WorldWideScience
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Close relations to parents and emotional symptoms among adolescents : beyond socio-economic impact?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between trustful communication with parents and frequency of emotional symptoms in schoolchildren and whether this relationship was modified by the family's socio-economic position. METHODS: Pooled data (n = 15,646) from the Danish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010 were analysed by multilevel multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: 8 % of all schoolchildren reported emotional symptoms almost daily. Odds ratio for daily symptoms was 2.1 (1.8-2.4) for children without trustful communication with parents compared to children with trustful communication. This association appears unaffected by family occupational class. A substantial socio-economic gradient in emotional symptoms persisted, independent of parent-child communication. CONCLUSIONS: Trustful communication with parents might have a fundamental importance, regardless of socio-economic position.

Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Holstein, BjØrn E

2014-01-01

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Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

2012-01-01

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Morbidity and Irish Catholic descent in Britain. Relating health disadvantage to socio-economic position.  

Science.gov (United States)

In common with some other ethnic and religious minorities whose forebears migrated from their country of origin, Irish Catholics in Britain are less well off than the host population in terms of socio-economic position and health. Results are presented from a Scottish study, where Catholic religion of origin mainly indicates Irish ancestry, and it is estimated that about one-third of the population is of significant Irish descent. In this study, excess of physical and mental health problems and disability have previously been reported for those of Catholic background, particularly in the eldest cohort (aged 56 in 1988), and have not been fully explained by health-related behaviour. In this paper, we examine a number of key health measures, namely self-assessed health, number of symptoms in the month prior to interview, sadness or depression, disability and lung function, and various indicators of socio-economic position (head of household social class, main source of income, car ownership, housing tenure and school-leaving age), which all show Catholic disadvantage. Using longitudinal results from the 723 respondents who completed interviews both at sweeps one (1988) and three (1995), it is estimated that about half of the morbidity excess amongst middle-aged Catholics in Glasgow can be explained by socio-economic disadvantage. The health and socio-economic position of white minorities and disadvantaged religious minorities like Catholics in Scotland should be monitored by a co-ordinated information strategy. PMID:11266057

Abbotts, J; Williams, R; Ford, G

2001-04-01

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Energy density of the Scottish diet estimated from food purchase data: relationship with socio-economic position and dietary targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequent consumption of energy-dense foods has been strongly implicated in the global increase of obesity. The World Cancer Research Fund suggests a population-level energy density (ED) goal for diets of 523 kJ/100 g (125 kcal/100 g) as desirable for reducing weight gain and related co-morbidities. However, there is limited information about the ED of diets of contemporary populations. The aims of the present study were to (1) estimate the mean ED of the Scottish diet, (2) assess differences in ED over time by socio-economic position, by household (HH) composition and for HH meeting dietary targets for fat and fruit and vegetables, and (3) assess the relationship between ED and the consumption of foods and nutrients, which are indicative of diet quality. ED of the diet was estimated from food (including milk) from UK food purchase survey data. The average ED of the Scottish diet was estimated as 718 kJ/100 g with no change between the survey periods 2001 and 2009. Individuals living in the most deprived areas had a higher mean ED than those living in the least deprived areas (737 v. 696 kJ/100 g). Single-parent HH had the highest mean ED (765 kJ/100 g) of all the HH surveyed. The mean ED of HH achieving dietary targets for fat and fruit and vegetables was 576 kJ/100 g compared with 731 kJ/100 g for non-achievers. HH within the lowest quintile of ED were, on average, closest to meeting most dietary guidelines. Food purchase data can be used to monitor the quality of the diet in terms of dietary ED of the population and subgroups defined by an area-based measure of socio-economic status. PMID:24804721

Barton, Karen L; Wrieden, Wendy L; Sherriff, Andrea; Armstrong, Julie; Anderson, Annie S

2014-07-14

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Implications of ParentsSocio-Economic Status in the Choice of English Language Learning Strategies among Nigeria’s Secondary School Students  

OpenAIRE

Studies have indicated that, less affluent families are less likely to have the financial and or time availability to provide their children with academic support compared to affluent families.This study investigated the relationship between Language Learning Strategies used by secondary school students in Nigeria and their Parents Socio-economic Status. The data for this research was provided by 559 respondents who study English as a second language and belonging to three varied socio-econom...

Mallam Adamu Babikkoi; Noor Zainab binti Abdul Razak

2014-01-01

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Socio-economic position and adolescents' health in Italy: the role of self-esteem and self-efficacy  

OpenAIRE

Background: To underline the importance of self-esteem and self-efficacy as aspects of health promotion, we investigated the hypothesis that self-esteem and self-efficacy mediate the effect of socio-economic position on adolescents’ health. This association has been confirmed by our data.

Methods: Data derive from the international Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, 2001- 02 edition: a ...

Alessio Zambon; Patrizia Lemma; Paola Dalmasso; Alberto Borraccino; Franco Cavallo

2007-01-01

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Socio-economic position and mental disorders in a working-age Finnish population: the health 2000 study  

OpenAIRE

Background: Mental disorders are more common in people with lower socio-economic position (SEP) but it is not known which specific SEP component is most strongly linked to poor mental health. We compared the strength of associations of three SEP components—occupation, income and education—with common mental disorders in a Finnish population. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 4561 men and women aged 30–65 years. Mental disorders were assessed usin...

Pulkki-ra?back, Laura; Ahola, Kirsi; Elovainio, Marko; Kivima?ki, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka; Isometsa?, Erkki; Lo?nnqvist, Jouko; Virtanen, Marianna

2011-01-01

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Life course socio-economic position and quality of life in adulthood: a systematic review of life course models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A relationship between current socio-economic position and subjective quality of life has been demonstrated, using wellbeing, life and needs satisfaction approaches. Less is known regarding the influence of different life course socio-economic trajectories on later quality of life. Several conceptual models have been proposed to help explain potential life course effects on health, including accumulation, latent, pathway and social mobility models. This systematic review aimed to assess whether evidence supported an overall relationship between life course socio-economic position and quality of life during adulthood and if so, whether there was support for one or more life course models. Methods A review protocol was developed detailing explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, search terms, data extraction items and quality appraisal procedures. Literature searches were performed in 12 electronic databases during January 2012 and the references and citations of included articles were checked for additional relevant articles. Narrative synthesis was used to analyze extracted data and studies were categorized based on the life course model analyzed. Results Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria and used data from 10 datasets and five countries. Study quality varied and heterogeneity between studies was high. Seven studies assessed social mobility models, five assessed the latent model, two assessed the pathway model and three tested the accumulation model. Evidence indicated an overall relationship, but mixed results were found for each life course model. Some evidence was found to support the latent model among women, but not men. Social mobility models were supported in some studies, but overall evidence suggested little to no effect. Few studies addressed accumulation and pathway effects and study heterogeneity limited synthesis. Conclusions To improve potential for synthesis in this area, future research should aim to increase study comparability. Recommendations include testing all life course models within individual studies and the use of multiple measures of socio-economic position and quality of life. Comparable cross-national data would be beneficial to enable investigation of between-country differences.

Niedzwiedz Claire L

2012-08-01

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The Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Edu Lga of Kwara State Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State is investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180) students randomly selected from three secondary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ healt...

Femi Ogunshola; Adewale, A. M.

2012-01-01

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The Moderating Effect of Self-Motivation on the Relationship between Parent’s Socio-Economic Background and Children’s Academic Performance at Nigerian Universities  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of self-motivation on the relationship betweenparent’s socio-economic backgrounds on their children’s academic performance at Nigerian Universities, whichhas received little attention. Issues concerning University undergraduate youths have become a cause for concernamong stakeholders in the project called ‘education in Nigeria’. Such issues like expulsion from school due toexamination malpractice or cultism, withdrawal due to poor academic performance and production of half-bakedgraduates have forced many concerned people to question the role of teachers as well as parent’s socio-economicbackground. The paper adopted a survey methodology to solicit responses from 150 final year Universitystudents (2012/2013 of Business Faculties in the north, east and west regions of Nigeria; using stratifiedproportionate random sampling. After data cleaning, 130 data were analyzed using descriptive statistics andhierarchical regression. One of the results indicated that student’s self-motivation (hard work and rich parentalsocio-economic background are needed to achieve academic success; though self-motivation appears to be amore critical success factor. The paper recommended that the government and the authorities of Nigerianuniversities should intensify effort at counselling the students on the need to study hard in order to achieveacademic success rather than relying on their parentssocio-economic background. This will improve teachingand learning in Nigerian Universities. The study is limited to University Business Faculties in Nigeria. Futurestudies can investigate other tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

Isidore Ekpe

2014-10-01

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Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status  

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Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and school readiness.

SarahRobins

2014-06-01

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Low socio-economic position is associated with poor social networks and social support: results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks and social support are supposed to contribute to the development of unequal health within populations. However, little is known about their socio-economic distribution. In this study, we explore this distribution. Methods This study analyses the association of two indicators of socio-economic position, education and income, with different measures of social networks and support. Cross-sectional data have been derived from the baseline examination of an epidemiological cohort study of 4.814 middle aged urban inhabitants in Germany (Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out to estimate the risk of having poor social networks and support across socio-economic groups. Results Socially disadvantaged persons more often report poor social networks and social support. In multivariate analyses, based on education, odds ratios range from 1.0 (highest education to 4.9 (lowest education in a graded way. Findings based on income show similar effects, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5. There is one exception: no association of SEP with close ties living nearby and regularly seen was observed. Conclusion Poor social networks and low social support are more frequent among socio-economically disadvantaged people. To some extent, this finding varies according to the indicator chosen to measure these social constructs.

Jöckel Karl

2008-05-01

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Barriers to healthcare seeking, beliefs about cancer and the role of socio-economic position. A Danish population-based study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Cancer-related health behaviours may be affected by barriers to healthcare seeking and beliefs about cancer. The aim was to assess anticipated barriers to healthcare seeking and beliefs about cancer in a sample of the Danish population and to assess the association with socio-economic position. METHODS: A population-based telephone interview with 3000 randomly sampled persons aged 30years or older was performed using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure from 31 May to 4 July 2011. The Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure includes statements about four anticipated barriers to healthcare seeking and three positively and three negatively framed beliefs about cancer. For all persons, register-based information on socio-economic position was obtained through Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: Two anticipated barriers, worry about what the doctor might find and worry about wasting the doctor's time, were present among 27% and 15% of the respondents, respectively. Overall, a high proportion of respondents concurred with positive beliefs about cancer; fewer concurred with negative beliefs. Having a low educational level and a low household income were strongly associated with having negative beliefs about cancer. CONCLUSION: The fact that worry about what the doctor might find and worry about wasting the doctor's time were commonly reported barriers call for initiatives in general practice. The association between low educational level and low household income and negative beliefs about cancer might to some degree explain the negative socio-economic gradient in cancer outcome.

Hvidberg, Line; Wulff, Christian Nielsen

2014-01-01

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Age-Period-Cohort Projections of Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality by Socio-Economic Position in a Rapidly Transitioning Chinese Population  

OpenAIRE

Background:With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong.Methods:Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups) to 2020 in Hong Kong using Po...

Wong, Irene O. L.; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

2013-01-01

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Note about socio-economic calculations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure projects are common and can be made at different levels of detail depending on the type of project and the decision making phase. A common feature of the different levels of detail of the socio-economic analysis is that the planned project(s) is compared with a basic; the basic alternative or a null alternative. In socio-economic evaluations it is intended to describe the effects in economic terms whenever possible (”+” is used when it is positive for the society, and ”–” when it is negative for the society). However, not all the effects for the society can be described in economic terms, and instead these effects must be described qualitatively. This note describes the socio-economic evaluation based on market prices and not factor prices which has been the tradition in Denmark till now. This is due to the recommendation from the Ministry of Transport to start using calculations based on market prices (Ministry of Transport, 2003). However, when following courses at CTT, it is recommended to use the factor price method which will be described in further details in a later chapter.

Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

2006-01-01

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Promoting School Readiness in the Context of Socio-Economic Adversity: Associations with Parental Demoralization and Support for Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Existing research suggests that parenting stress and demoralization, as well as provision of learning activities at home, significantly affect child school readiness. However, the degree to which these dimensions of parenting uniquely influence child school readiness remains unclear. Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that…

Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.

2014-01-01

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The Moderating Effect of Self-Motivation on the Relationship between Parent’s Socio-Economic Background and Children’s Academic Performance at Nigerian Universities  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of self-motivation on the relationship betweenparent’s socio-economic backgrounds on their children’s academic performance at Nigerian Universities, whichhas received little attention. Issues concerning University undergraduate youths have become a cause for concernamong stakeholders in the project called ‘education in Nigeria’. Such issues like expulsion from school due toexamination malpractice or cultism, withdrawal due ...

Isidore Ekpe; Mary Olufunmilayo Adelaiye; Ernest Ikechukwu Adubasim; Victor Chidiebere Adim

2014-01-01

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Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers  

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Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past two decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988–1997 (Inventory I, 2001–2007 (Inventory II and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III, and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0–20 cm SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr?1 over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

C. Poeplau

2015-03-01

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Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past two decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988-1997 (Inventory I), 2001-2007 (Inventory II) and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III), and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr-1) over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72). Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys) also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Eriksson, J.; Lundblad, M.; Kätterer, T.

2015-03-01

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Assessing parental impact on the sports participation of children: a socio-economic analysis of the UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effects of parental attitudes on children's physical activity. A measure of parental attitude (their sport participation when being young) that is independent of the child's behaviour is needed. Using data from the sixth wave of the Taking Part Survey (n =14,002 adults and n =1116 children), a matching estimator analysis is conducted. The results reveal that there are substantial intergenerational transfers of behaviours, in particular for male adults and male children. Furthermore, while an effect is observed for female adults and male children, female children's sport participation is only marginally influenced by female adult's physical activity when growing up. The results imply that promoting sport to the younger generation seems to be a fruitful strategy in creating a sporting habit and promoting sport participation when being older. However, there are challenges to be overcome in promoting female participation. PMID:23767799

Downward, Paul; Hallmann, Kirstin; Pawlowski, Tim

2014-01-01

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Gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents: socio-economic and behavioral correlates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents and its association with selected socio-economic indicators and oral-health-related behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 9,163 Chilean adolescents obtained using multistage random cluster procedures. Clinical recordings included information on missing teeth and the participants provided information on socio-demographic factors and oral-related behaviors. Two eruption-time-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between gender, tooth loss and socio-economic position/oral-health-related behaviors. RESULTS: The association between gender and tooth loss remained after adjusting for age, eruption times in both the socio-economic position regression model and the oral-health-related behaviors model. Tooth loss followed social gradients for the variables paternal income and achieved parental education, with students reporting a paternal income

López, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

2006-01-01

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Parental Socio-Economic Status, Family Structure and Living Environment as Predictors of Violence against Children in Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study sets out to find out whether parental socioeconomic status, family structure and living environment are predictors of violence against children. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the population of the study consisted of all the children in public primary schools and in junior secondary schools within Lagos state of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. Random samples of twenty five children were picked from each of the sixteen schools selected. This gives a total 400 participants that were used for the study. Experts in Sociology, measurement and evaluation certified the content validity of the questionnaire, while the co-efficient of the reliability of the four sections of the questionnaire were ascertained to be 0.63; 0.68; 0.66 and 0.73, respectively for sections A,B,C and D. Chi-square statistical tools was used to test the hypotheses formulated. Major findings of the study include the fact that parental socioeconomic status significantly influence violence against children, family structure significantly influence violence against children and that living environment also significantly influence violence against children. This study conclude by recommending among others that the Lagos State government should put machinery in motion to improve the poverty level of individuals living in Lagos State of Nigeria and should also make available social services and amenities that are supportive of family well being in order to avoid any form of violence against children.

A.A. Oni

2014-02-01

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Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder are associated with lower socio-economic status: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort  

OpenAIRE

Aim Only a few studies have examined the relationship between Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder and socio-economic status (SES). Existing studies are primarily cross-sectional, arise from specialty clinics, and use single measures of SES. In this study we examine this relationship in a longitudinal, population-based sample.

Miller, Laura L.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-shlomo, Yoav

2013-01-01

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Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School aged Children of Iran : Role of Personal and Parents Related Socio- Economic and Educational Factors  

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Full Text Available Objective: Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Iranian children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem.Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children [7-11 years old] from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method.chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Findings: Of the 1600 questionnaires were distributed, 918 [57%] were completed and included in the final analysis and rest of them were excluded which weren’t filled by parents and also out of our study age period range. The gender of the subjects was equally distributed [48.6% males and 51.4% females] approximately. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% [n=172] and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% [n=51]. There was not significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, not working of father, working of mother, single parent, fail school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection[UTI], not breast feeding, low birth weight to compare of non-enuretics. But unwilling pregnancy, neonatal icter, febrile convulsion, and mother smoking didn’t increase prevalence of this problem. 19.8% [n=31] of children with this problem had been seen by physician. Medication was the most preferred treatment option for enuresis [64.5%].Conclusion: Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found out Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.

Hashem Mahmoodzadeh

2013-02-01

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The relationship between body structure and the socio-economic status in Hungarian children and adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the numerous factors that influence the pattern of children's growth and development there are factors of the changeable socio-economic environment. The inequalities among the socio-economic strata in the Hungarian society have increased during last decades. The main objective of the study was to examine the body structure of children and adolescents living in different socio-economic backgrounds. The subjects of the present paper (9479 boys, 9304 girls) were examined in the 2nd Hungarian National Growth Study 2003-2006. Body structure was assessed by some absolute body dimensions, BMI, body composition and body shape indices. Children were grouped into relatively good, average and poor socio-economic subgroups by considering the education and occupation of the parents as well as the number of children in the family. Significant differences were found in the body structure of children varying in the socio-economic background: the better the socio-economic conditions the higher stature in both genders, while the lower relative fatness was found only in pubertal girls. The prevalence of unhealthy nutritional statuses (both underweight and overweight/ obese) was significantly lower in children living in better socio-economic conditions in both genders. Differences that were found in the body structure of children living in different socio-economic backgrounds emphasize the importance of using reference growth values layered also to socio-economic strata for screening nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25144976

Zsakai, Annamaria; Bodzsar, Eva B

2014-06-01

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Socio-economic and environmental factors associated with Montenegro skin test positivity in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Morocco  

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Full Text Available In Marocco, many aspects of human asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL still have to be clarified and little information is available about the factors that predispose individuals to asymptomatic infection. A prospective study was carried out in 889 healthy children under the age of 15 years living in two provinces in the endemic area in northern Morocco (the provinces of Taounate and My Yacoub from April to May 2010. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and the socio-economic and environmental characteristics associated with infection by Leishmania infantum. The Montenegro skin test (MST was used to detect asymptomatic infection. The prevalence of transmission of infection was 11.4% and approximately 2 times higher in Taounate than in My Yacoub, as measured by MST. Asymptomatic infection was associated with gender, age, presence of familial links, proximity to chickens, and the number of people in the house and locality, but it was not associated to education status, presence of dogs, livestock waste, sewage disposal, water supply system or use of insecticides

Hamid Amarouch

2012-01-01

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Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

Hartas, Dimitra

2011-01-01

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Time trends in socio-economic factors and risk of hospitalisation with infectious diseases in pre-school children 1985-2004 : a Danish register-based study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper respiratory, lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, ear and fever infections. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Children of parents on sick leave or early retirement had an increased risk of being hospitalised with an infection compared with children of employed parents. A clear inverse educational gradient in risk of offspring hospitalisation was also found. From 1985 to 2004 the inverse associations between parental education and risk of hospitalisation grew stronger, whereas the comparatively weaker association between household income and risk of offspring hospitalisation decreased in magnitude. The association between socio-economic status and hospitalisation was strongest for lower respiratory, gastrointestinal and ear infections. This study documented a socially patterned hospitalisation of pre-school children in Denmark. Future studies should investigate possible explanations for the increased risk among children from families with low socio-economic status.

Biering-SØrensen, Sofie; SØndergaard, Grethe

2012-01-01

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SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS OF SWIMMERS OF AGE GROUP OF 10-16 YEARS GIRLS  

OpenAIRE

Socio-economic condition plays an important role in the life and career of sports persons. The author has become curious to study the socio-economic conditions of swimmers in age group of 10-16 years. Hence, this study. It is hoped that the study sheds light on the socio-economic conditions of the swimmers. Questionnaire technique was adopted for this study. Acarefully prepared questionnaire covering the aspects such as educational background of parents and other members of the family, detail...

Sudeep Kumar, R.; Aravinda, T.; ABEDNIGO SUNIL

2013-01-01

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ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ?143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations’ activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises’ reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations.

Ongondo, F.O., E-mail: f.ongondo@soton.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dietrich, J. [Technische Universität Berlin, Centre for Scientific Continuing Education and Cooperation, Cooperation and Consulting for Environmental Questions (kubus) FH10-1, Fraunhoferstraße 33-36, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Carroll, C. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2013-12-15

31

Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that most of the sampled NHIS patrons and non patrons were literate, engaged in meaningful employment, mostly married with average income, and were still in their active ages, and demonstrated meaningful exposure to insurance health information, which enable them to be or not to be active participants of the scheme. From the regression analysis, it was evident that all the variables except religion influenced insurance consumption positively whereas religion affects health insurance consumption negatively. Based on this, we recommended among other things, a re-alignment of health insurance marketing strategies with consumers socio-economic and demographic characteristics, as a measure to boost patronage.Key words: Socio-Economic; Demographic; Health insurance; Consumption

Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

2012-10-01

32

Second-order systems approach to recreation provision in lower socio-economic communities  

OpenAIRE

This study explored recreation provision in lower socio-economic areas from the paradigm of systems theory. It was postulated that by adopting a second-order systems approach rather than perpetuating a first-order systems approach, a positive social impact could be affected. The study was grounded in a qualitative, participatory research design. Data were collected through focus groups, vignette scenarios, semi-structured interviews and empirical observation in two lower socio-economic commun...

Klashorst, Engela; Goslin, Anneliese E.; Wyk, J. G. U.; Kluka, Darlene A.

2012-01-01

33

ROMANIAN VS. EUROPEAN SOCIO-ECONOMIC “IDEAS”  

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Full Text Available This paper highlights the role of socio-economic research in the European Research Area, while putting focus on emerging trends in the field. In the meantime, the paper presents and analysis the projects that won the “Ideas” competition: ERC Advanced Inve

Serbanica Cristina

2009-05-01

34

EFFECT OF PROMOTIONAL MIX ON CONSUMER SOCIO-ECONOMIC VALUES FOR SELECT NONDURABLE GOODS  

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Full Text Available The effect of promotional factors (namely Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion and Public Relation those factors are main factors for the actions of a firm on socio-economic values for consume the non-durable goods and those promotional factors helps to distinguish the products from the competitors. In this study, aim to how promotional factors are effect the consumer’s socio-economic values. Quantitative data was collected using the non-probability self administered questionnaire that consists of questions with 5-points Likert scales distributed to our samples of individuals. By using ANOVA and Ranking Method, it is found that, promotional factors are maintain the close affiliation and significantly difference between the consumers purchase based on their socio-economic values. The results showed that promotional mix factors (namely Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion and Public Relation have positive and significant effect on consumers’ socio-economic values.

