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Effects of parental socio-economic conditions on facial attractiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434) to analyze the association between an individual's parental socio-economic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income) and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old), controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood. PMID:25548886

Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin

2014-01-01

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Close relations to parents and emotional symptoms among adolescents : beyond socio-economic impact?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between trustful communication with parents and frequency of emotional symptoms in schoolchildren and whether this relationship was modified by the family's socio-economic position. METHODS: Pooled data (n = 15,646) from the Danish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010 were analysed by multilevel multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: 8 % of all schoolchildren reported emotional symptoms almost daily. Odds ratio for daily symptoms was 2.1 (1.8-2.4) for children without trustful communication with parents compared to children with trustful communication. This association appears unaffected by family occupational class. A substantial socio-economic gradient in emotional symptoms persisted, independent of parent-child communication. CONCLUSIONS: Trustful communication with parents might have a fundamental importance, regardless of socio-economic position.

Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Holstein, BjØrn E

2014-01-01

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Physical activity, aerobic fitness and parental socio-economic position among adolescents: the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003–2006 (KiGGS)  

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Background: The positive association between parental socio-economic position (PSEP) and health among adolescents may be partly explained by physical activity behaviour. We investigated the associations between physical activity, aerobic fitness and PSEP in a population based sample of German adolescents. Methods: 5,251 participants, aged 11–17 years, in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003–2006 (KiGGS) underwent a s...

Finger, Jonas; Mensink, Gert; Banzer, Winfried; Lampert, Thomas; Tylleska?r, Thorkild

2014-01-01

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Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens  

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The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…

Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette

2014-01-01

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Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

2012-01-01

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Longitudinal changes in functional capacity: effects of socio-economic position among ageing adults  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health and functional capacity have improved especially in Western countries over the past few decades. Nevertheless, the positive secular trend has not been able to decrease an uneven distribution of health. The main aim of this study was to follow-up changes in functional capacity among the same people in six years time and to detect whether the possible changes vary according to socio-economic position (SEP. In addition, it is of interest whether health behaviours have an effect on these possible changes. Methods This longitudinal follow-up study consisted of 1,898 individuals from three birth cohorts (1926–1930, 1936–40, 1946–50 who took part in clinical check-ups and answered to a survey questionnaire in 2002 and 2008. A sub-scale of physical functioning from the RAND-36 was used to measure functional capacity. Education and adequacy of income were used as indicators of socio-economic position. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used as a main method of analysis. Results Physical functioning in 2002 and 2008 was poorest among those men and women belonging to the oldest cohort. Functional capacity deteriorated in six years among men in the oldest cohort and among women in all three cohorts. Socio-economic disparities in functional capacity among ageing people existed. Especially lower adequacy of income was most consistently associated with poorer functional capacity. However, changes in functional capacity by socio-economic position remained the same or even narrowed independent of health behaviours. Conclusion Socio-economic disparities in physical functioning are mainly incorporated in the level of functioning at the baseline. No widening socioeconomic disparities in functional capacity exist. Partly these disparities even seem to narrow with ageing.

Sulander Tommi

2012-12-01

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The Impact of Socio-Economic Status on Parental Involvement in Turkish Primary Schools: Perspective of Teachers  

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This exploratory qualitative study investigates the effects of socio-economic status on parental involvement in public primary schools in Turkey. The study aims to examine how teachers in these schools present the scope of current parental involvement, to what factors teachers ascribe the barriers to parental involvement, and whether…

Bellibas, Mehmet Sukru; Gumus, Sedat

2013-01-01

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'How Poor are you?' - A comparison of four questionnaire delivery modes for assessing socio-economic position in rural Zimbabwe  

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Assessing socio-economic position can be difficult, particularly in developing countries. Collection of socio-economic data usually relies on interviewer-administered questionnaires, but there is little research exploring how questionnaire delivery mode (QDM) influences reporting of these indicators. This paper reports on results of a trial of four QDMs, and the effect of mode on poverty reporting.

Cowan, F. M.; Pascoe, S. J. S.; Langhaug, L. F.; Hargreaves, J. R.; Hayes, R.

2013-01-01

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Longitudinal changes in functional capacity: effects of socio-economic position among ageing adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction Health and functional capacity have improved especially in Western countries over the past few decades. Nevertheless, the positive secular trend has not been able to decrease an uneven distribution of health. The main aim of this study was to follow-up changes in functional capacity among the same people in six years time and to detect whether the possible changes vary according to socio-economic position (SEP). In addition, it is of interest whether hea...

Sulander Tommi; Heinonen Heikki; Pajunen Tuuli; Karisto Antti; Pohjolainen Pertti; Fogelholm Mikael

2012-01-01

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Life course socio-economic position and quality of life in adulthood: a systematic review of life course models  

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Abstract Background A relationship between current socio-economic position and subjective quality of life has been demonstrated, using wellbeing, life and needs satisfaction approaches. Less is known regarding the influence of different life course socio-economic trajectories on later quality of life. Several conceptual models have been proposed to help explain potential life course effects on health, including accumulation, latent, pathway and social mobility models. This sy...

Niedzwiedz Claire L; Katikireddi Srinivasa V; Pell Jill P; Mitchell Richard

2012-01-01

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Socio-economic position and adolescents’ health in Italy: the role of selfesteem and self-efficacy  

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Background: To underline the importance of self-esteem and self-efficacy as aspects of health promotion, we investigated the hypothesis that self-esteem and self-efficacy mediate the effect of socio-economic position on adolescents’ health. This association has been confirmed by our data.

Methods: Data derive from the international Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, 2001- 02 edition: a ...

Alessio Zambon; Patrizia Lemma; Paola Dalmasso; Alberto Borraccino; Franco Cavallo

2007-01-01

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Socio-Economic Position Has No Effect on Improvement in Health-Related Quality of Life and Patient Satisfaction in Total Hip and Knee Replacement: A Cohort Study  

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Introduction Considerable evidence suggests that patients with more advantaged Socio-Economic Positions undergo Total Hip and Knee Replacement (THR/TKR) more often, despite having a lower need. We questioned whether more disadvantaged Socio-Economic Position is associated with an lower improvement in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and a lower patient satisfaction after THR/TKR. Methods Patients who underwent primary THR/TKR in one academic and three community hospitals betwee...

Keurentjes, J. C.; Blane, D.; Bartley, M.; Keurentjes, J. J. B.; Fiocco, M.; Nelissen, R. G.

2013-01-01

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Inclusive Transition Processes--Considering Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Parents' Views and Actions for Their Child's Successful School Start  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has noted that the transition to primary school is important for future school success. As a result, an inclusive transition process to school has become increasingly important. However, this process is particularly difficult for socio-economically disadvantaged children in Germany. The study considers parents' views and…

Rothe, Antje; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

2014-01-01

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The Moderating Effect of Self-Motivation on the Relationship between Parent’s Socio-Economic Background and Children’s Academic Performance at Nigerian Universities  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of self-motivation on the relationship betweenparent’s socio-economic backgrounds on their children’s academic performance at Nigerian Universities, whichhas received little attention. Issues concerning University undergraduate youths have become a cause for concernamong stakeholders in the project called ‘education in Nigeria’. Such issues like expulsion from school due toexamination malpractice or cultism, withdrawal due to poor academic performance and production of half-bakedgraduates have forced many concerned people to question the role of teachers as well as parent’s socio-economicbackground. The paper adopted a survey methodology to solicit responses from 150 final year Universitystudents (2012/2013 of Business Faculties in the north, east and west regions of Nigeria; using stratifiedproportionate random sampling. After data cleaning, 130 data were analyzed using descriptive statistics andhierarchical regression. One of the results indicated that student’s self-motivation (hard work and rich parentalsocio-economic background are needed to achieve academic success; though self-motivation appears to be amore critical success factor. The paper recommended that the government and the authorities of Nigerianuniversities should intensify effort at counselling the students on the need to study hard in order to achieveacademic success rather than relying on their parentssocio-economic background. This will improve teachingand learning in Nigerian Universities. The study is limited to University Business Faculties in Nigeria. Futurestudies can investigate other tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

Isidore Ekpe

2014-10-01

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Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status  

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Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and school readiness.

SarahRobins

2014-06-01

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THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROMANIAN PARENTS’ EMIGRATION ON THEIR CHILDREN’S DESTINY  

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Full Text Available “Mother has been gone for six months to work abroad for me, so that I can have a better future. I miss her every day. Sometimes I tell myself it’s just a dream and when I wake up mother will be by my side. Dream or reality? Reality or dream? (A sixteen – years old adolescent. The paper shows that are general factors of emigration after post revolutionary period in Romania and also present few aspects of the migration phenomenon from this country and after that it is presenting the social and economic effects of Romanian parents emigration on their children`s destiny.

FELICIA ANDRIONI

2011-01-01

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Low socio-economic position is associated with poor social networks and social support: results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks and social support are supposed to contribute to the development of unequal health within populations. However, little is known about their socio-economic distribution. In this study, we explore this distribution. Methods This study analyses the association of two indicators of socio-economic position, education and income, with different measures of social networks and support. Cross-sectional data have been derived from the baseline examination of an epidemiological cohort study of 4.814 middle aged urban inhabitants in Germany (Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out to estimate the risk of having poor social networks and support across socio-economic groups. Results Socially disadvantaged persons more often report poor social networks and social support. In multivariate analyses, based on education, odds ratios range from 1.0 (highest education to 4.9 (lowest education in a graded way. Findings based on income show similar effects, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5. There is one exception: no association of SEP with close ties living nearby and regularly seen was observed. Conclusion Poor social networks and low social support are more frequent among socio-economically disadvantaged people. To some extent, this finding varies according to the indicator chosen to measure these social constructs.

Jöckel Karl

2008-05-01

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Cancer awareness and socio-economic position : results from a population-based study in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Formålet med dette studie var at undersøge ”cancer awareness”, dvs. kendskabet til symptomer på kræft, risikofaktorer for kræft og 5-års overlevelsen for fire kræfttyper, i en dansk population. Derudover ses der nærmere på sammenhænge mellem socio-økonomisk position og ”cancer awareness”. Resultaterne viser, at der er en stærk social gradient i ”cancer awareness”. Personer med et lavt uddannelsesniveau og en lav husstandsindkomst var mindre tilbøjelige til at genkende symptomer på kræft og risikofaktorer for kræft end personer med et højt uddannelsesniveau og en høj husstandsindkomst. Resultaterne viser dog ingen klar sammenhæng mellem socio-økonomisk position og kendskabet til 5-års overlevelsen af kræft. Studiet bygger på data fra i alt 3.000 tilfældigt udvalgte danskere (på mindst 30 år), som besvarede den danske version af spørgeskemaet ”Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer”. Da ”cancer awareness” har betydning for adfærd, fx lægesøgning, er det vigtigt at adressere denne ulighed i fremtidige sundhedsstrategier.

Hvidberg, Line; Pedersen, Anette Fischer

2014-01-01

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Socio-economic position and adolescents’ health in Italy: the role of selfesteem and self-efficacy  

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Full Text Available

Background: To underline the importance of self-esteem and self-efficacy as aspects of health promotion, we investigated the hypothesis that self-esteem and self-efficacy mediate the effect of socio-economic position on adolescents’ health. This association has been confirmed by our data.

Methods: Data derive from the international Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC study, 2001- 02 edition: a representative sample of Italian children (age groups of 11, 13 and 15years, N=4386 was administered a questionnaire at school. We tested with a multivariate model the effect of economic wellbeing on health and behavioural outcomes, first excluding, and then including, self-esteem and self-efficacy among the determinants.

Results: Perceiving poorer health, not eating enough fruits and vegetables and doing too little physical activity are conditions affected by economic well-being (O.R. of best-off to worst-off are 0.65, 0.83 and 0.46, all statistically significant, while smoking habit is not affected. Including self-esteem and self-efficacy into the model significantly lowers, or annihilates, the effect of economic conditions on these outcomes.

Conclusions: Economic well-being affects adolescents’ health (perceived health and health behaviours in Italy, but it is reasonable to hypothesize that self-esteem and self-efficacy are among the mediators of this effect. Targeted interventions aimed at enhancing self-esteem and self-efficacy could therefore help in mitigating the effect of health inequalities.

Alessio Zambon

2007-09-01

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Barriers to healthcare seeking, beliefs about cancer and the role of socio-economic position. A Danish population-based study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related health behaviours may be affected by barriers to healthcare seeking and beliefs about cancer. The aim was to assess anticipated barriers to healthcare seeking and beliefs about cancer in a sample of the Danish population and to assess the association with socio-economic position. METHODS: A population-based telephone interview with 3000 randomly sampled persons aged 30years or older was performed using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure from 31 May to 4 July 2011. The Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure includes statements about four anticipated barriers to healthcare seeking and three positively and three negatively framed beliefs about cancer. For all persons, register-based information on socio-economic position was obtained through Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: Two anticipated barriers, worry about what the doctor might find and worry about wasting the doctor's time, were present among 27% and 15% of the respondents, respectively. Overall, a high proportion of respondents concurred with positive beliefs about cancer; fewer concurred with negative beliefs. Having a low educational level and a low household income were strongly associated with having negative beliefs about cancer. CONCLUSION: The fact that worry about what the doctor might find and worry about wasting the doctor's time were commonly reported barriers call for initiatives in general practice. The association between low educational level and low household income and negative beliefs about cancer might to some degree explain the negative socio-economic gradient in cancer outcome.

Hvidberg, Line; Wulff, Christian Nielsen

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Measuring socio-economic position for epidemiological studies in low- and middle-income countries: a methods of measurement in epidemiology paper  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Much has been written about the measurement of socio-economic position (SEP) in high-income countries (HIC). Less has been written for an epidemiology, health systems and public health audience about the measurement of SEP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The social stratification processes in many LMIC—and therefore the appropriate measurement tools—differ considerably from those in HIC. Many measures of SEP have been utilized in epidemiological studies; the aspects of SEP cap...

Howe, Laura D.; Galobardes, Bruna; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gordon, David; Johnston, Deborah; Onwujeke, Obinna; Patel, Rita; Webb, Elizbeth A.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Hargreaves, James R.

2012-01-01

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Recalled Test Anxiety in Relation to Achievement, in the Context of General Academic Self-Concept, Study Habits, Parental Involvement and Socio-Economic Status among Grade 6 Ethiopian Students  

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The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…

Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech

2009-01-01

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Note about socio-economic calculations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure projects are common and can be made at different levels of detail depending on the type of project and the decision making phase. A common feature of the different levels of detail of the socio-economic analysis is that the planned project(s) is compared with a basic; the basic alternative or a null alternative. In socio-economic evaluations it is intended to describe the effects in economic terms whenever possible (”+” is used when it is positive for the society, and ”–” when it is negative for the society). However, not all the effects for the society can be described in economic terms, and instead these effects must be described qualitatively. This note describes the socio-economic evaluation based on market prices and not factor prices which has been the tradition in Denmark till now. This is due to the recommendation from the Ministry of Transport to start using calculations based on market prices (Ministry of Transport, 2003). However, when following courses at CTT, it is recommended to use the factor price method which will be described in further details in a later chapter.

Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

2006-01-01

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The Moderating Effect of Self-Motivation on the Relationship between Parent’s Socio-Economic Background and Children’s Academic Performance at Nigerian Universities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of self-motivation on the relationship betweenparent’s socio-economic backgrounds on their children’s academic performance at Nigerian Universities, whichhas received little attention. Issues concerning University undergraduate youths have become a cause for concernamong stakeholders in the project called ‘education in Nigeria’. Such issues like expulsion from school due toexamination malpractice or cultism, withdrawal due ...

Isidore Ekpe; Mary Olufunmilayo Adelaiye; Ernest Ikechukwu Adubasim; Victor Chidiebere Adim

2014-01-01

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A STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PARENTAL EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS IN MEDICAL COLLEGE BHAVNGAR  

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Carrier selection is one of the important major question in student life. Various factors affects individual’s carrier selection. Among various factors socioeconomic status and parental educational background is most important, which affects student’s carrier selection. More than student’s interest in particular field for higher education he should be affordable for necessary money required as well he should have proper guidance and inspiration for higher education. Primary guidance of ...

Ghuntla Tejas P.; Mehta Hemant B.; Gokhale Pradnya A.; Shah Chinmay J.

2012-01-01

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Socio-economic Determinants of Demand for Private Tutoring  

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This study examines socio-economic factors underlying the demand for private tutoring. The analysis utilizes two samples of students from lower- and upper-level secondary schools in Poland based on the PISA 2006 data set. Special attention is paid to channels through which private tutoring may endure socio-economic inequalities, especially in the context of the gender gap in education outcomes. We find that parents' decisions concerning private education are sensitive to student gender, which...

Safarzynska, Karolina

2011-01-01

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Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School aged Children of Iran : Role of Personal and Parents Related Socio- Economic and Educational Factors  

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Full Text Available Objective: Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Iranian children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem.Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children [7-11 years old] from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method.chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Findings: Of the 1600 questionnaires were distributed, 918 [57%] were completed and included in the final analysis and rest of them were excluded which weren’t filled by parents and also out of our study age period range. The gender of the subjects was equally distributed [48.6% males and 51.4% females] approximately. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% [n=172] and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% [n=51]. There was not significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, not working of father, working of mother, single parent, fail school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection[UTI], not breast feeding, low birth weight to compare of non-enuretics. But unwilling pregnancy, neonatal icter, febrile convulsion, and mother smoking didn’t increase prevalence of this problem. 19.8% [n=31] of children with this problem had been seen by physician. Medication was the most preferred treatment option for enuresis [64.5%].Conclusion: Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found out Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.

Hashem Mahmoodzadeh

2013-02-01

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Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

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Seasca bliain faoi bhláth: socio-economic rights and the European Convention on Human Rights  

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This paper firstly provides an overview of the rights and freedoms contained in the ECHR, before going on to examine in more detail the protection of socio-economic rights under the ECHR. The issue of positive obligations, discrimination and socio-economic rights will be briefly examined, before a sustained review of socio-economic rights and (i) the right to life; (ii) inhuman and degrading treatment; (iii) family and private life; (iv) property and (v) education rights. 

Thornton, Liam

2013-01-01

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Sustainable Livestock Farming for Improving Socio-Economic Condition  

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Full Text Available Sustainability is the most effective concept to improve socio-economic condition, including environment. Constructive socio-economic changes are getting priority in recent years among academia and business sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh poultry sub-sector has long supply chains having associated with various stakeholders. In this paper, a case poultry farm was taken to examine a production process that links with socio-economic benefits. Design science method under the quantitative paradigm was chosen to develop a model for the case industry. A Simulation model was developed using simul8 software to construct the real poultry operation. The objectives of this paper are to construct a sustainable model for a case poultry industry along with socio-economic issues. Later, simulated model output will examine it through various performance indicators (KPIs to find out the impacts on socio-economic benefits. Numbers of KPIs have been briefly discussed in light of the research problem to illustrate positive effects of sustainable production.

Mohammad Shamsuddoha

2013-01-01

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Time trends in socio-economic factors and risk of hospitalisation with infectious diseases in pre-school children 1985-2004 : a Danish register-based study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper respiratory, lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, ear and fever infections. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Children of parents on sick leave or early retirement had an increased risk of being hospitalised with an infection compared with children of employed parents. A clear inverse educational gradient in risk of offspring hospitalisation was also found. From 1985 to 2004 the inverse associations between parental education and risk of hospitalisation grew stronger, whereas the comparatively weaker association between household income and risk of offspring hospitalisation decreased in magnitude. The association between socio-economic status and hospitalisation was strongest for lower respiratory, gastrointestinal and ear infections. This study documented a socially patterned hospitalisation of pre-school children in Denmark. Future studies should investigate possible explanations for the increased risk among children from families with low socio-economic status.

Biering-SØrensen, Sofie; SØndergaard, Grethe

2012-01-01

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SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS OF SWIMMERS OF AGE GROUP OF 10-16 YEARS GIRLS  

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Socio-economic condition plays an important role in the life and career of sports persons. The author has become curious to study the socio-economic conditions of swimmers in age group of 10-16 years. Hence, this study. It is hoped that the study sheds light on the socio-economic conditions of the swimmers. Questionnaire technique was adopted for this study. Acarefully prepared questionnaire covering the aspects such as educational background of parents and other members of the family, detail...

Sudeep Kumar, R.; Aravinda, T.; ABEDNIGO SUNIL

2013-01-01

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Socio-economic and behavioural factors related to caries in twelve-year-old Sardinian children.  

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Our aim was to describe socio-economic and behavioural factors related to caries experience in school children in Sassari, Sardinia (Italy). Four hundred and three 12-year-old schoolchildren were randomly selected and their teeth clinically examined after air drying, under standard light using a plain mirror and WHO community periodontal index for treatment needs (CPITN) ballpoint probe. The clinical DMFS index was recorded following a diagnostic threshold, CPITN following the WHO indications. A questionnaire concerning oral hygiene habits (OHH), the onset of toothbrushing habits (OTH), frequency of dental check-ups (DCU), sweet food and soft drink consumption and socio-economic background factors, i.e. parents' occupational status (SOCFAM) and parents' age, was filled in by children and parent(s)/guardian(s). The caries prevalence was 61.6%. A positive skewness of DMFS was observed. Regarding caries, a significant linear trend (p<0.05) was found among odds ratios at each exposure level in SOCFAM, OHH, OTH and CPITN. A logistic regression model for caries was constructed using related factors. CPITN (gingival conditions) gave a significant contribution in the predictive model (p = 0.01). Gender acted as an effect modifier on CPITN, so logistic regression models were constructed for males and females separately. CPITN was the only statistically significant covariate in males and OHH the only one in females. Our results confirm a high caries prevalence and also a need for preventive and educational programmes for caries in Sardinia. PMID:11799283

Campus, G; Lumbau, A; Lai, S; Solinas, G; Castiglia, P

2001-01-01

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Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country’s socio-economic status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relations...

Blignaut, James N.; Sharma, Gyan P.; Esler, Karen J.

2010-01-01

35

THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the socio economic lives of people. It was found out that the activities of microfinance institutions resulted in increased social interaction and socio economic sustainability.

MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA

2011-01-01

36

ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ?143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations’ activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises’ reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations.

Ongondo, F.O., E-mail: f.ongondo@soton.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dietrich, J. [Technische Universität Berlin, Centre for Scientific Continuing Education and Cooperation, Cooperation and Consulting for Environmental Questions (kubus) FH10-1, Fraunhoferstraße 33-36, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Carroll, C. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2013-12-15

37

ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ?143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations’ activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises’ reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations

38

Tracking of overweight from mid-adolescence into adulthood : consistent patterns across socio-economic groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Socially differentiated tracking of health and health behaviours may contribute to health inequalities in adulthood. The modifying effect of socio-economic position on the tracking of overweight from mid-adolescence (age 15 years) into adulthood (age 27 years) was assessed in a randomly sampled Danish cohort (n?=?561). The tracking was studied by prediction analyses conducted by logistic regression analyses. Strong tracking patterns were found to be independent of socio-economic background.

Rasmussen, Mette; Holstein, BjØrn E

2012-01-01

39

EFFECT OF PROMOTIONAL MIX ON CONSUMER SOCIO-ECONOMIC VALUES FOR SELECT NONDURABLE GOODS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of promotional factors (namely Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion and Public Relation those factors are main factors for the actions of a firm on socio-economic values for consume the non-durable goods and those promotional factors helps to distinguish the products from the competitors. In this study, aim to how promotional factors are effect the consumer’s socio-economic values. Quantitative data was collected using the non-probability self administered questionnaire that consists of questions with 5-points Likert scales distributed to our samples of individuals. By using ANOVA and Ranking Method, it is found that, promotional factors are maintain the close affiliation and significantly difference between the consumers purchase based on their socio-economic values. The results showed that promotional mix factors (namely Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion and Public Relation have positive and significant effect on consumers’ socio-economic values.

M. Vishnu Prasanth

2014-10-01

40

Usos Sociales de la Telenovela por Familias Cubanas de Diferentes Posiciones Socioeconómicas / Social Uses of Soap Operas by Cuban Families of Different Socio-Economics Positions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio constituye un análisis de los usos sociales de la telenovela brasileña por parte de tres familias cubanas, residentes en La Habana, de diferentes posiciones socioeconómicas (alta, media y baja). Descansa en la perspectiva cualitativa y en el método etnográfico de investigación. Utiliza [...] técnicas tales como la observación participante, la entrevista en profundidad, el completamiento de frases y el grupo de discusión. Da cuenta de los procesos de apropiación y asignación de sentidos en torno a la telenovela. En las tres familias, el melodrama se erige como espacio promotor de entretenimiento, escape de la realidad y de interacciones comunicativas. Las principales diferencias se derivan de factores asociados a la ubicación de las familias en el contexto más amplio que las contiene, así como de los procesos subjetivos que generan estrategias y significaciones singulares por parte de los miembros. Abstract in english This study is an analysis of the social uses of a Brazilian soap opera in three Cuban families -specifically from Havana-from different socioeconomic positions (high, medium, and low). It relies on a qualitative perspective and ethnographic approaches. It also uses techniques such as participant obs [...] ervation, in-depth interviews, completion of sentences, and group discussion. In doing so, the study addresses the processes of appropriation and allocation of meanings around the soap opera. In all three families, melodrama rises as a space for entertainment, a way of escaping reality, and communicative interactions. The main differences arise from factors associated with the location of families in the broader context that contains them, as well as subjective processes that generate unique strategies and meanings by different family members.

Beatriz, Drake Tapia; Yilian, Machado Pérez.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises' reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations. PMID:24045170

Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

2013-12-01

42

Socio-economic aspects of commuting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper contemplates on relevant socio-economic factors which have influence on variability of the scope and directions of commuting flows, with special emphasis on situation in Serbia. Due to the need for balance between work and family life, this specific form of population’s mobility often represents alternative for migration. It also has numerous implications on both commuters and their households, places of residence and work and society in general. Effects of sex, marital sta...

Luki? Vesna

2013-01-01

43

Grid of Socio-economic Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluating effectively the loss caused by flood disaster has theoretical significance and practical value to flood-fighting, emergency rescues, flood relief and post-disaster compensation. However, the regional socioeconomic data affected by flood is usually collected in administrative region in the current flood loss evaluation method. The flood affected area and administrative area boundary do not necessarily match. The accuracy and practicability of flood loss evaluation based on loss rate are not soundly reliable. As an international IT research hotspot, Spatial Information Grid provides a new approach for flood damage assessment. This paper studies the flood loss assessment based on spatial information grid of socio-economic data. First, we establish a flood zone socio-economic data spatial information grid, including flood inundation zone special character mesh, grid cells use ranks number as the two key fields superimposed grid superimposed and flood damage assessment of spatial information grid. Followed by analysis of flood special character of the network division and attribute selection, considering the computational speed and convenience of other factors, taken rule quadrilateral partition method to divide the flood special character mesh, chose elevation, water depth, water velocity, water pollution degree of flood special Network personality attributes and based on GIS technology to generate a flood special character mesh. Then through the analysis of different disaster bodies submerged under different circumstances the loss difference, the loss rate is established based on flood damage assessment model. Finally, ArcEngine developed using C# and socio-economic data based on the realization of the spatial information grid flood damage assessment systems and use of heavy rainfall Poyang Lake county flood damage assessment data were calculated. The example shows that, based on socio-economic data for spatial information grid flood damage assessment methodology applied not only spatial information grid technology and flooded the area with flood damage to the region’s socio-economic data organically combined, so that it can quickly and accurately ground for inundated areas to assess the economic loss calculation. But how to select the appropriate grid scales and combining hydrological dynamics model enables more accurate flood special character network is the next step needs to continue to improve the research content.

Liu Xiaosheng

2013-01-01

44

Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 3. Socio-economic studies. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Government of the Somali Democratic Republic (GSDR), with the support of the international donor community, is prepared to launch a comprehensive program for the development of Jubba Valley. The keystone of the program is construction of a dam on the Jubba River near Baardheere. Planners have been looking toward construction of the dam, among other things, to increase agricultural output by fostering irrigation development. The objectives of the Socio-economic Baseline Study (SEBS) report are to: present a body of a new information on socio-economic life in Jubba Valley; assess the impact of development efforts on socio-economic life; recommend measures to enhance beneficial impacts and mitigate adverse ones; and propose a program to monitor the progress of those impacts and interventions.

1989-01-01

45

Indicators of socio-economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Work elaborates indicators witch refers to socio - economic development. In the first part of work it is stated indicators which different authors are used. These indicators are used in empirical researches and in some sources there are theoretically treated. In the second part it is with the aid of induction method performed separation of indicators. It is elaborated economics, social, technological and indicators of urbanization. In the part of economical indicators are elaborated: national income per capita, structure of activities, level of expending.

Adamovi? Jelka M.

2002-01-01

46

Ethiopia: A socio-economic study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ethiopia is considered to be one of the oldest nations in the world but at present its socio-economic condition is not satisfactory. It is the second most populous country in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is rated the poorest and most heavily indebted countries of the world, ranked last out of 208 countries. About 26% of the populations of the country, mostly women and rural residents, are living with their income less than one dollar a day. In terms of health and welfare, it ranks among Africa’s ...

Mohajan, Haradhan

2013-01-01

47

Inter-state Disparities in Socio-economic Development in North East Region of India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of development of north east region has been estimated with the help of composite index based on optimum combination of socio-economic indicators. The state-wise data for the year 2006 on forty eight indicators were used for seven states (seven sisters of the north east region of India. Fifteen indicators are directly concerned with agricultural development, nine indicators are directly concerned with livestock development, twelve indicators are concern with socio-economic development and the rest twelve indicators describe the level of development in infrastructural service sector. The level of development has been separately estimated for agricultural, livestock, infrastructure and overall socio-economic field. In case of socio-economic development, the Assam has been ranked first and Meghalaya is ranked last. Wide disparities were obtained in the level of development among different states. Positive Significant association is found between the Agriculture and Infrastructure fields. Literacy rate is also influencing the level of development in the positive direction. But the level of education, provision of health services, banking facilities, transport and communication system did not significantly influence the agricultural development. North eastern states require improvements of various dimensions in some of the indicators for enhancing the level of overall socio-economic development for unified balanced integration of curative, preventive and promotional health services.

Amod Sharma

2012-07-01

48

Dynamic motifs in socio-economic networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-economic networks are of central importance in economic life. We develop a method of identifying and studying motifs in socio-economic networks by focusing on “dynamic motifs,” i.e., evolutionary connection patterns that, because of “node acquaintances” in the network, occur much more frequently than random patterns. We examine two evolving bi-partite networks: i) the world-wide commercial ship chartering market and ii) the ship build-to-order market. We find similar dynamic motifs in both bipartite networks, even though they describe different economic activities. We also find that “influence” and “persistence” are strong factors in the interaction behavior of organizations. When two companies are doing business with the same customer, it is highly probable that another customer who currently only has business relationship with one of these two companies, will become customer of the second in the future. This is the effect of influence. Persistence means that companies with close business ties to customers tend to maintain their relationships over a long period of time.

Zhang, Xin; Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

2014-12-01

49

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory usingpurposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realisedas 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in SoshanguveExtension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using opencoding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and geneticconstitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and workingconditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of peopleliving in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approachfrom registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned andimplemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in thecommunity without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D. Ncho

2013-01-01

50

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semistructured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D. Ncho

2013-09-01

51

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situ [...] ation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch's approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D., Ncho; Susan C.D., Wright.

2013-01-01

52

Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

53

Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural, generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.

A. Berezhna

2010-12-01

54

Socio-economic Models During the Period of Crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses the state involving importance in finding the solutions for getting over the present economic crisis through responsibility, the labor relations and the affairs environment regulation and the income redistribution. Into this work, are analyzed the 4 socio-economic European models: the Anglo-Saxon liberal model, the Scandinavian universalistic model, the continental corporatist model, the Mediterranean model and the European Union countries position into these models. Also, are pointed out the EU countries economic performances by analyzing the rankings of these countries on base of Global Competitiveness Index 2010-2011 and the evolution of this index during 2009-2011. The article follows to underline the necessity of the state action for durable, healthy, sustainable economic growth, capable for getting over the economic crisis and for ensuring the social welfare and economic competitiveness.

Elena MANOLESCU

2011-09-01

55

The socio-economic dimension of modern globalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyzes the views of eminent analysts on the driving forces of and explanations for economic globalization today. It examines the main characteristics of this process, such as the growth of world trade, the increased mobility of financial capital, the growing role of transnational corporations and the development of network technologies and the internet. The author analyzes the positive impact of globalization on the development of productive forces and human development. Problems arising from the growing interdependence of a globalized world, such as environmental issues, security, increased worldwide disparity of socio-economic development of countries and regions, are also examined. In conclusion, the author voices the need for establishing a system of global management.

Svitlana Sidenko

2004-02-01

56

The socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english South African National Parks (SANParks) plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact [...] on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park, namely Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor's survey (156 respondents), a community survey (132 respondents) and a business survey (11 respondents). We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.

Susan, Oberholzer; Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Elmarie, Slabbert.

57

Socio-Economic Costs of Bereavement in Scotland : Literature report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Socio-Economic Costs of Bereavement in Scotland (SECOB) research study was funded by the Scottish Government Health Directorates in late 2010 as part of ongoing work to inform national policy on bereavement and bereavement care practice. The project aimed to: a) articulate the likely nature and scope of the impact of bereavement on social and economic aspects of life for Scottish citizens as evidenced in relevant literature, b) seek to estimate the socio-economic costs of bereavement in a...

Corden, Anne

2013-01-01

58

ANXIETY IN ADOLESCENTS & SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF FAMILY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To study the role of Socio-Economic factors in increasing anxiety level of adolescents, a study was conducted among the adolescents of Nanded district With an Objective – “To study the Role of Socio-Economic Factors of Family in Arousing Anxiety of Adolescents.” Sample was selected by Stratified Random Sampling method among 265 girls and 262 boys from 16 to 18 years age group belonging to three income groups. Assessment of anxiety level in adolescents was carried out with the h...

Donglikar, Chetana V.

