.; Mahay, F.; Mbilinyi, B.; Sarmett, J.

    Sound decision making for water resources management has to be based on good knowledge of the dominant hydrological processes of a catchment. This information can only be obtained through establishing suitable hydrological monitoring networks. Research catchments are typically established without involving the key stakeholders, which results in instruments being installed at inappropriate places as well as at high risk of theft and vandalism. This paper presents an integrated participatory approach for establishing a hydrological monitoring network. We propose a framework with six steps beginning with (i) inception of idea; (ii) stakeholder identification; (iii) defining the scope of the network; (iv) installation; (v) monitoring; and (vi) feedback mechanism integrated within the participatory framework. The approach is illustrated using an example of the Ngerengere catchment in Tanzania. In applying the approach, the concept of establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network was initiated in 2008 within the Resilient Agro-landscapes to Climate Change in Tanzania (ReACCT) research program. The main stakeholders included: local communities; Sokoine University of Agriculture; Wami Ruvu Basin Water Office and the ReACCT Research team. The scope of the network was based on expert experience in similar projects and lessons learnt from literature review of similar projects from elsewhere integrated with local expert knowledge. The installations involved reconnaissance surveys, detailed surveys, and expert consultations to identify best sites. First, a Digital Elevation Model, land use, and soil maps were used to identify potential monitoring sites. Local and expert knowledge was collected on flow regimes, indicators of shallow groundwater plant species, precipitation pattern, vegetation, and soil types. This information was integrated and used to select sites for installation of an automatic weather station, automatic rain gauges, river flow gauging stations, flow measurement sites and shallow groundwater wells. The network is now used to monitor hydro-meteorological parameters in collaboration with key stakeholders in the catchment. Preliminary results indicate that the network is working well. The benefits of this approach compared to conventional narrow scientific/technical approaches have been shown by gaining rapid insight into the hydrology of the catchment, identifying best sites for the instruments; and voluntary participation of stakeholders in installation, monitoring and safeguarding the installations. This approach has proved simple yet effective and yielded good results. Based on this experience gained in applying the approach in establishing the Ngerengere catchment monitoring network, we conclude that the integrated participatory approach helps to assimilate local and expert knowledge in catchments monitoring which consequently results in: (i) identifying best sites for the hydrologic monitoring; (ii) instilling the sense of ownership; (iii) providing security of the installed network; and (iv) minimizing costs for installation and monitoring.

  7. Participatory knowledge-management design: A semiotic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtolina, Stefano; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a design strategy for collaborative knowledge-management systems based on a semiotic approach. The contents and structure of experts' knowledge is highly dependent on professional or individual practice. Knowledge-management systems that support cooperation between experts from different (sub-)fields need to be situated and tailored to provide effective support even if the common aspects of the data need to be described by ontologies that are generic in respect to the sub-disciplines involved. To understand and approach this design problem, we apply a semiotic perspective to computer application and human–computer interaction. From a semiotic perspective, the computer application is both a message from the designer to the user about the structure of the problem domain, as well as about interaction with it, and a structured channel for the user's communication with herself, himself or other users of the software. Tailoring or “end-user development” – i.e. adapting the knowledge-management system to a specific (sub-)discipline, task or context – then refines both the message and adapts the structure of the interaction to the situated requirements. The essential idea of this paper is to define a new perspective for designing and developing interactive systems to support collaborative knowledge management. The key concept is to involve domain experts in participatory knowledge design for mapping and translating their professional models into the proper vocabularies, notations, and suitable visual structures for navigating among interface elements. To this end, the paper describes how our semiotic approach supports processes for representing, storing, accessing, and transferring knowledge through which the information architecture of an interactive system can be defined. Finally, the results of applying our approach to a real-world case in an archaeological context are presented.

  8. RESEARCH APPROACH: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Grover

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explain different possible research approaches to pursue a research project. It starts with three important components of a research approach amelyphilosophical world view, research design, and research methods. Research approaches are classified on the basis of work of Guba (1990, which puts it in to the categories of post positivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatism. Further paper explains salient features and principals of these four world views. These world views are merged to form three approaches namely-quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. Quantitative approach includes positivism and post positivism world view, qualitative approach includes constructivism and transformative world view and mixed method approach corresponds to pragmatism. Beside these approaches two more approaches has been discussed namely-Logical, theoretical research used in the field of mathematics and computer science and Participatory action research used in the field of management, sociology and anthropology. Paper finally ends with criterion for choosing a research approach. In concluding remarks author stresses that all the approaches are complementary to each other rather than opposing each other. No concept or phenomena can be studied by single approach, a combination of these is necessary to uncover the truth.

  9. Respondent-Driven Sampling in Participatory Research Contexts: Participant-Driven Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the use of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in participatory and community-based research. Participant-driven recruitment (PDR) retains all of the analytic capabilities of RDS while enhancing the role of respondents in framing research questions, instrument development, data interpretation, and other aspects of the research process. Merging the capabilities of RDS with participatory research methods, PDR creates new opportunities for engaging community members in resea...

  10. The Indigenous Resiliency Project: a worked example of community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney-Somers, Julie; Maher, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is often cited as a suitable methodological approach for academic researchers wanting to work collaboratively with Indigenous communities. This paper describes the Indigenous Resiliency Project currently being conducted in Redfern, Townsville and Perth. This case study is used to demonstrate how a group of university-based researchers and Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services have used CBPR to work with young Indigenous Australians to explore young people's perspectives on resilience in relation to bloodborne viruses and sexually transmissible infections. This paper also describes some initial benefits gained through the process of developing the Indigenous Resiliency CBPR Project, such as: developing research capacity; establishing relationships between community organisations and research institutions; and prioritising ethical and social considerations in the conduct of research. A commentary on the experience of one health worker involved in the project accompanies the paper. PMID:19735622

  11. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems to productive smallholder irrigation: soil nutrient depletion, salinization, disease and pest resulting from inefficient irrigation practices, infrastructure problems leading to a reduction of the size of the command area and decrease in reservoir volume. The major causes have been poor irrigation infrastructure, poor on-farm soil and water management, prevalence of various crop pests and diseases, lack of inputs and reservoir siltation. On-farm participatory research focusing on soil, crop and water management issues, including technical, institutional and managerial aspects, to identify best performing innovations while taking care of the environment was recommended. Currently, a range of interlinked activities are implemented a multiple scales, combining participatory and scientific approaches towards innovation development and up-scaling of promising technologies and institutional and managerial approaches from local to regional scales. ____________________________ Key words: Irrigation scheme, productivity, innovation, participatory method, Gumselassa, Ethiopia

  12. Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commlders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs

  13. Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Hove, S. [C3ED, Universite de Versailles-Saint Quentin en Yvelines, 47, bd. Vauban, 78047, Guyancourt Cedex (France)

    2000-06-01

    The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs.

  14. Evaluating participatory research: Framework, methods and implementation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a structured participatory process and associated evaluation protocol developed to detect systems learning by decision makers involved in the management of natural resources. A series of facilitated participatory workshops were conducted to investigate learning when decision makers and influencers were confronted with the multiple, complex interactions arising from decisions concerned with the nexus of water, food and energy security. The participatory process and evaluation of learning were trialled in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), where integrated scientific evidence was systematically presented to challenge existing beliefs concerned with the effectiveness of proposed policy actions and development investments. Consistent with theoretical propositions, individually held values, beliefs and attitudes were deployed as the primary factors (and psychometrics) that underpin and influence environmental management decision making. Observed and statistically significant changes in the three psychometrics expressed by decision makers in response to the facilitated presentation of scientific evidence during the participatory process, provided supportive evidence of systems learning and the evaluation protocol. PMID:25929196

  15. Place and Situated Deliberation in Participatory Planning – A Research Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Within the domain of participatory urban planning, this position paper argues for a focus on the notion of place in the design of mobile and/or ubiquitous systems that are used in deliberation processes with central spatial references. I discuss (1) leveraging properties of place as a resource for users in the design of such systems and (2) situating, or merely co-locating, deliberation activities within the places these discussions are concerned with. To support my argument, I outline two exemplary cases that explore this focus on place and situated deliberation to further motivate research in that direction. The first case concerns the different qualities of in-situ reflection and action on proposed changes to the cityscape in contrast to ex-situ reflection and action on those changes. The second case focuses on providing immersive information about citizens’ own living environment on the spot for everyone and everywhere through a mobile augmented reality application that visualizes future, planned buildings on capable mobile phones. I conclude with the central questions and problems for future research that focuses on place and situated deliberation.

  16. Raising the profile of participatory action research at the 2010 Global Symposium on Health Systems Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Loewenson; Walter Flores; Abhay Shukla; Maija Kagis; Amuda Baba; Ashraf Ryklief; Clara Mbwili-Muleya; Dhananjay Kakde

    2011-01-01

    By involving citizens and health workers in producing evidence and learning, participatory action research has potential to organize community evidence, stimulate action, and challenge the marginalization that undermines achievement of universal health coverage. This paper summarizes and analyzes results of two sessions on this research model convened by the authors at the First Global Symposium on Health Systems Research in Montreux Switzerland, November 16-19, 2010. In so doing, it reviews ...

  17. Engaging and sustaining adolescents in community-based participatory research: structuring a youth-friendly community-based participatory research environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners. PMID:25423241

  18. Interventionist and participatory approaches to flood risk mitigation decisions: two case studies in the Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchizza, C.; Del Bianco, D.; Pellizzoni, L.; Scolobig, A.

    2012-04-01

    Flood risk mitigation decisions pose key challenges not only from a technical but also from a social, economic and political viewpoint. There is an increasing demand for improving the quality of these processes by including different stakeholders - and especially by involving the local residents in the decision making process - and by guaranteeing the actual improvement of local social capacities during and after the decision making. In this paper we analyse two case studies of flood risk mitigation decisions, Malborghetto-Valbruna and Vipiteno-Sterzing, in the Italian Alps. In both of them, mitigation works have been completed or planned, yet following completely different approaches especially in terms of responses of residents and involvement of local authorities. In Malborghetto-Valbruna an 'interventionist' approach (i.e. leaning towards a top down/technocratic decision process) was used to make decisions after the flood event that affected the municipality in the year 2003. In Vipiteno-Sterzing, a 'participatory' approach (i.e. leaning towards a bottom-up/inclusive decision process) was applied: decisions about risk mitigation measures were made by submitting different projects to the local citizens and by involving them in the decision making process. The analysis of the two case studies presented in the paper is grounded on the results of two research projects. Structured and in-depth interviews, as well as questionnaire surveys were used to explore residents' and local authorities' orientations toward flood risk mitigation. Also a SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) involving key stakeholders was used to better understand the characteristics of the communities and their perception of flood risk mitigation issues. The results highlight some key differences between interventionist and participatory approaches, together with some implications of their adoption in the local context. Strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, as well as key challenges for the future are also discussed.

  19. Reception research 2.0 : A multidimensional model of participatory media culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    Some might argue that reception analysis is a remnant of the past in an age where “people formerly known as the audience” (Rosen, 2006) are producing and circulating content on a diversity of interactive and participatory media platforms. Far from being the case, reception research must continue to set the question of meaning as a central issue in media studies, an issue that appears to be missing from current understandings of social media in which audiences are often reduced to a single reality or simply ignored as an empirical reality. Knowing about the meanings produced and circulated on social media can help us better understand the participatory media culture that has established itself over the past decade. To properly address the question of meaning, however, reception research needs to be adapted to the current media landscape. Taking my point of departure in the multi-dimensional model of reception developed by Kim Schrøder (2003, 2000), I suggest a revision of the model and its dimensions in light of notions such as produsage (Bruns, 2008), convergence (Jenkins, 2008), participation (Carpentier, 2011) and networked culture (Castells, 1996). The model suggested by Schrøder is itself an elaboration, establishing both continuity and critique with Hall’s original suggestion (1973/1980). In the same spirit, I wish to build on the multidimensional model for it offers a systematic approach to the complexity of sense-making processes surrounding media use. Yet I wish to develop the model for its potential to provide a portrait of the participatory media culture that stands in contrast to its understanding as exploitation of labor (Scholz, 2013) or as a business model (van Dicjk, 2013) disguised as false consciousness. The paper will revisit the five dimensions of the model (motivation, comprehension, discrimination, position, implementation) for their relevance and explanatory power in today’s media landscape, suggesting new interpretations and new formulations. A revision of reception research does not only concern the notion of reception itself, but also that of the text, which appears increasingly complex, multi-formed and integrated to the audience. The original dimensions of Schrøder’s model need to be looked at with reference to both reception and circulation (Jenkins et al., 2013), and to the network that binds participatory media culture. It appears that with media 2.0, phenomena which traditionally fell under the labels of interpretation or reception are increasingly taking part in the media text itself. As audiences become textual matters, they contribute to set a new agenda for media research.

  20. Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johansson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

  1. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  2. Cross-cultural considerations in the conduct of community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Stanek, Kari

    2007-01-01

    This article explores cross-cultural challenges that arise when university and community members collaborate in community-based participatory research. As part of a project for primary prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, researchers trained community leaders to jointly develop a research question and conduct a pilot qualitative study in a Puerto Rican community in Massachusetts. Different priorities of the community and university members about HIV as a research topic underscored the need to continuously reflect on developing a research question in community-based participatory research. Recognizing the cultural assumptions of both university and community members is an important component of capacity building among collaborative research teams. PMID:17149031

  3. Community-Based Participatory Research in Indian Country: Improving Health through Water Quality Research and Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Cummins, C; DOYLE, J; Kindness, L.; Lefthand, M.J.; Bear Don't Walk, U.J.; Bends, A.; Broadaway, S. C.; Camper, A K; Fitch, R.; Ford, T E; Hamner, S.; Morrison, A.R.; Richards, C L; Young, S.L.; Eggers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water has always been held in high respect by the Apsaálooke (Crow) people of Montana. Tribal members questioned the health of the rivers and well water due to visible water quality deterioration and potential connections to illnesses in the community. Community members initiated collaboration among local organizations, the Tribe and academic partners, resulting in genuine community based participatory research. The article shares what we have learned as tribal members and researchers about ...

  4. Sustaining Community-University Partnerships: Lessons learned from a participatory research project with elderly Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinQi Dong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The strength of community-engaged research has been well documented in public health literature. It is recognised as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities by linking research and practice. While the framework of community-engaged research encompasses a broad range of research collaborations, community-based participatory research (CBPR places most emphasis on involving the community as a full, equitable partner throughout the collaboration. Despite growing interest in and demand for community-university partnerships, less attention is given to the issue of partnership sustainability. The purpose of this article is to present the challenges faced in sustaining a community-university partnership when conducting a CBPR project with an elderly Chinese population in Chicago’s Chinatown. Lessons and strategies learned from the cultural and linguistic complexities of the Chinese community are also detailed. In addition, based on a well-accepted sustainability conceptual framework, we reflect on the initial stage, mid-term actions and long-term goals of developing partnership sustainability. Working with the Chinese community required trust and respect for its unique cultural values and diversity. The cultural, social and environmental contexts within which the partnership operated served as critical forces for long-term sustainability: a culturally sensitive approach is instrumental in sustaining community-university partnership. Also discussed are the significant implications for evidence-based, impact-driven partnerships to develop culturally appropriate strategies to meet the needs of diverse populations. Keywords Community-based participatory research, community health partnerships, health promotion, Chinese Americans, ageing

  5. HYDROLOGY-PRESERVATION OF WATER THROUGH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Sundararaman, Prof B.; Kl Muthuramu, Dr

    2013-01-01

    Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer) to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management...

  6. A participatory approach to design a toolbox to support forest management planning at regional level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, A. F.; Borges, J. G.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Lucas, B.; Melo, I.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of the study: Forest management planning in a region typically involves multiple stake holders. Decisions processes are idiosyncratic, driven by individual goals and supported by segmented forest-based information. Nevertheless, stake holders' decisions do impact one another leading to complex interaction networks where communication, cooperation and negotiation play a key role. This research addresses the need to develop decision tools to support these roles. Emphasis is on the integration of participatory planning tools and techniques in the architecture of a regional decision support toolbox. Area of the study: The proposed approach was applied in the Chamusca County in Central Portugal although it is easily extended to other regions. Material and methods: This research proposes an Enterprise Architecture methodological approach to design a toolbox that may address distinct stake holders' interests and decision processes, while enabling communication, cooperation, negotiation and information sharing among all those involved in the regional interactions network. Main results: the proposed approach was tested in a regional network involving decision processes and information shared by 22 entities clustered into 13 stake holders groups, including industrial owners, and non-industrial private forest land owners (NIPF) acting individually or grouped into associations and federations, national and regional offices of the forest authority, forest services providers, non-governmental organizations and research centers. Results suggest that the proposed approach may provide a toolbox that may effectively address stake holders decision processes and goals and support the regional interaction network. (Author)

  7. The Article Idea Chart: A participatory action research tool to aid involvement in dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Forchuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group.Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship

  8. Youth envisioning safe schools: a participatory video approach

    OpenAIRE

    Naydene de Lange; Mart-Mari Geldenhuys

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is pervasive in South African society and is often seen as the driver of HIV, particularly affecting youth. Rural KwaZulu-Natal, where we have been working in a district in an on-going university-school partnership, is noted as the epicentre of the epidemic. The two secondary schools in this study were therefore conveniently chosen while the 30 Grade 9 learners, 7 boys and 23 girls between the ages of 13-16, were purposively selected. The use of participatory visual meth...

  9. Applying indigenous community-based participatory research principles to partnership development in health disparities research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Saha, Robin; Lachapelle, Paul; Jennings, Derek; Colclough, Yoshiko; Cooper, Clarice; Cummins, Crescentia; Eggers, Margaret J; Fourstar, Kris; Harris, Kari; Kuntz, Sandra W; Lafromboise, Victoria; Laveaux, Deborah; McDonald, Tracie; Bird, James Real; Rink, Elizabeth; Webster, Lennie

    2011-01-01

    This case study of community and university research partnerships utilizes previously developed principles for conducting research in the context of Native American communities to consider how partners understand and apply the principles in developing community-based participatory research partnerships to reduce health disparities. The 7 partnership projects are coordinated through a National Institutes of Health-funded center and involve a variety of tribal members, including both health care professionals and lay persons and native and nonnative university researchers. This article provides detailed examples of how these principles are applied to the projects and discusses the overarching and interrelated emergent themes of sharing power and building trust. PMID:21633218

  10. Social communication network analysis of the role of participatory research in the adoption of new fish consumption behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Frédéric; Saint-Charles, Johanne; Mergler, Donna

    2012-08-01

    The formulation and communication of fish advisories are highly complex because of the potential conflict between the nutritional and toxicological issues associated with fish consumption. Government and organization-sponsored fish advisories have had limited success in changing behaviors. Participatory approaches may enhance the understanding of complex issues and the adoption of new behaviors. Here we used social network analysis to investigate the adoption of dietary changes within the context of a community participatory research project. In the Brazilian Amazon, many communities are highly exposed to methylmercury from fish consumption. A participatory intervention based on dietary changes aimed at reducing methylmercury exposure while maintaining fish consumption was initiated in 1995. In 2001, we collected data on individual participation in the research, on the discussion network regarding mercury issues and on changes in fish consumption from 96 of the 110 village households. More than half of men and women had adopted new fish consumption behavior to reduce mercury exposure. Adoption was associated with participation in the research project for both women and men, and with a higher number of discussion partners about mercury issues for women. Adoption was likewise associated with the presence of a female communication partner in the personal networks of both men and women. At the household level, men and women who considered their spouse as a discussion partner were more likely to adopt than those who did not. Opinion le]adership was associated with change in fish consumption only for women. We discuss the contribution of community participation and communication networks to overcome the difficulties in generating complex messages that take into account both health benefits and risks of fish consumption. We also discuss the relevance of building preventive health programs based on participatory research approaches and the roles and relations specific to men and women. PMID:22172976

  11. A Needs Assessment Informs Development of a Participatory Research Faculty Development Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsberg, Jon; Seller, Robbyn; Shea, Laura; Macaulay, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    University-based researchers are finding they need a new set of skills to collaborate meaningfully with non-academic research partners, and to compete for funding opportunities that require community and end-user partnerships. This article describes a needs assessment conducted to develop a participatory research faculty development workshop at…

  12. Participatory Rural Appraisal as an Approach to Environmental Education in Urban Community Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…

  13. HYDROLOGY-PRESERVATION OF WATER THROUGH PARTICIPATORY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROF.B.SUNDARARAMAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM is a worldwide accepted policy to improve the social and economic status of the farmers who are the backbone of the country in solving the food crisis for the entire population. Though various countries evolved various policies for IMT (Irrigation Management Transfer to suit their countries needs, India has also followed suit the same Principle. Among other things, the Govt. of India has accepted the policy of involvement of farmers in the management of Irrigation system and included the provisions in the National Water Policy act as under: ``Efforts should be made to involve farmers progressively in various aspects of management of irrigation systems, particularly in water distribution and collection of water rates.Assisitance of voluntary agencies should be enlisted in educating the farmers in efficient water-use and water management`` The constraints, success and other setbacks in the system are analyzed in the paper.

  14. Re-Examining Participatory Research in Dropout Prevention Planning in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…

  15. Self-Regulation of a Chiropractic Association through Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Lorraine A.; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Crowe, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) can be used in the health professions to redefine their roles. This study investigated a small health professional group, the members of The Chiropractic Association Singapore (TCAS), by using a PAR method; researchers and participants gained insights into the self-regulation of a health profession. A…

  16. Change at Big School and Little School: Institutionalization and Contestation in Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Kastanis, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) assumes a dialectic model of change where the tension between institutionalization and contestation practices leads to change in schools. This view openly contradicts the three dominating views of institutionalization in the educational change literature. Over the past 11 years, research has been conducted to…

  17. Nourishing a partnership to improve middle school lunch options: a community-based participatory research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Stephanie M; Kay, Joseph S; Lin, Grace C

    2015-01-01

    Community-based participatory research is predicated on building partnerships that tackle important issues to the community and effectively improve these issues. Community-based participatory research can also be an empowering experience, especially for children. This article describes a university-community partnership in which students at a low-income middle school worked to improve the quality of the cafeteria food provided to the 986 students eligible for free and reduced price lunches. The project led to menu changes, improved communication between youth, school administrators, and district staff, and enabled youth to enact school improvements that were beneficial for their health. PMID:25423246

  18. "Street Theatre for Edutainment": A Participatory Research with Youth in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capila, Anjali; Bhalla, Pragati

    2010-01-01

    Youth constitute an important section of our society. They are the biggest reservoir of human resources and are the future of our country. Their development has direct affect on the development of the nation. Street Theatre is not a moment's act. It is a participatory approach which deals with fictional narratives and thus used for communicating…

  19. Investigating the Benefits of Participatory Action Research for Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywater, Krista

    2014-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) continues to focus on enhancing people's ecological knowledge to encourage sustainable actions. This deficit approach presumes that once informed about environmental harms, people will work towards sustainable solutions for healthy societies. Yet research overwhelmingly demonstrates that knowledge of environmental…

  20. Mobile Applications for Participatory Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drill, Sabrina L.

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, participatory research, and volunteer monitoring all describe research where data are collected by non-professional collaborators. These approaches can allow for research to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales unfeasible for professionals, especially in current budget climates. Mobile computing apps for data collection,…

  1. A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population

    OpenAIRE

    Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa; Smith Heather A; Tapp Hazel; Dulin Michael F; Furuseth Owen J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN) that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory r...

  2. The adaptation and implementation of a community-based participatory research curriculum to build tribal research capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird; Jacob, Tvli; Styne, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    We studied community-based participatory research in American Indian/Alaska Native communities. We have presented a case study describing a community-clinic-academic partnership with the goal of building tribal capacity and infrastructure to conduct health disparities research. The 2-year intensive training was guided by the framework of an evidence- and community-based participatory research curriculum, adapted and implemented with practice-based data collection activities and seminars to address issues specific to community-based participatory research with sovereign tribal nations. The initiative highlighted important challenges and opportunities in transdisciplinary partnerships; identified gaps in conducting health disparities research at the tribal, clinical, and university levels; and led to important policy change initiatives in all the partner settings. PMID:25905848

  3. Ethics and Community-Based Participatory Research: Perspectives From the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Bastida, Elena M.; Tseng, Tung-Sung; McKeever, Corliss; Jack, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the importance of ethical issues in the conduct of community-based participatory research (CBPR) continues to be an important topic for researchers and practitioners. This article uses the Beyond Sabor Project, a CBPR project implemented in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, as a case example to discuss ethical issues such as the importance of increasing community involvement in research, ensuring that communities benefit from the research, sharing leadership roles, and sensitive issues r...

  4. Creative Art Therapy in a Community's Participatory Research and Social Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitan, Lynn; Litell, Mary; Torres, Anabel

    2011-01-01

    When people come together in community to practice critical inquiry, they develop a capacity to see, reflect, and become subjects of their own development. This article describes arts-based participatory action research in partnership with a nongovernmental organization in Central America. Creative art therapy was culturally adapted and practiced…

  5. Learning How to Manage Bias: A Case Study of Youth Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Ben; Pozzoboni, Kristen; Jones, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Youth programs that are organized around intellectually challenging, socially relevant projects create opportunities for deep cognitive engagement. One type of authentic project that deserves attention from applied developmental scientists is youth participatory action research (YPAR), in which participants study a problem relevant to young…

  6. Farmers' Attitude towards a Participatory Research Method Used to Evaluate Weed Management Strategies in Bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…

  7. Mindanao Peasant Women: A Participatory Research Investigation of Their Realities and Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagaduan, Maureen

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the application of participatory research to a study of rural Filipino women to identify living conditions and to raise consciousness. Conditions include (1) unemployment and underemployment, (2) limitations of homemaking and child rearing tasks, (3) nonrecognition of reproductive rights, and (4) discrimination in political life and…

  8. Systems Thinking Tools as Applied to Community-Based Participatory Research: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R.; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems…

  9. Emotional Value of Applied Textiles : Dialogue-oriented and participatory approaches to textile design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2011-01-01

    The present PhD thesis is conducted as an Industrial PhD project in collaboration with the Danish company Gabriel A/S (Gabriel), which designs and produces furniture textiles and ‘related products’ for manufacturers of furniture. A ‘related textile product’ is e.g. processing of piece goods, upholstery, mounting etc. This PhD project addresses the challenges of the textile industry, where the global knowledge economy increasingly forces companies to include user-participation and value innovation in their product development. My project revolves around the challenges which the textile designers at Gabriel face while trying to implement an innovative and process-oriented business strategy. The focal point has been the section of the strategy which aims at developing Blue Ocean products, which have a functional and an emotional value for the user. The thesis examines and explores emotional value of applied textiles. The objective is to operationalise the strategic term ‘emotional value’ as it relates to applied textiles. The procedure includes the development of user- and stakeholder-centred approaches, which are valuable for the textile designer in the design process. The research approach is application-oriented and practical. In chapter two, I explain the ‘programmatic approach’ to design research, in which design experiments are the core of the project. The research programme is dynamic; it is developing in the course of the project and in tandem with the knowledge generated. The outcome of the research is ‘exemplary’ and the research contributions are presented as ‘exemplars’, ‘frameworks’, ‘tools’ and ‘structures’, which are relevant for the design process or can be the subject of critique and further investigation by other researchers. The project is a contribution to the broad and multifaceted field of design research with a particular focus on textile design including the discourse and methodology used in the field of design. In addition the project relates to the Participatory Design approach and to the design research fields which focus on emotional aspects of design. Based on my experiences with the programmatic approach I propose a distinction between ’overall challenges’ and ’research questions’. I view this thesis as a research contribution which facilitates a programmatic approach to a project such as this one. The ‘overall challenges’ (challenges within the field of textile design) is a constant variable against which the programme (challenges which Gabriel’s textile designers face) can be benchmarked. Thus the ‘research questions’ (emotional value and user and stakeholder involvement) are ‘shapable’ and situation-specific, and they constantly interact with the experiments (procedures of user and stakeholder involvement). In the course of the thesis I explain and elaborate on four themes each of which contributes to the outcome of the project. 1) Creating a frame of reference for the textile design process and a systematic approach to applied textiles. In chapter three I compare a textile design process with Donald Schön’s definition of design as ‘a conversation with the materials of a situation’. Subsequently, through design experiments involving several participants, I develop the ‘Tripod Approach’– a structured and systematic approach to design and research of applied textiles. 2) Understanding and exploring emotional value related to design of applied textiles. In chapter four I argue – based on Jesse Prinz’s and Antonio Damasio’s emotion research – for a perception of emotional value of applied textiles which acknowledges bodily feedback as a core concept in the process which leads to ‘emotion’. This approach is used when exploring and adjusting Patrick Jordan’s framework of ‘the four pleasures’ to the study of emotional value of applied textiles as presented in this thesis. My experiments lead to the creation of a framework of four adjusted categories of ‘pleasure’ based on which a group of stakeholders can e

  10. Participatory approach to data warehousing in health care: UGANDA’S Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Otine, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This licentiate thesis presents the use of participatory approach to developing a data warehouse for data mining in health care. Uganda is one of the countries that faced the largest brunt of the HIV/AIDS epidemic at its inception in the early 1980s with reports of close to a million deaths. Government and nongovernmental interventions over the years saw massive reductions in HIV prevalence rates over the years. This reduction in HIV prevalence rates led to great pra...

  11. Team process in community-based participatory research on maternity care in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Chiang, Fidela; Hillard, Rebecca C; Hall, Priscilla; Heath, Annemarie

    2010-12-01

    A cross-cultural team consisting of US trained academic midwife researchers, Dominican nurses, and Dominican community leaders have partnered in this international nursing and midwifery community-based participatory research (CBPR) project in the Dominican Republic to understand the community experience with publicly funded maternity services. The purpose of the study was to understand community perceptions of maternity services. This article highlights the activities that the research team carried out during each phase of the research process, and how they established team identity, team trust, and team efficacy. This research has created a platform for new avenues for health providers and community to partner to improve maternal-newborn care. Community-based participatory research is one way forward to address the past and present inequities constitutive of global health disparities. PMID:21059148

  12. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahari Saeid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action research is an effective method for community assessments. However, researchers must rigorously embrace principles of mutual cooperation, respect for public ideas, and a robust belief in community empowerment in order to pave the way for responsible and active citizen participation in the various stages of research.

  13. Variation in the Interpretation of Scientific Integrity in Community-based Participatory Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E.; Spears Johnson, Chaya R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has become essential in health disparities and environmental justice research; however, the scientific integrity of CBPR projects has become a concern. Some concerns, such as appropriate research training, lack of access to resources and finances, have been discussed as possibly limiting the scientific integrity of a project. Prior to understanding what threatens scientific integrity in CBPR, it is vital to understand what scientific integrity mea...

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF A PARTICIPATORY ACTION ORIENTED TRAINING INTERVENTION APPROACH AMONG HARVESTERS IN OIL PALM PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Yee Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with the global demand for palm oil, the intensified upstream harvesting activities of oil palms’ fresh fruit bunches, despite the harvesters evidences of various ergonomics risk factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders should be a cause for concern. Thus, this study describes the effectiveness of a modified and locally adapted Participatory Action-Oriented Training intervention program in improving the working environment of the harvesters. A training program modified and customized to the harvesters’ working in oil palm plantation consist of 3 primary instrument (awareness video, interactive lecture and action checklist with 3 reinforcing activities (to increase knowledge, enhance understanding and practical application. Based on the result of post-intervention assessment, the self-reported prevalence of MSD and KAP score among Intervention Group (IG did not significantly differ from Control Group (CG. Instead of decreasing, the prevalence of MSD in the past 12 months and 7 days increased within IG. Qualitative findings in this research show that the negative psychosocial and organizational climate has severely affected the implementation of PAOT rendering the effect of the intervention approach. The interventions were ineffective on the IG as this study suffers from various situational barriers as obstacles to benefit the full extent of PAOT advantages.

  15. Ecology and Ethics in Participatory Collaborative Action Research: An Argument for the Authentic Participation of Students in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Steve

    2004-01-01

    A conception of action research is offered that is collaborative, participatory, targets ethical issues and includes students. Collaboration is "organic" in that all members share the goal of the research and are interdependent in pursuing that goal. Participation is authentic, requiring a continuing negotiation of planning, roles, power…

  16. Risk of Domestic Violence after Natural Disaster: Teaching Research and Statistics through the Use of a Participatory Action Research Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Donna J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a participatory action research model to teach undergraduate social work research and statistics. Strategies of the model include (1) integration with social work education, (2) policy analysis, (3) literature review, (4) collaboration with practitioners, (5) collaboration with the target population through…

  17. Tailoring science outreach through E-matching using a community-based participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumala, Bernice B; Hidary, Jack; Ewool, Linda; Emdin, Christopher; Scovell, Ted

    2011-03-01

    In an effort to increase science exposure for pre-college (K-12) students and as part of the science education reform agenda, many biomedical research institutions have established university-community partnerships. Typically, these science outreach programs consist of pre-structured, generic exposure for students, with little community engagement. However, the use of a medium that is accessible to both teachers and scientists, electronic web-based matchmaking (E-matching) provides an opportunity for tailored outreach utilizing a community-based participatory approach (CBPA), which involves all stakeholders in the planning and implementation of the science outreach based on the interests of teachers/students and scientists. E-matching is a timely and urgent endeavor that provides a rapid connection for science engagement between teachers/students and experts in an effort to fill the science outreach gap. National Lab Network (formerly National Lab Day), an ongoing initiative to increase science equity and literacy, provides a model for engaging the public in science via an E-matching and hands-on learning approach. We argue that science outreach should be a dynamic endeavor that changes according to the needs of a target school. We will describe a case study of a tailored science outreach activity in which a public school that serves mostly under-represented minority students from disadvantaged backgrounds were E-matched with a university, and subsequently became equal partners in the development of the science outreach plan. In addition, we will show how global science outreach endeavors may utilize a CBPA, like E-matching, to support a pipeline to science among under-represented minority students and students from disadvantaged backgrounds. By merging the CBPA concept with a practical case example, we hope to inform science outreach practices via the lens of a tailored E-matching approach. PMID:21408195

  18. Visual Participatory Approach to Violent Behaviour amongst Zimbabwean Students: Forms and Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephias Gudyanga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the perceptions of students on forms and prevalence of violent behavior in Gweru urban district of Zimbabwe. Visual participatory methodology premised on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was used. Drawings with focus group discussions were the main data collecting instruments. Participants were fifteen conveniently selected students attending a typical urban high school (females = 7, age range 15-17, males = 8, age range 14-18. Data on forms and prevalence of violence were collected from the students. The majority of the participants portrayed physical violence, vandalism and sexual harassment. It was recommended that schools must develop clear policies in an endeavor to reduce or eliminate violence. Schools Psychological Services must provide psychotherapy to individuals concerned. Visual participatory methodology, a new body of knowledge in Zimbabwe, is a vital tool for future researchers.

  19. Using a Participatory Research Process to Address Disproportionate Hispanic Cancer Burden

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Pamela C.; Canedo, Juan R.; Reece, Michelle C.; Lira, Irma; Reyes, Francisco; Garcia, Erandi; Juarez, Paul; Williams, Elizabeth; Husaini, Baqar A.

    2010-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers great potential for increasing the impact of research on reducing cancer health disparities. This article reports how the Community Outreach Core (COC) of the Meharry-Vanderbilt-Tennessee State University (TSU) Cancer Partnership has collaborated with community partners to develop and implement CBPR. The COC, Progreso Community Center, and Nashville Latino Health Coalition jointly developed and conducted the 2007 Hispanic Health in Nashvill...

  20. Using participatory action research to foster nurse leadership in Australian rural hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Melanie; Kenny, Amanda; Nay, Rhonda

    2013-09-01

    This paper outlines the processes and results of a participatory action research study undertaken to identify issues that may impact on strategies to foster nurse leadership in rural hospitals. Five Directors of Nursing from rural regions of Victoria, Australia participated. The group activities involved discussion and analysis of previous research, a review of current literature and critical reflection of the leadership performance of their organization. The analysis identified five key themes; dispel the myths, adopt big-picture thinking, connect with colleagues, reflect on your own conduct, and create organizational buy-in. It is essential to have an awareness of contextual challenges, an understanding of the importance of your own conduct as a visible leader, and the need for effective communication to inform the development of strategies that may be used to foster nurse leadership in rural hospitals. The platform to discuss and critically analyze leadership saw a group consensus that affirmed the need for any approach to nursing leadership to be tailored to the individual healthcare organization. PMID:23490407

  1. Too much coffee... - Negotiation of Knowledge Forms in Participatory Research Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    Based on a Bakhtinian approach negotiations of knowledge in a workshop with health professionals at two psychiatric wards were analyzed. Our analysis reveals that there is a mismatch between the dialogical context we as participatory-oriented researchers want to invoke and the monological context we in fact co-produce in-interaction. The analysis shows that there appears to be two major reasons for this undesired nature of the conversations. First, all participants (including us) orient to a formal and monological learning context in which there seems to be a hierarchical relationship between the participants in the workshop relating primarily to level of education. Secondly, we confuse the participants in the workshop because there is a mismatch between our orientation to a formal learning context as described above and our search for their local, concrete and lived experiences - i.e. a situated knowledge. The analysis indicates that this mismatch potentially adds to the confusion because we on the one hand meet the practitioners’ expectations to us as researchers when we invoke a more formal learning context. On the other hand we do probably not meet their expectations when we are looking for sensitive and contextualized knowledge because a representational and de-contextualized knowledge form is closely linked to a more formalized learning context.

  2. Establishing an implementation network: lessons learned from community-based participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Piedad

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation of evidence-based mental health assessment and intervention in community public health practice is a high priority for multiple stakeholders. Academic-community partnerships can assist in the implementation of efficacious treatments in community settings; yet, little is known about the processes by which these collaborations are developed. In this paper, we discuss our application of community-based participatory research (CBPR approach to implementation, and we present six lessons we have learned from the establishment of an academic-community partnership. Methods With older adults with psychosis as a focus, we have developed a partnership between a university research center and a public mental health service system based on CBPR. The long-term goal of the partnership is to collaboratively establish an evidence-based implementation network that is sustainable within the public mental healthcare system. Results In building a sustainable partnership, we found that the following lessons were instrumental: changing attitudes; sharing staff; expecting obstacles and formalizing solutions; monitoring and evaluating; adapting and adjusting; and taking advantage of emerging opportunities. Some of these lessons were previously known principles that were modified as the result of the CBPR process, while some lessons derived directly from the interactive process of forming the partnership. Conclusion The process of forming of academic-public partnerships is challenging and time consuming, yet crucial for the development and implementation of state-of-the-art approaches to assessment and interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life for persons with serious mental illnesses. These partnerships provide necessary organizational support to facilitate the implementation of clinical research findings in community practice benefiting consumers, researchers, and providers.

  3. Using participatory action research to prevent suicide in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Adele; Dudgeon, Pat; Holland, Christopher; Kelly, Kerrie; Scrine, Clair; Walker, Roz

    2014-10-01

    The National Empowerment Project is an innovative Aboriginal-led community empowerment project that has worked with eight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities across Australia over the period 2012-13. The aim of the Project was to develop, deliver and evaluate a program to: (1) promote positive social and emotional well-being to increase resilience and reduce the high reported rates of psychological distress and suicide among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; and (2) empower communities to take action to address the social determinants that contribute to psychological distress, suicide and self-harm. Using a participatory action research approach, the communities were supported to identify the risk factors challenging individuals, families and communities, as well as strategies to strengthen protective factors against these challenges. Data gathered during Stage 1 were used to develop a 12-month program to promote social and emotional well-being and build resilience within each community. A common framework, based on the social and emotional well-being concept, was used to support each community to target community-identified protective factors and strategies to strengthen individual, family and community social and emotional well-being. Strengthening the role of culture is critical to this approach and marks an important difference between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous mental health promotion and prevention activities, including suicide prevention. It has significant implications for policy makers and service providers and is showing positive impact through the translation of research into practice, for example through the development of a locally run empowerment program that aims to address the social determinants of health and their ongoing negative impact on individuals, families and communities. It also provides a framework in which to develop and strengthen culture, connectedness and foster self-determination, through better-informed policy based on community-level holistic responses and solutions as opposed to an exclusive focus on single-issue deficit approaches. PMID:25310135

  4. Increasing Critical Health Literacy of Roma People trough Participatory Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Crondahl, Kristine

    Evidence shows that the Roma people engage less in democratic processes than the majority population. Rather than being involved in the planning of measurements and proposals, the Roma people have been treated as a helpless group in need of expert support from the authorities. To enable Roma people to take a leading role in their integration process a 2-year action research was implemented in 2010-2012. The idea was to strengthen the Roma Peoples’ critical health literacy which allows them to analyze and apply health information to oppose the forces that are holding them oppressed and to take better control over their life situation. The objective of this paper is to discuss methodological issues based on experiences of the use of participatory research approach in increasing health literacy. Methods: The core of the intervention was ‘training of trainers’ of a group of Roma people from western Sweden. They organized lectures on Roma issues for the civil servants and mobilized the Roma community for social action. The data, consisting of observational notes, reports, and participant interviews, were analysed qualitatively. Results: The intervention created an arena for dialogue between the Roma people and the public service employees. Their mutual viewpoints improved as their insight into each other’s life circumstances increased. However, rigidity and an inability to see the character of the emancipatory approach of the project by the authorities created difficulties for its implementation. Conclusions: The Roma participants’ strengthened critical health literacy improved their health chances and possibilities for participation in working life and decision making on Roma issues. The existing system of rules for project operations clashed with the character of the “soft” bottom-up approach of the project. This created situations where the project spent more time working with the rules of the authorities than with the purpose of the project.

  5. Participatory action research, strengthening institutional capacity and governance: Confronting the urban challenge in Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaib Lwasa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban governance presents the most daunting and challenging task for sub-Saharan African countries in this century (Rakodi, 1997: 3; Rakodi, 2001; 5; McGill, 1988; 6. Africa is urbanizing faster than any other region. The level of urbanization stands at 39.1%, with annual rates of growth ranging between 8% and 13%. It is estimated that by 2025 half of the African population will be urban. This demographic shift, particularly in the sub-Saharan region, presents major problems for urban management. Although urban management programs of infrastructure development, financial management, economic development, environmental planning, spatial development mechanisms and social services provision continue to be enhanced, there is a mismatch between the program outcomes and need. Due to this shortfall, alternative strategies have been sought but with little documented evidence of successes, failures and lessons because of limited evaluation. The importance of research-informed policy is underscored by the apparent disconnect between actors in the urban field. These actors include city managers, researchers, political leaders and most important, communities. The latter are often disregarded yet they largely influence the development path and shape the fabric of urban space. Even where communities are engaged, they exert less influence than other actors on urban policies and programs. This paper examines how participatory action research is changing the relationships between researchers, communities and city authorities in a search for alternative approaches to address urban poverty and environmental challenges in Kampala – in particular service delivery, solid waste management and flood control. Based on an action-research and development project conducted in Kampala since 2006, there is evidence that communities can be galvanized not only to design solutions to their problems, but also to engage with city authorities through information sharing platforms about their needs and thus bolster outcomes of urban development programs through improved governance.

  6. Participatory Research for Preventing Pesticide-Related DSH and Suicide in Sundarban, India: A Brief Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arabinda Brahma; Biswas, Mrinal K.; Chowdhury, Arabinda N.; Sohini Banerjee

    2013-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a major public health problem in the Sundarban region, India. This study is aimed to develop a DSH-suicide prevention programme based on the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Perception and opinion of community about the problem of pesticide-related DSH and suicide were elicited in a series of facilitated focus group discussions in Namkhana block of Sundarban region. Based on their suggestion, a broad preventive programme was launched i...