M. Vishnu Prasanth

2014-10-01

35

Usos Sociales de la Telenovela por Familias Cubanas de Diferentes Posiciones Socioeconómicas / Social Uses of Soap Operas by Cuban Families of Different Socio-Economics Positions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudio constituye un análisis de los usos sociales de la telenovela brasileña por parte de tres familias cubanas, residentes en La Habana, de diferentes posiciones socioeconómicas (alta, media y baja). Descansa en la perspectiva cualitativa y en el método etnográfico de investigación. Utiliza [...] técnicas tales como la observación participante, la entrevista en profundidad, el completamiento de frases y el grupo de discusión. Da cuenta de los procesos de apropiación y asignación de sentidos en torno a la telenovela. En las tres familias, el melodrama se erige como espacio promotor de entretenimiento, escape de la realidad y de interacciones comunicativas. Las principales diferencias se derivan de factores asociados a la ubicación de las familias en el contexto más amplio que las contiene, así como de los procesos subjetivos que generan estrategias y significaciones singulares por parte de los miembros. Abstract in english This study is an analysis of the social uses of a Brazilian soap opera in three Cuban families -specifically from Havana-from different socioeconomic positions (high, medium, and low). It relies on a qualitative perspective and ethnographic approaches. It also uses techniques such as participant obs [...] ervation, in-depth interviews, completion of sentences, and group discussion. In doing so, the study addresses the processes of appropriation and allocation of meanings around the soap opera. In all three families, melodrama rises as a space for entertainment, a way of escaping reality, and communicative interactions. The main differences arise from factors associated with the location of families in the broader context that contains them, as well as subjective processes that generate unique strategies and meanings by different family members.

Beatriz, Drake Tapia; Yilian, Machado Pérez.

2013-12-01

36

ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises' reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations. PMID:24045170

Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

2013-12-01

37

Socio-economic utility and chemical potential  

CERN Document Server

In statistical physics, the conservation of particle number results in the equalization of the chemical potential throughout a system at equilibrium. In contrast, the homogeneity of utility in socio-economic models is usually thought to rely on the competition between individuals, leading to Nash equilibrium. We show that both views can be reconciled by introducing a notion of chemical potential in a wide class of socio-economic models, and by relating it in a direct way to the equilibrium value of the utility. This approach also allows the dependence of utility across the system to be determined when agents take decisions in a probabilistic way. Numerical simulations of a urban economic model also suggest that our result is valid beyond the initially considered class of solvable models.

Lemoy, Rémi; Jensen, Pablo

2010-01-01

38

Understanding Suicide : A Socio-Economic Approach  

OpenAIRE

This thesis uses a panel of Swedish counties over the years 1976-2007 to investigate the relationship between suicide and a range of socio-economic determinants. Moreover, the thesis is combining sociology and economics in order to understand the part of suicide that can be considered as rational. In addition, suicide is studied separately for total, male and female suicide rates. Contrary to prior research in the field of suicide, this study formally tests for gender differences. Applying a ...

Jasmin, Jusufbegovic; Johan, Ottoson

2011-01-01

39

Socio-economic Impact of Sethusamudram Project  

OpenAIRE

Any major development project has both benefits and disadvantages to the society. Many development projects have very high economic benefit and at the same time lead to environmental hazard. One such project is Sethudamudram project initiated by Government of India. This is a project which aims at minimising the distance of navigation for the goods transport in the sea. This paper is an attempt to study the socio-economic impact of the project based on the secondary data.

Kannan, Srinivasan

2007-01-01

40

The socio-economics of asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Is it healthy to be wealthy? The answer to this simple but provocative question can be found in a wide variety of published studies, which evaluate the socio-economic equity of healthcare and the socio-economic impact of diseases. Studies have focused on avoidable mortality, race and ethnicity, environment and access to healthcare services, and many found supporting facts of the above thesis, mostly based on cardiovascular diseases. But what about asthma? Additional factors such as risk behaviours e.g. smoking, excessive use of beta-agonists or general non-compliance with asthma medication have been investigated and found to be contributing to adverse health outcomes. Prevalence and incidence of asthma is higher in people with high socio-economic status (SES), but disease severity and premature mortality is more than twice as common in populations with low SES. The key to reduce the large socio-economic impact is, therefore, to improve the management of patients with more severe diseases. Because those patients are found more often in low SES groups, new approaches such as community disease management programmes, probably provided by a multi-disciplinary care team, have to be established. Current financial incentives within the largely sectored healthcare system are counterproductive. Furthermore, a better co-ordination of the goals of public healthcare experts with those providing individual 'clinical' healthcare is needed. Clearly communicated healthcare goals are needed to create common incentives and shared visions. Cornerstones of the new disease management efforts are co-ordinated care, high quality innovative medicines and a well-educated patient. This might help improve the implementation of current asthma management knowledge into practice. PMID:11162420

Volmer, T

2001-01-01

41

Grid of Socio-economic Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evaluating effectively the loss caused by flood disaster has theoretical significance and practical value to flood-fighting, emergency rescues, flood relief and post-disaster compensation. However, the regional socioeconomic data affected by flood is usually collected in administrative region in the current flood loss evaluation method. The flood affected area and administrative area boundary do not necessarily match. The accuracy and practicability of flood loss evaluation based on loss rate are not soundly reliable. As an international IT research hotspot, Spatial Information Grid provides a new approach for flood damage assessment. This paper studies the flood loss assessment based on spatial information grid of socio-economic data. First, we establish a flood zone socio-economic data spatial information grid, including flood inundation zone special character mesh, grid cells use ranks number as the two key fields superimposed grid superimposed and flood damage assessment of spatial information grid. Followed by analysis of flood special character of the network division and attribute selection, considering the computational speed and convenience of other factors, taken rule quadrilateral partition method to divide the flood special character mesh, chose elevation, water depth, water velocity, water pollution degree of flood special Network personality attributes and based on GIS technology to generate a flood special character mesh. Then through the analysis of different disaster bodies submerged under different circumstances the loss difference, the loss rate is established based on flood damage assessment model. Finally, ArcEngine developed using C# and socio-economic data based on the realization of the spatial information grid flood damage assessment systems and use of heavy rainfall Poyang Lake county flood damage assessment data were calculated. The example shows that, based on socio-economic data for spatial information grid flood damage assessment methodology applied not only spatial information grid technology and flooded the area with flood damage to the region’s socio-economic data organically combined, so that it can quickly and accurately ground for inundated areas to assess the economic loss calculation. But how to select the appropriate grid scales and combining hydrological dynamics model enables more accurate flood special character network is the next step needs to continue to improve the research content.

Liu Xiaosheng

2013-01-01

42

Promoting Positive Parenting Practices through Parenting Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The family is the crucible of a young child's development. The 2000 Institute of Medicine report From Neurons to Neighborhoods shows that positive developmental interactions with parents improve young children's social competence and their overall capacity to learn. Fifty-four percent of parents want more information on how they can help their…

Zepeda, Marlene; Varela, Frances; Morales, Alex

2004-01-01

43

Jubba Environmental and Socio-economic Studies (JESS). Volume 3. Socio-economic studies. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Government of the Somali Democratic Republic (GSDR), with the support of the international donor community, is prepared to launch a comprehensive program for the development of Jubba Valley. The keystone of the program is construction of a dam on the Jubba River near Baardheere. Planners have been looking toward construction of the dam, among other things, to increase agricultural output by fostering irrigation development. The objectives of the Socio-economic Baseline Study (SEBS) report are to: present a body of a new information on socio-economic life in Jubba Valley; assess the impact of development efforts on socio-economic life; recommend measures to enhance beneficial impacts and mitigate adverse ones; and propose a program to monitor the progress of those impacts and interventions.

1989-01-01

44

Validity of two simple measures for estimating life-course socio-economic position in cross-sectional postal survey data in an older population: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Since few cohorts encompass the whole life-course, many studies that measure socio-economic position (SEP across the life-course rely on participant recall of SEP measures from cross-sectional postal or interview surveys. It is also particularly important that SEP measures should be appropriate for the age of the population studied, as the level of missing data has been shown to increase in older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of recall of two SEP measures in older adults, age left school and longest job, by examining their validity in a general population postal survey in North Staffordshire, UK. Methods Sets of questions on education and longest job were included in a questionnaire at different stages of the study. All patients aged 50+ registered with three general practices were sent a baseline Health Questionnaire. 6?years later, 3410 responders were mailed a follow-up Health Questionnaire; a sub-sample of these participants took part in independent qualitative interviews. Validity was assessed by: percentage completion; internal percentage agreement within each set of questions; percentage agreement of qualitative and quantitative data for age left school and longest job; comparing recall of age left school with historical change in legal school leaving age; comparing frequency of pottery job titles with those in 1981 Census data for Stoke-on-Trent. Results The adjusted response to different stages of the study was 71–85%. Completion of questions was 83–98%. Internal agreement was 84–97% (education and 95–100% (longest job. Comparison of survey and interview data showed 86% agreement (± 1?year for age left school and 91% agreement for longest job. The change in age left school data concurred with the historical shift in legal school leaving age. 11% of job titles were pottery in NorStOP data and 15% in Stoke-on-Trent Census data. Conclusions The results from this study provide evidence for the accuracy of recall of two simple measures of SEP (age left school and longest job in a postal survey of older adults. Consistency with evidence from external datasets indicated the potential validity of these measures for studying life-course SEP in population surveys.

Lacey Rosie J

2012-06-01

45

Indicators of socio-economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Work elaborates indicators witch refers to socio - economic development. In the first part of work it is stated indicators which different authors are used. These indicators are used in empirical researches and in some sources there are theoretically treated. In the second part it is with the aid of induction method performed separation of indicators. It is elaborated economics, social, technological and indicators of urbanization. In the part of economical indicators are elaborated: national income per capita, structure of activities, level of expending.

Adamovi? Jelka M.

2002-01-01

46

Socio-economic expenditure impacts report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

47

Sustainable Livestock Farming for Improving Socio-Economic Condition  

OpenAIRE

Sustainability is the most effective concept to improve socio-economic condition, including environment. Constructive socio-economic changes are getting priority in recent years among academia and business sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh poultry sub-sector has long supply chains having associated with various stakeholders. In this paper, a case poultry farm was taken to examine a production process that links with socio-economic benefits. Design science method under the quantitative paradigm...

Mohammad Shamsuddoha; Mohammed Quaddus; Desmond Klass

2013-01-01

48

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situ [...] ation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch's approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D., Ncho; Susan C.D., Wright.

2013-01-01

49

Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

50

Breast cancer and socio-economic factors  

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Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW; Gross domestic product (GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $; computed tomography (CT for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP ? CT=60.3% (sign.0.00. The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010 on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.

Anees B. Chagpar

2012-01-01

51

SOCIO ECONOMIC SITUATION OF DALITS & INCLUSIVE GROWTH  

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Full Text Available Dalits are being punished by God for sins in a previous life. Under the religious codes of Hinduism a Dalit only hope is to be a good servant of the high caste and upon death and rebirth. They will be reincarnated a high caste. The Dalit status has often been historically associated with occupations regarded as ritually impure. Such as any involving leatherwork. Butchering or removal of rubbish animal carcasses and waste. Dalits work as manual labourers cleaning streets. Latrines, and Screws engaging in these activities were considered to be polluting to the individual and this pollution was considered contagious almost 90 percent of Dalits live in rural areas economic exploitation remains their most acute problem they are almost all marginal farmers or landless labourers. Large number of migrate to cities or to labour scarce rural areas in different parts of India. Many are in debt and are obliged to work off their debts as bonded labourers despite the fact that this practice was abolished by the law in 1976. Dalit workers have joined labour unions or made progress in gaining education and economic mobility. Many Dalit families have left rural areas to live in slums and on the pavements; Inclusive growth has become the buzzword in policy-spheres with recent phenomenon of rapid growth with characteristic patterns of exclusion. The social inequalities have raised questions about welfare approaches of Government planning, Employment generation programmes, social development, infrastructure, health-care and rural diversification very much important especially for the Dalits. This paper highlights the origin of Dalits, Need, socio-economic situation, Inclusive growth and the objectives of the paper is to know the socio-economic situation of dalits, employment generation programmes and various elements of inclusive growth.

Vikramsingh

2014-04-01

52

SOCIO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HIV INFECTED VICTIMS OF VINDHYA REGION  

OpenAIRE

In the research report we have studied the relationships between socio-economic factors and HIV prevalence in Rewa and Mauganj of Rewa district of Vindhya region of Madhya Pradesh using district level data and also analyzed the drivers of the epidemic and found out what socio-economic and other factors make people susceptible to HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection.

Hamendra Kumar Verma; Pandey, Devendra N.

2014-01-01

53

The socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english South African National Parks (SANParks) plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact [...] on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park, namely Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor's survey (156 respondents), a community survey (132 respondents) and a business survey (11 respondents). We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.

Susan, Oberholzer; Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Elmarie, Slabbert.

54

Socio-economic effects of bioenergy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report studies the socio-economic effects and benefits of domestic fuels - peat and wood, and agricultural energy plants also - in power and heat generation. For evaluation of employment and income effects, it compares the costs of domestic as well a imported fuels as regards production, transportation and power stations by looking especially at the direct labour input and inputs in terms of intermediate products and investment. Their indirect employment effects and allocation to domestic factor income and imports are introduced by means of an input-output model. The net changes in the disposable incomes of local households, firms and municipalities, the government and others are derived from factor incomes by means of income redistribution. The economy-wide profitability of the domestic fuels was evaluated using a macroeconomic model, the FMS model system. The particular question posed was how much the domestic fuels could cost at most to be economically profitable. It was shown that macroeconomic profitability is affected essentially by real production costs and the import prices of the imported fuels. Subsidies and differentiated fuel taxes have only little impact on the macroeconomic profitability although they change the private profitability of the fuels considerably. This is why fuel taxes were excluded in the macroeconomic profitability evaluations

55

“A Study Of Socio-economic Status And Academic Achievement, kendriya Vidyalayas Of Dibrugarh District”  

OpenAIRE

Educational achievement is only an aspect of development among many sides. Academic achievement may be influenced by various socio-economic factors like age, gender, family size, parent's education and occupation and also by economic status of the family. Without having opportunities it is not possible to achieve something in any sphere of life. The main objective of this study is to study the academic achievement of the students of Class X ,CBSE Examination, 2011-12 of the Kendriya Vidyalaya...

Haimya Gohain

2012-01-01

56

Elucidating the spatially varying relation between cervical cancer and socio-economic conditions in England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR was applied to the relation between cervical cancer disease incidence rates in England and socio-economic deprivation, social status and family structure covariates. Local parameters were estimated which describe the spatial variation in the relations between incidence and socio-economic covariates. Results A global (stationary regression model revealed a significant correlation between cervical cancer incidence rates and social status. However, a local (non-stationary GWPR model provided a better fit with less spatial correlation (positive autocorrelation in the residuals. Moreover, the GWPR model was able to represent local variation in the relations between cervical cancer incidence and socio-economic covariates across space, whereas the global model represented only the overall (or average relation for the whole of England. The global model could lead to misinterpretation of the relations between cervical cancer incidence and socio-economic covariates locally. Conclusions Cervical cancer incidence was shown to have a non-stationary relationship with spatially varying covariates that are available through national datasets. As a result, it was shown that if low social status sectors of the population are to be targeted preferentially, this targeting should be done on a region-by-region basis such as to optimize health outcomes. While such a strategy may be difficult to implement in practice, the research does highlight the inequalities inherent in a uniform intervention approach.

Cheng Edith MY

2011-09-01

57

MARITAL CONFLICTS: EFFECT OF FAMILY ECOLOGY AND SOCIO- ECONOMIC STATUS  

OpenAIRE

The present study was conducted to investigate the marital conflicts among 240 couples of Jammu City having high, middle and low socio- economic status. Random sampling technique was used for sample selection and data was collected using interview guide. The results of the study revealed that marital conflicts exist in all the selected families. The main reason for marital conflicts in high socio- economic group was business tours of husbands, while conflicts due to needs of childr...

SAMRIDHI ARORA AND RASHMI CHADHA

2012-01-01

58

The Socio-Economic Background Of The Hotel Workers  

OpenAIRE

The socio-economic background of the hotel workers decides about the different social and economic reasons, for which these workers joined to hotel work. Hence, the present section attempted to know about the socio-economic background of the hotel workers. Urbanization, industrialization, and modernization have brought rtimerous changes in Western societies, after industrial revolution. Industrial Revolution contributed towards establishing colonial regimes in Asia and Africa. The Society exp...

Atik-ur-rahaman S.M.

2012-01-01

59

Courts and the enforcement of socio-economic rights in Malawi: Jurisprudential trends, challenges and opportunities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Socio-economic rights are of special significance in a developing country such as Malawi. The framers of the Malawian Constitution included the right to development in the country's Bill of Rights. The right to development is not only included as a self-standing right, but is also a conduit for the [...] guarantee of equal access to a range of other socio-economic rights. Regrettably, the record of judicial enforcement of these rights subsequent to 1994 is disappointing. Only in a few cases, largely focusing on a narrow range of rights such as property, work, economic activity and, to a lesser extent, education, have courts directly and significantly dealt with socio-economic rights. Such consideration has also been deficient as courts have failed to develop the content of the rights and to define the nature of the obligations of both the state as well as non-state actors in relation to socio-economic rights. There has been little or no attempt to apply norms of international human rights law and comparable foreign case law. Worse still, in some related cases, courts have stated that they will not deal with any issues that raise policy considerations as such matters are outside the province of judicial competence. This is a problematic approach that could stultify the development of socio-economic rights jurisprudence. The Masangano case, however, offers some hope as it represents the first real attempt to address key socio-economic rights issues such as access to food, clothing, adequate housing and healthcare, albeit in relation to prisoners. While the final decision ultimately turned on cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment, the High Court of Malawi made some definitive affirmations of the guarantee of a number of these key rights and presented a first real attempt to fashion a time-bound remedy, that also required the state to take positive steps in allocating sufficient resources for the realisation of socio-economic rights for prisoners. The Masangano case represents a good stepping stone upon which courts can stand in developing more systematic and sophisticated jurisprudence on socioeconomic rights in Malawi.

Redson E, Kapindu.

2013-01-01

60

Homogamy in socio-economic background and education, and the dissolution of cohabiting unions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Despite the increasing prevalence of cohabitation, knowledge of how socio-economic homogamy affects the stability of cohabiting unions is scant. Few studies have compared the effects of homogamy in both ascribed and achieved socio-economic status on union dissolution. Objective: Our aim is to determine how homogamy and heterogamy in educational level and parental social class affect the risk of cohabitation dissolution in Finland. Methods: We use unique Finnish register data that includes information on non-marital cohabitation. Cox regression is used to analyse the risk of dissolution in 20,452 cohabitations. We examine the dissolution rates in all possible combinations of partner status, and analyse how these estimates deviate from the main effects of each partner's status. Results: According to the findings, homogamy in parental social class is of little consequence in cohabitation dissolution, although cohabitations between people from upper-white-collar and farmer families are disproportionately likely to dissolve. Educational differences between partners are more significant determinants of cohabitation stability: extreme heterogamy is associated with an increased separation risk, and homogamy decreases the separation risk among cohabitors with a higher university degree. Conclusions: In line with the perception that personal achievement is more significant than social origins in contemporary union dynamics, similarity in educational level increases cohabitation stability more than similarity in socio-economic origin. Although previous Nordic studies report little or no association between educational homogamy or heterogamy and marriage dissolution, our study shows that educational differences do matter in cohabiting unions.

Elina Mäenpää

2014-06-01

61

SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS OF SWIMMERS OF AGE GROUP OF 10-16 YEARS GIRLS  

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Full Text Available Socio-economic condition plays an important role in the life and career of sports persons. The author has become curious to study the socio-economic conditions of swimmers in age group of 10-16 years. Hence, this study. It is hoped that the study sheds light on the socio-economic conditions of the swimmers. Questionnaire technique was adopted for this study. Acarefully prepared questionnaire covering the aspects such as educational background of parents and other members of the family, details about place of dwelling, possession of movable and immovable property, cash, membership of the family with sports and social organizations, type and income of the family, habits of family members such as food, reading, recreation, religion, domestic and pet animals and birds reared, participation and training in sports and the social recognition accorded to them. The questionnaire was administered to 100 girl swimmers between the age group of 10-16 years. The data collected were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted to draw conclusions.

SUDEEP KUMAR.R

2013-03-01

62

Harrod Model and Modelling of Socio-Economic Processes  

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Full Text Available Harrod method in the differential form has a discrete character and the resulting growth of economy exponentially is insubstantial. The mistake is based on adjunction of the capital and annual income through a constant ratio. This becomes clear from the positions of study of dimensionality of the used values, which is knowingly avoided in the mathematical economy. Representation of the capital through intensity of income in categories of continuous analysis is quite naturally realised with the help of the Steklov function. It forms a correct Harrod method (CHM, which, unlike the above mentioned exponent, results in inevitability of economic crises, however, the moments of their appearance are calculable. The Steklov function allows generalisation by means of the component designed for monitoring of the economic situation with the aim to specify model parameters. Refraction of CHM to the balance of participants of the economic system in cost interpretation is quite fruitful. The obtained model is a system of differential equations of the first order with variable ratios. Due to this the article formulates general principles of modelling of socio-economic processes.

Chernyshov Sergey I.

2013-11-01

63

Socio-economic Impacts on Flooding: A 4000-Year History of the Yellow River, China  

OpenAIRE

We analyze 4000-year flood history of the lower Yellow River and the history of agricultural development in the middle river by investigating historical writings and quantitative time series data of environmental changes in the river basin. Flood dynamics are characterized by positive feedback loops, critical thresholds of natural processes, and abrupt transitions caused by socio-economic factors. Technological and organizational innovations were dominant driving forces of the flood history. ...

Chen, Yunzhen; Syvitski, James P. M.; Gao, Shu; Overeem, Irina; Kettner, Albert J.

2012-01-01

64

The Relationship Between Energy and Socio-Economic Development in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean  

OpenAIRE

This report aims to identify, explain and detail the links and interactions in Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries (SEMCs) between energy supply and demand and socio-economic development, as well as the potential role of energy supply and demand policies on both. Another related aim is to identify and analyse, in a quantitative and qualitative way, the changing role of energy (both demand and supply) in southern Mediterranean economies, focusing on its positive and negative impact on...