2013-01-01

59

Homogamy in socio-economic background and education, and the dissolution of cohabiting unions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Despite the increasing prevalence of cohabitation, knowledge of how socio-economic homogamy affects the stability of cohabiting unions is scant. Few studies have compared the effects of homogamy in both ascribed and achieved socio-economic status on union dissolution. Objective: Our aim is to determine how homogamy and heterogamy in educational level and parental social class affect the risk of cohabitation dissolution in Finland. Methods: We use unique Finnish register data that includes information on non-marital cohabitation. Cox regression is used to analyse the risk of dissolution in 20,452 cohabitations. We examine the dissolution rates in all possible combinations of partner status, and analyse how these estimates deviate from the main effects of each partner's status. Results: According to the findings, homogamy in parental social class is of little consequence in cohabitation dissolution, although cohabitations between people from upper-white-collar and farmer families are disproportionately likely to dissolve. Educational differences between partners are more significant determinants of cohabitation stability: extreme heterogamy is associated with an increased separation risk, and homogamy decreases the separation risk among cohabitors with a higher university degree. Conclusions: In line with the perception that personal achievement is more significant than social origins in contemporary union dynamics, similarity in educational level increases cohabitation stability more than similarity in socio-economic origin. Although previous Nordic studies report little or no association between educational homogamy or heterogamy and marriage dissolution, our study shows that educational differences do matter in cohabiting unions.

Elina Mäenpää

2014-06-01

60

Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies : South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark. Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s. Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of Indian and Pakistani background. The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalisme and identity construction. The results show that the South Asian youth develop complex diaspora identities, becoming a part of the receiving society and maintaining contact with the countries of origin, combining individualisation with interconnectedness. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, business related investment and direct remittances, 2) awareness of parents’ strategies, although few or no self-employed strategies and 3) collective strategy through an organisation. The conclusions pin point the challenges for Scandinavian societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia.  

Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie

 
 
 
 
61

Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child relationship mediates the relationship between positive parenting(Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress or warmth) and empathy. In conclusion,parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy. Warmth had indirect effects on children’s empathy through near parent-child relationship.

Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli

62

SOCIO - ECONOMIC STATUS OF AGED: A SOCIOLOGICAL EVALUVATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research paper mainly focus on Socio-economic status of aged: a sociological evaluvation. Socioeconomic status (SES is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. It is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group. When viewed through a social class lens, privilege, power and control are emphasized. Furthermore, an examination of SES as a gradient or continuous variable reveals inequities in access to and distribution of resources. by education, occupational status, family income, net worth, and financial assets—for aged, it can nevertheless have important effects on elders’ quality of life and the kind of care their families can provide.In the first place, many low-income elders have insufficient resources.study investigates the variations by older people’s socio-economic status in the use of informal and formal help from outside the household in india it was older people in low SES groups who mostly used such help. SES gradients in the utilisation of both formal and informal care, and that differences in age, health and marital status largely accounted for the former but not the latter. This article examines the prevalence of socioeconomic status of aged. Various socio-behavioral factors are found to play a significant role in determining the health conditions of aged people. Also, illiteracy and poverty are found to have their own impact on health during aging. It is also noted that due to adverse familial relationships, many stress-related disorders occur which may result in the poor health of the elderly. Demands for aged pensions were made by most of the elderly people in india. positive attitudes toward empowering elderly patients to take an active part in maintaining their health the ability to deal with and prioritise the numerous problems that the aged may present with, including associated diagnostic and management dilemmas feeling comfortable when working with the aged, their families, carers and friends working within multidisciplinary healthcare teams recognising the special issues (including discrimination facing older people from diverse backgrounds, including issues of gender differences, ethnicity, poverty and issues.

Vishwanath Tippanna Bella

2014-11-01

63

Socio-economic correlates of pesticide usage: the case of citrus farmers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The socio-economic factors affecting adoption of pesticides on citrus trees in Sargodha Division, Pakistan was studied. Six villages were selected (three from each subdivision) for data collection. Overall 150 orchard owners (25 from each sample village) were interviewed. Data were analyzed using SPSS programme. Gamma test and chi-square were used to check the direction and magnitude of relationship between independent and dependent variables. Among the sample, 48% respondents were spray users. The socio-economic factors that influenced farmer's receptivity to citrus spray were age (negatively correlated), education (positively correlated), social status (positively correlated), farm size (negatively correlated) and farming experience (negatively correlated). By incurring Rs. 3,600.00 per ha on spray farmers received Rs. 19,000.00 as an incremental benefit. Marginal rate of return indicated that by spending Re. 1.00 on spray farmers would get an increase of Rs. 5.27 in their income. (author)

64

THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the soc...

MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA; Gombarume, Fungai B.; KOSMAS NJANIKE; ANXIOUS CHARIKINYA

2011-01-01

65

Communicability and Communities in Complex Socio-Economic Networks  

CERN Document Server

The concept of communicability is introduced for complex socio-economic networks. The communicability function expresses how an impact propagates from one place to another in the network. This function is used to define unambiguously the concept of socio-economic community. The concept of temperature in complex socio-economic networks is also introduced as a way of accounting for the external stresses to which such systems are submitted. This external stress can change dramatically the structure of the communities in a network. We analyze here a trade network of countries exporting 'miscellaneous manufactures of metal.' We determine the community structure of this network showing that there are 27 communities with diverse degree of overlapping. When only communities with less than 80% of overlap are considered we found 5 communities which are well characterized in terms of geopolitical relationships. The analysis of external stress on these communities reveals that several countries are very much influenced b...

Estrada, Ernesto

2009-01-01

66

Regional Tourist Destination and its Socio-Economic Development ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-economic development of the region in general and the role of regional tourist destination in this process. It also touches the problem of managing regional tourist destination.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ??????: ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ?????????? ????, ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ? ????, ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????.

Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.

2013-06-01

67

Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ? Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ? Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ? “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ? A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ? Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Sociantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

68

The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

2014-10-01

69

The Evaluation of The Impact of Socio-Economic Level on The Physical Fitness in Boys by Using AAHPERD Test Battery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic level on the physical fitness in boys from 8 to 10 years-olds by using AAHPERD (American Alliance For Health, Physical Education, Recreation And Dance test battery.The number of the participants in the study was 566 students; 295 students from state schools of The Ministry of National Education and 271 students from private schools.In the identification of socio-economic level of the participants in the study, level of education of parents, the number of the children in the family, the living environment, whether the children have their own rooms in at home, and the level of income of the family, which are socio-economic criteria, were taken into consideration.The order of testing and measurement was as follows: the measurement of weight, the measurement of height, sit-and-reach test, skin-fold measurement, sit-up test, pull-up test and 1 mile run-and-walk test.At the statistical analyses of the data the mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values of AAHPERD tests applied to the subjects were obtained and Correlation Analyses (Pearson tests were used for the evaluation of the relationship among the AAHPERD tests and socio-economic level of the participants,.As a result, it was found that the socio-economic level had an impact on physical fitness of the student; and that in boys from 8 to 10 years-olds who had a higher socio-economic level, the sum of skinfold values and the strength of sit-up were higher compared to those obtained from the boys who had a lower socio-economic level; and that the boys who had a lower socio-economic level yielded higher values of flexibility, strength in pull-up and cardiovascular endurance.

Dursun GÜLER

2004-06-01

70

Prasad's socio-economic status classification- An update for 2014  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Almost all community- based studies focus on socio-economic stratification, which is the key parameter for proper understanding the affordability of the community of health services, amenities and their purchasing capacity. Prasad’s socioeconomic status scale measures socioeconomic status of both rural and urban community based on per capita monthly income of the family.

Shankar Reddy Dudala; Ashok Kumar Reddy, K.; Ravi Prabhu, G.

2014-01-01

71

Dialectics of Socio-Economic Cycle's Development of Social Reproduction ?????????? ???????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From the standpoint of materialistic dialectics in the article the spiral cyclic evolution process of production methods is analyzed. Also, based on fundamental laws of dialectics, peculiarities of the socio-economic cycles of social reproduction are investigated; special attention is paid to dialectical contradictions of capitalist reproduction.? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????...

Podlesna Vasylyna G.

2012-01-01

72

Dialectics of Socio-Economic Cycle's Development of Social Reproduction ?????????? ???????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From the standpoint of materialistic dialectics in the article the spiral cyclic evolution process of production methods is analyzed. Also, based on fundamental laws of dialectics, peculiarities of the socio-economic cycles of social reproduction are investigated; special attention is paid to dialectical contradictions of capitalist reproduction.? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ???????? ????????????. ?????, ?????? ?? ??????????????? ??????? ??????????, ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????????, ?????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ???????????????.

Podlesna Vasylyna G.

2012-06-01

73

Hearing aids: Quality of life and socio-economic aspects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Hearing loss can significantly impair patient's quality of life, affecting communicative behavior, emotional and social function. This study assesses the impact of hearing aids on the quality of life of patients in a rural area and its correlation with socio-economic factors.

Tsakiropoulou, E.; Konstantinidis, I.; Vital, I.; Konstantinidou, S.; Kotsani, A.

2007-01-01

74

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY - THE PROSPECTS OF BORROWING ?????????-????????????? ????????? ???????? – ??????????? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of economic development in various countries and the prospects for borrowing from the process of formation and implementation of economic and social policies as an example consider the strategy of Europe 2020 and the socio-economic development strategy of Russia until 2020

Pasko S. N.

2013-02-01

75

Integrating Socio-Economic Determinants of Canadian Women's Health.  

Science.gov (United States)

HEALTH ISSUE: The association between a number of socio-economic determinants and health has been amply demonstrated in Canada and elsewhere. Over the past decades, women's increased labour force participation and changing family structure, among other changes in the socio-economic environment, have altered social roles considerably and lead one to expect that the pattern of disparities in health among women and men will also have changed. Using data from the CCHS (2000), this chapter investigates the association between selected socio-economic determinants of health and two specific self-reported outcomes among women and men: (a) self-perceived health and (b) self-reports of chronic conditions. KEY FINDINGS: The descriptive picture demonstrated by this CCHS dataset is that 10% of men aged 65 and over report low income, versus 23% of women within the same age bracket. The results of the logistic regression models calculated for women and men on two outcome variables suggest that the selected socio-economic determinants used in this analysis are important for women and for men in a differential manner. These results while supporting other results illustrate the need to refine social and economic characteristics used in surveys such as the CCHS so that they would become more accurate predictors of health status given that there are personal, cultural and environmental dimensions to take into account. RECOMMENDATIONS: Because it was shown that socio economic determinants of health are context sensitive and evolve over time, studies should be designed to examine the complex temporal interactions between a variety of social and biological determinants of health from a life course perspective. Examples are provided in the chapter. PMID:15345097

Vissandjee, Bilkis; Desmeules, Marie; Cao, Zheynuan; Abdool, Shelly

2004-08-25

76

Socio-economic analysis in the transport sector  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This compendium is intended to be a tool for students in conducting socio-economic appraisals in the transport sector following the recommendations made by the Danish Manual for Socio-economic Appraisal (DMT, 2003). The appraisal process is in this compendium outlined as a step-by-step process which is adaptable to all types of infrastructure related problems, and which can be used for decision support on both the administrative as well as the political level. In the administrative decision process the socio-economic analysis provides a foundation for a systematic examination of which project types or initiatives that are socio-economically most suitable for handling a specific infrastructure problem. Hence, the socio-economic appraisal can help undertaking a sound selection of the possible solutions that should be examined in further details. The socio-economic analysis is as well an important element in the political decision process. The analysis provides information about how the society’s resources – from an economic viewpoint – are used in the best possible way, and how costs and benefits are distributed between e.g. the state, the users and the environment. The society does not have unlimited economic resources. Thus it is necessary to prioritise between the many projects and initiatives which are being discussed in the public sector. In order to conduct such a comprehensive prioritisation (across different sectors or within the same sector) it is a precondition that a systematic evaluation of the projects/proposals/initiatives’ advantages and disadvantages is carried out. For many years cost-benefit analysis (CBA) has been used as the main tool for the purpose of economic comparison not only in Denmark but also in many other countries around the world. Investment projects that have been prepared thoroughly and evaluated to have a high socio-economic return seem to be able to obtain political acceptance more easily than projects that have not been evaluated through this type of assessment. On the other hand socio-economic assessments can also be used to turn down projects that do not show a satisfactory return. In the political prioritisation process other considerations of a political, environmental or economic character may influence the decision making. Some of these are not traditionally a part of the socioeconomic assessment, but are instead used as a supplement in the final decision phase. The socioeconomic assessment strives towards valuing all advantages and disadvantages of a project. On the background of this the project’s value for the society is calculated. This value can afterwards be compared to the values for other projects. The socio-economic appraisal is one of the most basic and tangible contributions to the planning and decision process within the transport sector when an initiative’s advantages and disadvantages are to be evaluated. The appraisal can be used both for political decision making as well as internally in organisations with planning related tasks.

2015-01-01

77

Socio-economic Aspects of Peatland Management: an Ecosystems Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peatland areas comprise half of the world’s wetlands and play important ecological roles. Peatlands offer a diversity of social, economic and environmental benefits, and in so doing serve a wide range of human interests. Despite this peatlands are fast disappearing. Some uses, particularly those associated with agriculture, result in degradation of the peat stock itself. In this context, the research aims to increase the understanding of the socio-economic dimensions of lo...

Rawlins, Amy

2008-01-01

78

Socio-economic situation in rural Lithuania: farming aspects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this article is to investigate socio-economic status of rural Lithuania aspects of the farmers’ operating prospects. In order to investigate the specific problems of the current village and assess the situation, was examined Versme publishing initiative organized expeditions in our material collected while visiting the farm and to communicate with their owners and other inhabitants of those areas. Studies were carried out during the 2008- 2012 period. They covered the countryside...

Ratkevic?iene?, Valentina; Kocai, Elena

2013-01-01

79

Socio-economic inequalities: a statistical physics perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Socio-economic inequalities are manifested in different aspects of our social life. We discuss various aspects, beginning with the evolutionary and historical origins, and discussing the major issues from the social and economic point of view. The subject has attracted scholars from across various disciplines, including physicists, who bring in a unique perspective to the field. The major attempts to analyze the results, address the causes, and understand the origins using s...

Chatterjee, Arnab

2014-01-01

80

Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an in...

Michael Dauderstädt

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Regional Tourist Destination and its Socio-Economic Development ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-econ...

Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.; Timoshchenkova Olga A.

2013-01-01

82

Constitutional basis for the enforcement of ''executive'' policies that give effect to socio-economic rights in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Although "executive" policies remain an important governance tool, there appears to be confusion on the status and possible basis for their judicial enforcement in South Africa. The aim of this article is to critically reflect on the status and possible constitutional basis for the enforceability of [...] "executive" policies that give effect to socio-economic rights in South Africa. Based on the jurisprudence of courts and some examples of "executive" policies, this article demonstrates that the constitutional basis for the enforceability of "executive" policies could be located inter alia in the positive duties imposed on government by sections 24(b), 25(5), 26(2) and 27(2) of the Constitution to "take reasonable legislative and other measures" within the context of available resources to give effect to relevant rights. This article argues that these duties amount to a constitutional delegation of authority to the legislative and executive branches of government to concretise socio-economic rights. In addition, this article demonstrates that where "executive" policies give effect to socio-economic rights pursuant to powers delegated by enabling provisions in original legislation that covers the field of socio-economic rights, such policies may be perceived to have the force of law, thereby providing a legal basis for their judicial enforcement.

ON, Fuo.

2013-04-01

83

Psychological well-being and socio-economic hardship among AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children in Guinea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Over the past decade, the effects of AIDS-related parental death on children’s socio-economic, educational and psychological well-being have become apparent. Most studies, however, have compared the plight of so-called AIDS orphans with non-orphaned children only. Consequently, such study designs are unable to establish if the AIDS-related cause of death of the parents confers effects additional to those of parent-bereavement. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional sur...

Delva, Wim; Vercoutere, An; Loua, Cathe?rine; Lamah, Jonas; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Koker, Petra; Claeys, Patricia; Temmerman, Marleen; Annemans, Lieven

2009-01-01

84

Socio-economic Scenarios in Climate Assessments (IC11). Synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is widely recognised that projections of social and economic futures are circumscribed by irreducible uncertainties and ignorance. A common analytical response is to develop scenarios that map a range of alternative possible outcomes. The application of scenarios in climate assessments in the Netherlands was investigated in this report, focusing on the use of the socio-economic scenarios 'Welvaart en Leefomgeving' (WLO - The Future of the Dutch Built Environment). This research was carried out within the Climate Changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) programme. WLO scenarios have been applied in climate assessment studies. WLO generates figures and data that are useful. Nevertheless we encountered several CcSP projects that did not apply any socio-economic scenarios, whilst this seemed necessary based on their objectives. In general, climate assessments make little sense if socio-economic developments are not taken into account. Interestingly, some of the studies that did apply socio-economic scenarios, picked only one or two of the scenarios generated by WLO. From a theoretical point of view this selective 'shopping' may lead to a tunnel vision, because it is impossible to estimate which scenario is more probable than the others. At the other hand it is often impractical to explore all four scenarios. The time horizon of WLO was in several cases too short for climate assessments. As it is probable that the structure of society has changed significantly by 2040, it is difs changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www.climatescenarios.nl) that provides key scenario data from WLO and other sources. On this site climate researchers have quick access to the most important socio-economic data derived from WLO and other scenarios. After registration they can also add new data.

85

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Yaping Chen

2013-07-01

86

Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65 who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level, television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status, social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities. Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the neighborhood and promoting friend support for activity.

Teychenne Megan

2012-01-01

87

The Contribution of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and Socio-Cultural Influence to Turkish Students' Task Value Beliefs in Science  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate how well gender, socio-economic status of family, and socio-cultural influences (perceived parents' achievement goals, and perceived teachers' achievement goals) predict middle school students' task value beliefs in science. Background Characteristics Survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning…

Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra

2014-01-01

88

Socio-economic status is inversely related to bed net use in Gabon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48, running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92, shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73, ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67. In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45. Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.

Borchert Lea B

2008-04-01

89

Poverty and Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Africa: The Nigerian Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a growing incidence of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. Poverty is a multidimensional social phenomenon that can be analytically divided into two main perspectives: human poverty which is the lack of human capabilities and income poverty, which is the lack of income necessary to satisfy basic need e.g. poor life expectancy, poor maternal health, illiteracy, poor nutritional levels, poor access to safe drinking water and perceptions of well-being. The paper examines several initiatives focused on poverty eradication that Nigeria have adopted through national actions to fight both human and income poverty. In analysizing the issues raised, we anchored the paper on an eclectic approach of radical, Marxist model of political economy and the social exclusion theories. The study established among others, that a lot of effort has been made in poverty reduction through poverty alleviation programs in Nigeria. However, it is of knowledge that in spite of the previous efforts of various governments to alleviate poverty in Nigeria and the efforts of the current government to effect same, nothing much had changed in the living conditions and standards of the people. Poverty is still growing at an alarming rate. The challenges of poverty alleviation strategies in the Nigerian situation were articulated in the context of sustainable socio-economic development and the paper concludes that poverty alleviation in contemporary Nigeria require both socio-economic policies geared towards sustainable development. However, to enhance the human capital of the poor in particular, priorities for educational reforms should be in the areas of basic education, vocational training, water and sanitation, health care delivery, agriculture and housing for all. It is the position of this paper that until African leaders in general and Nigeria in particular begin to think „We? and not „I?, the fight against poverty that could engender sustainable socio-economic development will for long remain a mirage.

Igbokwe-Ibeto Chinyeaka Justine

2012-06-01

90

Socio-economic impact of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development in Alberta : final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarized the results of a socio-economic benefits analysis of coalbed methane (CBM) and natural gas from coal (NGC) development in the Horseshoe Canyon in Alberta. Economic analysis assumptions for evaluating the economic outcomes of different scenarios of future CBM development in the region were also provided. The data and forecasts were used to evaluate the socio-economic benefits of CBM development through the use of an economic impact assessment model. The study resulted in a revised resource assessment for the Horseshoe Canyon coals of approximately 36 trillion standard cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place. Nine different development scenarios were run which predicted peak Horseshoe Canyon CBM rates of between 1.4 and 1.9 Bdf/day between 2011 and 2017, with sustained rates of approximately 185 MMcf/day as far into the future as 2050. The analysis indicated that CBM development in the region will result in approximately $9 billion of cumulative investment between 2006 and 2026, resulting in total production revenues of $80 to $106 billion. Between 2006 and 2064, CBM development will contribute between $97 and $123 billion to Alberta's gross domestic product (GDP), and another $7 to $12 billion in GDP outside of Alberta. GDP and other socio-economic impacts were distributed over 19 different economic sectors in the report. Results of the report suggested that over 650,000 man-years of employment, and between $15 to $19 billion in tax and royalty revenuesto $19 billion in tax and royalty revenues will be created by CBM development in the region. Tax and royalty revenues include provincial, federal, and municipal governments. It was concluded that the development of CBM in Alberta will have a significant and positive impact on the future economy of Alberta and Canada. It was noted that there are non-economic impacts associated with the development, including environmental and sociological impacts, that were not addressed in the study. 4 tabs., 4 figs

91

ANXIETY IN ADOLESCENTS & SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF FAMILY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the role of Socio-Economic factors in increasing anxiety level of adolescents, a study was conducted among the adolescents of Nanded district With an Objective – “To study the Role of Socio-Economic Factors of Family in Arousing Anxiety of Adolescents.” Sample was selected by Stratified Random Sampling method among 265 girls and 262 boys from 16 to 18 years age group belonging to three income groups. Assessment of anxiety level in adolescents was carried out with the help I.P.A.T. Anxiety scale, by Samuel.E.Krug. For the convenience of adolescents Hindi version of this test was used revised by Dr.S.D.Kapoor. The obtained data was examined with the help of scoring key and was statistically co-related with socio-economic factors of adolescents. Results indicate that, 1Family income was significantly co-related with 5% level in boys with apprehension (0.249** and tension (0.256** and with 1% level with same norms i.e. apprehension (0511* and tension (0.521* in girls.2 Family income was also significantly co-related with low self control in boys (0274* and girls (0.277* with1% level.3 Specially in boys it was found that father's education was significantly co-related with apprehension (0.255* at 1% level.4 When anxiety norms of both girls and boys were studied through the test of variance i.e. one way ANOVA no significant difference was found. Scores for the norms like emotional instability, apprehension and tension were found with more percent in boys than girls. Whereas scores of indirect factors related to anxiety were found more in girls along with low self control and suspicion.

CHETANA V.DONGLIKAR

2013-02-01

92

Socio-economic Parameters and Mortality in Turner Syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized by hypogonadism, short adult height, increased morbidity and mortality; contrasted by self-reported normal quality of life and perception of health. Small studies have indicated a similar level of education compared to the background population.Aim: To study the socio-economic profile in TS and the impact of these factors on mortality.Materials and methods: Register study using Danish nationwide registries. 979 TS females and 94,850 controls were included. Information concerning cohabitation, motherhoods, level of education (bachelor degree), income, retirement and death were obtained. 103 TS and 5,989 controls died during the study period. For the socio-economic parameters, median age at first relevant episode was calculated. Income was analyzed using conditional logistic regression, and the other parameters using Cox regression.Results: In comparison with controls TS had significantly fewer partnerships (hazard ratio (HR): 0.45), fewer motherhoods (HR: 0.18)and retired earlier (HR: 1.8). After the diagnosis of Turner syndrome the risk of retiring was increased. Educational attainment (HR: 1.0) as well as risk of unemployment was similar. Before the age of 30, low income was significantly more frequent; hereafter it was similar to controls. Mortality was significantly increased (HR: 2.9) and slightly lower after adjustment for cohabitation and education (HR: 2.7).Conclusions: A divergent socio-economic profile is apparent, with a reduced proportion of Turner syndrome persons finding a partner and becoming mothers. The educational level was similar to controls. The increased mortality in Turner syndrome was not materially affected after adjustment for cohabitation and education.

Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Hjerrild, Britta

2012-01-01

93

Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. PMID:25288814

Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A

2014-11-13

94

Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

95

Socio-economic determinants of eating practices of Ukrainians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy eating practices are among important public health goals worldwide. We aimed to investigate socio-economic determinants of the nutrition habits of Ukrainian families. METHODS: Data from the “UKRAINIAN LONGITUDINAL MONITORING SURVEY 2007” were analysed. Factor analysis produced variables characterising eating practices, which were re-coded in binary variables indicating low/high food consumption. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify associations between socio-economic state and eating modes. RESULTS: Three dimensions of nutrition practices were identified in the factor analysis: “standard diet” variable associated with quantities of most food products consumed, it actually shows how much food in general the household consumes, “fruit-and-vegetable diet” variable was associated with quantities of various fruits and vegetables included in the questionnaire, and “processed-(pre-packed-food diet” variable was created based on its associations with products like sausage. More “processed” food was consumed by members of households which were generally better-off (equipped with dvd-player, computer (laptop, garage, and Russian-speakers. More plant food was consumed by the households with attributes of rural living (equipped with bottled gas, central or individual system of heating, those who possessed a motorcycle or a truck. The owners of a plot adjacent to rural house or land used for gardening were eating more fruits and vegetables. A small group of well-off urban dwellers (like those possessing tumble-dryers, tend to eat more plant food; however, this group is not numerous. CONCLUSION: Plant food eating in Ukraine stays a factor of survival rather than healthy eating for those households which dwell in rural areas and have no means to choose foods they want. Those people who achieve better socio-economic status tend to increase processed food portion of their diets. Only a very small group of affluent Ukrainian citizens tend to eat much fruit and vegetables contributing to U-form relationship between socio-economic status and antioxidant-rich food consumption.

Chagarna, Natalia

2012-07-01

96

Some socio-economic consequences of the green revolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The green revolution has, since the ‘60s, been the subject of lively debate among the international scientific community not only with regards to its technical aspects but, and above all, for socio-economic impacts it caused. The article starts with the analysis of the development theories for the rural sector in the ‘50s and ‘60s in order to determine the theoretical path that started the green revolution in the Developing Countries, i.e. the high pay-off input model. The article...

Pisani, Elena

2006-01-01

97

Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

Michael Dauderstädt

2013-03-01

98

The new socio-economic scenarios for climate change research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scientific community is developing a new generation of scenarios to inform the choices we have to make when it comes to responding to climate change. This new generation of scenarios integrates more fully the mechanisms that regulate climate and provides insights to spatial and temporal resolutions unexplored in previous exercises. In addition, it gives a framework for integrating explicit climate policies for mitigation and adaptation, which allows assessing the benefits and costs of climate policies in different socio-economic scenarios. Finally, it introduces a new way of working that strengthens the collaboration between different research communities on climate change. (authors)

99

Socio-economic overview of wind energy conversion systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A social scientist's perspective is presented on the socio-economic impacts of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) in Ontario. The main organization for delivering electricity in Ontario is Ontario Hydro. This utility has two WECS, an experimental 3.5 kW generator and a hybrid wind/diesel facility at a remote northern community. Ontario Hydro is reviewing its supply options and anticipates wind power would likely be used in niche applications involving off-grid hybrid systems where the cost of displaced generation is high. On-grid applications would likely be in the form of dispersed non-utility generation. The potential contribution of wind power to Ontario's electricity supply mix could be as little as 1 MW by the year 2000 or as high as 40 MW by the year 2014, depending on costs and technological developments. Socio-economic criteria used by the utility for assessing individual supply options include job creation, regional economic development, local community impacts, social acceptance, and distribution of risks and benefits. Initial observations of potential effects of WECS are discussed, including site selection, manufacturing, construction, and operation. Barriers to implementation of WECS in Ontario include the limited number of good wind sites, the intermittent nature of WECS power, and the currently uneconomic nature of WECS for bulk electricity systems. However, WECS have environmentally attractive features and are socially acceptable. 10 refs., 3 figse socially acceptable. 10 refs., 3 figs

100

Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients� job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

Alam Mahjabeen

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Socio-economic aspects of different biofuel development pathways  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several policy drivers for biofuels on a larger scale in the EU transport sector, including increased security of energy supply, reduced emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), and new markets for the agricultural sector. The purpose of this socio-economic cost analysis is to provide an overview of the costs of meeting EU biofuels targets, taking into account several external costs and benefits. Biofuels are generally more expensive than traditional fossil fuels, but the expected increasing value of GHG emission reductions will over time reduce the cost gap. High crude oil prices significantly improve the economic benefit of biofuels, but increased demand for biomass for energy purposes is likely to increase the price of biofuels feedstock and biofuels costs. The key question is to what extent increasing oil prices will be passed on to biofuels costs. Socio-economic least costs for biofuels production require a market with a clear pricing of GHG emissions to ensure that this factor is included in the decision-making of actors in all links of the fuel chain.

102

Socio-economic analysis of CCS/EOR in Denmark; Samfundsoekonomisk analyse af CCS/EOR i Danmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Danish Energy Agency has initiated an analysis of the socio-economic sustainability of a CCS / EOR system based on CO{sub 2} capture from Danish sources and injected into selected Danish North Sea oil fields. The analysis shall assess the socioeconomic consequences of such a project as well as highlight the budgetary economic effects for the parties involved. Taking into account a realistic time frame for conversion of the cogeneration power plants and for the extent of the possible capture of CO{sub 2} in each of these plants, it has been chosen only to presuppose the establishment of CCS in three plants, namely Studstrupvaerket, Fynsvaerket and Nordjyllandsvaerket. Only the oil fields Dan, Halfdan and Gorm were selected for the analysis. The analysis shows that in the selected oil fields it is possible to increase the oil production by approx. 151 million. barrels of oil to the year 2049, which corresponds to approx. 40% of the estimated potential in these fields. The increased oil production requires that approx. 95 million. tonnes of CO{sub 2} is captured in the three power plants, which are subsequently transported and injected in the oil fields in the North Sea. The transport of CO{sub 2} from the CHP plants to the North Sea are assumed to be done by ship, since this solution is economically favorable and also offers logistical advantages and increased flexibility. The analysis shows that both the budget economic and the socio-economic analysis as a whole provide a positive economic net present value over a 30-year period. The socio-economic benefit is expected to be about. 3.5 billion DKK higher. This difference is due to especially the following conditions: a) CO{sub 2} emissions of CO{sub 2} transport are only included in the socio-economic analysis, since shipping is outside the quota system. In the socio-economic analysis, the estimated value of damage impact on the environment is included; b) The value of the oil produced after 2049 is included in the socio-economic analysis as terminal values, while the budget economic analysis does not include effects beyond 30 years; c) The value of district heating losses in the socio-economic analysis are assumed to correspond to the socio-economic costs of district heating, while the value in the budget economic analysis is calculated as the district heating consumers' expected additional price at the transition from cogeneration to district heating.; d) The cost of SO{sub 2} emissions is in the socio-economic analysis set to damaging effects while in the budget economic analysis it is set to the level of charges. (LN)

NONE

2012-12-15

103

The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy  

CERN Document Server

What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesise that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large data sets: price on on-line exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in on-line social media, volume of information search, and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observ...

Garcia, David; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

2014-01-01

104

Socio-economic factors associated with infant mortality in Italy: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction One issue that continues to attract the attention of public health researchers is the possible relationship in high-income countries between income, income inequality and infant mortality (IM. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between IM and major socio-economic determinants in Italy. Methods Associations between infant mortality rates in the 20 Italian regions (2006–2008 and the Gini index of income inequality, mean household income, percentage of women with at least 8 years of education, and percentage of unemployed aged 15–64 years were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Univariate linear regression and multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to determine the magnitude and direction of the effect of the four socio-economic variables on IM. Results The Gini index and the total unemployment rate showed a positive strong correlation with IM (r?=?0.70; p?b?=?0.15, p? Conclusions In Italy, a high-income country where health care is universally available, variations in IM were strongly associated with relative and absolute income and unemployment rate. These results suggest that in Italy IM is not only related to income distribution, as demonstrated for other developed countries, but also to economic factors such as absolute income and unemployment. In order to reduce IM and the existing inequalities, the challenge for Italian decision makers is to promote economic growth and enhance employment levels.

Dallolio Laura

2012-08-01

105

An empirical investigation of socio-economic resilience to natural disasters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an empirical investigation of socio-economic resilience to natural disasters of a tropical cyclone-prone coastal community in Bangladesh. It applies the state-and-transition model, a widely used applied ecology model, to (1) assess the current state of socio-economic resilience to tropical cyclone, (2) identify its drivers and (3) examine its nexus with poverty and socio-economic vulnerability. The results of this study can be summarized into three key findings. First, tro...

Akter, Sonia; Mallick, Bishawjit

2013-01-01

106

Stages of socio-economic development: Shah Wali-Allah's concept of al-irtifaqat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper introduces Shah Wali-Allah Dehlawi’s concept of the stages of socio-economic developments (al-irtifaqat). According to him, starting from simple primitive village life to an international community, the socio-economic development of human society can be divided into four stages. The first stage is dominated by simple economic struggle while the last stage is developed to maintain just political order on international level, to safeguard the socio-economic interests of diff...

Aislahi, Abdul Azim

1989-01-01

107

Socio-economic influences on the active combat participants in Kosovo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within the context of the broader historical background of the region and the theoretical framework on security, socio-cultural diversity and political tolerance this particular research deals with the effects of socio-economic structure on tolerance and combat propensity. “Socio-Economic Influences on the Active Combat Participants in Kosovo” illustrates how and to what extent socio-economic status has had direct or indirect influence on the behavior of the active combatants in the high...