  7. Teaching for Change through Youth Participatory Action Research and Engaged Ethnographic Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Cervinkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On the example of an ethnographic case study in global learning, the author describes praxis-based pedagogy grounded in youth participatory action research (YPA R and engaged ethnographic inquiry. She advocates praxis-based methodology as an effective way for teachers as educators to assume active public roles and help empower themselves and their students in the context of the disempowering effects of neoliberal cultural, political and economic processes.

  8. Exploring the challenges of implementing Participatory Action Research in the context of HIV and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, W. A.; Khalil, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is having a devastating impact on South Africa and particularly on poor communities. Empowerment of communities has been identified as an important step towards mitigating the consequences and helping communities to overcome the challenges presented. Participatory Action Research (PAR) has been identified as a useful methodology for the purpose of facilitating empowerment. This study explores the challenges involved in implementing PAR in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty. In this ...

  9. Sequencing Participatory Action Research and i* Modeling Framework in Capturing Multiple Roles Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak, Siti Nurul Hayatie; Nordin, Ariza

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual framework for sequencing of Participatory Action Research (PAR) methodology with the implementation of i* modeling framework in capturing multiple roles requirements. There are multiple roles involved in the development of information system, thus it involves with difference users requirements and preferences, context as well as the demands which become a challenge in development of system. This is due to these roles where information of th...

  10. A Stepwise, Participatory Approach to Design and Implement Community Based Adaptation to Drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lasage

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participatory design with physical measurements, modeling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña River basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey (n = 94 we explore how a vulnerability index (risk divided by response efficacy can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households, and how socio-economic factors determine this vulnerability. Water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlated with vulnerability to drought. The research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency is low. The selected adaptation measures aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency of farmers and households.

  11. Indigenous community based participatory research and health impact assessment: A Canadian example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Health Research Division (EHRD) of the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada conducts science-based activities and research with Canadian Indigenous communities in areas such as climate change adaptation, environmental contaminants, water quality, biomonitoring, risk assessment, health impact assessment, and food safety and nutrition. EHRD's research activities have been specifically designed to not only inform Health Canada's policy decision-makers but as well, Indigenous community decision-makers. This paper will discuss the reasons why Indigenous community engagement is important, what are some of the barriers preventing community engagement; and the efforts by EHRD to carry out community-based participatory research activities with Indigenous peoples.

  12. Assessing the outcomes of participatory research: protocol for identifying, selecting, appraising and synthesizing the literature for realist review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenhalgh Trish

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participatory Research (PR entails the co-governance of research by academic researchers and end-users. End-users are those who are affected by issues under study (e.g., community groups or populations affected by illness, or those positioned to act on the knowledge generated by research (e.g., clinicians, community leaders, health managers, patients, and policy makers. Systematic reviews assessing the generalizable benefits of PR must address: the diversity of research topics, methods, and intervention designs that involve a PR approach; varying degrees of end-user involvement in research co-governance, both within and between projects; and the complexity of outcomes arising from long-term partnerships. Methods We addressed the above mentioned challenges by adapting realist review methodology to PR assessment, specifically by developing inductively-driven identification, selection, appraisal, and synthesis procedures. This approach allowed us to address the non-uniformity and complexity of the PR literature. Each stage of the review involved two independent reviewers and followed a reproducible, systematic coding and retention procedure. Retained studies were completed participatory health interventions, demonstrated high levels of participation by non-academic stakeholders (i.e., excluding studies in which end-users were not involved in co-governing throughout the stages of research and contained detailed descriptions of the participatory process and context. Retained sets are being mapped and analyzed using realist review methods. Results The librarian-guided search string yielded 7,167 citations. A total of 594 citations were retained after the identification process. Eighty-three papers remained after selection. Principle Investigators (PIs were contacted to solicit all companion papers. Twenty-three sets of papers (23 PR studies, comprising 276 publications, passed appraisal and are being synthesized using realist review methods. Discussion The systematic and stage-based procedure addressed challenges to PR assessment and generated our robust understanding of complex and heterogeneous PR practices. To date, realist reviews have focussed on evaluations of relatively uniform interventions. In contrast our PR search yielded a wide diversity of partnerships and research topics. We therefore developed tools to achieve conceptual clarity on the PR field, as a beneficial precursor to our theoretically-driven synthesis using realist methods. Findings from the ongoing review will be provided in forthcoming publications.

  13. Participatory systems approach to health improvement in Australian Aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth L; Bailie, Ross S; Morris, Peter S

    2014-02-01

    The factors underlying poor child health in remote Australian Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) communities are complex. There is a lack of consistent and reliable information that allows: (i) the identification of priorities or areas of particular need at household and community levels; (ii) monitoring progress over time; and (iii) the assessment of the impact of interventions. This paper describes the process and methods used to identify the factors that underlie high rates of poor child health in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory (NT). This work has led to the development of indicators and tools suitable for use within a continuous quality improvement programme. Indigenous and non-Indigenous individuals from a range of disciplines and backgrounds participated in study activities. This allowed for a range of perspectives, including scientific, lay and Aboriginal perspectives, to be accommodated and reflected in study outcomes and outputs. Study participants identified a wide range of physical and social factors that they believe underlies poor child health in remote Aboriginal community contexts in the NT. The approach taken in this study provides some confidence that the indicators developed will be seen as meaningful and appropriate by the residents of remote communities and key stakeholders. Two tools have been developed and are now in use in the practice setting. One assesses social determinants of health at the community level, for example water supply, food supply. The second applies to individual households and assesses the social and environmental indicators that are recognized as placing children at greater risk of poor health and development outcomes. PMID:24497571

  14. Ambitious mitigation scenarios for Germany: A participatory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the challenge of engaging civil society stakeholders in the development process of ambitious mitigation scenarios that are based on formal energy system modeling, allowing for the explicit attachment of normative considerations to technology-focused mitigation options. It presents the definition and model results for a set of mitigation scenarios for Germany that achieve 85% CO2 emission reduction in 2050 relative to 1990. During consecutive dialogues, civil society stakeholders from the transport and electricity sector framed the definition of boundary conditions for the energy-economy model REMIND-D and evaluated the scenarios with regard to plausibility and social acceptance implications. Even though the limited scope of this research impedes inferential conclusions on the German energy transition as a whole, it demonstrates that the technological solutions to the mitigation problem proposed by the model give rise to significant societal and political implications that deem at least as challenging as the mere engineering aspects of innovative technologies. These insights underline the importance of comprehending mitigation of energy-related CO2 emissions as a socio-technical transition embedded in a political context. - Highlights: ? Preferences of German civil society stakeholders are elicited in dialogues. ? Three scenarios represent likely, desirable and controversial key developments. ? A carbon lock-in from freipments. ? A carbon lock-in from freight transport and coal electrification is deemed likely. ? Stakeholders advocate major paradigm shifts for resolving the carbon lock-in. ? Institutional and societal factors are decisive for achieving ambitious mitigation.

  15. Collaborative research, participatory solutions: research on asbestos in Kuruman, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Nancy; Kisting, Sophia; Braun, Lundy

    2004-01-01

    The 1998 South African National Asbestos Summit proposed a post-apartheid asbestos policy for the country. In the areas of environmental rehabilitation, health care, and compensation, it envisioned connecting asbestos mitigation to participatory development. In 2001, the Asbestos Collaborative, an international and interdisciplinary team, conducted follow-up research on the recommendations of the 1998 Summit, researching environmental, health, and compensation issues through consultation of documents and interviews with officials in urban areas and with people in Kuruman, a former crocidolite-mining site with high rates of asbestos-related disease. In Kuruman, local opinion supported the recommendations of the Asbestos Summit, insisting that policies to mitigate the problem of asbestos must also address poverty. In the wake of the 2001 research, a new organization, the Asbestos Interest Group (AIG), has been founded to facilitate grassroots participation in asbestos issues. One success of the AIG has been the settlement of a lawsuit by former workers against the former mining company in Kuruman. PMID:15281384

  16. Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: Case studies of Torino and Cuneo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Life Cycle Assessment is still not fully operational in waste management at local scale. ? Credibility of WM LCAs is negatively affected by assumptions and lack of transparency. ? Local technical-social-economic constraints are often not reflected by WM LCAs. ? A participatory approach can increase acceptability and credibility of WM LCAs. ? Results of a WM LCA can hardly ever be generalised, thus transparency is essential. - Abstract: The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale.

  17. Metodo y Proceso de la Investigacion Participativa en la Capacitacion Rural (The Method and Process of Participatory Research in Rural Leadership Training). Cuadernos del CREFAL 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Schutter, Anton

    In participatory research, education and learner participation are directly connected. The document analyzes the role of a participatory research method in the basic education of rural adults. The different phases of the Participant Research method are presented, along with a profound analysis of both research and participation. The claim is that…

  18. Iterative participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is information systems development in an organizational context. This includes theories from participatory design, human-computer interaction, and ethnographically inspired studies of work practices. The concept of design is defined as an experimental iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design.

  19. Improving health through community-based participatory action research. Giving immigrants and refugees a voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A; Allen, Michele; Pergament, Shannon L; Call, Kathleen; Adawe, Amira; de la Torre, Rosaura; Hang, Mikow; Jama, Fatima; Navas, Maria; Ortega, Luis; Vue, Pachia; Yang, Thomas Tou

    2010-04-01

    Community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) gives people a voice in identifying and solving the health problems affecting their communities. Researchers from the University of Minnesota, health care professionals from West Side Community Health Services, and members of the Somali, Latino, and Hmong communities in St. Paul are using CBPAR to identify and study health-related problems in those communities and design initiatives to solve them.This article describes CBPAR and four projects that are currently underway within West Side's SoLaHmo Partnership for Health and Wellness: Caafimad- Salud - Kev Nyob Zoo. PMID:20481170

  20. Participatory Design of Large-Scale Information Systems : A Reconstruction of the Iterative Prototyping Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss how to engage in large-scale information systems development by applying a participatory design (PD) approach that acknowledges the unique situated work practices conducted by the domain experts of modern organizations. We reconstruct the iterative prototyping approach into a PD process model that (1) emphasizes PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporates improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extends initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing stepwise implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. The process model is presented through a largescale PD experiment in the Danish healthcare sector. We reflect on our experiences from this experiment and discuss three challenges to address when dealing with large-scale systems development.

  1. Development of a wheelchair skills home program for older adults using a participatory action design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Edward M; Miller, William C; Mitchell, Ian M; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2014-01-01

    Restricted mobility is the most common impairment among older adults and a manual wheelchair is often prescribed to address these limitations. However, limited access to rehabilitation services results in older adults typically receiving little or no mobility training when they receive a wheelchair. As an alternative and novel approach, we developed a therapist-monitored wheelchair skills home training program delivered via a computer tablet. To optimize efficacy and adherence, principles of self-efficacy and adult learning theory were foundational in the program design. A participatory action design approach was used to engage older adult wheelchair users, care providers, and prescribing clinicians in an iterative design and development process. A series of prototypes were fabricated and revised, based on feedback from eight stakeholder focus groups, until a final version was ready for evaluation in a clinical trial. Stakeholder contributions affirmed and enhanced the foundational theoretical principles and provided validation of the final product for the target population. PMID:25276768

  2. Prospective and participatory integrated assessment of agricultural systems from farm to regional scales: Comparison of three modeling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmotte, Sylvestre; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Barbier, Jean-Marc; Wery, Jacques

    2013-11-15

    Evaluating the impacts of the development of alternative agricultural systems, such as organic or low-input cropping systems, in the context of an agricultural region requires the use of specific tools and methodologies. They should allow a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account the field, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multicriteria) and participatory assessment, abbreviated PIAAS (for Participatory Integrated Assessment of Agricultural System). In this paper, we compare the possible contribution to PIAAS of three modeling approaches i.e. Bio-Economic Modeling (BEM), Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) and statistical Land-Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) models. After a presentation of each approach, we analyze their advantages and drawbacks, and identify their possible complementarities for PIAAS. Statistical LUCC modeling is a suitable approach for multi-scale analysis of past changes and can be used to start discussion about the futures with stakeholders. BEM and ABM approaches have complementary features for scenarios assessment at different scales. While ABM has been widely used for participatory assessment, BEM has been rarely used satisfactorily in a participatory manner. On the basis of these results, we propose to combine these three approaches in a framework targeted to PIAAS. PMID:24013558

  3. Vulnerability assessment in a participatory approach to design and implement community based adaptation to drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.

  4. Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne

    This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues for the relevance of participatory design in development research. It is contrasted towards some similar literature that is already mainstream in development research, and provides an overview of its existing accomplishments. We also address some weaknesses in PD, if it is to be successful in its contributions outside its original domain. When possible, the points are illustrated through a recent research project in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

  5. Application of Participatory Learning and Action Methods in Educational Technology Research A Rural Bangladeshi Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Nyvang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines barriers and methods to identify barriers to educational technology in a rural technical vocational education and training institute in Bangladesh. It also examines how the application of participatory learning and action methods can provide information for barrier research and stakeholders in and around the school to pave the way for change by building awareness of both educational technology and the complexity of barriers. In this case study, school stakeholders are involved in the research and awareness-building process through three different data-production methods: cultural transect, problem-tree analysis and focus-group discussion. The paper concludes by categorizing the barriers identified at different levels: micro (roughly the individual level at which the lack of knowledge and motivation are significant barriers), meso (roughly the school level at which the lack of teachers and computers are significant barriers) and macro (roughly the national level at which the lack of government planning and the lack of training of teachers are significant barriers). Finally, the paper also concludes that applied participatory learning and action-oriented techniques showed potential to provide researchers and local practitioners with situated insights that could not just have been lifted out of existing research literature.

  6. Engaging youth in bullying prevention through community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer E; Flaspohler, Paul D; Watts, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Few studies that engage youth in community-based participatory research (CBPR) focus on issues of safety/violence, include elementary school-aged youth, or quantitatively assess outcomes of the CBPR process. This article expands understanding of CBPR with youth by describing and evaluating the outcomes of a project that engaged fifth-grade students at 3 schools in bullying-focused CBPR. Results suggest that the project was associated with decreases in fear of bullying and increases in peer and teacher intervention to stop bullying. We conclude with implications for the engagement of elementary school-aged youth in CBPR to address bullying and other youth issues. PMID:25423250

  7. Assessing the benefits of participatory research: a rationale for a realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Ann C; Jagosh, Justin; Seller, Robbyn; Henderson, Jim; Cargo, Margaret; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Wong, Geoff; Salsberg, Jon; Green, Lawrence W; Herbert, Carol P; Pluye, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    Participatory research (PR) experts believe that increased community and stakeholder participation in research augments program pertinence, quality, outcome, sustainability, uptake, and transferability. There is, however, a dearth of assessments and measurement tools to demonstrate the contribution of participation in health research and interventions. One systematic review of PR, conducted for the Agency for Health Research and Quality (AHRQ), provided no conclusive evidence concerning the benefits of community participation to enhance research and health outcomes. To overcome methodological gaps and barriers of the AHRQ review, we propose to conduct a systematic realist review, which can be understood as a theory-driven qualitative review capable of capturing the often complex, diffuse and obtuse evidence concerning participation. Reviewing how PR mechanisms and contextual factors mediate and moderate outcomes, the review will generate and test hypotheses (middle-range theories) conceptualizing the benefits of participation and will portray the manner and circumstances in which participation influences outcomes. PMID:21744664

  8. Participatory telerobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  9. Participatory approach, acceptability and transparency of waste management LCAs: case studies of Torino and Cuneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blengini, Gian Andrea; Fantoni, Moris; Busto, Mirko; Genon, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Maria Chiara

    2012-09-01

    The paper summarises the main results obtained from two extensive applications of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the integrated municipal solid waste management systems of Torino and Cuneo Districts in northern Italy. Scenarios with substantial differences in terms of amount of waste, percentage of separate collection and options for the disposal of residual waste are used to discuss the credibility and acceptability of the LCA results, which are adversely affected by the large influence of methodological assumptions and the local socio-economic constraints. The use of site-specific data on full scale waste treatment facilities and the adoption of a participatory approach for the definition of the most sensible LCA assumptions are used to assist local public administrators and stakeholders showing them that LCA can be operational to waste management at local scale. PMID:22583569

  10. Participatory Action Research and the Reconstruction of Teachers' Practical Thinking: Lesson Studies and Core Reflection. An Experience in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Angel I.; Soto, Encarnacion; Servan, M. Jose

    2010-01-01

    Following the thoughts and topics we have discussed and worked on for a very long time with Bridget Somekh, we would like to present the theoretical relationship between lesson studies, action research and practical knowledge in teacher education. Inspired by the pedagogical philosophy of lesson studies, participatory action research, and core…

  11. A participatory systems approach to modeling social, economic, and ecological components of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Availability of and access to useful energy is a crucial factor for maintaining and improving human well-being. Looming scarcities and increasing awareness of environmental, economic, and social impacts of conventional sources of non-renewable energy have focused attention on renewable energy sources, including biomass. The complex interactions of social, economic, and ecological factors among the bioenergy system components of feedstock supply, conversion technology, and energy allocation have been a major obstacle to the broader development of bioenergy systems. For widespread implementation of bioenergy to occur there is a need for an integrated approach to model the social, economic, and ecological interactions associated with bioenergy. Such models can serve as a planning and evaluation tool to help decide when, where, and how bioenergy systems can contribute to development. One approach to integrated modeling is by assessing the sustainability of a bioenergy system. The evolving nature of sustainability can be described by an adaptive systems approach using general systems principles. Discussing these principles reveals that participation of stakeholders in all components of a bioenergy system is a crucial factor for sustainability. Multi-criteria analysis (MCA) is an effective tool to implement this approach. This approach would enable decision-makers to evaluate bioenergy systems for sustainability in a participatory, transparent, timely, and informed mannertransparent, timely, and informed manner

  12. Participatory tools working with crops, varieties and seeds. A guide for professionals applying participatory approaches in agrobiodiversity management, crop improvement and seed sector development

    OpenAIRE

    Boef, W.S., de; Thijssen, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in field study assignments. The objectives of practising participatory tools in training on local agrobiodiversity management and related to that the objectives of this guide are many. However, the curre...

  13. Does visual participatory research have resilience-promoting value? Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Linda C, Theron.

    Full Text Available I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds) intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV & AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambiv [...] alence in teacher experiences of drawings to highlight the complexity of employing drawings as visual method. Then, I interpret the teachers' methodological experiences through the lens ofsocial-ecological understandings of resilience in order to address the question of how drawings, as form of visual participatory methodology, may make a positive difference and nurture participant resilience. What the teachers' experiences suggest is that drawings offer methodological opportunities for participants to make constructive meaning of adversity, to take action, to experience mastery, and to regulate emotion associated with adversity. All of the aforementioned are well documented pathways to resilience. I theorise, therefore, that researchers with a social conscience would be well advised to use drawings, albeit in competent and participatory ways, as this methodology potentiates participant resilience and positive change.

  14. Does visual participatory research have resilience-promoting value? Teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda C Theron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on a phenomenological investigation into teacher experiences of generating and interpreting drawings during their participation in the Resilient Educators (REds intervention. All 18 teacher participants came from rural communities challenged by HIV & AIDS. I reflect critically on the ambivalence in teacher experiences of drawings to highlight the complexity of employing drawings as visual method. Then, I interpret the teachers' methodological experiences through the lens ofsocial-ecological understandings of resilience in order to address the question of how drawings, as form of visual participatory methodology, may make a positive difference and nurture participant resilience. What the teachers' experiences suggest is that drawings offer methodological opportunities for participants to make constructive meaning of adversity, to take action, to experience mastery, and to regulate emotion associated with adversity. All of the aforementioned are well documented pathways to resilience. I theorise, therefore, that researchers with a social conscience would be well advised to use drawings, albeit in competent and participatory ways, as this methodology potentiates participant resilience and positive change.

  15. Challenges of youth participation in participatory action research. : methodological considerations of the Paamiut Youth Voice research project.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattar, Laila; Fanous, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    Paamiut Youth Voice (PYV) is a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, exploring youth perceptions, experiences, and the promotion of well-being in Paamiut, Greenland. Active youth participation remained a key challenge in the development of the local community through the locally initiated community mobilisation programme Paamiut Asasara. The challenges of youth participation in PYV are investigated in order to explore the implications of youth participation in PAR projects. The discussion of challenges is based on a methodological account of experiences from the research process clarifying how youth participation in the PYV project took place. Results are presented, concerning the young people’s understandings and experiences of engagement and participation.

  16. What can a teacher do with a cellphone? Using participatory visual research to speak back in addressing HIV&AIDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Mitchell; Naydene, de Lange.

    Full Text Available The ubiquity of cellphones in South Africa, a country ravaged by HIV and AIDS, makes cellphones an easily accessible tool to use in participatory approaches to addressing HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) issues, particularly in school contexts. In this [...] article we explore a participatory visual approach undertaken with a group of rural teachers, to uncover and address HIV and AIDS related issues. Drawing on our experience in using participatory video, we used cellphones to produce cellphilms about youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS. Noting that the teachers brought highly didactic and moralistic tones into the cellphilms, we devised a "speaking back" approach to encourage reflection and an adjustment to their approaches when addressing HIV and AIDS issues with learners. We draw on the example of condom use in one cellphilm to demonstrate how a "speaking back" pedagogy can encourage reflection and participatory analysis, and contribute to deepening an understanding of how teachers might work with youth and risk in the context of HIV and AIDS.

  17. Communicative action: the Habermasian and Freirean dialogical approach to participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Otto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995. What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian “ideal speech situation” in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989. Consistent with the Freirean “liberal pedagogy”, the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the “participative” quality of participatory com-munication (cf. Freire, 1970. For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos, rightfulness (ethos and truthfulness (pathos are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, in-strumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communi-cative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic, rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communi-cation for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.

  18. Large-Scale Participation: A Case Study of a Participatory Approach to Developing a New Public Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case study of a participatory project that focuses on interaction in large-scale design, namely, the development of the new Urban Mediaspace Aarhus. This project, which has been under way for ten years, embodies a series of issues that arise when participatory design approaches are applied to large-scale, IT-oriented projects. At the same time, it highlights the issues public knowledge institutions face, when interactive technologies challenge their fundamental roles and practices; by extension, this case offers examples of how these challenges may be explored and addressed through IT-based participatory initiatives. We present a range of such activities carried out during the past ten years, and present the main lessons from the project, based on interviews with three key stakeholders. These lessons focus on how to make participation work in practice, how to align different paradigms of inquiry and practice in a project of this scale, and how to capture and anchor the insights from participatory events to inform the ongoing design process.

  19. Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems : Extending the Iterative PD Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD approach applied throughout design and organizational implementation. To pursue this aim we extend the iterative PD prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing stepwise implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. The extended approach is exemplified through a large-scale PD experiment in the Danish healthcare sector. We reflect on our experiences from this experiment and discuss four challenges PD must address in dealing with large-scale systems development.

  20. Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoellner Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21 high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails, the odds for meeting walking recommendations increased 1.27 times, and the odds for meeting PA recommendation increased 3.54 times. Perceived and objective audit variables did not predict meeting physical activity recommendations. Conclusions To improve physical activity levels, intervention efforts are needed to maximize the use of existing trails, as well as improve residents' perceptions related to incivilities, safety, conditions of trail, and amenities of the walking trails. This study provides important insights for informing development of the CBPR walking intervention and informing local recreational and environmental policies in this southern community.

  1. Resistance through Re-Presenting Culture: Aboriginal Student Filmmakers and a Participatory Action Research Project on Health and Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Ted; Conibear, Frank; Michel, Corrine; Lyall, John; Scott, Tish; Tanaka, Michele; Stewart, Suzanne; Riecken, Janet; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a participatory research project designed to promote student use of digital video to explore conceptions of health and wellness. We have viewed aspects of student resistance through the cultural perspectives that guide the Aboriginal education programs involved with the study. In presenting this piece, we have experimented…

  2. Distinctiveness and Sense of Community in the Historical Center of Naples: A Piece of Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Caterina; Procentese, Fortuna

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the impact of an increase in tourism in the Old Center of Naples, Fondazione Laboratorio Mediterraneo, a nonprofit organization that promotes sustainable town development and encourages participation, has undertaken the participatory action research described in this article. The inhabitants' sense of community (McMillan & Chavis,…

  3. The Effects of a Participatory Action Research Intervention on Middle School Students' Understanding of Schools, Culture and Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Jonathan Martin

    2011-01-01

    School violence is a complex cultural problem that affects most schools. This study used a participatory action research model involving mapmaking, photography and intercultural grouping to understand how one school's physical environment and social geography contributed to interethnic tensions on campus. The study found that mapmaking allowed…

  4. Investigação participativa baseada na comunidade em saúde pública: potencialidades e desafios / Community-based participatory research in public health: potentials and challenges

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sónia, Dias; Ana, Gama.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No campo da saúde pública, advoga-se uma mudança de paradigma de investigação que possibilite maior tradução do conhecimento científico em ações e políticas de saúde mais adaptadas às comunidades. Especial atenção tem sido dada à investigação participativa baseada na comunidade, pelo seu potencial e [...] m possibilitar um maior conhecimento sobre as questões complexas de saúde. Neste ensaio, refletiu-se sobre a contribuição da investigação participativa em saúde, analisando as suas perspectivas teóricas, princípios e potencialidades. Também se examinarom alguns aspectos críticos na sua implementação, realçando-se possíveis estratégias para superar esses desafios. A investigação participativa integra uma abordagem colaborativa de envolvimento das comunidades, profissionais, decisores políticos e acadêmicos na produção de conhecimento, incorporando as suas diferentes perspectivas e experiências. Essa abordagem favorece a aceitação do projeto, a adesão das comunidades ao estudo e, consequentemente, a qualidade dos dados coletados. A investigação participativa pode ser, em si só, uma intervenção: o envolvimento das comunidades pode aumentar a sua tomada de consciência sobre a importância das temáticas abordadas e capacitá-las para definir e responder às problemáticas de saúde, promovendo o seu empoderamento. Contudo, os investigadores encontram desafios na utilização dessa abordagem, relacionados com o estabelecimento e manutenção das parcerias de investigação, a partilha de controle da tomada de decisão e a conciliação das motivações e interesses dos parceiros. Mais evidência sobre o processo de implementação da investigação participativa reforçará o seu quadro teórico, a compreensão das suas potencialidades e limitações no estudo de diferentes problemáticas, contextos e populações, e o seu papel benéfico para as comunidades. Abstract in english A change in the research paradigm towards a method that more readily allows the translation of scientific knowledge into more community-oriented health actions and policies has been advocated in the field of public health. Special attention has been paid to community-based participatory research, wh [...] ich has the potential to allow the production of deeper knowledge of complex health issues. The present essay reflects on the contributions of participatory research in health, analyzing its theoretical perspectives, principles, and strengths. Some key aspects relating to the implementation of participatory research are also examined, underscoring possible strategies to face this challenge. Participatory research integrates a collaborative approach with involvement of communities, professionals, political decision-makers, and academics to produce knowledge, incorporating the different perspectives and experiences of these stakeholders. This approach facilitates acceptance of the project and engagement of communities, and consequently enhances the quality of the data collected. Participatory research may work in and of itself as an intervention: the involvement of communities may increase their awareness about the importance of the research themes and serve as training to define and address health issues, promoting empowerment. Nevertheless, researchers face challenges in applying this approach. Such challenges are related to the establishment and maintenance of research partnerships, the sharing of decision-making control, and the reconciliation of the motivations and interests of partners. More evidence regarding the process of implementation of participatory research will strengthen the method's theoretical framework and provide further understanding regarding its potential and limitations to address various problems, contexts, and populations, and clarify its beneficial role for communities.

  5. Prospective of groundwater overexploitation through participatory approaches: Saiss Plain in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameur, Fatah; Lejars, Caroline; Dionnet, Mathieu; Quarouch, Hassan; Kuper, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    In the Saiss plain, groundwater overexploitation is often explained by two phenomena. The first one is a natural phenomenon (droughts), which seems therefore uncontrollable; the other one is human as groundwater is largely used by the agricultural sector. The main issue of groundwater governance is to find an acceptable balance in the use of the water resource without compromising the socio-economic development generated by this resource. Our study aims to contribute to understanding the differential contribution of different categories of groundwater users and the socio-economic and agrarian dynamics impacted by the overuse of groundwater. We adopted a participatory approach to explore with the different actors involved in the management and use of groundwater to identify the different viewpoints on the issue of overexploitation and to engage prospective and collective thinking of present situation of groundwater overexploitation. We organized multi-stakeholder workshops and designed a role-playing game to identify and qualify the existing links between the water resource, and the economic and social dynamics in order to better understand the human behavior to economic and environmental crises and the adaptive strategies of farmers confronted with an increasingly scarce groundwater resource. Our results showed considerable differences in the viewpoints of different categories of farmers regarding overexploitation. Agricultural investors who arrived over the past 5 years in the area practicing arboriculture consider themselves modern farmers using precise and water-saving irrigation technologies (drip irrigation, especially) who cannot be blamed for overexploitation of groundwater resources. Lessees practicing horticulture put considerable pressure on water resources, but were not interested in debates on overexploitation and the sustainability of groundwater resources. In fact, they did not turn up for the workshops. Finally, the local small-scale farmers who have very limited access to groundwater due to declining groundwater tables were shown to be the most concerned about groundwater overexploitation, especially the youngsters. These results show that not only different categories of users contribute differently to groundwater overexploitation, but also the direct effects of overexploitation are asymmetrically supported by different categories of users. These results can thus provide the basis for a user-oriented debate on groundwater governance involving the different categories of users and public institutions, by making the differential contribution and impacts of groundwater overexploitation visible. Keywords: Participatory approaches, role-playing game, actors, groundwater, overexploitation, Morocco

  6. Establishing the psychometric properties of constructs in a community-based participatory research conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetzel, John G; Zhou, Chuan; Duran, Bonnie; Pearson, Cynthia; Magarati, Maya; Lucero, Julie; Wallerstein, Nina; Villegas, Malia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose . The purpose of this study is to establish the psychometric properties of 22 measures from a community-based participatory research (CBPR) conceptual model. Design . The design of this study was an online, cross-sectional survey of academic and community partners involved in a CPBR project. Setting . CPBR projects (294) in the United States with federal funding in 2009. Subjects . Of the 404 academic and community partners invited, 312 (77.2%) participated. Of the 200 principal investigators/project directors invited, 138 (69.0%) participated. Measures . Twenty-two measures of CBPR context, group dynamics, methods, and health-related outcomes were examined. Analysis . Confirmatory factor analysis to establish factorial validity and Pearson correlations to establish convergent and divergent validity were used. Results . Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated strong factorial validity for the 22 constructs. Pearson correlations (p science of CBPR. PMID:24720389

  7. Community-based participatory research and the challenges of qualitative analysis enacted by lay, nurse, and academic researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer W; Chiang, Fidela; Burgos, Rosa I; Cáceres, Ramona E; Tejada, Carmen M; Almonte, Asela T; Noboa, Frank R M; Perez, Lidia J; Urbaez, Marilín F; Heath, Annemarie

    2012-10-01

    There are multiple challenges in adhering to the principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), especially when there is a wide range of academic preparation within the research team. This is particularly evident in the analysis phase of qualitative research. We describe the process of conducting qualitative analysis of data on community perceptions of public maternity care in the Dominican Republic, in a cross-cultural, CBPR study. Analysis advanced through a process of experiential and conversational learning. Community involvement in analysis provided lay researchers an imperative for improvements in maternity care, nurses a new perspective about humanized care, and academic researchers a deeper understanding of how to create the conditions to enable conversational learning. PMID:22911059

  8. Municipal Benefits of Participatory Urban Sensing: A Simulation Approach and Case Validation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Till J., Winkler; Holger, Ziekow; Martin, Weinberg.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Involving citizens in public affairs through the use of participatory sensing applications is an emerging theme in Pervasive Computing and mobile E-Government (M-Government). Prior work, however, suggests that local governments place more emphasis on internal than on external M-Government projects. [...] This paper takes an action design research perspective to provide insight into the often overlooked potential of citizen-centric, external M-Government services. We consider the scenario of a sensing application for reporting urban infrastructure issues to the municipality and present a System Dynamics model to estimate the diffusion, use, and municipal impacts of such service. The model is validated based on the case of a large German city, a dedicated survey, and further data sources. The simulation results indicate that, compared to internal information acquisition procedures, the use of urban sensing can improve a municipality's availability of environmental information at a comparable level of cost. Furthermore, we discuss a number of aspects and learnings related to an urban sensing implementation and provide an empirical estimation of the diffusion model. Our results provide an impetus for researchers and government practitioners to reconsider the benefits of urban sensing applications in E-Government endeavors.

  9. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde, through a participatory approach: which outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

    2014-09-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of Work Package 5 (socio-economical vulnerability assessment and community-based disaster risk reduction) of the MIAVITA (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) research programme conducted on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 years (May 2010 to January 2012), of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km wide caldera of the volcano inside Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the programme included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people to volcanic threats is linked to daily access to sources of livelihood, especially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk to their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such an objective, a participatory three-dimensional mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participatory aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability of (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties in involving more marginalised people like women and the youth, and (3) the fact that volcanic risk is not a priority for the people, who are more concerned with daily difficulties due to unsustainable livelihoods, a lack of access to water, land tenure, and the restrictions by the Fogo Natural Park administration and the municipal officials. Still, the study was successful in creating a space for dialogue between the local people and the outside stakeholders such as the Natural Park Administration, the Civil Protection, and the Municipality of Santa Catarina, who have all participated actively during the course of the project.

  10. Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Yee Ming Chen ,; Bo-Yuan Wang

    2009-01-01

    The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS) is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-...

  11. A Review of Bayesian Networks as a Participatory Modeling Approach in Support of Sustainable Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Meike Duespohl; Sina Frank; Petra Doell

    2012-01-01

    To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN) modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition,...

  12. Phoenix Rising: use of a participatory approach to evaluate a federally funded HIV, hepatitis and substance abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Eileen; Hyde, Justeen; Livny, Ayala; Tula, Monique

    2010-11-01

    This paper highlights the value of utilizing a participatory evaluation approach when working with community agencies receiving federal funding for prevention and intervention services. Drawing from our experience as evaluators of a SAMHSA-funded substance abuse, HIV and Hepatitis prevention program targeting homeless young adults, we describe the importance of and strategies for creating a participatory evaluation partnership with program implementers. By participatory evaluation we mean the active involvement of program implementers in defining the evaluation, developing instruments, collecting data, discussing findings, and disseminating results. There are a number of challenges faced when using this approach with federally funded programs that require the use of standardized measurement tools and data collection procedures. Strategies we used to strike a balance between federal requirements and local needs are presented. By increasing the understanding of and participation in the evaluation process, program implementers have greater support for data collection requirements and are appreciably more interested in learning from the evaluation data. This approach has helped to build the capacity of a program and stimulated new possibilities for learning, growing, and ultimately improving the services offered to those the program strives to reach. PMID:20233628

  13. The Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) Program: Design of a participatory research intervention to increase physical activity and improve dietary habits in African American churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; Parrott, Allen W.; Condrasky, Margaret; Saunders, Ruth; Addy, Cheryl L.; Evans, Rebecca; Baruth, Meghan; Samuel, May

    2010-01-01

    Background African Americans are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer morbidity and mortality. Physical activity and healthy dietary practices can reduce this risk. The church is a promising setting to address health disparities, and community-based participatory research is a preferred approach. Objectives Using a community-based participatory approach and the social ecologic model, the FAN trial aims to increase self-reported moderate-intensity physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption and reduce blood pressure in African American church members. Secondary aims are to increase objectively measured moderate-intensity physical activity and fiber/whole grain consumption and reduce fat consumption. Design FAN is a group randomized trial (GRT) with two levels of clustering: participants (N=1,279; n=316 accelerometer subgroup) within church and church within church cluster. In the first wave, seven clusters including 23 churches were randomized to an immediate intervention or delayed intervention. In subsequent waves, 51 churches were randomized to an immediate or delayed intervention. Methods Church committee members, pastors, and cooks participate in full-day trainings to learn how to implement physical activity and dietary changes in the church. Monthly mailings and technical assistance calls are delivered over the 15-month intervention. Members complete measurements at baseline and 15-months. A detailed process evaluation is included. Summary FAN focuses on modifying the social, cultural, and policy environment in a faith-based setting. The use of a community-based participatory research approach, engagement of church leaders, inclusion of a detailed process evaluation, and a formal plan for sustainability and dissemination make FAN unique. PMID:20359549

  14. Exploring the challenges of implementing Participatory Action Research in the context of HIV and poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Rosenthal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is having a devastating impact on South Africa and particularly on poor communities. Empowerment of communities has been identified as an important step towards mitigating the consequences and helping communities to overcome the challenges presented. Participatory Action Research (PAR has been identified as a useful methodology for the purpose of facilitating empowerment. This study explores the challenges involved in implementing PAR in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty. In this article, the author describes a PAR project that took place in 2003/ 2004 with a group of five Xhosa speaking people living with HIV/AIDS in Masiphumelele, Cape Town. The aims of the study were to: 1. Create an opportunity for the participants to engage in a participatory process aimed at self-awareness and empowerment. 2. To record and analyse this process with the intention of producing insight into the use of PAR in the context of poverty and HIV/AIDS and to identify the challenges involved. The findings of this study highlight some important insights into the process of engaging people in the PAR process and the experiences of HIV positive people living in the context of poverty. The study explores the challenges involved in the process of empowerment and examines the process of “transferring” power and control from the researcher to the participants. Challenges were uncovered both from the point of view of the researcher who had to “let go of control” and participants who had to take on control. Participants struggled with issues of low self-efficacy and learned helplessness. Fluctuations in health also contributed towards alternating periods of hope and despair and these problems had an impact on their motivation to participate in the study. Lack of motivation to participate is a challenge highlighted in the literature and explored in this study. Participation is necessary for a study of this nature to be of benefit to the community, but unfortunately those most in need were found to be least likely to participate.The study also critically examines the research process that was conducted and highlights the positive and negative contribution of the process towards empowerment. Certain aspects of the research process, including the contracting process, were identified as being problematic as they emphasize the power and control of the researcher rather than the participants. Recommendations for future research include: Promoting participation among the disempowered; the Contracting process and Power relations in PAR

  15. Exploring the challenges of implementing Participatory Action Research in the context of HIV and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, W A; Khalil, D D

    2010-06-01

    HIV/AIDS is having a devastating impact on South Africa and particularly on poor communities. Empowerment of communities has been identified as an important step towards mitigating the consequences and helping communities to overcome the challenges presented. Participatory Action Research (PAR) has been identified as a useful methodology for the purpose of facilitating empowerment. This study explores the challenges involved in implementing PAR in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty. In this article, the author describes a PAR project that took place in 2003/ 2004 with a group of five Xhosa speaking people living with HIV/AIDS in Masiphumelele, Cape Town. The aims of the study were to: 1. Create an opportunity for the participants to engage in a participatory process aimed at self-awareness and empowerment. 2. To record and analyse this process with the intention of producing insight into the use of PAR in the context of poverty and HIV/AIDS and to identify the challenges involved. The findings of this study highlight some important insights into the process of engaging people in the PAR process and the experiences of HIV positive people living in the context of poverty. The study explores the challenges involved in the process of empowerment and examines the process of "transferring" power and control from the researcher to the participants. Challenges were uncovered both from the point of view of the researcher who had to "let go of control" and participants who had to take on control. Participants struggled with issues of low self-efficacy and learned helplessness. Fluctuations in health also contributed towards alternating periods of hope and despair and these problems had an impact on their motivation to participate in the study. Lack of motivation to participate is a challenge highlighted in the literature and explored in this study. Participation is necessary for a study of this nature to be of benefit to the community, but unfortunately those most in need were found to be least likely to participate. The study also critically examines the research process that was conducted and highlights the positive and negative contribution of the process towards empowerment. Certain aspects of the research process, including the contracting process, were identified as being problematic as they emphasize the power and control of the researcher rather than the participants. Recommendations for future research include: Promoting participation among the disempowered; the Contracting process and Power relations in PAR. PMID:21469518

  16. Exploring the challenges of implementing participatory action research in the context of HIV and poverty

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    WA, Rosenthal; DD, Khalil.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is having a devastating impact on South Africa and particularly on poor communities. Empowerment of communities has been identified as an important step towards mitigating the consequences and helping communities to overcome the challenges presented. Participatory Action Research (PAR) has [...] been identified as a useful methodology for the purpose of facilitating empowerment. This study explores the challenges involved in implementing PAR in the context of HIV/AIDS and poverty. In this article, the author describes a PAR project that took place in 2003/ 2004 with a group of five Xhosa speaking people living with HIV/AIDS in Masiphumelele, Cape Town. The aims of the study were to: 1. Create an opportunity for the participants to engage in a participatory process aimed at self-awareness and empowerment. 2. To record and analyse this process with the intention of producing insight into the use of PAR in the context of poverty and HIV/AIDS and to identify the challenges involved. The findings of this study highlight some important insights into the process of engaging people in the PAR process and the experiences of HIV positive people living in the context of poverty. The study explores the challenges involved in the process of empowerment and examines the process of "transferring" power and control from the researcher to the participants. Challenges were uncovered both from the point of view of the researcher who had to "let go of control" and participants who had to take on control. Participants struggled with issues of low self-efficacy and learned helplessness. Fluctuations in health also contributed towards alternating periods of hope and despair and these problems had an impact on their motivation to participate in the study. Lack of motivation to participate is a challenge highlighted in the literature and explored in this study. Participation is necessary for a study of this nature to be of benefit to the community, but unfortunately those most in need were found to be least likely to participate. The study also critically examines the research process that was conducted and highlights the positive and negative contribution of the process towards empowerment. Certain aspects of the research process, including the contracting process, were identified as being problematic as they emphasize the power and control of the researcher rather than the participants. Recommendations for future research include: Promoting participation among the disempowered; the Contracting process and Power relations in PAR.

  17. A Participatory Approach to Develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool and the Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaraj, Deepan C.; Brad E. Dicianno; Cooper, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    The electric powered wheelchair (EPW) is an indispensable assistive device that increases participation among individuals with disabilities. However, due to lack of standardized assessment tools, developing evidence based training protocols for EPW users to improve driving skills has been a challenge. In this study, we adopt the principles of participatory research and employ qualitative methods to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool (PMST) and Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment...

  18. A Scandinavian approach to designing with children in a developing country - Exploring the applicability of participatory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) offers a democratic approach to design by creating a platform for active end-user participation in the design process. Since its emergence, the field of PD has been shaped by the Scandinavian context, in which many early PD projects took place. In this paper we discuss the challenges that arise from employing participatory methods in a different socio-cultural setting with participants who have had comparatively limited exposure to digital technologies. We offer a comparative study of two PD projects carried out with school classes in Scandinavia and India. While the setup for the two projects was identical, they unfolded in very different ways. We present and discuss this study, which leads us to conclude that PD can be a useful approach in both settings, but that there is a distinct difference as to which methods bring about fruitful results. The most prominent difference is the ways in which abstract and manifest participatory methods led to different outcomes in the two settings.

  19. Participatory Sustainability Approach to Value Capture-Based Urban Rail Financing in India through Deliberated Stakeholder Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Sai Kumar Jillella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, cities around the world are seeking innovative financial mechanisms to build rail transit projects. Land value capture (VC is a financing mechanism to fund urban rail transit. Often VC mechanisms are viewed only as a financing tool applied in relation to increased land values from the administration and legislation perspectives, without actively involving the community in the process. The lack of such participation has resulted in the under collection of the true value established. The transit beneficiary community and city tax payers are especially important stakeholders in this process as their willingness to participate is really critical to the overall VC success and transport outcome. This paper introduces a participatory sustainability approach to enable a more deliberated stakeholder engagement intervention across the VC life cycle. A four-step “Participatory Strategic Value Capture (PSVC” framework is proposed offering step-by-step guidance toward facilitating a meaningful stakeholder dialogue, deliberation, and collaboration around the stated engagement interests. The PSVC framework, applied to the proposed Bangalore sub-urban rail project in India, has demonstrated the importance of stakeholder engagement using deliberated participatory approaches from a win-win perspective.