Bergasse, Emmanuel; Paczynski, Wojciech; Dabrowski, Marek; Wulf, Luc

2013-01-01

65

Personality, work, and satisfaction: evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel  

OpenAIRE

Previous studies in positive psychology have indicated that work satisfaction is an important determinant of individual well-being. Research has suggested that people are most satisfied with their work when they are doing what they are drawn to naturally. We provide further evidence on this issue from a large representative data set, the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). The 2005 wave of the SOEP contains a battery of personality questions as well as detailed information on personal life an...

Winkelmann, Liliana; Winkelmann, Rainer

2008-01-01

66

Communicability and Communities in Complex Socio-Economic Networks  

CERN Document Server

The concept of communicability is introduced for complex socio-economic networks. The communicability function expresses how an impact propagates from one place to another in the network. This function is used to define unambiguously the concept of socio-economic community. The concept of temperature in complex socio-economic networks is also introduced as a way of accounting for the external stresses to which such systems are submitted. This external stress can change dramatically the structure of the communities in a network. We analyze here a trade network of countries exporting 'miscellaneous manufactures of metal.' We determine the community structure of this network showing that there are 27 communities with diverse degree of overlapping. When only communities with less than 80% of overlap are considered we found 5 communities which are well characterized in terms of geopolitical relationships. The analysis of external stress on these communities reveals that several countries are very much influenced b...

Estrada, Ernesto

2009-01-01

67

Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country's socio-economic status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with v [...] arious socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI), the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP) among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

Gyan P., Sharma; Karen J., Esler; James N., Blignaut.

2010-04-01

68

Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ? Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ? Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ? “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ? A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ? Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Sociantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

69

A socio-economic assessment of proposed road user charging schemes in Copenhagen  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Road pricing. congestion charging, toll-systems and other road charging instruments are intensively discussed in many countries. Although many partial analyses of the consequences have been published, few overall socio-economic analyses have been carried out. The article presents such a socio-economic analysis of four different proposed road pricing schemes for the Copenhagen area. The purpose was to assess all benefits and costs involved, including impacts on traffic and environment, maintenance and financing costs as well as tax distortion effects. It was concluded that the socio-economic surplus of the projects depends crucially on the congestion level. With the Current traffic level, road pricing will not yet be socially expedient in Copenhagen. However, if the opening year is postponed to 2015, the two most favourable schemes will turn positive. The analyses also showed that the magnitude of demand response by introducing road pricing is likely to have significant impact on the project surplus. This is an important observation because most shore term driven traffic models will then underestimate the projected surplus. Finally, it was found that the degree to which benefits outweigh costs depends considerably on the use of revenue. Although it may contribute to decreasing road congestion, recycling all of the revenue back to the transport sector turned out to be inefficient and costly.

Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

2007-01-01

70

Investigation of Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects of Taleghan Dam Using Structural Equation Modeling  

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Full Text Available Today water supply issue in large cities seems to be a big problem. This becomes more important with population growth and urbanization extension. To cope with this problem lots of irrigation and drainage projects have been implemented and operated that subsequently many socio- economic and cultural effects have been brought to the areas . The objective of the present study is to survey the socio - economic and environmental effects of Taleghan dam to compare the two periods before and after the dam construction. The needed data have been gathered by use of a questionnaire and by interviewing 400 samples in the irrigation and drainage network’s region of Taleghan Dam, and encoded questions and outcome data have been analyzed in spss and lisrel software. The results showed an economic development in the region, but some factors like, lack of trust, lack of economic advantages and deficiency of facilities, decrease villagers’ willingness to invest. 63.3% of region’s environmental pollution has been increased mainly by the tourists. Not only is there no increase in Water sources but also they have been decreased. 98% of individuals declared that the people were not questioned in construction projects. About the coefficient of dam’s effect on region’s socio- economic and environmental development, the villagers have declared that the dam construction had no positive effect on region’s development.

Vali Borimnejad

2014-09-01

71

The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

2014-10-01

72

Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

2004-01-01

73

Socio-economic drivers in implementing bioenergy projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the international community there is considerable interest in the socio-economic implications of moving society towards the more widespread use of renewable energy resources. Such change is seen to be very necessary but is often poorly communicated to people and communities who need to accept such changes. There are pockets of activity across the world looking at various approaches to understand this fundamental matter. Typically, socio-economic implications are measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment and monetary gains, but in effect the analysis relates to a number of aspects which include social, cultural, institutional, and environmental issues. The extremely complex nature of bioenergy, many different technologies involved and a number of different, associated aspects (socio-economics, greenhouse gas mitigation potential, environment, ?) make this whole topic a complex subject. This paper is primarily a descriptive research and review of literature on employment and other socio-economic aspects of bioenergy systems as drivers for implementing bioenergy projects. Due to the limited information, this paper does not provide absolute quantification on the multiplier effects of local and or national incomes of any particular country or region. The paper intends to trigger a more in-depth discussion of data gaps, potentials, opportunities and challenges. An encouraging trend is that in many countries policy makers are beginning to perceive the licy makers are beginning to perceive the potential economic benefits of commercial biomass e.g. employment/earnings, regional economic gain, contribution to security of energy supply and all others

74

Socio-economic conditions in selected biosphere reserves.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 12, ?. 3 (2006), s. 157-169. ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nature protection * socio-economic conditions * biosphere reserves * sustainable development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

Kušová, Drahomíra; T?šitel, Jan; Mat?jka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

2006-01-01

75

Socio-economic analysis in the transport sector  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This compendium is intended to be a tool for students in conducting socio-economic appraisals in the transport sector following the recommendations made by the Danish Manual for Socio-economic Appraisal (DMT, 2003). The appraisal process is in this compendium outlined as a step-by-step process which is adaptable to all types of infrastructure related problems, and which can be used for decision support on both the administrative as well as the political level. In the administrative decision process the socio-economic analysis provides a foundation for a systematic examination of which project types or initiatives that are socio-economically most suitable for handling a specific infrastructure problem. Hence, the socio-economic appraisal can help undertaking a sound selection of the possible solutions that should be examined in further details. The socio-economic analysis is as well an important element in the political decision process. The analysis provides information about how the society’s resources – from an economic viewpoint – are used in the best possible way, and how costs and benefits are distributed between e.g. the state, the users and the environment. The society does not have unlimited economic resources. Thus it is necessary to prioritise between the many projects and initiatives which are being discussed in the public sector. In order to conduct such a comprehensive prioritisation (across different sectors or within the same sector) it is a precondition that a systematic evaluation of the projects/proposals/initiatives’ advantages and disadvantages is carried out. For many years cost-benefit analysis (CBA) has been used as the main tool for the purpose of economic comparison not only in Denmark but also in many other countries around the world. Investment projects that have been prepared thoroughly and evaluated to have a high socio-economic return seem to be able to obtain political acceptance more easily than projects that have not been evaluated through this type of assessment. On the other hand socio-economic assessments can also be used to turn down projects that do not show a satisfactory return. In the political prioritisation process other considerations of a political, environmental or economic character may influence the decision making. Some of these are not traditionally a part of the socioeconomic assessment, but are instead used as a supplement in the final decision phase. The socioeconomic assessment strives towards valuing all advantages and disadvantages of a project. On the background of this the project’s value for the society is calculated. This value can afterwards be compared to the values for other projects. The socio-economic appraisal is one of the most basic and tangible contributions to the planning and decision process within the transport sector when an initiative’s advantages and disadvantages are to be evaluated. The appraisal can be used both for political decision making as well as internally in organisations with planning related tasks.

2015-01-01

76

Pubertal timing and health-related behaviours in adolescence - socio- economic outcomes in a follow-up study from Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background. Pubertal timing is connected with health-related lifestyle in adulthood. We studied whether early or late pubertal timing is predictive of socio-economic outcomes in early adulthood and whether the associations are mediated by health behaviours.

Methods. Survey data (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987 from samples of 14-year-old Finns (N=4246, response rate 85% were linked with respondents’ attained educational level, socio-economic and labour market position in 2001 (ages 28-34. Ages of menarche and first ejaculation indicated pubertal timing.

Results. As compared to adolescents with average age pubertal timing, boys and girls maturing at an early age more often participated in health-compromising behaviours, while those maturing at a later age participated less frequently. Pubertal timing was not associated with attained educational level or socioeconomic position in girls and not with labour market position at the time of follow-up in either sex. In boys, independently of health behaviours, early or late onset of puberty predicted low educational level, while late onset predicted low socio-economic position.

Conclusion. Timing of puberty has a stronger connection with socio-economic outcomes in boys than in girls. Deviance from the normative pace of physical development, especially late maturation, is among boys slightly depicted in the hierarchy of socio-economic positions of the society. As pubertal timing is connected with health-related behaviours – especially with smoking – the pacing of developmental transitions should be considered in planning programmes preventing unhealthy behavioural patterns often linked with negative attitudes towards schooling.

Leena K Koivusilta

2006-03-01

77

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

OpenAIRE

The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study wa...

Ncho, Claudette D.; Wright, Susan C. D.

2013-01-01

78

Does childcare influence socio-economic inequalities in unintentional injury? Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background: In recent decades the proportion of infants and young children being cared for in childcare has increased. Little is known about the impact that non-parental care has on childhood unintentional injury and whether this varies by socio-economic group. Methods: Using data from a contemporary UK cohort of children at age 9 months (N=18,114) and 3 years (N=13,718), we used Poisson regression to explore the association between childcare type (p...

Pearce, Anna; Li, Leah; Abbas, Jake; Ferguson, Brian; Graham, Hilary; Law, Catherine

2010-01-01

79

Socio-economic status of Muslim women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian sociological literature neglects the role of women in social relationships within the family system, their status in society, and the interactions between Indian minorities and the majority community. Indian institutions and cultural norms have perpetuated the role of Indian women as subservient. Orthodox Muslims uphold the low position of women as a symbol of cultural identity. Indian Muslims have tried to prevent conversion and integration of other views, but have failed to eliminate the Hindu influence on the general pattern of living, the system of social stratification, and customs and attitudes regarding women. Muslims hold conformist ideals and beliefs from the Quran and the Hadis. Although Indian women live under the Hindu Code Bill that gives equal rights to women, most Muslim women are restricted under the Muslim Personal Law. Muslims who are ignorant of the Quran are unaware of the allowances in the Shariat for social adjustment, change, and accommodation. In fact, Indian Muslim communities follow four different Shariats: the Hanafi, the Shaafi, the Hambali, and the Maliki. Islamic scholars state that the Shariat is not unchangeable. There is also disparity between the actual practice of polygamy and the Quran's strict provision that all wives must be treated equally. Islamic practices have been manipulated to suit male interests. Indian Muslims are either Ashrafs or nonAshrafs. Ashrafs are the upper social class and are made up of the Sayyads, the Sheikhs, the Mughals, and the Pathans, in descending order of hierarchy. There are differences in the treatment of women within this stratification. For instance, many nonAshraf women do not observe purdah, but the tendency among the Ashraf is to impose purdah. PMID:12347368

Bhatty, Z

1994-01-01

80

Danube - the Common Way between Great Socio-Economic Disparities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the idea that a common river-Danube- can cover a lot of disparities connected to socio-economic, cultural, historical and religious approaches. As a result, the analysis in the paper is focused on economic disparities in all Danube countries, even that they are members or not of the EU27. The analysis is based on the latest official statistical data and is followed by a forecast for 2013-2014 in order to observe if the disparities will decrease or not. The main conclusion of the paper is that Danube can be a way and an instrument to solve regional disparities. The same Danube River can support a better socio-economic integration of the Danube countries, as well.

Romeo Ionescu

2013-08-01

81

The Socio-Economic Background Of The Hotel Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The socio-economic background of the hotel workers decides about the different social and economic reasons, for which these workers joined to hotel work. Hence, the present section attempted to know about the socio-economic background of the hotel workers. Urbanization, industrialization, and modernization have brought rtimerous changes in Western societies, after industrial revolution. Industrial Revolution contributed towards establishing colonial regimes in Asia and Africa. The Society experienced structural changes and brought a phenomenal change in human relations. It is for the first time the Western liberal ideas travelled the Asian and African nationalities'. Colonialism brought East and West together and encouraged cultural give and take between them. New occupations and industries emerged in almost all societies in the world. The traditional set up of the society was seriously disturbed. India was one of the important colony of the Britishers.

Atik-ur-rahaman S.M

2012-10-01

82

Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption  

OpenAIRE

This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that...

Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

2012-01-01

83

Socio-Economic Rights: Legally Enforceable or Just Aspirational?  

OpenAIRE

Although the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 cited social welfare rights without distinguishing them from civil and political rights, the separation has been widely accepted by judges, scholars and politicians. Historically, the classification of human rights into two groups, with the relegation of socio-economic rights into a lower category of human rights, emerged and developed mainly after the 1950s during the Cold War and ultimately led to the adoption of two separate UN Cov...

Ilias Trispiotis

2010-01-01

84

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4% of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.

Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

How to cite this article: Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Ferreira, M., 2009, ‘The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park’, Koedoe 51(1, Art. #158, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v51i1.158

Madelien Ferreira

2009-01-01

85

Assessing Socio-economic Values of Protected Forest Areas.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Víde? : BFW, Vienna, Austria, 2007 - (Frank, G.; Parvainen, J.; Vandekerhove, K.; Latham, J.; Schuck, A.; Little, D.), s. 69-88 ISBN 987-3-901347-67-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC E27.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Forest protected areas, socio-economic analyses, limiting, benefits , compensation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

Montiel, C.; Domínguez, G.; Cudlín, Pavel; Frank, G.; Hahn, A.; Johann, E.; Latham, J.; Pesonen, E.

86

Socio-economic resources, relationship processes, and separation  

OpenAIRE

This thesis consists of three empirical papers that all study relationship processes and their effects on divorce. Of particular interest is the role that socio-economic resources play in this story. In the first empirical paper of this thesis I investigate why there exists a negative correlation between women’s education and the risk of divorce. The second paper addresses whether the correlation between income and separation is causal by looking at the effects of lottery wins. The last emp...

Boertien, Diederik

2013-01-01

87

Socio-economic inequalities: a statistical physics perspective  

CERN Document Server

Socio-economic inequalities are manifested in different aspects of our social life. We discuss various aspects, beginning with the evolutionary and historical origins, and discussing the major issues from the social and economic point of view. The subject has attracted scholars from across various disciplines, including physicists, who bring in a unique perspective to the field. The major attempts to analyze the results, address the causes, and understand the origins using statistical tools and statistical physics concepts are discussed.

Chatterjee, Arnab

2014-01-01

88

Psychological well-being and socio-economic hardship among AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children in Guinea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, the effects of AIDS-related parental death on children's socio-economic, educational and psychological well-being have become apparent. Most studies, however, have compared the plight of so-called AIDS orphans with non-orphaned children only. Consequently, such study designs are unable to establish if the AIDS-related cause of death of the parents confers effects additional to those of parent-bereavement. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the psychological well-being and socio-economic hardship among 140 non-orphaned children, 133 children orphaned by causes other than AIDS (O) and 124 children orphaned by AIDS (O-A) in Conakry, N'Zerekore and the villages around N'Zerekore, Guinea. Multi-way analysis of variance and multiple (ordinal) logistic regression models were applied to measure the association between the orphan status and psychological well-being, school attendance, economic activities, frequency of going to bed hungry and sleeping commodity. After adjustment for confounding factors, the psychological well-being score (PWS) was significantly lower among AIDS-orphaned children than among O (Pattendance and the proportion of children with a bed or couch to sleep between AIDS-orphaned children and O were not statistically significant. This situation calls for sustainable and holistic approaches to ensure the psychological and socio-economic stability of AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children. PMID:20024728

Delva, Wim; Vercoutere, An; Loua, Catherine; Lamah, Jonas; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Koker, Petra; Claeys, Patricia; Temmerman, Marleen; Annemans, Lieven

2009-12-01

89

Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.

A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

2014-01-01

90

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the St. Lucie nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

91

Psychosocial correlates of leisure-time walking among Australian adults of lower and higher socio-economic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adults of lower socio-economic status (SES) participate less in physical activity than those of higher SES. Understanding the correlates of physical activity participation and how these may differ between socio-economic groups can inform policies and physical activity promotion strategies. The psychosocial correlates of leisure-time walking (the most common voluntary physical activity of adults) were assessed using a survey of 2488 randomly sampled Australian adults (response rate = 74.2%). Among respondents of higher SES, there were higher levels of positive cognitions towards physical activity, and walking for leisure was more prevalent than among those of lower SES. Relationships of psychosocial attributes with leisure-time walking differed by SES. The strongest correlate of leisure-time walking was perceived barriers for lower SES adults and enjoyment for those of higher SES. Social support from friends was associated with walking for both groups, while the effect of support from family was significant only for adults of lower SES. Strategies influencing leisure-time walking may have to target the specific needs of different socio-economic groups. For example, removing perceived barriers may be more appropriate to promote walking among lower SES adults. Interventions tailored for lower SES groups may help close the socio-economic gap in physical activity participation. PMID:19307317

Janssen, Eva; Sugiyama, Takemi; Winkler, Elisabeth; de Vries, Hein; te Poel, Fam; Owen, Neville

2010-04-01

92

The socio-economic significance of four phonetic characteristics in North American English  

OpenAIRE

This paper uses a least-square regression method that relates per-capita income to four phonetic characteristics (r-dropping, and the so-called father-bother, cot-caught and pin-pen mergers), to study the socio-economic significance of those characteristics in North American English. As a result we find a positive and statistically significant relationship between per-capita income and r-dropping, and between per-capita income and the presence of the cot-caught merger, and a negative and stat...

Coloma, Germa?n

2011-01-01

93

Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of smoking in this environment in 2009. Low education (in women) and ownership of household assets (in men) were negatively associated with smoking continuation, whereas a positive association was found for personal monthly income. Our findings suggest that in a low-income setting where efficient cessation services are absent, reduced cigarette affordability may have only a limited effect in cutting down smoking. PMID:25070072

Leinsalu, Mall; Stickley, Andrew; Kunst, Anton E

2014-07-27

94

Comparing socio-economic benefits and risks of chemicals using socio-economic analysis in the context of REACH  

OpenAIRE

According to the definition given by the European Chemicals Agency1 , socio-economic analysis (SEA) is a method to evaluate what costs and benefits an action will create for society by comparing what will happen if this action is implemented as compared to the situation where it is not. The analysis typically attempts to include also those effects that are indirect or incompletely reflected by market transactions.

Brignon, Jean-marc

2008-01-01

95

Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65 who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level, television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status, social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities. Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the neighborhood and promoting friend support for activity.

Teychenne Megan

2012-01-01

96

Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development Over Time  

OpenAIRE

We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59 years) were assessed on three occasions, with 2-year lags between each assessment. Parent personality and observed positive parenting both predicted 12...

Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

2012-01-01

97

The design and realization of a socio-economic statistical spatio-temporal database  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aims to introduce a case of Socio-economic statistical Spatio-temporal Database. This database system services in the rural socio-economic statistical work, which is a combination of statistical tables, spatial data, search algorithm and maintenance interface. Administrative codes are the conjunction media of spatial data and attribute data, and also are the key words of database query processing. Through storing the changing information in the database, it could reflect the change of administrative divisions. As the main issues of database design, the studying of the approach to recording and querying these changes as well as the processing of statistical data by the rules of administrative divisions changes, requires a large amount of research work. To address these problems, a series of management analysis tools have been developed to deal with the processing of socio-economic statistical data with changes in the administrative division. A searching algorithm of spatio-temporal database is used to ensure the comparability of the results, which are acquired by the positive sequence and the anti-sequence temporal query under complex spatial changes in the administrative division. According to the spatial changes, searching algorithm of spatio-temporal database mainly translates temporal series statistical data into standard format data which is matched to the benchmark year. The searching algorithm controls the process of inquiry through recursion of the table of the administrative code changes, which are composed of multi-way tree structure and double linked list and record the relationship between upper and lower level administrative units. These search algorithms and meta-data storage structures constitute the spatio-temporal database, so as to serve the spatial analysis of statistical data. The comparability problem mentioned above was well solved by this approach. And a set of functions was provided by this system with spatio-temporal database, such as specialization of statistical data, temporal query, spatial data which can be automatically updated, and maintenance interface.

Yang, Cankun; Li, Xiaojuan; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Haibo

2010-11-01

98

Poverty and Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Africa: The Nigerian Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a growing incidence of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. Poverty is a multidimensional social phenomenon that can be analytically divided into two main perspectives: human poverty which is the lack of human capabilities and income poverty, which is the lack of income necessary to satisfy basic need e.g. poor life expectancy, poor maternal health, illiteracy, poor nutritional levels, poor access to safe drinking water and perceptions of well-being. The paper examines several initiatives focused on poverty eradication that Nigeria have adopted through national actions to fight both human and income poverty. In analysizing the issues raised, we anchored the paper on an eclectic approach of radical, Marxist model of political economy and the social exclusion theories. The study established among others, that a lot of effort has been made in poverty reduction through poverty alleviation programs in Nigeria. However, it is of knowledge that in spite of the previous efforts of various governments to alleviate poverty in Nigeria and the efforts of the current government to effect same, nothing much had changed in the living conditions and standards of the people. Poverty is still growing at an alarming rate. The challenges of poverty alleviation strategies in the Nigerian situation were articulated in the context of sustainable socio-economic development and the paper concludes that poverty alleviation in contemporary Nigeria require both socio-economic policies geared towards sustainable development. However, to enhance the human capital of the poor in particular, priorities for educational reforms should be in the areas of basic education, vocational training, water and sanitation, health care delivery, agriculture and housing for all. It is the position of this paper that until African leaders in general and Nigeria in particular begin to think „We? and not „I?, the fight against poverty that could engender sustainable socio-economic development will for long remain a mirage.

Igbokwe-Ibeto Chinyeaka Justine

2012-06-01

99

Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The most potent risk factor for affective disorders is a family history of affective disorder but the specific factors that are transmitted in families are unknown. It is possible to investigate the relation between risk factors and affective disorder by using a high-risk design e.g.: a study of the healthy relatives of patients with affective disorders. AIM: To compare psychopathology and socio-economic status between twins with a co-twin history of affective disorder and twins without. METHODS: In a cross-sectional high-risk case-control study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nation-wide registers. Participants were assessed using semi-structured psychiatric interviews and self-rating of psychopathology. RESULTS: High-Risk twins had a lower education level, a lower work position and tendency towards being more often unemployed and early retired than the Low-Risk twins. Furthermore, they presented higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and were more likely to experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Healthy twins with a high genetic liability to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine the causality of these findings, thus genetic liability to affective disorder, socio-economic status and minor psychopathology seem to have a complex interrelation.