Delic, Mihajlo

2009-01-01

108

Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. ice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)

109

Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country’s socio-economic status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI, the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

James N. Blignaut

2010-04-01

110

Selecting socio-economic metrics for watershed management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The selection of social and economic metrics to document baseline conditions and analyze the dynamic relationships between ecosystems and human communities are important decisions for scientists, managers, and watershed citizens. A large variety of social and economic data is available but these have limited use without theoretical frameworks. In this paper, several frameworks for reviewing social-ecosystem relations are offered, namely social sanctions, sense of place, civic structure, and cultural differences. Underlying all of these frameworks are attitudes, beliefs, values, and norms that affect which questions are asked and which indicators are chosen. Much work and significant challenges remain in developing a standard set of spatially based socio-economic metrics for watershed management. PMID:15861988

Morton, Lois Wright; Padgitt, Steve

2005-04-01

111

Common Organizing Mechanisms in Ecological and Socio-economic Networks  

CERN Document Server

Previous work has shown that species interacting in an ecosystem and actors transacting in an economic context may have notable similarities in behavior. However, the specific mechanism that may underlie similarities in nature and human systems has not been analyzed. Building on stochastic food-web models, we propose a parsimonious bipartite-cooperation model that reproduces the key features of mutualistic networks - degree distribution, nestedness and modularity -- for both ecological networks and socio-economic networks. Our analysis uses two diverse networks. Mutually-beneficial interactions between plants and their pollinators, and cooperative economic exchanges between designers and their contractors. We find that these mutualistic networks share a key hierarchical ordering of their members, along with an exponential constraint in the number and type of partners they can cooperate with. We use our model to show that slight changes in the interaction constraints can produce either extremely nested or rand...

Saavedra, Serguei; Uzzi, Brian

2011-01-01

112

Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key [...] of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs) which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

Michael, Dauderstädt.

2013-03-01

113

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the so [...] cio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION:The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Madelien, Ferreira.

114

Ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper presents an ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge conducted ten years after the opening in July 2000. The study applies historical micro data to re construct the travel pattern with no bridge in place and compare this to the current situation. To complete the socio-economic assessment, the consumer benefits including all freight and passenger modes, are compared with the cost profile of the bridge. The monetary contributions are extrapolated to a complete 50 year period. It is revealed that the bridge from 2000–2010 generated a consumer surplus of €2 billion in 2000 prices discounted at 3.5% p.a., which should be compared with a total construction cost of approximately €4 billion. Seen over the 50 year period and by assuming a medium growth scenario the bridge is expected to generate an internal rate of return in the magnitude of 9% corresponding to a benefit-cost rate of 2.2.A main advantage of analysing infrastructure ex post is the ability to learn and understand behavioural andmethodological elements not foreseen at the ex ante stages. Following this we offer an extended discussion including two parts. Firstly we compare the ex ante predictions for the bridge to the current transport flows. The importance of having the right assumptions and the ability to model the phasing-in process are underlined. Secondly, we offer a wider discussion on why some projects are more beneficial than others. This is done by comparing the Oresund Bridge, the Channel Tunnel, and the Great Belt Link.

Knudsen, M.Aa.; Rich, Jeppe

2013-01-01

115

Socio-economic benefits from Hibernia operations in 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report identifies and describes the socio-economic effects of oil production from this offshore site, over and above the initial socio-economic effects of construction and fabrication. It documents a wide range of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians who benefit, directly and indirectly, from Hibernia operations. It builds on a series of reports which have examined the effects of Hibernia construction activity on employment, businesses and communities, including those resulting from spending and technology transfer. The report discusses the large scale and long term nature of the social and economic benefits of production activity and a wide range of benefits and beneficiaries. The report documents the ways in which Hibernia and other offshore oil activity are helping to transform the provincial economy. Another section of the report provides an overview of economic benefits. Based on information from Hibernia's production, expenditures and employment during 1998, the provincial government's Newfoundland and Labrador Econometric Model was used to calculate and describe Hibernia's effect on the gross domestic product, employment, unemployment rate, total incomes, retail sales and housing starts. Another section looks at the range of infrastructure that has resulted from Hibernia and other offshore petroleum activity, including industrial, training and research and development infrastructure. A further section on training and technology transfer describes the ways in whchnology transfer describes the ways in which the oil industry has increased local training capabilities and provided opportunties for Newfoundlanders and Labradorians to learn locally and work elsewhere. Another section examines the effects of all this on a range of companies. A last section provides a brief review of the findings related to the activity to date and what can be expected in the future. 8 refs., 2 tabs

116

The need for and use of socio-economic scenarios for climate change analysis: A new approach based on shared socio-economic pathways  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new set of socioeconomic scenarios (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways) are described that provide a set of global narratives and socio-economic pathways to pair with climate model scenarios developed using the new Representative Concentration Pathways.

Kriegler, Elmar; O' Neill, Brian; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Lempert, Rob; Moss, Richard H.; Wilbanks, Thomas

2012-10-01

117

Socio-economic impacts - an overview based on coal mining projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields

118

An Updated Prasad’s Socio Economic Status Classification for 2013  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is imperative to understand the Socio-Economic Status (SES of the community in order to correlate its impact on health and quality of living standards. Almost all community- based studies focus on socio-economic stratification, which is the key parameter for proper understanding the affordability of the community of health services, amenities and their purchasing capacity.

Shankar Reddy Dudala

2013-06-01

119

Physical Activity for Children in Terms of Socio-Economic Dimensions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the physical activity of children in the first cycle of education in terms of socio-economic dimensions. The sample respondents included 132 children from four basic schools in north-eastern Slovenia. Data were collected through questionnaires and analysed with the statistical program SPSS. We used the t-test, ANOVA and post-hoc analysis to sum up the differences. The statistical significance of the results was assessed at the level of 5% of the risk. Results have shown that boys are more physically active than girls. The analysis showed that children from urban schools are physically active for twenty minutes a day more than children from rural schools. Education of children´s parents is statistically associated with the physical activity of children - the children of parents with the highest levels of education are physically the most active. Physical activity of a child´s father is statistically significant in relation to physical activity of his children. Despite the fact that especially in the last few years, the importance of physical activity for the development and health of children has been emphasised, there are still a lot of children who are insufficiently physically active. Many parents and children give the rapid tempo of life and the lack of time for a better quality of their life as excuses for this situation.

Klavdija Strniša

2014-03-01

120

Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.

Inge Huybrechts

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Socio-economic class distribution of the prognostic variants of lymphoproliferative cancers in Nigerians.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred and twenty Nigerians with various lymphoproliferative cancers were grouped according to socio-economic class and the prognosis of their disease. The best prognostic variant of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia occurred mainly in the highest socio-economic class and the worst variant mostly in the low socio-economic class. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, a low grade malignancy, and the high grade Burkitt's type of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurred predominantly in the low class. The relationship between prognosis and socio-economic class was not so remarkable in patients with Hodgkin's disease and multiple myeloma. The precise mechanisms by which socio-economic strata influence development of the different prognostic variants of individual lymphoproliferative cancers are not certain. PMID:1288248

Okpala, I E; Okpala, J U

1992-10-01

122

Estudo comparativo sobre superdotação com famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida / Comparative study on giftedness with socio-economically disadvantaged families  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e comparar características de famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida relacionadas ao desenvolvimento de comportamentos de superdotação. Participaram da pesquisa 28 famílias residentes no Distrito Federal, sendo 14 com superdotados e 14 sem filhos s [...] uperdotados. Os dados foram coletados por meio do Inventário de Sucesso Parental - PSI, do Teste de Pensamento Criativo - TCP-DT e de questionário sobre características individuais e familiares do superdotado. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizados o teste t, a correlação de Pearson e estatística descritiva. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao nível de comunicação, uso do tempo, práticas de ensino parental e satisfação parental. Os genitores de superdotados e não superdotados avaliaram o nível de comunicação e satisfação parental em relação a comportamento dos filhos de forma mais positiva do que seus filhos. Os resultados também indicaram uma maior participação dos pais de alunos superdotados na vida acadêmica de seus filhos. A maioria dos alunos superdotados, que participou do estudo, era do gênero masculino e ocupava posição especial na família como primogênitos e unigênitos. Além disso, não foi observada relação entre os níveis de criatividade de pais e filhos. Ficou evidenciado, porém, que os alunos superdotados apresentaram desempenho superior no teste de criatividade quando comparados aos alunos não superdotados. Os resultados chamam a atenção para o papel que a família pode desempenhar no estímulo de habilidades, talentos e interesses. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to describe and to compare characteristics of socio-economically disadvantaged families in relation to the development of gifted behavior. Twenty-eight families from the Federal District participated in this study, among whom 14 had gifted children and 14 had non-gifted [...] children. The data was collected through the Parent Success Inventory - PSI, the Test of Creative Thinking - Drawing Production, and a questionnaire about individual and family characteristics of the gifted. Data was analyzed using the t-test, Pearson's correlation and descriptive statistics. Differences were found between the groups with respect to communication, use of time, parental teaching practices and parental satisfaction. Parents of gifted students and non-gifted students evaluated the level of communication and parental satisfaction more positively than their children did. The results also indicated that the parents of gifted students participated more in the academic lives of their children. The majority of gifted students were boys, who occupied a special family position as the eldest or only child. In addition, no relationship was observed between creativity levels of parents and children. Nevertheless, the evidence showed that gifted students obtained higher performance on creativity tests when compared to non-gifted students. The results highlight the role that the family plays in fostering abilities, talents and interests.

Jane Farias, Chagas; Denise de Souza, Fleith.

2009-04-01

123

Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a breast-feeding (b personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

Herrick David

2006-01-01

124

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach.

Cunningham Heather

2010-07-01

125

Natural positional-functional zones of the main European basins; 1 : 28 600 000; Principal natural-positional nodal areas of Central Europe; 1 : 2 450 000; Natural barriers and socio-economic corridors; 1 : 1 000 000; Selected types of positional-nodal regions; 15 satellite interpretations; Positional-nodal macroregions and their structural parts; 1 : 1 000 000; Schematic typification of positional-nodal macroregions and regions; 1 : 2 000 000; Dominant natural barriers - the Liptovska kotlina Basin and the Horehronie area; satellite interpretation; Position of natural-settlement microregions and dissection of their core parts; 1 : 1 000 000; Positional-functional characteristics of natural-settlement nodal microregions; 1 : 1 500 000; Natural-settlement nodal regions; 1 : 500 000; Division of natural-settlement nodal regions; 1 : 3 000 000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This group of maps is original - the maps assess positional aspect of natural and socio-economic element and their mutual relationships. It is based on natural barriers of Slovakia, which define the nodal natural-settlement macroregions, regions, and microregions. These units are evaluated on the maps from the point of view of their spatial structure and dissection. The basic map in this group is the map No. 24. Natural-settlement nodal regions (barriers and developmental axes). It was produced by harmonisation of natural-nodal regions with administrative boundaries of communes. Mountain ridges (as natural barriers) in the mountainous areas, as well as the minor ridges in hilly and upland areas, but also position of units (spatial structure) in lowlands, typological differences (for instance, distinct, including economic, difference in accessibility of underground waters in flood-plains and loess hills) or the barrier effect of important rivers were decisive for establishment of unit boundaries. As this is the case of combination of natural and socio-economic settlement gravitation, the boundaries of units follow the boundaries of cadasters, or boundaries of higher administrative units. The natural- nodal regions, microregions and their parts are characterised in the following maps from the point of view of position, dissection of their core parts and prevailing function. It was possible then to define, for instance, microregions, transitory, boundary and ending isolaons, transitory, boundary and ending isolated, eventually core and marginal microregions. (authors)

126

Socio-Economic Statues and Physical Activity Levels of 3th Grade Students: A Case Study in Istanbul Beykoz Province  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The children and adolescent period is critical time to acquire positive lifestyle habits. The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI?s and socio-economic level of their school environments. This study also reviewed the articles about physical activity level of children, its relation to their socio-economic status and some other related tasks. Inactive life style sustained together with bad eating habits brings many healthy problems such as obesity and cardiovascular disease Approach: Technological development brings with it improving life style causing sedentary life for the public in developed and also developing Country. Physical activity can be viewed as a form of healthy life because it predicts functioning and adaptation and offers capabilities that enable people to live healthy. In this purposed three different socio-economic levels of six schools were determined accordance with declaration of National Education Department in Beykoz province. Each couple of school reflected one?s Socio-Economic Status (SES. Totally 250 students from three different SES were participated (low-SES, n = 92; middle-SES, n = 73; high-SES, n = 85. Student?s height and weight were measured and their Body Mass Index (BMI was determined. BMIs were classified according to Cole?s BMI tables which were underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Children Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ, which is proposed by World Health Organization, was used for assessment of their Physical Activity Level (PAL. Data from the questionnaires was collected in a suitable relational database and analyzed with SPSS statistical package. Logit log linear analysis was applied to understand the trend of qualitative variables (SES, BMIs and PALs. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI?s and socio-economic level of their school environments. Results and Conclusion: It was observed that the effects of SES, gender and BMI on PAL were not statistically significant (p>0.05. On the other hand, there were a significant interaction between PAL and SES (p<0.01; PAL, SES and BMI (p<0.05; and also PAL, SES and Gender (p<0.05. The results would be more reliable when the study performed in big population and different provinces of the big cities in further studies.

Pinar Salih

2011-01-01

127

EU socio-economic research on fusion: Findings and program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1997 the European Commission launched a Socio-Economic Research program to study under which conditions future fusion power plants may become competitive, compatible with the energy supply system and acceptable for the public. It has been shown, among others, that: 1) local communities are ready to support the construction of an experimental fusion facility, if appropriate communication and awareness campaigns are carried out; 2) since the externalities are much lower than for competitors, fusion power plants may become the major producer of base load electricity at the end of the century in Europe, if climate changes have to be mitigated, if the construction of new nuclear fission power plants continues to be constrained and if nuclear fusion power plants become commercially available in 2050. Cooperating with major international organizations, the program for next year aims to demonstrating, through technical economic programming models and global multi-regional energy environmental scenarios, that the potential global benefits of fusion power plants in the second half of the century largely outdo the RD and D costs borne in the first half to make it available. Making the public aware of such benefits through field experiences will be part of the program. (author)

128

Parenting Children with Developmental Delays: The Role of Positive Beliefs  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents of children with developmental delays consistently report higher levels of child behavior problems and also parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. This study examined how mothers' positive beliefs influence the relation between children's behavior problems and mothers' parenting stress among families of children…

Paczkowski, Emilie; Baker, Bruce L.

2008-01-01

129

South Asian Diasporic Youth in Denmark: Socio-Economic Strategies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on two empirical studies, this article investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s. Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of  Indian and Pakistani background (n=5). The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalism and identity construction. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, businessrelated investment and direct remittances, 2) awareness of parents’ strategies, although few or no self-employed strategies and 3) collective strategy through an organisation. There are considerable temporal as well as qualitative differences in the strategies as compared to the parental generation.  

Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie

2009-01-01

130

SOCIO - ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MIGRANTS IN ALIGARH CITY  

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Full Text Available In the present research work, an attempt has been made to examine the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of migrants in various types of migration-streams in Aligarh city. The study is based on the primary data collected from the field work by the direct questionnaire to the respondents in city. It can be inferred from the analysis of the study that among the in-migrants, the proportion of migration of Muslims has been distinctly more economic motivated than Hindus and other religious groups while among out-migrants, the ratio of Muslims and Hindus is more or less same in economic migration from the city. The literacy level is highest among the return-migrants and lowest in the inmigrants, particularly in rural migrants. In all types of population the ratio of non-workers among females is much higher than among males. In migration-streams, step-migration due to economic causes is greater than those due to social causes because social migration has been recorded only up to two steps but in economic motivated migration some migrants have moved up to four steps or more. Moreover, economic migration among males is up to four steps or more but among females it is exclusively confined to the second step. The economic motivated migration of both males and females has been over much longer distance than that caused by social factors. The ratio of males is much higher than females in longdistance return-migrants whereas in short-distance migration the trend gets reversed.

Sharafat Ali

2014-06-01

131

Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social entification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

132

Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth: a comparative study of the Nordic countries from 1981 to 2000  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (12 years of education, mothers with

Petersen, Christina B; Mortensen, Laust H

2009-01-01

133

Evolutionary Development of Class-Stratification Theories in the Socio-Economic Science ???????????? ???????? ????????-????????????????? ?????? ? ?????????-????????????? ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dialectic aspects of class social structure of the society are considered and evolution of scientific views in respect of criteria of class stratification in the socio-economic science of the XX-th century is characterised in the article.? ?????? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????; ???????????????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????...

Goncharov Yuriy V.; Shcherbina Igor V.

2012-01-01

134

Constructing place specific measures of health and socio-economic inequality for metropolitan Vancouver  

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In recent decades researchers have used Census-based socio-economic models to explain why some people are healthier than others. Little attention has been directed to survey-based methods for quantifying socio-economic inequality due to the inherent subjectivity of individual responses in characterizing data. This thesis argues that this very subjectivity allows us to better understand and evaluate social gradients in health status. A survey instrument was developed and distributed to British...

Bell, Nathaniel Joseph

2006-01-01

135

To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which higher intellectual abilities protect higher socio-economic groups from functional decline and to examine whether the contribution of intellectual abilities is independent of childhood deprivation and low birth weight and other socio-economic and developmental factors in early life. Methods The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS is a prospective cohort study based upon participants in a registration network of general practices in The Netherlands. Information was available on 1211 men and women, 24 – 81 years old, who were without cognitive impairment at baseline (1993 – 1995, who ever had a paid job, and who participated in the six-year follow-up. Main outcomes were longitudinal decline in important components of quality of life and successful aging, i.e., self-reported physical, affective, and cognitive functioning. Results Persons with a low occupational level at baseline showed more functional decline than persons with a high occupational level. Socio-economic and developmental factors from early life hardly contributed to the adult socio-economic differences in functional decline. Intellectual abilities, however, took into account more than one third of the association between adult socio-economic status and functional decline. The contribution of the intellectual abilities was independent of the early life factors. Conclusion Rather than developmental and socio-economic characteristics of early life, the findings substantiate the importance of intellectual abilities for functional decline and their contribution – as potential, but neglected confounders – to socio-economic differences in functioning, successful aging, and quality of life. The higher intellectual abilities in the higher socio-economic status groups may also underlie the higher prevalences of mastery, self-efficacy and efficient coping styles in these groups.

van Eijk Jacques

2007-07-01

136

DIVERSITY OF THE LEVEL OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN POLISH PROVINCE OF WIELKOPOLSKA  

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The purpose of the article is to establish areas in the province of Wielkopolska with the highest and lowest level of socio-economic development as well as to determine whether these areas are uniform with respect to the elements of the level of development. The author approaches this problem from the perspective of a subregion and a district. The empirical material for this study was based on the report on socio-economic development in Wielkopolska published by Statistical Off...

Roeske-s?omka, Iwona

2003-01-01

137

Socio-Economic Inequality, Human Trafficking, and the Global Slave Trade  

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The purpose of this paper is to discuss human trafficking within the broader framework of socio-economic inequality. The presence of socio-economic inequality in the world creates a system where those in power very easily dominate and take advantage of those people without power. One of the most serious contemporary effects of inequalities between and within nations is the phenomenon of global sex trade or human trafficking for the purposes of sex. Deriving from unequal power relations, human...

Barner, John R.; David Okech; Camp, Meghan A.

2014-01-01

138

Socio-Economic Costs of Bereavement in Scotland : Main study report  

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The Socio-Economic Costs of Bereavement in Scotland (SECOB) research study was funded by the Scottish Government Health Directorates in late 2010 as part of ongoing work to inform national policy on bereavement and bereavement care practice. The project aimed to: a) articulate the likely nature and scope of the impact of bereavement on social and economic aspects of life for Scottish citizens as evidenced in relevant literature, b) seek to estimate the socio-economic costs of bereavement in a...

Corden, Anne

2013-01-01

139

Socio-economic differentiation and selective migration in rural and urban Sweden  

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The aim of this thesis is to analyse migration and socio-economic differentiation in rural and urban spaces: where people move, what the characteristics of migrants are and whether experiences of rural and urban space affect attitudes toward the local living environment and place attachment. The background consists of five themes discussing different aspects of socio-economic differentiation and selective migration, for example polarization and rural gentrification. Integrated in the five the...

Hjort, Susanne

2009-01-01

140

Prevalence of Violence against Children in Families in Tripura and Its Relationship with Socio-economic Factors  

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Full Text Available Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study after obtaining their informed consent from eight randomly selected English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala, Tripura (India. Data were collected by using a specially designed ‘Semi-structured Questionnaire’. Results: Findings revealed that about 20.9% (67/320, 21.9% (70/230 and 18.1% (58/230 of the children experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence respectively. Male children were more likely to be victims of psychological and physical violence while female children experienced more sexual violence (p=sign. Further analysis of data revealed some relationship between violence against children and nuclear family (p=sign, uncongenial and/or disturbed family environment (p=sign and dominating, short-tempered and/or aggressive parent personality (p=sign, irrespective of the nature of the violence. Physical violence was found to be more prevalent in high income families (p=sign while children from the lower income group of families experienced more psychological violence (p=sign. Sexual violence was found to be equally prevalent in all socio-economic groups. The study also clearly indicated that academic performance of violence-experienced children, irrespective of nature of violence and socio-economic groups was poor compared to academic performance of non-violence-experienced children (p=sign. Conclusions: About one-fifth of the children under study did experience violence in Tripura. Findings speak in favor of an intervention program for creating awareness among parents and teachers about the issue of violence against children, targeted at parents when they meet for periodic parent-teachers meetings in the educational institutions.

Subhasis Modak

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Coupling socio-economic factors and eco-hydrological processes using a cascade-modeling approach  

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Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers. The simplified cascade models provided insights for an improved understanding of the socio-ecohydrological system. Results show that the upstream population has transformed LULC such that runoff during the period 1986-2010 was 32% higher than during the period 1961-1985. Cut-flower export volumes and downstream population growth explain 71% of the water abstracted from Lake Naivasha. The influence of upstream population on LULC and upstream hydrological processes explained 59% and 30% of the variance in lake storage volumes and sediment yield respectively. The downstream LULC changes had significant impact on large wild herbivore mammal species on the fringe zone of the lake. This study shows that, in cases where observed socio-economic developments are substantial, the use of a cascade-modeling approach, that couple socio-economic factors to eco-hydrological processes, can greatly improve our understanding of the eco-hydrological processes of a catchment.

Odongo, V. O.; Mulatu, D. W.; Muthoni, F. K.; van Oel, P. R.; Meins, F. M.; van der Tol, C.; Skidmore, A. K.; Groen, T. A.; Becht, R.; Onyando, J. O.; van der Veen, A.

2014-10-01

142

Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ? 94 cm (men or ? 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are positively associated with overweight, while educational level and health related sports are negatively related to overweight in both genders. In men, alcohol consumption and smoking in the past are also among the lifestyle factors associated with overweight. This study also indicates that BMI and WC do not have the same discriminative function regarding different lifestyle factors.

Duvigneaud Nathalie

2007-02-01

143

Does the FTO Gene Interact with the Socio?Economic Status on the Obesity Development Among Young European Children? : Results from the IDEFICS Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Various twin studies revealed that the influence of genetic factors on psychological diseases or behavior is more expressed in socio?economically advantaged environments. Other studies predominantly show an inverse relation between socio?economic status (SES) and childhood obesity in western developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the FTO gene interacts with the socio?economic status (SES) on childhood obesity in a subsample of the IDEFICS cohort (N=4406). A structural equation model (SEM) is applied with the latent constructs obesity, dietary habits, physical activity and fitness habits, and parental SES to estimate the main effects of the latter three variables and a FTO polymorphism on obesity. Further, a multiple group SEM is used to explore whether an interaction effect between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 within the FTO gene and SES exists. Overall model fit was inconsistent (RMSEA=0.05; CFI=0.79). Significant main effects are shown for SES (standardized ?s=?0.057), the FTO homozygous risk genotype AA (?s=0.177) and physical activity and fitness habits (?s=?0.113). The explained variance of obesity is about 9%. The multiple group SEM shows that SES and FTO interact in their effect on childhood obesity (??2=7.3, df=2, p=0.03) insofar as children carrying the protective TT genotype are more susceptible to a favorable social environment.

Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Frauke

144

Parenting Children with Developmental Delays: The Role of Positive Beliefs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents of children with developmental delays consistently report higher levels of child behavior problems and also parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. This study examined how mothers' positive beliefs influence the relation between children's behavior problems and mothers' parenting stress among families of children who are developmentally delayed (DD: n = 72) or typically developing (TD: n = 95) and assessed at ages 3, 5, and 7 years. Positive beliefs had a main effect on parenting stress at all ages, which was mediated by child behavior problems for mothers in the DD group at every age and across time. In the TD group, mediation was found at age 3 years. Additionally, support was found for a moderation effect of positive beliefs on the relation between child behavior problems and parenting stress, but only in the DD group at age 3. These findings have implications for interventions drawing on Seligman's (1991) work on learned optimism, the positive counterpart of learned helplessness. PMID:20107620

Paczkowski, Emilie; Baker, Bruce L

2008-07-01

145

Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing  

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In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development.

Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

2014-06-01

146

Methodological Foundations of the Study of the Socio-economic Value of Tourism ???????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????  

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Full Text Available The goal of the article is in scientific justification of the methodological foundations of the study of the socio-economic value of tourism. Using results of the theoretical analysis, the article identifies essence of the socio-economic value of tourism as a type of economic activity. It establishes that the aggregated character of carrying out the tourist activity has impact on the socio-economic value of tourism, which is generated in different links of the production chain of the tourist activity. In the result of the study the article justifies that the tourist added value is a collective indicator, which reflects influence of tourism upon economic and social spheres and identifies its socio-economic value. The article generalises and determines the methodical essence of approaches to calculation of the tourist added value. The prospect of further studies in this direction is development of satellite accounts of tourism for determination of inter-branch connections, which, while influencing development of the tourist infrastructure and accompanying types of activity, identify the socio-economic value of tourism for the national economy.???? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????. ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????????? ????????????. ???????????, ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???? ????????????? ????????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??? ?????????-????????????? ????????. ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????. ????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??????, ???????, ????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????.

Boyko Margarita G.

2013-07-01

147

The theological responses to the socio-economic activities that undermine water as a resource  

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Full Text Available This article focuses, from a theological perspective, on both the ecological crisis and the politico-economic dealings in relation to water – especially with regard to the unsound ways in which governments deal with this resource. Texts are read from an anthropogenic perspective, as opposed to an anthropocentric one. Such a reading scenario calls for responses from theology with regard to the human position in creation. Humans are not a grand master plan of creation, but the completion and fulfilment of it, given an enormous sense of responsibility for the earth. The article argues that the human–earth relation should be understood from the point of responsibility based on solidarity, interdependency and stewardship. Theologians are challenged to embrace eco-ethics.

How to cite this article: Resane, T., 2010, ‘The theological responses to the socio-economic activities that undermine water as a resource’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 66(1, Art. #328, 7 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v66i1.328

Thomas Resane

2010-02-01

148

Socio-economic status and lung cancer risk including histologic subtyping--a longitudinal study.  

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We investigated prospectively the risk of lung cancer in relation to socio-economic status (SES) in 22,387 middle-aged individuals who attended a screening program in the city of Malmö, Sweden between 1974 and 1992. We also examined the relationship between SES and histologic subtype in smokers. By 2003, a total of 550 lung cancer cases had been identified. Relative risks (RR) were calculated with adjustment for age, current smoking, inhalation habits and marital status at baseline in the low SES group compared to high SES group. Among smokers, the RR (95% confidence interval (CI)) for lung cancer in the low SES group of men was 1.39 (1.11-1.73), and women 1.56 (1.04-2.34). Also among smokers, low SES was associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma in men; RR 1.89 (1.16-2.81) and women; RR 7.10 (1.63-30.86), and with an increased risk of mesothelioma in men RR 9.97 (1.29-76.96). We conclude that low SES groups run an increased risk of lung cancer despite accounting for smoking habits. Furthermore, low SES was positively associated with squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma. Our results suggest that the association between low SES and lung cancer could be mediated by unaccounted for smoking exposure, lifestyle or occupational hazards. PMID:16337709

Ekberg-Aronsson, Marie; Nilsson, Peter M; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Pehrsson, Kerstin; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran

2006-01-01

149

Physical activity patterns of ethnic children from low socio-economic environments within the UK.  

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Abstract Many children fail to meet physical activity (PA) guidelines for health benefits. PA behaviours are complex and depend on numerous interrelated factors. The study aims to develop current understanding of how children from low Socio-economic environments within the UK use their surrounding built environments for PA by using advanced technology. The environment was assessed in 96 school children (7-9 years) using global positioning system (GPS) monitoring (Garmin Forerunner, 305). In a subsample of 46 children, the environment and PA were assessed using an integrated GPS and heart rate monitor. The percentage of time spent indoor, outdoor, in green and non-green environments along with time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in indoor and outdoor environments were assessed. A 2-by-2 repeated measures analysis of covariance, controlling for body mass index, BF%, assessed the environmental differences. The findings show that 42% of children from deprived wards of Coventry fail to meet PA guidelines, of which 43% was accumulated during school. Children engaged in more MVPA outdoor than indoor environments (P children. PMID:24998418

Eyre, Emma Lisa Jane; Duncan, Michael Joseph; Birch, Samantha Louise; Cox, Valerie; Blackett, Matthew

2015-02-01

150

Experimental evidence of the effect of monetary incentives on cross-sectional and longitudinal response: Experiences from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)  

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The paper gives an overview of two experiments implemented in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) considering the effect of monetary incentives on cross-sectional and longitudinal response propensities. We conclude that the overall effects of monetary incentives on response rates are positive compared to the classic SOEP setting, where a charity lottery ticket is offered as an incentive. In the cross-section, cash incentives are associated with a higher response rate as well as a lower rat...

Schro?der, Mathis; Saßenroth, Denise; Ko?rtner, John; Kroh, Martin; Schupp, Ju?rgen

2013-01-01

151

Policies and Socio-economics influencing on Agricultural Production: A Case Study on Maize Production in Bokeo Province, Laos.  

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Full Text Available Since 2005s, agricultural land in northern Laos has become to be dominated by maize mono-cropping. The rapid expansion of this commercial crop has the resulted of policy implementations and demand of maize from the neighboring countries. The purpose of this study was aim to analyze the impact of commercial agricultural policy and socio-economic factors influencing on maize production in Houyxai Distirct, Bokeo Province of Laos. A survey of 98 maize farmers by face to face interviews was conducted in September 2010. Ordinary Least Square regression model was applied in order to explain how these policies and socio-economic factors effect to farmers and contribute to maize production. The results revealed that 94% of the variation in maize production (ton is explained by the selected explanatory variables. Seven variables have a positive significant and one variable has a negative effect on maize production volume. The results also demonstrated that the most important effect to maize production is a “policy push” mainly variables of farmland, farmer organization, support market and credit access and a “market pull” by private sectors with providing input factors namely seeds, land preparation and techniques. Therefore, the government should look at the way of credit providing system that may effect in high production cost, at the same time the expansion of farm size is needed to take into account.

boundeth southavilay

2012-08-01

152

Local knowledge and socio-economic determinants of traditional medicines' utilization in livestock health management in Southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria utilize traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants (PMs for the maintenance of their animals' health. This study was designed to determine the PMs used in the study area and their level of utilization by livestock farmers, compare the level of utilization of PMs across the three states surveyed and identify the socio-economic factors influencing farmer's utilization of PMs. Thirty-five PMs were identified. Farmers had considerable knowledge about the identified PMs but about 80.0% of them used the PMs to poor/moderate extent. There were statistical differences in the utilization level of PMs among the three states. Six socio-economic variables were found to be statistically significant in influencing PMs' utilization. Farmer's age, household size, distance to the nearest veterinary hospital/clinic and extent of travels, had positive effects while negative effects were exhibited by farm income and number of heads of livestock. It was concluded that there was considerable knowledge about PMs and that utilization of PMs varied between the three states. It was recommended that local knowledge of PMs be preserved in the study area through screening and documentation.

Mafimisebi Taiwo E

2012-01-01

153

Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth: a comparative study of the Nordic countries from 1981 to 2000.  

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During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (12 years of education, mothers with <10 years of education had similarly increased risks of very, and to a lesser extent moderately, preterm birth in all four countries. The educational gradient increased slightly over time in very preterm births in Denmark, while there was a slight narrowing of the gap in Sweden. In moderately preterm births, the educational inequality gap was constant over the study period in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but narrowed in Finland. The educational gradient in preterm birth remained broadly stable from 1981 to 2000 in all four countries. Consequently, the socio-economic inequalities in preterm birth were not strongly influenced by structural changes during the period. PMID:19228316

Petersen, Christina B; Mortensen, Laust H; Morgen, Camilla S; Madsen, Mia; Schnor, Ole; Arntzen, Annett; Gissler, Mika; Cnattingius, Sven; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

2009-01-01

154

Health-seeking behaviour of Port Harcourt city residents: a comparison between the upper and lower socio-economic classes  

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This study aimed at establishing the determinants and distribution of the health-seeking behaviours of Port Harcourt residents, and comparing them between the upper and lower socio-economic classes. A descriptive crosssectional study using 204 respondents was carried out. The socio-economic classification used occupation and average monthly income. Multi-staged sampling technique was used; stage one being by stratified sampling using socio-economic classes for stratification; stage two involv...

Promise Tamunoipiriala Jaja

2013-01-01

155

Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008. The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences.

Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami

2014-01-01

156

Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators  

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Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

2014-05-01

157

Environmental and Socio-economic Determinants of Malaria Prevalence in Uganda  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to establish the relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. An understanding of the factors that are associated w ith malaria prevalence is critical for the design of policies aimed at reducing malaria prevalence. Regression results using OLS indicate no relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. There is need for further study using disaggregated data, panel data, and adding more control variables to the health production model to identify the factors that are associated with malaria prevalence in Uganda.

Niringiye Aggrey

2010-10-01

158

Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and their impact on socio economic dimension of farmer’s lives. For data analysis quantitative techniques of multiple regression & regression for moderation were applied by using SPSS 16.

Raja Irfan Sabir

2014-08-01

159

Trust, voluntary cooperation, and socio-economic background: Survey and experimental evidence  

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We report survey and experimental evidence on trust and voluntary cooperation from more than 630 non-student and student participants in rural and urban Russia. Our subjects have a diverse socioeconomic background that we relate to the answers of a survey on trust attitudes and to contribution behavior in a one-shot public goods game. We find that the socio-economic background affects trust attitudes, but we find no separate influence of socio-economic variables on cooperative behavior in a o...