  20. Developing a Family-Based HIV Prevention Intervention in Rural Kenya: Challenges in Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research

    OpenAIRE

    Puffer, Eve S.; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating pow...

  1. Training Partnership Dyads for Community-Based Participatory Research: Strategies and Lessons Learned From the Community Engaged Scholars Program

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, Jeannette O.; Cox, Melissa J.; Newman, Susan D.; Gillenwater, Gwen; Warner, Gloria; Winkler, Joyce A.; White, Brandi; Wolf, Sharon; Leite, Renata; Ford, Marvella E.; Slaughter, Sabra

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, evaluation framework, and initial outcomes of a unique campus–community training initiative for community-based participatory research (CBPR). The South Carolina Clinical & Translational Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, which functions as the institution’s Clinical Translational and Science Award Community Engagement Program, leads the training initiative known as the Community Engaged Scholars Program (CES-P). The ...

  2. Practical Strategies for Promoting Full Inclusion of Individuals with Disabilities in Community-Based Participatory Intervention Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hassouneh, Dena; Alcala-Moss, Amana; McNeff, E.

    2011-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) with disability communities is directed toward facilitating full inclusion of individuals with disabilities and disability community organizations in all aspects of the research process. Within the CBPR framework, academic-disability community partners may value and wish to use experimental designs to test interventions. Being aware of and proactively addressing barriers and challenges to inclusion in the areas of human resources, training, produc...

  3. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudel Ruthann A; Senier Laura; Altman Rebecca; Brody J G; Morello-Frosch Rachel; Brown Phil; Pérez Carla; Simpson Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR) environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts...

  4. Mobilizing local innovation capacity through a simulation game in a participatory research project on agricultural innovation in El Brahmi irrigation scheme (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Aleksandra; d'Aquino, Patrick; Imache, Amar; Dionnet, Mathieu; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we conducted a participatory research on the possible innovative practices to increase production of dairy farms in the irrigation scheme El Brahmi in Tunisia in the face of changing economic, political and environmental conditions. Our aim was to find effective research method to stimulate farmers' participation in the innovation process. Although the capacities of farmers in producing knowledge and in innovating are recognized and the shift from the linear model of technology transfer towards more participatory approaches to innovation is postulated, in which the role of researchers changes from providing solutions towards supporting farmers in finding their own solutions, in practice, the position of farmers in shaping innovation practice and process remains weak. After a series of participatory workshops and in-depth interviews with the actors of the local innovation system we developed and tested a simple open simulation game Laitconomie for farmers. The game proved to be effective in increasing our understanding of the system as the farmers were adding new elements and rules while playing, and in mobilizing farmers' knowledge (including tacit knowledge) in the simulated innovation process. The result reported by the participants was learning how to improve farm management, soil fertility management and cow nutrition practices. Some of the participants used the game as a decision support tool. While our game and its scope were modest and mobilized only two types of players (farmers and extension agent), open simulation proved to be a useful tool to analyze a local innovation system. Designing similar type of tools that would mobilize more diverse players and hence have a larger scope can be imagined.

  5. Building partnerships in community-based participatory research: budgetary and other cost considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B

    2014-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers. PMID:23632077

  6. Participatory rural appraisal approaches: an overview and an exemplary application of focus group discussion in climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Uddin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Different tools and techniques of participatory approaches are the basic way of conducting qualitative research especially in the field of applied social science. Focus Group Discussion (FGD is one of the main Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA technique often used in combination with others to achieve desired goals. Considering this concept, this paper attempts to review the PRA approach and then application of FGD, in combination with matrix scoring and ranking to identify problems and causes of climate change along with possible mitigation and adaptation strategies. A group of 20 students at post graduate level under the faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture at Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany those from different corner of the world was considered as target people of the study. The results concluded that “unpredictable weather events” was ranked as the present outstanding visible climate change problem caused by “human activities”. However, it was noted that if alternative renewable energy sources are exploited, this could contribute to solving the present climate change problem. This finding might have the good reference for the policy makers in the same line not only for developing countries but also for developed countries.

  7. Using participatory action research to develop an HIV and AIDS school plan

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ronél, Ferreira; Liesel, Ebersöhn; Karien, Botha.

    Full Text Available In this article we report on the manner in which participatory action research (PAR) was utilised by teachers in developing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) schoolplan, in collaboration with university researchers. The need for a structured HIV and A [...] ids school plan emerged during the course of a broader research project (of which this study formed part) during which a school principal and teachers expressed a need to support infected and affected children more effectively. The study involved three phases, used interpretivism as meta-theoretical lens, and relied on PAR principles. Following the first phase of data generation, findings indicated that teachers were keen to transfer their knowledge and skills to neighbouring schools in support of the community; they were of the view that the transfer of knowledge and skills was needed to support infected and affected children more effectively in the classroom; and they experienced the need to document knowledge and skills in the form of an HIV and Aids school plan. In addition to determining expectations regarding an HIV and Aids school plan, fundamental principles and implementation of such a plan were identified in collaboration with the participating teachers. In this manner, the content of an HIV and Aids school plan was identified, resulting in a documented plan.

  8. Participatory research revealing the work and occupational health hazards of cooperative recyclers in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutberlet, Jutta; Baeder, Angela M; Pontuschka, Nídia N; Felipone, Sonia M N; Dos Santos, Tereza L F

    2013-10-01

    Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives. PMID:24084672

  9. Participatory Research Revealing the Work and Occupational Health Hazards of Cooperative Recyclers in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. N. Felipone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.

  10. A Review of Bayesian Networks as a Participatory Modeling Approach in Support of Sustainable Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Duespohl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To support sustainable environmental management, uncertain knowledge about complex human-environment-systems from both inside and outside of academia needs to be integrated. Bayesian Network (BN modeling is a promising method to achieve this, in particular if done in a participatory manner. Based on a review of 30 cases of participatory BN modeling of environmental problem fields, and of three guidelines, we summarize recommendations for BN modeling with stakeholder involvement. In addition, strengths and limitations of BNs are synthesized. We found that BNs were successfully applied for knowledge integration and identification of sustainable management strategies within participatory processes. Due to many favorable characteristics, BNs have the potential to become a core method of transdisciplinary knowledge integration in environmental management.

  11. Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change managem...

  12. A community based participatory approach to improving health in a Hispanic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquieta de Hernandez Brisa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Charlotte-Mecklenburg region has one of the fastest growing Hispanic communities in the country. This population has experienced disparities in health outcomes and diminished ability to access healthcare services. This city is home to an established practice-based research network (PBRN that includes community representatives, health services researchers, and primary care providers. The aims of this project are: to use key principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR within a practice-based research network (PBRN to identify a single disease or condition that negatively affects the Charlotte Hispanic community; to develop a community-based intervention that positively impacts the chosen condition and improves overall community health; and to disseminate findings to all stakeholders. Methods/design This project is designed as CBPR. The CBPR process creates new social networks and connections between participants that can potentially alter patterns of healthcare utilization and other health-related behaviors. The first step is the development of equitable partnerships between community representatives, providers, and researchers. This process is central to the CBPR process and will occur at three levels -- community members trained as researchers and outreach workers, a community advisory board (CAB, and a community forum. Qualitative data on health issues facing the community -- and possible solutions -- will be collected at all three levels through focus groups, key informant interviews and surveys. The CAB will meet monthly to guide the project and oversee data collection, data analysis, participant recruitment, implementation of the community forum, and intervention deployment. The selection of the health condition and framework for the intervention will occur at the level of a community-wide forum. Outcomes of the study will be measured using indicators developed by the participants as well as geospatial modeling. On completion, this study will: determine the feasibility of the CBPR process to design interventions; demonstrate the feasibility of geographic models to monitor CBPR-derived interventions; and further establish mechanisms for implementation of the CBPR framework within a PBRN.

  13. “It’s Like Tuskegee in Reverse”: A Case Study of Ethical Tensions in Institutional Review Board Review of Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E.; Yerger, Valerie B.; McGruder, Carol; Froelicher, Erika

    2006-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) addresses the social justice dimensions of health disparities by engaging marginalized communities, building capacity for action, and encouraging more egalitarian relationships between researchers and communities. CBPR may challenge institutionalized academic practices and the understandings that inform institutional review board deliberations and, indirectly, prioritize particular kinds of research. We present our attempt to study, as part of a CBPR partnership, cigarette sales practices in an inner-city community. We use critical and communitarian perspectives to examine the implications of the refusal of the university institutional review board (in this case, the University of California, San Francisco) to approve the study. CBPR requires expanding ethical discourse beyond the procedural, principle-based approaches common in biomedical research settings. The current ethics culture of academia may sometimes serve to protect institutional power at the expense of community empowerment. PMID:17018816

  14. Perceptions that influence the maintenance of scientific integrity in community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer Diaz, Anne E; Spears Johnson, Chaya R; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    Scientific integrity is necessary for strong science; yet many variables can influence scientific integrity. In traditional research, some common threats are the pressure to publish, competition for funds, and career advancement. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provides a different context for scientific integrity with additional and unique concerns. Understanding the perceptions that promote or discourage scientific integrity in CBPR as identified by professional and community investigators is essential to promoting the value of CBPR. This analysis explores the perceptions that facilitate scientific integrity in CBPR as well as the barriers among a sample of 74 professional and community CBPR investigators from 25 CBPR projects in nine states in the southeastern United States in 2012. There were variations in perceptions associated with team member identity as professional or community investigators. Perceptions identified to promote and discourage scientific integrity in CBPR by professional and community investigators were external pressures, community participation, funding, quality control and supervision, communication, training, and character and trust. Some perceptions such as communication and training promoted scientific integrity whereas other perceptions, such as a lack of funds and lack of trust could discourage scientific integrity. These results demonstrate that one of the most important perceptions in maintaining scientific integrity in CBPR is active community participation, which enables a co-responsibility by scientists and community members to provide oversight for scientific integrity. Credible CBPR science is crucial to empower the vulnerable communities to be heard by those in positions of power and policy making. PMID:25588933

  15. Prisons, Pipelines, and the President: Developing Critical Math Literacy through Participatory Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence L. Terry

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Academic success, and the economic well-being it usually affords, is closely tied to math achievement. Key national indicators reveal decades of underperformance of African American males in mathematics. Scholars argue that the schooling experiences of Black males are highly-racialized, are often bereft of significance, and result in academic and social marginalization. The author reports findings from an eight-month participatory action research (PAR project involving seven high-school aged Black males in South Los Angeles; students undertook research to empirically verify and qualitatively explore narratives concerning incarceration and university enrollment. Utilizing a critical ethnographic methodology to privilege student voice, the author shares how „low-performing? students in an urban setting utilize their mathematical knowledge to become critically literate about these narratives. Highlighting two student-constructed counternarratives he terms mathematical counterstories, the author shows how students used data analysis to contradict dominant understandings about young Black males. The author argues math counterstories are a unique synthesis of critical and mathematical literacies that are supported through PAR. Implications for the re-orientation of high school-aged Black males towards mathematics are discussed.

  16. Toward a culturally sensitive conceptualization of resilience: Participatory research with war-affected communities in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindevogel, Sofie; Ager, Alastair; Schiltz, Julie; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2015-06-01

    Resilience research with war-affected populations has long conceptualized resilience as the absence of psychopathology and operationalized it by use of standardized measures. However, literature on resilience increasingly highlights the importance of also including indicators of positively valued functioning as well as contextually sensitive indicators of resilience. This study used a participatory approach to examine the contextual conceptualization of youth resilience in the aftermath of war in northern Uganda, as defined by groups of stakeholders (youths, parents, elders, leaders, teachers) in four communities. The results identify 40 indicators covering a multiplicity of domains of functioning. The rationales behind these indicators were clustered into the broad themes: progress, self-reliance, social connectedness, morality, health, and comfort. The findings suggest that positively and negatively valued aspects of functioning are both key to conceptualizing resilience, and indicate the importance of including contextually distinguished indicators. The findings further point to the role of individual and collective processes in the construction of resilience, and to the need to take into account the contexts wherein resilience is conceptualized and observed. This study generated contextually sensitive indicators of young people's resilience, which can be used, complementary to existing measures of functioning, to provide a more comprehensive and culturally sensitive view of youths' resilience in the wake of war adversity. PMID:25586738

  17. The One-Pager: A Practical Policy Advocacy Tool for Translating Community-Based Participatory Research Into Action

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Betty T.; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A.; Reyes, Angela G.; Martin, Jenifer; Lichtenstein, Richard L.; Wilson, Christine; Sand, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    The multiple and diverse perspectives, skills, and experiences inherent in community–academic partnerships make them uniquely positioned to educate policy makers and advocate for health equity. Effective communication tools are critical to successfully engage in the policy-making process. Yet few resources emphasize the development and use of practical tools for translating community-based participatory research (CBPR) findings into action. The purpose of this article is to describe a CBPR ...

  18. Reducing diabetes health disparities through community-based participatory action research: the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition.

    OpenAIRE

    Giachello, Aida L.; Arrom, Jose O.; Davis, Margaret; Sayad, Judith V.; Ramirez, Dinah; Nandi, Chandana; Ramos, Catalina

    2003-01-01

    To address disproportionately high rates of diabetes morbidity and mortality in some of Chicago's medically underserved minority neighborhoods, a group of community residents, medical and social service providers, and a local university founded the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention REACH 2010 Initiative. A community-based participatory action research model guided coalition activities from conceptualization through implementati...

  19. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic. Guidelines on approaches to siting a deep repository. Deliverable D21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the review of experiences in SEA and EIA in the Czech Republic summarized in Deliverable No.3 and the testing of novel participatory and dialogue approaches summarized in Deliverables No.7, 11 and 12 in this report a model for the siting process specifically in the Czech Republic, that takes into account the need for transparency and interaction with the public, within the framework of legal requirements is outlined. Lessons learnt are summarised and a road map specified. The guidelines / recommendations in this report are proposed based on mapping the situation in the Czech Republic and experience gained in connection with the testing and application of novel participatory approaches and dialogue, but many of them are of general validity and can be applied in other countries outside the Czech Republic. This reports links directly to Work package 6, where general guidelines for participation and transparency, reflecting institutional and cultural differences, are given - Deliverable No.22

  20. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde, through a participatory approach: which out coming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier-Teixeira, P.; Chouraqui, F.; Perrillat-Collomb, A.; Lavigne, F.; Cadag, J. R.; Grancher, D.

    2013-11-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of the Work Package 5 (Socio-economical Vulnerability Assessment and Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction) of the MIAVITA Research Program (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) conducted in Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 yr (May 2010-January 2012) of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km-wide caldera of the volcano inside the Fogo Natural Park. The objectives of the program included assessment of the vulnerability of the community at risk in terms of livelihoods, access to resources, and power relations between the local people and the different public and private institutions. These are important factors that need to be investigated in order to understand the root causes of vulnerability of the local people. This case study shows that the voluntary exposure of people at volcanic threats is linked with daily access to sources of livelihood specially agriculture and tourism. This is despite the perception of people of the risk on their lives and properties. In order to counter the factors of vulnerability, the study also aimed to identify and enhance local capacities. To achieve such objective, a Participatory 3-Dimensional Mapping (P3DM) activity was conducted to facilitate the dialogue between the local people and the different stakeholders as well as to prepare plans and measures to reduce volcanic risk. The P3DM was a half success considering that it has not yet led to an operational plan which takes into account the local capacities. The main reasons included (1) the non-participative aspect of the project at the beginning which should have identified priorities for people and let them lead the project to ensure the sustainability (2) deep conflicts within the community which complicated the focus group discussions around the 3-D map, and the difficulties to involve more marginalized people like women and youth, and (3) the fact that volcanic risk is not the priority for people who are more concerned on daily difficulties due to unsustainable livelihood, lack of access to water, land tenure, and the restrictions by the Fogo Natural Park administration and the municipal officials. Still, the study was successful in creating a space for dialogue between the local people and the outside stakeholders such as the Natural Park administration, the National Civil Protection Service (SNPC), and the Municipality of Santa Catarina who have all participated actively during the implementation of the project.

  1. How Gender Influences the Use of Space: A Participatory Research on Spatial Planning in Fishing Villages in Central Java and West Aceh, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyatiningsih

    2010-01-01

    The significance of participatory research for achieving a participatory spatial planning may be strengthened by the involvement of gender in the analysis of space. The structuring of space in the Javanese and Acehnese fishing villages shows how gender role greatly influences the use of space. This represents the fragmentation of village both socially and spatially. A comprehensive understanding of such a structure is important for relevant development agencies to make a just spatial planning.

  2. Part 1: Participatory Ergonomics Approach to Waste Container Handling Utilizing a Multidisciplinary Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D.M.; Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Biggs, T.W.; Perry, C.M.; Tageson, R.; Barsnick, L.

    2000-02-07

    This multidisciplinary team approach to waste container handling, developed within the Grassroots Ergonomics process, presents participatory ergonomic interpretations of quantitative and qualitative aspects of this process resulting in a peer developed training. The lower back, shoulders, and wrists were identified as frequently injured areas, so these working postures were a primary focus for the creation of the workers' training. Handling procedures were analyzed by the team to identify common cycles involving one 5 gallon (60 pounds), two 5 gallons (60 and 54 pounds), 30 gallon (216 pounds), and 55 gallon (482 pounds) containers: lowering from transporting to/from transport vehicles, loading/unloading on transport vehicles, and loading onto pallet. Eleven experienced waste container handlers participated in this field analysis. Ergonomic exposure assessment tools measuring these field activities included posture analysis, posture targeting, Lumbar Motion Monitor{trademark} (LMM), and surface electromyography (sEMG) for the erector spinae, infraspinatus, and upper trapezius muscles. Posture analysis indicates that waste container handlers maintained non-neutral lower back postures (flexion, lateral bending, and rotation) for a mean of 51.7% of the time across all activities. The right wrist was in non-neutral postures (radial, ulnar, extension, and flexion) a mean of 30.5% of the time and the left wrist 31.4%. Non-neutral shoulder postures (elevation) were the least common, occurring 17.6% and 14.0% of the time in the right and left shoulders respectively. For training applications, each cycle had its own synchronized posture analysis and posture target diagram. Visual interpretations relating to the peak force modifications of the posture target diagrams proved to be invaluable for the workers' understanding of LMM and sEMG results (refer to Part II). Results were reviewed by the team's field technicians and their interpretations were developed into ergonomic training that address the issues originally raised. This training includes intervention methods, ergonomic tools used, dam acquired, and effects of waste container handling techniques on lower back, shoulder, and wrists and methods to help proactively reduce injuries associated with this profession.

  3. Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Ming Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-a-vis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

  4. Towards Participatory Design of Multi-agent Approach to Transport Demands

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yee Ming

    2009-01-01

    The design of multi-agent based simulations (MABS) is up to now mainly done in laboratories and based on designers' understanding of the activities to be simulated. Domain experts have little chance to directly validate agent behaviors. To fill this gap, we are investigating participatory methods of design, which allow users to participate in the design the pickup and delivery problem (PDP) in the taxi planning problem. In this paper, we present a participatory process for designing new socio-technical architectures to afford the taxi dispatch for this transportation system. The proposed dispatch architecture attempts to increase passenger satisfaction more globally, by concurrently dispatching multiple taxis to the same number of passengers in the same geographical region, and vis-avis human driver and dispatcher satisfaction.

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF A PARTICIPATORY ACTION ORIENTED TRAINING INTERVENTION APPROACH AMONG HARVESTERS IN OIL PALM PLANTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ng Yee Guan; Shamsul Bahri Mohd Tamrin; Ismi Arif Ismail; Gede Pramudya Ananta; Zailina Hashim; Irwan Syah Mohd Yusoff; Baba Md. Deros; Shahriman Abu Bakar; Azmin Sham Rambely

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with the global demand for palm oil, the intensified upstream harvesting activities of oil palms? fresh fruit bunches, despite the harvesters evidences of various ergonomics risk factors leading to musculoskeletal disorders should be a cause for concern. Thus, this study describes the effectiveness of a modified and locally adapted Participatory Action-Oriented Training intervention program in improving the working environment of the harvesters. A training program modified and cus...

  6. Visual Participatory Approach to Violent Behaviour amongst Zimbabwean Students: Forms and Prevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Ephias Gudyanga; Nomsa Matamba; Anna Gudyanga

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of students on forms and prevalence of violent behavior in Gweru urban district of Zimbabwe. Visual participatory methodology premised on both qualitative and quantitative paradigms was used. Drawings with focus group discussions were the main data collecting instruments. Participants were fifteen conveniently selected students attending a typical urban high school (females = 7, age range 15-17, males = 8, age range 14-18). Data on forms and prevalence ...

  7. Communities of practice in participatory approaches to environmental regulation : Prerequisites for implementation of environmental knowledge in agricultural context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mads Lægdsgaard; Noe, Egon

    2012-01-01

    Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes for change in agricultural contexts. The hypothesis is that the processes in the case project can be analysed by applying concepts of the theory of communities of practice. The first analytical component is a test for learning prerequisites conducted by the concepts of domain, community and practice. The second component concerns identity changes among involved farmers and the third component introduces the concept of boundary objects to concrete cooperative processes in the case project. We find that the stakeholder approach is problematic in catchment areas because communities of practice are rare in interest groups and organisations. On the basis of the theory of communities of practice, we suggest to integrate both knowledge production and knowledge implementation in the work-related social setting of each individual farm.

  8. Application of Participatory Approach in Community Forest Resource Management Based on a Case Study Performed in Fujian Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilei Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After China’s collective forest right system reform, cooperation organizations have played an important role in the development of community forestry. In order to analyze the demands and attitudes of stakeholders of community forests, a participatory approach which included brainstorming, material collection, PRA tools, semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys, was used in a forest management survey involving four village cases. According to the application of the participatory approach it can be seen that the different types of stakeholders had different demands and attitudes toward community forest management. Farmers were more focused on economic benefit while forestry bureaus were more concerned about attaining the maximum level of forestry farmers’ ecological, economic and social efficiency. Cooperative members had more positive attitudes than non-cooperative members. According to all stakeholders, the harvest quota control system is the most unreasonable policy. In addition, based on the results of the SWOT strategy analysis matrix for forest management policies and systems at the level of forestry farmers, four strategy selections are proposed.

  9. Developing participatory research in radiology: the use of a graffiti wall, cameras and a video box in a Scottish radiology department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathers, Sandra A. [Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); The Robert Gordon University, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Anderson, Helen [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); McDonald, Sheila [Royal Aberdeen Children' s Hospital, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Chesson, Rosemary A. [University of Aberdeen, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Participatory research is increasingly advocated for use in health and health services research and has been defined as a 'process of producing new knowledge by systematic enquiry, with the collaboration of those being studied'. The underlying philosophy of participatory research is that those recruited to studies are acknowledged as experts who are 'empowered to truly participate and have their voices heard'. Research methods should enable children to express themselves. This has led to the development of creative approaches of working with children that offer alternatives to, for instance, the structured questioning of children by researchers either through questionnaires or interviews. To examine the feasibility and potential of developing participatory methods in imaging research. We employed three innovative methods of data collection sequentially, namely the provision of: 1) a graffiti wall; 2) cameras, and 3) a video box for children's use. While the graffiti wall was open to all who attended the department, for the other two methods children were allocated to each 'arm' consecutively until our target of 20 children for each was met. The study demonstrated that it was feasible to use all three methods of data collection within the context of a busy radiology department. We encountered no complaints from staff, patients or parents. Children were willing to participate but we did not collect data to establish if they enjoyed the activities, were pleased to have the opportunity to make comments or whether anxieties about their treatment inhibited their participation. The data yield was disappointing. In particular, children's contributions to the graffiti wall were limited, but did reflect the nature of graffiti, and there may have been some 'copycat' comments. Although data analysis was relatively straightforward, given the nature of the data (short comments and simple drawings), the process proved to be extremely time-consuming. This was despite the modest amount of data collected. Novel methods of engaging with children have been shown to be feasible although further work is needed to establish their full potential. (orig.)

  10. Developing participatory research in radiology: the use of a graffiti wall, cameras and a video box in a Scottish radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Participatory research is increasingly advocated for use in health and health services research and has been defined as a 'process of producing new knowledge by systematic enquiry, with the collaboration of those being studied'. The underlying philosophy of participatory research is that those recruited to studies are acknowledged as experts who are 'empowered to truly participate and have their voices heard'. Research methods should enable children to express themselves. This has led to the development of creative approaches of working with children that offer alternatives to, for instance, the structured questioning of children by researchers either through questionnaires or interviews. To examine the feasibility and potential of developing participatory methods in imaging research. We employed three innovative methods of data collection sequentially, namely the provision of: 1) a graffiti wall; 2) cameras, and 3) a video box for children's use. While the graffiti wall was open to all who attended the department, for the other two methods children were allocated to each 'arm' consecutively until our target of 20 children for each was met. The study demonstrated that it was feasible to use all three methods of data collection within the context of a busy radiology department. We encountered no complaints from staff, patients or parents. Children were willing to participate but we did not collect data to establish if they enjoyed the activities, were pleased to have tyed the activities, were pleased to have the opportunity to make comments or whether anxieties about their treatment inhibited their participation. The data yield was disappointing. In particular, children's contributions to the graffiti wall were limited, but did reflect the nature of graffiti, and there may have been some 'copycat' comments. Although data analysis was relatively straightforward, given the nature of the data (short comments and simple drawings), the process proved to be extremely time-consuming. This was despite the modest amount of data collected. Novel methods of engaging with children have been shown to be feasible although further work is needed to establish their full potential. (orig.)

  11. Can communities and academia work together on public health research? Evaluation results from a community-based participatory research partnershipin detroit

    OpenAIRE

    Lantz., Paula M.; Viruell-Fuentes, Edna; Israel, Barbara A.; Softley, Donald; Guzman, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    This article reports the results of a formative evaluation of the first 4 years of the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center (URC), a community-based participatory research partnership that was founded in 1995 with core funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Several organizations are members of this partnership, including a university, six community-based organizations, a city health department, a health care system, and CDC. The Detroit URC is a strong ...

  12. Barriers to Participatory Extension in Egypt: Agricultural Workers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Chris; Nuberg, Ian K.; Pitchford, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines extension practises of agricultural workers within the Egyptian government and the perceived barriers they face in implementing participatory approaches, identifying improvements required in research and extension processes to meet the real needs of Egyptian farming communities. Design/Methodology/Approach: Key…

  13. Making Meaning about Educational Experiences through Participatory Action Research: A Project Conducted with Adults Enrolled in a Community College Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, German Alonso

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a group of co-researchers involved in a participatory action research (PAR) project conducted with adults in a developmental education program. The co-researchers were mostly individuals of Hispanic descent, who had struggled in the past with schooling. Because the educational experiences of Hispanics often…

  14. Ethnographic Evidence of an Emerging Transnational Arts Practice?: Perspectives on U.K. and Mexican Participatory Artists’ Processes for Catalysing Change, and Facilitating Health and Flourishing

    OpenAIRE

    Raw, Anni

    2014-01-01

    This article reports new ethnographic research exploring community-based, participatory arts practice in Northern England and Mexico City. Noting the value of an ethnographic approach, the study investigated whether commonalities discovered in practitioners’ approaches are significant enough to constitute a generalisable participatory arts methodology, transcending significant contextual differences, and recognisable across national boundaries. Shared characteristics emerged in practitioners’...

  15. Participatory approaches to foresight and priority-setting in innovation networks

    OpenAIRE

    Brummer, Ville

    2010-01-01

    In innovation networks, participatory foresight activities can typically have several functions. They can be seen as a tool for supporting decision-making on science and technology (S&T) priorities, but they can also be expected to contribute to the structures of a network beyond the scope of decision making. Foresight activities are often limited by tight timeframes, budgets and they need to be synchronized with other S&T processes. In this setting there is a need for tools that reflect fore...

  16. Expanding the Reach of the Interview in Audience and Reception Research : The Performative and Participatory Models of Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David; Brites, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses the interview method in relation to context, a central notion in audience studies. Through a critique of the traditional conception of the interview method as a question-answer model, the chapter suggests two different articulations of the interview method in the framework of a contextual inquiry: the performative and participatory models of interview. These models are presented in their original theoretical, methodological and empirical contexts and then highlighted along four methodological considerations that help position audience research towards the challenges of a contextual inquiry.

  17. A participatory approach of flood vulnerability assessment in the Banat Plain, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balteanu, Dan; Costache, Andra; Sima, Mihaela; Dumitrascu, Monica; Dragota, Carmen; Grigorescu, Ines

    2014-05-01

    The Banat Plain (western Romania) is a low, alluvial plain affected by neotectonic subsidence movements, being a critical region in terms of exposure to floods. The latest extreme event was the historic floods occcured in the spring of 2005, which caused significant economic damage in several rural communities. The response to 2005 floods has highlighted a number of weaknesses in the management of hazards, such as the deficiencies of the early warning system, people awareness or the inefficiency of some mitigation measures, besides the past structural measures which are obsolete. For a better understanding of the local context of vulnerability and communities resilience to floods, the quantitative assessment of human vulnerability to floods was supplemented with a participatory research, in which there were involved five rural settlements from the Banat Plain (comprising 15 villages and a population of over 12,000 inhabitants). Thus, in the spring of 2013, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted in approx. 100 households of the affected communities and structured interviews were held with local authorities, in the framework of VULMIN project, funded by the Ministry of National Education. The questionnaire was designed based on a pilot survey conducted in 2005, several months after the flood, and was focused on two major issues: a) perception of the local context of vulnerability to environmental change and extreme events; b) perception of human vulnerability to floods (personal experience, post-disaster rehabilitation, awareness, worrying and opinion on the measures aimed to prevent and mitigate the effects of flooding). The results were correlated with a number of specific variables of the households included in the sample, such as: household structure; income source; income level; location of the dwelling in relation to floodplains. In this way, we were able to draw general conclusions about the way in which local people perceive the extreme events, such as floods, on the one hand. On the other hand, there were highlighted differences in perception between the respondents, caused by their different degree of socio-economic vulnerability. Although exposure to floods remains a significant problem in the Banat Plain, statistical analysis of the results revealed that respondents tended to relate mainly to newly produced extreme climatic events (droughts, heat waves, storms), when being asked to mention natural hazards threatening the studied region. Moreover, the comparison of the results of the two surveys conducted in the region (in 2005 and 2013) indicated that the relationship between the components of risk perception has changed over time. Thus, the directly proportional relationship between awareness, worry and preparedness, emphasized in 2005, is currently absent. The implementation of flood mitigation measures appears to be only the result of mechanisms put into service at the institutional level, after the events of 2005. Although currently there may be an improvement in flood response and mitigation in the region, compared to 2005, the low level of awareness and the fact that exposure to floods is not yet perceived as a threat can jeopardize the resilience and adaptation of rural communities to floods in the Banat Plain.

  18. Farmers Participatory Research in the Evaluation of Maize Crop Residues for Improved Dairy Cattle Production in Eastern Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Informal and formal surveys, and participatory rural appraisal conducted within the coffee land-use system of Embu District in Eastern Kenya identified feed shortage as a major constraint to increased dairy production on small holder farms. To address this constraint, a two-year (1996-1998) on-farm research project involving 20 farms in Manyatta division, Embu District was initiated with broad objectives of developing components technologies that would use maize crop residues. This was due to the recognition of the fact that the greatest potential for improving field availability would be in the exploitation of crop residues, especially those derived from maize, the main staple crop in the region. Based on these reality appropriate technologies that would offer viable offers for the use of crop residues were identified and discussed during workshops and meetings with farmers. Component technologies considered included drying of maize leaves after defoliation and post-harvest storage methods for dry maize stover. this paper discussed the results of the participatory research in context of farmers' involvement in the technology development, testing, evaluation and promotion. The study demonstrated that involving farmers in all stages of the research process, enhanced their interest and participation in the testing and subsequent adoption of appropriate technologies

  19. Empowerment and regulation : Dilemmas in participatory fisheries science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

    2012-01-01

    Using a perspective from the sociology of knowledge, this study identifies some ‘dilemmas of participatory research’. We look at how social relationships between fishers and scientists develop around the exchange of fishers’ knowledge in particular institutional contexts. We survey the general types and global examples of fisher– scientist relationships in terms of how they approach the integration of fishers’ and scientists’ knowledge. Based on an empirical study of three European cases of participatory research, we then discuss five dilemmas that tend to characterize fisher– scientist relationships. These dilemmas centre on the relationship between fisheries research, fishery regulations and fishers as subjects of both regulation and participatory research endeavours. We argue that these dilemmas – experienced by both scientists and fishers – express an underlying tension between ‘empowering’ fishers to support the effective management of the fishing commons and the bureaucratic need to regulate the fishery as an industry.

  20. Accounting for the Ecological Dimension in Participatory Research and Development: Lessons Learned from Indonesia and Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Laurent Pfund; Robin Bourgeois; Yves Laumonier

    2008-01-01

    The lack of understanding on how to integrate ecological issues into so-called social-ecological natural resource management hampers sustainability in tropical forest landscape management. We build upon a comparison of three cases that show inverse gradients of knowledge and perceptions of the environment and human pressure on natural resources. We discuss why the ecological dimension currently lags behind in the management of tropical forest landscapes and to what extent participatory develo...

  1. Action-learning collaboratives as a platform for community-based participatory research to advance obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazos, Dorothy A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime; Ruggles, Laural; Goldsberry, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Although process elements that define community-based participatory research (CBPR) are well articulated and provide guidance for bringing together researchers and communities, additional models to implement CBPR are needed. One potential model for implementing and monitoring CBPR is Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs); short term, team-based learning processes that are grounded in quality improvement. Since 2010, the Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth (PRCD) has used ALCs with three communities as a platform to design, implement and evaluate CBPR. The first ALC provided an opportunity for academia and community leadership to strengthen their relationships and knowledge of respective assets through design and evaluation of community-based QI projects. Building on this work, we jointly designed and are implementing a second ALC, a cross-community research project focused on obesity prevention in vulnerable populations. An enhanced community capacity now exists to support CBPR activities with a high degree of sophistication and decreased reliance on external facilitation. PMID:23727965

  2. Use of Q Methodology to Analyze Divergent Perspectives on Participatory Action Research as a Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention Among Caribbean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Keiko; Tiffany, Jennifer; Pelto, Gretel; Pelletier, David

    2008-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to examine perspectives regarding participatory action research (PAR) among participants in a UNICEF initiative aimed at enhancing HIV/AIDS prevention among youth in the Caribbean. We interviewed 20 youth PAR researchers and 12 project managers from youth organizations about their attitudes and experiences. Statements…

  3. Community-based participatory research to prevent substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Marianne T; Walker, Thomas; Swint, J Michael; Smith, Brenda Page; Brown, Cleon; Busen, Nancy; Edwards, Thelissa; Liehr, Patricia; Taylor, Wendell C; Williams, Darryal; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2004-11-01

    Adolescence is a time for exploration and risk-taking; in today's urban environment, with the twin threats of substance abuse and HIV/AIDS, the stakes are particularly high. This paper describes a community-based participatory research project to design, implement, and evaluate a faith-based substance abuse and HIV/AIDS prevention program for African-American adolescents. A coalition of university-based investigators and African-American church member stakeholders collaborated on all aspects of Project BRIDGE, the 3-year intervention to reduce substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in African-American adolescents. Our results support the use of community-based participatory research to create desirable change in this setting. Adolescents who participated in Project BRIDGE reported significantly less marijuana and other drug use and more fear of AIDS than a comparison group. Project BRIDGE has been designated an official ministry of the church and the program has been extended to others in the larger metropolitan community. The church now has a well-trained volunteer staff University faculty developed skills in negotiating with community-based settings. The coalition remains strong with plans for continued collaborative activities. PMID:15801550

  4. A participatory approach to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool and the Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Deepan C; Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-01-01

    The electric powered wheelchair (EPW) is an indispensable assistive device that increases participation among individuals with disabilities. However, due to lack of standardized assessment tools, developing evidence based training protocols for EPW users to improve driving skills has been a challenge. In this study, we adopt the principles of participatory research and employ qualitative methods to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool (PMST) and Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment (PMCDA). Qualitative data from professional experts and expert EPW users who participated in a focus group and a discussion forum were used to establish content validity of the PMCDA and the PMST. These tools collectively could assess a user's current level of bodily function and their current EPW driving capacity. Further multicenter studies are necessary to evaluate the psychometric properties of these tests and develop EPW driving training protocols based on these assessment tools. PMID:25276796

  5. Participatory Privacy: Enabling Privacy in Participatory Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    De Cristofaro, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...

  6. Nursing and health sciences workforce diversity research using PhotoVoice: a college and high school student participatory project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Vaello, Sandra; Katz, Janet R; Peterson, Jeffery Chaichana; Allen, Carol B; Paul, Robbie; Charette-Bluff, Andrea Lelana; Morris, Phyllis

    2014-04-01

    This participatory study used PhotoVoice and qualitative description to (a) mentor baccalaureate nursing and college students in workforce diversity research; (b) explore barriers and facilitators encountered by rural American Indian, Hispanic, and other high school students when attending college and pursuing careers in nursing or the health sciences; and (c) model a process of social action to help existing and future students. Baccalaureate nursing and graduate students participated in all stages of research, including dissemination. Five themes emerged from analysis of PhotoVoice data: (a) being afraid; (b) believing; (c) taking small steps; (d) facing fears; and (e) using support systems. Findings underscore the importance of helping students participate in efforts to increase work-force diversity through research. Increasing nursing and health sciences workforce diversity may require strategies developed within and tailored to specific cultures and communities. PMID:24654692

  7. Designing intervention in educational game research : developing methological approches for design-based participatory reseach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Birgitte Holm; Magnussen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    The international focus on the learning potential of games in recent years has led to a boost in both academic research interest and the development of game formats. Numerous educational computer games are available for today’s teachers, but the implementation of games in everyday teaching is often problematic. In this paper, we argue that the focus on designing and implementing game-based learning environments in educational settings implies a need to rethink methodological questions on how to apply and study educational designs. We review the methodological approaches of design-based research and action research and discuss some of the implications of applying these methods to game research. Both methods involve combining empirical educational research with the theory-driven design of learning environments. However, whereas action research aims at changing attitudes or behavior by involving participants in the different phases of designing environments for change, design-based research has a strong focus ontheory-based design and implementation of technologies and artifacts as part of the learning environment. In this paper, we present data from a study involving the design and implementation of game technology in educational settings: the game Global Conflict: Latin America, which is a role-playing game, set in a 3D environment. In the game, students play a freelance journalist who has to investigate particular issues or conflicts in the Latin American region. The game is designed to teach different subjects that involve social studies, such as geography, Danish, and history in secondary and upper secondary schools. In the first case, we conducted a study of how it is possible to integrate the game Global Conflict: Latin America in a local school practice. The involvement of game developers, researchers, students, and teachers in the different phases of the game-based educational scenario is discussed. The teacher involvement in the various design phases and student approaches and practices observed within the classes playing the games are compared as well as possibilities for the future integration of design. The case is discussed in relation to the methodological approaches of action research and design-based research. With the aim of developing approaches to modulate and integrate new game designs into school education, we suggest a design-based research approach inspired by action research with a focus on inviting teachers and players into the various phases of development of designs, intervention, redesigns, and analysis of design interventions.

  8. La violencia contra niños y niñas: un problema global de abordaje local, mediante la IAP / Violence against the child: A local approach to a global problem through participatory action research / A violência contra as crianças: um problema global de enfoque local

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ingrit, Gutiérrez-Vega; Alejandro, Acosta-Ayerbe.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata sobre as dimensões e a seriedade da presença atual da violência contra as crianças, apresentada em vários estudos, relatórios e recomendações dos governos e dos organismos nacionais e internacionais, como também trata sobre a necessidade de recorrer à opções de trabalho, como aquel [...] a da IAP, que permitem enfocar a complexidade dos implicados. Tudo isto é possível pela particularidade que determina a convergência de fatores sociais, culturais, familiares, pessoais e jurídicos em cada contexto. Abstract in spanish En el presente artículo nos ocupamos de las dimensiones y gravedad de la presencia actual de la violencia¹ contra la niñez, reflejada en diferentes estudios, informes y recomendaciones de gobiernos y organismos nacionales e internacionales, y de la necesidad de recurrir a opciones de trabajo como la [...] Investigación Acción Participativa, IAP, que permitan abordar la complejidad de los sujetos implicados, por la particularidad que traza la convergencia de factores sociales, culturales, económicos, familiares, personales y jurídicos, en cada contexto. Abstract in english This article considers the different dimensions and gravity of actual violence against children that are reflected among different articles, studies, reports and recommendations of governments and national and international organizations and the necessity to work within participatory action research [...] . This allows us to get the complexity of what is implicated due to the particular convergence of social, cultural, economic, familiar, personal and legal factors in each context.

  9. Sustained Participatory Design and Implementation of ITHC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. This sustained participatory design and implementation approach is exemplified through a large-scale project in the Danish healthcare sector

  10. Sustained participatory design and implementation of ITHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design includes engaging in large-scale information-systems development where participatory design approaches have been applied throughout design and organizational implementation. The keynote suggest to extend the iterative prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing participatory design experiments and pilot implementations as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. This sustained participatory design and implementation approach is exemplified through a large-scale project in the Danish healthcare sector. PMID:20543362

  11. How participatory design works as an approach for provoking system innovations towards sustainable pig production in the Netherlands, 4-7- July, Vienaa, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Eijk, O. N. M.; Lauwere, C. C.; Miedema, H.; Weeghel, H. J. E.; Kaal-lansbergen, L. M. T. E.

    2010-01-01

    Design is increasingly seen and tried as a vehicle for system innovative sustainable development. In a system innovative design project on pig production, called ‘Porkunities’, the authors tested the effect of a participatory and iterative approach. Does the approach serve the goal to provoke initiatives from stakeholders, without loosing innovative content of the designs necessary for system innovation? The results show that participation of stakeholders doesn’t limit the innovative po...

  12. Reframing spaces by building relationships: community collaborative participatory action research with Aboriginal mothers in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Juanita; Kendall, Sacha

    2013-12-01

    Aboriginal women are vastly over-represented in the Australian prison system. Their recidivism rates are high. Aboriginal women in contact with the criminal justice system also have higher rates of mental health disorders and are likely to have been a victim of violence. The majority of these women are mothers. Their increasing incarceration therefore has serious implications for the health and social and emotional wellbeing of their Aboriginal children, families and communities. Illustrating and exploring this situation requires an Indigenous informed conceptual framework utilising a decolonising research methodology inclusive of enduring community and stakeholder dialogue and consultation. Respectful and ethical praxis are central to this approach. We will describe how this methodology has been applied within a current National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) research project in NSW, Australia. The NHMRC guidelines for research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders peoples have supported our process and will be highlighted in illustrating our research experience. PMID:24716766

  13. Developing a family-based HIV prevention intervention in rural Kenya: challenges in conducting community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Eve S; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A

    2013-04-01

    Community-Based Participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members' shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936

  14. How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchecker, M.; Menzel, S.; Home, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity building by triangulating the findings of three evaluation studies that were based on different approaches: a field-experimental, a qualitative long-term ex-post and a cross-sectional household survey approach. The results revealed that social learning and avoiding the loss of trust were more relevant benefits of participatory flood management than acceptance building. The results suggest that stakeholder involvements should be more explicitly designed as tools for long-term social learning.

  15. Environmental Evaluation of Agri-Environment Schemes using Participatory Approaches : Experiences of Testing the Agri-Environmental Footprint Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauchline, Alice L.; Mortimer, Simon R.