Vinberg Christensen, Maj; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

2006-01-01

100

Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

Leyland Alastair H

2009-07-01

101

Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with the risk of prostate cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

International and interethnic differences in prostate cancer incidence suggest an environmental aetiology, and lifestyle and socio-economic factors have been studied, but with divergent results. Information on a cohort of 22,895 Norwegian men aged 40 years and more was obtained from a health examination and two self-administered questionnaires. Information on incident cases of prostate cancer was made available from the Cancer Registry. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to calculate incidence rate ratios as estimates of the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Reported P-values are two-sided. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 644 cases were diagnosed. Risk was elevated among men in occupations of high compared to low socio-economic status (RR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.05-1.61), and among men with high education compared to the least educated (RR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.11-2.19). A RR of 1.56 (95% CI 0.97-2.44) suggests a higher risk among divorced or separated men, compared with married men. We also found indications of a weak negative association with leisure-time physical activity (RR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.03 for high vs low activity), a weak positive association with increasing number of cigarettes (P = 0.046), while alcohol consumption was not related to the risk of prostate cancer. These results show that high socio-economic status is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, and that divorced or separated men might be at higher risk than married men. Data from this study also indicate that high levels of physical activity may reduce prostate cancer risk. PMID:10755415

Lund Nilsen, T I; Johnsen, R; Vatten, L J

2000-04-01

102

Ottoman forestry: socio-economic aspect and its influence today Otomano florestal: aspecto socioeconômico e sua influência hoje  

OpenAIRE

Forestry is an important subject because it supplies wood and timber for direct human consumption, in addition to its positive effects on global warming and on bio-diversity, with a history dating back to antiquity. As a labor-intensive sector in developing countries, it maintains interactions with natural resources management, public relations and socio-economic structure. It can affect the prosperity of countries either positively or negatively. Hence, an analysis of the history of forestry...

Sezgin Özden; Üstüner Birben

2012-01-01

103

Socio-economic Parameters and Mortality in Turner Syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized by hypogonadism, short adult height, increased morbidity and mortality; contrasted by self-reported normal quality of life and perception of health. Small studies have indicated a similar level of education compared to the background population.Aim: To study the socio-economic profile in TS and the impact of these factors on mortality.Materials and methods: Register study using Danish nationwide registries. 979 TS females and 94,850 controls were included. Information concerning cohabitation, motherhoods, level of education (bachelor degree), income, retirement and death were obtained. 103 TS and 5,989 controls died during the study period. For the socio-economic parameters, median age at first relevant episode was calculated. Income was analyzed using conditional logistic regression, and the other parameters using Cox regression.Results: In comparison with controls TS had significantly fewer partnerships (hazard ratio (HR): 0.45), fewer motherhoods (HR: 0.18)and retired earlier (HR: 1.8). After the diagnosis of Turner syndrome the risk of retiring was increased. Educational attainment (HR: 1.0) as well as risk of unemployment was similar. Before the age of 30, low income was significantly more frequent; hereafter it was similar to controls. Mortality was significantly increased (HR: 2.9) and slightly lower after adjustment for cohabitation and education (HR: 2.7).Conclusions: A divergent socio-economic profile is apparent, with a reduced proportion of Turner syndrome persons finding a partner and becoming mothers. The educational level was similar to controls. The increased mortality in Turner syndrome was not materially affected after adjustment for cohabitation and education.

Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Hjerrild, Britta

2012-01-01

104

Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

105

Some socio-economic consequences of the green revolution  

OpenAIRE

The green revolution has, since the ‘60s, been the subject of lively debate among the international scientific community not only with regards to its technical aspects but, and above all, for socio-economic impacts it caused. The article starts with the analysis of the development theories for the rural sector in the ‘50s and ‘60s in order to determine the theoretical path that started the green revolution in the Developing Countries, i.e. the high pay-off input model. The article...

Pisani, Elena

2006-01-01

106

The new socio-economic scenarios for climate change research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scientific community is developing a new generation of scenarios to inform the choices we have to make when it comes to responding to climate change. This new generation of scenarios integrates more fully the mechanisms that regulate climate and provides insights to spatial and temporal resolutions unexplored in previous exercises. In addition, it gives a framework for integrating explicit climate policies for mitigation and adaptation, which allows assessing the benefits and costs of climate policies in different socio-economic scenarios. Finally, it introduces a new way of working that strengthens the collaboration between different research communities on climate change. (authors)

107

Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key [...] of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs) which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

Michael, Dauderstädt.

2013-03-01

108

Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

Michael Dauderstädt

2013-03-01

109

Managing Sustainable Development of Socio-Economic Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, the concept of sustainable development permeates the entire economy, affecting the development of certain commercial structures, local areas and even countries. As mentioned above, the stability of the whole system is derived from the stability of its constituent elements. Although, in practice, a direct relationship between these phenomena do not exist. Identification of these mechanisms will form a model of sustainable development management of socio-economic system based on the balanced development of its individual elements. This project is aimed at solving the problem of finding a balance between the need to develop socio-economic systems in modern conditions and sustainability of their operation. Crises of recent years have actualized questions the sustainability of commercial organizations, as showed no willingness of individual companies to major changes in the external environment, as well as proven strategies unsustainability developed earlier in their development. Meanwhile, in terms of increased competition in some markets and in some regions, as well as in terms of accelerating changes in the environment of non-standard search ("breakthrough" strategic decisions, radical transformation of existing ideas about the technologies and the possible trajectories of development is often the deciding factor and the pledge successful companies in the future. Objects of research-oil and gas companies and local territory of the Russian Federation. Subject of research-theoretical and methodological, organizational and practical aspects of sustainable development of the energy profile of Russian and local areas.

Olga Viktorovna Lenkova

2014-11-01

110

Socio-economic aspects of different biofuel development pathways  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several policy drivers for biofuels on a larger scale in the EU transport sector, including increased security of energy supply, reduced emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), and new markets for the agricultural sector. The purpose of this socio-economic cost analysis is to provide an overview of the costs of meeting EU biofuels targets, taking into account several external costs and benefits. Biofuels are generally more expensive than traditional fossil fuels, but the expected increasing value of GHG emission reductions will over time reduce the cost gap. High crude oil prices significantly improve the economic benefit of biofuels, but increased demand for biomass for energy purposes is likely to increase the price of biofuels feedstock and biofuels costs. The key question is to what extent increasing oil prices will be passed on to biofuels costs. Socio-economic least costs for biofuels production require a market with a clear pricing of GHG emissions to ensure that this factor is included in the decision-making of actors in all links of the fuel chain.

111

Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients� job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

Alam Mahjabeen

1998-01-01

112

The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy  

CERN Document Server

What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesise that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large data sets: price on on-line exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in on-line social media, volume of information search, and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observ...

Garcia, David; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

2014-01-01

113

Socio-economic analysis of CCS/EOR in Denmark; Samfundsoekonomisk analyse af CCS/EOR i Danmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Danish Energy Agency has initiated an analysis of the socio-economic sustainability of a CCS / EOR system based on CO{sub 2} capture from Danish sources and injected into selected Danish North Sea oil fields. The analysis shall assess the socioeconomic consequences of such a project as well as highlight the budgetary economic effects for the parties involved. Taking into account a realistic time frame for conversion of the cogeneration power plants and for the extent of the possible capture of CO{sub 2} in each of these plants, it has been chosen only to presuppose the establishment of CCS in three plants, namely Studstrupvaerket, Fynsvaerket and Nordjyllandsvaerket. Only the oil fields Dan, Halfdan and Gorm were selected for the analysis. The analysis shows that in the selected oil fields it is possible to increase the oil production by approx. 151 million. barrels of oil to the year 2049, which corresponds to approx. 40% of the estimated potential in these fields. The increased oil production requires that approx. 95 million. tonnes of CO{sub 2} is captured in the three power plants, which are subsequently transported and injected in the oil fields in the North Sea. The transport of CO{sub 2} from the CHP plants to the North Sea are assumed to be done by ship, since this solution is economically favorable and also offers logistical advantages and increased flexibility. The analysis shows that both the budget economic and the socio-economic analysis as a whole provide a positive economic net present value over a 30-year period. The socio-economic benefit is expected to be about. 3.5 billion DKK higher. This difference is due to especially the following conditions: a) CO{sub 2} emissions of CO{sub 2} transport are only included in the socio-economic analysis, since shipping is outside the quota system. In the socio-economic analysis, the estimated value of damage impact on the environment is included; b) The value of the oil produced after 2049 is included in the socio-economic analysis as terminal values, while the budget economic analysis does not include effects beyond 30 years; c) The value of district heating losses in the socio-economic analysis are assumed to correspond to the socio-economic costs of district heating, while the value in the budget economic analysis is calculated as the district heating consumers' expected additional price at the transition from cogeneration to district heating.; d) The cost of SO{sub 2} emissions is in the socio-economic analysis set to damaging effects while in the budget economic analysis it is set to the level of charges. (LN)

NONE

2012-12-15

114

Nutritional status of children in India: household socio-economic condition as the contextual determinant  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Despite recent achievement in economic progress in India, the fruit of development has failed to secure a better nutritional status among all children of the country. Growing evidence suggest there exists a socio-economic gradient of childhood malnutrition in India. The present paper is an attempt to measure the extent of socio-economic inequality in chronic childhood malnutrition across major states of India and to realize the role of household socio-economic status (SES)...

Kanjilal Barun; Mazumdar Papiya; Mukherjee Moumita; Hafizur, Rahman M.

2010-01-01

115

Relation Between Development of Shape Concept and Socio- Economic Status, Sex and Area of Residence  

OpenAIRE

Present research undertaken to find out the relation between development of shape concept and Socio- Economic status, sex and Area of residence. The total sample consisted 400 subjects. 200 subject were from urban area and 200 subjects were from rural area. Male- Female ratio was 1:1. The age range of subjects was 6 to 7 years . The main variables of present research study relate to concepts. High socio- Economic status subjects and low socio- Economic status subject both rural and urb...

Waghmare, Dr Sambhaji B.

2012-01-01

116

Socio-economic influences on the active combat participants in Kosovo  

OpenAIRE

Within the context of the broader historical background of the region and the theoretical framework on security, socio-cultural diversity and political tolerance this particular research deals with the effects of socio-economic structure on tolerance and combat propensity. “Socio-Economic Influences on the Active Combat Participants in Kosovo” illustrates how and to what extent socio-economic status has had direct or indirect influence on the behavior of the active combatants in the high...

Delic, Mihajlo

2009-01-01

117

An empirical investigation of socio-economic resilience to natural disasters  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents an empirical investigation of socio-economic resilience to natural disasters of a tropical cyclone-prone coastal community in Bangladesh. It applies the state-and-transition model, a widely used applied ecology model, to (1) assess the current state of socio-economic resilience to tropical cyclone, (2) identify its drivers and (3) examine its nexus with poverty and socio-economic vulnerability. The results of this study can be summarized into three key findings. First, tro...

Akter, Sonia; Mallick, Bishawjit

2013-01-01

118

Children's Socio-Economic Rights and the Courts: Evaluating an activist approach  

OpenAIRE

Despite the significant growth in academic interest in both children's rights and socio-economic rights over the last two decades, children's socio-economic rights are a comparatively neglected area. This is particularly true with regard to the role of the courts in the enforcement of such rights. Aoife Nolan's book remedies this omission, focussing on the circumstances in which the courts can and should give effect to the socio-economic rights of children. The arguments put forward are locat...

Nolan, Aoife

2005-01-01

119

Socio-economic Determinants of Intra-urban Trips Generation in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The focus of this study is on the significance of Socio-economic characteristics of residents on intra-urban travel in Ogun State, Nigeria. 1507 households were randomly sampled across the 14 urban centres in the state and information on intra-urban trip generation and 12 socio-economic variables in respect of them were collected. The multiple regression technique was used to establish the influence of socio-economic variables on intra-urban trip generated by households. The number of significant socio-economic determinants of intra-urban trips ranges between 2 and 8, while the proportion of the criterion (trip generation explained by the predictors (socio-economic variables ranges between 35.80 an 81.70% across the urban centers. The more developed urban centers have higher number of socio-economic determinants of trip than the less developed ones. On the other hand, the magnitude of criterion explained by the socio-economic variables is higher on the less developed urban centres. At regional setting, 8 out of 12 socio-economic variables namely: Number of workers, Age, Mode of travel, Sex, Occupation, Length of stay, Rent and Income significantly explained 46.10% of variation in criterion. This suggests the need to include variables on socio-economic development of cities in future research on intra-urban travel.

Solanke M. Olayiwola

2014-01-01

120

Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country’s socio-economic status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI, the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

James N. Blignaut

2010-04-01

121

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF SCHEDULED TRIBES IN KARNATAKA  

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Full Text Available Scheduled tribe communities live in about 15 percent of the country’s areas in various ecological and geo-climatic conditions ranging from plains to forest, hills and inaccessible areas. These Scheduled tribe groups are act different stages of socio, economic and educational development. Dehbhan Commission (1961 mention for different layers among scheduled tribes, act the base of which is a group of tribal “in an extremely under developed stage and act the topmost level a layer that can well afford to forgo any further help”. The nonavailability of reliable data pertaining to the working and living conditions of the scheduled tribe communities caused a great hindrance in formulating appropriate welfare schemes for these communities. As already mentioned the government of India is also under constitutional obligation to protect the interest of the scheduled caste and scheduled tribe communities and uplift them socially and economically

Devindrappa K

2014-09-01

122

Common Organizing Mechanisms in Ecological and Socio-economic Networks  

CERN Document Server

Previous work has shown that species interacting in an ecosystem and actors transacting in an economic context may have notable similarities in behavior. However, the specific mechanism that may underlie similarities in nature and human systems has not been analyzed. Building on stochastic food-web models, we propose a parsimonious bipartite-cooperation model that reproduces the key features of mutualistic networks - degree distribution, nestedness and modularity -- for both ecological networks and socio-economic networks. Our analysis uses two diverse networks. Mutually-beneficial interactions between plants and their pollinators, and cooperative economic exchanges between designers and their contractors. We find that these mutualistic networks share a key hierarchical ordering of their members, along with an exponential constraint in the number and type of partners they can cooperate with. We use our model to show that slight changes in the interaction constraints can produce either extremely nested or rand...

Saavedra, Serguei; Uzzi, Brian

2011-01-01

123

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECT OF GROWING MISCANTHUS GENOTYPES  

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Full Text Available Deliberate cultivation of plants for energy biomass is becoming increasingly important. Biomass should significantly contribute to increase the share of renewable energy in the European Union. On the research locality of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra localized in the village Kolí?any (Slovak Republic is implemented basic research focused on the growth and production of the two genotypes energy grass Miscanthus. Research is carried out since 2010. In the third year after planting (the year 2012 were confirmed biomass production depending on the genotype of 35.45 and 36.67 t ha-1. Based on the analysis of growth and production performance of Miscanthus genotypes can be evaluated the high environmental and socio-economic aspects of growing energy crops, depending on the specific agro-ecological conditions.

Marián KOTRLA

2013-01-01

124

Socio-economic impacts of community biogas plants in Nepal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A community biogas plant is defined as a group of people who share in part ownership of a biogas plant installation. For the success of community biogas plant there should be a great need of community biogas plant, the people in the community should be very cooperative and it should be an income generating projects. Failures lie with the implementors but not the community or the technology itself. So the programmes should be implemented only according to our planning. The responsibility in the operation and maintenance of the system should also be shared by its owners. If a larger sized and community biogas plant can be owned and if the gas used more commercially and for agricultural purposes, the socio-economic impacts of community biogas plant will be more attractive. (orig.).

Devkota, G.P.

1984-01-01

125

Ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper presents an ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge conducted ten years after the opening in July 2000. The study applies historical micro data to re construct the travel pattern with no bridge in place and compare this to the current situation. To complete the socio-economic assessment, the consumer benefits including all freight and passenger modes, are compared with the cost profile of the bridge. The monetary contributions are extrapolated to a complete 50 year period. It is revealed that the bridge from 2000–2010 generated a consumer surplus of €2 billion in 2000 prices discounted at 3.5% p.a., which should be compared with a total construction cost of approximately €4 billion. Seen over the 50 year period and by assuming a medium growth scenario the bridge is expected to generate an internal rate of return in the magnitude of 9% corresponding to a benefit-cost rate of 2.2.A main advantage of analysing infrastructure ex post is the ability to learn and understand behavioural andmethodological elements not foreseen at the ex ante stages. Following this we offer an extended discussion including two parts. Firstly we compare the ex ante predictions for the bridge to the current transport flows. The importance of having the right assumptions and the ability to model the phasing-in process are underlined. Secondly, we offer a wider discussion on why some projects are more beneficial than others. This is done by comparing the Oresund Bridge, the Channel Tunnel, and the Great Belt Link.

Knudsen, M.Aa.; Rich, Jeppe

2013-01-01

126

Socio-economic research for innovative energy technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 21st century global environment and energy issues become very important, and this is characterized by the long-term (in the scale of a few tens years) and world-wide issue. In addition, future prospect of these issues might be quite uncertain, and scientific prediction could be very difficult. For these issues vigorous researches and various efforts have been carried out from various aspects; e.g., world-wide discussion such as COP3 in Kyoto, promotion of the energy-saving technology and so on. Development of environment-friendly energy has been promoted, and new innovative technologies are explored. Nuclear fusion is, of course, a promising candidate. While, there might be some criticism for nuclear fusion from the socio-economic aspect; e.g., it would take long time and huge cost for the fusion reactor development. In addition, other innovative energy technologies might have their own criticism, as well. Therefore, socio-economic research might be indispensable for future energy resources. At first we have selected six items as for the characteristics, which might be important for future energy resources; i.e., energy resource, environmental load, economics, reliability/stability, flexibility on operation and safety/security. Concerning to innovative energy technologies, we have nominated seven candidates; i.e., advanced coal technology with CO2 recovery system, SOFC top combined cycle, solar power, wind power, space solar power station, advanced fission and fusion. Based on questionnaires for ordinary people and fusion scientists, we have tried to assess the fusion energy development, comparing with other innovative energy technologies. (author)

127

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the so [...] cio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION:The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Madelien, Ferreira.

128

Socio-economic benefits from Hibernia operations in 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report identifies and describes the socio-economic effects of oil production from this offshore site, over and above the initial socio-economic effects of construction and fabrication. It documents a wide range of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians who benefit, directly and indirectly, from Hibernia operations. It builds on a series of reports which have examined the effects of Hibernia construction activity on employment, businesses and communities, including those resulting from spending and technology transfer. The report discusses the large scale and long term nature of the social and economic benefits of production activity and a wide range of benefits and beneficiaries. The report documents the ways in which Hibernia and other offshore oil activity are helping to transform the provincial economy. Another section of the report provides an overview of economic benefits. Based on information from Hibernia's production, expenditures and employment during 1998, the provincial government's Newfoundland and Labrador Econometric Model was used to calculate and describe Hibernia's effect on the gross domestic product, employment, unemployment rate, total incomes, retail sales and housing starts. Another section looks at the range of infrastructure that has resulted from Hibernia and other offshore petroleum activity, including industrial, training and research and development infrastructure. A further section on training and technology transfer describes the ways in whchnology transfer describes the ways in which the oil industry has increased local training capabilities and provided opportunties for Newfoundlanders and Labradorians to learn locally and work elsewhere. Another section examines the effects of all this on a range of companies. A last section provides a brief review of the findings related to the activity to date and what can be expected in the future. 8 refs., 2 tabs

129

Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

2012-01-01

130

Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of "environmental investment" to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) "population in mining sector" and "coverage of green space in built-up area" were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. PMID:22575095

Zhao, Juanjuan; Chen, Shengbin; Wang, Hua; Ren, Yin; Du, Ke; Xu, Weihua; Zheng, Hua; Jiang, Bo

2012-08-01

131

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE EDUCATION OF N-W.F.P (PAKISTAN)  

OpenAIRE

A number of students in the urban and rural areas of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group were collected to examine the various socio-economic factors which affect our education system. A logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate) person(s) and the risk factors are Father literacy [FE], Father income[FI] Parents’ attitude towards education[PA], Mother literacy [ME], Present examination ...

Uddin, Salah; Rahman, Atta Ur

2009-01-01

132

Socio-economic impacts - an overview based on coal mining projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields

133

Judicial enforcement of socio-economic rights in South Africa and the separation of powers objection: The obligation to take 'other measures'  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The framework for constitutional democracy in South Africa assigns to the courts a pivotal role in assuring effective protection and translation of the range of entrenched socio-economic rights into material entitlements. This has enabled the courts in some instances to exercise considerable authori [...] ty that has significantly influenced policy to the extent that power relations between the judiciary and the political arms of government have been threatened. Proponents of the doctrine of the separation of powers have expressed concerns, claiming that the meddling of the courts in the domain of policy making is politically incorrect. Consequently, the judicial enforcement of socio-economic rights has increasingly suffered setbacks, which to a large extent have retarded the constitutional vision of social transformation. Thus, in spite of South Africa's acclaimed global leadership in the enforcement of socio-economic rights, little has actually been accomplished in terms of improving the livelihood for victims of socio-economic deprivation. Considering that the enforcement of socioeconomic rights is context-specific, I question the rationale for avoiding a 'jurisprudence of exasperation', which demonstrates greater potential to produce transformative outcomes than the preferred 'jurisprudence of accountability' which has shown little transformative effect. Just as the realisation of socio-economic rights through political strategies amounts to material entitlement, I argue that the result of positive adjudication should equally amount to entitlement to the same material things promised by the rights in question. I conclude with the suggestion that the judicial enforcement of socio-economic rights should be seen as a complementary strategy to the political objective of social transformation, rather than as an oppositional force to the proper functioning of government.

Carol C, Ngang.

134

Physical Activity for Children in Terms of Socio-Economic Dimensions  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the physical activity of children in the first cycle of education in terms of socio-economic dimensions. The sample respondents included 132 children from four basic schools in north-eastern Slovenia. Data were collected through questionnaires and analysed with the statistical program SPSS. We used the t-test, ANOVA and post-hoc analysis to sum up the differences. The statistical significance of the results was assessed at the level of 5% of the risk. Results have shown that boys are more physically active than girls. The analysis showed that children from urban schools are physically active for twenty minutes a day more than children from rural schools. Education of children´s parents is statistically associated with the physical activity of children - the children of parents with the highest levels of education are physically the most active. Physical activity of a child´s father is statistically significant in relation to physical activity of his children. Despite the fact that especially in the last few years, the importance of physical activity for the development and health of children has been emphasised, there are still a lot of children who are insufficiently physically active. Many parents and children give the rapid tempo of life and the lack of time for a better quality of their life as excuses for this situation.

Klavdija Strniša

2014-03-01

135

Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children  

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Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.

Inge Huybrechts

2011-03-01

136

Promoting Socio-Economic Development: How Mobile Telephony Is an Agent for Creating High-Paying Jobs in Ghana from the Service Providers' Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploration study examined solely, mobile telephony (which is an important aspect of ICTs) and how it promotes the creation of high-paying jobs that positively impact socio-economic development in Ghana from the service providers. perspective. This academic study focusing solely on Ghana mobile telephony service providers is the first of its…

Boateng, Ofori

2011-01-01

137

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach.