Simon Gaechter; Benedikt Herrmann; Christian Thoeni

2004-01-01

160

The socio-economic aspects involved in compliance to antiretroviral therapy : Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone  

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This study emanates from the need to understand the socio-economic factors that might have contributed to the patients dropping out of the MASA antiretroviral therapy programme in Botswana. The aim of the study was to explore the socio-economic factors that are involved in compliance to antiretroviral therapy. It is crucial to know what these factors are and the strategies that can be deployed to address them. This will assist in the achievement of the programme goals. The type of r...

Podisi, Mpho Keletso

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Dietary and socio-economic factors in relation to Helicobacter pylori re-infection  

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AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) re-infection.METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H pylori infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups:?I-examined group (111 persons with H pylori re-infection) and II-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected). The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic f...

Miros?aw Jarosz, Ewa Rychlik

2009-01-01

162

SOCIO - ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE SELFHELP GROUP WOMEN IN ANDHRA PRADESH  

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Full Text Available In India, social structure of the people is intimately connected with the economic activities. Economic and social conditions are interrelated. The present study made an attempt to assess the impact of SHG programme on socio-economic conditions of the sample women SHG members in Andhra Pradesh. In order to understand the impact of SHG programme, it is necessary to analyze the social and economic conditions of the SHG women respondents. For the purpose of the study a stratified multi stage random sampling technique is used. The study reveals that SHGs have provided a good environment for the upliftment of the socio-economic conditions of the rural poor women.

Rajani Manikonda

2014-09-01

163

How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass produs of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems. (author)

164

Socio-economic factors associated with maternal health-seeking behaviours among women from poor households in rural Egypt.  

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IntroductionSocio-economic inequalities in basic maternal health interventions exist in Egypt, yet little is known about health-seeking of poor households. This paper assesses levels of maternal health-seeking behaviours in women living in poor households in rural Upper Egypt, and compares these to national averages. Secondly, we construct innovative measures of socio-economic resourcefulness among the rural poor in order to examine the association between the resulting variables and the four dimensions of maternal health-seeking behaviour.MethodsWe analysed a cross-sectional survey conducted in Assiut and Sohag governorates in 2010¿2011 of 2,242 women in households below the poverty line in 65 poorest villages in Egypt. The associations between four latent socio-economic constructs (socio-cultural resourcefulness, economic resourcefulness, dwelling quality and woman¿s status) and receipt of any antenatal care (ANC), regular ANC (four or more visits), facility delivery and private sector delivery for women¿s most recent pregnancy in five years preceding survey were assessed using multivariate logistic regression.ResultsIn the sample, 58.5% of women reported using any ANC and 51.1% facility delivery, lower than national coverage (74.2% and 72.4%, respectively). The proportion of ANC users receiving regular ANC was lower (67%) than nationally (91%). Among women delivering in facilities, 18% of women in the poor Upper Egypt sample used private providers (63% nationally). In multivariate analysis, higher economic resourcefulness was associated with higher odds of receiving ANC but with lower odds of facility delivery. Socio-cultural resourcefulness was positively associated with receiving any ANC, regular ANC and facility delivery, whereas it was not associated with private delivery care. Dwelling quality was positively associated with private delivery facility use. Woman¿s status was not independently associated with any of the four behaviours.ConclusionsCoverage of basic maternal health interventions and utilisation of private providers are lower among rural poor women in Upper Egypt than nationally. Variables capturing socio-cultural resourcefulness and economic resourcefulness were useful predictors of ANC and facility delivery. Further understanding of issues surrounding availability, affordability and quality of maternal health services among the poor is crucial to eliminating inequalities in maternal health coverage in Egypt. PMID:25424200

Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona; Sholkamy, Hania; Ploubidis, George B

2014-11-25

165

Expectations of JAERI on INIS from a viewpoint of socio-economic evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because the taxpayers funded basic scientific researches in JAERI, a feedback of the results to the public is strongly requested by the Japanese government. By using the concept of socio-economic effect, that is, the stimulation and promotion of social interrelations through a formation of networking in basic research, the authors tried to show a kind of feedback. For this purpose, JAERI developed computer code SOCIOECO combined with INIS was used as a main tool and database. The case study was addressed to the Material Science (MS) field in JAERI. It is revealed from the study that a significant formation and development of socio-economic networking is occurring at the emphasized basic research fields (EBRF) of ion irradiation and actinides having a strong relation to nuclear. For actinides a total of 7,237 papers were written in basic research fields, where the share of JAERI over 25 years was 25%, while 52% by public sectors (PS, namely university (U) and governmental sectors (GS)) and 17% by private organizations (PO). Numbers of co-written papers defined as an index of socio-economic networking were increased with time. The growth rate, for example, between JAERI and PS was of order of 3-4% per 25 years, while 8% per recent 5 years. The socio-economic networking described here seems to be useful for showing the feedback occurring from basic research to the public. (author)

166

Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Australian Mining Towns: A Comparative Analysis  

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Understanding the links between resource dependence and socio-economic wellbeing has long been a subject of interest amongst social scientists in North America. By contrast, relatively few Australian studies exist on this topic. This is despite the significant role of resource industries in shaping Australia's economic and social geography. Where…

Tonts, Matthew; Plummer, Paul; Lawrie, Misty

2012-01-01

167

Fiscal Adjustment Socio-Economic Development of Country During Post Crisis Recovery ????????? ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????  

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Full Text Available The article considers the approaches to defining the essence of the budget adjustment, highlighted features of the mechanism of fiscal adjustment socio-economic development of country during post-crisis recovery and identified possible implementation of measures to improve the effectiveness of budget regulation in Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????.

Pasechnyy Nikolay D.

2012-05-01

168

Socio-economic status, cortisol and allostatic load: a review of the literature  

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Background The notion that chronic stress contributes to health inequalities by socio-economic status (SES) through physiological wear and tear has received widespread attention. This article reviews the literature testing associations between SES and cortisol, an important biomarker of stress, as well as the summary index of allostatic load (AL).

Dowd, Jennifer B.; Simanek, Amanda M.; Aiello, Allison E.

2009-01-01

169

SUITABILITY OF A SOCIO-ECONOMIC SCALE FOR HOSPITAL PSYCHIATRIC POPULATION  

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The Socio-economic scale devised by Gupta and Sethi (1978) was applied to 737 urban cases registered in the psychiatric out-patient department of a general hospital during the period of one year. Correlation and regression co-efficients were calculated for education, income, occupation and total scores. The scale seemed to be suitable for hospital psychiatric population.

Ramanathan, A.; Shantha, G. B.; Balan, V.

1983-01-01

170

Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups  

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Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

2009-01-01

171

Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status  

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This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

2005-01-01

172

Socio- Economic Analysis of Fadama Farmers in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria  

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This study examined the socio economic analysis of Fadama farmers in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State. The data were collected through structured questionnaire from a sample of 100 respondents drawn from ten (10) purposively selected communities from the local Government area. The data collected was analyzed by use of percentage, frequency, desc...

Folayan, J. A.

2013-01-01

173

Challenges to socio-economic research in a changing society - with a special focus on Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The process of changes in Arctic societies has been from a cultural order to an economic order, and from a closed society based on barter and subsistence to a society based on economic exchange through monetary means. Consequently, understanding the currents of change requires a definite focus on the ongoing socio-economic dynamics.

Poppel, Birger; Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

2005-01-01

174

Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender  

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This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

2010-01-01

175

How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?  

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The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

2011-01-01

176

Socio-economic Condition of Child Worker of Bangladesh in Their Adulthood: An Econometric Analysis  

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Full Text Available This study has mainly focused on the current socio-economic condition of those people who were child labor in their childhood. In this study, economic indicators are income and employment status. On the other hand, level of education, health status and role in case of decision making in the society are studied as social indicators. According to this study, socio-economic condition of child workers in their adulthood is not very satisfactory. In this research work, we have used Linear Probability Model (LPM and Weighted Least Square (WLS regression analysis to make comparison of current socio-economic status between people who were child labor in their childhood and those who were not child worker in past. We have found that person who was not child worker in early stage of his/her life have higher probability to enjoy better socio-economic condition than that of person who worked as child worker in past. In fact, we have identified that a children who is working as a child worker has 0.61 or 61% probability to have low standard of living in his/her future life.

Syed Imran Ali Meerza

2011-01-01

177

Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China  

Science.gov (United States)

With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

2014-03-01

178

Socio-economic inequalities in health care utilisation in Norway:a population based cross-sectional survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Norway provides universal health care coverage to all residents, but socio-economic inequalities in health are among the largest in Europe. Evidence on inequalities in health care utilisation is sparse, and the aim of this population based study was to investigate socio-economic inequalities in the utilisation of health care services in Troms[latin small letter o with stroke], Norway.

Hansen, Anne Helen; Halvorsen, Peder Andreas; Ringberg, Unni; Førde, Olav Helge

2012-01-01

179

Assessment of health related physical fitness, socio economic status and psychomotor ability of tribal school going children of west Bengal  

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Full Text Available The present study was aimed at assessment of health related physical fitness, socio economic status and psychomotor ability of tribal school going children of West Ben- gal. Five hundred subjects age ranging from 14 to 16 years from four different districts of West Bengal namely North 24 parganas, South 24 parganas, Cooch Behar and Burdwan were selected for the study. The study was restricted to the Health Related Physical Fitness variables, Socio Economic Status Questionnaire by Rajeev Lochan Bharadwaj and Reaction ability to measure Socio economic status and Psychomotor ability of tribal school going children respectively. Associations of Health related Physical fitness with Socio Economic Status and psychomotor ability of Tribal School Children of West Bengal was examined by using correlation technique. Further to assess the Health related physical fitness, Socio Economic Status and psychomotor ability of Tribal School Children of West Bengal, percentile scale was used.

GOPAL CHANDRA SAHA

2014-04-01

180

SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY  

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Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

Monica Dumitrascu

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region  

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Full Text Available The western North Pacific (WNP is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs. However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr – driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower by 14% (9% in the positive (negative phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980–2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

C. Welker

2013-01-01

182

Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%, oral tobacco(13.5%, hukka (12% and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%. Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01 and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001. Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens. Conclusion There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed.

Laporte Ronald E

2008-02-01

183

Reducing the Socio-Economic Status Achievement Gap at University by Promoting Mastery-Oriented Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students’ socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students’ learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students’ achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University’s educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University. PMID:23951219

Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

184

A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidt. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age-adjusted odds ratio in male subjects was 1.9 (0.9, 3.9) but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, a lower socio-economic class, categorised either by occupational or educational level, was an additional risk factor for diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese who had known risk factors for glucose intolerance. These subjects should have increased priority for health education and regular diabetes screening. Our findings further emphasise the complex relationships between societal affluence, personal income and educational level

185

The Effect of Socio-economic Status on Authoritarianism  

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The population of this study was students of Shahid Chamran University. Based on Krejcie and Morgan table, a sample of 377 individuals is representative of a population of 20000 individuals. In this study, 420 were selected through systematic random sampling. In that the list of student names was taken from each faculty and then students' names were randomly selected and they were asked to refer to a class and complete the devised questionnaire. 13 incomplete questionnaires were excluded and 407 remained for final analysis. In our sample, 191 were males and 216 females. Respondents' age was 21.84 with a standard deviation of 2.34. Ethnic composition of the sample was as follows: 33 Turks, 51 Arabs, 84 Kord, 103 Lor and 136 were Fars. Authoritarianism Scale items were composed of 9 items derived from well-known scales measuring these variables. In this study, instead of using an objective socioeconomic base approach, the mental approach was applied. In this way, instead of assessing respondent's status based on achieved data with regard to their income and education and ranking them in three levels, the respondent self-assesses his economic status. To measure parental authoritarian control variable, we used 10 items which were derived from Daniel Shek's (2006 scale and have been used in various studies by different researchers and have a high ability to measure thi

Nasrollah Pour Afkari

2013-02-01

186

Solar power satellites: Commercialization and socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commercialization prospects for solar power satellites are assessed with reference to their possible impacts on the viability of the fossil fuel market and on international energy and environmental policies. The technical aspects which are examined include: solar panel sizing in relation to solar cell efficiency; the development of point-contact solar cell technology; the feasibility of the use of lunar materials; microwave transmission from the moon; optimum satellite positioning; the use of robots for in-space satellite assembly; satellite transmitted power for hydrogen production and storage; marketable product estimated development time

187

The potential socio-economic effects of climate change  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report summarises the major conclusions of three regional studies of the potential impact of climate change undertaken in Brazil in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand and in Vietnam. The Brazilian case studies indicate that human actions have frequently led to increased vulnerability of society to climatic variability. The nature of the consequent effects of droughts, dry spells, floods and frosts therefore varies greatly from region to region. The study in Indonesia/Malaysia/Thailand used GCMs, and suggested that with a doubling of CO[sub 2], rainfall may increase in some areas and temperatures would increase. Rice yields may decline in Malaysia. The mangroves in Vietnam may be threatened. It is not yet possible to predict with sufficient precision the nature of likely future changes of climate, but it is possible to begin exploring the range of potentially useful measures of response that governments could adopt to mitigate the negative effects of climate change and exploit the more positive ones. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Parry, M.L.; Magalhaes, A.R.; Ninh, N.H.

1991-01-01

188

Relación entre perímetro abdominal, nivel socioeconómico y presión arterial Relation of abdominal circumference and socio-economic status to blood pressure  

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Full Text Available Objetivos: Relacionar perímetro abdominal y condición socioeconómica con presión arterial (PA en comunidad urbana de Concepción. Métodos: Se midió el perímetro abdominal (PeA de 8472 residentes mayores de 15 años de edad, proporcionados por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico. La PA fue medida con normas estandarizadas, realizando dos visitas en diferentes días, la segunda si la PA era mayor de 140/90 mm Hg. Los Pe A se distribuyeron en cuartiles, relacionando cada cuartil con los respectivos promedios de presión sistólica y diastólica y se establecieron coeficientes de correlación lineal mediante "r" de Pearson entre PeA y PA. Además, se estableció la frecuencia de cada cuartil de Pe A por nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: Los Pea tuvieron la siguiente distribución (cm: 1er cuartil, 96. La prevalencia de hipertensión para niveles socioeconómicos alto, medio y bajo fue 17,9%, 19,5% y 24,5%, respectivamente. La PA promedio (mmHg en hombres y en mujeres del 1er cuartil de PeA fue 112 y 109; en el 2º cuartil 118 y 118; en el 3er cuartil 123 y 122 y en el 4º cuartil 129 y 129, respectivamente. Los coeficientes de correlación entre PeA y presión sistólica y presión diastólica resultaron significativos en ambos géneros: r = 0,343, pAim: To correlate abdominal circumference (AC and socio-economic status with blood pressure( BP in an urban community of Concepción, Chile Methods: AC was measured in 8472 subjects above 15years of age, stratified by age, gender and socio-economic status. BP was measured by standard procedures, with a repeat recording when the initial valué was > 140/90mmHg. BP was compared in quartiles of abdominal circumference and according to socio-economic status. Pearson "r" was used to correlate BP and AC Results: Cut points for quartiles of AC were 78, 87, and 96 cm. Prevalence of hypertension in high, médium and low socio-economic status was 17.9%, 19.5% and 24.5%, respectively Mean systolic BP was 112 - 109 mmHg (males - females in the first AC quartile, 118 - 118, 123-122 and 129-129 in the second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. A significant correlation between AC and BP (systolic and diastolic was observed in both genders (r 0.345 and 0.281 for males and females, respectively, p<0.00001. 22% of low socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile compared to 28.8% in the 4th quartile. In contrast 38.9% of high socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile while 15.5% did so in the 4th quartile (p<0001. Conclusion: A positive correlation ofAC and blood pressure was shown in both genders. A greater AC in low socio-economic subjects maybe related to a higher prevalence of hypertension in this group.

Eduardo Fasce H

2010-01-01

189

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION OF NEPALESE AND INDIAN MUSLIMS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY  

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Full Text Available Socio-economic condition is an important indicator to measure the development level of any community and a nation as well. This paper compares the socio-economic condition of Nepalese and Indian Muslims. Muslims are one of the highly disadvantaged, marginalized and excluded minority groups with distinct religious and cultural identities both in Nepal and India. They have been excluded in terms of social, economic, educational and political institutions as well as other decision-making levels of the state. Historically, they have been ignored by the state and excluded from the mainstream development processes due to their origin, religious minority status and territorial/regional identities in both countries of Nepal and India.

PASANG SHERPA

2012-11-01

190

SOCIO - ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF RAG-PICKERS IN AIZAWL CITY- A CASE STUDY  

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Full Text Available Management of solid wastes has become a critical issue for almost all the big cities in India. Although the responsibility of solid waste management remains primarily with the municipal bodies, several other stakeholder groups play a significant role in the process. In the Indian scenario, the so called rag-pickers who come from highly vulnerable social backgrounds play a unique role. But their services have not been recognized and they are facing difficult working conditions such as low status, deplorable living conditions and no support from governments. Hence, the present paper attempts to study their socio-economic conditions and to assess their working conditions etc. It also highlights some suggestions to improve their socio-economic conditions.

Laltanpuii Ralte

2014-04-01

191

Behavioural, physical and socio-economic factors in household cooling energy consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As global warming continues, the current trend implies that the uptake of air conditioning in the residential sector will go up, thus potentially increasing domestic cooling energy consumption. In this context, this paper investigates the significance of behavioural, physical and socio-economic parameters on cooling energy in order to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. It demonstrates that such factors exert a significant indirect as well as direct influence on energy use, showing that it is particularly important to understand indirect relationships. An initial study of direct factors affecting cooling energy reveals that occupant behaviour is the most significant issue (related to choices about how often and where air conditioning is used). This is broadly confirmed by path analysis, although climate is seen to be the single most significant parameter, followed by behavioural issues, key physical parameters (e.g. air conditioning type), and finally socio-economic aspects (e.g. household income).

192

Agent-based and macroscopic modeling of the complex socio-economic systems  

CERN Document Server

The current economic crisis has provoked an active response from the interdisciplinary scientific community. As a result many papers suggesting what can be improved in understanding of the complex socio-economics systems were published. Some of the most prominent papers on the topic include (Bouchaud, 2009; Farmer and Foley, 2009; Farmer et al, 2012; Helbing, 2010; Pietronero, 2008). These papers share the idea that agent-based modeling is essential for the better understanding of the complex socio-economic systems and consequently better policy making. Yet in order for an agent-based model to be useful it should also be analytically tractable, possess a macroscopic treatment (Cristelli et al, 2012). In this work we shed a new light on our research group's contributions towards understanding of the correspondence between the inter-individual interactions and collective behavior. We also provide some new insights into the implications of the global and local interactions, the leadership and the predator-prey i...

Kononovicius, Aleksejus

2013-01-01

193

Multi Commercial Economy: The Development of Socio-Economic Network Complexity of Batik Industry in Surakarta  

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Full Text Available This study analyzes that why the socio economic networking development in batik business become more complex along with the contact of commercially economic culture for fulfillment of the consumption and the commercially economic culture for the production improvement. The method of this study is naturalistic inquiry, to describe the interrelation of culture and economy which is stimultaneously forming a dual commercially economic and the development of socio economic networking complexity of batik business. The two of commercially economic model of  batik business are separatedly grow, but there is a connection among them. This interconnection is complementary or interfilling in the production relation and trading relation. The vertical interconnection is among the big and small industries, while interspace connection is among the batik industrial center in village and in urban. Those complexity of social economic networking trend to use the coorporation relation pattern of mutualism and domination which is cost saving.

Mahendra Wijaya

2009-07-01

194

Ecological study of socio-economic indicators and prevalence of asthma in schoolchildren in urban Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There is evidence of higher prevalence of asthma in populations of lower socio-economic status in affluent societies, and the prevalence of asthma is also very high in some Latin American countries, where societies are characterized by a marked inequality in wealth. This study aimed to examine the relationship between estimates of asthma prevalence based on surveys conducted in children in Brazilian cities and health and socioeconomic indicators measured a...

Genser Bernd; Barreto Mauricio; Pujades-Rodriguez Mar; da Cunha Sérgio; Rodrigues Laura C.

2007-01-01

195

Socio-economics of biosecurity: four essays on bioinvasions and genetically modified agriculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La tesis doctoral "Socio-economics of biosecurity: Four essays on bioinvasions and genetically modified agriculture" (Socio-economia de la bioseguretat: Quatre assaigs sobre bioinvasions i l'agricultura modificada genèticament) analitza dos processos altament controvertits -la introducció d'espècies invasores i d'organismes modificats genèticament (OMG)-, sota el concepte paraigua de la bioseguretat. Bioseguretat far referència a un enfocament estratègic i integrat que reuneix els marcs...

Binimelis Adell, Rosa

2008-01-01

196

Chronic suppurative otitis media: Socio-economic implications in a tertiary hospital in Northern Nigeria  

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BACKGROUND: In developing countries, ear infections and deafness are usually neglected conditions due to insufficient funds, work force, facilities, and knowledge. This paper highlights the socio-economic burden of chronic suppurative otitis media on a northern Nigerian population with suggestions on ways to reduce this burden. METHODS: Seventy-four patients presenting to the Otorhinolaryngology unit, Department of surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Plateau state, Nigeria with chronic...

Olugbenga Silas; Tonga Nimkur; Adeyi Adoga

2010-01-01

197

Socio-economic Aspects of Gum Arabic Production in Dalanj Area, South Korodofan, Sudan  

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Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sampl...

Mohammed, M. H.; Sanjak, E. M.; Eltayeb, A. M.; Koli, A. O.

2013-01-01

198

Cultural and socio-economic impacts of Mediterranean marine protected areas  

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Marine protected areas (MPAs) may be important for protecting the marine environment, but they may also have substantial socio-cultural impacts about which very little is currently known, or acknowledged. In the Mediterranean, few data are available on the socio-economic consequences of MPAs. The present study reviews the existing data on MPAs in Spain, France, Italy and Greece. A general increase in tourist activities in Mediterranean MPAs is evident, as are increases in the abundances of la...

Badalamenti, Fabio; Ramos Espla?, Alfonso A?ngel; Voultsiadou, Eleni; Sa?nchez Lizaso, Jose? Luis; D Anna, Giovanni; Pipitone, Carlo; Mas Herna?ndez, Julio; Ruiz Ferna?ndez, Juan Manuel; Whitmarsh, David; Riggio, Silvano

2000-01-01

199

'Risky places?': mapping gambling machine density and socio-economic deprivation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of this project were to map the location and density of gambling machines in Britain; to explore whether geographic areas with higher densities of machines exist and to examine the socio-economic characteristics of these areas relative to others. Using geospatial analysis of premises records, we identified 8861 Machine Zones which were areas with a 400 meter radius around gambling machine venue and 384 High Density Machine Zones (HDMZ) with 1 or more gambling machine per hectare. The...

Wardle, Heather; Keily, Ruth; Astbury, Gaynor; Reith, Gerda

2014-01-01

200

Sustenance of Tourism Industry for the Socio-economic Development of Ekiti State, Nigeria  

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This study examined the sustenance of tourism sector for the socio-economic development of Ekiti State, Nigeria.Tourism is playing an increasingly important role in the economy of many nations in the world today, especiallyin the area of job creation. Data for this study were collected from primary sources through the administration oftwo (2) sets of a well structured interview questionnaire. One hundred and fifty (150) were administered onworkers/management of the ran...

Simon-oke, Olayemi O.; Jegede, Amen O.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Report on environmental and socio-economic analysis (WP 2 Task 3)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential damage costs assessment indicates substantial economic benefits can be gained by controlling Dvv. The economic benefits of the Wageningen workshop scenario are about 472 million Euro per year. The economic benefits of control justify eradication and containment strategies of the EU. The environmental and socio-economic analysis of Diabrotica control programs undertaken in this report gives a global idea of what are the benefits and the inconvenient of each possible control strat...

Fall, E. H.; Wesseler, J. H. H.

2008-01-01

202

Socio economic analysis of wind and diesel driven water pumping system in the sudan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive cost analysis of wind pumping system both imported and locally made versus diesel pumping systems was made.Result of the practical experience made by Energy Research Institute during the last several years and some private efforts are used in this evaluation. Economic evaluation was emphasized on the socio - economic aspects. Many problems of assumptions and adjustments of factors were also discussed and assessed. ( Author )

203

Demographic Research On the Socio Economic Background of Students of the Ecological University of Bucharest  

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Full Text Available The paper describes a socio demographic and economic research performed on the first year students at the Ecological University of Bucharest, where we are focusing on understanding and investigating the conditions inside the families and the social environment in the home towns of these students. This research is a key in understanding the correlations between the socio-economic conditions inside the family geographical area and the actual career options and decisions of the newly admitted students to our faculties.

Janina Mihaela Mih?il?

2014-06-01

204

The impact of socio-economic status and mobility on perceived family functioning.  

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Perceptions of current family functioning in relation to current household income level, educational status, social-class at birth and social mobility over the lifecourse were investigated in a group of 483 individuals at age 50. Subjective report of family functioning was assessed using the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) with socio-economic information obtained from a self-report Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire. Results indicated significant relationships between household income...

Tiffin, P. A.; Pearce, M. S.; Kaplan, C.; Fundudis, T.; Parker, L.

2007-01-01

205

Socio-Economic Aspects of Wastewater Reuse in the Gaza Strip  

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Full Text Available The main concern of the current research is to investigate the socio-economical aspects of reuse which rarely discussed in Gaza Strip. Questionnaire to farmers in three areas in Gaza Strip have been conducted and analysis and two sites irrigated with treated effluent was monitored. The study indicates an economical improvement for farmers switching from groundwater to effluent irrigation, even though full yield potential of citrus and olive.

Abdelmajid R. Nassar

2009-01-01

206

Socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on patient employment after ten years  

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Birmingham hip resurfacing is an attractive option for treatment of arthritis in young and active patients. The aim of this study was to assess the socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on their employment and work intensity at ten years. A cohort of 90 consecutive patients with 100 Birmingham hip resurfacing, performed by single surgeon, were reviewed prospectively. The mean age was 51 years at surgery. Prospective review was undertaken from surgery until the tenth post-operat...

Malek, Ibrahim A.; Hashmi, Munawar; Holland, James P.

2011-01-01

207

Mixing specialised farming systems in Flevoland (The Netherlands) : agronomic, environmental and socio-economic effects  

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Mixed farming systems have potential agronomic, environmental and socio-economic advantages over specialized farming systems. This paper attempts to quantify these advantages for the Dutch province Flevoland. A mixed farming system at regional level is characterized by intensive cooperation between two or more specialized farms, each producing crop or animal products. To test the hypothesis that such a mixed farming system might improve sustainability of agriculture in Flevoland, nutrient bal...

Bos, J. F. F. P.; Ven, G. W. J.

1999-01-01

208

Investigating socio-economic variations in access to chlamydia testing in young people in England  

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In England over 2 million young people were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) in 2010/2011 to control infection and prevent reproductive health problems. Since 2008, the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) has delivered a significant proportion of this testing. The main part of my thesis focused on delivery, specifically on socio-economic variations in access to chlamydia testing amongst young people. It is not known whether testing reaches people in disadvantaged soci...

Sheringham, J. R.

2012-01-01

209

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

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Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were c...

Yaping Chen; Xiaohua Qi; Enfu Chen; Qian Li; Yu Hu

2013-01-01

210

Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

Asogwa, Benjamin C.; Ezihe, J. A. C.; Ater, P. I.

2013-01-01

211

Socio-economic analysis : a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation ...

Brignon, Jean-marc

2011-01-01

212

How to make Natura 2000 work properly? : Socio-economic, legal & ecological management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Belgium, the delineation of Special Protection Areas (SPA) and Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) has been done. At present many questions arise concerning the management of these areas. The multiple use of the space generates conflicts of interest. The SELNAT-project aims to answer the question “How to make Natura 2000 work properly?”, taking into account socio-economic, legal and ecological management aspects. This project aims to achieve more insight in a sustainable management of ...

Grogna, Vale?rie; Mahy, Marie; Meuris, Steve; Taymans, Julien; Weyns, Stan

2008-01-01

213

Socio-economic aspects of the Byzantine mosaic pavements of Phoenicia and northern Palestine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?The present thesis analyzes the Byzantine mosaic pavements of Phoenicia and Northern Palcatine from a socio-economic perspective, primarily by examining the laying of pavements including technical aspects and bedding, the quality of decoration, the distribution of pavements in time and space, as well as inscriptions which provide names of donors and artists as well as dates. The approach adopted represents a novel alternative and complement to typical interpretations of mosaic floor dec...

Merrony, Mark W.; Dr Claudine Dauphin, Dr Julian Raby

2002-01-01

214

Medical and socio-economic aspects of long term therapy of open angle glaucoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hundred patients of open angle glaucoma (OAG) who were on any one of the three drugs pilocarpine, timolol and epinephrine--for an average period of 3.3 years were chosen. Proforma regarding socio-economic status and the patients? reaction to long-term medication were recorded. Though the objective and subjective effects of long term medication were negligible the financial constraints were considerable. More than 70% patient would prefer laser?s and surgery because of the...

Sood N; Kumar Harsh; Patil N; Aggarwal A.; Sihota Ramanjit

1991-01-01

215

Financial Policy as an Instrument of Socio-economic Development of a Country  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of the article lies in showing the economic essence and identification of directions of increase of efficiency of the financial policy as an instrument of socio-economic development of the country. The article describes theoretical aspects, methodological principles and forms of ordering and improving financial relations. It identifies specific features of formation and realisation of financial policy of foreign countries. It shows that development of the strategy of efficient financ...

Adamenko Iryna P.

2014-01-01

216

ASPECTS REGARDING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINISM – ANALYSIS AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Theoretically, the determinism represents a concept according to which the phenomena are generated by chains of causes and effects by conditionings and laws, by the necessary and repetitive interactions. As regards socio-economic determinism, it can be said that it shows the importance of the social factor in determining the economic development. Usually, paradoxically, although it is the key element in deciphering economic behaviour, the social factor, by its main representative - the man...

Floarea Iordache, Phd; Alina Georgeta Ailinca?, Phd Candidate

2013-01-01

217

Socio-Economic Aspects of Wastewater Reuse in the Gaza Strip  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main concern of the current research is to investigate the socio-economical aspects of reuse which rarely discussed in Gaza Strip. Questionnaire to farmers in three areas in Gaza Strip have been conducted and analysis and two sites irrigated with treated effluent was monitored. The study indicates an economical improvement for farmers switching from groundwater to effluent irrigation, even though full yield potential of citrus and olive.

Nassar, Abdelmajid R.; Al-najar, H.; Al-dadah, Jamal Y.

2009-01-01

218

Socio-economic aspects of neglected diseases: sleeping sickness and visceral leishmaniasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several tropical diseases that are essentially poverty-related have recently gained more attention under the label of 'neglected tropical diseases' or NTD. It is estimated that over 1000 million people currently suffer from one or more NTD. Here, the socio-economic aspects of two NTD - human African trypanosomiasis and human visceral leishmaniasis - are reviewed. Both of these diseases affect the poorest of the poor in endemic countries, cause considerable direct and indirect costs (even thou...

Boelaert, M.; Meheus, F.; Robays, J.; Lutumba, P.

2010-01-01

219

The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypot...

Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio Juan; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

2014-01-01

220

The Impact of Information Competencies on Socio-Economic Development in Southern Hemisphere Economies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses the North-South knowledge gap and its relationship to socio-economic and information development, education, and information literacy. Information development–the information progress of a country-is analyzed using indicators of production, storage, and demand of recorded information/knowledge. Most concepts are discussed from the point of view of developing countries, nations that basically fall within the Southern Hemisphere. The term developing economies is used t...

Lau, Jesu?s

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The health and socio-economic circumstances of British lone mothers over the last two decades  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article examines the trends in the socio-economic circumstances and health of lone mothers compared to couple mothers from 1979 to 1995 in Great Britain using secondary analysis of data from General Household Survey and covering 9,159 lone mothers and 51,922 couple mothers living in private households. The main measures are self perceived general health, limiting long-standing illness, poverty and working status.

Shouls, S; Whitehead, M

1999-01-01

222

Snakebite and Its Socio-Economic Impact on the Rural Population of Tamil Nadu, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of ...

Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

2013-01-01

223

Changes in the influence of socio-economic status on obesity among aging Canadian baby boomers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A trend analysis was conducted on the influence of socio-economic (SES) status on obesity levels in Canadian baby boomers over time. Two, large scale national studies conducted 10 years apart were analyzed. Riley’s Social Change Model was used to frame how the influence of SES on obesity will converge over time due to social changes to food production and eating habits coupled with reliance on modern technology. Partial support was found for convergence of SES and obesity associations over ...

Cummings, Linda Martha Dawn

2009-01-01

224

Female Foeticide in Delhi/NCR: Exploring the Socio-Economic and Cultural Dimensions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The social and psychological fibres of India are predominantly patriarchal and contributing extensively to the secondary status of women. It is yet to be seen if the difference in attitudes towards the practice of female foeticide varies in different socio-economic strata, and in among the different communities of India. Methodology: The present study is based on a door-to-door survey comprising 100 families, conducted in slum areas of Delhi/NCR. Most of the families living in the...

Deb Roumi, Bhatnagar P.