    2012-01-01

    The Agri-Environment Footprint Index (AFI) has been developed as a generic methodology to assess changes in the overall environmental impacts from agriculture at the farm level and to assist in the evaluation of European agri-environmental schemes (AES). The methodology is based on multi-criteria analysis (MCA) and involves stakeholder participation to provide a locally customised evaluation based on weighted environmental indicators. The methodology was subjected to a feasibility assessment in a series of case studies across the EU. The AFI approach was able to measure significant differences in environmental status between farms that participated in an AES and non-participants. Wider environmental concerns, beyond the scheme objectives, were also considered in some case studies and the benefits for identification of unintentional (and often beneficial) impacts of AESs are presented. The participatory approach to AES evaluation proved efficient in different environments and administrative contexts. The approach proved to be appropriate for environmental evaluation of complex agri-environment systems and can complement any evaluation conducted under the Common Monitoring and Evaluation Framework. The applicability of the AFI in routine monitoring of AES impacts and in providing feedback to improve policy design is discussed.

  16. Opening the research agenda for selection of hot spots for human biomonitoring research in Belgium: a participatory research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovanova Hana

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium, an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed attitude amongst experts on the other will continue to play a role even after closure.

  17. Right to Know, Unicef BiH--Developing a Communication Strategy for the Prevention of HIV/AIDS among Young People through Participatory Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglajlic, Reima Ana

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the process and the findings of a Participatory Action Research (PAR) conducted with young people in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) in 2003, with an aim to develop a communication strategy for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in BiH. The study was initiated and funded as part of a global UNICEF initiative bearing the same name and…

  18. Gendered Risk Perceptions Associated with Human-Wildlife Conflict: Implications for Participatory Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Gore, Meredith L.; Kahler, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to foster discourse about the extent to which gender is important to consider within the context of participatory approaches for biological conservation. Our objectives are to: (1) gender-disaggregate data about stakeholders' risk perceptions associated with human-wildlife conflict (HWC) in a participatory conservation context, and (2) highlight insights from characterizing gendered similarities and differences in the way people think about HWC-related risks. Two communal c...

  19. Participatory modelling and decision support for natural resources management in climate change research

    OpenAIRE

    Giupponi, Carlo; Myšiak, Jaroslav; Sgobbi, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    The ever greater role given to public participation by laws and regulations, in particular in the field of environmental management calls for new operational methods and tools for managers and practitioners. This paper analyses the potentials and the critical limitations of current approaches in the fields of simulation modelling (SM), public participation (PP) and decision analysis (DA), for natural resources management within the context of climate change research. The potential synergies o...

  20. Participatory development of a middleware for AAL solutions: requirements and approach – the case of SOPRANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the main features of a middleware for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL applications, exemplified along the SOPRANO research project. The contribution outlines main requirements towards the technical system and the elicitation methodology. The presented middleware allows for personalisation and flexible, extendible configuration of AAL solutions with low effort. Concerning the technical concept, the design approach as well as components, qualities and functionality of the AAL platform are depicted. Furthermore the methodology of requirements elicitation is discussed. It is explained how SOPRANO met the problem to elicit socio-technical system requirements in a user-centred manner, although the addressed target group is not expected to be able to express precise guidelines. SOPRANO („Service oriented programmable smart environments for older Europeans“, http://www.soprano-ip.org/ is a research project funded by the European Commission, which aims at the provision of a technical (AAL infrastructure to help elderly people to keep their independence and to stay in their familiar environment as long as possible. SOPRANO focuses on in-house support and emphasises well-being. It is a main goal to secure situation-aware assistance and help not only in case of emergencies but particularly as well in activities of daily living.

  1. A participatory approach for selecting cost-effective measures in the WFD context: the Mar Menor (SE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perni, Angel; Martínez-Paz, José M

    2013-08-01

    Achieving a good ecological status in water bodies by 2015 is one of the objectives established in the European Water Framework Directive. Cost-effective analysis (CEA) has been applied for selecting measures to achieve this goal, but this appraisal technique requires technical and economic information that is not always available. In addition, there are often local insights that can only be identified by engaging multiple stakeholders in a participatory process. This paper proposes to combine CEA with the active involvement of stakeholders for selecting cost-effective measures. This approach has been applied to the case study of one of the main coastal lagoons in the European Mediterranean Sea, the Mar Menor, which presents eutrophication problems. Firstly, face-to-face interviews were conducted to estimate relative effectiveness and relative impacts of a set of measures by means of the pairwise comparison technique. Secondly, relative effectiveness was used to estimate cost-effectiveness ratios. The most cost-effective measures were the restoration of watercourses that drain into the lagoon and the treatment of polluted groundwater. Although in general the stakeholders approved the former, most of them stated that the latter involved some uncertainties, which must be addressed before implementing it. Stakeholders pointed out that the PoM would have a positive impact not only on water quality, but also on fishing, agriculture and tourism in the area. This approach can be useful to evaluate other programmes, plans or projects related to other European environmental strategies. PMID:23669576

  2. Evaluation of a Tuberculosis Education Video among Immigrants and Refugees at an Adult Education Center: A Community-Based Participatory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wieland, Mark L.; Nelson, Jonathan; Palmer, Tiffany; O’hara, Connie; Weis, Jennifer A.; Nigron, Julie A.; Sia, Irene G.

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants and refugees to the United States. Upon arrival to the US, many of these individuals attend adult education centers, but little is known about how to deliver TB health information at these venues. Therefore, a participatory approach was used to design and evaluate a tuberculosis education video in this setting. Focus groups data were used to inform the content of the video that was produced and delivered by adult learners and their teach...

  3. How much does participatory flood management contribute to stakeholders' social capacity building? Empirical findings based on a triangulation of three evaluation approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Buchecker, M; Menzel, S.; R. Home

    2013-01-01

    Recent literature suggests that dialogic forms of risk communication are more effective to build stakeholders' hazard-related social capacities. In spite of the high theoretical expectations, there is a lack of univocal empirical evidence on the relevance of these effects. This is mainly due to the methodological limitations of the existing evaluation approaches. In our paper we aim at eliciting the contribution of participatory river revitalisation projects on stakeholders' social capacity b...

  4. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  5. Enhancing Collaborative Rule-making on Global Sustainability Concerns Through Participatory Design : A Research Agenda Based Empirically on United Nations Developments on Business Conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new opportunities for PD by pointing to social science oriented processes that may be strengthened by the theory and practice of PD. With a theoretical foundation in legal philosophy on legitimacy and steps towards a deliberative democratic evolution of norms of conduct for global concerns, the paper is concerned with opportunities to involve a global citizenry in the evolution of norms of conduct that may affect the lives and futures of individuals. The paper describes research potential for PD towards enhancing information technology assisted inclusion of views, needs and concerns of individuals in transnational rule-making. It does so by drawing on the process that led to the 2011 United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. This process exemplifies challenges in collaborative and inclusive global rule-making that that may be assisted by increased and informed deployment of IT in order to enhance broad and balanced participation in the rule-making process.

  6. Enhancing collaborative rule-making on global sustainability concerns through Participatory Design : A research agenda based empirically on United Nations developments on business conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new opportunities for PD by pointing to social science oriented processes that may be strengthened by the theory and practice of PD. With a theoretical foundation in legal philosophy on legitimacy and steps towards a deliberative democratic evolution of norms of conduct for global concerns, the paper is concerned with opportunities to involve a global citizenry in the evolution of norms of conduct that may affect the lives and futures of individuals. The paper describes research potential for PD towards enhancing information technology assisted inclusion of views, needs and concerns of individuals in transnational rule-making. It does so by drawing on the process that led to the 2011 United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. This process exemplifies challenges in collaborative and inclusive global rule-making that that may be assisted by increased and informed deployment of IT in order to enhance broad and balanced participation in the rule-making process

  7. Who needs us? : Inquiring into the participatory practices of others and what it means for participatory designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salgado, Mariana; Saad-Sulonen, Joanna

    In this paper we look at participatory activities as practiced by others, meaning practitioners not from the participatory design fields, and address the question whether we, as participatory design researchers and practitioners are still needed. By understanding what others do, we aim to better understand and articulate our own participatory practice and our own future role. The results of our inquiry show that participatory designers are needed, even in contexts where other participatory practitioners prevail, but that we should learn from them and collaborate with them.

  8. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without this support. Participatory budgeting is associated with eParticipation, where much is already known about the kinds of technologies supporting citizen participation and how they are used. This paper identifies (from the existing literature) basic processes which are common to most participatory budgeting initiatives and couples them together in a generic process model. Two cases studies are examined for different purposes. The well known Porto Alegre case is analysed to show how the generic process model is implemented in a practical example. The more recent Berlin-Lichtenberg initiative, however, is integrated with a purpose-built internet platform; here we use the analysis to understand how the internet-based technologies are used to support the various participatory budgeting processes. We identify a range of these technologies which are currently used to support different eParticipation activities and match them to the generic participatory budgeting processes. This results in a comprehensive picture of how known eParticipation technologies can be used to support participatory budgeting. The next research question (unfortunately beyond the scope of this article) is how to choose - which technologies fit which local circumstances and conditions?

  9. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudel Ruthann A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities.

  10. Institutional review board challenges related to community-based participatory research on human exposure to environmental toxins: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background We report on the challenges of obtaining Institutional Review Board (IRB) coverage for a community-based participatory research (CBPR) environmental justice project, which involved reporting biomonitoring and household exposure results to participants, and included lay participation in research. Methods We draw on our experiences guiding a multi-partner CBPR project through university and state Institutional Review Board reviews, and other CBPR colleagues' written accounts and conference presentations and discussions. We also interviewed academics involved in CBPR to learn of their challenges with Institutional Review Boards. Results We found that Institutional Review Boards are generally unfamiliar with CBPR, reluctant to oversee community partners, and resistant to ongoing researcher-participant interaction. Institutional Review Boards sometimes unintentionally violate the very principles of beneficence and justice which they are supposed to uphold. For example, some Institutional Review Boards refuse to allow report-back of individual data to participants, which contradicts the CBPR principles that guide a growing number of projects. This causes significant delays and may divert research and dissemination efforts. Our extensive education of our university Institutional Review Board convinced them to provide human subjects protection coverage for two community-based organizations in our partnership. Conclusions IRBs and funders should develop clear, routine review guidelines that respect the unique qualities of CBPR, while researchers and community partners can educate IRB staff and board members about the objectives, ethical frameworks, and research methods of CBPR. These strategies can better protect research participants from the harm of unnecessary delays and exclusion from the research process, while facilitating the ethical communication of study results to participants and communities. PMID:20637068

  11. Use of an interdisciplinary, participatory design approach to develop a usable patient self-assessment tool in atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCallum L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lori MacCallum,1,2 Heather McGaw,1 Nazanin Meshkat,3 Alissia Valentinis,4 Leslie Beard Ashley,5 Rajan Sacha Bhatia,3,6,7 Kaye Benson,7 Noah Ivers,6,8 Kori Leblanc,2,7 Dante Morra3,5,7 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, 4Taddle Creek Family Health Team, Toronto, 5Trillium Health Partners, Mississauga, 6Women's College Hospital, Toronto, 7Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, University Health Network, Toronto, 8Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: After identifying that significant care gaps exist within the management of atrial fibrillation (AF, a patient-focused tool was developed to help patients better assess and manage their AF. This tool aims to provide education and awareness regarding the management of symptoms and stroke risk associated with AF, while engaging patients to identify if their condition is optimally managed and to become involved in their own care. An interdisciplinary group of health care providers and designers worked together in a participatory design approach to develop the tool with input from patients. Usability testing was completed with 22 patients of varying demographics to represent the characteristics of the patient population. The findings from usability testing interviews were used to further improve and develop the tool to improve ease of use. A physician-facing tool was also developed to help to explain the tool and provide a brief summary of the 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines. By incorporating patient input and human-centered design with the knowledge, experience, and medical expertise of health care providers, we have used an approach in developing the tool that tries to more effectively meet patients' needs. Keywords: patient education, atrial fibrillation, care gaps, patient care tools, patient self-assessment

  12. The SAMBA role play game in northern Vietnam: An innovative approach to participatory natural resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Boissau, S.; Anh, H.L.; Castella, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The present article describes an experiment using the SAMBA role play game as a research tool in Bac Kan province of Vietnam, in the framework of the Mountain Agrarian Systems Program, a joint research project of the Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute, the International Rice Research Institute, the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, and the Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement. The role play game was a follow-up to intensive fiel...

  13. Scandinavian Participatory Design : Dialogic curation with Teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize, that when it comes to the design of future technologies, they actually have a choice.

  14. Increasing the general level of academic capacity in general practice: introducing mandatory research training for general practitioner trainees through a participatory research process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To obtain good quality evidence-based clinical work there needs to be a culture of critical appraisal, and strong bridges between the clinical and the academic worlds in general practice. AIM: The aim was to educate the general practitioner (GP) trainees to obtain critical appraisal skills, and through the development and implementation of the mandatory programme to gradually empower the GP community to achieve academic capacity by creating a link between the GP researchers and the GP training community. This was done by developing a faculty, giving teaching skills to GP academics, and research skills to GP clinicians; and creating an awareness of the potential benefits of critical appraisal in training GP surgeries. METHODS: Development and implementation of a faculty and a programme through a participatory action research-inspired project, with process evaluation from the beginning of the planning phase. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2009, we built a teaching faculty of 25 teachers among clinical GPs and GP academics; developed the training programme; and delivered the programme to 95 GP trainees. Some of the GP trainees later showed an interest in more substantial research projects, and GP trainers with no previous association with the research environment started to show an interest through their function as GP trainers. The GP academics of the faculty, however, felt that it was difficult to continue the engagement because of the still increasing demand for published knowledge production in academia. CONCLUSION: It is possible to support the development of general academic capacity in general practice using participatory design in collaboration with GP academics and clinicians, building bridges between academia and clinical work, as well as within academia between research publication and teaching. There is, however, a generic barrier in the regulation of academia itself.

  15. Using community-based participatory mixed methods research to understand preconception health in African American communities of Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Khaleel S; Hamm, Eric; Means, Toni

    2013-12-01

    The article discusses Arizona's strategic implementation and evaluation of the first time motherhood initiative grant (FTMI) to understand preconception health among African American men and women in Arizona. Longitudinal focus groups assessed whether African American men and women in the targeted areas comprehended and recalled the messages related to preconception health. Matched pre and posttests assessed community members' knowledge of preconception as well as physicians' perceptions on preconception health and care. Focus-group data were transcribed and coded by independent coders to conduct content analyses. Inter-rater reliability and agreement among coders, bivariate and multivariate statistics were conducted for quantitative matched pre and posttests data using SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The social marketing campaign had limited impact in recall and comprehension of the preconception health message among African American men and women. Data from focus groups revealed that African American men and women perceived preconception health to be vital. And results from the pretest and posttests of community-based presentations, further supported this finding. Evidence from Grand Round presentations indicated that practitioners and health care providers had diverging views on preconception health. Use of community-based participatory mixed methods research can facilitate better understanding of the efficacy of strategic interventions such as FTMI and can provide valuable information on preconception health. Cost limitations often prohibit extensive evaluation of social marketing campaigns, hence, evaluators and researchers should assess the feasibility of conducting an efficacy study versus an effectiveness study in evaluating social marketing campaigns. PMID:23229170

  16. Participatory systems mapping for sustainable consumption: Discussion of a method promoting systemic insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedlacko, Michal; Martinuzzi, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes our usage of and experience with the method of participatory systems mapping. The method, developed for the purpose of facilitating knowledge brokerage, builds on participatory modelling approaches and applications and was used in several events involving both researchers and policy makers. The paper presents and discusses examples of how different types of participatory interaction with causal loop diagrams (‘system maps’) produced different insights on issues related to sustainable consumption and enabled participatory reflection and sharing of knowledge. Together, these insights support a systemic understanding of the issues and Thus the method provides instruments for coping with complexity when formulating policies for sustainable consumption. Furthermore the paper discusses the ability of the method—and its limits—to connect mental models of participants through structured discussion and thus bridge boundaries between different communities.

  17. Participatory systems mapping for sustainable consumption : Discussion of a method promoting systemic insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedlacko, Michal; Martinuzzi, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes our usage of and experience with the method of participatory systems mapping. The method, developed for the purpose of facilitating knowledge brokerage, builds on participatory modelling approaches and applications and was used in several events involving both researchers and policy makers. The paper presents and discusses examples of how different types of participatory interaction with causal loop diagrams (‘system maps’) produced different insights on issues related to sustainable consumption and enabled participatory reflection and sharing of knowledge. Together, these insights support a systemic understanding of the issues and Thus the method provides instruments for coping with complexity when formulating policies for sustainable consumption. Furthermore the paper discusses the ability of the method—and its limits—to connect mental models of participants through structured discussion and thus bridge boundaries between different communities.

  18. Curriculum Development to Increase Minority Research Literacy for HIV Prevention Research: A CBPR Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Malika Roman; Brown, Andre L.; Eley, Natalie; Mathews, Allison; Batten, Kendra; Rogers, Randy; Powell, Noah; White, Caressa; Underwood, Rosalee; MacQueen, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Minority engagement in HIV prevention research can improve the process and products of research. Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to develop capacity-building tools can promote community awareness of HIV prevention, clinical research, and community roles in research. Objectives We sought to describe a CBPR approach to curriculum development to increase HIV prevention research literacy among Blacks ages 18 to 30. Methods Community members and researchers documented the iterative and participatory nature of curriculum development and lessons learned. Results/Lessons Learned We used specific strategies to support and verify multi-stakeholder engagement, team building, capacity building, and shared decision making. Objective or formal assessments of baseline capacity, ongoing stakeholder engagement, and reinforcing the value of multiple perspectives can promote further equity in curriculum development between researchers and community members. Conclusions The iterative process of shared discussion, development, and consensus building strengthened collaboration between stakeholder groups and produced a stronger, more culturally appropriate curriculum to promote HIV prevention research engagement among young Blacks. PMID:25727984

  19. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Zagozewski; Ian Judd-Henrey; Suzie Nilson; Lalita Bharadwaj

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatche...

  20. Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyednezami Nasrin; Nabipour Iraj; Pazoki Raha; Imami Seyed

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) ...

  1. Factors influencing performance of health workers in the management of seriously sick children at a Kenyan tertiary hospital--participatory action research.

    OpenAIRE

    Irimu, Gw; Greene, A.; Gathara, D.; Kihara, H.; Maina, C.; Mbori-ngacha, D.; Zurovac, D.; Migiro, S.; English, M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implementation of World Health Organization case management guidelines for serious childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. Facilitators of and barriers to implementation of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have not been explored. METHODS: This ethnographic study based on the theory of participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya's largest teaching hospital. The primary intervention c...

  2. Factors influencing performance of health workers in the management of seriously sick children at a Kenyan tertiary hospital - participatory action research

    OpenAIRE

    Irimu, Gw; Greene, A.; Gathara, D.; Kihara, H.; Maina, C.; Mbori-ngacha, D.; Zurovac, D.; Migiro, S.; English, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Implementation of World Health Organization case management guidelines for serious childhood illnesses remains a challenge in hospitals in low-income countries. Facilitators of and barriers to implementation of locally adapted clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have not been explored. Methods. This ethnographic study based on the theory of participatory action research (PAR) was conducted in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya's largest teaching hospital. The primary intervention c...

  3. Requirements for Participatory Framework on Governmental Policy Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birut? PITR?NAIT?

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes’ expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.

  4. Resilience Management in Social-ecological Systems: a Working Hypothesis for a Participatory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Norberg

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to natural resource management are often based on a presumed ability to predict probabilistic responses to management and external drivers such as climate. They also tend to assume that the manager is outside the system being managed. However, where the objectives include long-term sustainability, linked social-ecological systems (SESs behave as complex adaptive systems, with the managers as integral components of the system. Moreover, uncertainties are large and it may be difficult to reduce them as fast as the system changes. Sustainability involves maintaining the functionality of a system when it is perturbed, or maintaining the elements needed to renew or reorganize if a large perturbation radically alters structure and function. The ability to do this is termed “resilience.” This paper presents an evolving approach to analyzing resilience in SESs, as a basis for managing resilience. We propose a framework with four steps, involving close involvement of SES stakeholders. It begins with a stakeholder-led development of a conceptual model of the system, including its historical profile (how it got to be what it is and preliminary assessments of the drivers of the supply of key ecosystem goods and services. Step 2 deals with identifying the range of unpredictable and uncontrollable drivers, stakeholder visions for the future, and contrasting possible future policies, weaving these three factors into a limited set of future scenarios. Step 3 uses the outputs from steps 1 and 2 to explore the SES for resilience in an iterative way. It generally includes the development of simple models of the system’s dynamics for exploring attributes that affect resilience. Step 4 is a stakeholder evaluation of the process and outcomes in terms of policy and management implications. This approach to resilience analysis is illustrated using two stylized examples.

  5. Game over or play it again and again. : participatory design approach within Special Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Tobiasson, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Activities that are fun, social, engaging and put something at stake are positive for your health no matter age or condition. What can you do if you suffer from dementia and are living at a Special Housing? According to research you should dance, visit the garden, get tactile massage discuss artworks etc. Still, despite all these proposals there are many voices from this domain, telling stories about living without live. Suffering from dementia may affect your ability to speak for your self a...

  6. Participatory Data Analysis Alongside Co-Researchers Who Have Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is comparatively little published research that transparently charts the contribution of people with an intellectual disability to a collaborative research process. This paper illustrates the process of data analysis in a project located within the Emancipatory Disability Research (EDR) paradigm. Materials and Methods: Textual…

  7. Digital publics and participatory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. McNely

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.

  8. Building capacity for community-based participatory research for health disparities in Canada: the case of "Partnerships in Community Health Research".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Jeffrey R; Creighton, Genevieve; Nixon, Sean; Frankish, James

    2011-03-01

    Enthusiasm for community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasing among health researchers and practitioners in addressing health disparities. Although there are many benefits of CBPR, such as its ability to democratize knowledge and link research to community action and social change, there are also perils that researchers can encounter that can threaten the integrity of the research and undermine relationships. Despite the increasing demand for CBPR-qualified individuals, few programs exist that are capable of facilitating in-depth and experiential training for both students and those working in communities. This article reviews the Partnerships in Community Health Research (PCHR), a training program at the University of British Columbia that between 2001 and 2009 has equipped graduate student and community-based learners with knowledge, skills, and experience to engage together more effectively using CBPR. With case studies of PCHR learner projects, this article illustrates some of the important successes and lessons learned in preparing CBPR-qualified researchers and community-based professionals in Canada. PMID:21057046

  9. Perspectives on Past and Present Waste Disposal Practices: A Community-Based Participatory Research Project in Three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozewski, Rebecca; Judd-Henrey, Ian; Nilson, Suzie; Bharadwaj, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    The impact of current and historical waste disposal practices on the environment and human health of Indigenous people in First Nations communities has yet to be adequately addressed. Solid waste disposal has been identified as a major environmental threat to First Nations Communities. A community-based participatory research project (CBPR) was initiated by the Saskatoon Tribal Council Health and Family Services Incorporated to investigate concerns related to waste disposal in three Saskatchewan First Nations Communities. Utilizing a qualitative approach, we aimed to gain an understanding of past and present waste disposal practices and to identify any human and environmental health concerns related to these practices. One to one interviews and sharing circles were conducted with Elders. Elders were asked to share their perspectives on past and present waste disposal practices and to comment on the possible impacts these practices may have on the environment and community health. Historically waste disposal practices were similar among communities. The homeowner generated small volumes of waste, was exclusively responsible for disposal and utilized a backyard pit. Overtime waste disposal evolved to weekly pick-up of un-segregated garbage with waste disposal and open trash burning in a community dump site. Dump site locations and open trash burning were identified as significant health issues related to waste disposal practices in these communities. This research raises issues of inequity in the management of waste in First Nations Communities. It highlights the need for long-term sustainable funding to support community-based waste disposal and management strategies and the development of First Nations centered and delivered educational programs to encourage the adoption and implementation of waste reduction, reutilization and recycling activities in these communities. PMID:21573032

  10. Living Action Research in Course Design: Centering Participatory and Social Justice Principles and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Morgan; Hammett, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Action research (AR) courses provide openings in higher education to engage students, schools and communities in democratic and socially just ways within the contexts of research, classroom learning and broader social interactions. Such opportunities are strengthened when instructors design AR courses with the goal of enabling students to…

  11. Community and Connection in Inclusive Early-Childhood Education: A Participatory Action Research Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Puig, Victoria I.; Evenson, Tara L.; Beresford, Madeleine

    2012-01-01

    There are many resources that describe high-quality inclusive practices in early education as well as the necessary competencies for early-childhood practitioners working in inclusive settings. Yet, despite important initiatives in the field, a discrepancy between research and practice remains. In an effort to narrow this research-to-practice gap…

  12. Metodologia de la Investigacion Participativa (The Methodology of Participatory Research). Cuadernos del CREFAL 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopo, Boris P.

    The traditional educational method has focused on a passive stand from the learner. This passive stand can hinder creativity and analytical thinking. This work concentrates on a presentation of the Participant Research educational method. Participant Research is an adult-education method in which the learner can have an active role in his…

  13. Farmer-participatory integrated watershed management: Adarsha watershed, Kothapally India - an innovative and upscalable approach: case 7

    OpenAIRE

    Sp, Wani; Hp, Singh; Tk, Sreedevi; Pathak, P.; Tj, Rego; Shiferaw, B.; Sr, Iyer

    2006-01-01

    This is a reprint from the book entitled "Research Towards Integrated Natural Resources Management: Examples of Research Problems, Approaches and Partnerships in Action in the CGIAR" ( Hat-wood, R.R.; Kassam, A.H. eds.).which briefly describes the tools and methods used in research and development for integrated natural resources management. They have been evolving over the years in order to tackle the complexities of farming systems in marginal areas, and the issues of environmental change i...

  14. Priority water research questions for South Africa developed through participatory processes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RM, Siebrits; K, Winter; J, Barnes; MC, Dent; G, Ekama; M, Ginster; J, Harrison; B, Jackson; I, Jacobs; A, Jordaan; HC, Kasan; W, Kloppers; R, le Roux; J, Maree; MNB, Momba; AV, Munnik; J, O' Keeffe; R, Schulze; M, Silberbauer; D, Still; JE, van Zyl.

    2014-04-03

    Full Text Available This paper describes a collaborative process of identifying and prioritising current and future water research questions from a wide range of water specialists within South Africa. Over 1 600 questions were collected, reduced in number and prioritised by specialists working in water research and pra [...] ctice. A total of 59 questions were finally proposed as an outcome of the study and are categorised under the themes of change, data, ecosystems, governance, innovation and resources. The questions range in scale, challenge and urgency, and are also aligned with prevailing paradigms in water research. The majority of the questions dealt with relatively short- to medium-term research requirements and most focused on immediate issues such as water supply, service delivery and technical solutions. Formulations of long-term research questions were sparse, partly because some of the principles and methods used in this study were difficult to apply in the South African context, and also because researchers are influenced by addressing what are believed to be the more immediate, short-term water-related challenges in South Africa. This is the first initiative of its kind to produce a comprehensive and inclusive list of research priorities for water in South Africa.

  15. Voting with their mice: personal genome testing and the "participatory turn" in disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prainsack, Barbara

    2011-05-01

    While the availability of genome tests on the internet has given rise to heated debates about the likely impact on personal genome information on test-takers, on insurance, and on healthcare systems, in this article I argue that a more tangible effect of personal genomics is that it has started to change how participation in disease research is conceived and enacted. I examine three models of research participation that personal genomics customers are encouraged to engage in. I conclude with an evaluation of the pitfalls and benefits of "crowdsourcing" genetic disease research in the context of personal genomics. PMID:21574070

  16. ""Redefining Canadian"": A participatory filmmaking, action research project with immigrant and refugee youth

    OpenAIRE

    Lui, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    Short filmmaking is explored as a site for immigrant and refbgee youth to participate in ethnographic research, collaborative community inquiry, and media activism. The Redefining Canadian project took place over 9 months in 2004 and was a partnership between lead video mentor and research facilitator Joah Lui, the Multicultural Youth Circle Action, the Immigrant Services Society, and Video In Studios. Utilizing experimental, documentary and dramatic aesthetics, the youth created five films t...

  17. FUTISTREFFIT : Participatory Action Research: analysis and evaluation of football as a community youth development tool

    OpenAIRE

    Wesseh, Cucu

    2012-01-01

    Wesseh Cucu. Thesis: Futistreffit – analysis and evaluation. Language: English. Content: 53 pages, 2 appendices. Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. Focus: Community Development. Institution: Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Järvenpää The aim of this research is to examine football as a positive youth development tool for Learning-Integration. It focuses on community youth work and uses action research as the prime method of analysis and evaluation. The subject of re...

  18. Creativity in ethnographic interviews : reflexive participatory observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses interviews as participatory reflexive observation. It is based on experiences of interviewing policymakers and researchers about knowledge and evidence in health promotion. This particular group of informants challenged an approach to interviews as getting informants to describe their everyday work life. By employing a methodological framework focusing on reflexive processes, interviews became consensual interactions, and the content of the interviews turned out to be analyses, interpretations and meaning making, that is, knowledge production. Interpretation and meaning making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process.

  19. Supporting Teachers as Transformative Intellectuals: Participatory Action Research in Human Rights Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Page Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Human rights education (HRE) holds the potential for educators to begin an honest dialogue with students and to connect local issues with international struggles for human rights. However, HRE and other teaching approaches that build understanding of systems of power and oppression that lead to human rights violations are not widely embraced in…

  20. O Comitê Cidadão como estratégia cogestiva em uma pesquisa participativa no campo da saúde mental / The Citizen Committee as a co-management strategy in participatory research in the field of mental health in Quebec

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo, Passos; Thais Mikie de Carvalho, Otanari; Bruno Ferrari, Emerich; Lorena, Guerini.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available O tema dos direitos dos usuários ganha centralidade na discussão contemporânea no campo da saúde mental. A partir da criação de um Comitê Cidadão, composto por usuários e familiares em uma aliança de pesquisa internacional entre Brasil e Canadá, propomos discutir os efeitos, nestes sujeitos, da expe [...] riência de cogestão promovida pela pesquisa participativa "Gestão Autônoma da Medicação (GAM)". Através de descrição detalhada do histórico do Comitê e de entrevista e análise de transcrição da voz de seus membros, problematizamos a relação dialogada entre o saber científico e o saber advindo da experiência singular destes sujeitos, em uma perspectiva metodológica de pesquisa participativa. Como resultado da pesquisa, observamos que a experiência do Comitê Cidadão na cogestão da pesquisa em saúde pode ser propiciadora do aumento nos graus de autonomia, maior empoderamento e exercício de protagonismo e cidadania, com a consequente emergência de sujeitos de direitos. Abstract in english The theme of users' rights has become a central issue in contemporary debate on mental health. Drawing from the experiences of "Comitê Cidadão" (Citizen Committee), consisting of users and family members in an international research alliance between Brazil and Canada, an attempt is made to discuss t [...] he effects of the experience of co-management of the so-called Autonomous Medication Administration (GAM - Gestão Autônoma da Medicação) participatory research project on these individuals. By means of a detailed description of the background of the Committee and interviews and analysis of the voice transcriptions of its members, the problems raised by the relation of dialogue between scientific knowledge and users' knowledge are examined in a methodological approach of participatory research. As a result of the research, it was established that the experience of the Citizens Committee in co-management of health research can be propitious to the increase in the degree of autonomy, greater empowerment and the exercise of leadership and citizenship, with the consequent emergence of subjects with rights.

  1. A Recess Evaluation with the Players: Taking Steps Toward Participatory Action Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Julie Yunyi; Langhout, Regina Day

    2010-01-01

    This playground study conceptualizes recess as a time and space that belongs to students; their inclusion in this evaluation is a notable difference from other recess/playground research. The goal was to help elementary school students make the changes they felt were needed on their playground. After conducting structured observations and student and recess aide focus groups, a report was presented to all stakeholders, and recess changes were made. We seek to show how the process of being inc...

  2. In the Midst of Participatory Action Research Practices: Moving towards Decolonizing and Decolonial Praxis

    OpenAIRE

    Hartej Gill; Kadi Purru; Gloria Lin

    2012-01-01

    Where disenfranchised groups such as women, immigrants and people of color more generally were either excluded from the academy or not thought to have important 'stories' to tell, several qualitative methodologies now value these voices, in large measure because disenfranchised research participants have an understanding in their bodies of what it means to be exposed to patriarchy, racism, classism, heterosexism, ableism, xenophobia and other complex forms of oppression (Gitlin, 2007, p.1).

  3. Cross-disciplinary Participatory & Contextual Design Research: Creating a Teacher Dashboard Application

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Troy D.; Michael Evans

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of Human Computer Interaction have crossed disciplinary boundaries allowing the discovery of underlying stakeholder affordances to emerge during the design research phase of system design. For the current scenario, middle school mathematics teachers as data-driven decision makers are inundated with diagnostic and assessment data, resulting in data deluge. The situation is unlikely to subside as digital technologies and media are broadly adopted for instruction and learning. Teachers ...

  4. In the Midst of Participatory Action Research Practices: Moving towards Decolonizing and Decolonial Praxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartej Gill

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Where disenfranchised groups such as women, immigrants and people of color more generally were either excluded from the academy or not thought to have important 'stories' to tell, several qualitative methodologies now value these voices, in large measure because disenfranchised research participants have an understanding in their bodies of what it means to be exposed to patriarchy, racism, classism, heterosexism, ableism, xenophobia and other complex forms of oppression (Gitlin, 2007, p.1.

  5. Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela K. Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure assessments demonstrate that the leaders of SLI have reason to be concerned about the health of people due to the presence of carcinogenic chemicals as measured in biomonitoring and environmental samples and important traditional foods.

  6. Experiences with Farmer Participatory Cowpea Improvement and Seed Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer participatory research is not only a significant concept today but it has become an essential approach to certain aspects of contemporary agricultural research. The CGIAR has already launched a system wide program on participatory research to assess the effectiveness of this approach in plant breeding, natural resources management and gender analysis. The need for participatory research arose when some of the superior technologies identified based on the tests at experiment stations failed to gain acceptance/popularity with resource poor farmers. In most cases, there was nothing wrong with the technologies but farmers did not have access to the recommended inputs and without inputs, the new technologies were poorer, equal to or marginally better than what farmers were using. The apparent lacuna was the lack of testing of new technologies in divers conditions including marginal environments without inputs to ensure superior performance under all conditions. Since all possible test conditions cannot be created at the experiment station, it is now generally agreed that farmer participation at strategic stages may be helpful in developing improved technologies intended for resource poor conditions and traditional cropping systems. The farmer participation ensures use of indigenous knowledge, farmer's perception about the acceptable plant types, seed types and use patterns. It also permits testing of selected materials in diverse conditions and farmer to farmer diffusion of improved technologies

  7. Music Therapy’s Effects on Mexican Migrant Farmworkers’ Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Social Isolation: A Mixed Methods Randomized Control Trial Utilizing Participatory Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, the agricultural industry is dependent on men and women from Mexico who migrate throughout the country to participate in the care and harvest of crops. They often migrate independently of their families and leave loved ones behind. Separation from families and difficult working conditions create high frequencies of mental health issues. When available, the farmworkers seek out treatment for the somatic symptoms such as high heart rate, upset stomachs, and difficult breathing often associated with depression and anxiety. Mental health counselors and facilities often are not able to meet the needs in culturally sensitive ways presented by this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music therapy on Mexican farmworkers’ levels of depression, anxiety, and social isolation. In addition, this study sought to examine how the migrant farmworkers used music-making sessions between music therapy sessions as a coping skill to further improve their overall mental health. Finally, this study sought to examine how migrant farmworkers engaged in the research process and how they valued their relationship with the researcher. This study utilized a mixed methods approach incorporating a randomized control trial with repeated measures and participatory action research. A total of 125 farmwokers participated in this study over the course of two distinct phases. Farmworkers in Phase I were randomly assigned to music therapy, English as a second language classes, and a stress education (control) group. Farmworkers in Phase II were randomly assigned to music therapy or a comparison stress education group. Farmworkers in the music therapy condition participated in 6-10 music therapy sessions during which time they learned how to play an instrument, engaged in song writing and lyric analysis, and group music-making. Results indicated that participants in the music therapy condition across both phases did not significantly improve their depression, anxiety, and social isolationscores compared to the control/comparison group. The farmworkers who did participate in group musicmaking between sessions did improve their scores more so than participants who did not engage in weekly group music-making. The farmworkers identified helpful and impeding aspects of the research through focus group interviews. They also identified components of their relationship to the music therapist/researcher that were helpful in establishing and developing a relationship with her.

  8. Rekindling Values in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from our PD projects, this paper shows how designers enact their appreciative judgment of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. The widespread of Participatory Design (PD), have meant that different approaches and conceptualization exist in this field today. We argue that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in PD. This requires focusing upon values as the engine that drives our activities in PD.

  9. From fire in the belly to a boiling heart: fuel for participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijane, Karima; Heyman, Carly; Bell, Maureen; Busby, Mary Beth

    2008-01-01

    It has been said that governmental bureaucracies lack the animating life force that is normally provided by the human conscience. Research efforts that include patients and their representatives in the planning and regulatory process can add back this animating life force, a force Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche describes "... that your self be in your deed as the mother is in her child-let that be your word concerning virtue." This paper comprises our invited introductory remarks as patient activists at this symposium, entitled "The Menstrual Cycle and Adolescent Health" and held in Potomac, Maryland in mid October 2007. Attendees included patients, patient advocates, and experts from a variety of fields and disciplines. While our stories have their share of pain, that pain developed into a passion to help others in similar circumstances. A consortium of passionate community activists interested in the menstrual cycle could play the role as a "governmental conscience" around this issue. Developing a community consortium initiated via partnerships between patient advocates and investigators could direct more attention and funding toward menstrual cycle research. PMID:18574202

  10. A recess evaluation with the players: taking steps toward participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Julie Yunyi; Langhout, Regina Day

    2010-09-01

    This playground study conceptualizes recess as a time and space that belongs to students; their inclusion in this evaluation is a notable difference from other recess/playground research. The goal was to help elementary school students make the changes they felt were needed on their playground. After conducting structured observations and student and recess aide focus groups, a report was presented to all stakeholders, and recess changes were made. We seek to show how the process of being inclusive during the evaluation was not only valuable for determining problem definition and potential interventions, but was also necessary to determine the best methods for solutions, move toward second-order change, and to create a space to facilitate children's participation and empowerment. PMID:20544270

  11. Performing Beauty in Participatory Art and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    2014-01-01

    This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts.

  12. "Charlie: Please Respond!" Using a Participatory Methodology with Individuals on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea Georgia; Lewis, Ann; Robertson, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a participatory research approach used with 10 higher education students on the autism spectrum (mainly diagnosed with Asperger syndrome). The methodology sought to overcome barriers to participation. Participants' views were sought on the benefits and challenges related to their participation. Most participants opted for…

  13. Examining how youth of color engage youth participatory action research to interrogate racism in their science experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takumi C.

    While many researchers have worked to address the unequal educational outcomes between White and non-White students, there are few signs of progress for people of color seeking entry into a STEM career trajectory. Starting from high school, the number of students who persist to complete a STEM bachelor's degree and obtaining a job in science or engineering continues to indicate that people of color are underrepresented. I suggest that research must consider the role of race and racism in the education of youth of color. Especially in science education, there is very little work addressing how racism may present barriers that impede progress for students along the STEM trajectory. This study is informed by critical race theory (CRT) that posits racism is endemic in society. White privilege enables the dominant group to maintain inequitable advantages that marginalizes populations of color. CRT also puts forth that counter narratives of the marginalized groups is essential to challenge the institutionalized forms of oppression. Using CRT and youth participatory action research (YPAR), this investigation re-imagines youth as capable of transforming their own social and political condition through research and action. This project asked youth of color to interrogate their own experiences as science learners, engage in research on structural inequities of STEM trajectories, plan strategic moves to challenge power structures, and take action for social justice. The youth started by exploring the concept of race and instances where racism was found in public spaces and in their personal experiences. They examined their experiences in science as a student more generally and then for racism. Then, the focus turned to conducting research with peers, observing science classrooms in another school, and using online information to compare schools. The youth planned strategic action against the racism they found in the analysis of the data that included conference presentations, using social media to communicate with peers, and teaching a science unit for middle grades peers using lessons that incorporated engaging teaching practices lacking in their student experiences. YPAR resulted in counternarratives that exposed youth encounters with systemic racism and their efforts to positively change STEM trajectories for themselves and their peers. Through YPAR, youth gained research tools and skills to critically examine the world and expose racism. While schools are purported to be places of equal opportunity for all students to learn and find success, the youth showed that institutionalized racism in schools created barriers to STEM aspirations. By planning and teaching a food and nutrition unit, the youth took aim at the institutionalized racism by taking on the role of teacher and expert while improving the science learning opportunities for their middle grades peers and themselves. In addition, planning the unit enabled the youth to conduct all of the activities before teaching the unit. Thus, the youth supplemented their own science learning. YPAR provided an empowering opportunity to challenge racism along their STEM trajectories and fight for social justice.

  14. Cross-disciplinary Participatory & Contextual Design Research: Creating a Teacher Dashboard Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy D. Abel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of Human Computer Interaction have crossed disciplinary boundaries allowing the discovery of underlying stakeholder affordances to emerge during the design research phase of system design. For the current scenario, middle school mathematics teachers as data-driven decision makers are inundated with diagnostic and assessment data, resulting in data deluge. The situation is unlikely to subside as digital technologies and media are broadly adopted for instruction and learning. Teachers could benefit from tools to quickly sift through this data to inform classroom instruction. Data should be visualized in a way that teachers can make real-time formative and summative assessments of student progress. The purpose of this article is to introduce a mixed-method mode of discovery to uncover affordances innate to classroom teachers during the design of an iPad data visualization application. These technology-assisted “dashboard” platforms could serve as efficient and effective interventions to deal with the copious amounts of data streams now available to teachers.

  15. Research and development approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter provides the guidelines to research officer who are interested to conduct research and development for nuclear application. Many aspects have to be considered such as safety, quality assurance, and knowledge on nuclear

  16. Participatory management of waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noosorn, Narongsak

    2005-05-01

    The general objective of this study was to develop a sustainable waste disposal management model in Yom riverside communities by creating a sense of ownership in the project among the villagers and encourage the community to identify problems based on their socio-cultural background. The participatory approach was applied in developing a continual learning process between the researcher and stakeholders. The Tub Phueng community of Si Samrong, Sukhothai Province was selected as the location for this study. From the population of 240 households in the area, 40 stakeholders were selected to be on the research team. The team found that the waste in this community was comprised of 4 categories: 1. Occupation: discarded insecticide containers used for farming activities; 2. Consumption: plastic bags and wrappers form pre-packed foods; 3. Traditional activities: after holding ceremonies and festivities, the waste was dumped in the river; and 4. Environmental hygiene: waste water from washing, bathing, toileting, cooking and cleaning was directly drained into the Yom River. The sustainable waste disposal model developed to manage these problems included building simple waste-water treatment wells, digging garbage holes, prosecuting people who throw garbage into the river, withdrawing privileges from people who throw garbage into the river, and establishing a garbage center. Most of the villagers were satisfied with the proposed model, looked forward to the expected positive changes, and thought this kind of solution would be easy to put into practice. PMID:16124458

  17. Evaluation of a Participatory Resource Monitoring System for Nontimber Forest Products: the Case of Amla (Phyllanthus spp. Fruit Harvest by Soligas in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Ticktin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing incomes from the sustainable harvest of nontimber forest products can help to maintain local livelihoods and provide local communities with economic incentives to conserve biodiversity. A key feature of a successful enterprise approach to the conservation of these products is a sound monitoring and evaluation program that involves all concerned stakeholders and leads to adaptive management. However, few studies have presented any of the approaches, successes, or challenges involved in participatory monitoring initiatives for nontimber forest products. We present our experiences using a participatory research model that we developed and used over a 10-yr (1995–2005 period for the wild harvesting of Phyllanthus spp. fruits (amla by indigenous Soliga harvesters in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. We describe the establishment and evolution of our participatory resource monitoring activities, compare some of the results of our activities to those obtained from monitoring using standard ecological approaches, and evaluate some of the successes and challenges associated with our participatory resource model. An initial step in this work was the establishment of Soliga-run enterprises for the processing and value addition of amla and other nontimber forest products. Participatory resource monitoring activities consisted of participatory mapping and assessments of fruit production, fruit harvest and regeneration combined with pre- and postharvesting meetings for sharing information, and adaptive management. Over the years, harvesters rejected, changed, and adapted various participatory resource monitoring methods to select those most appropriate for them. Visual estimates of fruit production made by harvesters at the forest level were very similar to estimates obtained using standard scientific monitoring protocols. Participatory research monitoring techniques that were effective included strategies for participatory resource mapping, fruit productivity estimation, and promotion of improved harvest techniques. Major challenges involved ensuring adequate incentives for monitoring activities that lead to benefits only over the longer term, such as monitoring of extraction and regeneration rates. Maintaining long-term participation and interest in the latter requires ensuring resource tenure.