Cunningham Heather

2010-07-01

138

Estudo comparativo sobre superdotação com famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida / Comparative study on giftedness with socio-economically disadvantaged families  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e comparar características de famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida relacionadas ao desenvolvimento de comportamentos de superdotação. Participaram da pesquisa 28 famílias residentes no Distrito Federal, sendo 14 com superdotados e 14 sem filhos s [...] uperdotados. Os dados foram coletados por meio do Inventário de Sucesso Parental - PSI, do Teste de Pensamento Criativo - TCP-DT e de questionário sobre características individuais e familiares do superdotado. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizados o teste t, a correlação de Pearson e estatística descritiva. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao nível de comunicação, uso do tempo, práticas de ensino parental e satisfação parental. Os genitores de superdotados e não superdotados avaliaram o nível de comunicação e satisfação parental em relação a comportamento dos filhos de forma mais positiva do que seus filhos. Os resultados também indicaram uma maior participação dos pais de alunos superdotados na vida acadêmica de seus filhos. A maioria dos alunos superdotados, que participou do estudo, era do gênero masculino e ocupava posição especial na família como primogênitos e unigênitos. Além disso, não foi observada relação entre os níveis de criatividade de pais e filhos. Ficou evidenciado, porém, que os alunos superdotados apresentaram desempenho superior no teste de criatividade quando comparados aos alunos não superdotados. Os resultados chamam a atenção para o papel que a família pode desempenhar no estímulo de habilidades, talentos e interesses. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to describe and to compare characteristics of socio-economically disadvantaged families in relation to the development of gifted behavior. Twenty-eight families from the Federal District participated in this study, among whom 14 had gifted children and 14 had non-gifted [...] children. The data was collected through the Parent Success Inventory - PSI, the Test of Creative Thinking - Drawing Production, and a questionnaire about individual and family characteristics of the gifted. Data was analyzed using the t-test, Pearson's correlation and descriptive statistics. Differences were found between the groups with respect to communication, use of time, parental teaching practices and parental satisfaction. Parents of gifted students and non-gifted students evaluated the level of communication and parental satisfaction more positively than their children did. The results also indicated that the parents of gifted students participated more in the academic lives of their children. The majority of gifted students were boys, who occupied a special family position as the eldest or only child. In addition, no relationship was observed between creativity levels of parents and children. Nevertheless, the evidence showed that gifted students obtained higher performance on creativity tests when compared to non-gifted students. The results highlight the role that the family plays in fostering abilities, talents and interests.

Jane Farias, Chagas; Denise de Souza, Fleith.

2009-04-01

139

Estudo comparativo sobre superdotação com famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida Comparative study on giftedness with socio-economically disadvantaged families  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e comparar características de famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida relacionadas ao desenvolvimento de comportamentos de superdotação. Participaram da pesquisa 28 famílias residentes no Distrito Federal, sendo 14 com superdotados e 14 sem filhos superdotados. Os dados foram coletados por meio do Inventário de Sucesso Parental - PSI, do Teste de Pensamento Criativo - TCP-DT e de questionário sobre características individuais e familiares do superdotado. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizados o teste t, a correlação de Pearson e estatística descritiva. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao nível de comunicação, uso do tempo, práticas de ensino parental e satisfação parental. Os genitores de superdotados e não superdotados avaliaram o nível de comunicação e satisfação parental em relação a comportamento dos filhos de forma mais positiva do que seus filhos. Os resultados também indicaram uma maior participação dos pais de alunos superdotados na vida acadêmica de seus filhos. A maioria dos alunos superdotados, que participou do estudo, era do gênero masculino e ocupava posição especial na família como primogênitos e unigênitos. Além disso, não foi observada relação entre os níveis de criatividade de pais e filhos. Ficou evidenciado, porém, que os alunos superdotados apresentaram desempenho superior no teste de criatividade quando comparados aos alunos não superdotados. Os resultados chamam a atenção para o papel que a família pode desempenhar no estímulo de habilidades, talentos e interesses.The purpose of this study was to describe and to compare characteristics of socio-economically disadvantaged families in relation to the development of gifted behavior. Twenty-eight families from the Federal District participated in this study, among whom 14 had gifted children and 14 had non-gifted children. The data was collected through the Parent Success Inventory - PSI, the Test of Creative Thinking - Drawing Production, and a questionnaire about individual and family characteristics of the gifted. Data was analyzed using the t-test, Pearson's correlation and descriptive statistics. Differences were found between the groups with respect to communication, use of time, parental teaching practices and parental satisfaction. Parents of gifted students and non-gifted students evaluated the level of communication and parental satisfaction more positively than their children did. The results also indicated that the parents of gifted students participated more in the academic lives of their children. The majority of gifted students were boys, who occupied a special family position as the eldest or only child. In addition, no relationship was observed between creativity levels of parents and children. Nevertheless, the evidence showed that gifted students obtained higher performance on creativity tests when compared to non-gifted students. The results highlight the role that the family plays in fostering abilities, talents and interests.

Jane Farias Chagas

2009-04-01

140

Socio-economic status and overall and cause-specific mortality in Sweden  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another aim was to investigate possible gender differences. Methods Using the 2006 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified over 2 million individuals with socio-economic data recorded in the 1960 national census. The association between mortality and socio-economic status was investigated by Cox's proportional hazards models taking into account the age, time period and residential area in both men and women, and additionally parity and age at first birth in women. Results We observed significant associations between socio-economic status and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, to cancer and to endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The influence of socio-economic status on female breast cancer was markedly specific: women with a higher socio-economic status showed increased mortality due to breast cancer. Conclusion Even in Sweden, a country where health care is universally provided, higher socio-economic status is associated with decreased overall and cause-specific mortalities. Comparison of mortality among female and male socio-economic groups may provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of socio-economic inequalities in length of life.

Sundquist Jan

2008-09-01

141

Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a breast-feeding (b personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

Herrick David

2006-01-01

142

Spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to health statistics, malaria accounts for about 30% and 15% of hospital admissions and deaths, respectively. The risk of P. falciparum infection varies across the country. This study describes the spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of P. falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania. Methods The study was conducted in 14 villages located in highland, lowland and urban areas of Korogwe district. Four cross-sectional malaria surveys involving individuals aged 0-19 years were conducted during short (Nov-Dec and long (May-Jun rainy seasons from November 2005 to June 2007. Household socio-economic status (SES data were collected between Jan-April 2006 and household's geographical positions were collected using hand-held geographical positioning system (GPS unit. The effects of risk factors were determined using generalized estimating equation and spatial risk of P. falciparum infection was modelled using a kernel (non-parametric method. Results There was a significant spatial variation of P. falciparum infection, and urban areas were at lower risk. Adjusting for covariates, high risk of P. falciparum infection was identified in rural areas of lowland and highland. Bed net coverage levels were independently associated with reduced risk of P. falciparum by 19.1% (95%CI: 8.9-28.2, p Conclusions There was high spatial variation of risk of P. falciparum infection and urban area was at the lowest risk. High bed net coverage, better SES and good housing were among the important risk factors associated with low risk of P. falciparum infection.

Theander Thor G

2011-05-01

143

Socio-Economic Statues and Physical Activity Levels of 3th Grade Students: A Case Study in Istanbul Beykoz Province  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The children and adolescent period is critical time to acquire positive lifestyle habits. The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI?s and socio-economic level of their school environments. This study also reviewed the articles about physical activity level of children, its relation to their socio-economic status and some other related tasks. Inactive life style sustained together with bad eating habits brings many healthy problems such as obesity and cardiovascular disease Approach: Technological development brings with it improving life style causing sedentary life for the public in developed and also developing Country. Physical activity can be viewed as a form of healthy life because it predicts functioning and adaptation and offers capabilities that enable people to live healthy. In this purposed three different socio-economic levels of six schools were determined accordance with declaration of National Education Department in Beykoz province. Each couple of school reflected one?s Socio-Economic Status (SES. Totally 250 students from three different SES were participated (low-SES, n = 92; middle-SES, n = 73; high-SES, n = 85. Student?s height and weight were measured and their Body Mass Index (BMI was determined. BMIs were classified according to Cole?s BMI tables which were underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Children Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ, which is proposed by World Health Organization, was used for assessment of their Physical Activity Level (PAL. Data from the questionnaires was collected in a suitable relational database and analyzed with SPSS statistical package. Logit log linear analysis was applied to understand the trend of qualitative variables (SES, BMIs and PALs. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI?s and socio-economic level of their school environments. Results and Conclusion: It was observed that the effects of SES, gender and BMI on PAL were not statistically significant (p>0.05. On the other hand, there were a significant interaction between PAL and SES (p<0.01; PAL, SES and BMI (p<0.05; and also PAL, SES and Gender (p<0.05. The results would be more reliable when the study performed in big population and different provinces of the big cities in further studies.

Pinar Salih

2011-01-01

144

Strategic considerations in Indian space programme—Towards maximising socio-economic benefits  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategic thinking and planning have been the hallmarks of Indian space programme, whose objectives are sharply focused on deriving socio-economic benefits of space technology. The purpose of this paper is to identify various strategies, which played a role in different phases of the programme, contributing to social and economic outcomes and effectiveness. While self-reliant development of technological capacity and evaluation of applications with involvement of users formed the backbone of strategy in the initial phase of the programme, subsequent strategies were centred on development of organisational culture and systems, industry role and promotion of spin offs. Other strategies dealt with the response to challenges inherent in space endeavours in terms of risk management, sustainability, investments and long-term commitments, judicious make or buy decisions, safeguard of sensitive technologies, space commerce and finally harmonising international cooperation with national objectives. The strategies in the programme were consistently driven by a clear-cut vision and objectives to develop and use space technology in diverse areas where space systems become relevant for socio-economic development such as telecommunications and broadcasting, meteorology, disaster management support, remote sensing of natural and anthropogenic phenomena, and positioning and navigation services. This paper synthesises various studies and experiences in India in order to analyse strategies in the face of changes in technology, application needs and international policies. It also examines the effectiveness of these strategies in terms of economic and social costs and benefits. Based on the above analysis, a typical conceptual model for use of space for development is suggested.

Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Madhusudan, H. N.

2008-07-01

145

SOCIO ECONOMIC CONDITION OF MITHARWADI VILLAGE: A GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY  

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Full Text Available The Mitharwadi village is located in Panhala Taluka of Kolhapur District. It is 27 Kms away from Kolhapur towards west and 10 Kms from Panhala. The Socio- Economic Condition Included following indicators; Education Facilities, Status of Women, Language, Social Structure, Occupational Structure, Village festivals, Medical facility, Standard of living, Food habit, Communication facilities, Market, Cultural activities and Economic Structure. The 85 percent peoples engaged in agriculture sector and also 15 percent peoples depend upon the other activity like that poultry farming, cattle rearing. Very few people are engaged in secondary type of occupation like provision shops. Few people working in industry and few are government servants. Farming is the main occupation of the villagers. Women also help in farming and Dairy farming. Some works in their own farms as well as some works as daily wages. Women literacy is medium in the village. Many people are working in Warana Industrial and education complex. Rice, Groundnut, Wheat is the major cultivated crops. During monsoon the village receives heavy rainfall. Irrigation facility is available which is very rich because of Lakes and Wells.

Prakash Soudagar Raut

2015-01-01

146

School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents : risk factors differ between socio-economic groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups.

Andersen, Anette; Holstein, BjØrn E

2007-01-01

147

An analysis of socio-economic factors on poverty in Nyakallong (Matjhabeng Municipality) / Sefako Samuel Ramphoma  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this dissertation was to analyse the effect of socio-economic factors on poverty in Nyakallong. Nyakallong is a former Black township in the Free State Province of South Africa. The effect of the socio economic factors on poverty was analysed using an econometric model. The analysis was based on data collected by the researcher and three fieldworkers who conducted a survey of 412 households in Nyakallong in 2009. To calculate poverty rates and the effect of socio-economic factors, ...

Ramphoma, Sefako Samuel

2012-01-01

148

The relationship between socio-economic inequalities, intimate partner violence and economic abuse: a national study of women in the Philippines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Economic abuse against women has for too long remained a relatively 'unseen' part of interpersonal violence, in spite of intimate partner violence (IPV) being a public health problem. Most studies on economic abuse derive especially from the USA and amongst women in shelters, and their findings are not easily generalisable to low-middle-income countries. Socio-economic inequalities render women vulnerable to control and risk of abuse. We investigated the role of socio-economic inequalities in the association between IPV and economic abuse. Logistic regression analyses were performed on cross-sectional data from a nationally representative sample of 8478 women aged 15-49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys. Results indicated strong positive associations between both physical IPV and emotional IPV and all four forms of economic abuse. Measures of socio-economic inequalities and other covariates such as no education, primary education, unemployment and justifying wife beating were also statistically significant. Findings suggest the increased need for health care practitioners to include economic abuse during the assessment of and response to IPV, the implementation of a multidimensional approach to providing tangible support and women-centred responses in reported cases of economic abuse, as well as measures that enhance socio-economic equality and increase economic opportunities for women. PMID:24881467

Antai, Diddy; Antai, Justina; Anthony, David Steven

2014-01-01

149

South Asian Diasporic Youth in Denmark: Socio-Economic Strategies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on two empirical studies, this article investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s. Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of  Indian and Pakistani background (n=5). The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalism and identity construction. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, businessrelated investment and direct remittances, 2) awareness of parents’ strategies, although few or no self-employed strategies and 3) collective strategy through an organisation. There are considerable temporal as well as qualitative differences in the strategies as compared to the parental generation.  

Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie

2009-01-01

150

Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social entification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

151

Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth: a comparative study of the Nordic countries from 1981 to 2000  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (12 years of education, mothers with

Petersen, Christina B; Mortensen, Laust H

2009-01-01

152

Goals and priorities of socio-economic reforms with consideration of the current economic situation  

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Full Text Available The article defines goals and priorities of reforms in Ukraine with consideration of the current situation in economy and social sphere. It marks the necessity of changing strategic goals and giving realistic orientation to the process of reformation. The author marks the necessity of development of institutional grounds of state management, activation of internal reserves of development of socio-economic processes, development of science intensive technologies and innovation activity, development of the weighted socio-economic policy, refusal from the paternalistic model and consequent establishment of conditions for activation of possibilities of the population to solve their social problems independently. The article provides a strategic contour of participation of the state in achievement of goals of socio-economic development, which includes a strategic analysis and identification of goals, strategic and tactical levels of goal-setting, strategic control and regulation of socio-economic development.

Dykha Mariya V.

2013-03-01

153

Analytical Assessment of Financial Ability of Local Budgets to Ensure Socio-Economic Development of Regions  

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Full Text Available The article describes conceptual grounds of functioning of local budgets, their role, importance and aim in socio-economic development of the state and its regions. The main task of the study is improvement of theoretical and methodological grounds for assessment of financial capability of local budgets as an instrument of socio-economic development of regions and development of practical recommendations on strategic directions of financial provision of regional development. The proposed model of assessment of ability of a local budget to ensure socio-economic development of a region is based on indicators of the budget potential, financial potential of the population and investment potential of the region. The article justifies importance of re-formation of local budgets as a main component of socio-economic development of territories through application of strategic directions of financial provision of local budgets with absolute, average, low and crisis levels of financial capacity.

Ryabushka Lyudmila Borisivna

2013-11-01

154

Environmental and Socio-economic Determinants of Malaria Prevalence in Uganda  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this study was to establish the relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. An understanding of the factors that are associated w ith malaria prevalence is critical for the design of policies aimed at reducing malaria prevalence. Regression results using OLS indicate no relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. There is need for further study using disaggregated data, panel data, an...

Niringiye Aggrey; Douglason, O. G.

2010-01-01

155

Socio-economic Condition of Child Worker of Bangladesh in Their Adulthood: An Econometric Analysis  

OpenAIRE

This study has mainly focused on the current socio-economic condition of those people who were child labor in their childhood. In this study, economic indicators are income and employment status. On the other hand, level of education, health status and role in case of decision making in the society are studied as social indicators. According to this study, socio-economic condition of child workers in their adulthood is not very satisfactory. In this research work, we have used Linear Probabil...

Syed Imran Ali Meerza; Biswajit Bacher

2011-01-01

156

Judicial deference and democracy in socio-economic rights cases in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

In this article I evaluate the manner in which South African courts have chosen to deal with the range of institutional problems (problems with institutional capacity, legitimacy, integrity and security, as well as pure separation of powers problems) they face in the adjudication of constitutional socio-economic rights claims. I investigate, that is, judicial deference in socio-economic rights cases – the strategy of courts, when faced with difficult technical or contested...

Brand, Danie

2011-01-01

157

Agent-Based and Macroscopic Modeling of the Complex Socio-Economic Systems  

OpenAIRE

Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeli...

Valentas Dani?nas; Aleksejus Kononovi?ius

2013-01-01

158

Gender and socio-economic patterning of self-reported sleep problems in Britain  

OpenAIRE

Sleep is fundamental to health and well-being, yet relatively little research attention has been paid to sleep quality. This paper addresses how socio-economic circumstances and gender are associated with sleep problems. We examine (i) socio-economic status (SES) patterning of reported sleep problems, (ii) whether SES differences in sleep problems can be explained by socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, worries, health and depression, and (iii) gender differences in sleep problems, add...

Arber, S.; Bote, M.; Meadows, R.

2009-01-01

159

Management of multi-dwelling buildings in different socio-economic systems  

OpenAIRE

The thesis deals with the management of multi-dwelling buildings in different socio-economic systems. The basic objective of management in multi-dwelling buildings, irrespective of socio-economic system, lies in providing operation, maintenance and preservation of essential qualities of multi-dwelling buildings in the manner that it serves its purpose during its lifetime. The main theme of thesis analyses management of multi-dwelling buildings from different perspectives in the countries o...

Polajnar, Matija

2013-01-01

160

Socio-economic reforms of the 1920s as a preparation for the forthcoming «agrarian radicalism»  

OpenAIRE

The article considers socio-economic reforms of the 1920s in Kazakhstan as a preparation for the forthcoming «agrarian radicalism». Historiography still does not give any distinct conclusions on the question, whether the socio-economical reforms of the 1920s years allayed the problem of inequality in the aul. The author calls for a wider perception spectrum of the so-called Soviet experience of modernization the agrarian sphere of Kazakhstan.

Roza Kadisova

2009-01-01

161

To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which higher intellectual abilities protect higher socio-economic groups from functional decline and to examine whether the contribution of intellectual abilities is independent of childhood deprivation and low birth weight and other socio-economic and developmental factors in early life. Methods The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS is a prospective cohort study based upon participants in a registration network of general practices in The Netherlands. Information was available on 1211 men and women, 24 – 81 years old, who were without cognitive impairment at baseline (1993 – 1995, who ever had a paid job, and who participated in the six-year follow-up. Main outcomes were longitudinal decline in important components of quality of life and successful aging, i.e., self-reported physical, affective, and cognitive functioning. Results Persons with a low occupational level at baseline showed more functional decline than persons with a high occupational level. Socio-economic and developmental factors from early life hardly contributed to the adult socio-economic differences in functional decline. Intellectual abilities, however, took into account more than one third of the association between adult socio-economic status and functional decline. The contribution of the intellectual abilities was independent of the early life factors. Conclusion Rather than developmental and socio-economic characteristics of early life, the findings substantiate the importance of intellectual abilities for functional decline and their contribution – as potential, but neglected confounders – to socio-economic differences in functioning, successful aging, and quality of life. The higher intellectual abilities in the higher socio-economic status groups may also underlie the higher prevalences of mastery, self-efficacy and efficient coping styles in these groups.

van Eijk Jacques

2007-07-01

162

Socio- economic impact study of the electrification by the photovoltaic solar system in the AIJ/RPTES project area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a summary of the results of the study relating to the socio-economical impact of the electrification by photovoltaic solar system in the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES. The localities concerned with the study are the provinces of BALE and the MOUHOUN. The data analyzes relating to the electrification by solar system of the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES, revealed that solar electrical energy contributed to a significant degree to the socio-economic development, especially at the level of the structures having profited from the solar equipment. The principal conclusions drawn from these analyzes attested that: the solar system corresponds as well as possible for rural environment as well on the technological level as on the capacity plan of maintenance. The following reasons come to corroborate this fact: the weakness of the costs of management of the photovoltaic modules; the photovoltaic technic, in spite of a low incidental maximum power (1 kw/ m2), satisfied the priority needs for the rural populations (lighting, access to information and education, conservation of the vaccines in the CSPS, etc). - be photovoltaic installations cause: an average financial profit by CSPS of 180 487.5 FCFA/an, and a financial economy in the parents of the new-born babies estimated at 36,600 FCFA/an in each CSPS; an average financial economy by household of 49,452 FCFA/an

163

Prevalence of Violence against Children in Families in Tripura and Its Relationship with Socio-economic Factors  

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Full Text Available Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study after obtaining their informed consent from eight randomly selected English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala, Tripura (India. Data were collected by using a specially designed ‘Semi-structured Questionnaire’. Results: Findings revealed that about 20.9% (67/320, 21.9% (70/230 and 18.1% (58/230 of the children experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence respectively. Male children were more likely to be victims of psychological and physical violence while female children experienced more sexual violence (p=sign. Further analysis of data revealed some relationship between violence against children and nuclear family (p=sign, uncongenial and/or disturbed family environment (p=sign and dominating, short-tempered and/or aggressive parent personality (p=sign, irrespective of the nature of the violence. Physical violence was found to be more prevalent in high income families (p=sign while children from the lower income group of families experienced more psychological violence (p=sign. Sexual violence was found to be equally prevalent in all socio-economic groups. The study also clearly indicated that academic performance of violence-experienced children, irrespective of nature of violence and socio-economic groups was poor compared to academic performance of non-violence-experienced children (p=sign. Conclusions: About one-fifth of the children under study did experience violence in Tripura. Findings speak in favor of an intervention program for creating awareness among parents and teachers about the issue of violence against children, targeted at parents when they meet for periodic parent-teachers meetings in the educational institutions.

Subhasis Modak

2010-01-01

164

Coupling socio-economic factors and eco-hydrological processes using a cascade-modeling approach  

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Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers. The simplified cascade models provided insights for an improved understanding of the socio-ecohydrological system. Results show that the upstream population has transformed LULC such that runoff during the period 1986-2010 was 32% higher than during the period 1961-1985. Cut-flower export volumes and downstream population growth explain 71% of the water abstracted from Lake Naivasha. The influence of upstream population on LULC and upstream hydrological processes explained 59% and 30% of the variance in lake storage volumes and sediment yield respectively. The downstream LULC changes had significant impact on large wild herbivore mammal species on the fringe zone of the lake. This study shows that, in cases where observed socio-economic developments are substantial, the use of a cascade-modeling approach, that couple socio-economic factors to eco-hydrological processes, can greatly improve our understanding of the eco-hydrological processes of a catchment.