2012-01-01

225

Study of knowledge and contraception practices in low socio-economic women of Delhi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Objective of current study was to assess the knowledge and practice of contraception among the low socio-economic women of reproductive age group in Delhi. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 272 low socio-economic women attending a family planning clinic at a Delhi municipal corporation hospital, of which 106 came for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP and 166 came for family planning advice. They were interrogated through a pre-designed structured questionnaire, to evaluate their knowledge and practices towards regular contraceptive methods, Emergency Contraception (EC and medical abortion. They were counselled about the available contraceptive methods and allowed to make choices according to their suitability. Results: All women belonged to low socio-economic group according to the modified Kuppuswamy scale. 22.1% were illiterate. 47.8% were ignorant of contraception. 38.3% women were aware of EC. Only 24.2% knew about medical abortion. The main reasons cited for not using contraception was desire for male child (24.6%, fear of side effects (20%, desire for another child (20%, opposition from family members (15.4%, inaccessibility (4.6% and inconvenience and lack of privacy (5.4%. Conclusions: This study highlights that lack of education, knowledge and awareness led to inadequate usage of regular methods of contraception in reproductive age group women belonging to low socio-economic status. Thus only availability is not sufficient to reach optimum female health. Accessibility need to be increased by educating females and motivating couples to make adequate use of existing family planning methods and resources. In contrast the awareness for emergency contraception is more than regular methods. It mandates need to educate women that emergency contraception should not replace regular methods. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1022-1026

Divya Pandey

2014-08-01

226

Potential socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with sexual dissatisfaction among men and women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study assessed the associations between potential socio-economic and lifestyle factors with sexual dissatisfaction and gender disparities in north-eastern France. In total 6216 subjects (randomly selected subjects completed a postal questionnaire gathering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, living alone, income, tobacco use, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire), heath status, fatigue, sleep disorders, diseases, depression/sadness and sexual dissatisfaction. Data were analyzed u...

Anquetil, M.; Baumann, Miche?le

2009-01-01

227

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with ...

Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

2010-01-01

228

Postresection survival outcomes of pancreatic cancer according to demographic factors and socio-economic status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Aim Aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of demographic factors (DGF) and socio-economic status (SES) on survival after pancreatic cancer resection in a German setting. Methods Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified from our pancreatic resection database (1989-2008). DGF, SES, survival and tumor-related information were obtained from hospital records, a registry office questionnaire, and t...

Kuhn, Y.; Koscielny, A.; Glowka, T.; Hirner, A.; Kalff, J. C.; Standop, J.

2010-01-01

229

Socio-economic factors associated with delivery assisted by traditional birth attendants in Iraq, 2000  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Methods Iraqi Multiple...

Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S; Siziya Seter

2009-01-01

230

Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Sur...

Adhikari Ramesh

2010-01-01

231

Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ? 94 cm (men) or ? 80 cm (women) and the combination of BMI and WC for...

Duvigneaud Nathalie; Wijndaele Katrien; Matton Lynn; Deriemaeker Peter; Philippaerts Renaat; Lefevre Johan; Thomis Martine; Duquet William

2007-01-01

232

Socio-economic factors associated with infant mortality in Italy: an ecological study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction One issue that continues to attract the attention of public health researchers is the possible relationship in high-income countries between income, income inequality and infant mortality (IM). The aim of this study was to assess the associations between IM and major socio-economic determinants in Italy. Methods Associations between infant mortality rates in the 20 Italian regions (2006–2008) and the Gini index of income inequality, mean ...

Dallolio Laura; Di Gregori Valentina; Lenzi Jacopo; Franchino Giuseppe; Calugi Simona; Domenighetti Gianfranco; Fantini Maria

2012-01-01

233

Jatropha assessment : agronomy, socio-economic issues and ecology, facts from literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) has been promoted as a potential renewable energy source for many of its advantageous properties in comparison to other biomass feedstock. This report summarises the agronomy, socio-economic issues, and ecology facts from literature on Jatropha. Such an overview is essential to formulate recommendations and policy guidelines to stimulate best project practices and also help to avoid the promotion of unviable or unsustainable practices

Eijck, J. A. J.; Smeets, E. M. W.; Jongschaap, R. E. E.; Romijn, H.; Balkema, A.

2010-01-01

234

Socio-Economic Status of Kaman Vocational Higher School Student, Ahi Evran University  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fundamental characteristics of the inputs of the education system which would execute production, adapt to the scientific and technological innovations, and raise skilled and qualified individuals who are required for business life should be known. Therefore, the aim of this study is to reveal the profiles of students at vocational high schools which is one of the main components of higher education system. This study is a socio-economic profile study which is a horizontal social sciences...

Nartgu?n, S?enay Sezgin; Yu?ksel, Engin

2009-01-01

235

A STUDY ON SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF FEMALE BEEDI WORKERS IN KARUGAMPUTHUR VILLAGE, VELLORE DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the Beedi workers are vulnerable segments of the country’s labour force which has increased involvement of women and child labour in the Beedi rolling activities. The condition of Beedi workers at present as well as in the past have not been conducive. The Beedi industry is present all over the country. The researcher in this study aimed at gaining insight into the “Socioeconomic condition of female Beedi workers at Karugamputhur Village, Vellore District.

V. Murugan

2014-10-01

236

Snakebite and its socio-economic impact on the rural population of Tamil Nadu, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Snakebite represents a significant health issue worldwide, affecting several million people each year with as many as 95,000 deaths. India is considered to be the country most affected, but much remains unknown about snakebite incidence in this country, its socio-economic impact and how snakebite management could be improved. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study within rural villages in Tamil Nadu, India, which combines a household survey (28,494 people) of ...

Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Vaiyapuri, Rajendran; Ashokan, Rajesh; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Nattamaisundar, Kameshwaran; Jeyaraj, Anburaj; Chandran, Viswanathan; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Baksh, M. Fazil; Gibbins, Jonathan M.; Hutchinson, E. Gail

2013-01-01

237

Book review: Children’s socio-economic rights, democracy and the courts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite increased academic interest in both children’s rights and socio-economic rights over the last two decades, children’s social and economic rights remain a comparatively neglected area. This is particularly true with regard to the role of the courts in the enforcement of such social rights. Aoife Nolan attempts to remedy this omission, focussing on the circumstances in which the courts can and should give effect to the social and economic rights of children. Anashri Pillay thinks th...

Pillay, Anashri

2013-01-01

238

Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (?65 years) and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES). Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine t...

Sarah Hoeck; Johan Van der Heyden; Joanna Geerts; Guido Van Hal

2013-01-01

239

Socio-economic Status and Socio-emotional Health of Orphans in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the relationship between socio-economic status and emotional well-being of orphans in Mangaung, South Africa. Five hundred orphans aged 7-11 years participated in the cross-sectional study between 2009 and 2012. Data was collected by trained fieldworkers, who conducted face-to-face interviews and questionnaires with the orphans, their teachers and caregivers, and the heads of the households where the orphans resided. The caregivers, children and teachers all completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in order to measure the orphans' mental health, while heads of household provided information about socio-economic indicators. STATA version 12 was used to perform multivariate data analyses to identify socio-economic factors associated with the mental health of orphans. Food security, access to medical services and a male caregiver were factors associated with better emotional well-being of orphans, whereas other variables such as household asset index and monthly household expenditure were not linked with the orphans' mental health. Two of the three variables (food security and access to medical services) associated with better emotional well-being of orphans are also government interventions to assist orphans. Further research is needed to determine whether other government programs also impact the emotional well-being of orphans. PMID:24968757

Pappin, Michele; Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Motsaathebe

2014-06-27

240

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Arkansas Nuclear One Station case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Arkansas Nuclear One nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined.

Pijawka, K.D.

1982-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Climate Change and Shrimp Farming in Andhra Pradesh, India: Socio-economics and Vulnerability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approximately 70% of shrimp consumed globally is farmed. India is ranked among the top five shrimp farming countries globally, and occurs mainly in the eastern coastal state of Andhra Pradesh (AP. More than 90% of the farms are less than 2 ha and are farmer owned, operated and managed. The objective of this study was to increase our understanding of climatic and socio-economic factors influencing this sector, through a survey of 300 shrimp farmers in AP in 2009/10. The farming communities were divisible into two groups: members of a society/cooperative and those operating individually. The latter were large scale adopting more intensive practices. The average production cost was Indian Rupees (IRS 80,186 ha-1 and net income in summer and winter was IRS 221,901 and IRS 141,715, respectively. The mean technical efficiency estimated using Stochastic frontier function was 7% and 54%. The present study attempts to explain the difference in efficiencies using socio-economic and climatic variables, the latter being a novel approach. Among socio-economic variables, farming experience and membership in society were found to have a significant influence to improve technical and economic efficiencies. Further improvements in identifiable facets of the practices and a consequent increase in technical efficiency will make the sector less vulnerable to climatic change impacts.

Udaya Sekhar Nagothu

2012-06-01

242

British Columbia offshore oil and gas socio-economic issue papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) biblrategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs

243

The socio-economic costs of the planned development of wind power energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The socio-economic consequences of the Danish government's planned further development of wind power energy are discussed in detail. It is claimed that, currently, electricity produced by wind turbines is more expensive than that produced by power stations, if the relative environmental effects are not taken into consideration. It is expected that technological development will contribute to cost reduction by the year 2010 so that electricity produced by wind turbines will be competitive, but until then costs of wind power energy will be high and it is reckoned that losses will be in the range of 5-6 billion Danish crowns, minus 2.5 billion saved by lack of CO2 emission. The socio-economic factors regarding windmills of various sizes (150 kW and 225 kW) are calculated and the planned development of wind power until 2010 is explained. The socio-economic costs of the development programme under various conditions, including the calculation of the saved emissions of carbon dioxide, are discussed. The author states that, in the light of these arguments, he is not in agreement with the governmental plan for the development of wind-turbine produced electricity. It is suggested that this plan could be postponed until such time as wind-power produced electricity should be more competitive in price, and that it should not be pursued during a period of economic recession. (AB)

244

Socio-economic inequalities: a review of methodological issues and the relationships with cancer survival.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past few decades, many studies on socio-economic factors and health outcomes have been developed using various methodologies with differing approaches. A bibliographic research in MEDLINE/PubMed and SCOPUS was carried out for the period 2000-2011 to describe the influence of socio-economic status (SES) on cancer survival, in particular with reference to the outcome of European research results and the results of some cases of other Western studies. This review is divided into two sections: the first describing the different approaches of the study on individuals and populations of the concept of "social class" as well as methods used to measure the association between deprivation and health (i.e. ecological level studies, deprivation indexes, etc.); and the second discussing the association between socio-economic factors and cancer survival, describing the roles of various determinants of differences in survival, such as clinical and pathological prognostic factors, together with consideration of diagnosis and treatment and some patients' characteristics. PMID:22999326

Quaglia, Alberto; Lillini, Roberto; Mamo, Carlo; Ivaldi, Enrico; Vercelli, Marina

2013-03-01

245

Socio-economic variation in CT scanning in Northern England, 1990-2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status is known to influence health throughout life. In childhood, studies have shown increased injury rates in more deprived settings. Socio-economic status may therefore be related to rates of certain medical procedures, such as computed tomography (CT scans. This study aimed to assess socio-economic variation among young people having CT scans in Northern England between 1990 and 2002 inclusive. Methods Electronic data were obtained from Radiology Information Systems of all nine National Health Service hospital Trusts in the region. CT scan data, including sex, date of scan, age at scan, number and type of scans were assessed in relation to quintiles of Townsend deprivation scores, obtained from linkage of postcodes with census data, using ?2 tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results During the study period, 39,676 scans were recorded on 21,089 patients, with 38,007 scans and 19,485 patients (11344 male and 8132 female linkable to Townsend scores. The overall distributions of both scans and patients by quintile of Townsend deprivation scores were significantly different to the distributions of Townsend scores from the census wards included in the study (p Conclusions Social inequalities exist in the numbers of young people undergoing CT scans with those from deprived areas more likely to do so. This may reflect the rates of injuries in these individuals and implies that certain groups within the population may receive higher radiation doses than others due to medical procedures.

Pearce Mark S

2012-01-01

246

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Crystal River Unit 3 case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

247

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

248

Socio-Economic Implications of Retirement on Retired Public Servants in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study examined the socio-economic implications of retirement on retried public servants in Ekiti State, Nigeria.  Economic difficult might be a principal factor for maladjustment among retirees in Ekiti State.  Data for this study were collected from Primary source.  Four hundred (400 questionnaires were administered in this study.  Data for this study were analyzed with the aid of frequency count, percentage,  mean and statistical methods.  Results for this study showed that retirees in the study area had socio-economic problems resulting from poor pay, delay in payment of gratuity and pension, and hyper inflation on their meagre income.  This study, therefore, recommended that, the management of pension fund should be given to private pension administrators with credible records in order to forestall mismanagement of pension funds.  This study will be of immeasurable value to Government, Public Servants, Retirees, planners and researchers.

Key words: Implication; Recommendations; Retirement socio-economic and public servants

Ayodeji OLATUNDE

2011-12-01

249

Food Security Index and Socio-Economic Effects of Climate Change on Rural Farming Households in Delta State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study examined the food security status and the socio-economic effects of climate change on rural farming households in Delta State, Nigeria. The main objective of the study was to determine the food security status of the rural farming households in the state while the specific objective was to determine the socio-economic effects of climate change on rural farming households in the state. Multistage sampling procedure was used in the random selection of local government, communities and...

Emaziye, P. O.

2013-01-01

250

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economs illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

251

Socio-Economic Status of Women in Rural Poultry Production in Selected Areas of Kwara State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the socio-economic status of women in rural poultry production in selected areas of Kwara State, Nigeria. This is based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between women’s participation and their socio-economic status such as age, marital status, level of education and occupation. The study was conducted in selected villages in Kwara State. A total of one hundred and twenty (120) women involved in rural poultry production were interviewed using ra...

Ogunlade, I.; Adebayo, S. A.

2009-01-01

252

Comparison of environmental and socio-economic domains of vulnerability to flood hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-economic and environmental based vulnerability models have been developed within the research context of the FP6 project BRAHMATWINN. The conceptualisation of vulnerability has been defined in the project and is characterised as a function of sensitivity and adaptive capacity, where sensitivity is used to refer to systems that are susceptible to the impacts of environmental stress. Adaptive capacity is used to refer to systems or resources available to communities that could help them adapt or cope with the adverse consequences of environmental stresses in the recovery phase. In a wider context the approach reflects the wider objective and conceptualizations of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) framework, where vulnerability is characterized as a component of overall risk. A methodology has been developed which delineates spatial units of vulnerability (VULNUS). These units share a specific common characteristic and allow the independent spatial modelling of a complex phenomena independent from administrative units and raster based approaches. An increasing detail of spatial data and complex decision problems require flexible means for scaled spatial representations, for mapping the dynamics and constant changes, and delivering the crucial information. Automated techniques of object-based image analysis (OBIA, Lang & Blaschke, 2006), capable of integrating a virtually unlimited set of spatial data sets, try to match the information extraction with our world view. To account for that, a flexible concept of manageable units is required. The term geon was proposed by Lang (2008) to describe generic spatial objects that are homogenous in terms of a varying spatial phenomena under the influence of, and partly controlled by, policy actions. The geon concept acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. It is flexible in terms of a certain perception of a problem (specific policy realm, specific hazard domain, etc.). In this study, vulnerability units have been derived as a specific instance of a geon set within an area exposed to flood risk. Using geons, we are capable of transforming singular domains of information on specific systemic components to policy-relevant, conditioned information (Kienberger et al., 2008; Tiede & Lang, 2007). According to the work programme socio-economic vulnerabilities have been modelled for the Salzach catchment. A specific set of indicators has been developed with a strong stakeholder orientation. Next to that, and to allow an easier integration within the aimed development of Water Resource Response Units (WRRUs) the environmental domain of vulnerability has additionally been modelled. We present the results of the socio-economic and environmental based approach to model vulnerability. The research methodology utilises census as well as land use/land cover data to derive and assess vulnerability. As a result, spatial units have been identified which represent common characteristics of socio-economic environmental vulnerability. The results show the spatially explicit vulnerability and its underlying components sensitivity and adaptive capacity for socio-economic and environmental domains and discuss differences. Within the test area, the Salzach River catchment in Austria, primarily urban areas adjacent to water courses are highly vulnerable. It can be stated that the delineation of vulnerability units that integrates all dimensions of sustainability are a prerequisite for a holistic and thus adaptive integrated water management approach. Indeed, such units constitute the basis for future dynamic vulnerability assessments, and thus for the assessment of uncertainties due to climate change. Kienberger, S., S. Lang & D. Tiede (2008): Socio-economic vulnerability units - modelling meaningful spatial units. In: Proceedings of the GIS Research UK 16th Annual conference GISRUK 2008, Manchester. Lang, S. (2008): Object-based image analysis for remote sensing applications: modeling reali

Leidel, M.; Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

2009-04-01

253

Ottoman forestry: socio-economic aspect and its influence today / Otomano florestal: aspecto socioeconômico e sua influência hoje  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A silvicultura é um assunto importante, pois o suprimento de madeira em geral e madeira para consumo humano direto, além de seus efeitos positivos sobre o aquecimento global e sobre a diversidade biológica, trata de uma história que remonta à antiguidade. Como um setor de trabalho intensivo nos país [...] es em desenvolvimento, mantém interações com a gestão dos recursos naturais, relações públicas e estrutura socioeconômica. Ela pode afetar a prosperidade dos países, seja positiva ou negativamente. Assim, uma análise da história da silvicultura tem importância, porque não só lança luz sobre a sua condição passada e presente, mas também explica as melhorias para a proteção das florestas. Assim, na primeira parte deste estudo, serão dadas informações gerais sobre o Sistema de Terras e Florestas e Organização Otomano. Na segunda seção, serão tratados movimentos da ocidentalização do século 19, bem como alterações socioculturais e econômicas. A terceira seção irá incluir regulamentos significativos na silvicultura, manejo florestal e administração no Império Otomano, bem como a influência da silvicultura Otomano na atual estrutura socioeconômica. Na seção final, no âmbito da discussão do título e conclusão, a silvicultura Otomano será analisada em relação as suas consequências em termos de economia, política e direito. Abstract in english Forestry is an important subject because it supplies wood and timber for direct human consumption, in addition to its positive effects on global warming and on bio-diversity, with a history dating back to antiquity. As a labor-intensive sector in developing countries, it maintains interactions with [...] natural resources management, public relations and socio-economic structure. It can affect the prosperity of countries either positively or negatively. Hence, an analysis of the history of forestry bears importance because it not only sheds light on its past and present condition, but also explains the improvements for the protection of forests. Accordingly, in the first section of this study, general information on the Ottoman Land System and Ottoman Forestry Organization will be given. In the second section, we will treat 19th century westernization movements, as well as socio-cultural and economic changes. The third section will include significant regulations on forestry, forest management, and administration in the Ottoman Empire; as well as the influence of Ottoman forestry on the actual socio-economic structure. In the final section, under the title discussion and conclusion, Ottoman forestry will be examined regarding its consequences in terms of policy, economy and law.

Sezgin, Özden; Üstüner, Birben.

2012-03-01

254

Understanding, creating, and managing complex techno-socio-economic systems: Challenges and perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This contribution reflects on the comments of Peter Allen [1], Bikas K. Chakrabarti [2], Péter Érdi [3], Juval Portugali [4], Sorin Solomon [5], and Stefan Thurner [6] on three White Papers (WP) of the EU Support Action Visioneer (www.visioneer.ethz.ch). These White Papers are entitled "From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises" (WP 1) [7], "From Social Simulation to Integrative System Design" (WP 2) [8], and "How to Create an Innovation Accelerator" (WP 3) [9]. In our reflections, the need and feasibility of a "Knowledge Accelerator" is further substantiated by fundamental considerations and recent events around the globe. newpara The Visioneer White Papers propose research to be carried out that will improve our understanding of complex techno-socio-economic systems and their interaction with the environment. Thereby, they aim to stimulate multi-disciplinary collaborations between ICT, the social sciences, and complexity science. Moreover, they suggest combining the potential of massive real-time data, theoretical models, large-scale computer simulations and participatory online platforms. By doing so, it would become possible to explore various futures and to expand the limits of human imagination when it comes to the assessment of the often counter-intuitive behavior of these complex techno-socio-economic-environmental systems. In this contribution, we also highlight the importance of a pluralistic modeling approach and, in particular, the need for a fruitful interaction between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. newpara In an appendix we briefly summarize the concept of the FuturICT flagship project, which will build on and go beyond the proposals made by the Visioneer White Papers. EU flagships are ambitious multi-disciplinary high-risk projects with a duration of at least 10 years amounting to an envisaged overall budget of 1 billion EUR [10]. The goal of the FuturICT flagship initiative is to understand and manage complex, global, socially interactive systems, with a focus on sustainability and resilience.

Helbing, D.; Balietti, S.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.

2011-05-01

255

'Risky places?': mapping gambling machine density and socio-economic deprivation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this project were to map the location and density of gambling machines in Britain; to explore whether geographic areas with higher densities of machines exist and to examine the socio-economic characteristics of these areas relative to others. Using geospatial analysis of premises records, we identified 8861 Machine Zones which were areas with a 400 meter radius around gambling machine venue and 384 High Density Machine Zones (HDMZ) with 1 or more gambling machine per hectare. There was a significant correlation between machine density and socio-economic deprivation. HDMZs had greater levels of income deprivation, more economically inactive people and a younger age profile than other areas; 37 % of those living in HDMZs were economically inactive compared with 33 % of those in non-machine areas. HDMZs were in seaside locations but also New Towns or satellite towns to major urban areas. Area affluence explains some of this pattern; of the New Towns with HDMZs, 78 % were in New Towns with a high proportion of low income areas. We therefore concluded that the distribution of gambling machines in Great Britain, in line with other international jurisdictions, displays a significant association with areas of socio-economic deprivation. The profile of the resident population living in HDMZs mirrors the profile of those most at-risk of experiencing harm from gambling. This spatial pattern has important implications for assessing the relationship between gambling availability and gambling-related harm, and for the future development of policy, harm-prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:23242474

Wardle, Heather; Keily, Ruth; Astbury, Gaynor; Reith, Gerda

2014-03-01

256

Optimization of timetable supplement from a passenger based socio-economic point of view  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article discusses how to optimize the timetable supplement in timetables. The focus of this article will be on railways, but the principle will in theory apply to all transportation modes within the area of public transportation. When constructing timetables it is important to plan the right amount of timetable supplement. Too little timetable supplement will result in many delays, while too high timetable supplement will result in a (too) high planned travel time which will affect every departure whether or not the train is delayed. At present timetable supplement is chosen based on experience or estimates. Through a mathematical optimization it is possible to find the optimal timetable supplement. A way to do so is by using the passenger delay model in a socio-economic analysis as done by (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010). A case study of an upgrade of Sydbanen between Ringsted and Rødby has been conducted using the passenger delay model and the methods are described in this article. The case study has shownthat the optimum timetable supplement is between 6-9 % depending on the scenario. By optimizing the timetable supplement it is possible to achieve a surplus of 250-500 mio. DKK during the evaluation period compared to the proposed timetable by the Danish Transport Authority (Trafikstyrelsen, 2008). Note however that none of the investigated scenarios are socio-economic viable even though the timetable and timetable supplement is optimized. Note that this paper is regarded as a sequel to the article “The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis” (Thorhauge, 2010). This article is based on the results of (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010).

Thorhauge, Mikkel

257

Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of economic and social effects expected from nanotechnology.

Brignon, Jean-Marc

2011-07-01

258

Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

2013-06-01

259

Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

260

Collapse of Socio-economic Base of Bangladesh by Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Untreated groundwater, often enriched in arsenic-one of the most important pollutants and trace elements of the aquatic system recently regarded as the major threat to drinking water-was and is being extensively used as a source of drinking for the decades in rural and semi-urban areas of the developing countries which results in a high incidence of arsenic with deleterious effects on humans and food chain. In Bangladesh, India, Vietnam and other developed countries, arsenic contamination in groundwater is considered to be the key environmental health problem of the twenty first century. In Bangladesh arsenic was first detected in the district of Chapai Nawabgonj bordering the West-Bengal district of India in 1993; since then higher levels of arsenic (exceeding the WHO standard of 0.01 mg L-1 and Bangladesh standard of 0.05 mg L-1 have been detected in many regions of the country including 61 districts out of 64. It is estimated that of the 140 million inhabitants of Bangladesh more than 100 million are at the risk of arsenic hazard, such arsenic hazards collapses the societal structure and socio-economic backbone of poor people of rural Bangladesh. The study tries to discuss the chronological extent and severity of the biggest global arsenic calamity prevailed in Bangladesh, socio-economic impact of arsenic hazard on the poor people of rural society living more than seventy percent under poverty limit in Bangladesh. Specially due consideration was given on the socio-economic impact on arsenic victims particularly earning male family member, young male, married female and young female going to be married as well as arsenic affected family and their interaction with non-arsenic-victim of the society.

M.A.I. Chowdhury

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Induced abortion in Denmark: effect of socio-economic situation and country of birth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Equal access to health care is considered a key in Scandinavian healthcare policy. However, problematic differences between the socio-economic situation of immigrants and that of native Scandinavians are increasingly challenging this aspect of the Scandinavian welfare model. The present study focuses on how socio-economic characteristics and country of birth are associated with induced abortion. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information among 1351 women requesting abortion and a control group of 1306 women intending birth. RESULTS: The strongest factor associated with the decision to have an abortion was being single (OR 39.1; 23.8-64.2), followed by being aged 19 years or below (OR 29.6; 13.4-65.5), having two children or more (OR 7.05; 5.29-9.39) and being unskilled (OR 2.48; 1.49-4.10), student (OR 2.29; 1.52-3.43) or unemployed (OR 1.65; 1.11-2.46). When evaluating the effect of social exposure on abortion among Danish-born and foreign-born women, the higher rate of abortion among non-Westerners was found to be caused by the composition of non-Westerners more often being unemployed, having a low income and having two or more children rather than the fact that they are coming from a non-Western country. CONCLUSION: Immigrant women comprise a vulnerable group, with a poor socio-economic status. This situation exposes immigrant women to increased risk of induced abortion. In a society with an increasing heterogeneous population, the vulnerable situation of immigrant women has to be addressed, if equal access to health care is to be maintained.

Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine

2008-01-01

262

Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial 'socially' performs in comparison with its alternatives. 'Industrial economics' methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a 'pragmatic regulatory impact analysis', that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines tha but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is 'pragmatic' in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess 'what happens' with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of economic and social effects expected from nanotechnology.

263

Measurement of socio-economic status in families of children with cancer in Guatemala.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prospects for survival of children in low and middle income countries are linked to their families socio-economic status (SES), of which income is only one component. Developing a comprehensive measure of SES is required. Informed by clinical experience, a 15-item instrument was designed in Guatemala to categorize SES by five levels in each item. Almost 75% of families attending the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica were in the lowest three of six categories, providing a framework for stratified financial and nutritional support. The measure of SES offers an opportunity for examining associations with health outcomes throughout Latin America. PMID:24753054

De Pernillo, M; Rivas, S; Fuentes, L; Antillon, F; Barr, R D

2014-11-01

264

Socio - Economic Implications Of Sezs - A Study Of Kakinada Sez In Andhra Pradesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the various policies taken by the governments for the development of the nation obviously affects the people. SEZ policies are for the name of development of the country. This SEZ policy created an economic, political and social impact in rural villages in India as well as in Andhra Pradesh. This paper main objective to anlyze the emergence of SEZs in India as well as Andhra Pradesh, this paper also study the socio economic profile of the Kakinada SEZ and examine the Land ...

Sadu Rajesh

2013-01-01

265

Environmental Database and Geographic Information System for Socio-Economic Planning  

Science.gov (United States)

Geographic information system has helped in taking integrated land resource inventory with other Geo-coded statistics. These environmental database are used in predicting some disaster such as flood, erosion and drought. Also it is used to estimate the wind speed frequency distribution at OSU, Nigeria. A GIS is designed to accept large volume of spatial data derieved from a variety of sources including remote sensing sensor and to effectively Store, Retrieve, Manipulate, Analysed and Display these data according to user defined specification. Planning organisation need vast amount of accurate and timely information on physical Resources and related socio-economic factors to help guide their management and Planning Decision.

Omidiora, O.; Adesina, A. M.; Onaolapo, B. R.

2003-04-01

266

The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost-benefit analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far. The main problem when including passenger delays is to determine the value of time for passenger delays and how to include the delays in a socio-economic analysis. This is due to the fact that passenger delays are not defined unambiguously. In general, delays can occur on different parts of a journey; while the passengers are waiting for the train (waiting time, first waiting time or even hidden waiting time) or while the passenger are sitting in the train (or bus). Furthermore a delay can also be negative, meaning that a passenger will arrive before planned (a so-called negative delay). It is necessary to consider how to define the value of time for the different types of delays as well as how to include these elements in a cost-benefit analysis. This article proposes that a delay is defined solely by the difference between the scheduled and realized arrival time. The recommendations are listed as follows: • The value of time for a delay is defined as done by the Danish Ministry of Transport (Trafikministeriet, 2003) no matter how or when the delay has occurred. The size of the delay is calculated solely by the difference between the planned and realized arrival time. • A negative delay is defined as the value of time of hidden waiting time. A negative delay is calculated as the difference between the planned and realized arrival time and is considered a surplus in the cost benefit analysis • A delay will not be included if the passenger arrives at his or her final destination on time even though the passenger may have experienced a delay (or travelled along a different route than planned) during the journey. Note that this paper is regarded as a prequel to the article “Optimization of timetable supplement from a passenger based socio-economic point of view” (Thorhauge, 2010). This article is based on the results of (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010).

Thorhauge, Mikkel

267

Socio-Economic Patterns and Trends in Rural Development in EU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural areas include most of the EU and nearly half of its population. The specific character of rural areas is determined by their social and cultural identity. Every rural area is unique in terms of its geographical location, its natural resources, history, ethnic composition of the population, religion and traditions, urban network, economic potential. European rural areas are diverse with multiple functions. The paper discusses the basic patterns of development of European rural areas. It outlines the current trends in socio-economic development and the changes that have occurred over the past few decades. Some of the main specific characteristics have been outlined.

Emilia PATARCHANOVA

2012-12-01

268

SOCIO - ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF HIV/AIDS PATIENTS IN KOHIMA DISTRICT OF NAGALAND  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is important to study the socio-economic background of the HIV/AIDS patients to understand and analyze how and why the virus/disease is spreading rapidly in Nagaland, as Nagaland is the 6th highest prevalent state in India, in terms of HIV/AIDs patients, though in recent years the numbers of newly affected HIV victims has fallen. It is essential to know what type/section of the society is mostly affected and also to know and understand the social environment they live in, t...

Ruguono Tepa

2014-01-01

269

Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

270

Patterns of migration and socio-economic change in Lao PDR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the thesis is to investigate patterns and consequences of internal and international migration in Laos during the period 1985-2005 on both a macro-and a micro-level. The thesis focuses on the influences of socio-economic change and government policies on inter-regional and rural-urban migration as well as on crossborder migration from Laos to Thailand. The study also examines the effects of migration and industrial factory work on gender relations during economic transition and con...

Phouxay, Kabmanivanh

2010-01-01

271

Climate Change and Shrimp Farming in Andhra Pradesh, India: Socio-economics and Vulnerability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Approximately 70% of shrimp consumed globally is farmed. India is ranked among the top five shrimp farming countries globally, and occurs mainly in the eastern coastal state of Andhra Pradesh (AP). More than 90% of the farms are less than 2 ha and are farmer owned, operated and managed. The objective of this study was to increase our understanding of climatic and socio-economic factors influencing this sector, through a survey of 300 shrimp farmers in AP in 2009/10. The farming communities...

Udaya Sekhar Nagothu; Muralidhar, M.; Kumaran, M.; Muniyandi, B.; Umesh, N. R.; Krishna Prasad, K. S.; Sena De Silva

2012-01-01

272

Admission to hospital following head injury in England: Incidence and socio-economic associations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Head injury in England is common. Evidence suggests that socio-economic factors may cause variation in incidence, and this variation may affect planning for services to meet the needs of those who have sustained a head injury. Methods Socio-economic data were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics and merged with Hospital Episodes Statistics obtained from the Department of Health. All patients admitted for head injury with ICD-10 codes S00.0–S09.9 during 2001–2 and 2002–3 were included and collated at the level of the extant Health Authorities (HA for 2002, and Primary Care Trust (PCT for 2003. Incidence was determined, and cluster analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to look at patterns and associations. Results 112,718 patients were admitted during 2001–2 giving a hospitalised incidence rate for England of 229 per 100,000. This rate varied across the English HA's ranging from 91–419 per 100,000. The rate remained unchanged for 2002–3 with a similar magnitude of variation across PCT's. Three clusters of HA's were identified from the 2001–2 data; those typical of London, those of the Shire counties, and those of Other Urban authorities. Socio-economic factors were found to account for a high proportion of the variance in incidence for 2001–2. The same pattern emerged for 2002–3 at the PCT level. The use of public transport for travel to work is associated with a decreased incidence and lifestyle indicators, such as the numbers of young unemployed, increase the incidence. Conclusion Head injury incidence in England varies by a factor of 4.6 across HA's and PCT's. Planning head injury related services at the local level thus needs to be based on local incidence figures rather than regional or national estimates. Socio-economic factors are shown to be associated with admission, including travel to work patterns and lifestyle indicators, which suggests that incidence is amenable to policy initiatives at the macro level as well as preventive programmes targeted at key groups.

Tennant Alan

2005-03-01

273

Long term environmental and socio-economic impact of an envisaged hydrogen energy program in Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a program of electrolytic hydrogen generation for Brazil using solar cells is proposed. The generated hydrogen will serve as an energy carrier, and will eventually replace the fossil fuels. Three different scenarios have been considered. The proposed site for hydrogen production is the northeast region of Brazil. The impact of hydrogen utilization to the environment and the socio-economical development of Brazil is also studied. Considering the growing problems resulting from the fossil fuel utilization around the world, the visualized program presented herein predicts several interesting and beneficial results. (author)

274

The socio-economic role of salt in Northern Highland Ethiopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salt is a known cross-cultural item of early trade with documented socio-political consequences. Written records on the Ethiopian salt industry go back at least 2,000 years. This dissertation is an ethnoarchaeological investigation of the socio-economic role of the salt trade in northern Ethiopia. Ethnoarchaeological methods are used to explore all aspects of the salt trade in an attempt to provide a basis to understand the role of salt as an economic item, in socio-cultural developments as w...