  18. Communicative action: the Habermasian and Freirean dialogical approach to participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, H.; Fourie, L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995). What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communicati...

  19. Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services

    OpenAIRE

    Yonas, Michael A; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-...

  20. Orçamento participativo: uma abordagem na perspectiva da Ciência da Informação / Participatory budgeting: an approach from an Information Science perspective

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alex de Araujo, Lopes; Isa Maria, Freire.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva destacar a importância do orçamento participativo como fonte de inclusão social na sociedade intensiva de informação, em conjunto com os postulados da Ciência da Informação. O modelo participativo de gestão do orçamento participativo apresenta sinais de possibilidades de const [...] rução de um método provedor de democracia, e, nesse processo, a informação torna-se insumo inestimável. Nesse contexto, a Ciência da Informação surge como uma teia de formulações com laços concomitantes para que o acesso, a disseminação, o registro e a organização das informações produzidas sejam transformadas em realidades, sugerindo, ademais, proposições de ordem educativa para a cidadania. No atual momento de transição histórica e cultural da sociedade brasileira, comunidades e pessoas excluídas econômica e socialmente têm a possibilidade de participar do processo de gestão democrática mediante o orçamento participativo. Esses núcleos de compartilhamento de informações, conhecimentos e saberes tendem a contribuir para criar alternativas de transformação do espaço social, de modo a promover a inclusão dos grupos sociais menos favorecidos no acesso à informação. Abstract in english This work proposes highlighting the importance of participatory budgeting as a source of social inclusion in the intensive information society, in conjunction with the premises of Information Science. The model of participatory budget management shows signs of the possibility of constructing a metho [...] d that provides democracy, in which case the information becomes an invaluable input. In this context, information science emerges as a web of formulations with concurrent ties, permitting the dissemination, recording and organization of the information produced to be transformed into reality, suggesting, moreover, propositions of an educational order for citizens. At the present moment of historical and cultural transition through which we are passing in Brazilian society, communities and economically and socially excluded individuals have the chance to participate in the process of democratic management through participatory budgeting. These clusters of information sharing, knowledge and wisdom tend to contribute to the creation of alternatives for the transformation of social space in order to promote the inclusion of disadvantaged social groups in terms of access to information.

  1. Investigating the Design Process : Participatory Design in Agile Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design/methodology/approach – Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players and future users in the customer organization. The interview data were supplemented with company and project documents. Findings – The paper found genuine customer and user participation carried out by onsite customers and by other operational staff in the form of direct and indirect participation and with functional and democratic empowerment. The onsite customers played informative, consultative and participativeroles. The analysis revealed that planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the customer and user participation. This form of user participation supported a balance between flexibility and project progress and resulted in a project and a product which were considered a success by the customer and the development organization. The analysis showed that the integrative framework for user participation can also fruitfully be used in a new context to understand what participatory design is and how, when and where it can be performed as an instance of a design process in agile development. As such the paper contributes to an analytical and a design theory of participatory design in agile development. Furthermore the paper explicates why participatory design contributes to the successful completion of the investigated project. By drawing on innovation theory it was found that participatory design in agile development bears the characteristics of a successful organizational innovation. Grounding further explanations in complex adaptive systems theory the paper provides an additional argument why participatory design despite some identified challenges fosters project staff to successfully carry out the agile development project.

  2. Designers' and users' roles in participatory design: What is actually co-designed by participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellini, Flore; Prost, Lorène; Cerf, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    This research deals with an analysis of forms of participation in a participatory design (PD) process of a software that assesses the sustainability of agricultural cropping systems. We explore the actual forms of participation of designers and users by adapting an Actual Role Analysis in Design approach (Barcellini et al., 2013) to capture the levels of abstraction (conceptual, functional and operational) of participants' discussions. We show that: (1) the process does not only concern the design of the artifact itself, but also the design of the concept of sustainability; (2) all participants (users & designers) have a role in co-designing the concept (in our case, sustainability); (3) some roles and profiles are key to this co-design. We discuss our contributions to both the research and the practices of participatory design. These contributions deal with the production of a method and related knowledge about actual activities in participatory design situations. They may support the development of relevant training programs regarding participatory situations, or be reflexive activities that can help those who are involved in designing and leading in participatory situations, to make improvements. PMID:25959315

  3. Priority interventions to improve the management of chronic non-cancer pain in primary care: a participatory research of the ACCORD program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalonde L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lyne Lalonde,1–4 Manon Choinière,3,5 Elisabeth Martin,3 Lise Lévesque,3 Éveline Hudon,2,3,6 Danielle Bélanger,2 Sylvie Perreault,1,7 Anaïs Lacasse,8 Marie-Claude Laliberté1,9 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Équipe de recherche en soins de première ligne, Centre de santé et de services sociaux de Laval, Laval, QC, Canada; 3Centre de recherche, Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM, Montreal, QC, Canada; 4Sanofi Aventis Endowment Chair in Ambulatory Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal and Centre de santé et de services sociaux de Laval, QC, Canada; 5Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 6Department of Family Medicine and Emergency, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Sanofi Aventis Endowment Chair in Drug Utilization, Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 8Département des sciences de la santé, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada; 9AbbVie Corporation, St-Laurent, QC, Canada Purpose: There is evidence that the management of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP in primary care is far from being optimal. A 1-day workshop was held to explore the perceptions of key actors regarding the challenges and priority interventions to improve CNCP management in primary care. Methods: Using the Chronic Care Model as a conceptual framework, physicians (n=6, pharmacists (n=6, nurses (n=6, physiotherapists (n=6, psychologists (n=6, pain specialists (n=6, patients (n=3, family members (n=3, decision makers and managers (n=4, and pain researchers (n=7 took part in seven focus groups and five nominal groups. Results: Challenges identified in focus group discussions were related to five dimensions: knowledge gap, “work in silos”, lack of awareness that CNCP represents an important clinical problem, difficulties in access to health professionals and services, and patient empowerment needs. Based on the nominal group discussions, the following priority interventions were identified: interdisciplinary continuing education, interdisciplinary treatment approach, regional expert leadership, creation and definition of care paths, and patient education programs. Conclusion: Barriers to optimal management of CNCP in primary care are numerous. Improving its management cannot be envisioned without considering multifaceted interventions targeting several dimensions of the Chronic Care Model and focusing on both clinicians and patients. Keywords: chronic pain, community-based participatory research, health service accessibility, patient-centered care, primary health care

  4. Interactive Web-Based Visualization for Lake Monitoring in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Pilot Study Using a Commercial Vessel to Monitor Lake Nipissing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Wachowiak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and limnological monitoring is of interest to government agencies, researchers, and the general public. In communities that rely on and are heavily affected by lakes and their watersheds, accessible and intuitive presentation of lake properties influences and aids decision-making, interventions, and the formulation of environmentally sound policies. In this paper, interactive web-based visualizations are employed as a mechanism to communicate environmental information collected from a commercial cruise vessel. A pilot study is presented for monitoring Lake Nipissing, a large culturally and environmentally important lake in northeastern Ontario, Canada. This example of community-based participatory research suggests that: (1 policy makers and researchers can quickly gain insight into what is happening in the lake through visualizations, which helps to direct subsequent, detailed investigations; and (2 through accessible, visual presentation, community members may be encouraged to become involved in contributing to environmental policies that directly affect them, thereby supporting environmental “citizen science”.

  5. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers and researchers before, during and after design processes. View full text Download full text

  6. Participatory and persuasive telehealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duckki; Helal, Sumi; Anton, Steve; De Deugd, Scott; Smith, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in telehealth systems are primarily focused on sensing and monitoring. However, these systems are limited in that they only rely on sensors and medical devices to obtain vital signs. New research and development are urgently needed to offer more effective and meaningful interactions between patients, medical professionals and other individuals around the patients. Social networking with Web 2.0 technologies and methods can meet these demands, and help to develop a more complete view of the patient. Also many people, including the elderly, may be resistant to change, which can reduce the efficacy of telehealth systems. Persuasive technology and mechanisms are urgently needed to counter this resistance and promote healthy lifestyles. In this paper, we propose the participatory and persuasive telehealth system as a solution for these two limitations. By integrating connected health solutions with social networking and adding persuasive influence, we increase the chances for effective interventions and behavior alterations. PMID:21893945

  7. Implementing Participatory Water Management: Recent Advances in Theory, Practice, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Bots

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.

  8. Helping small-scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics: Linking participatory research, traditional research and simulation modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to link necessary research skills to increase the range of options available to resource-poor farmers in the study area. The research consisted of on-station research to evaluate and understand cropping-system options resulting from insertion of a legume crop into the sorghum and castor system, on-farm research whereby farmers evaluate cropping-system options that are of interest to them, use of 15N as a label to help understand the nitrogen (N) balance of the various options, and cropping-systems simulation to examine long-term climatic risks from possible options. Particular attention was placed on the option of sorghum/pigeon pea intercrops, and on quantifying the inputs of N from animal manure and by the pigeon-pea component. We were also interested in the process of linking on-station to on-farm research, and simulation modelling to the cropping system research. One important outcome was that different groups identified different problems and posed different questions. The problems identified and questions raised were examined by use of scenario analyses run for ten to thirty years which contrasted the existing practice with a range of alternative practices. The simulations were useful in guiding the design of on-farm experiments. Other likely outcomes are the setting of low-rate fertilizer recommendations specifically for the semi-arid tropics, the marketing of small packs of fertilizers, and increased use of manure resources for crop prodased use of manure resources for crop production. (author)

  9. Criticism and Self-criticism: participatory evaluation in rural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Ferreira Machado

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches some possibilities implementation of participatory evaluation,which is seen as an important dimension of the accomplished pedagogical work inrural schools organized according to politician-pedagogical principles of the movementof landless rural workers. Among the authors who base this study are Freitas (1995,Perrenoud (1986 and Pistrak (2002. The research of participant nature, whose maininstrument was the comment had with central objective to analyze where measuredcritical and the self-criticism as a proposition of participatory evaluation, reflected in thedaily life of rural schools. The results of the research show the value of systematicevaluation in the context of these schools. It was possible to see that a transformativeand emancipatory education can not do without the critical and participatory evaluation,which includes students and educators as subjects of the process of teaching andlearning. Although it is a practice complex and sometimes conflicting, participatoryevalution is essential tool for collective reflection and systematization of educationalactivities and actions triggered in school, so as to strengthen the educational project ofthe rural social movements

  10. Community-Based Participatory Research: Lessons Learned from the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Barbara A.; Edith A. Parker; Rowe, Zachary; Salvatore, Alicia; Minkler, Meredith; López, Jesús; Butz, Arlene; Mosley, Adrian; Coates, Lucretia; Lambert, George; Potito, Paul A.; BRENNER, BARBARA; Rivera, Maribel; Romero, Harry; Thompson, Beti

    2005-01-01

    Over the past several decades there has been growing evidence of the increase in incidence rates, morbidity, and mortality for a number of health problems experienced by children. The causation and aggravation of these problems are complex and multifactorial. The burden of these health problems and environmental exposures is borne disproportionately by children from low-income communities and communities of color. Researchers and funding institutions have called for increased attention to the...

  11. Benchmarks in Tacit Knowledge Skills Instruction : The European Undergraduate Research-Oriented Participatory Education (EU-ROPE) At Copenhagen Business School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Strömgren, Ole

    2006-01-01

    While the knowledge management literature has addressed the explicit and tacit skills needed for successful performance in the modern enterprise, little attention has been paid to date in this particular literature as to how these wide-ranging skills may be suitably acquired during the course of an undergraduate business school education. This paper presents case analysis of the research-oriented participatory education curriculum developed at Copenhagen Business School because it appears uniquely suited, by a curious mix of Danish education tradition and deliberate innovation, to offer an educational experience more empowering of essential tacit knowledge skills than that found in educational institutions in other national settings. We specify the program forms and procedures for consensus-based governance and group work (as benchmarks) that demonstrably instruct undergraduates in the tacit skill dimensions of knowledge thought to be essential for success following graduation.

  12. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brîndu?a-Antonela SBÎRCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.

  13. What's the use of 'well-being' in contexts of child poverty? Approaches to research, monitoring and children's participation

    OpenAIRE

    Camfield, Laura; Streuli, Natalia; Woodhead, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring, protecting and promoting ‘well-being’ are central to realisation of children’s rights. Yet definitions of the concept are both variable and can appear conceptually confused. Competing research paradigms engage with the concept and its measurement, while applications of well-being in policy are equally contested. This paper outlines some of the major debates, as a starting point for reviewing three contrasting approaches to well-being: indicator-based, participatory and longi...

  14. Values-Led Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities in PD. Drawing from the authors‘ own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding.

  15. A pesquisa-ação participante como estratégia metodológica para o estudo do empreendedorismo social em administração de empresas / Participatory action research as a methodological strategy for the study of social entrepreneurship in business administration

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Bidart Carneiro de, Novaes; Antonio Carlos, Gil.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente ensaio tem como objetivo analisar e discutir como a pesquisa-ação participante pode ganhar espaço como estratégia metodológica em administração. Esta análise enfoca em especial o campo do empreendedorismo, e mais especificamente o campo do empreendedorismo social, ressaltando as vantagens [...] e limitações da aplicação dessa estratégia de pesquisa. Procede-se, inicialmente, à análise dos principais paradigmas de pesquisa em administração e define-se a pesquisa-ação participante como modalidade de pesquisa crítica, inserida no paradigma humanista radical. A seguir, passa-se à identificação das características da pesquisa participante e ao seu contraste com outras modalidades de pesquisa, em especial com a observação participante e a pesquisa-ação. Os conceitos da pesquisa-ação participante são apresentados e os autores prosseguem apresentando uma revisão dos mais recentes trabalhos em que essa foi usada para apoiar pesquisas na área do empreendedorismo social. Concluem com a proposta de que a avaliação desses trabalhos se dê por outros conceitos que não os da pesquisa tradicional. Abstract in english This essay aims to analyze and discuss how participatory action research can be applied as a methodological strategy in business administration. This analysis focuses mainly on the field of entrepreneurship and, more specifically, social entrepreneurship, highlighting the advantages and limitations [...] of this research strategy. Firstly, the main research paradigms in business administration are analyzed and participatory-action research is defined as a research modality set within the radical humanist paradigm. Then, the characteristics of participatory research are identified and it is contrasted with other research modalities, specially with participant observation and action research. Participatory action research is then presented and the authors proceed with the presentation of a review of recent researches which it was used. They finish the work proposing that avaliation of works with this kind of methodology must be different then those used for traditional research.

  16. I WAS HERE: young mothers who have experienced homelessness use Photovoice and participatory qualitative analysis to demonstrate strengths and assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the participatory analysis process expanded the Photovoice methodology to facilitate self-reflection and an empowering collective dialogue among a group of women whose strengths and assets are rarely showcased. PMID:24830441

  17. Theory Building through Praxis Discourse: A Theory- and Practice-Informed Model of Transformative Participatory Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnar, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Stakeholder participation in evaluation, where the evaluator engages stakeholders in the process, is prevalent in evaluation practice and is an important focus of evaluation research. Cousins and Whitmore proposed a bifurcation of participatory evaluation into the two streams of transformative participatory and practical participatory evaluation…

  18. Empowering Smallholder Women Farmers through Participatory Seed Potato Management: Lessons from Welmera District, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohammed Oumer; Wudineh Getahun Tiruneh; Chilot Yirga Tizale

    2014-01-01

    Women are often ignored from research and development agenda although they play key roles in agriculture in developing countries. They are excluded from decision making and as a result, they frequently do not have access to resources, technologies and extension services, credits, inputs and markets. This paper aims to document, using qualitative methods, how participatory approach through Farmers Research Group (FRG) can address gender inequalities and subsequently empower women smallholder f...

  19. Participatory archive : towards decentralised curation, radical user orientation, and broader contextualisation of records management

    OpenAIRE

    Huvila, Isto

    2008-01-01

    The user perspective and user studies have received noticeably little practical attention in archives and archival science. The purpose of this article is to address the issues of communication and user participation in archival contexts. Two action research projects based digital archives are discussed. The insights gained during the research and development work are used to formulate a new approach to a participatory archive. In spite of the historical nature of the archives discussed, the ...

  20. Collective form generation through visual participatory representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant

    In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive information from participatory research takes a form manifestation in collective form conceptualization by a set of designers.

  1. Mobile Phone Based Participatory Sensing in Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.; Böhlen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Although many observations in the hydrologic sciences are easy to obtain, requiring very little training or equipment, spatial and temporally-distributed data collection is hindered by associated personnel and telemetry costs. Lack of data increases the uncertainty and can limit applications of both field and modeling studies. However, modern society is much more digitally connected than the past, which presents new opportunities to collect real-time hydrologic data through the use of participatory sensing. Participatory sensing in this usage refers to citizens contributing distributed observations of physical phenomena. Real-time data streams are possible as a direct result of the growth of mobile phone networks and high adoption rates of mobile users. In this research, we describe an example of the development, methodology, barriers to entry, data uncertainty, and results of mobile phone based participatory sensing applied to groundwater and surface water characterization. Results are presented from three participatory sensing experiments that focused on stream stage, surface water temperature, and water quality. Results demonstrate variability in the consistency and reliability across the type of data collected and the challenges of collecting research grade data. These studies also point to needed improvements and future developments for widespread use of low cost techniques for participatory sensing.

  2. A participatory approach to sustainable energy strategy development in a carbon-intensive jurisdiction: The case of Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: ? Fundamental transfosearch highlights: ? Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. ? We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. ? The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. ? The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. ? In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.

  3. Hacia un enfoque de investigación participativa para mejorar los sistemas de producción de caprinos en regiones semiáridas de México: una caracterización socioeconómica y ecológica / Towards a participatory research approach to improve goats production systems in semi arid Mexico: socioeconomic and ecological

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco G., Echavarría-Chairez; Luis, Iñiguez; Homero, Salinas-González; Manuel de J., Flores-Najera; Aden, Aw-Hassan; Alfonso, Serna-Pérez; César A., Meza-Herrera.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar opciones que permitan mejorar la productividad caprina en una microcuenca con dos poblados en las regiones áridas del norte mexicano. El estudio se realizó durante los años 2004 al 2007 y se basó en el enfoque de sistemas de producción. Se evaluaron aspect [...] os socioeconómicos y ecológicos al nivel de macrosistema para identificar diferencias socioeconómicas y con posibles opciones generadoras de ingresos, y determinar la idoneidad del área para producir cabras e identificar tierras bajo cultivo que pudieran reconvertirse en tierras de pastoreo. Además, en el estudio se midió la erosión hídrica y se evaluaron los cambios en la calidad de la vegetación en las tierras de pastoreo para identificar las intervenciones adecuadas en el manejo del suelo. Un aspecto diferenciador fue la escasa participación femenina en las actividades económicas del municipio, lo que dio lugar a que se recomendara investigar las opciones generadoras de ingresos para la mujer (i.e., procesar la leche y así obtener quesos que son demandados). Las 4,914 ha de la microcuenca fueron clasificadas como adecuadas para los sistemas de producción caprina, pero se detectaron necesidades tecnológicas para mejorarlas. Los análisis de erosión hídrica y degradación del suelo identificaron 807 ha que requieren ser reconvertidas de uso agrícola a campos de pastoreo y 208 ha de pastoreo a campos para vegetación nativa. Los resultados relacionados con la disponibilidad y calidad de la vegetación nativa a lo largo del año definieron consideraciones principales para el suplemento alimenticio con energía y proteínas, en particular durante la estación seca. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to identify research options which may lead to the improvement of goat productivity in a microwatershed involving two villages in the dry areas of northern Mexico. The study was carried out during 2004-2007 and was based on the systems theory. Socioeconomic and ecolog [...] ical aspects were evaluated at the macro-system level to identify socioeconomic differences and possible income generation options, to determine suitability of the area for goat production and to identify cropland areas to be reconverted to range production. In addition, the study assessed water erosion occurrence, evaluation of range vegetation and grazing quality changes to identify appropriate land management interventions. Poor participation of women in economic activities at the municipality level was a differentiating aspect that prompted recommendations for exploring gender-sensitive income-generation options (i.e. milk processing into highly demanded cheese). The microwatershed's 4914 ha of land were categorized as suitable for goat production systems, however in need of improvement interventions: results from water erosion and land degradation analysis identified 807 ha to be reconverted from agricultural uses to range and 208 ha from range use to native vegetation. The results concerning native vegetation availability and quality across the year defined major considerations for appropriate protein and energy feeding in particular during the dry season.

  4. Improving maternity care in the Dominican Republic: a pilot study of a community-based participatory research action plan by an international healthcare team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Gossett, Sarah; Burgos, Rosa; Cáceres, Ramona; Tejada, Carmen; Dominguez García, Luis; Ambrosio Rosario, Angel; Almonte, Asela; Perez, Lydia J

    2015-05-01

    This article is a report of the process and results of a feasibility pilot study to improve the quality of maternity care in a sample of 31 women and their newborns delivering in a public, tertiary hospital in the Dominican Republic. The pilot study was the first "action step" taken as a result of a formative, community-based participatory research (CBPR) study conducted between 2008 and 2010 by an interdisciplinary, international partnership of U.S. academic researchers, Dominican medical/nursing personnel, and Dominican community health workers. Health personnel and community health workers separately identified indicators most important to measure quality of antepartum maternity care: laboratory and diagnostic studies and respectful, interpersonal communication. At the midpoint and the completion of data collection, the CBPR team evaluated the change in quality indicators to assess improvement in care. The pilot study supports the idea that joint engagement of community health workers, health personnel, and academic researchers with data creation and patient monitoring is motivating for all to continue to improve services in the cultural context of the Dominican Republic. PMID:24793488

  5. HPV Vaccine Use among African American Girls: Qualitative Formative Research using a Participatory Social Marketing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Pamela C.; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Khabele, Dineo; Dean, Candace; Bond, Brea; Sanderson, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To generate recommendations for framing messages to promote HPV vaccination, specifically for African American adolescents and their parents who have not yet made a decision about the vaccine (the “Undecided” market segment). METHODS Focus groups and interviews were conducted with African American girls ages 11–18 (N=34) and their mothers (N=31), broken into market segments based on daughter’s vaccination status and mother’s intent to vaccinate. RESULTS Findings suggested that the HPV vaccine should be presented to “Undecided” mothers and adolescents as a routine vaccine (just like other vaccines) that helps prevent cancer. Within the “Undecided” segment, we identified two sub-segments based on barriers to HPV vaccination and degree of reluctance. The “Undecided/Ready If Offered” segment would easily accept HPV vaccine if given the opportunity, with basic information and a healthcare provider recommendation. The “Undecided/Skeptical” segment would need more in-depth information to allay concerns about vaccine safety, mistrust of drug companies, and recommended age. Some mothers and girls had the erroneous perception that girls do not need the vaccine until they become sexually active. African American adolescents and their mothers overwhelmingly thought campaigns should target both girls and boys for HPV vaccination. In addition, campaigns and messages may need to be tailored for pre-teens (ages 9–12) versus teens (ages 13–18) and their parents. CONCLUSIONS Findings pointed to the need to “normalize” the perception of HPV vaccine as just another routine vaccine (e.g., part of pre-teen vaccine package). Findings can inform social marketing campaigns targeting Undecided or ethnically diverse families. PMID:24491412

  6. O desenho de um centro de saúde para jovens: um exemplo de investigação participativa / The design of a health center for youth: an example of participatory research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Manuel, Calheiros; Joana Nunes, Patrício; Sónia, Bernardes.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O direito dos jovens à participação afigura-se como um meio para exprimirem necessidades e reclamarem os seus direitos. Contudo, a perspetiva dos jovens continua sub-representada na investigação aplicada à definição das políticas e práticas no âmbito dos serviços de saúde, sendo pouco utilizada na m [...] elhoria dos mesmos. Neste artigo apresentam-se os resultados de uma investigação participativa, na qual os jovens identificaram alguns fatores que promovem ou inibem a utilização dos serviços de saúde, e contribuíram para o desenho de um centro de saúde ideal para jovens. Abstract in english The right of youth to participation is a means for young people to express their needs and claim their rights. However, the perspectives of youth remain underrepresented in research applied to the definition of policies and practices within the health services and are seldom used to improve them. In [...] this article we present the results of a participatory research in the design of a health service with young people. The results indicate the reasons for the recurrence of young people to health services, as well as the characteristics of an ideal health center in their perspective.

  7. The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: a multi-level framework on maternal, paternal, and child health disparities derived by community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Schafer, Peter; DeClerque, Julia L; Lanzi, Robin G; Hobel, Calvin; Shalowitz, Madeleine; Chinchilli, Vern; Raju, Tonse N K

    2015-04-01

    Emerging evidence supports the theoretical and clinical importance of the preconception period in influencing pregnancy outcomes and child health. Collectively, this evidence affirms the need for a novel, integrative theoretical framework to design future investigations, integrate new findings, and identify promising, evidence-informed interventions to improve intergenerational health and reduce disparities. This article presents a transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network (CCHN) through community-based participatory research processes. CCHN developed a Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways (PSRP) model by building local and multi-site community-academic participatory partnerships that established guidelines for research planning and decision-making; reviewed relevant findings diverse disciplinary and community perspectives; and identified the major themes of stress and resilience within the context of families and communities. The PSRP model focuses on inter-relating the multiple, complex, and dynamic biosocial influences theoretically linked to family health disparities. The PSRP model borrowed from and then added original constructs relating to developmental origins of lifelong health, epigenetics, and neighborhood and community influences on pregnancy outcome and family functioning (cf. MCHJ 2014). Novel elements include centrality of the preconception/inter-conception period, role of fathers and the parental relationship, maternal allostatic load (a composite biomarker index of cumulative wear-and-tear of stress), resilience resources of parents, and local neighborhood and community level influences (e.g., employment, housing, education, health care, and stability of basic necessities). CCHN's integrative framework embraces new ways of thinking about how to improve outcomes for future generations, by starting before conception, by including all family members, and by engaging the community vigorously at multiple levels to promote resiliency, reduce chronic and acute stressors, and expand individualized health care that integrates promotive and prevention strategies. If widely adopted, the PSRP model may help realize the goal of sustaining engagement of communities, health and social services providers, and scientists to overcome the siloes, inefficiencies, and lack of innovation in efforts to reduce family health disparities. Model limitations include tremendous breadth and difficulty measuring all elements with precision and sensitivity. PMID:25070734

  8. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  9. Landscape and Participation: Construction of a PhD Research Problem and an Analysis Method. Towards the Comparative Analysis of Participatory Processes of Landscape Management Projects Design on a Local Scale in the Walloon Region (Belgium).

    OpenAIRE

    Droeven, Emile

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary reflection to the definition of a PhD research problem on the concepts of participation, landscape and project, led the student to be interested in the participatory processes of landscape management projects design, and in the inhabitants landscapes representations. The method includes the comparative analysis of local processes of projects design, and the direct observation of two Walloon landscape management projects design (investigation conducted with stakeholders implied i...

  10. Participatory Child Poverty Assessment in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…

  11. Facilitating innovation: an action-oriented approach and participatory methodology to improve innovative social practice in agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, P.G.H.

    1995-01-01

    This study focuses upon the social organization of innovation. It makes use of insights from knowledge and information systems research, development sociology, management science and applied philosophy and seeks answers to the following questions: What do social actors, individuals and/or organizations, actually do to innovate their practices? How do they organize themselves? Can this be managed or facilitated, and if so, how? The research is exploratory rather than conclusion-oriented and sy...

  12. Participatory action research: community diagnosis and intervention in controlling urinary schistosomiasis in an urban community in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaseha, I O; Sridhar, M K C

    Schistosomiasis is second only to malaria and is endemic in Nigeria. It has been reported that the infection is more prevalent, irrespective of gender, in the age group 5 to 14 years. It is least among the age group 26 and 55 and occurs mostly in the rural areas in the country. The infection is spreading from the rural areas to various urban communities, particularly the agricultural and fishing populations. In Ibadan, capital of Oyo State in southwestern Nigeria where the focus of this study is made, the infection has been reported among children and adolescents in six Local Government Areas. Students of Advanced Diploma in Health Education (ADHE) of the Department of Health Promotion and Education, during a community diagnosis exercise among primary schools in two communities in Ibadan, met with this problem. The purpose of this study is to mobilize the affected communities, with both internal and external resources through a participatory-action process, to combat the infection which is one of their major problems. Since the providence of schistosomiasis in target communities is age related, investigations were concentrated in 17 Primary Schools in the two communities. The investigation involved laboratory confirmation by collecting 147 urine samples from a total population of 676 children and examining them microscopically for the schistosoma ova. In addition, the quality of stream water and their vector presence were assessed. The key intervention strategy used was community mobilization of both internal and external resources of targeted communities. The striking outcome of the intervention study is that the outbreak of schistosomiasis in the communities was formally reported to the Federal Ministry of Health and the Oyo State Ministry of Health. All infected pupils were treated, the long awaited water scheme to replace the broken pipes was completed, and two new water supply schemes were implemented by the communities. Further, the communities displayed sign boards prohibiting community members from fetching water from "Dandaru" river for daily domestic needs. It is concluded that the combined efforts of all the actors helped the community to enjoy improved water supply and reduced their exposure to infection from the stream, which was the source of the infection. PMID:17686684

  13. Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumelkheir Belkheiri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center of the University of Sassari (Italy and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the project, all actors own/share all choices made and the technology used participating thus to the intervention sustainability.

  14. 4Sensing - decentralized processing for participatory sensing data

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Heitor Jose? Simo?es Baptista

    2010-01-01

    Participatory sensing is a new application paradigm, stemming from both technical and social drives, which is currently gaining momentum as a research domain. It leverages the growing adoption of mobile phones equipped with sensors, such as camera, GPS and accelerometer, enabling users to collect and aggregate data, covering a wide area without incurring in the costs associated with a large-scale sensor network. Related research in participatory sensing usually proposes an architecture bas...

  15. Participatory approach used to develop a sustainability assessment tool for wood-based bioenergy industry in upper Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Ashma; Mayer, Audrey

    2015-04-01

    Biofuel production has grown significantly in the past few decades as a result of global concern over energy security, climate change implications and unsustainable attributes of fossil fuels. Currently, biofuels produced from food crops (such as corn, sugarcane, soy, etc.) constitute the bulk of global biofuel production. However, purported adverse impacts of direct and indirect land-use changes (such as increased food prices, competition for agricultural land and water, and carbon emissions from land-use change) resulting from large-scale expansion of the crop-based biofuel industry have motivated many nations to further shift their attention to second-generation (non crop-based) biofuel production. Current R&D on second-generation biofuel production is largely focused on exploring prospects of using abandoned/fallow land for growing feedstock (such as Jatropha, short rotation woody coppice, Willow/Poplar species, Micanthus etc.), and on producing fuel that is cost-effective and compatible with existing infrastructures. The bulk of existing research on second-generation biofuel production concentrates on enhancing its technical feasibility and compatibility with existing infrastructure; very few have attempted to qualitatively determine and understand stakeholders' concerns and perception regarding this emergent industry. Stakeholders' decisions regarding land and resource use will play a crucial role in ensuring the social sustainability of any industry. Our research is focused on understanding stakeholders' concerns and perceptions regarding biofuel production in the upper Michigan region, where wood-based bioenergy development is being planned and researched by businesses, government agencies, and the local university. Over a century ago, the region's economy was dependent upon mining and clear-cut logging industries, which left the area once the resources were depleted. Since that time, the region has lost significant population due to the lack of economic opportunities, but the forests have recovered to volumes prior to the logging boom. Interest in a wood-based bioenergy production industry is growing, yet whether this industry can be developed sustainably is a concern. The main goal of our research is to incorporate stakeholders' concerns and knowledge into an expert-assisted sustainability assessment tool for a regional wood-based biofuel industry. Key stakeholders involved in the research include landowners, farmers, land management companies, bioenergy users, venture capitalists, interest groups, government organizations and NGOs. We used interviews, focus group meetings and a workshop to collect information from these stakeholders, which were then translated into social sustainability criteria. Multiple criteria analysis methods, Bayesian Belief Network and information collected from other studies were used to develop a final set of sustainability criteria and indicators. Our results provide a platform for experts and stakeholders to understand the local context relevant to sustainability, the state of the science, and will bridge the gap between scientific and non-scientific knowledge in the region. This sustainability assessment tool is intended to facilitate inclusive and sustainability-oriented decision-making for a wood-based bioenergy industry.

  16. Double helix of research and practice—developing a practice model for crisis resolution and home treatment through participatory action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Borg

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last five years Crisis Resolution/Home Treatment (CR/HT teams have been established in Norway. These teams provide an alternative to in-patient acute care services offering assessment as well as direct care. This paper addresses a method of examining the nature of practice models that are being developed in a CR/HT team incorporating the philosophy of open dialogue and the open lifeworld approach. The overall design of this research is action research applying a cooperative inquiry perspective. Multistage focus group interviews are used as a method for generating data, followed by phenomenological–hermeneutic approach in analyzing the data. Three themes were identified: (a “keeping the dialogue open” referring to the emphasis of openness in dialogues and opening up for a variety of perspectives on what's going on; (b “tolerance of uncertainty” referring to the need to accept and deal with uncertainty and multiplicity; and (c “nurturing everyday life issues” referring to the emphasis on illustrating clinical situations in detail through remaking of stories. The on-going co-processes of research and practice was a double helix that links the happenings in the practice with the findings in the research revealing the knowledge in practice and further developing that knowledge.

  17. Probabilistic Registration for Large-Scale Mobile Participatory Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Hachem, Sara; Pathak, Animesh; Issarny, Vale?rie

    2013-01-01

    One of the main benefits of mobile participatory sensing becoming a reality is the increased knowledge it will provide about the real world, as it is expected to rely on a large number of smart and mobile devices. Nowadays, those devices have the ability to host different types of sensors that will be incorporated in every aspect of our daily lives. However, given the constantly increasing number of capable mobile devices, any participatory sensing approach should be, first and foremost, scal...

  18. Improving the nutritional resource environment for healthy living through community-based participatory research. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  19. Participatory Design Meets Mixed Reality Design Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Emmanuel; Gauffre, Guillaume; Bach, Cédric; Salembier, Pascal

    Participatory design and model-based approaches are two major HCI design approaches. Traditionally opposed, the first ones promote user's creativity while the second ones support a more systematic approach of the design space. In Mixed Reality domain, combining these two aspects is especially crucial in order to support the design and to help the users to take into account the wide variety of emerging technologies. We introduce in this paper a solution to bring these two approaches together. In addition, we illustrate how the outcomes of this combination of formal and informal approaches serve as input for the implementation of the designed solution

  20. Building a low carbon scenario for France. How a participatory approach can enhance social and economic acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the French case study of the European ENCI-LowCarb research project: Engaging Civil Society in Low Carbon scenarios. The core activity of this project was the development of a methodology for the transparent integration of stakeholders' contributions in the scenario design process to enhance the stakeholders' acceptance of the resulting low carbon pathways. This attempt at integrating acceptability in scenario-making constitutes an important step to distinguish what is technically and economically feasible from what is acceptable. Today, a wide range of published scenarios emphasize the fact that they are built on public consultations or stakeholders' contributions. However, transparency is lacking concerning the methodology relative to how contributions were taken into account and translated into assumptions that can be used by the modeling tool. The project ENCI-LowCarb aimed at exploring this scientific gap. Energy scenarios outline possible low-carbon futures built around assumptions on fossil fuels prices evolution, technological choices and the mechanisms of energy demand and supply, among others. Scenarios are influential tools in political decision-making processes since they shed light on the long-term impacts of today's investment decisions, especially regarding infrastructures. This is why it is crucial that these pathways derive from discussions with main stakeholders. In this report, the French project team (CIRED and RAC-F) has the pleasure to present energy scenarios for France which derive from a collaborative scenario design process including the participation of a wide range of French stakeholders (civil society organizations including trade unions and non-governmental organizations, private companies, banks, statewide and local authorities). Participating stakeholders were asked to define or select acceptable CO2 emissions mitigation measures. Their contributions were implemented in the technico-economic model Imaclim-R France to create a scenario that is economically and technically consistent as well as acceptable by stakeholders. This methodology allowed an assessment of the level of achievable emissions reductions with stakeholders' 'acceptable' measures. This project report is organized as follows: part 2 presents the methodology of the collaborative scenario design process in detail, part 3 describes the low carbon scenario - the outcome of the stakeholder discussions. In part 4, other drivers of CO2 emissions and additional measures are explored. Chapter 5 introduces additional sensitivity analysis. Part 6 concludes

  1. Evaluation, testing and application of participatory approaches in the Czech Republic Consensus panel - Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives. Deliverable 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important part of the ARGONA project is the testing and application of novel participation and dialogue approaches. The ways in this is being done include a series of events involving different stakeholders such as a focused science shop, a consensus panel and an interaction panel. In the framework of these activities in the Czech Republic the consensus panel was held on June 12, 2008 in Rez and addressed the theme: 'Spent nuclear fuel management alternatives'. The main goals of this consensus panel were: 1. Identification of the main criteria relevant to the assessment of the existing alternatives and determination their importance (weight) from the perspective of all stakeholders; 2. Achieving at least a partial consensus on selecting the most suitable alternative (management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel). A broader audience was selected with a suitable mixture of specialists and interested technical and non-technical peers including representatives from NRI, universities, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of the Environment, State Office for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, representatives of municipalities and NGOs, and waste producers such as CEZ plc etc. In opinion of all participants, there was a 'safe space' for debate ensured and everyone had the same opportunity to express his opinion. All participants also agreed that the whole course of seminar was transparent and correct. From this perspective, the chosencorrect. From this perspective, the chosen format of dialogue seems appropriate to ensure the exchange of new information and mutual discussion among the interested parties on the contentious issues in the NWM and nuclear energy in general. It was also found, however, that at present the social and political problems are the most important and the most urgent problems in the field of the nuclear waste management in the Czech Republic. It is very important not only to ensure a safe space for meaningful communication, but also: - To increase the activities of relevant state institutions in communication with the public in the field of NWM and enhance public confidence in the state institutions. - To develop motivation programs as another way how to incite the public interest and to positively influence their attitude towards the radioactive waste disposal, siting of the geological repository, and nuclear power production in general. - To strengthen the political responsibility - a long-lasting consistent and clear political attitude of the government and government parties concerning the problems of the final disposal of spent fuel is lacking in the Czech Republic. The general public misses the necessary long-term guarantees. Recommendations for the organization of further activities: - To select appropriate topics with clearly formulated questions taking into account the character of participants - other issues can be discussed within the scientific community and others in the wider discussion with the public participation. - To use service a professional mediator (as an impartial and independent person managing the whole course of the discussion) to facilitate communication among interested parties during the discussion. This applies mainly in the discussions on contentious issues such as selection of appropriate nuclear waste management alternative or the deep repository siting. - To ensure participation of representatives of state institution such as Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry for Regional Development and also representatives of government parties. This is one of the most important prerequisites in order that discussion would be relevant and meaningful and the conclusions obtained could be used practically. - To proceed step by step and set smaller goals - The current situation in the field of NWM in the Czech Republic makes it impossible to achieve consensus among all stakeholders on controversial issues, such as the siting of the deep repository or selecting the optimal alternative to nuclear waste management. There

  2. Relational Expertise in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2014-01-01

    This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social status. We illustrate our theoretical argument for a relational expertise with a running example from a participatory design process engaging an interprofessional group of participants in a project on future technology enabled learning environments.

  3. Learning to deal constructively with troubled conscience related to care providers' perceptions of deficient teamwork in residential care of older people - a participatory action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson-Lidman, Eva; Strandberg, Gunilla

    2015-06-01

    Conscience can be perceived as an asset that helps care providers to provide good care, but it can also be a burden that generates stress of conscience (stress related to a troubled conscience). Participatory action research (PAR) has been shown to be successful in supporting care providers in residential care of older people to learn to deal with their troubled conscience in challenging and demanding care situations. The aim of the study was to describe an intervention process to assist care providers in residential care of older people to constructively deal with their troubled conscience related to perceptions of deficient teamwork. The study design was grounded in PAR. Nine enrolled nurses (ENs), two nursing aids (NAs), one Registered Nurse (RN) and their manager participated in 12 PAR sessions. All sessions were tape-recorded, and a domain analysis of the transcriptions was performed. Findings show that a PAR-based intervention can support care providers to understand, handle and take measures against deficient teamwork. Using troubled conscience as a driving force can increase the opportunities to improve quality of care in residential care for older people. During the PAR process, participants raised their awareness of the need to view the team in a wider sense and that the manager and the Registered Nurse should also be members of the team to improve team outcome. To improve clinical practice, we suggest that teams in residential care of older people should be enabled to share and reflect on challenging situations that generate troubled conscience. However, as shown in this study, care providers might need support in order to facilitate and promote sharing and reflecting on what their conscience tells them. PMID:24867477

  4. Sustainability and power in health promotion: community-based participatory research in a reproductive health policy case study in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Rosilda; Plaza, Veronica; Wallerstein, Nina

    2014-11-28

    Health promotion programs are commonly viewed as value-free initiatives which seek to improve health, often through behavior change. An opposing view has begun to emerge that health promotion efforts, especially ones seeking to impact health policy and social determinants of health, are vulnerable to political contexts and may depend on who is in power at the time. This community-based participatory research study attempts to understand these interactions by applying a conceptual model focused on the power context, diverse stakeholder roles within this context, and the relationship of political levers and other change strategies to the sustainability of health promotion interventions aimed at health policy change. We present a case study of a health promotion coalition, New Mexico for Responsible Sex Education (NMRSE), as an example of power dynamics and change processes. Formed in 2005 in response to federal policies mandating abstinence-only education, NMRSE includes community activists, health promotion staff from the New Mexico Department of Health, and policy-maker allies. Applying an adapted Mayer's 'power analysis' instrument, we conducted semi-structured stakeholder interviews and triangulated political-context analyses from the perspective of the stakeholders. We identified multiple understandings of sustainability and health promotion policy change, including: the importance of diverse stakeholders working together in coalition and social networks; their distinct positions of power within their political contexts; the role of science versus advocacy in change processes; the particular challenges for public sector health promotion professionals; and other facilitators versus barriers to action. One problem that emerged consisted of the challenges for state employees to engage in health promotion advocacy due to limitations imposed on their activities by state and federal policies. This investigation's results include a refined conceptual model, a power-analysis instrument, and new understandings of the intersection of power and stakeholder strategies in the sustainability of health promotion and health in all policies. PMID:25432963

  5. Possibility of Implementing Participatory Budgeting in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Maram Al Maskati

    2013-01-01

    This research aims at providing a general overview about participatory budgeting as well as providing a studyon the possibility whether participatory budgeting can be implemented in the kingdom of Bahrain. The researchwas conducted with the assist of primary data as well as secondary data. The primary data consists of a surveydistributed to 52 samples as well as an interview performed at the Ministry of Finance in the kingdom ofBahrain. The secondary data revolved around some previous studies...