Odongo, V. O.; Mulatu, D. W.; Muthoni, F. K.; van Oel, P. R.; Meins, F. M.; van der Tol, C.; Skidmore, A. K.; Groen, T. A.; Becht, R.; Onyando, J. O.; van der Veen, A.

2014-10-01

165

Reducing flood vulnerability and risk under changing socio-economic conditions - A qualitative case study in Upper Austria  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the last decades severe flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe. Especially in 2002, Upper Austria was seriously affected. Beside the natural variability of precipitation events the increase of losses is strongly connected with socio-economic developments. Especially the increase of settlement areas and the specific values of such modern settlement areas in flood prone areas induced this increase of losses. The presented case study was initiated to analyse different consequences of the currently observed socio-economic trend and further socio-economic projections within the watershed of the so-called Ottnanger Redl in Upper Austria, a watershed which was affected by the event in 2002. The temporal dimension of this change in damage potential is analysed for the 1990s, current conditions and future scenarios (Statistics Austria). Beside the socio-economic development the common structural vulnerability but also the positive effect of legislation and standards concerning flood-adapted constructions are considered. The hydrological-hydraulic is realized based on a scaled scenario approach. Therefore, documented precipitation events at rain gauges are considered for precipitation run-off simulations. To include further events the gauged events are scalled in their intensity. The hydrological loads of these scenarios are considered within different 2D hydraulic simulations; representation of past, current and future settlement structure. Based on the current settlement structure and its transfer in an asset value database, the past structure of the 1990s is reconstructed with remote sensing methods. The future structure (different pragmatic scenarios) in contrast is estimated on the basis of the current situation, socio-economic projections of Statistics Austria, land-use planes and local development concepts of the individual communities and in cooperation with the Regional Government of Upper Austria. The monetary evaluation is conducted with visualized verified building footprints, high resolved building characteristics on address level, building cross cubature analyses based on LiDAR data and monetary evaluation guidelines for different sectors and building functionalities of the Oberösterreichische Versicherung (regional insurance companies). Furthermore, this monetary evaluation approach is crosschecked with further approaches. First, to analyse the flood risk situation under past, current and future socio-economic situations for the different hydraulic loads without any measures to reduce current vulnerability, common flood vulnerability approaches (loss ratio) are considered. In a next step, the introduced legislation and standards in Upper Austria concerning flood adapted constructions is implemented within the applied vulnerability approaches. Thus, the effect of flood adapted construction measures as well as different settlement scenarios on the risk situation can be analysed. The stochastic nature of flood events is furthermore considered within a Monte-Carlo based evaluation routine. The results of the study show exemplarily the positive effect of object-based measures to reduce the susceptibility of the elements at risk and, furthermore, demonstrate the consequences of different settlement scenarios on the flood risk situation within the study area. As the project is still in progress, the contribution will introduce the general framework and highlight some first results.

Huttenlau, Matthias; Reiss, Julia; Achleitner, Stefan; Plörer, Manuel; Hofer, Michael; Weingraber, Felix

2013-04-01

166

Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ? 94 cm (men or ? 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are positively associated with overweight, while educational level and health related sports are negatively related to overweight in both genders. In men, alcohol consumption and smoking in the past are also among the lifestyle factors associated with overweight. This study also indicates that BMI and WC do not have the same discriminative function regarding different lifestyle factors.

Duvigneaud Nathalie

2007-02-01

167

Predisposed to participate? The influence of family socio-economic background on children's sports participation and daily amount of physical activity  

OpenAIRE

From a Bourdieu-inspired understanding of how personal resources (‘capitals’) enable certain practices in certain contexts, the links between families' cultural, social and economic capitals, and children's daily physical activity were investigated in 500 suburban Danish schoolchildren using questionnaire data and accelerometer measures. Family socio-economic position (SEP) was found to be positively associated with children's participation in organized sport, which could be explained by ...

Nielsen, Glen; Grønfeldt, Vivian; Toftegaard-støckel, Jan; Andersen, Lars Bo

2011-01-01

168

Socio-economic impacts on flooding: a 4000-year history of the Yellow River, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyze 4000-year flood history of the lower Yellow River and the history of agricultural development in the middle river by investigating historical writings and quantitative time series data of environmental changes in the river basin. Flood dynamics are characterized by positive feedback loops, critical thresholds of natural processes, and abrupt transitions caused by socio-economic factors. Technological and organizational innovations were dominant driving forces of the flood history. The popularization of iron plows and embarkment of the lower river in the 4th century BC initiated a positive feedback loop on levee breaches. The strength of the feedback loop was enhanced by farming of coarse-sediment producing areas, steep hillslope cultivation, and a new river management paradigm, and finally pushed the flood frequency to its climax in the seventeenth century. The co-evolution of river dynamics and Chinese society is remarkable, especially farming and soil erosion in the middle river, and central authority and river management in the lower river. PMID:22673799

Chen, Yunzhen; Syvitski, James P M; Gao, Shu; Overeem, Irina; Kettner, Albert J

2012-11-01

169

Spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to health statistics, malaria accounts for about 30% and 15% of hospital admissions and deaths, respectively. The risk of P. falciparum infection varies across the country. This study describes the spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of P. falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania. METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 villages located in highland, lowland and urban areas of Korogwe district. Four cross-sectional malaria surveys involving individuals aged 0-19 years were conducted during short (Nov-Dec) and long (May-Jun) rainy seasons from November 2005 to June 2007. Household socio-economic status (SES) data were collected between Jan-April 2006 and household's geographical positions were collected using hand-held geographical positioning system (GPS) unit. The effects of risk factors were determined using generalized estimating equation and spatial risk of P. falciparum infection was modelled using a kernel (non-parametric) method. RESULTS: There was a significant spatial variation of P. falciparum infection, and urban areas were at lower risk. Adjusting for covariates, high risk of P. falciparum infection was identified in rural areas of lowland and highland. Bed net coverage levels were independently associated with reduced risk of P. falciparum by 19.1% (95%CI: 8.9-28.2, p

Mmbando, Bruno P; Kamugisha, Mathias L

2011-01-01

170

Physical-Socio-Economic Modeling of Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the global nature of climate change, any assessment of the effects of plans, policies, and response to climate change demands a model that encompasses the entire Earth System, including socio- economic factors. Physics-based climate models of the factors that drive global temperatures, rainfall patterns, and sea level are necessary but not sufficient to guide decision making. Actions taken by farmers, industrialists, environmentalists, politicians, and other policy makers may result in large changes to economic factors, international relations, food production, disease vectors, and beyond. These consequences will not be felt uniformly around the globe or even across a given region. Policy models must comprehend all of these considerations. Combining physics-based models of the Earth's climate and biosphere with societal models of population dynamics, economics, and politics is a grand challenge with high stakes. We propose to leverage our recent advances in modeling and simulation of military stability and reconstruction operations to models that address all these areas of concern. Following over twenty years' experience of successful combat simulation, JPL has started developing Minerva, which will add demographic, economic, political, and media/information models to capabilities that already exist. With these new models, for which we have design concepts, it will be possible to address a very wide range of potential national and international problems that were previously inaccessible. Our climate change model builds on Minerva and expands the geographical horizon from playboxes containing regions and neighborhoods to the entire globe. This system consists of a collection of interacting simulation models that specialize in different aspects of the global situation. They will each contribute to and draw from a pool of shared data. The basic models are: the physical model; the demographic model; the political model; the economic model; and the media/information operations model. Each of these models focuses on part of the overall picture while; each contributes information about its area of expertise to a common pool and draws from that pool and the feedbacks from the other models as needed. Existing high-quality physical models are based on analysis of the dynamic interactions of atmospheric, land, and ocean processes. The demographic model tracks the civilian demographics needed by the other models. The populations of neighborhood group age-gender cohorts are affected by births, deaths, aging, and migration. This model provides labor supply and product demand curves to the economic model. The political model focuses on political actors and describes how they use their clout to seek their goals. Clout is derived from civilian support, the formal and informal alliances that actors make with each other, military strength, wealth, and control of information. It considers how they are constrained by their cultural heritage. It deals with shifting alliances. The economic model determines local and international prices and production quantities for a small number of products, including imports and exports and black markets; wages, jobs, and unemployment for a small number of labor categories; capital, growth, and inflation; resource usage and pollution. The media/information operations model addresses the effects of the control and content of inter- group and intra-group communications-and the side effects of these on other groups. This model will consist of rules (probably a large number of them) detailing the effects of media/information operations of various kinds on civilian parameters used in the other models, such as political goals, concern saliencies, and shapes of supply and demand curves.

Chamberlain, R. G.; Vatan, F.

2008-12-01

171

Importance of bio-medical and socio-economic factors for increase of life expectancy  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes the connection between life expectancy according to sex and numerous factors on which its level depends on. Statistical analysis understood application of correlation and regression analysis for determining the connection strength of life expectancy and researched factors separately and then all factors together, as well as separately groups of health-medical and socio-economic factors. The analysis was carried out for a group of developed countries, medium developed, mixed group and Yugoslavia (now SCG on available data for the second half of the 20th century. Analysis results for Yugoslavia showed that the greatest influence on life expectancy of all factors together were setting aside funds for social security (p<0.05. If only health-medical factors are observed, then child mortality up to 5 years and tumor mortality are in question. With women, the greatest influence is with child mortality up to five years old among all factors (socio-economic factors on life expectancy was very strong in present conditions of mortality, not only in positive, but in negative direction as well, and that their influence in that second half of the 20th century was greater than the influence of health-medical factors. Also, it seems that the males are more sensitive to these factors than women.

Radivojevi? Biljana M.

2004-01-01

172

Does the FTO Gene Interact with the Socio?Economic Status on the Obesity Development Among Young European Children? : Results from the IDEFICS Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Various twin studies revealed that the influence of genetic factors on psychological diseases or behavior is more expressed in socio?economically advantaged environments. Other studies predominantly show an inverse relation between socio?economic status (SES) and childhood obesity in western developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the FTO gene interacts with the socio?economic status (SES) on childhood obesity in a subsample of the IDEFICS cohort (N=4406). A structural equation model (SEM) is applied with the latent constructs obesity, dietary habits, physical activity and fitness habits, and parental SES to estimate the main effects of the latter three variables and a FTO polymorphism on obesity. Further, a multiple group SEM is used to explore whether an interaction effect between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 within the FTO gene and SES exists. Overall model fit was inconsistent (RMSEA=0.05; CFI=0.79). Significant main effects are shown for SES (standardized ?s=?0.057), the FTO homozygous risk genotype AA (?s=0.177) and physical activity and fitness habits (?s=?0.113). The explained variance of obesity is about 9%. The multiple group SEM shows that SES and FTO interact in their effect on childhood obesity (??2=7.3, df=2, p=0.03) insofar as children carrying the protective TT genotype are more susceptible to a favorable social environment.

Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Frauke

173

ASPECTS REGARDING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINISM – ANALYSIS AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL  

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Full Text Available Theoretically, the determinism represents a concept according to which the phenomena are generated by chains of causes and effects by conditionings and laws, by the necessary and repetitive interactions. As regards socio-economic determinism, it can be said that it shows the importance of the social factor in determining the economic development. Usually, paradoxically, although it is the key element in deciphering economic behaviour, the social factor, by its main representative - the man, is almost always excluded from analyses which regard the elements that contribute to the determination of economic development at national, regional or global level. For this reason, we consider ecessary a shift in current paradigms towards the social factor, at the same time, positioning social policy the centre of public policies. Today, in a highly globalized world, when the powerful turbulences are observed on the international markets, social policies development is conducted under the pressure of new constraints, with obvious implications on all aspects of economic, political and social life. Although European Union is the promoter of the welfare state values, it does not focus enough the attention to the theoretical and practical aspects related to the reform of social policies, to the development of human capital and to the improvement of social cohesion in order to meet the current challenges of the globalized world. Thus, this article brings as novelty a series of arguments on the roleand the place that the social factor should occupy in the economic sphere, it not being at this time an economic determinant.

Floarea IORDACHE, PhD*

2013-06-01

174

The theological responses to the socio-economic activities that undermine water as a resource  

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Full Text Available This article focuses, from a theological perspective, on both the ecological crisis and the politico-economic dealings in relation to water – especially with regard to the unsound ways in which governments deal with this resource. Texts are read from an anthropogenic perspective, as opposed to an anthropocentric one. Such a reading scenario calls for responses from theology with regard to the human position in creation. Humans are not a grand master plan of creation, but the completion and fulfilment of it, given an enormous sense of responsibility for the earth. The article argues that the human–earth relation should be understood from the point of responsibility based on solidarity, interdependency and stewardship. Theologians are challenged to embrace eco-ethics.

How to cite this article: Resane, T., 2010, ‘The theological responses to the socio-economic activities that undermine water as a resource’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 66(1, Art. #328, 7 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v66i1.328

Thomas Resane

2010-02-01

175

Physical activity patterns of ethnic children from low socio-economic environments within the UK.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many children fail to meet physical activity (PA) guidelines for health benefits. PA behaviours are complex and depend on numerous interrelated factors. The study aims to develop current understanding of how children from low Socio-economic environments within the UK use their surrounding built environments for PA by using advanced technology. The environment was assessed in 96 school children (7-9 years) using global positioning system (GPS) monitoring (Garmin Forerunner, 305). In a subsample of 46 children, the environment and PA were assessed using an integrated GPS and heart rate monitor. The percentage of time spent indoor, outdoor, in green and non-green environments along with time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in indoor and outdoor environments were assessed. A 2-by-2 repeated measures analysis of covariance, controlling for body mass index, BF%, assessed the environmental differences. The findings show that 42% of children from deprived wards of Coventry fail to meet PA guidelines, of which 43% was accumulated during school. Children engaged in more MVPA outdoor than indoor environments (P < 0.01) and a greater amount of time was spent in non-green environments (P < 0.01). Increased time outdoors was negatively associated with BF%. In conclusion, outdoor environments are important for health-enhancing PA and reducing fatness in deprived and ethnic children. PMID:24998418

Eyre, Emma Lisa Jane; Duncan, Michael Joseph; Birch, Samantha Louise; Cox, Valerie; Blackett, Matthew

2015-01-01

176

Geographical and socio-economic variations in ischaemic heart disease in men in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in Ischaemic Heart Disease mortality in men in Hong Kong were analysed using registered deaths from 1976 to 1981 and the 1981 Census population, and earlier years. Age-specific rates in Hong Kong as a whole are lower than in Britain and in the USA and have changed relatively little over the past ten years. Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) for districts, Proportional Mortality Ratios (PMRs) for occupations, and Direct Age-Standardized Mortality rates were calculated, using the whole of Hong Kong in 1981 as the standard. In 1981 the SMRs for the affluent districts were significantly high while the SMRs of the most rural areas were significantly low. Although the affluent districts had high proportions of non-Chinese deaths, these were not sufficient to explain the high SMRs. In affluent districts there were high proportions of professional, administrative and managerial workers who had significantly high PMRs for Ischaemic Heart Disease. The district SMRs were positively correlated with the proportions of these workers. The conclusion is that in Hong Kong in 1981, higher levels of socio-economic status were associated with higher levels of Ischaemic Heart Disease in men. Further studies are being made, and attention will be paid in risk-factor studies to areas and population groups with higher risks. PMID:6497318

Lam, Y M; Lau, E M; Donnan, S P

1984-04-01

177

Policies and Socio-economics influencing on Agricultural Production: A Case Study on Maize Production in Bokeo Province, Laos.  

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Full Text Available Since 2005s, agricultural land in northern Laos has become to be dominated by maize mono-cropping. The rapid expansion of this commercial crop has the resulted of policy implementations and demand of maize from the neighboring countries. The purpose of this study was aim to analyze the impact of commercial agricultural policy and socio-economic factors influencing on maize production in Houyxai Distirct, Bokeo Province of Laos. A survey of 98 maize farmers by face to face interviews was conducted in September 2010. Ordinary Least Square regression model was applied in order to explain how these policies and socio-economic factors effect to farmers and contribute to maize production. The results revealed that 94% of the variation in maize production (ton is explained by the selected explanatory variables. Seven variables have a positive significant and one variable has a negative effect on maize production volume. The results also demonstrated that the most important effect to maize production is a “policy push” mainly variables of farmland, farmer organization, support market and credit access and a “market pull” by private sectors with providing input factors namely seeds, land preparation and techniques. Therefore, the government should look at the way of credit providing system that may effect in high production cost, at the same time the expansion of farm size is needed to take into account.

boundeth southavilay

2012-08-01

178

Constructing public worlds : Culture and socio-economic context in the development of children's representations of the public sphere  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

: This paper explores how children in different cultures and socio-economic contexts develop representations about the public sphere. It addresses how contexts of representation shape the form and content of children’s thinking while expressing the two-way transactions between the child and their social world. Drawings by children from two age groups (seven- and 10-year-olds) and two socio-economic milieus (affluent and deprived), in four cultures (Germany, Mexico, Brazil and Romania), supported by observations and interviews, were used to investigate children’s representations of their public world and their position within it. Findings show that public spheres characterised by collectivism, poverty and/or marginalisation: a) accelerate decentration bringing the public world and its complexity to the foreground of children’s depictions, and b) show a strong link between self and the public world. In affluent or individualistic public spheres we recognise the classical developmental pathway proposed by Piaget, with a clear increase in the separation between self and society as children grow. Children’s representations are flexible semiotic systems whose form and content interact productively with the context in which they develop. These results reject conceptions of children’s knowledge as a prototype of adult knowledge, suggesting that children’s societal knowledge evolves through adaptive strategies to specific socio-cultural environments.

Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Priego-Hernandez, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

179

Evaluation of socio-economic effects of R and D results at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. 2. Socio-economic evaluation of the basic research at JAERI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), as a core organization devoted to comprehensive nuclear energy research, has steadily promoted various types of research and development (R and D) studies since its establishment in June 1956. Research activities are aimed at performing (1) R and D for nuclear energy, (2) the utilization and application of radiation-based technologies, and (3) the establishment of basic and fundamental research in the nuclear field. Last year, the socio-economic effects on items (1) and (2) were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. The quantitative evaluation of item (3) from the viewpoint of a socio-economic effect, however, calls for a different concept and methodology than previously used cost-benefit approach. Achievements obtained from the activities conducted over the last 10 years implied that socio-economics in basic research funded by the public could contribute to the (1) increase in useful intellectual stocks, (2) upbringing of highly skilled college graduates, (3) construction of new scientific facilities and creation of methodologies, (4) stimulation and promotion of social interrelations by networking, (5) increase of one's ability to solve scientific problems, and (6) establishment of venture companies. In this study, we focused on item (4) for the analysis because it assumed that the external economic effect has a link with the socio-economic effects accompanying the networking formation. For the criteria of socio-economic effects we assume that the external effect becomes significant in proportion to the width of networking and/or the magnitude of cooperation measured by numbers of co-writing studies between JAERI and the research bodies, namely private and governmental sectors and universities. Taking these criteria into consideration, the subsequent four items are prepared for quantitative study. They are (1) to clarify the basic research fields where JAERI has been established a significant effort to date, (2) to ascertain a significant difference in the emphasized basic research fields (hereinafter abbreviated as EBRF) that exist among JAERI and other major research bodies, (3) to notify the actual width of networking in EBRF and quantity of socio-economic effect, and (4) to reveal the networking predominance from the viewpoint of the socio-economic effect during EBRF overlapping among JAERI and the other research bodies. Because the Department of Materials Science has the largest scale factors compared with the other departments in JAERI, it was selected. The obtained results are: (1) EBRF in the department are represented by the following keywords: ion irradiation, actinides, tandem accelerator, molten salt, EXAFS, neutron irradiation, synchrotron radiation, lanthanide, transmutation, ECR ion source, etc. They are all related to nuclear energy. (2) Between JAERI and 5 other (KEK, Tokyo University, etc.) research organizations, some keywords in EBRF overlap. They include synchrotron radiation, irradiation, electron microscope, neutron, cross section, fabrication and accelerators. Those did not show a significant difference in EBRF. Generally, the two organizations tended to compensate and uplift the national standard level for each other rather than compete. (3) Actinides, neutron irradiation and transmutation are representative keywords from EBRF. Additionally, neutron, nuclear reactions and actinides showed that their networking was well developed and strongly linked between JAERI and the external research bodies. They resulted in producing large socio-economic effects. (4) Actual networking on actinides showed that the volume of papers shared during the past 25 years was 25% by JAERI, 52% by the public (universities and governmental sectors), and 17% by private sectors. The growth rate of networking found by co-papers between JAERI and the public was 3-4% per 25 years and 8% during the last 5 years. Furthermore, authors networking studied here implied that JAERI independently participated in the basic research fields and gradually enlarged the external ef

180

Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland's social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs

181

The Different Impacts of Socio-economic Factors on Suicide between Males and Females  

OpenAIRE

The number of suicides in Japan has substantially increased during its low growth period. The main argument of Durkheim’s (1951) seminal work in the field of sociology is that suicide is under influences of not only individual traits but also of the society one belongs to. ?Recently it was found that the effect of socio-economic variables on suicide rates depends on gender. This paper attempts to examine the difference of socio-economic factors on suicide between males and females. ...

Yamamura, Eiji

2007-01-01

182

CONSTITUTIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: "YOU ARE NOT ALONE"  

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Full Text Available The second oratio was a keynote speech delivered by Torsten Stein, the Director of the Institute of European Studies and holder of the chair for European law and European Public Law at Saarland University, Germany. He delivered his speech during November 2012 at the 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights, which was held by the Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus in collaboration with the Konrad-Adenauer Foundation. He shared some thoughts about the nature, development and implementation of socio-economic rights within an international and European setting.

Torsten Stein

2013-04-01

183

Socio Economic Status of Women Vendors in Towns of Kokrajhar District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims to examine the personal profile, family profile, migratory status, living, working and economic conditions of the women vendors of the towns of Kokrajhar district. It also aims to access their health condition. To study the socio-economic status of the women vendors, data was collected from the sampled women vendors with the help of a questionnaire. Data collected from the sample was entered in SPSS (V.13 and analysis was done. The finding of the study will help the people especially the policy makers to know the socio-economic condition of the women vendors. It will help in planning for the welfare of such workers.

Roselin Basumatary

2013-04-01

184

The impact of socio-economics and climate change on tropical cyclone losses in the USA  

OpenAIRE

Tropical cyclones that make landfall on the coast of the USA are causing increasing economic losses. It is assumed that the losses are largely due to socio-economic developments, i.e. growing wealth and greater settlement of exposed areas. However, it is also thought that the rise in losses is caused by increasing frequency of severe cyclones resulting from climate change. The object of this paper is to investigate how sensitive the losses are to socio-economic changes and climate changes and...