Apaak, Clement Abas

2008-01-01

275

Application of Electronic Data Collection in Research of Socio-Economic Importance of Forest Functions  

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Full Text Available The main topic of the project is the application of electronic data collection using the web interface to the research of the socio-economic importance of forest functions. A unique system for data collection, the provision of evidence and processing was designed. The system leads to the simplification of the research, to the possibility of extending the investigation in the field and to the survey of forest visit trends in the long term. The approach will enable the formation of an extended database. The paper describes the steps of the project’s implementation. The e-survey started at the end of September 2010 continues to this time.

J. Pospíšil

2011-03-01

276

Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The western North Pacific (WNP) is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs). However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure ...

Welker, C.; Faust, E.

2013-01-01

277

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF HILL COMMUNITY– A FIELD STUDY ON RISHOP VILLAGE OF DARJEELING DISTRICT.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Socio-economic status of plain and hill area differ to a large degree from each other. Such type of study is very much common for both the areas. Rishop village of Darjeeling is very much interesting from social as well as economic point of view. On one hand tourism is a part of their economic life, on the other hand they are exceptional in West Bengal in terms of language, religion, way of life style etc. All these are due to the especial category of physical, and atmospheric set up

ARIJIT GHOSH; PRIYABRATA MONDAL

2013-01-01

278

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF HILL COMMUNITY– A FIELD STUDY ON RISHOP VILLAGE OF DARJEELING DISTRICT.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Socio-economic status of plain and hill area differ to a large degree from each other. Such type of study is very much common for both the areas. Rishop village of Darjeeling is very much interesting from social as well as economic point of view. On one hand tourism is a part of their economic life, on the other hand they are exceptional in West Bengal in terms of language, religion, way of life style etc. All these are due to the especial category of physical, and atmospheric set up

ARIJIT GHOSH

2013-04-01

279

Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP

Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M

2012-01-01

280

SOCIO- ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF ANGANWADI WORKERS: A CASE STUDY OF RAICHUR DISTRICT  

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Full Text Available The Anganawadi worker and helper are the basic functionaries of the ICDS who run the Anganawadi centre and implement the ICDS scheme in coordination with the functionaries of the health, education, rural development and other departments. Their services also include the health and nutrition of pregnant women, nursing mothers, and adolescent girls. Today in India, about 2 million Anganawadi workers are reaching out to a population of 70 million women, children and sick people, helping them become and stay healthy. The present study focuses on “Socio-Economic Condition of Anganwadi workers, with special reference to Raichur District.

KAMALAAMALAPPA

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Role-Based Panel Discussions to Teach Socio-Economic Consequences of Wastewater Treatment  

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Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is getting more and more complex. From a biotechnological point of view, numerous new treatment techniques have been established in the past two decades to meet the increasing need to remove harmful substances. In addition, wastewater treatment is governed by socio-economic and geopolitical interests. As discussions outside the scientific community often include irrational reasoning, students need to be trained to react to invalid arguments. By use of a role-based panel discussion, this goal could be reached.

Pamela Vrabl

2012-02-01

282

Spatial analysis of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases during summer months in Berlin taking bioclimatic and socio-economic aspects into account  

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Full Text Available International environmental health studies of the past years have discussed the impacts of heat stress on human health. In particular, respiratory morbidity has shown significant heat effects in European cities. Metropolitan areas such as Berlin are characterised by an intra-urban spatial variability in socio-economic and bioclimatic conditions that is assumed to result in spatial differences in respiratory health risks. In essence, the elderly, children and people with chronic diseases suffer most from heat stress. A spatial epidemiological approach was chosen to map elevated risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with respiratory diseases (RD during the summer months (June–September from 2000 to 2009 and to link respiratory health risks to bioclimatic and socio-economic conditions in Berlin. The study aims to detect significant clusters with elevated relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD in due consideration of socio-economic conditions as a covariate for health outcomes. The findings from the purely spatial analysis show significant intra-urban disparities in the relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD. The highest relative risks within significant clusters were basically detected in the north-western and south-eastern city centre based on the study period 2000–2009 and also during the hot months of July and August in 2003 and 2006. The correlation analysis depicted significantly positive relationships between relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD and population density, socio-economic conditions and the annual mean number of days with heat loads on the basis of the period 1971–2000 and the average of the periods 1971–2000 and 2021–2050 at the zip code level in Berlin. To specifically implement health care intervention and prevention strategies into urban planning and to apply a directed practice of telemedicine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, spatial epidemiological analyses are an important approach to identifying heat-vulnerable urban areas.

Scherber, Katharina

2014-04-01

283

Identifying Moderators of the Link Between Parent and Child Anxiety Sensitivity: The Roles of Gender, Positive Parenting, and Corporal Punishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A substantial body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor for the development of anxiety problems and research has now begun to examine the links between parenting, parent anxiety sensitivity and their child's anxiety sensitivity. However, the extant literature has provided mixed findings as to whether parent anxiety sensitivity is associated with child anxiety sensitivity, with some evidence suggesting that other factors may influence the association. Theoretically, specific parenting behaviors may be important to the development of child anxiety sensitivity and also in understanding the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. In this study, 191 families (n?=?255 children and adolescents aged 6-17 and their parents) completed measures of child anxiety sensitivity (CASI) and parenting (APQ-C), and parents completed measures of their own anxiety sensitivity (ASI) and their parenting (APQ-P). Corporal punishment was associated with child anxiety sensitivity and the child's report of their parent's positive parenting behaviors moderated the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. The child's gender was also found to moderate the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity, such that there was a positive association between girls' and their parents anxiety sensitivity and a negative association in boys. The findings advance the understanding of child anxiety sensitivity by establishing a link with corporal punishment and by showing that the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity may depend upon the parenting context and child's gender. PMID:25301177

Graham, Rebecca A; Weems, Carl F

2014-10-10

284

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika [Geography Department, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Prishchepov, Alexander [Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO), Department of Structural Development of Farms and Rural Areas, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambin, Eric F [Earth and Life Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, place L. Pasteur 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Radeloff, Volker C, E-mail: patrick.hostert@geo.hu-berlin.de [Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1598 (United States)

2011-10-15

285

Assessment of knowledge level of dairy farmers in Nagpur district and the co-relation between socio-economic variables with their training needs  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the knowledge level of dairy farmers in Nagpur district and to find the co-relation between the socio-economic variables and the training needs. This study was conducted in 15 villages from 3 talukas of Nagpur district by personally interviewing 225 dairy farmers. Here, majority of the respondents (55.11% had medium level of knowledge followed by the respondents with high level of knowledge (24.00% while some of the respondents (20.89% had low level of knowledge. The study of co-relation between socio-economic variables of the respondents showed that variables like education (0.437, herd size (0.486, annual income (0.445, daily milk production (0.583, daily milk sale (0.486, social participation (0.500 and the knowledge (0.634 were significantly and positively co-related with the training needs. Whereas, variables like age (0.043, family size (0.103 and land holding (0.084 were found to be positively but non-significantly co-related with the training needs while, the caste (-0.093 was found to be negatively and non-significantly co-related with the training needs at 0.05% level of probability. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 199-201

A.P.Patil

2009-10-01

286

Capital Flight to Savings Gap in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Socio-Economic Determinants  

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Full Text Available Capital Flight has long been recognized as a problem for developing nations. Savings gap in some of these nations has widened over the years due to rising Capital Flight. This has limped domestic investment growth, employment creation and poverty alleviation. With these in view, this study seeks to underscore the socio-economic determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Approaching the study, two measures of Capital Flight (hot money method and residual method are modeled against a number of socio-economic factors identified in the literature. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Error Correction Mechanism are employed to sieve out the significant determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Amongst the host, only lagged Capital Flight, fiscal balance and exchange rate are found to be the significant determinants of Capital Flight in the country. The study concludes that unless sound macroeconomic measures are taken to address these factors, Capital Flight will remain high in Nigeria. Domestic investment will remain very low. Poverty levels will remain high, and the quest for economic development will remain elusive. The key out of Nigeria’s colossal savings gap is keeping domestic capital at home. This is achievable using the strategies discussed in the study.

Chukwuma Dim

2014-01-01

287

Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authoritystent with policy making authority

288

Socio-economic indicators influencing the adoption of hybrid Sorghum: The Sekhukhune District perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The study observed the poor use of hybrid sorghum cultivars by subsistence farmers. The project sought to establish which, if any, socio-economic factors influence the adoption of hybrid sorghum cultivars by this sector of the farming community. The focus was on Makhuduthamaga Municipality in Sekhuk [...] hune District of Limpopo Province in South Africa, and was confined to the sorghum belt situated around Lepellane catchments in Schoonoord area. The population of the study consisted of farmers that planted sorghum using either hybrid or non-hybrid sorghum cultivars. Non-probability quota sampling method was used with field interviews through structured questionnaire, to collect quantitative sets of data. The study found that there were socio-economic differences between the hybrid user and non-hybrid users. These factors included farmers' gender, level of literacy, access to extension service, membership to agricultural co-operatives, access to credit and inputs, sorghum output, farm income, access to farm land, and cultural influences.

N. R., Diale.

289

The socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report highlights the socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France. It outlines that France is among the first three world leader on each link of the supply chain, and that the electronuclear sector has therefore a significant role in the French economy: 125.000 direct jobs and 410.000 generated jobs, a direct contribution of 0,71% to the GDP, each link of the supply chain (upstream, building, exploitation and maintenance, downstream) is present in the French economy, the electronuclear sector is part of the economic activity of local communities, the expertise of specialised companies contributes to their competitiveness in other domains, and the sector now invests to prepare its future. The socio-economic impacts of an EPR are analysed in terms of activity during nearly 90 years, with respect to its location, and according to technical and economic criteria. The last part outlines that the weight of this sector in the French economy could significantly increase

290

Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

2010-12-01

291

Cultural Impediments to Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria: Lessons from the Chinese Economy  

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Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe how human environment is an important determinant of socio-economic development. Over the past three decades, Nigeria has been confronted with deep-seated socio-economic crisis evident in high level of poverty, inflation, foreign debt overhang, closure of industries, epileptic power supply, budget deficit, absolute lack of good governance at the grass root, environmental degradation and high unemployment. In the early part of the 21st century, there was high hope among Nigerians that the emergence of democracy and the increasing global capitalist markets feasible in the oil and telecommunication sectors will result in high level of accelerated development. Elsewhere in Asia, globalization and world capitalist market have changed the faces of fundamental problems of underdevelopment. Studies have even confirmed that the successes recorded by China in the global markets confirm that a country’s economy does not grow in vacuum; it exists within the environment and thrives therein. The failure and crises experienced in Nigeria today have been linked with cultural factors such as corruption, leadership failure, lack of entrepreneurial skills, over dependence on western values and culture, insincerity and weak bureaucracies. Using quantitative data and content analysis, the paper concludes that Nigerian government at all levels must rise up to the challenges posed by the problems of underdevelopment in the 21st century.

Adebayo Olufemi Fadeyi

2012-06-01

292

SOCIO - ECONOMIC STATUS OF DALIT WOMEN-A STUDY IN ANDHRA PRADESH  

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Full Text Available The present paper examines issues related to the Dalit women vis-à-vis socio-economic problems of Andhra Pradesh. The disadvantages of caste, class gender and the exclusionary mechanism entrenched hierarchical social relations have had differential outcomes for Dalit women in our society. The constitution of India is enriched with several provisions for schedule castes to safeguard and promote their cultural, social, educational, and economic status in order to bring them in the mainstream of the nation. This paper also explores, who are living outside the mainstream of the society due to their lower social and economic status. The caste-based stratification of the society adversely affected the equality of opportunities to the disadvantage of these groups. It also examined the demerits of caste attached to the present scheduled castes in general and scheduled caste women in particular. The scheduled caste women are disadvantaged by their caste and gender and as such they are subject to exploitation and discrimination by their family members, by their caste people and by forward castes. The female feticide, illiteracy, gender inequality, different types of violence, dowry, child marriage, etc are few of the problems faced by scheduled caste women in present society. Apart from, this paper addresses the socio economic status of the Dalit women in Andhra Pradesh as well as in India.

D. Swarupa Rani

2014-03-01

293

Impact of Household Socio-Economic Factors on Food Security: Case of Adana  

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Full Text Available Food insecurity is the situation where people do not have access to sufficient, stable and safe food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The objective of this study was to determine the status of food security in the Adana metropolitan area by using, for the first time in Turkey, Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSS. Household’s food security levels and socio-economic factors affecting the food security were analyzed using the ordered logistic regression technique. The household food security level surveys in the Adana metropolitan area indicated that hunger was not in a serious condition, however food insecurity was critical. While the rate of food insecurity in households with children was 69%, food insecurity rate of households without children was 39.6%. It was a highly worrisome situation that hunger and food insecurity rates were more frequent in households with children. In this study, it has been found that among the socio-economic variables, the income level was the most decisive variable for food security. The gender of household head, employment status, education level and household count were the other variables affecting food security.

Ozlem Esturk

2014-01-01

294

A Study on Socio-Economic Status of Maid-Servant in Purulia Town  

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Full Text Available Over last few decades, there have been rapid growths in the number of women employee in India and majority of them being engaged in informal sector of the economy where jobs are often low paid and repetitive. An attempt has been made in this study to trace out the socio-economic status of maid-servant as well as the manner in which they lives in the informal sector in Purulia Municipal area of the same district of West Bengal. The study has been carried out through personal interview and observation. Results indicate that most of the maid-servants (78% are satisfied in their profession and most of the respondents (82.35% do not engaged with other work except maid-servant for earning. However, economic compulsion is the main hardship for taking the job as maid-servants. The general educational status of the maid-servants is not satisfactory and wages of the maid-servants are very low. The maid-servants are subject to variety of exploitations starting from low wages to maltreatment and sexual harassment by the employer. In view of this exploitation it is necessary to improve their socio-economic status and working conditions.

SHYAMAL KUMAR BISWAS

2012-12-01

295

Evolutionary quantum game theory in the context of socio-economic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution of socio-economic systems depend on the interdependent decision processes of its underlying system components. The mathematical model to describe the strategic decision of players within a socio-economic game is ''game theory''. ''Quantum game theory'' is a mathematical and conceptual amplification of classical game theory. The space of all conceivable decision paths is extended from the purely rational, measurable space in the Hilbert-space of complex numbers - which is the mathematical space where quantum theory is formulated. By the concept of a potential entanglement of the imaginary quantum strategy parts, it is possible to include cooperate decision path, caused by cultural or moral standards. If this strategy entanglement is large enough, then additional Nash equilibria can occur, previously present dominant strategies could become nonexistent and new evolutionary stable strategies do appear for some game classes. Within this PhD thesis the main results of classical and quantum games are summarized and all of the possible game classes of evolutionary (2 player)-(2 strategy) games are extended to quantum games. It is shown that the quantum extension of classical games with an underlying dilemma-like structure give different results, if the strength of strategic entanglement is above a certain barrier. After the German summary and the introduction paper, five different applications of the theory are discussed within the thesis. (orig.)

296

A socio-economic approach to One Health policy research in southern Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more [...] affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic) which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.

Kim A., Kayunze; Angwara D., Kiwara; Eligius, Lyamuya; Dominic M., Kambarage; Jonathan, Rushton; Richard, Coker; Richard, Kock; Mark M., Rweyemamu.

297

Female Foeticide in Delhi/NCR: Exploring the Socio-Economic and Cultural Dimensions  

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Full Text Available Background: The social and psychological fibres of India are predominantly patriarchal and contributing extensively to the secondary status of women. It is yet to be seen if the difference in attitudes towards the practice of female foeticide varies in different socio-economic strata, and in among the different communities of India. Methodology: The present study is based on a door-to-door survey comprising 100 families, conducted in slum areas of Delhi/NCR. Most of the families living in these areas were immigrants from different states of India with different cultural practices and beliefs. Results: Though the studied participants differed in their cultural perceptions on role and status of women in society, majority of them testified that the practice is more prevalent in the middle and upper class society, and escalating demands of dowry was cited as the main reason behind it. Conclusion: The extent of practice of female foeticide is seen to vary among different socio-economic strata and communities. Taking this diversity into consideration, customized social-awareness campaigns must be organized in accordance with different cultural and socioeconomic circumstances existing in the diverse range of communities in India.

Deb Roumi, Bhatnagar P, Avasthy D

2012-09-01

298

TRADITIONAL HONEY COLLECTING: EMERGING LIVELIHOOD PROBLEMS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC UPLIFT OF MAWALLIS COMMUNITY IN SUNDARBAN  

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Full Text Available The mawallis are the professional honey collectors of the Sundarban Impact Zone. They use indigenous traditional knowledge and technique to collect honey from the forest for a long time. At present, few issues are affecting these lives and livelihoods. One of the key issues is the issue of governance. A large number of mawalli are presently left out of the purview of the forest departmental rule and regulation. I have identified some major problems faced by the mawallis during honey collection period. The main objectives of the study are to identify the causes of livelihood vulnerabilities of the mawallis and to find out possible ways to reduce their vulnerabilities. A total of 60 samples of the mawallis were studied and observed. Form the observation came out major problems like tiger attack, snake and crocodile, forest robbers, corrupt forest officials, unkind BSF officials, money lender, lack of tools and lack of arms to protect themselves etc. They face other difficulties like political grouping, external social and environmental pressures, migration and the encroachment on this culture by modern lifestyles. All these problems have weakened their traditional knowledge and socio-economic background. For the same causes they are unable to hold on to their traditional heritage and are facing a challenge every day for their livelihood. In this circumstance they are on the verge of losing their socio-economic security. The study recommends some points for protection their livelihood.

Dr. Tapan Ray

2013-10-01

299

Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage : results from the World Health Survey  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage was observed within most of the countries, although lower income countries showed greater levels of relative inequalitythan higher income countries. Overall, lowest coverage and highest relative inequality were found in the low-income countries. The findings of this study may inform policies for oral health at global and national levels. To achieve universal coverage in oral healthcare, relevant interventions should reach the poorest population groups.

Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L

2012-01-01

300

Sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Brazil considering land use change, GHG emissions and socio-economic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three sustainability aspects of bioethanol production in Brazil were considered in this paper. Results show that the recent expansion of sugarcane has mostly occurred at the expense of pasturelands and other temporary crops, and that the hypothesis of induced deforestation is not confirmed. Avoided greenhouse gas emissions due to the use of anhydrous ethanol blended with gasoline in Brazil (E25) were estimated as 78%, while this figure would be 70% in case of its use in Europe (E10). Conversely, considering the direct impacts of land use change, the avoided emissions (e.g., ethanol consumed in Europe) would vary from -2.2% (i.e., emissions slightly higher than gasoline) to 164.8% (a remarkable carbon capture effect) depending on the management practices employed previous to land use change and also along sugarcane cropping. In addition, it was shown that where the bulk of sugarcane production takes place, in state of Sao Paulo, positive socio-economic aspects are observed. The general conclusion is that a significant share of ethanol production in Brazil can be considered sustainable, in particular regarding the three aspects assessed. However, as production conditions are extremely heterogeneous, a generalization of results is not possible.

 
 
 
 
301

Socio-economic analysis for the authorisation of chemicals under REACH: A case of very high concern?  

Science.gov (United States)

Under the European chemicals' legislation, REACH, substances that are identified to be of "very high concern" will de facto be removed from the market unless the European Commission grants authorisations permitting specific uses. Companies who apply for an authorisation without demonstrating "adequate control" of the risks have to show by means of a socio-economic analysis (SEA) that positive impacts of use outweigh negative impacts for human health and ecosystems. This paper identifies core challenges where further in-depth guidance is urgently required in order to ensure that a SEA can deliver meaningful results and that it can effectively support decision-making on authorisation. In particular, we emphasise the need (i) to better guide the selection of tools for impact assessment, (ii) to explicitly account for stock pollution effects in impact assessments for persistent and very persistent chemicals, (iii) to define suitable impact indicators for PBT/vPvB chemicals given the lack of reliable information about safe concentration levels, (iv) to guide how impacts can be transformed into values for decision-making, and (v) to provide a well-balanced discussion of discounting of long-term impacts of chemicals. PMID:25220186

Gabbert, Silke; Scheringer, Martin; Ng, Carla A; Stolzenberg, Hans-Christian

2014-11-01

302

IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study examined the impact of socio-economic characteristics on the performance of small-scale enterprises in the study area. It also identified the salient impacts of socio-economic traits on the development and expansion of small-scale enterprises in the country; established the productive prospects of progressive small-scale enterprises in the study area. The study was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria where copies of structured questionnaire were purposively administered on selected respondents. Evidence from the study shows that socio-economic characteristics of small scale entrepreneurs tend to influence the performance and productivity of Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria.Further analysis shows that gender, age and educational qualification had significant influence on the performance of the selected small-scale enterprises in the study area . The paper suggests integrated approach to the development of individual entrepreneurial capacity and promotion of sustainable small-scale enterprises.

Abdul-azeez ibraheem adegoke

2010-03-01

303

Socio-Economic Aspects Influencing Food Consumption Patterns Among Children under Age of Five in Rural Area of Sudan  

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Full Text Available A secondary analysis of data for 150 children under the age of five was carried out in three villages of El Fau rural area of Gadarif state. The community mainly consists of farmers of a semi nomadic nature who own different sizes of herds and agricultural lands; they are the farmers of the Arabic pedigree. The rest of the community is workers from western Sudan, who were brought from their original areas to enhance the nomadic settlement strategy of the Sudanese government in the mid seventies. These worker groups comprise of different tribes namely Tama, Hawsa, Birgid, Masalet and Folany. Farming is the major activity practiced almost by all the community members and the government controls the farming system. The study was carried out to investigate some of the social and economic factors, which have a direct and indirect effect on feeding patterns and nutritional status of children under age of five. Mothers were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire, about the social norms affecting both mother and child’s nutritional and health status, in addition to the feeding habits of the children (including breastfeeding and weaning practices. In addition, information was collected about the socio-economic status of the family. The income of the family was assessed. The results revealed low parental education (76.7% of the mothers and 54.0% of the fathers are illiterate, socioeconomic-demographic factors and poor nutrition of knowledge of mothers as well as and feeding practices led to the prevalence of nutritional aneamia (65.3% of the children with haemoglobin concentration of 50% or below in addition to the prevalence of wasting, where 6% of the children are moderately malnourished and 3.3% of them are severely malnourished. It is recommended that an improvement in societal infrastructure, better maternal education and nutrition are needed to maintain the children’s nutritional status in several rural areas of Sudan.

Muna A. Abdalla

2009-01-01

304

Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (? = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure, wealth status, and child-death experience by mothers. All of these were strong predictors for CEB. It can be concluded that programs should aim to reduce fertility rates by focusing on these identified factors so that fertility as well as infant and maternal mortality and morbidity will be decreased and the overall well-being of the family maintained and enhanced.

Adhikari Ramesh

2010-04-01

305

Socio-economic development with regard to the availability of resources in Benin, West Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

The socio-economic part within the IMPETUS-Project analyses interdependencies between resource availability and socio-economic development in Benin. The results of various research activities of natural and social sciences are integrated in a modelling system, in order to calculate development scenarios of resource utilisation and food security in Benin for the next two decades. Missing data concerning water usage and economic parameters are collected in field surveys, in co-operation with other disciplines and stakeholders on site, investigating the upper Ouémé-catchment in particular. The demand of water is analysed by water frequency observation, household analysis and interviews with experts and shows the effects of changing socio-economic parameters on demand growth. The analysis of water availability investigates the question, how the gap between water demand and water availability, due to demographic, social and natural conditions, may be closed by improved management systems and improved technical equipment. A further field of interest is to measure the influence of land use systems and rain variability on carbon balance and food security. Rain variability associated with inadequate land use systems has become the most important factor for determining food insecurity and emission of (global )greenhouse gases in Benin. Therefore, farmers in Benin need efficient water management systems, otherwise they are obliged to extend their agricultural areas or to migrate towards less occupied regions. The results of the above mentioned research activities are introduced in the modelling system BenIMPACT (Benin Integrated Modelling System for Policy Analysis, Climate and Technology Change). It consists of an agricultural sector model (spatial, synthetic, non-linear), a tool to calculate water balances and a basic data system, which provides data and results in a mapping tool (BenMap). Establishing BenIMPACT as a decision support system in corresponding institutions in Benin is a main objective. Preliminary results indicate, that Benin will face severe problems, mainly due to increasing population, limited availability of fertile soils, and regional and temporal water scarcity. Expanding the research on animal production, detailed data on water balances, and alternative land use systems, as well as coupling different models, will provide concrete information on the management systems and policy measures, that are necessary to prevent an impending economic and ecological crisis in Benin.

Mbarek, R.; Behle, C.; Doevenspeck, M.; Mulindabigwi, V.; Schopp, M.; Singer, U.; Henrichsmeyer, W.; Janssens, M.; Schug, W.

2003-04-01

306

Methods and models of analysis of spatial clusterisation of rates of socio-economic development of regions ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????  

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Full Text Available The article offers a scheme of analysis of spatial clusterisation of the rates of socio-economic development of regions, which includes grouping of regions by the level of development, assessment of regional inclination to migration from cluster to cluster, and forecasting the level of socio-economic development of regions. Methods of cluster analysis, spatial econometrics, discriminant and logit-analysis are used as the instruments of the study. The obtained results could be used when assessing the equilibrium of development of regions and formation of mechanisms of evening-out impacts of external shocks on economic dynamics.? ?????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ???????? ??????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????, ?????? ?????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????, ??????????????? ?????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????. ? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???????????? ?????? ??????????? ???????, ???????????????? ????????????, ???????????????? ? logit-???????. ?????????? ?????????? ????? ???? ???????????? ??? ?????? ?????????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?? ????????????? ????????.

Lukyanchikova Anna S.

2013-02-01

307

SPATIAL DICHOTOMY OF LITERACY IN RELATION WITH SOCIO-ECONOMIC ATTRIBUTE: A CASE STUDY OF HOOGHLY DISTRICT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next. Literacy being a part of education is the key to socio-economic progress as well as human resource development. The present work aimed at assessing the spatial variation in terms of literacy and their related problems among the blocks of Hooghly District. The study reveals that the area with higher socio-economic prospect showing hig...

ALOKANANDA GHOSH

2013-01-01

308

SPATIAL DICHOTOMY OF LITERACY IN RELATION WITH SOCIO-ECONOMIC ATTRIBUTE: A CASE STUDY OF HOOGHLY DISTRICT  

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Full Text Available Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next. Literacy being a part of education is the key to socio-economic progress as well as human resource development. The present work aimed at assessing the spatial variation in terms of literacy and their related problems among the blocks of Hooghly District. The study reveals that the area with higher socio-economic prospect showing higher literacy rate and are ignorant to educational attributes related with selected parameters among various pockets of the district.

ALOKANANDA GHOSH

2013-05-01

309

Socio-economic predictors of stunting in preschool children: a population-based study from Johannesburg and Soweto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Stunting continues to be a child public health concern in many African countries, including South Africa. This study uses data from the Birth to Twenty study, held in Johannesburg, to investigate a range of household-level socio-economic and social support predictors of stunting in child [...] ren aged less than 30 months. DESIGN: Logistical regression models were constructed using a conceptual framework to investigate the association between early life measures of socio-economic status and stunting (

Barbara A, Willey; Noel, Cameron; Shane A, Norris; John M, Pettifor; Paula L, Griffiths.

2009-06-01

310

Socio-economic factors associated with intestinal parasites among children living in Gombak, Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal specimens collected from 456 school children in Gombak, Malaysia, revealed an overall prevalence rate of 62.9%. The most common parasite found was Trichuris trichiura (47.1%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (14.7%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (9.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.9%). Infection rates were high among the Indonesian immigrant workers' children (90%) followed by the Orang Asli (79.5%), Malay (59.4%) and Indians (36.4%). Females (66.3%) had a higher prevalence rate than the males (58.5%). The prevalence of infection was found to be associated with the socio-economic status, water supply, sanitary disposal of feces and family size. Albendazole administered as a single dose (400 mg) was found to be effective against Ascaris (100%) and hookworm (92.3%) but was not effective against Trichuris (39.2%). PMID:8074940

Rajeswari, B; Sinniah, B; Hussein, H

1994-01-01

311

Exploring Socio-Economic Factors Behind Domestic Violence Against Women in Sargodha District  

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Full Text Available Violence against Women has become a global concern because this specific issue affects the life of women adversely. Domestic violence is most persistent form of Violence against Women. It is a severe violation of human rights. Many demographic, economic, psychological factors may be responsible for the domestic violence but social factors contain prime importance in this regard. Pakistani society is facing the trouble of increase in domestic violence because this issue is still under acknowledged and underreported. An exploratory study was conducted to probe the socio-economic factors behind domestic violence. Interview schedule was utilized as a tool to accumulate concerning data. A representative sample of (N=100 was collected through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. 56% of women indicated that they have faced physical violence and a huge majority i.e., 71% has faced psychological violence. The results suggest that women are more prone to bear and face domestic violence due to economic dependence.

Zarqa Azhar

2012-09-01

312

Socio - Economic Implications Of Sezs - A Study Of Kakinada Sez In Andhra Pradesh  

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Full Text Available This paper explores the various policies taken by the governments for the development of the nation obviously affects the people. SEZ policies are for the name of development of the country. This SEZ policy created an economic, political and social impact in rural villages in India as well as in Andhra Pradesh. This paper main objective to anlyze the emergence of SEZs in India as well as Andhra Pradesh, this paper also study the socio economic profile of the Kakinada SEZ and examine the Land acquisition process and problems, R&R policy. The findings of the paper SEZs is creating many hardships in the lives of rural people in Kakinada SEZ in Andhra Pradesh.

Sadu Rajesh

2013-12-01

313

Interdisciplinarity in Socio-economics, mathematical analysis and predictability of complex systems  

CERN Document Server

In this essay, I attempt to provide supporting evidence as well as some balance for the thesis on `Transforming socio-economics with a new epistemology' presented by Hollingworth and Mueller (2008). First, I review a personal highlight of my own scientific path that illustrates the power of interdisciplinarity as well as unity of the mathematical description of natural and social processes. I also argue against the claim that complex systems are in general `not susceptible to mathematical analysis, but must be understood by letting them evolve over time or with simulation analysis'. Moreover, I present evidence of the limits of the claim that scientists working within Science II do not make predictions about the future because it is too complex. I stress the potentials for a third `Quantum Science' and its associated conceptual and philosophical revolutions, and finally point out some limits of the `new' theory of networks.

Sornette, D

2008-01-01

314

Influence of regional investment activity on socio-economic differentiation development level  

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Full Text Available The strategic goal of national competitiveness requires efficient organization of a single economic space within the existing administrative-territorial entities. The influence of the regional investment activity on production output and population living standards is estimated by the analytical group of statistical indicators, the analysis of which confirmed the existence of the direct link between regional investment activity and indicators of living standards differentiation. The gross fixed capital formation is considered as a determinant of regional socio-economic differentiation level, and the most important integral indicator is a balanced financial result, which determines the formation of resources for investment activity. The optimization of the structure of these sources is mainly conditioned by the priorities of the regional investment policy.

Chernova Tatyana Vasilyevna

2012-06-01

315

Socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on patient employment after ten years.  

Science.gov (United States)

Birmingham hip resurfacing is an attractive option for treatment of arthritis in young and active patients. The aim of this study was to assess the socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on their employment and work intensity at ten years. A cohort of 90 consecutive patients with 100 Birmingham hip resurfacing, performed by single surgeon, were reviewed prospectively. The mean age was 51 years at surgery. Prospective review was undertaken from surgery until the tenth post-operative year. Overall, 90% of patients were in the same employment following surgery. Two patients who were employed before surgery were unemployed. Three patients had to decrease their work intensity but were still employed. Three out of five disabled patients regained employment following surgery. Seventy-eight patients were able to continue their employment with no or minimal restriction. Birmingham hip resurfacing allows the majority of patients to continue their same employment at similar intensity ten years following surgery. PMID:21113593

Malek, Ibrahim A; Hashmi, Munawar; Holland, James P

2011-10-01

316

Towards international E-stat for monitoring the socio-economic activities across the globe  

CERN Document Server

We investigate relationship between annual electric power consumption per capita and gross domestic production (GDP) per capita for 131 countries. We found that the relationship can be fitted with a power-law function. We examine the relationship for 47 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we investigate values of annual electric power production reported by four international organizations. We collected the data from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Statistics by International Energy Agency (IEA), OECD Factbook (Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics), and United Nations (UN) Energy Statistics Yearbook. We found that the data structure, values, and unit depend on the organizations. This implies that it is further necessary to establish data standards and an organization to collect, store, and distribute the data on socio-economic systems.

Sato, Aki-Hiro

2012-01-01

317

Socio-economic resources and first-union formation in Finland, cohorts born 1969-81.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social scientists generally agree that better individual economic prospects enhance the probability of marriage for men, whereas there are conflicting views with regard to women. Moreover, it is argued that cohabitation does not require as strong an economic foundation as marriage. The aim of this study, which was based on Finnish register data, was to find out how the socio-economic resources of young adults affect first-union formation, and whether the effects vary by sex or union type. The results show that high education, labour-force participation, and high income seem to promote union formation. The findings are similar for women and men, which is plausible given the comparatively gender-egalitarian societal context. Similar factors encourage entry into both union types, although the union-promoting effects of university-level education and stable employment are stronger in the marriage models, suggesting that long-term prospects are more important when marriage is contemplated. PMID:22239474

Jalovaara, Marika

2012-03-01

318

Influence of socio-economic changes on students' health of Siberian Federal University  

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Full Text Available The results of statistical researches of morbidity of students of university are presented in times of socio-economic reforms from 1990 to 2011. 1775 students took part in an experiment. The tendency of decline of health of young people level is marked. It is set that principal reason of increase of morbidity is an unhealthy way of life of young people and low level of motive activity. The annual medical inspection of all of students, engaged in a physical culture and sport is recommended. The necessity of maintainance is marked for an educational process on a physical culture volume of employments in an amount 408 hours on 1, 2 and 3 courses. An increase of activity of students and efficiency of employments is possibly at the permanent improvement of financial base. It is recommended to organize in student dormitories sporting rooms with the proper equipment.

Temnykh A.S.