  6. Computational Approaches for Predicting Biomedical Research Collaborations

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qing; YU, HONG

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical research is increasingly collaborative, and successful collaborations often produce high impact work. Computational approaches can be developed for automatically predicting biomedical research collaborations. Previous works of collaboration prediction mainly explored the topological structures of research collaboration networks, leaving out rich semantic information from the publications themselves. In this paper, we propose supervised machine learning approaches to predict researc...

  7. The Big Sky Model: A Regional Collaboration for Participatory Research on Environmental Health in the Rural West

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Holian, Andrij; Adams, Earle; Jones, David; Knuth, Randy

    2008-01-01

    The case for inquiry-based, hands-on, meaningful science education continues to gain credence as an effective and appropriate pedagogical approach (Karukstis 2005; NSF 2000). An innovative community-based framework for science learning, hereinafter referred to as the Big Sky Model, successfully addresses these educational aims, guiding high school and tribal college students from rural areas of Montana and Idaho in their understanding of chemical, physical, and environmental health concepts. ...

  8. Getting the Most from Working with Higher Education: A Review of Methods Used within a Participatory Design Activity Involving KS3 Special School Pupils and Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Industrial Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, George Edward; Newton, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides education-based researchers and practitioners with the preferred research and design methods used by Higher Education Institute (HEI) students and Key Stage 3 (KS3) pupils applied within a participatory approach to a design activity. The outcomes were that both pupils and students found informal (unstructured) interview to be…

  9. A pesquisa participante e a intervenção comunitária no cotidiano do Pibid/CAPES / Participatory research and community intervention in the everyday life of Pibid/CAPES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Fatima Quintal de, Freitas.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as dimensões psicossociais do processo de participação e formação de um grupo de alunos da licenciatura de pedagogia, filosofia e ciências sociais, junto ao projeto Interdisciplinar-Pedagogia, no Programa Institucional de Bolsa de Iniciação à Docência (PIBID)/CAPES-UFPR. A atuação d [...] os graduandos em duas escolas da rede pública de Curitiba-PR privilegiou a construção e a implementação conjunta de um plano de ação em direitos humanos e redes de solidariedade na comunidade. Os trabalhos de intervenção foram desenvolvidos apoiados na proposta de pesquisa participante de Orlando Fals Borda, nos aportes filosóficos da educação conscientizadora de Paulo Freire e na perspectiva teórico-metodológica da psicologia social comunitária latino-americana. Foram realizadas, com os participantes do projeto, reuniões e oficinas semanais de capacitação, grupos focais temáticos e conversações críticas avaliativas. As informações obtidas foram sistematizadas e submetidas à análise de conteúdo, nos seguintes eixos: razões para ingresso no projeto Pibid; atividades realizadas e metodologias para formação e sensibilização; e dificuldades sentidas nas atividades e geração dos produtos. O desenvolvimento das atividades contribuiu para um envolvimento e compromisso com a realidade educacional, colaborando para a quebra de mitos a respeito dessa realidade, com a diminuição de receios e eliminação de preconceitos sobre as escolas públicas. Observou-se que as práticas participativas, comunitárias e educacionais fortaleceram uma proximidade entre universidade e escola, colocando a docência como possível escolha futura desses estudantes e, consequentemente, colaborando para o reconhecimento social do trabalho do professor. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the psychosocial dimensions of the participation and training process of a group of students of bachelor's degree in pedagogy, philosophy and social sciences, in the Interdisciplinary Pedagogy project from the Institutional Program of Teaching Initiation Scholarship (PIBID)/CAPES [...] -UFPR. The work of the students in two public schools in Curitiba-PR favored the construction and implementation of a joint action plan on human rights and solidarity networks in the community. The intervention works were developed supported by the participatory research proposal by Orlando Fals Borda, the philosophical contributions of Paulo Freire's awareness wakening education and the theoretical and methodological perspectives of Latin American Community social psychology. The project participants attended weekly meetings and training workshops, thematic focus groups and evaluative critical conversations. The information collected has been systematized and submitted to content analysis in the following areas: motives to join the Pibid project; activities carried out and methodologies for training and awareness; and difficulties in activities and generation of products. The development of the activities contributed to an involvement and commitment to the educational reality, collaborating to break myths about this reality, reducing prejudices and eliminating fears about state schools. It was observed that participatory, community and educational practices strengthened proximity between universities and schools, putting teaching as a possible future choice for these students and thus contributing to the social recognition of the teachers' work.

  10. Scientific Approach to Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar, V.

    2013-01-01

    Every piece of research aims to produce an answer to a scientific question. And it is reasonable to ask just how good an answer the research provides. Research is a form of learning, a way of increasing one's knowledge about the world. A novice in research always has some pressing questions – How to start a research project? In what order to proceed with the empirical study? How to make the empirical research more reliable one?

  11. Pesquisa-apoio: pesquisa participante e o método Paideia de apoio institucional / Support research: participatory research and the Paideia method of institutional support / Investigación-apoyo: la investigación participante y el método Paideia de apoyo institucional.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paula Giovana, Furlan; Gastão Wagner de Sousa, Campos.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da revisão da tradição da pesquisa participante, origens e tipologias, este artigo sugere a intercessão com o método Paideia, usando-o como estratégia para intervenção dos pesquisadores, o que vem sendo denominado pesquisa-apoio. Essa integração busca incorporar a participaçã [...] o dos sujeitos investigados no processo de pesquisar, considerando ainda a inserção ativa do pesquisador com suas ofertas e seu projeto. São apresentados conceitos do método Paideia, seu referencial operativo e dialógico, a metodologia da pesquisa-apoio, que integra tanto momentos participantes como de intervenção dos pesquisadores, com a construção de narrativas interpretativas. Analisa-se que as premissas do metódo destacam o esforço para a reflexão e a produção de conhecimento em três planos: do objeto ou problema, da sociabilidade/da instituição (relações de poder) e da análise de si mesmo (pesquisador e investigado). Abstract in spanish A partir de una revisión de la investigación participante, orígenes y tipologías, este artículo propone la intersección con el método Paideia, usándolo como una estrategia de intervención de los investigadores, lo que se ha denominado investigación-apoyo. El propósito de esta interven [...] ción es incorporar la participación de los sujetos investigados en el proceso de investigación, considerando también la inserción activa del investigador con sus ofertas y su proyecto. Se presentan los conceptos del método Paideia, su marco operativo y de diálogo, la metodología de investigación-apoyo que integra tanto momentos participantes como de intervención de los investigadores, con la construcción de narrativas interpretativas. Se analiza que las premisas del método destacan el esfuerzo para la reflexión y la producción de conocimiento en tres planos: del objeto o problema, de la sociabilidad/institución (relaciones de poder) y del análisis de sí mismo (investigador y investigado). Abstract in english From reviewing the tradition of participatory research and its origins and types, this article suggests that intercession by means of the Paideia method should be used as a strategy for researchers’ interventions. This has been termed “support research”. This integration seeks to inco [...] rporate participation in the research process by the subjects investigated, and also envisages active involvement by researchers, with their offers and projects. The concepts of the Paideia method are presented, with its operating and dialogical framework. The “support research” methodology integrates participatory moments and interventions by the researchers, with construction of interpretive narratives. This analysis shows that the premises of the method highlight the efforts made towards reflection and knowledge production in three planes: the object or problem, sociability/institution (power relations) and self-analysis (researcher and subject investigated).

  12. Adaptive Personalized Privacy in Participatory Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Agir, Berker; Papaioannou, Thanasis G.; Narendula, Rammohan; Aberer, Karl; Hubaux, Jean-pierre

    2012-01-01

    The participatory sensing paradigm, through the growing availability of cheap sensors in mobile devices, enables applications of great social and business interest, e.g. electrosmog exposure measurement, early earthquake detection, etc. However, users' privacy concerns regarding their activity traces need to be adequately addressed first. Existing static privacy-enabling approaches, which hide or obfuscate data, offer some protection at the expense of data value, but no privacy guarantees, wh...

  13. Participatory Research to Design a Novel Telehealth System to Support the Night-Time Needs of People with Dementia: NOCTURNAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Martin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the “smart home” to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities.

  14. Participatory research to design a novel telehealth system to support the night-time needs of people with dementia: NOCTURNAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; McCullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice

    2013-12-01

    Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the "smart home" to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities. PMID:24304507

  15. The role of computer modelling in participatory integrated assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a number of recent research projects, computer models have been included in participatory procedures to assess global environmental change. The intention was to support knowledge production and to help the involved non-scientists to develop a deeper understanding of the interactions between natural and social systems. This paper analyses the experiences made in three projects with the use of computer models from a participatory and a risk management perspective. Our cross-cutting analysis of the objectives, the employed project designs and moderation schemes and the observed learning processes in participatory processes with model use shows that models play a mixed role in informing participants and stimulating discussions. However, no deeper reflection on values and belief systems could be achieved. In terms of the risk management phases, computer models serve best the purposes of problem definition and option assessment within participatory integrated assessment (PIA) processes

  16. Challenges in participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order to develop an operational model which SMEs can use when they want to initiate participatory primary stress management interventions in their company. The development project builds on a process model for participatory primary interventions in larger knowledge intensive companies and the premises behind this model in combination with other theories which have been used successfully in other interventions. The project is only in its initial phases in conducting the intervention, but so far the preliminary results indicate that management support and allocation of resources is vital, that internal facilitators are important drivers of the change process and that easy-to-use tools are requested from the involved company actors. Given that the interventions in the selected companies are conducted successfully we argue that a new organizational capability to address work-related stress in a collective and collaborative manner is developed in the participating companies. With a successfully conducted intervention we mean that the companies have been able to implement their own change proposals in a collective and collaborative process. By developing this organizational capability we expect that the companies would be able to repeat the process with new change proposals. The research builds on observations, participatory action research, interviews and surveys.

  17. Play. Learn. Innovate : Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    „Play. Learn. Innovate. – Grasping the Social Dynamics of Participatory Innovation“ the title of this thesis describes how the complex interplay of unexpected events led to some burning questions and eventually to this thesis, which one could call an innovation*1*. During several years as a communication designer, a manager in retail, and a consultant I have been involved in several innovation projects from different perspectives. After experiencing that a major factor for success or failure of innovation processes – which always entail change – were people and how they relate to each other, I became curious to understand this from a management perspective. When I did not find any satisfying answers in the world of practice, I decided to return to the world of theory hoping to find answers there. However, I did not. After extensive literature studies mainly in the fields of social capital, organizations, complexity, and knowledge – but also drawing on psychology, sociology, and philosophy – I did not find any satisfying approach that resonated with my complex experiences in innovation practice where in the messy everyday of projects the only thing I knew for sure was that my role and function was interdependent with other people‘s roles and functions and that uncertainty was omnipresent. While I found many interesting and enlightening studies with brilliant concepts, methods and implications in each respective field, they typically either addressed the individual, or the group level, or the institutional level and they often were ignoring or excluding other disciplines and perspectives – in short they seemed unconnected. My impression was – in order to understand why this was the case – I had to go to the very foundations of management thinking – the research philosophy of management. The aims of my study were to better understand the theoretical foundations and practical implications of complex social interaction in organizational innovation settings. As I did not find any existing models or hypotheses that Iwas interested in testing I set out to discover how I could grasp complex social interaction across different units of analysis. Drawing on explorative projects I had the opportunity to conduct with students – we involved firms and used interviews and video analysis – I explored different theoretical perspectives in relation to practice. In further workshops and experiments I found evidence that play and games could be interesting perspectives to take in order to understand complex social interaction. I come to the conclusion that – in innovation settings – the social dynamics that affect the process are essentially about transformation of knowledge across boundaries. I propose a multi-level conceptual framework to understand and analyze social dynamics of participatory innovation in organizations – complementing research on knowledge transformation when facing novelty (Carlile, 2004) and participatory innovation (Buur and Matthews, 2008; Buur and Larsen, 2010). Further, based on this I carve out theoretical and practical links between innovation as a social process across boundaries, play and games, learning, and design in organizational settings. Thus, confirming and complement work in the field of play (e.g. Kaark, 2011; Sandelands, 2010; Mainemelis and Ronson, 2006;), learning and play (e.g. Brown and Vaughaun, 2010; Thomas and Brown, 2011; Kolb and Kolb, 2010), games (e.g. McGonigal, 2011; Mäyrä, 2008), and innovation across knowledge boundaries (e.g. Carlile, 2004; Nicolini et al, 2011; Buur and Matthews, 2008). I clarify how the proposed approach differs from system thinking and game theory – and I provide first evidence for that playful games are promising as a tool, a method, and a process to grasp and research social dynamics of participatory innovation theoretically and practically. I believe that the idea to use playful games in the proposed way is new and can provide new insights in participatory innovation. Further, I argue that this approach opens up promising way

  18. From Participatory Sensing to Mobile Crowd Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Bin; Yu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Daqing; Zhou, Xingshe

    2014-01-01

    The research on the efforts of combining human and machine intelligence has a long history. With the development of mobile sensing and mobile Internet techniques, a new sensing paradigm called Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS), which leverages the power of citizens for large-scale sensing has become popular in recent years. As an evolution of participatory sensing, MCS has two unique features: (1) it involves both implicit and explicit participation; (2) MCS collects data from two ...

  19. Improving adherence to ante-retroviral treatment for people with harmful alcohol use in Kariobangi, Kenya through participatory research and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othieno Caleb J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Harmful alcohol use has been linked to the spread of HIV in Kenya. It also adversely affects those on antiretroviral (ARV treatment through poor compliance. This study using participatory research and action (PRA methods sought to understand factors related to alcohol abuse and non-adherence and to formulate appropriate interventions in a sample of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA who were also abusing alcohol, at Kariobangi in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Entry into the community was gained through previous PRA work in that community and PLWHA were recruited through snowballing. Working together with the community members, the researchers explored the participants’ understanding of alcohol use problem, its effects on compliance to ARV treatment and discussed possible action areas through PRA techniques that included focus group and market place discussions; visual aids such as spider diagrams, community mapping and ranking. Follow-up meetings were held to discuss the progress. Results By the final meeting, 67 PLWHA and 19 community members had been recruited. Through discussions, misconceptions regarding alcohol use were identified. It emerged that alcohol abuse was poorly recognised among both the community and health workers. Screening for alcohol use was not routinely done and protocols for managing alcohol related disorders were not available at the local health centres providing ARVs. The study participants identified improving communication, psychoeducation and screening for alcohol use as possible action areas. Poverty was identified as a major problem but the interventions to mitigate this were not easy to implement. Conclusion We propose that PRA could be useful in improving communication between the health workers and the clients attending primary health care (PHC facilities and can be applied to strengthen involvement of support groups and community health workers in follow up and counselling. Integrating these features into primary health care (PHC would be important not only to PLWHA but also to other diseases in the PHC setting . Longer term follow up is needed to determine the sustained impact of the interventions. Problems encountered in the PRA work included great expectations at all levels fostered by handouts from other donors and cognitive impairment that interfered with constructive engagement in some of the PLWHA.

  20. Steering vaccinomics innovations with anticipatory governance and participatory foresight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2011-09-01

    Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st century is occurring in the face of uncertainties where the "facts are uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high and decisions urgent and where no single one of these dimensions can be managed in isolation from the rest." This article concludes, however, that uncertainty is not an accident of the scientific method, but its very substance. Anticipatory governance with participatory foresight offers a mechanism to respond to such inherent sociotechnical uncertainties in the emerging field of vaccinomics by making the coproduction of scientific knowledge by technology and the social systems explicit. Ultimately, this serves to integrate scientific and social knowledge thereby steering innovations to coproduce results and outputs that are socially robust and context sensitive. PMID:21848419

  1. Participatory visualization with Wordle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viégas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin; Feinberg, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the design and usage of "Wordle," a web-based tool for visualizing text. Wordle creates tag-cloud-like displays that give careful attention to typography, color, and composition. We describe the algorithms used to balance various aesthetic criteria and create the distinctive Wordle layouts. We then present the results of a study of Wordle usage, based both on spontaneous behaviour observed in the wild, and on a large-scale survey of Wordle users. The results suggest that Wordles have become a kind of medium of expression, and that a "participatory culture" has arisen around them. PMID:19834182

  2. Understanding Teenagers' motivation in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory Design workshops with teenagers (13-15 years old) we identified a range of means that designers employed in order to engage the teenagers actively in PD: Rewards, storytelling, identification, collaboration, endorsement, technology and performance. While these means were realised through the use of well-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame for understanding how various means may be employed to engage teenagers in PD activities.

  3. Reflections on a participatory documentary process : constructing territorial histories of dispossession among Afro-descendant youth in Colombia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velez Torres, Irene

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to discuss the use of a participatory documentary process (PDP) in human geography as a method of constructing critical visual information on territorial histories of dispossession. The process was also used to enhance social change both in conjunction with local communities and within the communities themselves. The project involved 14 local young participants and four professionals who collectively produced a documentary on the rural context of violence in La Toma District, Colombia. By enabling the reflections and intentions of young participants in the research process, PDP gave special value to their social and political commitment to supporting community social organisation, and provided fresh research insights into comprehending territorial conflict. The paper concludes that this method amplifies participatory and action research approaches in geography by producing knowledge that is academically and socially relevant. Such collective, emancipatory and anti-hegemonic visual representations and actions for social change in PDP are especially pertinent in spaces of conflict and violence.

  4. Learning outcomes from participatory modelling: A case study in the Tamar catchment, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others and discovering shared interests, but not necessarily changing their own view, behaviour or institutional practice. We conclude the paper with a discussion of two learning aspects of the participatory modelling process for which conflicting results were obtained: the question of depth of model scrutiny and the question of trust in the model, in the modeller and between the participants. References Krueger, T, Inman, A, Chilvers, J. 2012. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling. Paper Number EGU2012-5958. European Geosciences Union General Assembly, April 22nd-27th: Vienna, Austria.

  5. An action research approach to curriculum development

    OpenAIRE

    Phil Riding; Sue Fowell; Phil Levy

    1995-01-01

    Action research has been used in many areas where an understanding of complex social situations has been sought in order to improve the quality of life. Among these are industrial, health and community work settings. Kurt Lewin, often cited as the originator of action research, used the methodology in his work with people affected by post- war social problems. Action research approaches to educational research were adopted in the late 60s and early 70s by the ?teacher- researcher? movement ...

  6. Guiding Research: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrico, Regina Dunlavey

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates her library experiences in high school. She considers those trips to the central library in downtown Buffalo as the hallmark of her eleventh-grade education. Now, she observes how the old way of doing research in the library was so different from what is practiced nowadays. Students nowadays who are considered…

  7. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  8. USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Natasa GALEVSKA

    1998-01-01

    The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small nu...

  9. USING QUALITATIVE APPROACH IN SPECIAL EDUCATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa GALEVSKA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The text deals with some methodological problems in special education research. The limits of purely positivistic, quantitative, experimental research in the area of special education lately are overcome with the use of qualitative approach. Qualitative research are flexibly designed. The data are descriptive and collected in natural setting. Characteristics of the qualitative research make them more appropriate for investigation of the phenomena in special education, considering the small numbers of available subjects, heterogeneity, ethical and moral problems, etc.

  10. Possibility of Implementing Participatory Budgeting in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maram Al Maskati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at providing a general overview about participatory budgeting as well as providing a study on the possibility whether participatory budgeting can be implemented in the kingdom of Bahrain. The research was conducted with the assist of primary data as well as secondary data. The primary data consists of a survey distributed to 52 samples as well as an interview performed at the Ministry of Finance in the kingdom of Bahrain. The secondary data revolved around some previous studies as well as the assist of published books and the World Wide Web. The research analysis stated that people would love to see participatory budgeting being implemented in the kingdom. Finally, the author reached a conclusion stating that participatory budgeting can’t be implemented in the kingdom at the mean time but it could be possible in the near future by starting the execution gradually in one of the five governorates in the kingdom with the assist of the Municipal Council which was appointed by the citizens. The author also suggested for participatory budgeting to be taught in schools as well as integrating an online tool to solve the problem of participation through the e-Government Authority.

  11. Community-based participatory action research: transforming multidisciplinary practice in primary health care Investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad: transformación de la práctica multidisciplinaria en atención primaria de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Hills

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Health care systems throughout the world are in the process of restructuring and reforming their health service delivery systems, reorienting themselves to a primary health care (PHC model that uses multidisciplinary practice (MDP teams to provide a range of coordinated, integrated services. This study explores the challenges of putting the MDP approach into practice in one community in a city in Canada. METHODS: The data we analyzed were derived from a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR project, conducted in 2004, that was used to enhance collaborative MDP in a PHC center serving a residential and small-business community of 11 000 within a medium-sized city of approximately 300 000 people in Canada. CBPAR is a planned, systematic approach to issues relevant to the community of interest, requires community involvement, has a problem-solving focus, is directed at societal change, and makes a lasting contribution to the community. We drew from one aspect of this complex, multiyear project aimed at transforming the rhetoric advocating PHC reform into actual sustainable practices. The community studied was diverse with respect to age, socioeconomics, and lifestyle. Its interdisciplinary team serves approximately 3 000 patients annually, 30% of whom are 65 years or older. This PHC center's multidisciplinary, integrated approach to care makes it a member of a very distinct minority within the larger primary care system in Canada. RESULTS: Analysis of practice in PHC revealed entrenched and unconscious ideas of the limitations and boundaries of practice. In the rhetoric of PHC, MDP was lauded by many. In practice, however, collaborative, multidisciplinary team approaches to care were difficult to achieve. CONCLUSIONS: The successful implementation of an MDP approach to PHC requires moving away from physician-driven care. This can only be achieved once there is a change in the underlying structures, values, power relations, and roles defined by the health care system and the community at large, where physicians are traditionally ranked above other care providers. The CBPAR methodology allows community members and the health-related professionals who serve them to take ownership of the research and to critically reflect on iterative cycles of evaluation. This provides an opportunity for practitioners to implement relevant changes based on internally generated analyses.OBJETIVOS: Los sistemas de salud de todo el mundo se encuentran en un proceso de reestructuración y reforma de sus sistemas de prestación de servicios, reorientándose hacia el modelo de atención primaria de salud (APS que utiliza equipos de consultorios multidisciplinarios (CMD para brindar un conjunto de servicios coordinados e integrados. En este estudio se exploran los retos de poner en práctica el enfoque de CMD en una comunidad urbana de Canadá. MÉTODOS:Los datos analizados se tomaron de un proyecto de investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad (IAPBC llevado a cabo en 2004. Su objetivo era perfeccionar un CMD colaborativo en un centro de APS que atiende a una comunidad de 11 000 personas, compuesta por una zona residencial y pequeños negocios, en una ciudad canadiense de aproximadamente 300 000 personas. La IAPBC permite abordar de manera planificada y sistemática problemas importantes para la comunidad en cuestión, requiere la participación de la comunidad, se enfoca hacia la solución de los problemas, se dirige a lograr cambios en la sociedad y hace contribuciones duraderas a la comunidad. Se partió de un aspecto de este complejo proyecto de varios años, para transformar la defensa retórica de la reforma de la APS en una práctica real y sustentable. La comunidad estudiada era diversa en cuanto a la edad, las características socioeconómicas y los estilos de vida. Su equipo multidisciplinario atendía aproximadamente a 3 000 pacientes al año, 30% de los cuales tenían 65 años o más. Gracias a su enfoque multidisciplinario e integrado con respecto a la atención, este centr

  12. Grassroots ergonomics: initiating an ergonomics program utilizing participatory techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalk, D M

    2001-06-01

    The introduction of ergonomics programs throughout the world requires an easy to understand and inexpensive process. Participatory ergonomic intervention techniques have proven to be beneficial in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. The participatory approach to ergonomics has also been found to be a useful application within industrialized (developed) countries and industrially developing countries (IDCs). Grassroots Ergonomics principles utilize expertise within a workforce that focuses on participatory ergonomics interpretations of quantitative and qualitative risk and exposure assessment information that in turn results in a peer-developed ergonomics training. Regardless of the intricacy of the exposure assessment tools, workers should fully assist in gathering and analyzing data, then in identifying and implementing solutions. A coordinated and multidisciplinary application of this approach within IDCs would succeed in the creation and sharing of job-specific ergonomics training information for high physical exposure professions, such as agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining, and small-scale enterprises, to initiate ergonomics programs regionally. PMID:11378149

  13. Augmenting the Participatory Design Concept in Systems Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng QIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Participatory Design (PD is an effective tool for designing organizational systems where views, aspirations and the input of both the system users and developers are sought and reconciled in the development of a system. This paper attempts to highlight and identify the fit between the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM as applied in systems development and the tools of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD as applied in manufacturing and how that fit does enhance Participatory Design in systems development. By recognizing the complementarities of the tools of these two approaches (SSM and QFD, we can enhance Participatory Design in systems development. Findings from literature review show that a comprehensive application of this concept is yet to be done in information systems development. The approach builds on the seven phases of Soft Systems Methodology by applying the Quality Function Deployment techniques to elicit information from complex and amorphous real-world situations to augment the Participatory Design process.Keywords: Participatory Design; Soft Systems Methodology; Quality Function Deployment; House of Quality

  14. Possibility of Implementing Participatory Budgeting in the Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maram Al Maskati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at providing a general overview about participatory budgeting as well as providing a studyon the possibility whether participatory budgeting can be implemented in the kingdom of Bahrain. The researchwas conducted with the assist of primary data as well as secondary data. The primary data consists of a surveydistributed to 52 samples as well as an interview performed at the Ministry of Finance in the kingdom ofBahrain. The secondary data revolved around some previous studies as well as the assist of published books andthe World Wide Web. The research analysis stated that people would love to see participatory budgeting beingimplemented in the kingdom. Finally, the author reached a conclusion stating that participatory budgeting can’tbe implemented in the kingdom at the mean time but it could be possible in the near future by starting theexecution gradually in one of the five governorates in the kingdom with the assist of the Municipal Councilwhich was appointed by the citizens. The author also suggested for participatory budgeting to be taught inschools as well as integrating an online tool to solve the problem of participation through the e-GovernmentAuthority.

  15. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  16. Towards understanding participatory processes: Framework, application and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Smajgl, Alex; Ward, John

    2015-07-01

    Many scholars point out that in complex and contested decision-making and planning situations, participatory processes have clear advantages over "traditional" or non-participatory processes. Improving our understanding of which participatory process elements or combination of elements contribute to specific outcomes demands a comparative diagnosis of multiple case studies based on a systematic framework. This paper describes the theoretical foundation and application of a diagnostic framework developed for the description and comparative analysis of participatory processes. The framework for the Comparison of Participatory Processes (COPP) is composed of three dimensions: context, process, and outputs outcomes and impacts. For each dimension, a list of variables is provided, with associated selectable options. The framework also requires clarification of three monitoring and evaluation elements. The COPP framework is then applied to five participatory processes across five different contexts: three located in the Mekong basin in Southeast Asia and two in eastern Africa. The goal is to test first if the framework facilitates the development of a comprehensive and clear description of participatory processes, and second, if a diagnostic step can be facilitated by applying the descriptions in a cross-comparative analysis. The paper concludes that despite a few challenges, the COPP framework is sufficiently generic to derive clear and consistent descriptions. A sample of only five case studies restricts the derivation of robust insights. Nevertheless, three testable hypothesis were derived, which would need to be tested with a much larger sample of case studies in order to substantiate the efficacy of process characteristics and attributes. Ultimately, such hypotheses and subsequent analytical efforts would contribute to the advancement of this increasingly prominent research domain. PMID:25884891

  17. La investigación-acción-participativa: Una forma de investigar en la práctica enfermera / The Participatory-Action-Research: A way to research in the nursing practice / Investigação-ação-participativa: Uma forma de pesquisar na prática enfermeira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eva, Abad Corpa; Pilar, Delgado Hito; Julio, Cabrero García.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dentro do paradigma qualitativo da investigação, a Investigação-Ação-Participativa (IAP) integra o conhecimento e a ação; não há que esperar a que depois de produzir o conhecimento se produza a translação deste à prática. É um método que se utiliza desde faz várias décadas em disciplinas como a educ [...] ação ou a sociologia, no entanto é emergente no âmbito da saúde. Existem uma grande variedade de definições, classificações e modelos de IAP e com este artigo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigação, sua história, sua filosofia e sua utilização, dados seu potencial e novidade no âmbito das ciências da saúde. Abstract in spanish Dentro del paradigma cualitativo de la investigación, la Investigación- Acción-Participativa (IAP) integra el conocimiento y la acción; no hay que esperar a que tras producir el conocimiento se produzca la traslación de este a la práctica. Es un método que se utiliza desde hace varias décadas en dis [...] ciplinas como la educación o la sociología, sin embargo es emergente en el ámbito de la salud. Existen una gran variedad de definiciones, clasificaciones y modelos de IAP y con este artículo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigación, su historia, su filosofía y su utilización, dados su potencial y novedad en el ámbito de las ciencias de la salud. Abstract in english Within the qualitative research paradigm, the Participatory-Action- Research (PAR) integrates knowledge and action. It is not necessary to wait for knowledge to be produced to transfer it into practice. It is a method used for decades in disciplines such as education and sociology; however it is eme [...] rging in the health field. There are a variety of definitions, classifications and PAR models; this article aims to shed light upon this method of research, its history, philosophy and its use, given its potential and innovation in the field of health sciences.

  18. La investigación-acción-participativa: Una forma de investigar en la práctica enfermera Investigação-ação-participativa: Uma forma de pesquisar na prática enfermeira The Participatory-Action-Research: A way to research in the nursing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abad Corpa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del paradigma cualitativo de la investigación, la Investigación- Acción-Participativa (IAP integra el conocimiento y la acción; no hay que esperar a que tras producir el conocimiento se produzca la traslación de este a la práctica. Es un método que se utiliza desde hace varias décadas en disciplinas como la educación o la sociología, sin embargo es emergente en el ámbito de la salud. Existen una gran variedad de definiciones, clasificaciones y modelos de IAP y con este artículo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigación, su historia, su filosofía y su utilización, dados su potencial y novedad en el ámbito de las ciencias de la salud.Dentro do paradigma qualitativo da investigação, a Investigação-Ação-Participativa (IAP integra o conhecimento e a ação; não há que esperar a que depois de produzir o conhecimento se produza a translação deste à prática. É um método que se utiliza desde faz várias décadas em disciplinas como a educação ou a sociologia, no entanto é emergente no âmbito da saúde. Existem uma grande variedade de definições, classificações e modelos de IAP e com este artigo pretendemos arrojar luz sobre este método de investigação, sua história, sua filosofia e sua utilização, dados seu potencial e novidade no âmbito das ciências da saúde.Within the qualitative research paradigm, the Participatory-Action- Research (PAR integrates knowledge and action. It is not necessary to wait for knowledge to be produced to transfer it into practice. It is a method used for decades in disciplines such as education and sociology; however it is emerging in the health field. There are a variety of definitions, classifications and PAR models; this article aims to shed light upon this method of research, its history, philosophy and its use, given its potential and innovation in the field of health sciences.

  19. Contemporary Approaches to Research in TESOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardar M Anwaruddin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL is one of the largest educational enterprises in the world. Tens of thousands of teachers—both native and non-native speakers of English—are engaged in TESOL across the world. This large population of teachers depends heavily on academic researchers for developing their knowledge base. Although it is evident that teachers who engage in classroom research are more aware of their practices and better able to facilitate student learning, teacher-research is a minority activity in the field of TESOL. In this article, I briefly discuss TESOL practitioners’ conceptions of research. Then, I focus on a dichotomous relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches to research, and review some contemporary orientations to TESOL research. I conclude the article with a recommendation that TESOL practitioners engage in action research for their professional development as well as their students’ increased learning of the target language.

  20. Empowering Smallholder Women Farmers through Participatory Seed Potato Management: Lessons from Welmera District, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammed Oumer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Women are often ignored from research and development agenda although they play key roles in agriculture in developing countries. They are excluded from decision making and as a result, they frequently do not have access to resources, technologies and extension services, credits, inputs and markets. This paper aims to document, using qualitative methods, how participatory approach through Farmers Research Group (FRG can address gender inequalities and subsequently empower women smallholder farmers using a case study from Ethiopia. Through the participatory intervention, women farmers have enhanced their skills and knowledge of improved agricultural technologies as well as their collective capacity (social capital in accessing input and output markets. As a result, the number of FRG members increased from 25 women farmers organized in one FRG in 2006 to 253 women farmers organized in 11 village-level Farmers Research Extension Groups (FREGs in 2013. The participatory intervention in the study area has improved women’s productivity of seed potatoes and marketing; enabled them to earn cash an average of Ethiopian Birr (ETB 11 000 per year only from the sale of seed potatoes; and this has created more options to improve the livelihoods of women farmers and their households by diversifying into higher-value farm and off-farm work. Consequently, women decision making in the household as well as in the community has been enhanced. Women farmers are now heard at national level for their innovative experiences and have become one of the national seed potato and knowledge sources. There is a need to replicate this model approach to enhance the productivity of smallholder women farmers and subsequently empower them to facilitate exit pathways out of poverty and ensure sustainable development.

  1. Quantitative versus qualitative approaches: a comparison of two research methods applied to identification of key health issues for working horses in Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upjohn, M M; Attwood, G A; Lerotholi, T; Pfeiffer, D U; Verheyen, K L P

    2013-03-01

    The relative merits and potential complementarity of participatory methods and classical epidemiological techniques in veterinary-related research is a current topic of discussion. Few reported studies have applied both methodologies within the same research framework to enable direct comparison. The aim of this study was to compare issues identified by a classical epidemiological study of horses and their owners with those identified by owner communities using participatory approaches. In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was undertaken as part of an impact assessment study of farrier and saddler training programmes, and a small-scale nutrition trial, implemented in Lesotho by a UK-based equine charity. In total, 245 horses and their 237 owners participated in the survey which comprised a face-to-face structured questionnaire covering knowledge and practices relating to equine husbandry and primary healthcare, clinical examination and sampling of horses, and examination of tack used on those horses. In early 2010, 56 owners in three survey regions, some of whom participated in the survey, attended a participatory workshop. Each workshop group created a local resource map whilst discussing and identifying key issues associated with horse ownership and what might have an adverse impact on horse health and work. Following map completion, each group began by prioritising the identified issues, and then ranked them using a pairwise/ranking matrix to reflect how important issues were in relation to each other. Overall priority issues were: mouth problems, hunger and nutrition, diseases (including infectious diseases, parasites and colic), husbandry (including wound management), and feet and limb problems. Major health issues identified by cross-sectional study included sharp enamel points on teeth, endo- and ectoparasite infestation, suboptimal nutrition, tack-associated wounds, overgrown and poorly balanced feet and poor owner husbandry knowledge and practices. Whilst common issues were identified through the two research approaches, key differences also emerged. The classical, more quantitative approach provided objective measurement of problem frequency, which was compared with owners' perceptions of importance. The qualitative participatory approach provided greater opportunity for researchers to gain detailed understanding of local issues and appreciate how owners defined and prioritised problems affecting them and their animals. Both approaches provided valuable and complementary information that can be used to inform interventions aimed at providing sustainable improvements in the health and wellbeing of working animals and their owners. It is recommended that both quantitative and qualitative approaches are employed as part of detailed needs assessment work prior to defining and prioritising the charity's future interventions. PMID:23419786

  2. Capacity-building and Participatory Research Development of a Community-based Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP for Pregnant and Postpartum Aboriginal Women:Information Gathered from Talking Circles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Big-Canoe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives were to gather information from Talking Circles of Aboriginal women who participated in a maternal Nutrition and Exercise Lifestyle Intervention Program (NELIP to identify strategies to bring NELIP into the community. Twelve First Nations women participated. Several main themes were identified regarding health: balance, knowledge/education and time management. Benefits of the NELIP were improvement in health, stamina, stress, and a healthy baby, no gestational diabetes and a successful home birth, with social support as an important contributing factor for success. Suggestions for improvement for the NELIP included group walking, and incorporating more traditional foods into the meal plan. The information gathered is the first step in determining strategies using participatory research and capacity-building to develop a community-based NELIP for pregnant Aboriginal women.

  3. Actionable Ethnography in Participatory Innovation: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustrate how the stakeholders engaged in activities such as sense-making, co-analysis, and cross-comparison of the ethnographic materials, and the specification and mapping of innovation opportunities. We argue that these activities served to establish a shared understanding and ownership of the participatory research, design material.

  4. PESANTREN AND PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT: The Case of the Pesantren Maslakul Huda of Kajen, Pati, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Budiwiranto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This chapter discusses the implementation of participatory development in the pesantren Maslakul Huda of Kajen, Pati, Central Java. It argues that participatory development in the pesantren Maslakul Huda has led to the creation of genuine participation in which local people are able to identify their own problems and potentials, and to create alternative solutions. The role of the kyai in this pesantren  is limited to giving Islamic justification to the acceptance of participatory development, and program implementation is in the hands of senior santris and village facilitators. The use of participatory action research and the creation of the self-help group as a people’s forum enable them to express their own perspective on their problems without the kyai’s interference. However, the pesantren utilises participatory development to enhance its economic position among the local people.

  5. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in the UK.

  6. Principles in practice: reflections on a 'postpositivist' approach to evaluation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, O; Gnich, W; Platt, S

    2001-04-01

    User participation is currently seen as an ethically appropriate way to proceed when researching disadvantaged groups and it is encouraged by funding agencies. However, the literature rarely discusses the methodological and practical implications for researchers attempting to incorporate user participation into evaluation studies which are informed from an epistemologically opposed (positivist) research paradigm. The paper explores this issue by drawing on the evaluation of a community-based smoking intervention to describe and reflect upon the recruitment, training and employment of local residents as survey interviewers. While the evaluation methodology adopts a quasi-experimental approach, the appointment of local residents as survey interviewers reflects an alternative (interpretive) research tradition. The combined strategy constitutes a postpositivist methodology in that it combines a data collection strategy more akin to interpretive social science while retaining a positivistic epistemological framework. The paper describes some logistics of this approach and problems encountered during the course of survey. While many of the problems described may be routinely associated (although seldom aired) with survey work, particularly in disadvantaged areas, the paper suggests they are also a function of the postpositivist research strategy which we adopted. The failure to involve interviewers in the conception and development of the evaluation meant that they lacked identification with our endeavour and this had practical implications for the survey interviewing. Although the survey was successfully executed and the employment of local residents was a valuable and worthwhile experience, the authors recognize that this narrow conception of user involvement meant that many of the potential benefits (both to the research and the participants) associated with participatory approaches were forfeited. PMID:11345663

  7. Community-based participatory action research: transforming multidisciplinary practice in primary health care / Investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad: transformación de la práctica multidisciplinaria en atención primaria de salud

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcia, Hills; Jennifer, Mullett; Simon, Carroll.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Los sistemas de salud de todo el mundo se encuentran en un proceso de reestructuración y reforma de sus sistemas de prestación de servicios, reorientándose hacia el modelo de atención primaria de salud (APS) que utiliza equipos de consultorios multidisciplinarios (CMD) para brindar un con [...] junto de servicios coordinados e integrados. En este estudio se exploran los retos de poner en práctica el enfoque de CMD en una comunidad urbana de Canadá. MÉTODOS:Los datos analizados se tomaron de un proyecto de investigación-acción participativa basada en la comunidad (IAPBC) llevado a cabo en 2004. Su objetivo era perfeccionar un CMD colaborativo en un centro de APS que atiende a una comunidad de 11 000 personas, compuesta por una zona residencial y pequeños negocios, en una ciudad canadiense de aproximadamente 300 000 personas. La IAPBC permite abordar de manera planificada y sistemática problemas importantes para la comunidad en cuestión, requiere la participación de la comunidad, se enfoca hacia la solución de los problemas, se dirige a lograr cambios en la sociedad y hace contribuciones duraderas a la comunidad. Se partió de un aspecto de este complejo proyecto de varios años, para transformar la defensa retórica de la reforma de la APS en una práctica real y sustentable. La comunidad estudiada era diversa en cuanto a la edad, las características socioeconómicas y los estilos de vida. Su equipo multidisciplinario atendía aproximadamente a 3 000 pacientes al año, 30% de los cuales tenían 65 años o más. Gracias a su enfoque multidisciplinario e integrado con respecto a la atención, este centro de APS pasó a formar parte de un selecto grupo dentro del extenso sistema de atención primaria de Canadá. RESULTADOS: El análisis del trabajo de APS puso de manifiesto ideas arraigadas e inconcientes acerca de los límites y las limitaciones de la atención prestada. En el sentido retórico de la APS, el CMD era elogiado por muchos. En la práctica, sin embargo, era difícil lograr el enfoque de equipo colaborativo multidisciplinario. CONCLUSIONES: La exitosa implementación de un enfoque de CMD en la APS exige apartarse del estilo de atención centrada en el médico. Esto sólo puede lograrse cuando cambian las estructuras subyacentes, los valores, las relaciones de poder y los papeles a desempeñar, definidos por los sistemas de salud y la comunidad en general, donde los médicos tienen tradicionalmente una posición por encima de la de otros proveedores de atención sanitaria. La metodología de IAPBC permite a los miembros de la comunidad y a los profesionales relacionados con la salud que los atienden apropiarse de la investigación y reflejarse críticamente en ciclos iterativos de evaluación. Esto ofrece a los médicos una oportunidad de implementar cambios importantes basados en análisis generados internamente. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Health care systems throughout the world are in the process of restructuring and reforming their health service delivery systems, reorienting themselves to a primary health care (PHC) model that uses multidisciplinary practice (MDP) teams to provide a range of coordinated, integrated ser [...] vices. This study explores the challenges of putting the MDP approach into practice in one community in a city in Canada. METHODS: The data we analyzed were derived from a community-based participatory action research (CBPAR) project, conducted in 2004, that was used to enhance collaborative MDP in a PHC center serving a residential and small-business community of 11 000 within a medium-sized city of approximately 300 000 people in Canada. CBPAR is a planned, systematic approach to issues relevant to the community of interest, requires community involvement, has a problem-solving focus, is directed at societal change, and makes a lasting contribution to the community. We drew from one aspect of this complex, multiyear project aimed at transforming the rhetoric advocating PHC reform into actual sustainable practices. The community studied

  8. Acceptability of participatory social network analysis for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller Jeffrey; Hermeston Wendy; Passey Megan; Fallon Tony; Muyambi Kuda

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background While participatory social network analysis can help health service partnerships to solve problems, little is known about its acceptability in cross-cultural settings. We conducted two case studies of chronic illness service partnerships in 2007 and 2008 to determine whether participatory research incorporating social network analysis is acceptable for problem-solving in Australian Aboriginal health service delivery. Methods Local research groups comprising 13–19 partner...