Schmidt, Silvio; Kemfert, Claudia; Ho?ppe, Peter

2008-01-01

185

SOCIO - ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE SELFHELP GROUP WOMEN IN ANDHRA PRADESH  

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Full Text Available In India, social structure of the people is intimately connected with the economic activities. Economic and social conditions are interrelated. The present study made an attempt to assess the impact of SHG programme on socio-economic conditions of the sample women SHG members in Andhra Pradesh. In order to understand the impact of SHG programme, it is necessary to analyze the social and economic conditions of the SHG women respondents. For the purpose of the study a stratified multi stage random sampling technique is used. The study reveals that SHGs have provided a good environment for the upliftment of the socio-economic conditions of the rural poor women.

Rajani Manikonda

2014-09-01

186

Socio-economic inequalities in children's snack consumption and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: the contribution of home environmental factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we examined the association between maternal education and unhealthy eating behaviour (the consumption of snack and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)) and explored environmental factors that might mediate this association in 11-year-old children. These environmental factors include home availability of snacks and SSB, parental rules about snack and SSB consumption, parental intake of snacks and SSB, peer sensitivity and children's snack-purchasing behaviour. Data were obtained from the fourth wave of the INPACT (IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT) study (2011), in which 1318 parent-child dyads completed a questionnaire. Data were analysed using multivariate regression models. Children of mothers with an intermediate educational level were found to consume more snacks than those of mothers with a high educational level (B= 1·22, P= 0·02). This association was not mediated by environmental factors. Children of mothers with a low educational level were found to consume more SSB than those of mothers with a high educational level (B= 0·63, P< 0·01). The association between maternal educational level and children's SSB consumption was found to be mediated by parental intake of snacks and SSB and home availability of SSB. The home environment seems to be a promising setting for interventions on reducing socio-economic inequalities in children's SSB consumption. PMID:24833428

van Ansem, Wilke J C; van Lenthe, Frank J; Schrijvers, Carola T M; Rodenburg, Gerda; van de Mheen, Dike

2014-08-01

187

How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass produs of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems

188

Socio-economic status, cortisol and allostatic load: a review of the literature  

OpenAIRE

Background The notion that chronic stress contributes to health inequalities by socio-economic status (SES) through physiological wear and tear has received widespread attention. This article reviews the literature testing associations between SES and cortisol, an important biomarker of stress, as well as the summary index of allostatic load (AL).

Dowd, Jennifer B.; Simanek, Amanda M.; Aiello, Allison E.

2009-01-01

189

The socio-economic monitoring of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant region: methodology, programme, implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article is devoted to the argumentation of the main principles of socio-economic monitoring of the Ignalina NPP region. The programme and the territorial levels of the monitoring as well as the main results of the trial of the programme are presented. (author)

190

Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Australian Mining Towns: A Comparative Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the links between resource dependence and socio-economic wellbeing has long been a subject of interest amongst social scientists in North America. By contrast, relatively few Australian studies exist on this topic. This is despite the significant role of resource industries in shaping Australia's economic and social geography. Where…

Tonts, Matthew; Plummer, Paul; Lawrie, Misty

2012-01-01

191

QUAID-I-AZAM MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH ASIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founding father of Pakistan led the freedom movement for the socio-economic development of the Muslims in South Asia. Although Jinnah and his socio-economic thought was the product of his time and it was in continuity with emancipatory thinking within Muslim political and scholarly circles which events after 1857 imposed upon them; yet his vision, commitment and perseverance make him one of the few statesmen world ever produced. The development of Jinnah’s socio-economic vision paralles his studies, visits and stays in England where he came across liberal and welfare ideas. Throughout his career he advocated nondiscriminatory socio-economic development of Indian masses, particularly the Muslims. From the text of Waqf-e-Alal-Aulad bill (1913 to the Muslim League’s resolution (1937 for an economic, social and cultural program; to establishing Federation of Muslim Chamber of Commerce and appointment of Economic Planning Committee (1943 dealing with diverse areas of social and economic welfare of masses and to his speech of August 11, 1947 where minorities’ rights and their equal inclusion in the development process is stressed, Jinnah stands prominent as a leader struggling to establishing a modern Muslim welfare state.

Munir Ahmed

2013-10-01

192

Attitudes towards the Euro: An Empirical Study Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates changing attitudes towards the euro over time in Germany using longitudinal micro-data from the German Socio Economic Panel Study. We observe that a large part of the German population was worried about the new currency both before and after its introduction. Social psychological theories provide insight into these…

Isengard, Bettina; Schneider, Thorsten

2007-01-01

193

Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China  

Science.gov (United States)

With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

2014-03-01

194

Recirculation of biofuel ash - business economics and socio-economic calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives a comparison between a system where ashes from combustion of biofuels are returned to the forest soil and a system where the ashes are placed in a landfill. The comparison is made for a business economics perspective as well as for a socio-economic perspective 18 refs, 1 fig, 27 tabs

195

Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

2013-01-01

196

Some Socio-economic Factors affecting Solid Wastes Generation and Disposal in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified. Data for this study were obtained through the administration of questionnaire and review of existing literature. The information obtained from the field was analyzed using frequency and correlation matrix. The finding showed that the composition of waste generated in Ibadan Metropolis was a reflection of variation of socio-economic factors of the people. Also, socio-economic factors such as income, age, education, occupation and building types had greater influence on the choice of method of disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. It was recommended therefore that effective solid waste management can be achieved through the adoption of urban renewal strategy on the chaotic areas, provision of sizable fund by the government and proper education to the people among others.

Kayode, A. M.

2011-04-01

197

How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

2011-01-01

198

Expectations of JAERI on INIS from a viewpoint of socio-economic evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Because the taxpayers funded basic scientific researches in JAERI, a feedback of the results to the public is strongly requested by the Japanese government. By using the concept of socio-economic effect, that is, the stimulation and promotion of social interrelations through a formation of networking in basic research, the authors tried to show a kind of feedback. For this purpose, JAERI developed computer code SOCIOECO combined with INIS was used as a main tool and database. The case study was addressed to the Material Science (MS) field in JAERI. It is revealed from the study that a significant formation and development of socio-economic networking is occurring at the emphasized basic research fields (EBRF) of ion irradiation and actinides having a strong relation to nuclear. For actinides a total of 7,237 papers were written in basic research fields, where the share of JAERI over 25 years was 25%, while 52% by public sectors (PS, namely university (U) and governmental sectors (GS)) and 17% by private organizations (PO). Numbers of co-written papers defined as an index of socio-economic networking were increased with time. The growth rate, for example, between JAERI and PS was of order of 3-4% per 25 years, while 8% per recent 5 years. The socio-economic networking described here seems to be useful for showing the feedback occurring from basic research to the public. (author)

199

Challenges to socio-economic research in a changing society - with a special focus on Greenland  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The process of changes in Arctic societies has been from a cultural order to an economic order, and from a closed society based on barter and subsistence to a society based on economic exchange through monetary means. Consequently, understanding the currents of change requires a definite focus on the ongoing socio-economic dynamics.

Poppel, Birger; Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

2005-01-01

200

The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

David, Alex Hugh

2010-01-01

201

Review of existing studies and unresolved problems associated with socio-economic impact of nuclear powerplants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of socio-economic impact statements for nuclear powerplants began only a few years ago. The number of these statements is increasing, and some states, such as Washington, now require them as a condition to state approval for thermal powerplants. The major purpose of this paper was to review existing socio-economic impact statements to identify where additional research to improve the impact analysis process would be useful and appropriate. A second purpose was to summarize the type of information included in existing statements. Toward this end a number of socio-economic impact statements were reviewed. Most of the statements are for nuclear power plants; however, some are for other large construction projects. The statements reviewed are largely predictive in nature; i.e., they attempt to predict socio-economic impacts based on the existing knowledge. A few of the reports contain retroactive case studies of plants already completed. One describes an ongoing monitoring analysis of plants under construction. As a result of this preliminary study, a need was identified for a better-defined impact statement methodology and for guidelines identifying appropriate areas for analysis and analytical techniques

202

The Socio-Economic Gradient in Children's Reading Skills and the Role of Genetics  

Science.gov (United States)

By the time children leave primary school there is a large socio-economic gap in their reading proficiency. There are a number of potential explanations for this socio-economic gap and in this paper we investigate the role of three particular genes and gene-environment interactions in determining children's reading skills, using the Avon…

Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna; Lingam, Raghu; Friend, Angela

2015-01-01

203

Is the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Acceptable to Parents from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds?  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioural parenting programs are an effective intervention for behavioural and emotional problems in children, however these programs have low utilisation rates by culturally diverse parents. We examined the cultural acceptability of program materials, preferences for delivery methods, and barriers to use of the Triple P-Positive Parenting

Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew; Goadby, Elizabeth; Headley, Clea; Hodge, Lauren; McAuliffe, Christine; Pope, Sue; Anderson, Emily

2011-01-01

204

Assessment of health related physical fitness, socio economic status and psychomotor ability of tribal school going children of west Bengal  

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Full Text Available The present study was aimed at assessment of health related physical fitness, socio economic status and psychomotor ability of tribal school going children of West Ben- gal. Five hundred subjects age ranging from 14 to 16 years from four different districts of West Bengal namely North 24 parganas, South 24 parganas, Cooch Behar and Burdwan were selected for the study. The study was restricted to the Health Related Physical Fitness variables, Socio Economic Status Questionnaire by Rajeev Lochan Bharadwaj and Reaction ability to measure Socio economic status and Psychomotor ability of tribal school going children respectively. Associations of Health related Physical fitness with Socio Economic Status and psychomotor ability of Tribal School Children of West Bengal was examined by using correlation technique. Further to assess the Health related physical fitness, Socio Economic Status and psychomotor ability of Tribal School Children of West Bengal, percentile scale was used.

GOPAL CHANDRA SAHA

2014-04-01

205

Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region  

Science.gov (United States)

The western North Pacific (WNP) is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs). However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr - driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower) by 14% (9%) in the positive (negative) phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980-2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

Welker, C.; Faust, E.

2013-01-01

206

Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The western North Pacific (WNP is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs. However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr – driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower by 14% (9% in the positive (negative phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980–2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

C. Welker

2013-01-01

207

SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

Monica Dumitrascu

2005-10-01

208

Logit analysis of socio-economic factors influencing people to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzes the socio-economic factors that influence people’s decision to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana. Using a well structured interview schedule, a random sample of 98 people from Elmina in the central region of Ghana was selected for the study. Results from the descriptive statistics analysis of respondents identified fishing as a family business, minimum skills requirement and ready market for fish demand as factors that motivated majority of the people into fishing. Lack of storage facilities, access to credit, lack of government assistance and unpredictable changes in weather conditions on sea were the main constraints to fishing activities. Results from the logistic regression model indicated that household size and access to credit were significant factors that positively influenced people’s decision to become fishermen. The regression analysis further revealed that engaging in other income generating activity and being educated significantly reduces the probability to start fishing business.

Acquah Henry D.

2011-01-01

209

Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations  

OpenAIRE

The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or...

Massey, Sean G.; Merriwether, Ann M.; Garcia, Justin R.

2013-01-01

210

Self-reported depression is increasing among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents – repeated cross-sectional surveys from Finland from 2000 to 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Adolescent depression is more common in lower socio-economic groups. Whether this pattern has changed over time, is not known. We examined the prevalence of self-reported depression and its changes in socio-economic groups from 2000 to 2011 among Finnish adolescents. Methods Data were based on classroom surveys every second year from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 using nationwide samples of 14–16-year old Finns (n?=?618,084). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including questions on health, health behaviours, and school experiences. Depression was measured with a Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, and divided into no, mild, moderate and severe depression. The association between depression and the social background (parents’ education and employment) over time was studied using a multinomial regression analysis. Results The prevalence of self-reported severe depression slightly increased from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 in girls. In boys a slight increase was observed when adjusting for background variables. The differences in the prevalence of depression between the social background groups persisted over the entire study period. In both sexes, severe depression nearly doubled among those adolescents whose parents were unemployed and had a low education level; among boys, the prevalence was 6.5% in 2000–2001 and 12.8% in 2010–2011, and among girls 6.4% and 11.4% respectively. Conclusion The largest increases in prevalence of severe depression are seen among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents. This suggests that inequalities in mental health may become an increasing concern. PMID:24775269

2014-01-01

211

Parental ethnic identity and educational attainment of second-generation immigrants  

OpenAIRE

A lack of cultural integration is often blamed for hindering immigrant families' economic progression. This paper is a first attempt to explore whether immigrant parents' ethnic identity affects the next generation's human capital accumulation in the host country. Empirical results based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) indicate that maternal majority as well as paternal minority identity are positively related to the educational attainment of second-generation youth - eve...

Schu?ller, Simone

2011-01-01

212

Socio-economic Determinants of Output of Groundnut Production in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the economics of groundnut production in Estako West Local Government Area of Edo State. The objectives of the study were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of groundnut producers, determine the costs and returns of groundnut production, identify the constraints faced by groundnut farmers and analyze the socio-economic factors determining groundnut production in the study area. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire administered to 60 groundnut farmers using a simple random sampling technique. The result of the data analysis showed that majority of the farmers were male (78% with an average family size of nine persons per family. Also 50% of the respondents acquired formal education. Results obtained also showed that the gross farm income per hectare was ?(Naira84,000 (€403.8 and the net farm income was ?(Naira 41,550 (€199.8 per annum respectively. The return per naira invested was 0.98, indicating that the farm business realized a return of 98 kobo for every ? (Naira1.00 invested in groundnut production. Result obtained from the multiple regression analyses indicated that the Double log functional form provided the best fit. The coefficients of farm size, farmer’s experience, labour and ages were positive while family size was negative. The regression model is significant at 1% level as shown by F - statistic. The R2 value of 0.965 indicated that 96.5% of the variability in groundnut production was accounted for by the various independent variables used. Finally, the major constraints faced by the farmers were inadequate finance, unavailability of labour, high incidence of pests and diseases, unfavourable climatic conditions and high cost of transportation. It is therefore recommended that effort should be channelled towards ameliorating these constraints.

PETER A. EKUNWE

2013-02-01

213

Effectiveness of Self-Instruction: Positive Parenting on Promoting  

Science.gov (United States)

A multimethod evaluation procedure was used to evaluate "The Power of Positive Parenting" (Alvy, 1999): pretests and posttests with open-ended questions and satisfaction surveys (n = 99), five focus groups (n = 70), and follow-up phone calls (n = 72). After reading the booklet, parents reported being more confident, showed significant increases in…

Plunkett, Scott W.; Alvy, Kerby T.; Rosen, Larry

2004-01-01

214

Relación entre perímetro abdominal, nivel socioeconómico y presión arterial Relation of abdominal circumference and socio-economic status to blood pressure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Relacionar perímetro abdominal y condición socioeconómica con presión arterial (PA en comunidad urbana de Concepción. Métodos: Se midió el perímetro abdominal (PeA de 8472 residentes mayores de 15 años de edad, proporcionados por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico. La PA fue medida con normas estandarizadas, realizando dos visitas en diferentes días, la segunda si la PA era mayor de 140/90 mm Hg. Los Pe A se distribuyeron en cuartiles, relacionando cada cuartil con los respectivos promedios de presión sistólica y diastólica y se establecieron coeficientes de correlación lineal mediante "r" de Pearson entre PeA y PA. Además, se estableció la frecuencia de cada cuartil de Pe A por nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: Los Pea tuvieron la siguiente distribución (cm: 1er cuartil, 96. La prevalencia de hipertensión para niveles socioeconómicos alto, medio y bajo fue 17,9%, 19,5% y 24,5%, respectivamente. La PA promedio (mmHg en hombres y en mujeres del 1er cuartil de PeA fue 112 y 109; en el 2º cuartil 118 y 118; en el 3er cuartil 123 y 122 y en el 4º cuartil 129 y 129, respectivamente. Los coeficientes de correlación entre PeA y presión sistólica y presión diastólica resultaron significativos en ambos géneros: r = 0,343, pAim: To correlate abdominal circumference (AC and socio-economic status with blood pressure( BP in an urban community of Concepción, Chile Methods: AC was measured in 8472 subjects above 15years of age, stratified by age, gender and socio-economic status. BP was measured by standard procedures, with a repeat recording when the initial valué was > 140/90mmHg. BP was compared in quartiles of abdominal circumference and according to socio-economic status. Pearson "r" was used to correlate BP and AC Results: Cut points for quartiles of AC were 78, 87, and 96 cm. Prevalence of hypertension in high, médium and low socio-economic status was 17.9%, 19.5% and 24.5%, respectively Mean systolic BP was 112 - 109 mmHg (males - females in the first AC quartile, 118 - 118, 123-122 and 129-129 in the second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. A significant correlation between AC and BP (systolic and diastolic was observed in both genders (r 0.345 and 0.281 for males and females, respectively, p<0.00001. 22% of low socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile compared to 28.8% in the 4th quartile. In contrast 38.9% of high socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile while 15.5% did so in the 4th quartile (p<0001. Conclusion: A positive correlation ofAC and blood pressure was shown in both genders. A greater AC in low socio-economic subjects maybe related to a higher prevalence of hypertension in this group.

Eduardo Fasce H

2010-01-01

215

Agent-Based and Macroscopic Modeling of the Complex Socio-Economic Systems  

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Full Text Available Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeling of complex socio-economic systems. Design/methodology/approach – The collective behavior is often modeled using stochastic and ordinary calculus, while the inter-individual interactions are modeled using agent-based models. In order to obtain the ideal model, one should start from these frameworks and build a bridge to reach another. This is a formidable task, if we consider the top-down approach, namely starting from the collective behavior and moving towards inter-individual interactions. The bottom-up approach also fails, if complex inter-individual interaction models are considered, yet in this case we can start with simple models and increase the complexity as needed. Findings – The bottom-up approach, considering simple agent-based herding model as a model for the inter-individual interactions, allows us to derive certain macroscopic models of the complex socio-economic systems from the agent-based perspective. This provides interesting insights into the collective behavior patterns observed in the complex socio-economic systems. Research limitations/implications –The simplicity of the agent-based herding model might be considered to be somewhat limiting. Yet this simplicity implies that the model is highly universal. It reproduces universal features of social behavior and also can be further extended to fit different socio-economic scenarios. Practical implications – Insights provided in this contribution might be used to modify existing policy making tools in order to cope with the social transformations in the contemporary society. Originality/Value – The relationship between the inter-individual and the collective behavior is an interesting topic considered to be coming from rather different fields by many scientists. Yet the topic has received due attention only in the recent years. Consequently, the truly systematic approaches directly bridging between these two concepts are somewhat rare. These approaches also differ among themselves – some of the research groups consider questionnaires to understand the individual incentives of the humans, some suggest varying applications of the known physical models and some have roots in the behavioral economics and utility optimization. Our approach in this sense is unique as we start from a simple agentbased herding model and use the ideas from the statistical physics to obtain its macroscopic treatments for the different socio-economic scenarios. In this contribution we present our previous approaches, namely considering new product diffusion in the market and also a financial market model, and also our most recent results, related to the leadership in the social communities and predator-prey type competition in the socio-economic systems. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the correspondence between the considered simple agent-based herding model and the considered macroscopic models was not previously discussed by the other research groups. Research type: research paper.

Aleksejus Kononovi?ius

2013-08-01

216

SOCIO - ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF RAG-PICKERS IN AIZAWL CITY- A CASE STUDY  

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Full Text Available Management of solid wastes has become a critical issue for almost all the big cities in India. Although the responsibility of solid waste management remains primarily with the municipal bodies, several other stakeholder groups play a significant role in the process. In the Indian scenario, the so called rag-pickers who come from highly vulnerable social backgrounds play a unique role. But their services have not been recognized and they are facing difficult working conditions such as low status, deplorable living conditions and no support from governments. Hence, the present paper attempts to study their socio-economic conditions and to assess their working conditions etc. It also highlights some suggestions to improve their socio-economic conditions.

Laltanpuii Ralte

2014-04-01

217

Socio-economic, environmental and health aspects of farm workers engaged in mango plantations.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional survey of 489 male subjects in the age group 15 to 65 years engaged directly or indirectly in mango cultivation along with 208 control subjects was carried out to find their socio-economic, environmental and health conditions. The conditions like high illiteracy rate (49.5%), poverty (PCI less than Rs 100 per month, 52.2%), poor housing (mud houses, 66.7%) unsafe water supply (78.6%) were prevailing in the surveyed population. The high respiratory morbidity may be attributed to high prevalence of smoking and prolonged inhalation of organic dusts during farming operation associated with illiteracy and poor socio-economic status. Gastrointestinal disorders were related to poor hygienic conditions, smoking and consumption of contaminated water. The symptoms pertaining to CNS, skin and eyes were found to be associated with exposure to pesticides. PMID:8719171

Gupta, B N; Mathur, N; Rastogi, S K; Srivastava, A K; Chandra, H; Pangtey, B S; Mahendra, P N; Bharti, R S

1995-12-01

218

Community-based ecotourism: Its socio-economic impacts at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a lacuna in literature from Western Africa on how issue of participation influence socio-economic impacts at ecotourism destinations. This paper investigates the socio-economic impacts of ecotourism based on Boabeng- Fiema Monkey Sanctuary in Ghana. The paper is based on primary data generated from Boabeng and Fiema communities. Seventy mainly opened-ended questionnaires were administered face-to-face to purposively selected residents from the two communities, alongside, in-depth interviews with the management of the Sanctuary and focus group with purposively selected individuals from Boabeng and Fiema. The study reveals that the residents of the communities face burgeoning challenges such as shrinking livelihood options, inadequate involvement of community in the ecotourism, poor state of the visitor centre, inadequate government support and poor roads.

Eshun Gabriel

2014-12-01

219

Agent-based and macroscopic modeling of the complex socio-economic systems  

CERN Document Server

The current economic crisis has provoked an active response from the interdisciplinary scientific community. As a result many papers suggesting what can be improved in understanding of the complex socio-economics systems were published. Some of the most prominent papers on the topic include (Bouchaud, 2009; Farmer and Foley, 2009; Farmer et al, 2012; Helbing, 2010; Pietronero, 2008). These papers share the idea that agent-based modeling is essential for the better understanding of the complex socio-economic systems and consequently better policy making. Yet in order for an agent-based model to be useful it should also be analytically tractable, possess a macroscopic treatment (Cristelli et al, 2012). In this work we shed a new light on our research group's contributions towards understanding of the correspondence between the inter-individual interactions and collective behavior. We also provide some new insights into the implications of the global and local interactions, the leadership and the predator-prey i...

Kononovicius, Aleksejus

2013-01-01

220

Socio-economic inequalities in cerebral palsy prevalence in the United Kingdom: a register-based study.  

OpenAIRE

Evidence is unclear as to whether there is a socio-economic gradient in cerebral palsy (CP) prevalence beyond what would be expected from the socio-economic gradient for low birthweight, a strong risk factor for CP. We conducted a population-based study in five regions of the UK with CP registers, to investigate the relationship between CP prevalence and socio-economic deprivation, and how it varies by region, by birthweight and by severity and type of CP. The total study population was 1 657...