2012-11-01

319

Rural Households : Socio-Economic Characteristics, Community Organzing and Adaptation Abilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations of informal organization and community adaptive capacities, and finally, it discusses the issues of vulnerability and adaptation to climatic and environmental change from a household perspective.

Bruun, Ole

2013-01-01

320

Applications Civil Engineering for Socio Economic Amelioration of Below Poverty Line Families  

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Full Text Available the application of Civil Engineering For Socio Economic Amelioration of Below Poverty Line Families In Maharashtra State at Amboli village in Kolhapur district near Pethvadgaon during the period of 2010-2012 with main objective is reducing the poverty and socioeconomic development of community. For this purpose Civil Engineering based income generating activity is given to the people. This paper represents the appropriate use of available natural resources and improving the economical status of the people by using the civil engineering application. It is based renewable or non conventional energy source. For this implementation and training programme of compact mini biogas project is given to the people in this village. It reduce the cost of fuel consumption used in domestic appliances and it will be the income generating source by the installation of compact biogas plant.

Mrs Suvidha Patil,

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Socio Economic Changes Among The Tsunami Affected Families In Tamil Nadu – An Empirical Study  

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Full Text Available This study aims to assess the socio economic changes among the tsunami affected families in Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu. The participants were adult tsunami affected families (141 male and 47 female; N =188 in Palayar village of Sirkali block in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu. A self prepared interview schedule was used for data collection. The mean age of the respondents was 37.6 years. About half of them had studied up to middle school level. The mean score of the education of the family members after tsunami is little higher than the mean score of the education of family members before tsunami. There is no change in the occupation among the selected families after tsunami but there is a statistically significant difference in the average monthly family income of the households and size of the families before and after tsunami.

A. Arun Prakash

2012-10-01

322

Medical and socio-economic aspects of long term therapy of open angle glaucoma  

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Full Text Available Hundred patients of open angle glaucoma (OAG who were on any one of the three drugs pilocarpine, timolol and epinephrine--for an average period of 3.3 years were chosen. Proforma regarding socio-economic status and the patients? reaction to long-term medication were recorded. Though the objective and subjective effects of long term medication were negligible the financial constraints were considerable. More than 70% patient would prefer laser?s and surgery because of the cumbersome schedule and financial burden. The visit to the clinic was a time consuming process suggesting a lack of adequate glaucoma follow-up at the peripheral level. The study reflects a need for reorientation of glaucoma management.

Sood N

1991-01-01

323

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

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Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

D. R. Archer

2010-08-01

324

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

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Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

D. R. Archer

2010-03-01

325

Hydrogen production in early generation fusion power plant and its socio-economic implication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes technical possibility of high temperature blanket for the early generation of fusion power plant and its application to hydrogen production. Its anticipated implication and strategy from the socio-economic aspects will be also discussed. Material and energy balances, such as fuel supply and delivery of product energy from fusion plants, as well as waste discharge and accident scenario that lead to environmental impact, are characterized by blanket concepts. Thus blankets are considered to dominate the feature of fusion energy that should respond to the requirements of the sponsors, i.e., public and future market. Fusion blanket concept based on the combinations of LiPb and SiC materials are regarded as a candidate for ITER/TBM, and at the same time, applied in various DEMO designs encompassing high temperature output. Recent developments of SiC-LiPb blanket in Japan, EU, US or China suggests staged development paths starting from TBMs and targeting high temperature blanket and efficient energy output from early generation plants. These strategies are strongly affected by the views of these parties on fusion energy, from the aspects of socio-economics. Hydrogen production process with the high temperature blanket is one of the most important issues, because temperature range much higher than is possible with current or near future fission plants are needed, suggesting market possibility different from that of fission. Fuel cycles, particularly lithof fission. Fuel cycles, particularly lithium supply and TBR control will be also important. Self-sustained fusion fuel cycle requires technical capability to maintain the lithium contents. Liquid blanket has an advantage in continuous and real-time control TBR in a plant, but large amount of lithium-6 and initial tritium supply remains as issues. As for the environmental effect, normal operation release, assumed accidental scenario, and rad-waste will be the key issue to dominate social acceptance of fusion. (author)

326

Assessing conservation opportunity on private land: socio-economic, behavioral, and spatial dimensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents a method for assessing conservation opportunity on private land based on landholders' socio-economic, behavioral, and farm characteristics. These characteristics include age, gender, education, level of off-farm income, farm size, proportion of remnant native vegetation on-farm, and ecological value of native vegetation on-farm. A sample of landholders who own greater than 2 ha of land in the South Australian Murray-Darling Basin region were sent a mail-based survey about their values and preferences for environmental management (N = 659, 52% response). Cross-tabulations and ANOVA statistical analysis techniques were used to compare the socio-economic attributes across three landholder classes: disengaged, moderately engaged, and highly engaged in native vegetation planting. Results indicate that highly engaged landholders were more likely to be female, formally educated, hobby farmers who managed small parcels of land and have high off-farm incomes, whereas disengaged landholders held significantly stronger farming connections (more farming experience, family have lived on the farm for more generations). Spatial analysis revealed area-specific differences in conservation opportunity and conservation priority. In some areas, properties of high ecological value were managed by highly engaged landholders, but nearby properties of high value were managed by moderately engaged or disengaged landholders. Environmental managers therefore cannot assume areas of high conservation priority will be areas of high conservation opportunity. At the regional scale, the potential for revegetation seems most promising within the moderately engaged landholder group considering the vast amount of land managed by this group in areas of high ecological value, particularly within the less represented Mallee and Coorong and Rangelands sub-regions. We suggest that incentive schemes which purchase conservation need to be targeted at disengaged landholders; mentoring schemes led by commercial farmers highly engaged in native vegetation planting should be directed at moderately engaged landholders, and; awards programs which acknowledge conservation successes should be targeted at highly engaged landholders. PMID:21664035

Raymond, Christopher M; Brown, Gregory

2011-10-01

327

A fuzzy stochastic framework for managing hydro-environmental and socio-economic interactions under uncertainty  

Science.gov (United States)

An amplified interconnectedness between a hydro-environmental and socio-economic system brings about profound challenges of water management decision making. In this contribution, we present a fuzzy stochastic approach to solve a set of decision making problems, which involve hydrologically, environmentally, and socio-economically motivated criteria subjected to uncertainty and ambiguity. The proposed methodological framework combines objective and subjective criteria in a decision making procedure for obtaining an acceptable ranking in water resources management alternatives under different type of uncertainty (subjective/objective) and heterogeneous information (quantitative/qualitative) simultaneously. The first step of the proposed approach involves evaluating the performance of alternatives with respect to different types of criteria. The ratings of alternatives with respect to objective and subjective criteria are evaluated by simulation-based optimization and fuzzy linguistic quantifiers, respectively. Subjective and objective uncertainties related to the input information are handled through linking fuzziness and randomness together. Fuzzy decision making helps entail the linguistic uncertainty and a Monte Carlo simulation process is used to map stochastic uncertainty. With this framework, the overall performance of each alternative is calculated using an Order Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator accounting for decision makers' experience and opinions. Finally, ranking is achieved by conducting pair-wise comparison of management alternatives. This has been done on the basis of the risk defined by the probability of obtaining an acceptable ranking and mean difference in total performance for the pair of management alternatives. The proposed methodology is tested in a real-world hydrosystem, to find effective and robust intervention strategies for the management of a coastal aquifer system affected by saltwater intrusion due to excessive groundwater extraction for irrigated agriculture and municipal use. The results show that the approach gives useful support for robust decision-making and is sensitive to the decision makers' degree of optimism.

Subagadis, Yohannes Hagos; Schütze, Niels; Grundmann, Jens

2014-05-01

328

Migrant mortality from diabetes mellitus across Europe : the importance of socio-economic change  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR) is more affluent than the country of birth (COB). We obtained mortality data from 7 European countries. To assess migrant diabetes mortality, we used direct standardization and Poisson regression. First, migrant mortality was estimated for each country separately. Then, we merged the data from all mortality registers. Subsequently, to examine the second hypothesis, we introduced gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of COB in the models, as an indicator of socio-economic circumstances. The overall pattern shows higher diabetes mortality in migrant populations compared to local-born populations. Mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were highest in migrants originating from either the Caribbean or South Asia. MRRs for the migrant population as a whole were 1.9 (95% CI 1.8-2.0) and 2.2 (95% CI 2.1-2.3) for men and women respectively. We furthermore found a consistently inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality. Most migrant groups have higher diabetes mortality rates than the local-born populations. Mortality rates are particularly high in migrants from North Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia or low-GDP countries. The inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality suggests that socio-economic change may be one of the key aetiological factors.

Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick

2012-01-01

329

Predisposed to participate? The influence of family socio-economic background on children's sports participation and daily amount of physical activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

From a Bourdieu-inspired understanding of how personal resources (‘capitals’) enable certain practices in certain contexts, the links between families’ cultural, social and economic capitals, and children’s daily physical activity were investigated in 500 suburban Danish schoolchildren using questionnaire data and accelerometer measures. Family socio-economic position (SEP) was found to be positively associated with children’s participation in organized sport, which could be explained by differences in family capitals. By contrast, this study found no relationship between families’ SEP and the amounts of general physical activity in children. This reflected the tendencies for club-organized sport to contribute a relatively small amount to the overall amount of physical activity in children, and for children of low SEP to be equally active in other settings such as school-breaks, day care and neighbourhood playgrounds.

Nielsen, Glen; GrØnfeldt, Vivian

2012-01-01

330

Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

Gotsadze George

2007-08-01

331

Prácticas educativas y creencias de profesores de secundaria pertenecientes a escuelas de diferentes contextos socioeconómicos / Educational practices and beliefs of secondary education teachers who belong to schools with different socio-economic contexts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se analizan las diferencias en las prácticas educativas de profesores de secundaria que trabajan en escuelas que se sitúan en distintos contextos socioeconómicos y se identifican sus creencias sobre el aprendizaje y la influencia que ejerce el nivel socioeconómico bajo en este proce [...] so. Para la obtención de los datos se realizaron observaciones de las clases y se aplicó una entrevista a los profesores. Los resultados indican diferencias en algunos aspectos de las prácticas educativas, según el contexto socioeconómico de las escuelas: los profesores que enseñan a alumnos de niveles socioeconómicos bajos dedicaron menos tiempo de sus clases a actividades de reestructuración de conocimientos y habilidades, expresaron en menos ocasiones una valoración positiva del trabajo académico de sus alumnos y en sus grupos se observó una frecuencia menor de estructuras comunicativas simétricas. La mayoría de los maestros sostuvo la idea de que las condiciones que entraña la pobreza influyen en la presencia de problemas de aprendizaje. Abstract in english This article deals with the differences in the educational practices of secondary education teachers who work in schools that are located in different socio-economic contexts and identifies their beliefs about learning and the influence that the lower socio-economic level has on this process. The da [...] ta gathering was made by means of classrooms observations and an interview to the teachers. The results show that there are differences in some aspects of the educational practice according to the socio-economic contexts in which the schools are inscribed: the teachers who teach to students who belong to lower socio-economic contexts spent less time to knowledge and ability restructuring, expressed less frequently a positive appraisal of their students' academic work and within their classrooms a lower frequency of symmetric communicational structures could be observed. Most of the teachers believe that the conditions created by poverty have an impact on learning problems.

María Teresa, Fernández Nistal; Ana María, Tuset Bertran; Ricardo Ernesto, Pérez Ibarra; Claudia, García Hernández.

332

Limitation of socio-economic rights in the 2010 Kenyan Constitution: a proposal for the adoption of a proportionality approach in the judicial adjudication of socio-economic rights disputes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english On 27 August 2010 Kenya adopted a transformative Constitution with the objective of fighting poverty and inequality as well as improving the standards of living of all people in Kenya. One of the mechanisms in the 2010 Constitution aimed at achieving this egalitarian transformation is the entrenchme [...] nt of justiciable socio-economic rights (SERs), an integral part of the Bill of Rights. The entrenched SERs require the State to put in place a legislative, policy and programmatic framework to enhance the realisation of its constitutional obligations to respect, protect and fulfill these rights for all Kenyans. These SER obligations, just like any other fundamental human rights obligations, are, however, not absolute and are subject to legitimate limitation by the State. Two approaches have been used in international and comparative national law jurisprudence to limit SERs: the proportionality approach, using a general limitation clause that has found application in international and regional jurisprudence on the one hand; and the reasonableness approach, using internal limitations contained in the standard of progressive realisation, an approach that has found application in the SER jurisprudence of the South African Courts, on the other hand. This article proposes that if the entrenched SERs are to achieve their transformative objectives, Kenyan courts must adopt a proportionality approach in the judicial adjudication of SER disputes. This proposal is based on the reasoning that for the entrenched SERs to have a substantive positive impact on the lives of the Kenyan people, any measure by the government aimed at their limitation must be subjected to strict scrutiny by the courts, a form of scrutiny that can be achieved

NW, Orago.

2013-05-01

333

An AHP decision making model for optimal allocation of energy subsidy among socio-economic subsectors in Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) decision model for sectoral allocation of energy subsidy based on several criteria. With determination of priorities for these criteria through questionnaire and AHP method, the overall rank of these criteria that have the most influence on distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic sub-sectors, are as the following: inflation, economic growth, labor intensity, distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic levels, energy intensity and social cost of air pollution. According to the model, the first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector and the last priority is related to transportation sector. Investigating the impact of changing priority of the criteria on overall results indicates that the socio-economic sub sectors’ ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria. - Highlights: ? Commerce subsector is the best sub sector with an overall priority score of 0.331. ? The first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector. ? When we increase the priority of each criterion first time, then overall rank of the outcome has little changing. ? The socio-economic sub sectors' ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria.

334

SYNTHESIS OF INFORMATION ON EXPERIENCES WITH SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN DECISION-MAKING IN AREAS OTHER THAN BIOSAFETY  

OF INFORMATION ON EXPERIENCES WITH SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN DECISION-MAKING IN AREAS OTHER THAN BIOSAFETY ...COMMITTEE FOR THE NAGOYA PROTOCOL ON ACCESS TO GENETIC RESOURCES AND THE FAIR AND EQUITABLE SHARING ...Article 10 of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing

335

Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: {yields} Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. {yields} Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. {yields} Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.{yields} Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.{yields} Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

Santos, Mario, E-mail: mgsantoss@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Freitas, Raul, E-mail: raulfreitas@portugalmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Crespi, Antonio L., E-mail: aluis.crespi@gmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Hughes, Samantha Jane, E-mail: shughes@utad.pt [Department of Forest and Landscape, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Cabral, Joao Alexandre, E-mail: jcabral@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal)

2011-10-15

336

The Effect of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and School Location on Students Performance in Nigerian Integrated Science  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…

Okoye, N. S.

2009-01-01

337

School Neighbourhood Socio-Economic Status and Teachers' Work Commitment in Finland: Longitudinal Survey with Register Linkage  

Science.gov (United States)

The extent to which school neighbourhood affects teachers' work commitment is poorly known. In the current study, we investigated whether school neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics predicted teachers' organizational and professional commitment. Primary school teachers (n?=?1042) responded to surveys in 2000-2001 (baseline) and…

Linnansaari-Rajalin, Terhi; Kivimäki, Mika; Ervasti, Jenni; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

2015-01-01

338

Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: ? Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. ? Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. ? Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.? Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.? Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

339

Solar power and the possibility of socio-economic development in the remote and mountainous areas of Uzbekistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of socio-economic development in remote and mountainous areas of Uzbekistan in the context of using solar energy on the grounds of the past experience of different countries is discussed in this article. The obstacles to using solar energy in remote areas and the approaches to overcoming them are described. (authors)

340

Desk-study on the impact Chinese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has in Angola’s socio-economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses on the impact Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from China has on Angola’s socio-economic development, and whether this development is long-term sustainable. Based on the United Nations’ definition of Sustainable Development, the indicators used to scrutinise the impact of FDI are: GDP, infrastructure development, corruption, unemployment, poverty and inequality rates, among others

Vargas Murgui, Monica

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Analysing the Types of TV Programmes Viewed by Children from Different Socio-Economic Strata Based on Their Self-Report in the Turkish Context  

Science.gov (United States)

This research investigated the amount of time that children from different socio-economic strata spend watching television per week and whether there was a difference among children from low, middle and upper socio-economic strata with regard to viewing programme types, including action adventure, news and information, competitions, sports,…

Kabadayi, Abdulkadir

2006-01-01

342

Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland  

Science.gov (United States)

The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use them to implement soil moisture and evaporation data for the near-future in the region Sierre-Montana. REFERENCES Niklaus M. 2012. An Object-oriented Approach for Mapping Current Land Use/Land Cover in the Study Area Crans-Montana-Sierre, Valais. MSc, Geography Institute, University of Bern Dolman A.J., Verhagen A. & Rovers C.A. 2003. Global environmental change and land use. Kluwer Academic Publisher. Dordrecht. Schneider F. & Rist S. 2013. Envisioning sustainable water futures in a transdisciplinary learning process: combining normative, explorative, and participatory scenario approaches. Sustainability Science, in press. Georges D. & Thuiller W. 2012. An example of species distribution modelling with biomod2. biomod2 version : 2.0.17

Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

2014-05-01

343

Identification of integral indicators of socio-economic development of regions on the basis of expert assessment and principal-component method ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????  

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Full Text Available The article studies procedures of identification of integral indicators of socio-economic development of regions, which are based on automation of methods of expert assessment and principal-component method. It offers the mechanism of intellectual analysis of data of socio-economic monitoring on the basis of expert-statistical assessment. It provides a mechanism of automation of expert assessment of weight factor ratios, which takes into account competence of experts. It conducts a programme realisation of the procedure of identification of integral indicators of socio-economic development on the basis of expert assessment and principal-component method. This programme technology allows consideration of differentiation in socio-economic development of regions in the mechanisms of identification of integral indicators. The article shows an example of application of the proposed mechanism of intellectual processing of data for calculation of integral indicators of socio-economic development of the Vinnytsia oblast districts.? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????, ??????? ?????????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????. ???????????? ???????? ????????????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ?????????-??????????????? ??????????. ??????????? ???????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????. ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ?????????. ?????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????? ?????????????? ? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ????????. ??????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ???????????????? ????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ???????.

Moroz Irina O.

2013-02-01

344

A school based study of time trends in food habits and their relation to socio-economic status among Norwegian adolescents, 2001¿2009.  

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BackgroundIn recent years, adolescents¿ food habits have become a major source of concern, and substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to influence adolescents to consume more fruit and vegetables and less sweets and soft drink. Particular attention has been devoted to the social gradient in food habits, aiming to reduce dietary inequality. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated trends in teenagers¿ food habits, or investigated how dietary inequalities develop.MethodsWe used Norwegian cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001, 2005 and 2009. Food habits were identified by students¿ consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar rich soft drink. Socio-economic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data.ResultsThe analyses indicated an overall positive trend in food habits among adolescents in Norway. Students were more likely to consume fruit (OR 1.76, CI 1.61-1.92) and vegetables (OR 1.51, CI 1.37-1.66) daily in 2005 as compared to 2001, and were less likely to consume sweets (OR 0.58, CI 0.51-0.66 resp. OR 0.77, CI 0.67-0.90) and soft drink (OR 0.55, CI 0.49-0.62 resp. OR 0.84, CI 0.73-0.96) daily when comparing, respectively, 2005 with 2001 and 2009 with 2005. Across all survey years, students with higher SES were more likely to eat fruit (OR 1.47, CI 1.32-1.65) and vegetables (OR 1.40, CI 1.24-1.58) daily than did students with lower SES. Our analyses indicated that the socio-economic differences were stable in the period 2002 - 2010, with uniform improvement in fruit and vegetable consumption across all SES levels. No significant associations between SES and intake of sweets and sugar-added soft drink were found.ConclusionThe study identifies an overall improvement in diet among adolescents over a period characterized by onset of as well as ongoing initiatives targeting young people¿s food habits. However, the observed socio-economic gradient in fruit and vegetable consumption remained unchanged. PMID:25252935

Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

2014-09-25

345

Socio-economic dietary inequalities in UK adults: an updated picture of key food groups and nutrients from national surveillance data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-economic differences in diet are a potential contributor to health inequalities. The present study provides an up-to-date picture of socio-economic differences in diet in the UK, focusing on the consumption of three food groups and two nutrients of public health concern: fruit and vegetables; red and processed meat; oily fish; saturated fats; non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES). We analysed data for 1491 adults (age  ? 19 years) from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-2011. Socio-economic indicators were household income, occupational social class and highest educational qualification. Covariate-adjusted estimates for intakes of fruit and vegetables, red and processed meat, and both nutrients were estimated using general linear models. Covariate-adjusted OR for oily fish consumption were derived with logistic regression models. We observed consistent socio-economic gradients in the consumption of the three food groups as estimated by all the three indicators. Contrasting highest and lowest levels of each socio-economic indicator, we observed significant differences in intakes for the three food groups and NMES. Depending on the socio-economic indicator, highest socio-economic groups consumed up to 128 g/d more fruit and vegetables, 26 g/d less red and processed meat, and 2·6 % points less NMES (P< 0·05 for all). Relative to lowest socio-economic groups, highest socio-economic groups were 2·4 to 4·0 times more likely to eat oily fish. No significant patterns in saturated fat consumption were apparent. In conclusion, socio-economic differences were identified in the consumption of food groups and one nutrient of public health importance. Aligning dietary intakes with public health guidance may require interventions specifically designed to reduce health inequalities. PMID:25399952

Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo

2014-11-17

346

Sellafield's Role in the Socio-Economic Development of West Cumbria - 12459  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It would be hard to imagine what West Cumbria, a remote area in the North West of England, would look like without the huge Sellafield nuclear complex. The site is owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) and managed by Nuclear Management Partners (NMP), an international private partnership consisting of URS from the United States of America, AMEC from the UK and AREVA from France. Today some 10,000 people work at Sellafield with many more employed through the site's supply chain, a large percentage of which is located directly in West Cumbria. The Government, through the NDA, has committed around pounds 1.5 billion a year for the next three years as we at NMP bring our vast global expertise and experience to deliver substantial improvements to the clean-up mission there. Of this total budget, more than Pounds 800 million a year is spent in that supply chain and around 30 percent of that goes directly to firms in West Cumbria. But the dependency on the nuclear industry is immense and, with the site now entering an extensive decommissioning programme, the threats to jobs, and therefore the local economy, is severe. While Sellafield provides wealth, there are areas of deep deprivation and worklessness. Consequently, Sellafield Ltd, NMP and NDA have partnered with the local community leaders and politicians to form Britain's Energy Coast, a strategic regeneration body driving economic improvements and projects to deliver a vibrant economy for West Cumbria, long into the future. While the threats to our economy are real, the opportunities are potentially transformational. The UK is on the brink of a nuclear renaissance and, if we are successful through the Energy Coast programme, West Cumbria will become the hub, not only of the nuclear industry, but also of green energy production in the UK, with obvious benefits to our local economy. But to achieve this, Sellafield and its new owners are having to change the opportunistic ways of the past to provide a new strategic mode of socio-economic contribution to deliver a sustainable future for the local community. The results so far have been impressive, with over pounds 56 m being committed to socio-economic projects, but the long term aim is to achieve pounds 116 m investment through public/ private partnership. Sellafield is fundamental to this goal. (authors)

347

Virtual land use and agricultural trade. Estimating environmental and socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liberalization has caused an increase in the global trade of goods and services. In particular, the value and physical volume of agricultural goods traded have largely increased. As the environmental and social consequences of trade are complex, they are rarely included in the national and international agricultural policies. One reason is that there is a lack of concepts and methods for assessing the environmental and social impacts of trade policies. In this paper we develop a method for quantifying and assessing the land use hidden in the export and import of agricultural goods for the case of Switzerland. For our analysis we focus on arable crops. The first methodological step of our research illustrates the spatial relationship of Switzerland with countries all over the world through the import and export of land use for arable crops. The second step links this spatial dimension with a qualitative assessment of the environmental and socio-economic impacts of agricultural land use. We applied the method to the case of wheat cultivation within Switzerland and import to Switzerland. The major problem we were confronted with was the availability of data, which had both to be reliable and available for the countries wheat is imported from. The results show that the calculation of land use is credible. In spite of the problems related with data availability, the assessment results for each indicator are in agreement with the current situation in the respective countrierrent situation in the respective countries. In addition, the aggregation seems to accurately reflect the countries' agricultural polices. The developed method is used to estimate the overall environmental and socio-economic impacts of an increase in wheat imports to Switzerland. We argue that this method could be applied for anticipating potential impacts of trade agreements. Still, further research is required for fine-tuning of the utility functions, including a weighting procedure in the aggregation procedure. For practical applications important aspects like water shortage should enlarge our limited set of indicators. In addition the average impact on a country level was assessed. To refine that, different agricultural systems ranging from intensive to extensive to organic should be considered. Beyond our scope was to analyze impacts due to other life cycle stages than the agricultural production. For informed decision, however, information on the whole life cycle of agricultural products is required. (author)

348

A socio-economic impact assessment of a project to identify and implement best management practices at the Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme at farm level  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Best Management Practices (BMP) project on social and economic wellbeing at the Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme (ZIS) in central Eastern Cape Province. The BMP project is a knowledge-based initiative aimed at introducing management practices in o [...] rder to improve production and livelihoods in the study area. The study employed a survey to collect socio-economic data amongst farming households. The 2005 (pre-BMP project) baseline study based on the same respondents allowed for the tracking of changes after the implementation of the project. A socio-economic impact assessment (SEIA) framework was used to assess the impacts. The results showed the BMP project to have impacted on social and economic wellbeing of households. Skills introduced were in the areas of water management, agronomic practices, marketing and institutional arrangements. In 2007 more than half of farmers worked on their farms daily, an improvement on 2005, when none of the farmers reported working over weekends. The average time spent on the farms per day also increased from 4 (in 2005) to 7 h (in 2007). Agriculture's contribution to household income improved from 71% in 2005 to 81% in 2007 and reduced household poverty and food insecurity levels. The number of households earning incomes below the poverty line dropped from 61°% in 2005 to 38% in 2007. A marked increase was noted in winter land use, which was almost non-existent in 2005. The on-farm trials introduced by the BMP team improved the farmers': maize planting time, plant population density, fertiliser management, crop yield and participation in community activities. Seedling transplanting was preferred to direct maize seeding. Positive impacts on institutions were seen in the restructuring of the management system; improved marketing systems; institutional arrangements for managing water; and institutions for maintaining irrigation infrastructure.

MC, Tshuma; N, Monde.

349

Socio-economic inequity in demand for insecticide-treated nets, in-door residual house spraying, larviciding and fogging in Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimally prioritize and use public and private budgets for equitable malaria vector control, there is a need to determine the level and determinants of consumer demand for different vector control tools. Objectives To determine the demand from people of different socio-economic groups for indoor residual house-spraying (IRHS, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, larviciding with chemicals (LWC, and space spraying/fogging (SS and the disease control implications of the result. Methods Ratings and levels of willingness-to-pay (WTP for the vector control tools were determined using a random cross-sectional sample of 720 householdes drawn from two states. WTP was elicited using the bidding game. An asset-based socio-economic status (SES index was used to explore whether WTP was related to SES of the respondents. Results IRHS received the highest proportion of highest preferred rating (41.0% followed by ITNs (23.1%. However, ITNs had the highest mean WTP followed by IRHS, while LWC had the least. The regression analysis showed that SES was positively and statistically significantly related to WTP across the four vector control tools and that the respondents' rating of IRHS and ITNs significantly explained their levels of WTP for the two tools. Conclusion People were willing to pay for all the vector-control tools, but the demand for the vector control tools was related to the SES of the respondents. Hence, it is vital that there are public policies and financing mechanisms to ensure equitable provision and utilisation of vector control tools, as well as protecting the poor from cost-sharing arrangements.

Mustafa Sara

2005-12-01

350

Effects of Socio-economic and Demographic Variables on Meat Consumption in Vietnam  

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Full Text Available This study relates social-demographic characteristics of Vietnamese households to their consumption of meat. Pork and poultry constitute the majority of meat consumed in Vietnamese households. Hence, pork and poultry consumption have great influence on the total amount of meat consumed. Increasing pork and poultry consumption has strongly contributed to the total meat consumption growth. Tobit models are estimated drawing on the latest Vietnamese Household Living Standard Survey in 2010. The analysis of demand for pork and poultry in Vietnamese households demonstrates that meat demand in Vietnam is significantly affected by socio-economic and demographic factors of households. Understanding meat consumption patterns will help the Vietnamese government to implement policies to ensure food security. The policies may affect food redistribution between rural and urban areas, ethnic groups, the poor and the rich. In addition, food firms who wish to invest in the food market in Vietnam have to understand meat consumption patterns and meat demand to develop suitable business strategies and thereby contribute to increasing food security. This opens possibilities for domestic meat supply chains like feed producers and other livestock input suppliers, agricultural producers, processors, traders and the retail sector to take advantage of this dynamic markets sector.

Effects of Socio-economic and Demographic Variables on Meat Consumption in Vietnam

2014-01-01

351

The socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polish cities after 1989  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polishcities after 1989. The Polish changes reached the structures of the three basic subsystems ofthe state: political (power, social (society, and economic (the economy. The systemictransformation that has taken place in Poland after 1989 is most readily visible in towns,although it was introduced in the country as a whole. For the development and transformationof towns, the most important were the introduction of local government structures andthe market model of the economy. The restitution of local government has ensured townsan authentic manager authorised to perform his function by the local community. The introductionof the market model to the economy has resulted in its privatisation and the appearanceof enterprise and competition. Towns, especially the biggest cities, have becomeattractive locations for investment. Cities with a balanced economic structure and well-developedinfrastructure had much better chances for growth to start with. Unfortunately, thetransformation period has also had some detrimental effects, the most important being unemploymentand all kinds of social deviance. However, Polish cities are certainly differenttoday and resemble Western cities to a greater extent than did the so-called socialist townsbuilt along theoretically beautiful but practically ineffectual ideological lines.

Jerzy J. Parysek

2004-01-01

352

Socio-Economic Welfare Policies For The Rehabilitation Of Devadasis In Belgaum District  

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Full Text Available Devadasi practice is an ancient practice which offers girls to the deities in Hindu temples. The girls should not marry and hence become prey for social evils such as forced prostitution. Realizing the disadvantages of Devadasi practice, the Government of Karnataka passed legislation the Karnataka Devadasi Act in 1982 to prohibit Devadasi practice. Still due to social beliefs, the practice still prevailed in Karnataka, especially in the temples of Renuka Yellamma Temples of Saundatti and Chandragutti. The Government of Karnataka also formulated rehabilitation and welfare schemes for the overall socio-economic development of Devadasis. The present study is a survey of 400 devadasis in Saundatti taluka of Belgaum district and the information was collected from interview schedule. It is suggested from the study that there is need for more social welfare and rehabilitation schemes for devadasis and there is also need to increase awareness of the Devadasis on the rehabilitation and social welfare schemes, so as to get the benefits from the same.

Deveraj. A

2012-10-01

353

Alternative futures for societal change: The Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs) (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Deciding how best to respond to the challenge of climate change requires anticipating not only how climate might change in the future, but how society might change as well. Changes in population and economic growth, innovation, technological development, governance, culture, and lifestyle all will affect the energy use and land use that drive climate change, as well as society's capacity to reduce emissions or adapt to climate change impacts. Developing a set of alternative scenarios for societal development is one way to capture and explore the uncertainty in future conditions. The climate change research community has produced a new set of five such scenarios, called Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs), that is intended to underpin scientific studies, assessments, and policy dialogues for the next decade or more. The SSPs include both qualitative narratives and quantitative projections of key elements such as population, economic growth, urbanization, and educational attainment. They are designed to span a wide range of future conditions in terms of the challenges they present to both adaptation and mitigation. The SSPs are one component of a larger scenario framework which also includes a set of radiative forcing pathways and climate model simulations based on them. Alternative climate futures will be integrated with the alternative societal futures represented by the SSPs to investigate climate change impacts as well as mitigation and adaptation response options.

O'Neill, B. C.

2013-12-01

354

Are good ideas enough?: The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors [...] on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.

Núria, Vàzquez-Salat.