  9. Educação, pesquisa participante e saúde: as ideias de Carlos Rodrigues Brandão / Education, participatory research, and health: the ideas of Carlos Rodrigues Brandão / Educación, investigación participante y salud: las ideas de Carlos Rodrigues Brandão

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Almeida da, Silva; Kátia Reis de, Souza.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as obras do autor brasileiro Carlos Rodrigues Brandão relacionadas ao campo da educação e da pesquisa participante, destacando os seus pressupostos teóricos e estabelecendo relações com o campo da saúde. Realizamos uma investigação de caráter qualitativo e de t [...] ipo exploratório-descritivo, adotando a pesquisa bibliográfica como procedimento metodológico. 'Educação' foi a categoria teórica principal. Ademais, obtivemos as seguintes categorias empíricas advindas das análises textuais: 'educações'; 'sempre aprendemos uns com os outros'; 'uma antropologia participante'; 'liberdade, autonomia e esperança'; 'pesquisa participante'; 'diálogo: (re)construção do conhecimento ou construção de saberes'; 'pesquisa, conhecimento e tempo'; 'o sentido da palavra: direito de pronunciar o sentido do mundo'. Verificamos importantes fundamentos de uma concepção crítica de educação que podem contribuir como base para práticas democráticas de saúde, como, por exemplo, a ideia de 'diálogo' como pedra angular pedagógica, que possibilita processos de interação de sujeitos e a construção social do conhecimento. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar las obras del autor brasileño Carlos Rodrigues Brandão, relacionadas al campo de la educación y de la investigación participante, destacando sus premisas teóricas y estableciendo relaciones con el campo de la salud. Se realizó una investigación de carácter [...] cualitativo y de tipo exploratorio-descriptivo, adoptando la investigación bibliográfica como procedimiento metodológico. "Educación" fue la categoría teórica principal. Además, se obtuvieron las siguientes categorías empíricas surgidas de los análisis textuales: "educaciones"; "siempre aprendeemos unos con otros"; "una antropología participante"; "libertad, autonomía y esperanza"; "investigación participante"; "diálogo: (re)construcción del conocimiento o construcción de saberes"; "investigación, conocimiento y tiempo"; "el sentido de la palabra: derecho de pronunciar el sentido del mundo". Se verificaron fundamentos importantes de una concepción crítica de educación que pueden contribuir como base para prácticas democráticas de salud como, por ejemplo, la idea de "diálogo" como piedra angular pedagógica, que permite procesos de interacción de individuos y la construcción social del conocimiento. Abstract in english This article aims to analyze the work of Brazilian author Carlos Rodrigues Brandão as related to the field of education and participatory research, highlighting his theoretical assumptions and establishing relationships with the field of healthcare. We conducted a qualitative, exploratory-descriptiv [...] e investigation, using literature research as a methodological procedure. 'Education' was the main theoretical category. Additionally, we obtained the following empirical categories arising from textual analysis: 'Educations;' 'always learn from each other;' 'a participatory anthropology;' 'freedom, autonomy, and hope;' 'participatory research;' 'dialog: (Re)construction of knowledge or construction of knowledge;' 'research, knowledge, and time;' 'The sense of the word: the right to pronounce the meaning of the world.' We checked important foundations of a critical conception of education that can contribute as a basis for democratic health practices, such as the idea of 'dialog' as a pedagogical cornerstone that enables interaction processes among individuals and the social construction of knowledge.

  10. Values-led Participatory Design - Mediating the Emergence of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in values-led inquiries within participatory design. One approach argues that working with values is a recursive 3-phase process that supports the emergence, development and grounding of values. In this paper we focus solely upon the emergence phase, proposing an approach that can support the emergence of values during the initial phase of a values-led inquiry. To illustrate this approach and to ground our discussion, we draw from a recent participatory design case where we were engaged in the design of digital technology to support the experiences of young adults with severe intellectual disabilities, in an art museum. By describing how we establish, negotiate and the debrief values during this initial phase of a values-led inquiry. By foregrounding both explicit and implicit mediation in the PD process we show how a theoretical understanding of mediation can potentially

  11. Playware Research – Methodological Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2014-01-01

    Several sub-disciplines of engineering are driven by the researchers’ aim of providing positive change to the society through their engineering. These researchers are challenged by the traditional research method of experimental research with a waterfall model which demands clearly defined project definition and functional requirements, and impose a sequential processes leading to the final system evaluation, which may lead to solutions which work in the lab, but have little impact in the messy real world. Based on two decades research in developing engineering systems with a societal impact (e.g. in robotics, embodied AI, and playware), in this paper we suggest a cyclic research method based on a mix between participatory and experimental processes. In particular, inspiration from the action research method applied to interdisciplinary technology development becomes a participatory approach characterized by rapid prototyping cycles which allow iterative technology specification and development together with people in their real world environment.

  12. Lost in Translation: The Participatory Imperative and Local Water Governance in North Thailand and Southwest Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Neef

    2008-01-01

    Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD), while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two wate...

  13. Integration of local participatory and regional planning for resources management using remote sensing and GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sedogo, L. G.

    2002-01-01

    With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) information used in the planning process, efficient geographic information gathering and relevant spatial analytical tools necessary to support the negotiation among the stakeholders are lacking. Besides, methods a...

  14. Participatory development activities at local level: case studies in villages of Central Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    Pongquan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated organizations.The participatory development planning approach was first introduced in Thailand through her Fourth National Economic and Social Development Plan (1977-1981) as a strategy to apply the bottom-...

  15. A participatory and capacity-building approach to healthy eating and physical activity – SCIP-school: a 2-year controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinder Liselotte Schäfer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools can be effective settings for improving eating habits and physical activity, whereas it is more difficult to prevent obesity. A key challenge is the “implementation gap”. Trade-off must be made between expert-driven programmes on the one hand and contextual relevance, flexibility, participation and capacity building on the other. The aim of the Stockholm County Implementation Programme was to improve eating habits, physical activity, self-esteem, and promote a healthy body weight in children aged 6–16 years. We describe the programme, intervention fidelity, impacts and outcomes after two years of intervention. Methods Nine out of 18 schools in a middle-class municipality in Sweden agreed to participate whereas the other nine schools served as the comparison group (quasi-experimental study. Tailored action plans were developed by school health teams on the basis of a self-assessment questionnaire called KEY assessing strengths and weaknesses of each school’s health practices and environments. Process evaluation was carried out by the research staff. Impacts at school level were assessed yearly by the KEY. Outcome measures at student level were anthropometry (measured, and health behaviours assessed by a questionnaire, at baseline and after 2 years. All children in grade 2, 4 and 7 were invited to participate (n=1359 of which 59.8% consented. The effect of the intervention on health behaviours, self-esteem, weight status and BMIsds was evaluated by unilevel and multilevel regression analysis adjusted for gender and baseline values. Results Programme fidelity was high demonstrating feasibility, but fidelity to school action plans was only 48% after two years. Positive and significant (p Conclusions School staff has the capacity to create their own solutions and make changes at school level on the basis of self-assessment and facilitation by external agents. However these changes were challenging to sustain over time and had little impact on student behaviours or weight status. Better student outcomes could probably be attained by a more focused and evidence-based approach with stepwise implementation of action plans.

  16. WAYS OF APPROACHING RELIGIOSITY IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru?a-Paraschiva RUSU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyses different approaches of religiosity in the psychological researches. We intend to explain the concept of religiosity, the distinction in the psychology field between religiosity and spirituality, religiosity dimensions and the main issues to be taken into account in measuring religiosity. In the analysis of the religiosity dimensions we refer to the hierarchical model of religiosity organization (Tsang and McCullough, 2003, which argues that religiosity is manifested at two levels: the dispositional level, reflecting the interindividual differences on religious features and the operational level, which refers to the interindividual diversity in the expression of religiosity. Regarding the measurement of religiosity, we analyze the conceptual clarity of the measured dimensions, the psychometric aspects of the religiosity measurement instruments, the sample representativeness and the cultural sensitivity of the instruments measuring religiosity. Throughout the article we present the results of some researches on the implications of the religiosity dimensions on the personal and family mental health

  17. Participatory Hazard Management System and Accident Prevention in the Bonny NLNG Construction Project

    OpenAIRE

    Mba Okechukwu Agwu; Cletus Izunwanne Emeti

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined participatory hazard management system and accident prevention in the bonny NLNG construction project. The research question addressed the extent at which reduced accident/incident rate and increased organizational productivity is dependent on the implementation of participatory hazard management system in the bonny NLNG construction project. It is based on the fundamental behavioural cybernetic principle that those directly affected by workplace hazards, should be primaril...

  18. ‘Who is Helsinki?’ Sex workers advise improving communication for good participatory practice in clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Allman, Dan

    2011-01-01

    After premature closures in 2004 of biomedical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trials involving sex workers in Africa and Asia, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention (AVAC) undertook consultations to establish better participatory guidelines for such trials in order to address ethical concerns. This study investigated sex workers’ knowledge and beliefs about research ethics and good participatory practices (GPP) and the ...

  19. The Evolution of Community-School Bully Prevention Programs: Enabling Participatory Action Research La Evolución de Programas de Prevención de Matonaje en Comunidades Escolares: Promoviendo la Investigación-Acción Participativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P Lorion

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Community scientists must resist the temptation to "solve" an identified problem. Rather, they must partner with members of the community and transfer to them the knowledge and skills to understand and resolve their needs. This case-study reports a community's efforts to reduce school-based bullying. Within a participatory-action approach, teachers, students, administrators and parents organized to assess the ways in which members of the school-community mistreated each other. Students bullying each other was part of a larger systemic pattern in which teachers bullied each other and, with unexpectedly serious consequences, their students. Through their active participation, members of the school-community engaged together in understanding and resolving the problem.Los científicos comunitarios deben resistir la tentación de "resolver" un problema identificado. Ellos deben, en cambio, aliarse con miembros de la comunidad y transferir a éstos el conocimiento y habilidades para comprender y resolver sus necesidades. Este estudio de caso da cuenta de los esfuerzos de una comunidad para reducir el matonaje en la escuela. Con un enfoque de acción participativa, profesores, estudiantes, administradores y padres se organizaron para evaluar las formas en que los miembros de la comunidad educativa se maltrataban unos a otros. El matonaje entre estudiantes era parte de un patrón sistémico mayor, en el que los profesores se maltrataban entre ellos y, con consecuencias inesperadamente serias, a sus alumnos. A través de su participación activa, los miembros de la comunidad educativa se involucraron juntos en la comprensión y resolución del problema.

  20. Para Cerrar la Brecha: Un Enfoque Participativo para la Educacion en Salud y Nutricion (Bridging the Gap: A Participatory Approach to Health and Nutrition Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehn, Martha, Ed.

    A Spanish version of a manual on workshops for training nutrition and health field educators to approach communities more sensitively emphasizes techniques for involving community members in efforts to achieve better health and nutrition. Experiential workshop materials and techniques have been field-tested in several countries, including…

  1. El Niño platforms: participatory disaster response in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, J. F.; Ore?, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to greater extremes (droughts and floods) in river regimes around the world. While the number of major calamities is predicted to rise, the efforts of the public sector, experts and local stakeholders are badly coordinated. Consequently, aid does not reach target groups, resulting in unnecessary losses. Hence, there is a need for more participatory and integrative approaches. To ensure a more concerted response to climate-induced disasters, stakeholders coul...

  2. Participation and the State: Towards an Anthropological View of the “New Participatory Paradigms”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy A. Riley

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals how certain academics approaching terms such as participation, or the state and civil society/community/masses/population, have re/conceptualized both the concepts themselves as well as the positions from which they can be studied. The paper traces the rise of critiques concerning participation in development - examining the particular issues of concern to anthropologists - before turning to the current debates taking place on the borderlines between anthropology and development. In this context, the work being produced as part of the Development Research Centre at the Institute of Development studies in the UK is a central focus. Raising here the types of questions currently being asked about participation, the analysis addresses increasing concerns with governance, democracy as well as citizenship, and finally, anthropological views of the State, for there appears to be an emergence within participatory development of a rejection of the anti-statist development approach.

  3. Co-engineering Participatory Water Management Processes: Theory and Insights from Australian and Bulgarian Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Perez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1 that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2 that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.

  4. Participatory testing and reporting in an environmental-justice community of Worcester, Massachusetts: a pilot project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvache Maria-Camila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite indoor home environments being where people spend most time, involving residents in testing those environments has been very limited, especially in marginalized communities. We piloted participatory testing and reporting that combined relatively simple tests with actionable reporting to empower residents in Main South/Piedmont neighborhoods of Worcester, Massachusetts. We answered: 1 How do we design and implement the approach for neighborhood and household environments using participatory methods? 2 What do pilot tests reveal? 3 How does our experience inform testing practice? Methods The approach was designed and implemented with community partners using community-based participatory research. Residents and researchers tested fourteen homes for: lead in dust indoors, soil outdoors, paint indoors and drinking water; radon in basement air; PM2.5 in indoor air; mold spores in indoor/outdoor air; and drinking water quality. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates by residents and researchers used real-time data to stimulate dialogue. Results Given the newness of our partnership and unforeseen conflicts, we achieved moderate-high success overall based on process and outcome criteria: methods, test results, reporting, lessons learned. The conflict burden we experienced may be attributable less to generic university-community differences in interests/culture, and more to territoriality and interpersonal issues. Lead-in-paint touch-swab results were poor proxies for lead-in-dust. Of eight units tested in summer, three had very high lead-in-dust (>1000 ?g/ft2, six exceeded at least one USEPA standard for lead-in-dust and/or soil. Tap water tests showed no significant exposures. Monitoring of neighborhood particulates raised awareness of environmental health risks, especially asthma. Conclusions Timely reporting back home-toxics' results to residents is ethical but it must be empowering. Future work should fund the active participation of a few motivated residents as representatives of the target population. Although difficult and demanding in time and effort, the approach can educate residents and inform exposure assessment. It should be considered as a core ingredient of comprehensive household toxics' testing, and has potential to improve participant retention and the overall positive impact of long-term environmental health research efforts.

  5. An Interdisciplinary and Intersectoral Action-research Method: Case-Study of Climate Change Adaptation by Cities Using Participatory Web 2.0 Urban Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève VACHON

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the last segment of a three-year interdisciplinary and intersectoral action research on climate change and urban transformation. The project had, as one of its core missions, the role of imagining urban and architectural adaptations for urban neighbourhoods that would contribute to minimizing the negative impacts of climate change on people’s comfort, health and safety. The first part of the paper describes the collaborative design and augmented participation method used in the context of Québec City, Canada. These include the design process conducted to imagine adaptation scenarios, the visual strategies undertaken to make these understandable for the population, and the Web 2.0 crowdsourcing approach forwarded to measure feasibility and social acceptability of the design and visualization strategies. The second part discusses three positive outcomes of the process. First, collaborative design conducted with intersectoral groups of experts constitutes a promising avenue to identify adaptations and evaluate their relevance. Second, crowdsourcing is a powerful tool to inform the general public about climate change including both negative and potential aspects. As well, the crowdsource model allows access to particular knowledge which empowered users to make changes around their homes and neighbourhoods or advocating action from their local government. Crowdsourcing is also an efficient tool to help understand what people know about the potential impact of climate change and how it bears on their comfort, health and safety. Third and finally, the design proposals and the evaluation comments generated by working closely with various stakeholders, along with the public on-line consultation, allow for the induction of pragmatic recommendations that can be used as decision aids by elected officials and civil servants to better prepare their municipalities for climate change. 

  6. Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabir NR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nasimudeen R Jabir,1 Shams Tabrez,1 Ghulam Md Ashraf,2 Shazi Shakil,3 Ghazi A Damanhouri,4 Mohammad A Kamal11Metabolomics and Enzymology Unit, 2Proteomics and Structural Biology Unit, 3Enzoinformatics Unit, 4Hematology Research Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer.Keywords: cancer, diagnosis, drug delivery, nanoparticle, nanotechnology, treatment

  7. Modelos avaliativos e reforma sanitária Brasileira: enfoque qualitativo-participativo Modelos evaluativos y reforma sanitaria Brasilera: enfoque cualitativo-participativo Evaluation models and Brazilian health reform: a qualitative-participatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Magalhães Bosi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo dos últimos anos, registra-se um crescente interesse por propostas avaliativas não tradicionais e mais abrangentes nos movimentos de reforma sanitária em curso na América Latina. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar potencialidades do enfoque avaliativo qualitativo-participativo ante o desafio de fortalecer as reformas sanitárias na região, particularmente aquelas que se configuram progressistas, como o caso brasileiro. Há necessidade de se avaliarem as reformas sanitárias rigorosa e permanentemente, sobretudo a incongruência do emprego de modelos normativos para avaliar sistemas de saúde baseados nos princípios de universalização, integralidade, humanização e gestão democrática. Além da demanda por estratégias e instrumentos de avaliação, a reforma sanitária brasileira requer a adoção de propostas e práticas avaliativas fundamentadas em outros paradigmas distintos daquele ainda hegemônico no âmbito da avaliação em saúde. Advoga-se pela utilização de modelos emergentes de avaliação, tais como os de corte qualitativo-participativo.A lo largo de los últimos años, se registra un interés creciente por propuestas evaluativas no tradicionales y más amplio en los movimientos de reforma sanitaria en curso en la América Latina. Este estudio tuvo por objetivo analizar potencialidades del enfoque evaluativo cualitativo-participativo frente al desafío de fortalecer las reformas sanitarias en la región, particularmente aquellas que se configuran como progresistas, como el caso brasilero. Hay necesidad de evaluar las reformas sanitarias de forma rigorosa y permanente, sobretodo la incongruencia del empleo de modelos normativos para evaluar sistemas de salud basados en los principios de universalización, integralidad, humanización y gestión democrática. Además de la demanda por estrategias e instrumentos de evaluación, la reforma sanitaria brasilera requiere la adopción de propuestas y prácticas evaluativas fundamentadas en otros paradigmas distintos de aquel hegemónico en el ámbito de la evaluación en salud. Se defiende la utilización de modelos emergentes de evaluación, tales como los de corte cualitativo-participativo.Throughout the last years, there has been a growing interest in ongoing assessment proposals in Latin America, which are more far-reaching and not traditional. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential of qualitative-participatory evaluation in view of the challenge of strengthening health reforms in the region, particularly those considered progressive, such as the Brazilian case. There is the need to assess health reforms in a rigorous and permanent way, especially the incongruity when using normative models to evaluate health systems based on principles of universality, comprehensiveness, humanization and democratic management. In addition to the demand for assessment instruments and strategies, the Brazilian health reform requires the adoption of evaluation proposals and practices that are founded on other paradigms, distinct from the hegemonic one, in the sphere of health assessment. It is recommended that emerging evaluative models be used, such as those with a qualitative-participatory approach.

  8. Teaching Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; BØdker, Keld

    2004-01-01

    This full-day invitational pre-conference workshop is devoted to sharing experiences from teaching PD methods, approaches, issues and concerns to students and practitioners. Our experiences stem from teaching and coaching IT practitioners as well as students studying computer science or IT. However, people with experiences gained from working with other professions are also welcome. Short presentations from each of the participants form the starting point of the discussion to which most of the time will be devoted. The intend is not to suggest the way of teaching PD, rather we hope that each participant will receive valuable inspiration to help improve his or her own teaching.

  9. The role of health education in addressing the health divide : evidence from two European health-promotion projects employing a participatory and action-oriented education approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to argue that an approach to health education, consistent with critical education theory echoing Freire’s ideas, has the potential to play a significant role in addressing determinants of health by, first and foremost, providing children and young people with opportunities (as part of teaching and learning processes) to critically examine health issues, including social determinants of health, and to gain experience with initiating health-promoting changes within the everyday realms of their school or its adjacent community.

  10. Participatory Digital Design:A Study with Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Heyerdahl, Ida Margrethe

    2007-01-01

    This master thesis explores Participatory Design where teenagers get the opportunity to participate in the public discussion of cultural heritage using their language and their own media. This study focuses on bringing teenagers as users, testers and informants into the technology design process. The roles user, tester and informants are based on Allison Druins roles of children in a technology design process. The research done for this thesis have taken place at Trosterudklubben. This yout...

  11. Molecular biology approaches in bioadhesion research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular biology tools in the field of bioadhesion is still in its infancy. For new research groups who are considering taking a molecular approach, the techniques presented here are essential to unravelling the sequence of a gene, its expression and its biological function. Here we provide an outline for addressing adhesion-related genes in diverse organisms. We show how to gradually narrow down the number of candidate transcripts that are involved in adhesion by (1 generating a transcriptome and a differentially expressed cDNA list enriched for adhesion-related transcripts, (2 setting up a BLAST search facility, (3 perform an in situ hybridization screen, and (4 functional analyses of selected genes by using RNA interference knock-down. Furthermore, latest developments in genome-editing are presented as new tools to study gene function. By using this iterative multi-technologies approach, the identification, isolation, expression and function of adhesion-related genes can be studied in most organisms. These tools will improve our understanding of the diversity of molecules used for adhesion in different organisms and these findings will help to develop innovative bio-inspired adhesives.

  12. Multi-method and innovative approaches to researching the learning and social practices of young digital users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vittadini, Nicoletta; Carlo, Simone

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges in researching the social aspects of contemporary societies is to adapt the methodological approach to complex digital media environments. Learning processes take place in this complex environment, and they include formal and informal experiences (learning in school, home, and real-virtual communities), peer cultures and inter-generational connections, production and creation as relevant activities, and personal interests as a focal point. Methods used in the study of learning and the social practices of young people must take into account four key issues: boundaries between online and offline experiences are blurring; young people act performatively, knowingly, or reflexively; and their activities cannot be understood through the use of a single method, but require the use of multiple tools of investigation. The article discusses three methodological issues: research design aimed at following people along their transmedia paths, the relevance of participatory research, and the epistemological implications of multi-method research. The article presents a theoretical discussion of the research issues and some examples of research projects for each topic.

  13. Participatory urban renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. The first deals with the theoretical framework of urban rehabilitation. Literature provides the basis for a conclusion, which is that the key issue in rehabilitation projects is legitimate negotiation of various interests between participating individuals and institutions. In the second part this presentation and analyses of events that took place at the urban design workshop organised within the framework of the research project Renewal of housing estates in Ljubljana, provide experiential confirmation of the starting thesis. We established that the directly involved residents were willing to actively participate in rehabilitation procedures, however the process is never triggered, because of insufficient capacities in institutional frameworks. In conclusion several real proposals are shown, namely, how to surmount obstacles in urban rehabilitation and especially in larger housing estates built after World War 2.

  14. Interdisciplinarity and participatory approaches to environmental health: reflections from a workshop on social, economic and behavioural factors in the genesis and health impact of environmental hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huby, Meg; Adams, Rupert

    2009-04-01

    This paper reviews a workshop discussion postulated on the notion that social, economic and behavioural factors are responsible for the creation of environmental hazards and benefits that, in turn, can affect human health, with concomitant effects on future social well-being. The workshop case study centred on environmental health investigations, public engagement and partnership work undertaken following the death of two neighbouring children in Cheshire. Discussion included questions of causality and generalisability. It revealed how the attribution of responsibility for environmental damage to health is fraught with difficulties. It may often militate against an informed and open debate among interested parties, with concomitant implications for reducing the danger from environmental hazards. To improve communication, vocabulary needs to be free from jargon and acronyms, and differences in conceptual approach between different disciplines need to be better understood. The definition of the 'community' is itself far from clear-cut, yet questions of how to involve this community in intervention processes are important ones. The workshop identified a clear need for better, more considered forms of communication with communities and the public if fears are to be allayed, but recognised the additional costs that this would incur. PMID:18958398

  15. Youths as partners in a community participatory project for substance use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbok, Pamela A; Meszaros, Peggy S; Bond, Donna C; Thatcher, Esther; Park, Eunhee; Kimbrell, Monica; Smith-Gregory, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    This community-based participatory research project aimed to develop strategies to prevent youth substance use in a rural county. This article (1) describes the project phases, (2) examines unique contributions and considerations of youth involvement, and (3) explores the youths' perspective. Twelve youths, aged 16 to 18 years, joined parents, community leaders, and research specialists on the community-based participatory research team. The youths were integrally involved in all phases including the community assessment, community leader interviews, selection of a substance use prevention program, and program implementation. Youths reported sustained enthusiasm, experiences of authentic leadership, development of research skills, and greater awareness of their community. PMID:25423239

  16. The Evolution of Community-School Bully Prevention Programs: Enabling Participatory Action Research / La Evolución de Programas de Prevención de Matonaje en Comunidades Escolares: Promoviendo la Investigación-Acción Participativa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raymond P, Lorion.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Los científicos comunitarios deben resistir la tentación de "resolver" un problema identificado. Ellos deben, en cambio, aliarse con miembros de la comunidad y transferir a éstos el conocimiento y habilidades para comprender y resolver sus necesidades. Este estudio de caso da cuenta de los esfuerzos [...] de una comunidad para reducir el matonaje en la escuela. Con un enfoque de acción participativa, profesores, estudiantes, administradores y padres se organizaron para evaluar las formas en que los miembros de la comunidad educativa se maltrataban unos a otros. El matonaje entre estudiantes era parte de un patrón sistémico mayor, en el que los profesores se maltrataban entre ellos y, con consecuencias inesperadamente serias, a sus alumnos. A través de su participación activa, los miembros de la comunidad educativa se involucraron juntos en la comprensión y resolución del problema. Abstract in english Community scientists must resist the temptation to "solve" an identified problem. Rather, they must partner with members of the community and transfer to them the knowledge and skills to understand and resolve their needs. This case-study reports a community's efforts to reduce school-based bullying [...] . Within a participatory-action approach, teachers, students, administrators and parents organized to assess the ways in which members of the school-community mistreated each other. Students bullying each other was part of a larger systemic pattern in which teachers bullied each other and, with unexpectedly serious consequences, their students. Through their active participation, members of the school-community engaged together in understanding and resolving the problem.

  17. In Indigenous Words: Exploring Vignettes as a Narrative Strategy for Presenting the Research Voices of Aboriginal Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, Amy T.; Schinke, Robert J.; Smith, Brett; Peltier, Duke; Pheasant, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Recently, awareness within academia has grown regarding the incompatibilities of mainstream research with indigenous cultures as well as the historical injustices that have accrued through colonizing practices. Accordingly, support for alternative (non-Westernized) research approaches has been increasing. Participatory action research (PAR) and…

  18. New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Raiola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected demand about the real choice of customers with the proposal for a various architectural aspects. A survey was carries out by using statistical model to correlate a demand of multi game sport relating to various hypotheses, already designed with a different solution. A sample of 100 customers that have submitted questionnaire with the specific parameters about the architecture and engine was taken to apply the qualitative research method to the market research. Results and Conclusion: The result of this study concludes that it is not possible to the partially construct but it is useful the plenty reconstruction of game court. The local organization of Coni (Italian National Olympic Committee designed a new project according to a specific parameter that follows the same characteristic of old game court without searching the other engineer and architectural solutions. Thus the question is a mix of engine and architectural aspects, economical and functional elements of it. The data showed association between demand of multisport and new architectonical hypothesis and the association between demand of single sport and old architectural structure. The percentage of multi sport demand is higher than single sport and this orientation has to follow to design a new sport facilities.

  19. The Boston-area HASWIC Research Circle: an innovative participatory method for coloring in the picture of a special work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Susan; Azaroff, Lenore S

    2007-01-01

    Recent qualitative studies have investigated some of the hazards affecting women in non-traditional trades such as construction. However, one-time interactions among researcher participants, and between researchers and participants, in standard settings such as focus groups and interviews, cannot provide the time, space, and relationships to fully explore tradeswomen's in-depth knowledge of their work environment. This study applied a Scandinavian method called the Research Circle to convene a group of experienced women construction workers repeatedly over a period of two years so they could collaborate with researchers in explaining workplace issues. The results both validated and expanded upon previous findings about health and safety for women in construction, including gender discrimination, lack of access to sanitary facilities, retaliation for reporting hazards and injuries, and inadequate training and equipment. Especially important, findings illustrate some of the complex hierarchical social structures involved in both female and male construction workers responding to hazardous conditions. PMID:17434864

  20. The Danish school reform: A methodological framework for the discursive study and development of participatory plurivocal practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann; MØlholm, Martin

    The paper presents a methodological framework for the study of the discursive emergence of the recent Danish School reform (2014). The framework will enable discourse scholars to hold an actively involved position in changing and furthering plurivocal processes of translations, negotiations and implementation of the reform. The framework is operationalized through research-based participatory collaborative processes involving local actors in two Danish public schools. It interlinks diverse discourse strategies and perceptive distances that traditionally belong to separate branches within discourse studies. As a point of departure we study the discourse formations that emerge in specific media texts applying a Foucauldian archive analytical strategy. Concurrently, we study processes of how political ideas and discourses are translated through plurivocal dialogue (Bakhtin) and translation processes (Latour), e.g. civil service and municipal practices and texts, into the organizational practices of two local schools. On the basis of these analyses, we will establish a participatory process in which local actors are involved in the co-creation of new plurivocal and egalitarian dialogue designs and practices. In relation to the field of organizational communication, we would argue that the methodological framework has potential to bridge the gulf that often exists between approaches studying local accomplishments of identity and action and approaches focusing on more abstract discourses. Moreover, the framework positions discourse researchers simultaneously as both distant analysts and as actively involved in change processes.

  1. Downscaling socio-economic prospective scenarios with a participatory approach for assessing the possible impacts of future land use and cover changes on the vulnerability of societies to mountain risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grémont, Marine; Houet, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Due to the peculiarities of their landscapes and topography, mountain areas bring together a large range of socio-economic activities whose sustainability is likely to be jeopardised by projected global changes. Disturbance of hydro-meteorological processes will alter slope stability and affect mountain hazards occurrence. Meanwhile, socio-economic transformations will influence land use and cover changes (LUCC), which in turn will affect both hazards occurrence and hazards consequences on buildings, infrastructures and societies. Already faced with recurrent natural hazards, mountain areas will have to cope with increasing natural risks in the future. Better understanding the pathways through which future socio-economic changes might influence LUCC at local scale is thus a crucial step to assess accurately the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of societies to mountain risks in a global change context. Scientists face two main issues in assessing spatially explicit impacts of socio-economic scenarios in mountainous landscapes. First, modelling LUCC at local scale still faces many challenges related to past (observed) LUCC and those to consider in the future in terms of dynamics and processes. Second, downscaling global socio-economic scenarios so that they provide useful input for local LUCC models requires a thorough analysis of local social dynamics and economic drivers at stake, which falls short with current practices. Numerous socio-economic prospective scenarios have recently been developed at regional, national and international scales. They mostly rely on literature reviews and expert workshops carried out through global sectoral analysis (e.g. agriculture, forestry or industry) but only few of these exercises attempt to decline global scenarios at smaller scales confronting global vision with information gathered from the field and stakeholders. Yet, vulnerability assessments are more useful when undertaken at local scales that are relevant to geophysical fluxes and local decision-making processes. Therefore, there is a need to downscale socio-economic prospective scenarios so that they are both consistent with global scenarios used to feed public policies and relevant for local policy-makers in charge of implementing natural risks management strategies. This paper investigates the contribution of coupling participatory approach in downscaling socio-economic prospective scenarios with spatially explicit LUCC modelling to assess future changes in mountain risks. We present an on-going work aiming at co-constructing with local stakeholders integrated city-scale socio-economic scenarios up to 2040 and 2100 in a way that is consistent with the requirements of LUCC models. The study site is located in the city of Cauterets (Pyrenean Mountains, France).

  2. Understanding the role of local communities in forest concessions management:a participatory forest management initiative in South Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nhial, Nhial Kun Gogok

    2012-01-01

    This research project is a Participatory Forest Management initiative aiming at understanding the role of local communities with emphasis on their participation in the management of forest concession projects. Its long-term goal is Participatory Forest Management practices for the need of sustainable forestry in South Sudan. The research project was integrated and implemented through South Sudan forest concession work to support the development of South Sudan forest concession guidelines and...

  3. To each participatory sciences. Conditions for a participatory biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis SALLES

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the social and scientific requirements for a citizen science monitoring programme on biodiversity in Arcachon Bay (France. The sociological study reveals tensions between different conceptions of what a citizen science programme should be: a means for storing oriented-data; a new way to co-create scientific knowledge; a political communication tool; a way to develop citizen stewardship; or a place for expressing activist environmental demands. Citizen science programmes also tend to reveal tensions between participatory governance and classical management of environmental issues. Despite a seeming consensus amongst actors on biodiversity conservation, in practice contests over different citizen science conceptions have the potential to re-define environmental issues, to re-specify relationships between science and society and outline new management priorities.

  4. Effectiveness of participatory breeding and variety selection for sorghum technology adoption in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Mbulwe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Participatory breeding and variety selection has been proposed as an effective way of disseminating improved technologies to farmers for social-economic benefits. As a result the Sorghum and Millets Improvement Programme (SMIP, of the Zambia Agriculture Research Institution (ZARI, in collaboration with the farming systems scientists at Mansa Research Station, in Luapula Province tested the effectiveness of this methodology. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated based on the number of farmers rating new improved agriculture technologies favourably and willing to adopt the improved technologies after being exposed to participatory breeding. An on-farm participatory sorghum variety demonstration trial was conducted during the 2011/2012 rainy season in Zambia, Milenge district, of the Luapula province. The trial consisted of 12 improved sorghum germplasm lines of which six were hybrids and six were varieties developed by SMIP. The germplasm was evaluated by the farmers, extension and research staff on farm. The germplasm was evaluated for its value for cultivation and use. The methodology that was used is called participatory breeding which is part of the broader concept of participatory rural extension and the Innovative Platform for Technology Adoption (IPTA advocated by the Forum for Agriculture Research in Africa. The results of the methodology indicated that this methodology is effective if farmers are committed and good agriculture policies are in place. When farmers feel part of the developmental process, it is easier for them to adopt improved technologies.

  5. Participatory management in today's health care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the health care revolution progresses, so must the management styles of today's leaders. The authors must ask ourselves if we are managing tomorrow's work force or the work force of the past. Participatory management may better meet the needs of today's work force. This paper identifies the reasons participatory management is a more effective management style, the methods used to implement a participatory management program, its benefits (such as higher productivity and more efficient, effective implementation and acceptance of change), and the difficulties experienced

  6. Mobile Crowd Sensing and Computing: When Participatory Sensing Meets Participatory Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Bin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Daqing; Yu, Zhiwen; Chin, Alvin

    2015-01-01

    With the development of mobile sensing and mobile social networking techniques, Mobile Crowd Sensing and Computing (MCSC), which leverages heterogeneous crowdsourced data for large-scale sensing, has become a leading paradigm. Built on top of the participatory sensing vision, MCSC has two characterizing features: (1) it leverages heterogeneous crowdsourced data from two data sources: participatory sensing and participatory social media; and (2) it presents the fusion of huma...

  7. Paniya Voices: A Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment among a marginalized South Indian tribal population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harikrishnadas CK

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, indigenous populations, known as Adivasi or Scheduled Tribes (STs, are among the poorest and most marginalized groups. 'Deprived' ST groups tend to display high levels of resignation and to lack the capacity to aspire; consequently their health perceptions often do not adequately correspond to their real health needs. Moreover, similar to indigenous populations elsewhere, STs often have little opportunity to voice perspectives framed within their own cultural worldviews. We undertook a study to gather policy-relevant data on the views, experiences, and priorities of a marginalized and previously enslaved tribal group in South India, the Paniyas, who have little 'voice' or power over their own situation. Methods/design We implemented a Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment (PPHA. We adopted guiding principles and an ethical code that promote respect for Paniya culture and values. The PPHA, informed by a vulnerability framework, addressed five key themes (health and illness, well-being, institutions, education, gender using participatory approaches and qualitative methods. We implemented the PPHA in five Paniya colonies (clusters of houses in a small geographical area in a gram panchayat (lowest level decentralized territorial unit to generate data that can be quickly disseminated to decision-makers through interactive workshops and public forums. Preliminary findings Findings indicated that the Paniyas are caught in multiple 'vulnerability traps', that is, they view their situation as vicious cycles from which it is difficult to break free. Conclusion The PPHA is a potentially useful approach for global health researchers working with marginalized communities to implement research initiatives that will address those communities' health needs in an ethical and culturally appropriate manner.

  8. Parents and Educators Working as an Action Research Team

    OpenAIRE

    Britt Edwards

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a new PhD participatory action research project. An outline of the contributions intended to be made by this study are highlighted and an overview of the research methodology is explained. A school based approach that encourages positive social behaviour of children with autism is the key component of the research, where parents and educators join forces to problem-solve behaviour issues in the home. The behaviour intervention approach that is used offers a practical a...

  9. Using the Pyramid Approach to Teaching Marketing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Westfall, John; Ainscough, Thomas L.

    2001-01-01

    Underscores the need for teaching marketing research skills at the secondary level and shows how marketing research fits into marketing education. Provides an example of how to use the pyramid approach to research, which involves review of secondary sources, key informant interviews, focus groups, and quantitative research. (Author/JOW)

  10. Picture this!: using participatory photo mapping with Hispanic girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Campos, Daisy Y; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura A

    2015-01-01

    Hispanic girls are burdened with high levels of obesity and are less active than the general adolescent population, highlighting the need for creative strategies developed with community input to improve physical activity behaviors. Involving girls, parents, and the community in the intervention planning process may improve uptake and maintenance of physical activity. The purpose of this article was to describe how we engaged adolescent girls as partners in community-based intervention planning research. We begin with an overview of the research project and then describe how we used Participatory Photo Mapping to engage girls in critical reflection and problems solving. PMID:25423243

  11. Moving Beyond the Systems Approach in SCM and Logistics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Fredrik; Gammelgaard, Britta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a paradigmatic reflection on theoretical approaches recently identified in logistics and supply chain management (SCM); namely complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking, and to compare it to the dominant approach in logistics and SCM research, namely the systems approach. By analyzing the basic assumptions of the three approaches, SCM and logistics researchers are guided in their choice of research approaches which increases their awareness of the consequences different approaches have on theory and practice. Design/methodology/approach – The point of departure for the research presented is conceptualization based on literature reviews. Furthermore, years of observations, discussions and empirical studies of logistics operations and management have also influenced the design of this research. Findings – With a discourse set in relation to the dominant approach in SCM and logistics research, the systems approach, it is concluded that the underlyingassumptions of complex adaptive systems and complexity thinking are more appropriate than systems approach for contemporary challenges of organizational complexity in SCM and logistics. It is found that the two complexity-based approaches can advance SCM and logistics research and practice especially when focusing on innovation, learning and sense-making. Research limitations/implications – Reflections of underlying assumptions when considering and selecting methodological approaches have implications for research results. This paper provides both a framework for and an analysis of such reflection which contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research. Future research is needed to empirically provide insights on how complexity approaches can advance the area of SCM and logistics. Practical implications – For logistics researchers and practitioners dealing with creativity, innovation, learning and sense-making and other human-related aspects, the complexity approaches, with underlying assumptions, presented will provide reflection, inspiration and guidance for further development. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the further development of SCM and logistics research and practice by providing a reflective analysis and discussion of established and new research approaches with potential benefits for the SCM and logistics community.

  12. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  13. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Craigen; Drew Vandeth; D’Arcy Walsh

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The approach is compatible with international standards and procedures published by the...

  14. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on Renewable Energy (SRREN, completed in 2011) which found that up to an 80% decarbonization of the global economy was possible if we can enable and launch a large-scale transition to a clean energy system consistent with what a number of 'leading edge' cities, regions, and nations have already accomplished or started. Note, in particular, that as the physical climate change metrics have progressed, the words—shown on the right—have also progressed. In 1990, at the time of the FAR the strongest scientific consensus statement was that another decade of data would likely be needed to clearly observe climate change. Through the second to fourth (SAR, TAR, and AR4) reports, increasing clarity on the science of climate change translated into a consensus of overwhelming blame on human activities. The key statements from each report are not only about the growing evidence for anthropogenically driven climate change, but they have moved into the ecological and social impacts of this change. AR4 critically concluded that climate change would lead to climate injustice as the poor, globally, bear the brunt of the impacts. Despite this 'Rosetta Stone' translating science to language, we have failed to act collectively. One area where ERL can advance the overall conversation is on this science/action interface. As AR5 emerges, the climate change/climate response interface will need deep, substantive, action that responds rapidly to new ideas and opportunities. The rapid publication and open access features of ERL are particularly critical here as events a such as Hurricane Sandy, economic or political advances in climate response made by cities, regions or nations, all warrant assessment and response. This is one of many areas where ERL has been at the forefront of the conversation, through not only research letters, but also commentary-style Perspective pieces and the conversation that ERL's sister community website environmentalresearchweb can facilitate. This process of translating proposed solutions—innovations—between interest groups, has been in far too short supply rece

  15. A Multi-Stage Method for Connecting Participatory Sensing and Noise Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyuan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment, and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1 spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2 multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3 dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for noise simulations on multiple spatio-temporal scales.

  16. A multi-stage method for connecting participatory sensing and noise simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingyuan; Che, Weitao; Zhang, Qiuju; Luo, Qingli; Lin, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment), and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1) spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2) multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3) dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for noise simulations on multiple spatio-temporal scales. PMID:25621604

  17. A Multiperspective Approach to Neuroeducational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in research that combines neuroscientific and educational perspectives on learning, but significant philosophical issues divide these perspectives. This article examines the value of such neuroeducational research and how concepts from different perspectives may be interrelated through a "level of actions" model. This…

  18. Democratic Innovation Through Ideas? Participatory budgeting and frames of citizen participation in France, Germany and Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Ro?cke, Anja

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the processes of adaptation of participatory budget (PB) institutions to France, Germany, and Great Britain in relation to frames of citizen participation, for instance ‘participatory’ democracy or ‘community empowerment’. I define frames as relatively coherent but flexible idea combinations that contain cognitive and normative assumptions about the issue at stake (in the present case citizen participation). The process of PB, developed in Porto Alegre, Braz...

  19. Informal Participatory Platforms for Adaptive Management. Insights into Niche-finding, Collaborative Design and Outcomes from a Participatory Process in the Rhine Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Speil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.

  20. Providing Market Information for Ethiopian Farmers: Extending Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne

    In a developing country like Ethiopia, marketing of agricultural products is influenced by local, socioeconomic, cultural and IT infrastructure characteristics. ICT-based agriculture information systems have been proposed to support farmers with market information. However, such initiatives have often failed to provide useful information in an adequate form for farmers in remote areas. Participatory Design (PD) assumes to be effective approach to overcome these challenges. However, due to its origin in the western countries, the capability of users, motivation and desire to participate and availability of resources are often taken for granted. This work identifies challenges for applying PD in rural Ethiopia and proposes method for ‘Early-Stage’ of PD.

  1. Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research. However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements and partly underlying philosophical assumptions, but both have something to teach each other about how to define and executedesign-oriented research in information systems and management science.

  2. Contemporary Approaches to Research in TESOL

    OpenAIRE

    Sardar M Anwaruddin

    2013-01-01

    Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) is one of the largest educational enterprises in the world. Tens of thousands of teachers—both native and non-native speakers of English—are engaged in TESOL across the world. This large population of teachers depends heavily on academic researchers for developing their knowledge base. Although it is evident that teachers who engage in classroom research are more aware of their practices and better able to facilitate studen...

  3. Nuclear medical approaches to clinical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the master course Clinical research management at the scientific college Lahr in cooperation with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg three contributions are presented: Functional imaging - supported clinical studies in the sleep research. A comparison of NMR imaging versus SPECT and PET (advantages and disadvantages). Clinical studies with ionizing radiation and the radiation fear of the public. The new radioimmunotherapeutic agent Zevalin and the challenges at the market.

  4. The participatory archive of the sites of Danish rock music culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Line Vestergaard

    When setting out to tell the story of rock music culture, one approach is a focus at the “meeting places” where bands, fans and those behind the scenes have gathered. With this approach the cultural heritage of rock music becomes situated and site-specific, and it is nearby to think of ways to engage those who “inhabited” these specific sites of the previous 60 years of rock music culture. This paper will discuss how the issues of locality and rock music culture can be gathered and researched by a participatory (web 2.0) archive. The research is empirically focused at “The Map of Danish Rock History” as an example of such a digital participatory archive. This digital online project is initiated by the Danish Rock Music Museum and intends to gather material that portray the sites’ and meeting places’ (such as venues, festivals, youth clubs etc.) of Danish rock music culture. Danish rock music is a broad geographical and institutional phenomenon, not only present in the main cities but also flourishing in small towns, and not only at the well-known venues but also on the edges of the commercial scene as well as the institutionalized Danish welfare state. The history of many provincial hotbeds of rock culture (for example in the area of southern Jutland) have not been collected, documented and told yet. The museum wishes to bring this broad story of the places of Danish Rock music to the surface as cultural heritage by help from those who have had their lives and musical experiences in these places (rock fans and musicians) and those who have gathered material from these places (local archives, rock journalists, private enthusiasts, venue owners, volunteers etc.). This leads to the main question of this paper: What type of story is actually formulated when a heterogeneous group of people from outside the museum contributes with content to throw light on Danish rock music sites and localities? During several workshops with a group of people representing the potential contributors (as described just above) combined with a more broad (internet based) beta-testing of the participatory archive various content has been gathered. Site specific facts, stories, pictures, documents and videos have been uploaded to the archive and now represent the beginning of a conglomerate picture of the specific sites’ evolvement, their local circumstances and their influence on rock music environments, genres and collaborations. See www.rockensdanmarkskort.dk. In this paper, based on my phd.-project research, I wish to present some examples of these collaboratively generated portrays of Danish sites of rock music. In addition, I wish to explore more theoretically how these portrays of sites gathered in the participatory archive can be understood as collective expressions or networked knowledge (rather than narratives of individuals) of locally situated, but globally influenced, rock music communities?