355

A path model of smoking cessation in women smokers of low socio-economic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goals of this study were to (i) determine how factors commonly implicated in smoking cessation processes influenced smoking cessation in low socio-economic status (SES) women and (ii) elucidate the pathways through which these factors may lead to quitting smoking. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from 644 women smokers aged 18-45 years who had participated in an earlier experimental evaluation of a smoking cessation program, were still smokers at the 2-month post-intervention survey and completed an interview 6 months later. Path analysis (LISREL 8) was used to test a conceptual model in which (i) factors considered as precursors to quitting (motivation, self-efficacy, confidence, action and intention to quit) directly predicted subsequent quitting and (ii) health concerns, social pressure to quit and daily stress influenced quitting indirectly through their effects on the precursor factors and (iii) mediated the effects of background characteristics (race, education, single motherhood, pregnancy and exposure to the earlier smoking cessation intervention) on quitting. Overall, results supported this conceptual model and its applicability to low-SES women smokers and indicated significant pathways among specific factors. In particular, (i) only plans to quit, confidence and social pressure to quit directly predicted quitting; (ii) both health concerns and social pressure increased motivation to quit and (iii) the negative effect of daily stress on quitting was mediated through decreased self-efficacy. PMID:17182971

Manfredi, Clara; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen S; Dolecek, Therese A

2007-10-01

356

Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area  

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Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

Subhash Singh Parihar

2014-03-01

357

Development of geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast: socio-economic, demographic, and political considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The institutional aspect of the study attempts to identify possible effects of geothermal research, development, and utilization on the area and its inhabitants in three chapters. Chapters I and II address key socio-economic and demographic variables. The initial chapter provides an overview of the area where the resource is located. Major data are presented that can be used to establish a baseline description of the region for comparison over time and to delineate crucial area for future study with regard to geothermal development. The chapter highlights some of the variables that reflect the cultural nature of the Gulf Coast, its social characteristics, labor force, and service in an attempt to delineate possible problems with and barriers to the development of geothermal energy in the region. The following chapter focuses on the local impacts of geothermal wells and power-generating facilities using data on such variables as size and nature of construction and operating crews. Data are summarized for the areas studied. A flow chart is utilized to describe research that is needed in order to exploit the resource as quickly and effectively as possible. Areas of interface among various parts of the research that will include exchange of data between the social-cultural group and the institutional, legal, environmental, and resource utilization groups are identified. (MCW)

Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Williamson, J.K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

1976-01-01

358

Socio-economic impacts of energy crops for heat generation in Northern Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioenergy is considered to be an attractive option mainly due to driving forces of an environmental nature (e.g. climate change and sustainability issues). This is particularly the case for energy crops, which show higher productivity per land unit than their conventional counterparts. In addition, by comparison, such crops are more homogeneous in terms of their physical and chemical characteristics than residual resources that are often described as the biomass resource of the future. However, despite the long-term research and the considerable efforts to promote them, implementation is still rather slow across Europe. In this paper, two perennial energy crops, cardoon and giant reed, are evaluated in Rodopi, northern Greece, as alternative land use, through comparative financial appraisal with the main conventional crops. Based on the output of this analysis, the breakeven for the two energy crops is defined and an economic and socio-economic evaluation of a biomass district heating system is conducted. Results prove that energy crops can be attractive alternatives if they are properly integrated into existing agricultural activities and complement the current cropping options. As such, they provide raw material for local heat applications, thus resulting in increased income for the region and an increase in the number of jobs. (author)

359

Crises and collective socio-economic phenomena: cartoon models and challenges  

CERN Document Server

Financial and economic history is strewn with bubbles and crashes, booms and busts, crises and upheavals of all sorts. Understanding the origin of these events is arguably one of the most important problems in economic theory. In this paper, we review recent efforts to include heterogeneities and interactions in models of decision. We argue that the Random Field Ising model (RFIM) indeed provides a unifying framework to account for many collective socio-economic phenomena that lead to sudden ruptures and crises. We discuss different models that can capture potentially destabilising self-referential feedback loops, induced either by herding, i.e. reference to the peers, or trending, i.e. reference to the past, and account for some of the phenomenology missing in the standard models. We discuss some empirically testable predictions of these models, for example robust signatures of RFIM-like herding effects, or the logarithmic decay of spatial correlations of voting patterns. One of the most striking result, ins...

Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

2012-01-01

360

THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OFWOMEN WORKFORCE IN PRIVATE FINANCIAL SERVICES INDUSTRY IN MAJOR CITIES OF ASSAM  

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Full Text Available Under the process of liberalization and globalization, there are extreme and sensational change in the traditional socio-economic institutions and the people in multiple ways. These processes have well marked changes in all urban and rural areas of India, especially in cities. It enhances several kinds of organized private concern or financial services industry notably private insurance sector, private banking sector etc. These private concerns employ a large chunk of women population. The scenario of Assam is no different than the picture of India. This paper focused on how these rising private financial services industry raised hopes for women for a better and elevated status arising out of increased chances to work, but at the same time it has put them in a highly contradictory situation- where they have the label of economically independent paid workers but are not able to enjoy their economic and social liberty in real sense. The paper is based on both primary and secondary data sources.

LAKHEEMI DEVEE

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

Socio-Economic Determinants Of The Choice Of Informal Bankers Among Rural Households In Southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available There is no gainsaying in the fact that rural finance serves as the cornerstonefor rural economy development in that there could not be smooth sailing ofeconomy activities without the continuing flow of money and credit. Thisshows the relevance of financial institutions in the economy development ofany nations which cannot be overemphasized. The study however assessed thesocio-economic factors that determined the choice of informal bankers amongrural households in south-western Nigeria. A multi-stage random samplingprocedure was used in the course of the study. Two states were randomlyselected out of the six states of the zone of which a total of 300 ruralhouseholds were selected. A well structured questionnaire was employed tocollect data from the respondents. Descriptive statistics such as frequencycount, percentage distribution and probit regression were used to analyze thedata collected. The result shows that socio-economic characteristics such asage, sex, income and traditional leadership were the most prominent factorsthat affect the choice of informal bankers. It was discovered that ruralhouseholds are seriously faced with constraints such as low level of income,access to financial credit as well as fear of fraudulent bankers that is commonto informal financial sector. It was recommended that formal bankers shouldextend their services to rural households through the activities of the informalfinancial institutions so as to boost rural micro enterprises.

Gabriel A Shitu

2011-10-01

362

Socio-economic implications of climate change: Canadian climate impacts program study results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of results of the Canadian Climate Impacts Program series of studies examining the socio-economic impacts of climate change. In the Great Lakes basin, climate change may impact on numerous economic sectors. Lower lake levels could result in increased dredging of ports and channels or reduced cargo loads. Lower lake levels added to increased use of water could result in a loss of 4,165 GWh of power generation for the Canadian hydro-electric generating stations on the Great Lakes. A warmer climate may lead to crop failures in the agricultural heartlands of Ontario, as the advantages of higher temperature may be offset by moisture stress. The downhill ski industry may be decimated in southern Ontario. Rising sea levels may cause increased risk of storm surges and river flooding in the coastal areas of Canada. A warmer climate would probably be beneficial to aquaculture and allow longer inshore fishing seasons. Costs to oil and gas exploration due to sea ice and icebergs would be practically eliminated. Results for the Praire provinces were mixed: one study concluded that impacts would be minimal while another predicted a moderate reduction in spring wheat potential. 24 refs., 1 fig

363

The implications of federalism and decentralisation on socio-economic conditions in Ethiopia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we wil [...] l show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data. In both cases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits. The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.

P, Zimmermann-Steinhart; Y, Bekele.

2012-08-01

364

Socio-economic aspects of water conservation with reference to Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To achieve optimum water conservation and improved water use efficiency, a water conservation enabling environment is needed that includes: 1. Education and training, improvement of management systems and public incentives: these measures allow increase from 20 to 30 % water resources .2. irrigation management transfer to users, management of supply infrastructure and an optimised resource policy to arrive at 60 to 80 % of the potential; 3. further research of the public and the private sector to utilise fully the whole available potential. Pakistan's water-resources have been diminishing at an alarming rate, due to further increase of population, per capita water availability in Pakistan goes down below 1,000 m/sup 3/, that means Pakistan is nearing conditions of chronic water-stress. The quality of water is also deteriorating with time. To improve the situation, potential of socio economic factors can be mobilized like population stabilization, community involvement, fair water distribution, application of water harvesting and water conservation at the community level, application of non- structural solutions, for example pricing of water, to develop water management institutions, public education and awareness are essential. Selection of appropriate low cost technology is a pre-requisite for widespread project implementation, planner should consider both traditional and modern technologies. The price of water determines largely the investments justified to avoid wagely the investments justified to avoid water losses. (author)

365

Middle Class: The Socio-Economic Stabilizer of the Country Development  

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Full Text Available The article discusses the middle class impact on social and economic development of the society. It considers the modern middle class structure and functions both in social and economic fields of society life. Based on the data of international financial institutions, it analyzes the amount of middle class in the regions with the comparison of economic development of the country to discover the correlation between factors mentioned above. We have established that middle class impact on social and economic development of any country is huge and appeared in a number of factors. In addition, some of them have a direct influence on society development (economic indicators, standards of living, level of wages, etc. while others have relative impact (middle class expenditures. In whole, middle class impact on social and economic development of the society in a country proceeds by stabilizing function of middle class, which is reached by implementation of little functional effects. Some of them have only economic influence, others have social impact. However, despite of the fact that they are applied separately, their close relationship forms the major indicators of middle class impact on socio-economic development of the society.

Natalia Victorovna Kuznetsova

2014-08-01

366

Effect of Socio-economic Conditions on Lipid Composition of Breast Milk of Bangladeshi Urban Mothers  

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Full Text Available The relationship between socio-economic status and lipid composition in breast milk of 97 Bangladeshi urban mothers was investigated. Study subjects were aged 18-35 years and were selected randomly from three clinics of Dhaka (capital city of Bangladesh. An appropriate questionnaire was developed to obtain information on health condition of mothers and infants, age, height and weight of both the mothers and their infants, educational qualification of both mother and the father, family income, family size, housing condition, source of drinking water, sanitation and monthly expenditure for food. Mothers from the higher family income group showed significantly higher value of total lipid, triacylglycerol, cholesterol and phospholipid in their breast milk. Mothers belonging to the upper age group (30-35 years, had significantly lower lipid values. Mother`s as well as father`s education also affects the lipid composition of breast milk, because educated mothers and educated fathers are more concerned about proper care during pregnancy and lactation. Also educational level is related with family income. These findings suggest that family income and family education makes a significant contribution to higher lipid content in breast milk of urban mothers in Bangladesh.

Yearul Kabir

2003-01-01

367

Financial Policy as an Instrument of Socio-economic Development of a Country  

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Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in showing the economic essence and identification of directions of increase of efficiency of the financial policy as an instrument of socio-economic development of the country. The article describes theoretical aspects, methodological principles and forms of ordering and improving financial relations. It identifies specific features of formation and realisation of financial policy of foreign countries. It shows that development of the strategy of efficient financial policy in the system of state regulation of economy under conditions of financial globalisation lies in formation of the model of financial relations, which would facilitate realisation of a complex of goals and tasks in the strategy of the society development; priorities of the financial policy should be determined on the basis of a complex approach in the context of formation of the financial policy concept with consideration of detection and analysis of exogenous and endogenous factors, which identify processes of the society development, and consideration of hierarchical components of the state system of priorities.

Adamenko Iryna P.

2014-03-01

368

Crises and Collective Socio-Economic Phenomena: Simple Models and Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Financial and economic history is strewn with bubbles and crashes, booms and busts, crises and upheavals of all sorts. Understanding the origin of these events is arguably one of the most important problems in economic theory. In this paper, we review recent efforts to include heterogeneities and interactions in models of decision. We argue that the so-called Random Field Ising model ( rfim) provides a unifying framework to account for many collective socio-economic phenomena that lead to sudden ruptures and crises. We discuss different models that can capture potentially destabilizing self-referential feedback loops, induced either by herding, i.e. reference to peers, or trending, i.e. reference to the past, and that account for some of the phenomenology missing in the standard models. We discuss some empirically testable predictions of these models, for example robust signatures of rfim-like herding effects, or the logarithmic decay of spatial correlations of voting patterns. One of the most striking result, inspired by statistical physics methods, is that Adam Smith's invisible hand can fail badly at solving simple coordination problems. We also insist on the issue of time-scales, that can be extremely long in some cases, and prevent socially optimal equilibria from being reached. As a theoretical challenge, the study of so-called "detailed-balance" violating decision rules is needed to decide whether conclusions based on current models (that all assume detailed-balance) are indeed robust and generic.

Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

2013-05-01

369

Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided by their owners. Majority of the respondents mentioned that their earnings have improved their economic condition significantly and more than half of them have past work experience of the same job. The tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh are not only generating income from the beauty parlors they are providing a valuable service to the new consumer society. The main stream society is not yet ready to provide this type of services. So, we should not treat this migrant community as temporary visitors rather we should treat them as indispensable and contributing factor of the social and economic development in Bangladesh. There should be initiative from the government of Bangladesh to inspect health; safety; welfare and other related issues of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh and take necessary actions in this regard. Finally, the future research directions are presented.

Nargis Akhter

2011-05-01

370

Prospects of Poland’s Socio-Economic Development in Light of Statistical Data  

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Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate, in light of statistical data, Poland’s capacity for dynamic development in the future and its possibilities for the attainment of its ambitious economic and social goals. The analysis was based on the latest available data drawn primarily from Eurostat. They concern a number of EU countries, chosen as the reference countries in the paper. The Author discusses different measures for the evaluation of the economic and social processes to assess Poland’s development opportunities in the coming years. For the sake of simplicity of presentation, the Author has divided the measures into short- and long-term indices. Short-term analysis shows that Poland is successful in the short run. Unfortunately, long-term indices, which are rarely discussed by the public, reveal a grim picture of the performance of Poland in comparison with the reference EU countries. The Author concludes that Poland is a country which does not pay much attention to its long-term socio-economic development.

Witold Luci?ski

2011-11-01

371

Socio-economic and land cover changes analysis in a landscape with agricultural matrix  

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Full Text Available The research involved the application of CORINE Land Cover categories in order to analyse changes in land cover and in the socio-economic system over the last 50 years in Molise (Southern Italy. The boundaries of the study area corresponded to those of six local councils: Guglionesi, Montecilfone, Montenero di Bisaccia, Petacciato, San Giacomo degli Schiavoni and Termoli. It is an area which has undergone a great anthropic agricultural impact after the II World War, but, however, still has natural settings worth preserving, as can be seen by the presence of seven Sites of Community Interest (sensu “Habitat Directive” 92/43/EC. For the analyses of the land cover changes, geo-databases were consulted or specially constructed. The aerial photographs from GAI 1954-55 flight, appropriately georectified, and the aerial photograph ITA2000 and AGEA 2004 flights were adopted to draw up the land use/cover maps at a scale of 1.10.000.The study of vegetation was performed using the phytosociological method. In brief, the results show that the landscape of the study area has become more fragmented due mostly to effects of continuous human disturbances and agricultural improvement during the study period. Overall, the landscape is today characterised by the predominance of agricultural use and the sparse colonization of the natural vegetation, mainly by linear vegetational formations (mainly riparian woods.

Piera Di Marzio

372

Socio-economic and land cover changes analysis in a landscape with agricultural matrix  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research involved the application of CORINE Land Cover categories in order to analyse changes in land cover and in the socio-economic system over the last 50 years in Molise (Southern Italy. The boundaries of the study area corresponded to those of six local councils: Guglionesi, Montecilfone, Montenero di Bisaccia, Petacciato, San Giacomo degli Schiavoni and Termoli. It is an area which has undergone a great anthropic agricultural impact after the II World War, but, however, still has natural settings worth preserving, as can be seen by the presence of seven Sites of Community Interest (sensu “Habitat Directive” 92/43/EC. For the analyses of the land cover changes, geo-databases were consulted or specially constructed. The aerial photographs from GAI 1954-55 flight, appropriately georectified, and the aerial photograph ITA2000 and AGEA 2004 flights were adopted to draw up the land use/cover maps at a scale of 1.10.000.The study of vegetation was performed using the phytosociological method. In brief, the results show that the landscape of the study area has become more fragmented due mostly to effects of continuous human disturbances and agricultural improvement during the study period. Overall, the landscape is today characterised by the predominance of agricultural use and the sparse colonization of the natural vegetation, mainly by linear vegetational formations (mainly riparian woods.

Vincenzo Viscosi

2011-02-01

373

Rural Population Density Effect on Socio-economic Characteristics: A Review  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural population density has a very significant independent influence over important demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the world rural communities. Thus, the understanding of rural population density becomes an important issue to be studied. Approach: Using the rural settled areas of Shaqlawa District as a case study, this study seeks to reveal the specific importance of rural population density as an important variable in understanding the socioeconomic characteristics of sparsely settled rural regions, where spares and falling density presents practical and conceptual problems for rural planners. Results and Conclusion: It is obvious that the need of rural areas for socioeconomic development and regeneration along with the need for diversification of their economic base so as to meet the changes is today greater than ever. The motivation behind of this project is based on the fact that during the last few decades the rural settlement in the study area has been dramatically changed. However at the same time there is a realization that certain parts of the rural area have been left behind in development and the authority is currently promoting rural area in order to sustain local economies and to enhance employment and growth.

Ayoob K. Ismael

2011-01-01

374

Socio-Economic Status of Kaman Vocational Higher School Student, Ahi Evran University  

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Full Text Available The fundamental characteristics of the inputs of the education system which would execute production, adapt to the scientific and technological innovations, and raise skilled and qualified individuals who are required for business life should be known. Therefore, the aim of this study is to reveal the profiles of students at vocational high schools which is one of the main components of higher education system. This study is a socio-economic profile study which is a horizontal social sciences research. The purpose of the data collected in the research is two fold. While first is to introduce the results of the micro and study, the second is to reveal the data that may be an issue for many vertical studies. Accommodating the very limited analysis of the data, the very general profile is presented. To the research; 49.31% of the students graduated from college. The percentage of the students whose family live in downtown is 55.17%, 55,17 % of the students’ family live in city, whose family have social security is 85.17%, who has scholarship is 55.86%, who have part-time job is 23.10%, and who have his/her own car is 6.92%. This study is a resource for implementing contemporary and modern education at Ahi Evran University Kaman Vocational High School. In addition, this study is a database of the students for the administrators of the high school.

?enay Sezgin NARTGÜN

2009-08-01

375

Socio-economic drivers of large urban biomass cogeneration: Sustainable energy supply for Austria's capital Vienna  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper provides a detailed case study on Austria's by far largest biomass cogeneration plant. The plant is located in the city of Vienna and scheduled to be put into operation by mid-2006. Given the urban location of the plant and its significant biomass fuel input requirements, fuel delivery logistics play an important role-not only from an economic point of view, but also in relation to supply security and environmental impact. We describe and analyse the history of the project, putting particular emphasis on the main driving forces and actors behind the entire project development process. From this analysis we deduce the following main socio-economic drivers and success factors for the realisation of large bioenergy projects in urban settings: (1) a critical mass of actors; (2) a priori political consensus; (3) the existence of a problem (and problem awareness) that calls for decisive steps to be taken; (4) institutional innovation and changes in the mindset of the main decision makers; (5) favourable economic conditions; (6) change agents that are actively engaged from an early stage of development; (7) intra-firm supporters at different hierarchical levels and from different departments; and (8) targeted study tours that help to reduce uncertainty, to enable leapfrogging in project planning and design, and to build up confidence in the project's feasibility and chance of success

376

Socio-economic aspects of gamebird hunting, hunting bags, and assessment of the status of gamebird populations in REGHAB countries. Part 1: Socio-economic and cultural aspects of gamebird hunting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report is a result of the Concerted Action Reconciling Gamebird Hunting and Biodiversity (REGHAB, hereafter), within the V Framework Program of the European Union. We will address here the objectives of the first workpackage in that project, dealing with socio-economic, cultural and biological variation of gamebird hunting in Europe. On this report, we have centred the information on Galliforms, the main gamebird species in Europe, although some information will be provide...

Marti?nez-padilla, Jesu?s; Vin?uela, Javier; Villafuerte, Rafael

2002-01-01

377

Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on Parenting: A Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Triple P is a parenting program intended to prevent and to provide treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions on parenting styles and parental competency. Level 4 is an intensive training program of 8-10 sessions…

de Graaf, Ireen; Speetjens, Paula; Smit, Filip; de Wolff, Marianne; Tavecchio, Louis

2008-01-01

378

Does Parental Attributional Retraining and Anger Management Enhance the Effects of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program with Parents at Risk of Child Maltreatment?  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-eight parents experiencing significant difficulties in managing their own anger in their interactions with their preschool-aged children were randomly assigned either to an enhanced group-administered behavioral family intervention program based on the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program that incorporated attributional retraining and anger…

Sanders, Matthew R.; Pidgeon, Aileen M.; Gravestock, Fred; Connors, Mark D.; Brown, Samantha; Young, Ross W.

2004-01-01

379

Demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths in a special project area of rural northern India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The demographic and socio-economic determinants of post-neonatal deaths (n = 475) in a special project area of rural northern India (Ballabgarh) were ascertained from 1991 to 1999 using the electronic database system of the project area for data extraction, and were compared with the eligible living children of the same age using a matched population-based case-control study design. Similar determinants were also ascertained in neonatal deaths (n = 212) using the same study design. After controlling for the potential confounders using conditional logistic regression analyses, lower caste (a proxy measure for low socio-economic conditions in rural India) was found to be significantly associated with higher post-neonatal deaths (OR = 2.21). Higher maternal age (>30 years) and fathers' lower educational levels were significantly associated with higher neonatal deaths, in addition to higher post-neonatal deaths in the same area. PMID:12881622

Kabir, Zubair

2003-07-01

380

SOCIO-ECONOMIC FEATURES OF THE SELECTED HOLDINGS OF CHRYSANTHEMUM CULTIVATION IN NAGAR AND PARNER TAHASIL OF AHMEDNAGAR DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study has attempted to determine the socio-economic feature of the selected holdings of Chrysanthemum cultivation in Nagar and Parner tahasils of Ahmednagar district. For the primary data especially designed questionnaire were used. For the selection of sample cultivators a list of flower growers was obtained from the revenue records of the selected villages. The required number of cultivators from each village was selected randomly. For the purpose of analysis, the farmers were grouped in to three classes on the basis of total holdings, small medium and large holdings. According to the 40familes were selected from the group of small 50 families from the group of medium and 60 families from the group of large farm size. An attempt was made in this study to find out the socio-Economic features of the selected holdings.

ROHIDAS R. BHALSING

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
381

Global scale map of the impact of changes in climate and socio-economic conditions on river flood losses  

Science.gov (United States)

Floods pose one of the largest risks to natural hazards globally. In 2012, the global damage from floods was estimated to be about € 22 billion. For the first half of 2013, the global damage was estimated to be already € 35 billion, being about 47% of the overall losses due to natural hazards. Almost half of this amount was due to river flooding such as the devastating floods in East Germany in May-June 2013. Besides possible increases in frequency and severity of flood events, floods are becoming more damaging due to increases in population and increases in economic utilization of flood prone areas. It is therefore crucial to understand the nature and causes of flood risks and possible changes therein due to climate and socio-economic change. Improved understanding will support adaptation plans and investments, either in new economic activities or in flood protection. On this poster, we show a global scale map of current river flood risk and flood risk changes in the future. The map shows how economic damages and the number of flood-affected people due to river floods will change under several scenarios of combined climate and socio-economic change. Across a number of large river basins, we distinguish the contribution to change in risk by climate change (resulting in an increase in flood hazard) and by socio-economic change (resulting in more impacts of flooding). We compute these risks using a validated model cascade consisting of hydrological flood models and impact models forced by long time series of current and future climate (CMIP5) and socio-economic scenarios in periods around 2030 and 2080. We discuss per basin what the possible implications of the scenarios are.

Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Jongman, Brenden; Van Beek, Rens; Lucas, Paul; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Bierkens, Marc; Ligtvoet, Willem; Kwadijk, Jaap

2014-05-01

382

The impact of changes in climate and socio-economic conditions on river flood losses at the global scale  

Science.gov (United States)

Floods pose one of the largest risks to natural hazards globally. In 2012, the global damage from floods was estimated to be about € 22 billion. For the first half of 2013, the global damage was estimated to be already € 35 billion, being about 47% of the overall losses due to natural hazards. Almost half of this amount was due to river flooding such as the devastating floods in East Germany in May-June 2013. Besides possible increases in frequency and severity of flood events, floods are becoming more damaging due to increases in population and increases in economic utilization of flood prone areas. It is therefore crucial to understand the nature and causes of flood risks and possible changes therein due to climate and socio-economic change. Improved understanding will support adaptation plans and investments, either in new economic activities or in flood protection. In this contribution, we demonstrate, at the global scale, how economic damages and the number of flood-affected people due to river floods will change in several scenarios of combined climate and socio-economic change. Across a number of large river basins, we distinguish the contribution to change in risk by climate change (resulting in an increase in flood hazard) and by socio-economic change (resulting in more impacts of flooding). We compute these risks using a model cascade consisting of hydrological flood models and impact models forced by long time series of current and future climate (CMIP5) and socio-economic scenarios in periods around 2030 and 2080. The method is validated with reported river discharge extremes and reported damage estimates. We discuss the possible implications of the change in risk for humanitarian aid and adaptation requirements.

Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Jongman, Brenden; Van Beek, Rens; Kwadijk, Jaap; Bierkens, Marc; Ligtvoet, Willem; Lucas, Paul; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2014-05-01

383

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF UN-ORGANISED LABOURS IN RURALANDHRA PRADESH (A Case Study of Prakasam District)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper attempts to study the socio-economic status and levels of living of different types of labour’ households in Prakasam district. A multi stage random sampling method is used to select 150 labour households. For the study Prakasam district is selected purposively on the basis of highest percentage of households depended on non- farm activities. Three villages are selected from the three revenue divisions on the above criteria. A proportionate sampling technique ...

Kishore Babu Karri; Veronica, G. K. S.

2014-01-01

384

Review of socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate change in a moist temperate continental climate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this paper is to present some of the results obtained from various socio-economic impact studies done in the province of Quebec. The area of interest is Quebec and part of Baffin Island, although most of the work dealt with regions located south of 60 degrees N. Impacts are considered for energy, agriculture, forestry, the St. Lawrence River system, golf and downhill skiing, and municipal water use.

Jean, M.

1993-01-01

385

Occupational and socio-economic factors in the etiology of cancer of the esophagus and gastric cardia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia and squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus have a poor prognosis. The increasing incidence and the strong male predominance of esophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma are striking, and yet unexplained, patterns that should be due to unknown environmental factors. The main aim of this thesis was to study occupational and socio-economic factors in relation to these tumors. Papers I, III and IV are based on a nationwide Swed...

Jansson, Catarina

2005-01-01

386

Spatial, socio-economic and demographic variation of childlessness in India: A special reference to reproductive health and marital breakdown  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background/Objective India observe double burden of fertility – childlessness along with high fertility, which brings it close to a developed country. Childlessness has serious demographic, social and health implications. We explored spatial variation of childlessness women in India along with several socio-economic and demographic correlates. Further we examined maternal and reproductive health problems among childless women and linkages between marital breakdown (divorce) and childlessnes...

Praween Agrawal; Sutapa Agrawal; Sayeed Unisa

2013-01-01

387

Socio-economic status of horse owners vis-a-vis horse feeding and management in Rajasthan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: To study the socio-economic status, horse feeding and management adopted by horse owners of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Primary data was collected through specially structured proforma by personal interview method from the horse owners of Hanumangarh (50), Churu (42), Jhunjhunu (30) and Jalore (40) districts of Rajasthan, India. Results: The district (Churu and Jhunjhunu) is mostly rain fed, Hanumangarh is canal-irrigated whereas Jalore is tube well irrigated. Majority of responden...

Bala, P. A.; Dedar, R. K.; Legha, R. A.; Yash Pal

2013-01-01

388

SOCIO-ECONOMIC, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND HEALTH CONDITIONS OF THE RETIRED TEACHERS: A CASE STUDY OF GADAG CITY.  

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The present study is made to know the “ Socio-Economic, Psychological andHealth Problems of the Retired Employees.” Here the researcher has selected the retiredteachers from Gadag City for study. The data is collected through a questionnairesurvey covering 45 retired teachersss. The study covers different aspects of the old age;family issues such as care and respect in the family, health problems, major concern orworry, differences of opinion with the younger family members, psychological...

Patil, Bapugouda M.; Sindhe Jaganath, R.

2013-01-01

389

Relative mortality improvements as a marker of socio-economic inequality across the developing world, 1990-2009  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using cross country regressions, this paper constructs a novel distance-to-frontier metric for tracking broad socio-economic inequality (including access of the poor to health infrastructure) over time for individual countries. Given the unavailability of reliable and consistent direct measures of inequality for most poor countries, especially related to nonincome aspects of living standards, the metric developed in this paper can be used as an alternative indirect measure that is intuitive a...

Basu, Deepankar

2011-01-01

390

Socio-Economic Profile and Quality of Life of Selected Oraon Tribal Living in and Around Sambalpur Town, Orissa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research study elucidates some aspects of Quality of Life of Oraon, Sambalpur town of Orissa. Oraon is one of the most primitive tribals of Eastern India. A sum of 120 households comprising 552 individuals (60 native families of Charbhati and 60 migrant families living in and around Sambalpur town) of Sambalpur District, Orissa was selected purposely and interviewed through the help of a pretested structured scheduled for collecting relevant information on socio-economic and on va...

Braja Kishori Mishra; Beck, P.

2010-01-01

391

Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic factors among the Municipal employees of Mysore city.  

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Objective: To assess the Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic among the Municipal employees of Mysore city. Settings and Design: The study was cross sectional and conducted on the employees of Reader1 Mysore City Corporation. Materials and methods: All the available employees (1187) of Mysore city Corporation during the study period were considered for the study. WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) and a preformed questionnaire were used to collect the requi...

Chandra Shekar

2010-01-01

392

DETECTION OF SPATIAL OUTLIERS IN RURAL COMMUNES OF PODLASIE PROVINCE (POLAND) ON THE BASIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC ATTRIBUTES  

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This work presents method of detecting spatial outliers between the rural communes of Podlasie Province (North- East Poland). The analyses were conducted using 8 variables which characterize socio-economic conditions of the communes in the year 2002. Statistical analyses were conducted using PCA for reduction of data set and LISA for detection of outliers. On the basis of the analyses 9 communes were classified as spatial outliers.

Gozdowski, Dariusz; Roszkowska-ma?dra, Barbara

2011-01-01

393

DETECTION OF SPATIAL OUTLIERS IN RURAL COMMUNES OF PODLASIE PROVINCE (POLAND ON THE BASIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC ATTRIBUTES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents method of detecting spatial outliers between the rural communes of Podlasie Province (North- East Poland. The analyses were conducted using 8 variables which characterize socio-economic conditions of the communes in the year 2002. Statistical analyses were conducted using PCA for reduction of data set and LISA for detection of outliers. On the basis of the analyses 9 communes were classified as spatial outliers.

Dariusz GOZDOWSKI

2011-01-01

394

Tobacco use prevalence – disentangling associations between Alaska Native race, low socio-economic status and rural disparities  

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Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES) and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alas...

Dilley, Julia A.; Erin Peterson; Matthew Bobo; Pickle, Kathryn E.; Kristen Rohde

2013-01-01

395

Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen : Associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Design: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v. indicators of socio-economic status (percentage of recent immigrants, percentage without a high-school diploma, percentage of the population under 35 years of age and average household income in Euros) was performed using negative binomial analysis. Setting: Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects: The unit of analysis was neighbourhood (n 400). Results: In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictorfor supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income remained significantly associated with fast-food outlet exposure (rate ratio 0.66–0.80) in the final model. Conclusions: In the city of Copenhagen, there was no evidence of spatial patterning of supermarkets by income. However, we detected a trend in the exposure to fast-food outlets, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe.

Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl

2011-01-01

396

Logit analysis of socio-economic factors influencing people to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyzes the socio-economic factors that influence people’s decision to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana. Using a well structured interview schedule, a random sample of 98 people from Elmina in the central region of Ghana was selected for the study. Results from the descriptive statistics analysis of respondents identified fishing as a family business, minimum skills requirement and ready market for fish demand as factors that mo...

Acquah Henry D.; Abunyuwah Isaac

2011-01-01

397

Triggering and contributing socio-economic factors to aggravated robbery : the perspective of offenders at Baviaanspoort Maximum Correctional Centre  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In South Africa all the major categories of violent crime (homicide, aggravated robbery, serious assault and rape) showed an increase during the early 2000s. More than half of the total offences that were committed in South Africa during 2005 were aggressive offences. The goal of the study was to explore the perception of offenders regarding the triggering and contributing socio-economic factors to aggravated robbery with a view to inform rehabilitation and re-integratio...

May, Julianna

2011-01-01

398

The public mental health significance of research on socio-economic factors in schizophrenia and major depression  

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This paper reviews the epidemiological research evidence on the role of socio-economic factors in the origins and disease experience of schizophrenia and major depression. The studies were conducted in different countries over many years. Although their findings are divided in their support of either the social causation or the drift hypothesis, all of them agree that persons with these disorders are at high disadvantage in society. Several factors for this have been identif...

Saraceno, Benedetto; Levav, Itzhak; Kohn, Robert

2005-01-01

399

Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of resid...

Gotsadze George; Djibuti Mamuka; Mataradze George; Zoidze Akaki

2007-01-01

400

The effects of the recent economic crisis on social protection and labour market arrangements across socio-economic groups  

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The Great Recession did not only affect European countries to a varying extent, its impact on national labour markets and on specific socio-economic groups in those markets also varied greatly. Institutional arrangements such as employment protection, unemployment insurance benefits and minimum income support, working time flexibility and wage setting played a crucial role in determining to what extent the economic crisis led to higher unemployment, wage cuts or income losses and rising pover...

Basso, Gaetano; Dolls, Matthias; Eichhorst, Werner; Leoni, Thomas; Peichl, Andreas

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

402

Health-seeking behaviour of Port Harcourt city residents: a comparison between the upper and lower socio-economic classes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at establishing the determinants and distribution of the health-seeking behaviours of Port Harcourt residents, and comparing them between the upper and lower socio-economic classes. A descriptive crosssectional study using 204 respondents was carried out. The socio-economic classification used occupation and average monthly income. Multi-staged sampling technique was used; stage one being by stratified sampling using socio-economic classes for stratification; stage two involved clustered sampling; following which five-sectioned structured questionnaires were administered. Differences (P<0.05 in Health facility used existed: the upper class used mostly Government and Private Hospitals; the lower class additionally used health centres and un-orthodox health facilities. Reasons for using a health facility was similar (P>0.05 as both classes mostly go for treatment or medical check-ups. Health facility preference was mostly for good treatment outcome and accessibility; cost also, for the lower class. Commonly and last used health-care giver differed (P<0.05; upper class mostly saw a doctor, the lower saw the doctor, pharmacist and nurse. Competence; the major reason for health-care giver selection by the upper class differed (P<0.05 from the lower that had previous good treatment outcome and illness severity. The upper socioeconomic classed have better health-seeking behaviours because they use more competent Health facilities and health-care givers.

Promise Tamunoipiriala Jaja

2013-06-01

403

Socio-economic differences in use of prescribed and over-the-counter medicine for pain and psychological problems among Danish adolescents—a longitudinal study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective for this study was to investigate socio-economic status (SES) differentials in the use of overthe- counter and prescribed medicine for pain and psychological problems among adolescents. Data consisted of questionnaire data on medicine use and health status, collected from 17- to 18-year-old adolescents (n=2,400) during second round of theWest Jutland cohort study 2007, and register data on prescribed medicine use, parental educational level and household income. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to calculate odd ratios for self-reported and register-based use of medicine for pain and psychological problems according to parental educational level