  5. Participatory planning and community development: an e-learning training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Caterina; Procentese, Fortuna; Baldi, Simona

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to provide guidelines for all community actors on the acquisition of participatory planning tools. There is a growing need for experts capable of participatory interventions to act as social catalysts to promote local well-being and empowerment. Thus, under an ecological approach, 21 young graduates from different fields (architecture, psychology, environmental planning), public administration officers and social organization managers, all residing in Southern Italy, were offered individual and group empowerment training modules through a multidisciplinary training experience with e-learning features. These consisted of 1,500 hours of didactic activities including online cooperative experiences and field interactions directed toward acquiring participatory planning and community mediation tools. Our experience indicates that it is possible to promote participation and acquire skills through online training. Online training has shown itself to be a useful and successful tool for promoting skills in the field of social planning. PMID:20391055

  6. Notas sobre a segunda avaliação externa do programa de treinamento em epidemiologia aplicada aos serviços do sistema único de saúde do Brasil - EPISUS: potencialidades do enfoque qualitativo-participativo / Notes on the second external evaluation of the training program in epidemiology applied to the services of brazil's national health system - EPISUS: potentialities of the qualitative-participatory approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Lúcia Magalhães, Bosi; Ricardo José Soares, Pontes.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva relatar o emprego do enfoque qualitativo-participativo, bem como discutir seus fundamentos e potencialidades, tomando como base a participação dos autores na segunda avaliação externa do Programa de Treinamento em Epidemiologia Aplicada aos Serviços do Sistema Único de Saúde - [...] EPISUS. Finalizada em outubro de 2007, em parceria com a Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde e o Center for Diseases Control (CDC/Atlanta), a referida avaliação incorporou o enfoque da chamada quarta geração (fourth generation evaluation), no qual os avaliadores operam como mediadores, substituindo, assim, os fundamentos do enfoque tradicional antes utilizado. Para tanto, tornou-se necessária uma demarcação conceitual referente aos conceitos avaliação, qualitativo e participativo que orientariam o processo avaliativo focalizado. Quanto ao conceito avaliação, sua natureza conflui para as propostas de quarta geração e, portanto, transita de um caráter punitivo para um caráter construtivo. A dimensão participativa aponta para diferentes sentidos do que seja participar e, na experiência aqui relatada, adotou-se o sentido decisório, onde se busca reverter assimetrias de poder. O qualitativo é concebido na interface com a subjetividade, referindo-se a informações que não se submetem à quantificação. Tal modelo permitiu desvelar aspectos que, muitas vezes, se ocultam nos números e nas generalizações abstratas, tornando possível focalizar as relações que constituem o cotidiano dos programas e práticas em saúde, subsidiando, assim, sua transformação. Abstract in english This paper aims to present the authors' experience concerning the use of the qualitative-participatory approach in the second external evaluation of the Training Program in Epidemiology Applied to the Services of the National Health System - EPISUS. Completed in October 2007, in partnership with the [...] Health Surveillance Department and the Center for Diseases Control (CDC / Atlanta), this evaluation incorporated the so-called fourth generation evaluation approach, in which the evaluators operate as mediators, thus replacing the foundations of the traditional approach used so far. To achieve this objective, it was necessary to carry out a conceptual delimitation referring to the concepts of evaluation, qualitative and participatory, which would guide the focused evaluative process. As for evaluation, its nature converges to the proposals of the fourth generation; therefore, it moved from a punitive character to a constructive one. The participatory dimension assumes different senses and, in the experiment reported here, this term is adopted in the decision sense, which attempts to reverse power asymmetries. The qualitative dimension is defined in the interface with subjectivity, referring to information that is not subject to quantification. This model revealed aspects that are often hidden in numbers and in abstract generalizations, enabling to focus on relationships that constitute the daily routine of the health programs and practices, and giving support to their transformation.

  7. Making and Shaping Participatory Spaces: Resemiotization and Citizenship Agency in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, democratic consolidation involves not only building a new state, but also new interfaces between state and society. To strengthen the agency of citizens at these interfaces, recent approaches to development stress the notion of "participatory citizenship." The purpose of this article is to explore the links, rarely achieved in…

  8. Changing Coverage of Domestic Violence Murders: A Longitudinal Experiment in Participatory Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Charlotte; Anastario, Mike; DaCunha, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Stressing relation-building and participatory communication approaches, the Rhode Island Coalition against Domestic Violence worked with journalists to develop a best practices handbook on news coverage of domestic violence murders. This study compares print coverage of domestic violence murders prehandbook (1996-1999) and posthandbook…

  9. Health, biodiversity, and natural resource use on the Amazon frontier: an ecosystem approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Tamsyn P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to improve the health of rural Amazonian communities through the development and application of a participatory ecosystem approach to human health assessment. In the study area marked seasonal fluctuations dictate food availability, water quality and disease outbreak. Determining the causal linkages between ecosystem variables, resource use and health required a variety of forms of inquiry at multiple scales with local participation. Landscape spatial mapping of resource use demonstrated the diversity of the ecological resources upon which communities depend. Household surveys detailed family and individual consumption and production patterns. Anthropometric measurements, parasite loading, water quality and anemia levels were used as indicators of health status. This was complemented with an ethnographic and participatory health assessment that provided the foundation for developing community action plans addressing health issues. Discussion is focused on three attributes of an ecosystem approach; (a methodological pluralism, (b cross-scale interactions and (c participatory action research.

  10. Towards Multi-Method Research Approach in Empirical Software Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandi?, Vladimir; Markkula, Jouni; Oivo, Markku

    This paper presents results of a literature analysis on Empirical Research Approaches in Software Engineering (SE). The analysis explores reasons why traditional methods, such as statistical hypothesis testing and experiment replication are weakly utilized in the field of SE. It appears that basic assumptions and preconditions of the traditional methods are contradicting the actual situation in the SE. Furthermore, we have identified main issues that should be considered by the researcher when selecting the research approach. In virtue of reasons for weak utilization of traditional methods we propose stronger use of Multi-Method approach with Pragmatism as the philosophical standpoint.

  11. Developing participatory models of watershed management in the Sugar Creek watershed (Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Weaver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

  12. New Research Approach to Rebuild Sport Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Raiola; Tiziana D?Isanto

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The game court of team sport, part of Sport Centre of Arturo Collana, was closed after structural accident in 2006 and the local administration is now designing the rebuilding of it. For this reason, it has already allocated economical resource to study a partial reconstruction of it to reutilize actual structure. The problem is how can satisfy the customers according to suggesting the old and new solutions. Approach: The aim is to recognize expected ...

  13. Approaches to Work-Life Balance Research.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Formánková, Lenka

    Brno : Office of the Public Defender of Rights, 2015 - (Polák, P.; Kvasnicová, J.; Tichá, I.), s. 75-81 ISBN 978-80-87949-05-4. [Work-life balance. Brno (CZ), 23.10.2014-24.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : research strategy * family * work Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  14. Researching media through practices: an ethnographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Roig

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological and ethnographic research on media have been largely focused on analyzing reception of media products (television, radio, press and film and media consumption related to domestic appropriation of technologies (Rothenbuhler et al., 2005. There is also a wide body of research devoted to the study of the political dimension of alternative and indigenous media (Ginsburg, 2002. However, there has been a separation between media and internet studies, and between the analysis of media reception and practices of self-production, such as family photography or home video. Current digital media practices urge reexamination of self-produced content and media flows from a broader perspective that cuts across divisions between public and private, corporative media products and people's releases, home production and cultural industry, political activism and everyday life.

  15. Introduction: The Participatory Turn in Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroš Krivý

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Footprint examines the recent participatory turn in urban planning and urban design. It discusses the co-opting of participatory processes by planning departments, the systematic disregard of inequalities, and the empowering of the market resulting from the ‘anti-statism’ present in many participatory schemes.What is the relationship between the institutionalisation of participation and the practices of autonomy, self-organisation, and inclusion? When and how does genuine empowerment of collectives take place? Does the demand for the empowerment of local organisations and communities strengthen the market forces at the expense of central government?This issue attempts to problematise ‘participation’, to call attentions to some of its shortcomings, deficits, and limitations, not in order to necessarily bypass the demand for the democratisation of the urban, but in order to rectify and strengthen it.

  16. From Joint Experimentation to Laissez-Faire: Transdisciplinary Innovation Research for the Institutional Strengthening of a Water Users Association in Khorezm, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djanibekov, Nodir; Hornidge, Anna-Katharina; Ul-Hassan, Mehmood

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article assesses a participatory action and innovation research experience, in which project researchers, farmers and staff members of a local water users association (WUA) came together to: (a) jointly test and adapt a social mobilization and institutional strengthening approach according to the local context, and by doing so, to…

  17. Facilitating participatory multilevel decision-making by using interactive mental maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Glaser, Stephanie; Vencatesan, Jayshree; Schliermann-Kraus, Elke; Drescher, Axel; Glaser, Rüdiger

    2008-11-01

    Participation of citizens in political, economic or social decisions is increasingly recognized as a precondition to foster sustainable development processes. Since spatial information is often important during planning and decision making, participatory mapping gains in popularity. However, little attention has been paid to the fact that information must be presented in a useful way to reach city planners and policy makers. Above all, the importance of visualisation tools to support collaboration, analytical reasoning, problem solving and decision-making in analysing and planning processes has been underestimated. In this paper, we describe how an interactive mental map tool has been developed in a highly interdisciplinary disaster management project in Chennai, India. We moved from a hand drawn mental maps approach to an interactive mental map tool. This was achieved by merging socio-economic and geospatial data on infrastructure, local perceptions, coping and adaptation strategies with remote sensing data and modern technology of map making. This newly developed interactive mapping tool allowed for insights into different locally-constructed realities and facilitated the communication of results to the wider public and respective policy makers. It proved to be useful in visualising information and promoting participatory decision-making processes. We argue that the tool bears potential also for health research projects. The interactive mental map can be used to spatially and temporally assess key health themes such as availability of, and accessibility to, existing health care services, breeding sites of disease vectors, collection and storage of water, waste disposal, location of public toilets or defecation sites. PMID:19021113

  18. Making Investments in Dryland Development Work: Participatory Scenario Planning in the Makanya Catchment, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bossio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The agro-ecosystems of semi-arid and dry sub-humid SSA are inherently dynamic. At this point in time they are also experiencing a series of complex social–ecological changes that make their future even more uncertain. To ensure that development investments made today in the small-scale farming systems that dominate these regions make sense also in a long-term perspective they should benefit the local communities over a range of potential futures. We applied a participatory scenario planning approach to a smallholder farming community in semi-arid Tanzania, exploring four alternative development trajectories for the area, to increase the robustness of current investments in small-scale water system technologies. We found that water system technologies will be important across a number of possible futures, but that the most relevant target of these innovations, e.g., staple- versus cash-crop production, or individual- versus community-managed systems, differs. We argue that building capacity for experimentation among farmers is key to upgrading their farming systems, as this will generate benefits over a range of alternative futures. Furthermore, we found it to be essential across a range of scenarios to analyze the system-level impact of proposed interventions for successful investments in water system technologies. We conclude that although the method presents some challenges, participatory scenario planning is a useful tool for integrating research and development projects in the larger context, asit increases the understanding of events and processes that may either challenge the project or provide opportunities for it.

  19. A TRANSDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO HEALTH POLICY RESEARCH AND EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Thomas T. H.

    2014-01-01

    An integrated perspective consists of macro- and micro-level approaches to health policy research and evaluation is presented. Analytical strategies are suggested for policy analysis, targeting on health disparities at individual and population levels. This systems approach enables investigators to view how scientific public policy analysis can be implemented to assess policy impacts. In this special issue, five papers are introduced.

  20. With the lifeworld as ground. A research approach for empirical research in education - the Gothenburg tradition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jan, Bengtsson.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended as a brief introduction to the lifeworld approach to empirical research in education. One decisive feature of this approach is the inclusion of an explicit discussion of its ontological assumptions in the research design. This does not yet belong to the routines of empirical [...] research in education. Some methodological consequences of taking the lifeworld ontology as a ground for empirical research are discussed as well as the importance of creativity in the choice of method for particular projects. In this way, the lifeworld approach has its own particular perspective in phenomenological, empirical research in education. The article concludes with a description of an empirical study based on the lifeworld approach in order to illuminate the possibilities for empirical research in education as well as the significance of this approach for education.

  1. Primary Schoolchildren's Experiences of Participatory Theatre in a Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzibazi, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for articulation of the theoretical framework underpinning performance as a learning medium in heritage sites and for an in-depth insight into the children's experiences therein. The aim of this paper is to explore some of the themes that emerged from researching participatory theatre in a historic house as experienced…

  2. Model-driven software development approaches in robotics research

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaswamy, Arun Kumar; Monsuez, Bruno; Tapus, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there is an encouraging trend in adopting model-driven engineering approaches for software development in robotics research. In this paper, currently available model-driven techniques in robotics are analyzed with respect to the domain-specific requirements. A conceptual overview of our software development approach called 'Self Adaptive Framework for Robotic Systems (SafeRobots)' is explained and we also try to position our approach within this model ecosystem.

  3. Aplicación de un enfoque participativo para la definición y evaluación de metas en un proyecto innovativo agropecuario local / Implementation of a participatory approach to the definition and evaluation of an innovative project goals in local agriculture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lydia, Angarica; Rodobaldo, Ortiz Pérez; Marguerite, Misteli Schmid; Francisco, Guevara Hernández.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En el proyecto Diseminación del Fitomejoramiento Participativo en Cuba (II Fase). Un Programa para fortalecer la innovación agropecuaria local (2007-2010), el equipo de monitoreo y sistematización desarrolló, junto a los ejecutores en los Centros Locales de Innovación Agropecuaria (CLIA) y la plataf [...] orma nacional, una metodología para el monitoreo y evaluación participativos, como instrumento para la planificación, el automonitoreo, la evaluación de impactos y la evaluación externa en los procesos de innovación agropecuaria. La base para tal empeño fue la definición y evaluación participativa de las metas realizadas en cada CLIA para alcanzar los resultados esperados. En el CLIA provincial de Pinar del Río este procedimiento permitió examinar la problemática local a partir de las perspectivas de los involucrados, concretar y ordenar sus aspiraciones en los procesos de innovación, facilitar la participación de mujeres y hombres identificando aspectos de interés y promover relaciones entre actores, reconociendo sus potencialidades internas en el diseño de estrategias para el desarrollo agropecuario de la localidad. Los resultados muestran la capacidad del CLIA para definir sus metas y jerarquizarlas en el corto, mediano y largo plazos; además, se ratifica que la incorporación de este procedimiento en la práctica de los proyectos, permite conocer las percepciones de la diversidad de actores que conforman los espacios locales, se identifican posibles alianzas y se armonizan intereses y resultados esperados en las estrategias de desarrollo con enfoque de género. Abstract in english The Spread of Participatory Plant Breeding project in Cuba (Phase II). Program to strengthen local agricultural innovation (2007-2010), the systematic monitoring equipment and systematization developed along the executors in local Agricultural Innovation Centers (CLIA) and the national platform a me [...] thodology for participatory monitoring and evaluation as a tool planning, self-monitoring, impact assessment and external evaluation in agricultural innovation processes. The basis for this effort was the definition and participatory assessment carried out in each CLIA goals to achieve the expected results. CLIA in Pinar del Río province this procedure allowed us to examine local issues from the perspectives of those involved, realize their aspirations and managing innovation processes, facilitate the participation of women and men identifying areas of concern and promote relations between actors recognize their inner potential in the design of strategies for agricultural development in the locality. The results show the ability of CLIA to define your goals and prioritize in the short, medium and long term, also confirming that the incorporation of this procedure in the practical project, allows to know the perceptions of the diversity of actors that make up the local areas, identify potential partnerships and harmonize interests and expected results in the development strategies with a gender perspective.

  4. A cognitive approach to soundscape research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniele; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Raimbault, Manon; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Raimbault, Manon

    2001-05-01

    The present research on cognitive categories for soundscapes focuses on their interpretations and can be seen as mediating between individual sensory experiences and collective representations shared in language and elaborated as knowledge. Results of field inquiries in Paris, Lyon, and Nantes are presented together with results from categorization of recorded soundscapes in laboratory conditions. Categories were identified by means of linguistic analyses of verbal comments and mathematical analyses of similarity judgments. Results indicate that people categorize environmental sounds on the basis of semantic features, namely source identity and pleasantness judgments, rather than perceptual features. Effects of noise on human subjectivity cannot be quantitatively measured thoroughly in terms of physical parameters: auditory judgments depend upon the meaning attributed to acoustic phenomena and noise sources, rather than on inherent properties of the acoustic signal. These findings highlight the fact that an acoustic phenomenon can be diversely conceptualized and lexicalized as cognitive representations. Finally, methodological and theoretical consequences of these findings are established as the basis for further research on soundscape, in order to account not only for noise annoyance but also for sound quality of urban life.

  5. Facilities as teaching tools: A transformative participatory professional development experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eric A.

    Resource consumption continues to increase as the population grows. In order to secure a sustainable future, society must educate the next generation to become "sustainability natives." Schools play a pivotal role in educating a sustainability-literate society. However, a disconnect exists between the hidden curriculum of the built environment and the enacted curriculum. This study employs a transformative participatory professional development model to instruct teachers on how to use their school grounds as teaching tools for the purpose of helping students make explicit choices in energy consumption, materials use, and sustainable living. Incorporating a phenomenological perspective, this study considers the lived experience of two sustainability coordinators. Grounded theory provides an interpretational context for the participants' interactions with each other and the professional development process. Through a year long professional development experience - commencing with an intense, participatory two-day workshop -the participants discussed challenges they faced with integrating facilities into school curriculum and institutionalizing a culture of sustainability. Two major needs were identified in this study. For successful sustainability initiatives, a hybrid model that melds top-down and bottom-up approaches offers the requisite mix of administrative support, ground level buy-in, and excitement vis-a-vis sustainability. Second, related to this hybrid approach, K-12 sustainability coordinators ideally need administrative capabilities with access to decision making, while remaining connected to students in a meaningful way, either directly in the classroom, as a mentor, or through work with student groups and projects.

  6. Two-year participatory monitoring of extractivism in Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Newton, Peter

    Sustainable use of nontimber forest products (NTFP) in Amazonia, the World’s largest remaining contiguous rainforest, largely rests upon understanding patterns of resource use involving rural livelihoods to better inform conservation science. Brazil encompasses three-quarters of Amazonia, where non-indigenous semi-subsistence groups referred to as caboclos, outnumber native Amerindians by a factor of ten. The Brazilian government has committed to supporting participatory programs where monitoring biodiversity and co-management of natural resources are spearheaded by residents of sustainable-use protected areas. Notable among these initiatives is the Programa de Monitoramento da Biodiversidade e do Uso de Recursos Naturais em Unidades de Conservação Estaduais do Amazonas (ProBUC). ProBUC aims to 1) sensitize community residents to the importance of monitoring the state of natural resource use and establish norms for sustainable use, 2) train community residents to lead monitoring programs, 3) monitor species with high market potential (e.g. palms), 4) monitor species of special interest (e.g. red listed by IUCN), and 5) monitor land-use change. Since 2005, ProBUC has developed pilot projects in three conservation units, including two extractive reserves. Extractive reserves, defined as forest areas inhabited by extractive populations granted long-term usufruct rights to forest resources which they collectively manage, are among the most important protected area types, accounting for one seventh of Brazilian Amazonia. Here, we present the results of a two-year participatory monitoring program of extractive activities by caboclos inhabiting one of ProBUC’s pilot areas, the Uacari Sustainable Development Reserve, as well as the Médio Juruá Extractive Reserve, both within the Juruá River basin of western Brazilian Amazonia. We discuss the most important extractive activities for ~100 households, how socio-economic factors influence NTFP extractive patterns across households, and the benefits and constraints of using participatory approaches to monitor extractivism in Amazonia.

  7. Research to Integrate Productivity Enhancement, Environmental Protection, and Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Campbell; Sayer, Jeffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    To meet the challenges of poverty and environmental sustainability, a different kind of research will be needed. This research will need to embrace the complexity of these systems by redirecting the objectives of research toward enhancing adaptive capacity, by incorporating more participatory approaches, by embracing key principles such as multi-scale analysis and intervention, and by the use of a variety of tools (e.g., systems analysis, information management tools, and impact assessment to...

  8. Estranged Familiars: A Deweyan Approach to Philosophy and Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay argues that philosophy can be combined with qualitative research without sacrificing the aims of either approach. Philosophers and qualitative researchers have articulated and supported the idea that human meaning-constructions are appropriately grasped through close attention to "consequences incurred in action," in…

  9. Recasting Communication Theory and Research: A Cybernetic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary A.

    The author's main concern is to provide a research format which will supply a unitary conception of communication. The wide range of complex topics and variety of concepts embraced by communication theory and the rather disparate set of phenomena encompassed by communication research create this need for a unitary study approach capable of linking…

  10. Perspective: a systems approach to diabetes research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J.; Hager, Jörg; Sonderegger, Bernhard; Kaput, Jim

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial and arise from complex interactions between genetic makeup and environment, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a collection of sub-phenotypes resulting in high fasting glucose. The underlying gene–environment interactions that produce these classes of T2DM are imperfectly characterized. Based on assessments of the complexity of T2DM, we propose a systems biology approach to advance the understanding of origin, onset, development, prevention, and treatment of this complex disease. This systems-based strategy is based on new study design principles and the integrated application of omics technologies: we pursue longitudinal studies in which each subject is analyzed at both homeostasis and after (healthy and safe) challenges. Each enrolled subject functions thereby as their own case and control and this design avoids assigning the subjects a priori to case and control groups based on limited phenotyping. Analyses at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term “systems omics.” PMID:24187547

  11. Introduccion y evaluacion de Phymastichus coffea (tlymenoptera: Eulophidae) en fincas de pequeños caficultores, a traves de investigaciòn participativa / Introduction and evaluatiòn of Phymastichus coffea (tlymenoptera: Eulophidae) in smallholder coffee farms, through participatory research

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LUIS FERNANDO, ARISTIZABAL A; HUGO MAURICIO, SALAZAR E; CARLOS GONZALO, MEJIA M; ALEX E, BUSTILLO P..

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cenicafe en convenio con el ICO-CFC-CABI Bioscience adelanto un proyecto de investigacion participativa con pequeños caficultores de Caldas, Quindio y Risaralda relacionado con el manejo de la broca del cafe. Durante este proyecto se realizaron las primeras liberaciones de Phymastichus coffea (La Sa [...] lle) en Colombia, con el proposito de darlo a conocer a los caficultores. iniciar su introduccion y evaluar su establecimiento. En el estudio se consideraron 41 fincas localizadas entre 1.200 y 1.800 m de altitud. Durante 20 meses el manejo de la broca se baso en recolecciones frecuentes de cafe maduro y en liberaciones de P. coffea. Los caficultores realizaron evaluaciones de infestacion de broca, posiciones de penetracion en los frutos y colectaron frutos infestados para evaluar el establecimiento del parasitoide. En total se colectaron 455 muestras de frutos infestados. En el 49,2% (N = 224) de las muestras se observò la presencia de P. coffea. Se detectò la presencia de P. coffea hasta 14 meses despues de la ultima liberacion. En las fincas de los municipios de Balboa, Montenegro y Belalcazar se observaron los parasitismos mayores 5,6, 5,6 y 4.7% en promedio, respectivamente. En contraste, las fincas de los municipios de Riosucio. Buenavista y Santa Rosa de Cabal presentaron parasitismos menores 0,7, 1,3 y 1,9% en promedio. respectivamente. El parasitismo maximo fue 42%. Es importante resaltar la presencia de P. coffea en el 87,5% de los predios en donde fue liberado, ya que se demuestra que se puede establecer en los agroecosistemas cafeteros del pais. Abstract in english In collaboratiòn with ICO-CFC-CABI Bioscience, Cenicafe conducted a farmer participatory research project with smallholder coffee growers in Caldas, Quindio and Risaralda, related to the management of the coffee berry borer. During this study the first release of Phymastichus coffea (La Salle) was m [...] ade in Colombia with the main purpose of allowing farmers to learn about this parasitoid, initiate its introduction, and evaluate its establishment. Forty-one coffee farms participated in the study, which were located between 1.200 and 1.800 meters elevatiòn. For 20 months coffee berry borer management was based on frequent harvests of mature coffee and releases of P. coffea. Farmers made evaluatiòns of insect infestaciòn, positions of borer penetratiòn in the berry and collected infested berries to evaluate the parasitoid establishment. Altogether 455 samples of infested berries were collected. In 49,2% (N = 224) of the samples the presence of P. coffea was observed. The presence of P. coffea was detected up to 14 months after the last release. In farms of Balboa, Montenegro and Belalcazar, the highest parasitism was observed: mean of 5,6. 5,6 and 4,7%, respectively. In contrast, farms of Riosucio, Buenavista and Santa Rosa de Cabal, had lower parasitism: mean of 0,7. 1,3 and 1,9%. respectively. Maximum parasitism observed was 42%. It is important to emphasize that P. coffea was present in 87,5 % of the farms where it was released, demonstrating that it can be established in the coffee agroecosystems of the country.

  12. Introduccion y evaluacion de Phymastichus coffea (tlymenoptera: Eulophidae en fincas de pequeños caficultores, a traves de investigaciòn participativa Introduction and evaluatiòn of Phymastichus coffea (tlymenoptera: Eulophidae in smallholder coffee farms, through participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS FERNANDO ARISTIZABAL A

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cenicafe en convenio con el ICO-CFC-CABI Bioscience adelanto un proyecto de investigacion participativa con pequeños caficultores de Caldas, Quindio y Risaralda relacionado con el manejo de la broca del cafe. Durante este proyecto se realizaron las primeras liberaciones de Phymastichus coffea (La Salle en Colombia, con el proposito de darlo a conocer a los caficultores. iniciar su introduccion y evaluar su establecimiento. En el estudio se consideraron 41 fincas localizadas entre 1.200 y 1.800 m de altitud. Durante 20 meses el manejo de la broca se baso en recolecciones frecuentes de cafe maduro y en liberaciones de P. coffea. Los caficultores realizaron evaluaciones de infestacion de broca, posiciones de penetracion en los frutos y colectaron frutos infestados para evaluar el establecimiento del parasitoide. En total se colectaron 455 muestras de frutos infestados. En el 49,2% (N = 224 de las muestras se observò la presencia de P. coffea. Se detectò la presencia de P. coffea hasta 14 meses despues de la ultima liberacion. En las fincas de los municipios de Balboa, Montenegro y Belalcazar se observaron los parasitismos mayores 5,6, 5,6 y 4.7% en promedio, respectivamente. En contraste, las fincas de los municipios de Riosucio. Buenavista y Santa Rosa de Cabal presentaron parasitismos menores 0,7, 1,3 y 1,9% en promedio. respectivamente. El parasitismo maximo fue 42%. Es importante resaltar la presencia de P. coffea en el 87,5% de los predios en donde fue liberado, ya que se demuestra que se puede establecer en los agroecosistemas cafeteros del pais.In collaboratiòn with ICO-CFC-CABI Bioscience, Cenicafe conducted a farmer participatory research project with smallholder coffee growers in Caldas, Quindio and Risaralda, related to the management of the coffee berry borer. During this study the first release of Phymastichus coffea (La Salle was made in Colombia with the main purpose of allowing farmers to learn about this parasitoid, initiate its introduction, and evaluate its establishment. Forty-one coffee farms participated in the study, which were located between 1.200 and 1.800 meters elevatiòn. For 20 months coffee berry borer management was based on frequent harvests of mature coffee and releases of P. coffea. Farmers made evaluatiòns of insect infestaciòn, positions of borer penetratiòn in the berry and collected infested berries to evaluate the parasitoid establishment. Altogether 455 samples of infested berries were collected. In 49,2% (N = 224 of the samples the presence of P. coffea was observed. The presence of P. coffea was detected up to 14 months after the last release. In farms of Balboa, Montenegro and Belalcazar, the highest parasitism was observed: mean of 5,6. 5,6 and 4,7%, respectively. In contrast, farms of Riosucio, Buenavista and Santa Rosa de Cabal, had lower parasitism: mean of 0,7. 1,3 and 1,9%. respectively. Maximum parasitism observed was 42%. It is important to emphasize that P. coffea was present in 87,5 % of the farms where it was released, demonstrating that it can be established in the coffee agroecosystems of the country.

  13. JAKFISH Policy Brief: coping with uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity in fisheries management through participatory knowledge development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastoors, M.A.; Ulrich, Clara

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of the scientific underpinning of European fisheries management is often challenged because of perceived exclusion of fishers knowledge and the lack of transparency in generating scientific advice. One of the attempts to address this lack of legitimacy has been through participatory knowledge development. In this paper, we will present the results of the JAKFISH project (Judgement and Knowledge in Fisheries Management involving Stakeholders) that focussed on the interplay between different actors in constructing the underpinning of policy decisions for sustainable fisheries. We tested participatory modelling as a tool to enhance mutual understanding and to increase legitimacy and found that it can be instrumental in developing a broader knowledge base for fisheries management and in building up trust between scientists and stakeholders. However, the participatory approach may not always work. Through social network analyses we found that the number of connections and the frequency of interactions between individuals in different groups (science, fisheries, eNGOs, policy) provides an important clue on the potential effectiveness of participatory approaches. We used three concepts to evaluate the role of scientific knowledge in policy making: salience, legitimacy and credibility. In situations with high stakes and high uncertainties, the evaluation of scientific analyses for policy decisions needs to involve a broader peer community consisting of scientists, policy-makers, NGOs and fisheries in order to increase legitimacy of results. When stakes are low and uncertainties are modest, the credibility of scientific results are sufficiently addressed through traditional scientific peer review

  14. Participatory appraisal of the impact of epizootic lymphangitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, C E; Zerfu, A; Pinchbeck, G P; Reed, K; Gebreab, F; Aklilu, N; Mideksa, K; Christley, R

    2015-07-01

    Epizootic lymphangitis (EZL) is reported to have a significant impact upon livelihoods within resource-poor settings. This study used a participatory approach to explore peoples' experiences of EZL and examine the perceived impact of disease, owner knowledge and understanding of EZL, lay management of disease and, attitudes and strategies towards disease prevention. Focus-group discussions were held with 358 cart-horse owners and drivers recruited from 7 towns attended by SPANA (Society for the protection of animals abroad) mobile veterinary clinics and 2 unexposed towns where no SPANA clinics were available. Focus group discussions explored four main research questions: (1) Is EZL recognised by animal owners, and is this considered an important disease in equids? (2) What factors do animal owners associate with the development of disease? (3) What happens to an animal with clinical disease and how does this impact upon the owner/community? (4) Are measures taken to reduce disease occurrence? These key areas were explored using photographs, disease ranking, matrices and open discussion. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The results are presented thematically and include: recognition and descriptions of EZL, treatment strategies used, disease priorities and ranking, impact of disease, disease transmission and attitudes and approaches to disease prevention. EZL was widely recognised and ranked highly as an important disease of equids. However, there was uncertainty around identifying early cases of EZL, and this could impact upon the timing of initiating treatment and separating potentially infectious animals. People had varying knowledge of effective methods for disease prevention and reported particular difficulties with isolating infected animals. The impact of EZL was multi-dimensional and encompassed effects upon the horse, the individual owner and the wider society. Working equids provide a vital utility and source of income to many people in resource-poor settings. Often, infection with EZL resulted in a reduction in working ability which had a direct impact upon the livelihoods of owners and their dependent family members. EZL also impacted upon the welfare of the horse as sick animals continued to be worked and, in advanced cases, horses were abandoned due to ineffective or unavailable treatment. This study conceptualises the importance of EZL due to the effects of the disease on the horse and its impact upon human livelihoods. Epizootic lymphangitis is a neglected disease that requires further investigation in order to develop practical and sustainable disease control strategies within endemic regions. PMID:25980831

  15. Vocational pedagogy approaches for the improvement of teaching and learning in formal vocational education in Uganda:a case study at Kyambogo University

    OpenAIRE

    Arinaitwe, Dinavence

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to experiment the vocational pedagogy approaches of teaching and learning vocational disciplines on technical teacher trainees, with a target of enticing them to later adopt these approaches and apply them in their teaching practice. This would in turn improve on the challenges facing teaching and learning of VET disciplines in Uganda. The research was action oriented taking a participatory approach with a descriptive research design. For data collection, I adop...

  16. Participatory capacity building in action in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Zapater

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The south-western Colombian department of Nariño has developed an innovative, demand-led and participatory initiative for the local integration of IDP s. The long-term sustainability of such partnerships between local administrations and grassroots communities hinges on ability to influence national and international financial flows.

  17. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  18. Online Social Networking as Participatory Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Albrechtslund, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I argue that online social networking is anchored in surveillance practices. This gives us an opportunity to challenge conventional understandings of surveillance that often focus on control and disempowerment. In the context of online social networking, surveillance is something potentially empowering, subjectivity building and even playful – what I call participatory surveillance.

  19. Participatory ergonomics and new work: reducing neck complaints in assembling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguez, S A; Hallbeck, M S; Vink, P

    2012-01-01

    A participatory ergonomics approach is used to create a new work environment, which is aimed at reducing neck complaints in a cell phone assembly. The participatory ergonomics program included an initiative, problem identification, a selection of solutions, an implementation and evaluation. Twenty-eight women, all operators on an assembly line of cell phone boards, voluntarily participated in the design and evaluation of a device before implementing the device to all 215 employees performing that job. Prior to and after the intervention, RULA, comfort experiences and interviews were used. After introducing an adjustable angled small counter, these measurements showed both posture and comfort improvements. 90% of the 215 workers preferred the new work station and the neck complaints were reduced in 75% of the group. It also showed that the initial prototype needed to be modified as to reduce its sharp edges/compression points for the forearm. This project shows the importance of iterative testing and that an initiative by workers enlarges the chance of successful implementation. PMID:22317512

  20. Participatory Decision Making for Sanitation Improvements in Unplanned Urban Settlements in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriksen, A.; Tukahirwa, J.; Oosterveer, P. J. M.; Mol, A. P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Solving the problem of inadequate access to sanitation in unplanned settlements in East Africa needs to combine social and technical dimensions in such a manner that they fit the local context. The modernized mixtures approach offers an analytical framework for identifying such solutions, but this approach requires effective methods for participatory decision making. This article intends to contribute to filling this gap by identifying and further elaborating an appropriate multicriteria deci...

  1. Designing Agent Behaviour in Agent-Based Simulation through participatory method

    OpenAIRE

    Taillandier, Patrick; Buard, Elodie

    2009-01-01

    Since the end of the eighties, agent-based simulation has demonstrated its usefulness for the modelling of complex systems. However, a difficulty raised by these simulations concerns the designing of agent behaviour. Indeed, most of time, it is difficult for experts to translate their knowledge in a formal way that can be directly used by a computer. In order to facilitate the definition of such behaviour, we propose an approach based on a participatory method. In our approach, an expert dire...

  2. Using Participatory Design in a Health Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Leonor; Saavedra, Vasco; Ferreira, Carlos; Santos, Beatriz Sousa

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the experience of developing an interactive Health Information System (iHIS) currently under test in a hospital, which benefited from the practices of the User-Centred Design (UCD), in a Participatory Design (PD) approach. Techniques from the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and/or Usability Engineering (UE), combined with traditional Software Engineering (SE), allowed an effective and usable solution from the user's point of view. The good results usually achieved with this approach were confirmed. Despite these good results, we deem that if there is not some control of the procedure by the project manager, it may be difficult to end the requirement analysis, since requirement reformulation is fostered. PMID:22255544

  3. The pragmatics of clinical hypermedia: experiences from 5 years of participatory design in the MEDEA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T; Sjöberg, C; Svensson, B

    1995-02-01

    To explore a medical hypermedia design process where requirements engineering and participatory design are used in a naturalistic setting, 5 years of participatory action research (PAR) have been performed in the development of a hypermedia system to be used in primary care practice. In PAR, the participating organizations cooperate with the researchers in deciding and later evaluating organizational actions, and the results are concluded cooperatively. A new type of system emerged from the study, in that the resulting design has its focus on the management of large volumes of hypermedia material, the traceability of authority in the documents, and teamwork support. Regarding the participatory design process, it was found to be essential to deal with social and organizational issues in the design group and its surroundings--and not to cover these over. For instance, an agreement was reached with the managers responsible for health care in the county where the design process took place, whereby the design activity was also given priority at the highest local administrative level. Since health care is a practice organization, there is a potential market for similar systems if only ways of organizing design and marketing the products of participatory design are further developed. Modified versions of structured product specification methods could be a valuable complement. The conclusion of the study is that the development and spread of hypermedia systems in health care may require considerable changes in current design routines and organizations. PMID:7796585

  4. Experience Sampling Methods: A Modern Idiographic Approach to Personality Research

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, Tamlin S.; Tennen, Howard; Fleeson, William; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2009-01-01

    Experience sampling methods are essential tools for building a modern idiographic approach to understanding personality. These methods yield multiple snapshots of people’s experiences over time in daily life and allow researchers to identify patterns of behavior within a given individual, rather than strictly identify patterns of behavior across individuals, as with standard nomothetic approaches. In this article, we discuss the origin and evolution of idiographic methods in the field of pe...

  5. Scenario workshops: A useful method for participatory water resources planning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzilacou, Dionyssia; Kallis, Giorgos; Mexa, Alexandra; Coccosis, Harris; Svoronou, Eleni

    2007-06-01

    This article reports on a scenario workshop (SW) for water resources management at the island of Naxos, Greece. The workshop was part of a European research project studying the advantages and limitations of different participatory methods in the context of the Water Framework Directive. It involved policy makers, scientists, business representatives, and citizens from different parts of the island. On the first day, participants worked to envision a sustainable development future for the island and its water resources. Discussion was inspired by four alternative water development scenarios prepared by the organizers. Participants' vision statements emphasized a diversified development path and balanced water solutions. On the second day, participants worked to plan the actions needed to realize their common vision. The SW turned out to be a good method to initiate a multipartner dialogue, to include new stakeholders in the water policy debate, and to a certain extent, to promote learning between participants. On the other hand, it did not appear well suited to resolve conflicts and aid decisions in the face of scientific complexity and uncertainty. SW seems to be a good method for the "upstream," preparatory, capacity-building tasks of a planning process but not for the production of substantive decision outputs such as consensual agreements or action plans. The Naxos experiment also raised the centrality of framing, participant selection, and facilitation in participatory processes.

  6. Is dementia research ready for big data approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The "big data" paradigm has gained a lot of attention recently, in particular in those areas of biomedicine where we face clear unmet medical needs. Coined as a new paradigm for complex problem solving, big data approaches seem to open promising perspectives in particular for a better understanding of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. In this commentary, we will provide a brief overview on big data principles and the potential they may bring to dementia research, and - most importantly - we will do a reality check in order to provide an answer to the question of whether dementia research is ready for big data approaches. PMID:26099627

  7. Journal Clubs: An Educational Approach to Advance Understanding among Community Partners and Academic Researchers about CBPR and Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Simmons, Vani N.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Malo, Teri; Klasko, Lynne; Rodriguez, Maria; Waddell, Rhonda; Gwede, Clement K.; Meade, Cathy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Journal clubs may enhance the knowledge and skills necessary to engage in community-based participatory research (CBPR) that will ultimately impact cancer health disparities. This article: (1) describes an innovative approach to adapting the traditional journal club format to meet community and academic participants’ needs, (2) presents evaluation data, and (3) explores whether responses differed between academic and community members. Methods Five journal clubs occurred between February 2011 and May 2012 as a training activity of a regional cancer health disparities initiative. Each journal club was jointly planned and facilitated by an academic member in collaboration with a community partner. Attendees were recruited from academic programs across the Moffitt Cancer Center/university and community partners. Responses to a 13-item evaluation of each journal club session were compared to assess whether certain topics were evaluated more favorably, and explore differences between academic and community participants’ assessment of the topic relevance. Results Evaluations were positive (mean ratings >4 out of 5) on most items and overall. No statistically significant differences were observed between academic and community members’ ratings. Key overlapping interests by community partners and academic researchers/trainees for future journal club topics included discussing real-world CBPR examples and methods for involving the community in research. Conclusions Although the initial goal was to use journal clubs as an educational tool to increase CBPR knowledge and skills of junior faculty trainees, results suggest mutual academic-community benefit and interest in learning more about CBPR as a way to reduce cancer health disparities. PMID:24078328

  8. Lost in Translation: The Participatory Imperative and Local Water Governance in North Thailand and Southwest Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Neef

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Water management in Thailand and Germany has been marked by a command-and-control policy-style for decades, but has recently begun to move slowly towards more inclusive and participatory approaches. In Germany, the push for public participation stems from the recently promulgated European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, while participatory and integrated river basin management in Thailand has been strongly promoted by major international donors. Drawing on case studies from two watersheds in North Thailand and Southwest Germany, this paper analyses how the participatory imperative in water governance is translated at the local level. Evidence suggests that in both countries public participation in water management is still in its infancy, with legislative and executive responsibilities being divided between a variety of state agencies and local authorities. Bureaucratic restructuring and technocratic attitudes, passive resistance on the part of administrative staff towards inclusive processes, and a trend towards the (recentralization of responsibilities for water governance in both study regions undermines community-based and stakeholder-driven water governance institutions, thus calling into question the subsidiarity principle. State-driven participatory processes tend to remain episodic and ceremonial and have not (yet gone beyond the informative and consultative stage. Meaningful public participation, promised on paper and in speeches, gets lost in translation too often.

  9. Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight characteristics of boundary objects and their use, which make them particularly useful in PE design processes. These characteristics go beyond the object itself and extend into the context of their use. We argue that the selection of boundary objects in PE processes is of great importance, since different objects enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic practitioners that are based on the framework.

  10. Preparing Emerging Doctoral Scholars for Transdisciplinary Research: A Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Susan P.; Nurius, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    Research models that bridge disciplinary, theoretical, and methodological boundaries are increasingly common as funders and the public push for timely, effective, collaborative responses to pressing social and environmental problems. Although social work is inherently an integrative discipline, there is growing recognition of the need to better prepare emerging scholars for sophisticated transdisciplinary and translational research environments. This paper outlines a developmental, competency-oriented approach to enhancing the readiness of doctoral students and emerging scholars in social work and allied disciplines for transdisciplinary research, describes an array of pedagogical tools applicable in doctoral course work and other program elements, and urges coordinated attention to enhancing the field’s transdisciplinary training capacity.

  11. Managing Cybersecurity Research and Experimental Development: The REVO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Craigen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a systematic approach for managing a research and experimental development cybersecurity program that must be responsive to continuously evolving cybersecurity, and other, operational concerns. The approach will be of interest to research-program managers, academe, corporate leads, government leads, chief information officers, chief technology officers, and social and technology policy analysts. The appro