Dolk, H.; Pattenden, S.; Bonellie, S.; Colver, A; King, A.; Kurinczuk, Jj; Parkes, J.; Platt, Mj; Surman, G.

2010-01-01

221

Socio-economic and climate change impacts on agriculture: an integrated assessment, 1990–2080  

OpenAIRE

A comprehensive assessment of the impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems over this century is developed, up to 2080 and at a global level, albeit with significant regional detail. To this end an integrated ecological–economic modelling framework is employed, encompassing climate scenarios, agro-ecological zoning information, socio-economic drivers, as well as world food trade dynamics. Specifically, global simulations are performed using the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zone model, in co...

Fischer, Gu?nther; Shah, Mahendra; N Tubiello, Francesco; Velhuizen, Harrij

2005-01-01

222

Estimation of discrete choice models including socio-economic explanatory variables  

OpenAIRE

Discrete choice models and qualitative response models are intimately related. Usually both are based on a logistic specification. In many applications the two approaches have been combined leading to a 'discrete choice model including socio-economic explanatory variables'. The paper desdribes maximum likelihood estimation for all three approaches. Special attention is given to the case of missing variation (over individuals) of category-dependent explanatory variables.

Ronning, Gerd

1987-01-01

223

Impact of Household Socio-Economic Factors on Food Security: Case of Adana  

OpenAIRE

Food insecurity is the situation where people do not have access to sufficient, stable and safe food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The objective of this study was to determine the status of food security in the Adana metropolitan area by using, for the first time in Turkey, Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSS). Household’s food security levels and socio-economic factors affecting the food security were analyzed using the...

Ozlem Esturk; Necat Oren, M.

2014-01-01

224

Study of knowledge and contraception practices in low socio-economic women of Delhi  

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Full Text Available Background: Objective of current study was to assess the knowledge and practice of contraception among the low socio-economic women of reproductive age group in Delhi. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 272 low socio-economic women attending a family planning clinic at a Delhi municipal corporation hospital, of which 106 came for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP and 166 came for family planning advice. They were interrogated through a pre-designed structured questionnaire, to evaluate their knowledge and practices towards regular contraceptive methods, Emergency Contraception (EC and medical abortion. They were counselled about the available contraceptive methods and allowed to make choices according to their suitability. Results: All women belonged to low socio-economic group according to the modified Kuppuswamy scale. 22.1% were illiterate. 47.8% were ignorant of contraception. 38.3% women were aware of EC. Only 24.2% knew about medical abortion. The main reasons cited for not using contraception was desire for male child (24.6%, fear of side effects (20%, desire for another child (20%, opposition from family members (15.4%, inaccessibility (4.6% and inconvenience and lack of privacy (5.4%. Conclusions: This study highlights that lack of education, knowledge and awareness led to inadequate usage of regular methods of contraception in reproductive age group women belonging to low socio-economic status. Thus only availability is not sufficient to reach optimum female health. Accessibility need to be increased by educating females and motivating couples to make adequate use of existing family planning methods and resources. In contrast the awareness for emergency contraception is more than regular methods. It mandates need to educate women that emergency contraception should not replace regular methods. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1022-1026

Divya Pandey

2014-08-01

225

Personality, socio-economic status and inflammation: cross-sectional, population-based study.  

OpenAIRE

Background: Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 666 subjects were recruited from areas of high (most deprived – “MD”) and low (least deprived – “LD”) deprivation. IL-6, ICAM-1, CRP and fibrinogen were measured along with ...

Millar, Keith; Lloyd, Suzanne M.; Mclean, Jennifer S.; Batty, David G.; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Deans, Kevin A.; Ford, Ian; Mcconnachie, Alex; Mcginty, Agnes; Mottus, Re?ne; Packard, Chris J.; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Paul G.; Nathan, Yoga

2013-01-01

226

Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being  

OpenAIRE

Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensio...

Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

2014-01-01

227

Postresection survival outcomes of pancreatic cancer according to demographic factors and socio-economic status  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Aim Aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of demographic factors (DGF) and socio-economic status (SES) on survival after pancreatic cancer resection in a German setting. Methods Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified from our pancreatic resection database (1989-2008). DGF, SES, survival and tumor-related information were obtained from hospital records, a registry office questionnaire, and t...

Kuhn, Y.; Koscielny, A.; Glowka, T.; Hirner, A.; Kalff, J. C.; Standop, J.

2010-01-01

228

Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006). The analysis i...

Adhikari Ramesh

2010-01-01

229

Potential socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with sexual dissatisfaction among men and women  

OpenAIRE

This study assessed the associations between potential socio-economic and lifestyle factors with sexual dissatisfaction and gender disparities in north-eastern France. In total 6216 subjects (randomly selected subjects completed a postal questionnaire gathering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, living alone, income, tobacco use, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire), heath status, fatigue, sleep disorders, diseases, depression/sadness and sexual dissatisfaction. Data were analyzed u...

Anquetil, M.; Baumann, Miche?le

2009-01-01

230

The socio-economic impact of the Tsitsikamma National Park / S. Oberholzer.  

OpenAIRE

The primary objective of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Tsitsikamma National Park. Secondly, to determine the relationship between the community's level of interest in the Tsitsikamma National Park (TNP) and their perceptions concerning the environmental, economic and social impacts of the TNP. By conducting a literature study, the first objective was achieved. The following tourism impacts were identified: environmental, economic and social. These...

Oberholzer, Susan

2010-01-01

231

Where artisanal mines and forest meet: Socio-economic and environmental impacts in the Congo Basin  

OpenAIRE

While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape covering Cameroon, the Central African Republic and Republic of the Congo. This paper captures the socio-economic and environmental impacts of small-scale mining in the TNS. Using structured questi...

Ingram, V.; Tieguhong, J. C.; Schure, J.; Nkamgnia, E.; Tadjuidje, M. H.

2011-01-01

232

A socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity on the Ghanaian market: implications for breeding  

OpenAIRE

Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the development of tailor-made varieties. Forty-seven cowpea accessions were collected from traders interviewed for morphological characterization to ascertain the degree of diversity. Data was subjected to H...

Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E. S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J. P.; Ruivenkamp, G. T. P.

2011-01-01

233

Chronic suppurative otitis media: Socio-economic implications in a tertiary hospital in Northern Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: In developing countries, ear infections and deafness are usually neglected conditions due to insufficient funds, work force, facilities, and knowledge. This paper highlights the socio-economic burden of chronic suppurative otitis media on a northern Nigerian population with suggestions on ways to reduce this burden. METHODS: Seventy-four patients presenting to the Otorhinolaryngology unit, Department of surgery, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Plateau state, Nigeria with chronic...

Olugbenga Silas; Tonga Nimkur; Adeyi Adoga

2010-01-01

234

Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= - 1·79, 95 % CI - 2·31, - 1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= - 1·57, 95 % CI - 2·09, - 1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help. PMID:25784199

van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

2015-04-01

235

Fixing the Kingdom: Political Evolution and Socio-Economic Challenges in Bahrain  

OpenAIRE

Bahrain has entered into a more ‘progressive’ phase of its history under King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa. Various parliamentary and legislative restructuring, in addition to discernable changes within civil society, have taken place. Yet genuine socio-economic challenges remain on the horizon, which may pose risks to the political order. The reforms were driven by a recognition that far reaching political and economic changes were needed in order to combat the risk of a return to ...

Wright, Steven

2008-01-01

236

A study on the socio-economic determinants of suicide: Evidence from 13 European OECD countries  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the factors affecting suicide in 13 European OECD countries from a socio-economic perspective. We use the autoregressive distributed lag approach to cointegration as the estimation methodology. Our results reveal that an increasing impact of divorce rates and a decreasing effect of per capita real GDP on suicide are confirmed in 9 countries. However, the evidence on the effects of fertility rates and per capita alcohol consumption are relatively less. For fertility rates, ...

Okada, Keisuke; Samreth, Sovannroeun

2011-01-01

237

Effects of Socio-Economic and Demographic Variables on Age at First Marriage in Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Age at first marriage is a most important factor in population dynamics as it affects fertility tremendously and mortality and migration to a lesser extent. Marriage is nearly universal everywhere in Bangladesh. Age at first marriage has a strong influence on a variety of demographic, social and economic factors. Early marriage is more common matter among the poorest women in Bangladesh than women from wealthy families. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of socio-economic an...

Mosharaf Hossain; Rafiqul Islam

2013-01-01

238

Diet composition, socio-economic status and food outlets development in Britain  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among the British population. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975-2000. Daily intakes-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study a...

Agostini, Paola

2007-01-01

239

Cultural and socio-economic impacts of Mediterranean marine protected areas  

OpenAIRE

Marine protected areas (MPAs) may be important for protecting the marine environment, but they may also have substantial socio-cultural impacts about which very little is currently known, or acknowledged. In the Mediterranean, few data are available on the socio-economic consequences of MPAs. The present study reviews the existing data on MPAs in Spain, France, Italy and Greece. A general increase in tourist activities in Mediterranean MPAs is evident, as are increases in the abundances of la...

Badalamenti, Fabio; Ramos Espla?, Alfonso A?ngel; Voultsiadou, Eleni; Sa?nchez Lizaso, Jose? Luis; D Anna, Giovanni; Pipitone, Carlo; Mas Herna?ndez, Julio; Ruiz Ferna?ndez, Juan Manuel; Whitmarsh, David; Riggio, Silvano

2000-01-01

240

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

OpenAIRE

Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with ...

Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

2010-01-01

241

The three faces of the coin : a socio-economic approach to the institution of money  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT This paper develops a broad, multi-faceted approach to the socio-economics of money. The aim is to elaborate models with which to describe and analyze money and money systems in modern societies. No single theory is conceivable but a complex of interlinked theories can help us understand and explain many aspects of money: (1) money as a means to represent and communicate value; (2) money as technology (money, like other technologies such as keys, carpenter tools, automobiles, fact...

Burns, Tom; Deville, Philippe; Gauci, Bernard; Baumgartner, Tom

2003-01-01

242

The Three Faces of the Coin: A Socio-economic Approach to the Institution of Money  

OpenAIRE

This paper develops a broad, multi-faceted approach to the socio-economics of money. The aim is to elaborate models with which to describe and analyze money and money systems in modern societies. No single theory is conceivable but a complex of interlinked theories can help us understand and explain many aspects of money: (1) money as a means to represent and communicate value; (2) money as technology (money, like other technologies such as keys, carpenter tools, automobiles, factories, and n...

Ville?, Philippe

2003-01-01

243

How consumers’ socio-economic background influences satisfaction: Insights for better utility regulation  

OpenAIRE

Augmenting consumer welfare was a key justification behind the reform of utilities from the 1980s. But, three decades later, evidence is mounting that consumer satisfaction with household utilities is quite uneven. Moreover, governments, regulators and international organizations are increasingly recognizing that consumers from specific socio-economic backgrounds may be less satisfied than those from other backgrounds. To attend to this, instances of demand-side regulation have been implement...

Clifton, Judith; Di?az-fuentes, Daniel; Ferna?ndez-gutie?rrez, Marcos

2013-01-01

244

Socio-economic contributions of an indigenous tree in urban areas of southwest Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

Indigenous trees have been discovered to be disappearing from urban areas at alarming rates, and the contributions of the existing trees are not adequately documented. Milicia excelsa is an indigenous trees species in tropical Africa and popularly known as Iroko. Due to extensive exploitation for wood production and other socio-economic activities, the tree species is classified as threatened and relics could only be found in a few locations. A survey of the trees in the city of I...

Babalola, F. D.; Borokini, T. I.; Onefeli, A. O.; Muchie, M.

2013-01-01

245

Jatropha assessment : agronomy, socio-economic issues and ecology, facts from literature  

OpenAIRE

Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) has been promoted as a potential renewable energy source for many of its advantageous properties in comparison to other biomass feedstock. This report summarises the agronomy, socio-economic issues, and ecology facts from literature on Jatropha. Such an overview is essential to formulate recommendations and policy guidelines to stimulate best project practices and also help to avoid the promotion of unviable or unsustainable practices

Eijck, J. A. J.; Smeets, E. M. W.; Jongschaap, R. E. E.; Romijn, H.; Balkema, A.

2010-01-01

246

The Effect of Corruption on Socio-Economic Development of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study springs up because socio- economic development is very pertinent to all, hence it would be regarded as the apex of our social existence. It will help to identify how deeply corruption has really affected socio- economic development of Nigeria. However, this study aims to enable us know the causes of corruption, and to find out how deep corruption has eaten into the fabric of Nigeria’s society, etc. It also tends to examine the effect of corruption on Nigeria’s various socio- economic developments and tries to explore on the damage which this disease has caused to the image of the nation since 1985 up till the year 2010. By then, the effort of the anti- graft agencies EFCC and ICPC would also be examined to see if they have been efficient in discharging their duties, and to suggest the better way in more holistic and independent manner which would help as an encouragement for them to face the fight or war against corruption without fear or favour of the power that be. The result of this evaluation here is to show that this issue of corruption in Nigeria is an important national issue and has to be treated with all carefulness. There is great need for people to be shakier over the damage which corruption would cause if neglected. Based on the analysis of this work, government would know how best to fight corruption and alleviate the heat of it so as to build stronger and healthier economy. A lot of work would have been done on this subject; some might have done it with less seriousness. To allow for socio- economic development, this subject has to be treated objectively with utmost care. And it is that objectives I would say, this work have  appeared to achieve it.

Goddy Osa Lgbaekemen

2014-09-01

247

Childhood disability and socio-economic circumstances in low and middle income countries: systematic review  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The majority of children with disability live in low and middle income (LAMI) countries. Although a number of important reviews of childhood disability in LAMI countries have been published, these have not, to our knowledge, addressed the association between childhood disability and the home socio-economic circumstances (SEC). The objective of this study is to establish the current state of knowledge on the SECs of children with disability and their households in LAMI coun...

Simkiss Douglas E; Blackburn Clare M; Mukoro Felix O; Read Janet M; Spencer Nicholas J

2011-01-01

248

Socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality in low and middle income countries  

OpenAIRE

Worldwide more than 10 million children die each year before their fifth birthday (Black et al. 2003). Not only are these deaths concentrated in low and middle income countries; children of the poor and less educated within these countries too exhibit systematically higher mortality levels. Policy makers are learning that improving average population health is not enough. Monitoring and tackling inequalities in health between socio-economic groups within countries has become an...

Houweling, A. J.

2007-01-01

249

Socio-economic analysis : a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

OpenAIRE

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation ...

Brignon, Jean-marc

2011-01-01

250

Report on environmental and socio-economic analysis (WP 2 Task 3)  

OpenAIRE

The potential damage costs assessment indicates substantial economic benefits can be gained by controlling Dvv. The economic benefits of the Wageningen workshop scenario are about 472 million Euro per year. The economic benefits of control justify eradication and containment strategies of the EU. The environmental and socio-economic analysis of Diabrotica control programs undertaken in this report gives a global idea of what are the benefits and the inconvenient of each possible control strat...

Fall, E. H.; Wesseler, J. H. H.

2008-01-01

251

Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community  

OpenAIRE

The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and ...

Raja Irfan Sabir; Muhammad Irfan; Naeem Akhtar; Farooq Nawaz; Muhammad Shahnawaz

2014-01-01

252

The effect of community-level socio-economic conditions on threatening racial encounters  

OpenAIRE

This paper contributes to the emerging literature on racial and ethnic tension by analyzing the relationship between local socio-economic conditions and the propensity for outsiders to have threatening racial encounters with insiders. We use unique data for a sample of active-duty Army personnel that allow us to first, link personnel to the local communities in which they are located and second, to avoid any selectivity bias associated with endogenous community selection. We find at best mixe...

Antecol, Heather; Cobb-clark, Deborah A.

2008-01-01

253

Relation of waste generation and composition to socio-economic factors: a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop an effective waste management strategy for a given region, it is important to know the amount of waste generated and the composition of the waste stream. Past research has shown that the amount of waste generated is proportional to the population and the average mean living standards or the average income of the people. In addition, other factors may affect the amount and composition of waste. These are climate, living habits, level of education, religious and cultural beliefs, and social and public attitudes. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in a suburban municipal area in Sri Lanka to determine the solid waste generation rate and waste composition based on field surveys and to determine the related socio-economic factors. A database was developed that included information on the quantity and composition of waste generated in a sample of households in the study area over a time period. The collected data was analysed to relate waste generation and composition data to various socio-economic factors. Over 400 sample households were selected for the study using a stratified random sampling methodology based on municipal wards and property values. A technique that considers both the number of households in a particular income group (property value range) and the standard deviation of property values within a given income group was used to determine the appropriate sample size for each municipal ward. Through category and regression analyses, the quantities of waste and waste composition were related to several socio-economic factors. The paper describes the basis for the sample selection, the methodology adopted for data collection, the socio-economic parameters used for the analysis, and the relationships developed from the analysis. PMID:17450419

Bandara, Nilanthi J G J; Hettiaratchi, J Patrick A; Wirasinghe, S C; Pilapiiya, Sumith

2007-12-01

254

Socio-economic factors influencing milk donation in milk banks in India: an institutional study  

OpenAIRE

Background: Exclusive breast-feeding has irrefutably been established as the best form of nourishment for neonatal and early infantile age groups. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the socio-economic factors in a developing country like India, which influence maternal motivation and willingness to donate breast milk and to make policy changes to promote the same. Methods: Ours is a retrospective study carried out over a period of 1 year in Cama and Albless hospital in Mu...

Katke, Rajshree D.; Saraogi, Mohit R.

2014-01-01

255

Croatia's EU accession: socio-economic assessment of farm households and policy recommendations  

OpenAIRE

Croatia is very close to meeting the requirements necessary for becoming a member of the European Union (EU). On February 6, 2008, the European Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn said that accession negotiations with Croatia are moving ahead well. As in all new member states (NMS), the agricultural sector and food processing chain are core issues within the negotiation process. Successful negotiation requires intimate knowledge of the issue at hand, including the socio-economic situation and ...

Mo?llers, Judith; Zier, Patrick; Frohberg, Klaus; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Bojnec, Stefan

2009-01-01

256

Respiratory performance and grip strength tests in Indian school bodys of different socio-economic status.  

OpenAIRE

Physical efficiency tests were performed on urban school boys drawn from high socio-economic status in comparison to rural school boys. The height and weight records of the subjects indicating growing process showed that the rural boys attained less physical growth than their urban counterparts. The Vital Capacity and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate data expressed either per unit of height or body surface area were significantly lower in rual boys. these findings indicated a poor development of the...

A.K., De; Debnath, P. K.; Dey, N. K.; Nagchaudhuri, J.

1980-01-01

257

The Christian ethics of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching  

OpenAIRE

This paper highlights the relationship between economic scienceand Christian moral in order to analyze the idea of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching (CST). In the first period leading up to the Second Vatican Council (1891-1962), from Pope Leo XIII to Pope John XXIII, the idea of development was connected both to technical and industrial progress, and to the universal values of justice, charity, and truth,which national communities were asked to follow. Durin...

Persico, Tony E.; Nicola Mattoscio; Edgardo Bucciarelli

2011-01-01

258

The transformation of earth-system observations into information of socio-economic value in GEOSS  

OpenAIRE

The Group on Earth Observations System of Systems, GEOSS, is a co-ordinated initiative by many nations to address the needs for earth-system information expressed by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. We discuss the role of earth-system modelling and data assimilation in transforming earth-system observations into the predictive and status-assessment products required by GEOSS, across many areas of socio-economic interest. First we review recent gains in the predictive skill of...

Hollingsworth, Anthony; Uppala, Sakari; Klinker, Ernst; Burridge, David; Vitart, Frederic; Onvlee, Jeanette; Vries, J. W.; Roo, Ad; Pfrang, Christian

2005-01-01

259

Socio - Economic Implication of Use of Gsm among Abeokuta Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The euphoria that greeted the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) has reached its peak with grave implication for socio-economic conditions of many Nigerians same of who have been complaining about exploitation and unsatisfactory services provided by Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) operation in the country. However, many Nigerians even with high cost of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) phone will not stop at anything as holding a Global System...

Akinola George Dosunmu

2011-01-01

260

Positive parenting practices associated with subsequent childhood weight change.  

Science.gov (United States)

We aimed to identify positive parenting practices that set children on differential weight-trajectories. Parenting practices studied were cognitively stimulating activities, limit-setting, disciplinary practices, and parent warmth. Data from two U.S. national longitudinal data sets and linear and logistic regression were used to examine association of initial parenting practices with subsequent change in body mass index (BMI) Z-score and being overweight, stratified by income and gender. Lower change in BMI Z-score and lower likelihood of being or becoming overweight occurred among girls if parents engaged in cognitively stimulating activities or set bedtime; among low-income girls if parents helped with art and set bedtime; among high-income girls if they participated in dance or music, parents talked about nature or visited a museum or library, or parents had rules about number of hours for watching television; among low-income boys if they participated in dance or parents built something with them or set bedtime; and among high-income boys if they participated in dance or music. Greater expression of warmth was associated with lower change in BMI Z-score. Parenting practices facilitating cognitive stimulation, setting limits, and expressing warmth are associated with lower likelihood of being or becoming overweight and can be promoted by healthcare professionals. PMID:22143321

Avula, Rasmi; Gonzalez, Wendy; Shapiro, Cheri J; Fram, Maryah S; Beets, Michael W; Jones, Sonya J; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A

2011-12-01

261

Socio-Economic Implications of Retirement on Retired Public Servants in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study examined the socio-economic implications of retirement on retried public servants in Ekiti State, Nigeria.  Economic difficult might be a principal factor for maladjustment among retirees in Ekiti State.  Data for this study were collected from Primary source.  Four hundred (400 questionnaires were administered in this study.  Data for this study were analyzed with the aid of frequency count, percentage,  mean and statistical methods.  Results for this study showed that retirees in the study area had socio-economic problems resulting from poor pay, delay in payment of gratuity and pension, and hyper inflation on their meagre income.  This study, therefore, recommended that, the management of pension fund should be given to private pension administrators with credible records in order to forestall mismanagement of pension funds.  This study will be of immeasurable value to Government, Public Servants, Retirees, planners and researchers.

Key words: Implication; Recommendations; Retirement socio-economic and public servants

Ayodeji OLATUNDE

2011-12-01

262

Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

HA Qazi

2009-09-01

263

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

264

Impact of mining projects on the socio-economics of the region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mining of mineral deposits, if exploited economically, would generate prospects of significant employment of non-inflationary nature, in developing countries. Exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits contributes in developing inaccessible regions thereby improving socio-economics of the region benefiting the local inhabitants and supplementing the efforts towards national integration. However, an indifferent attitude of the project management towards environment and welfare of local population will result in clash of interests and perpetual litigations which not only impede progress of the project but also lead to law and order problems. A precondition for successful implementation of any project is to understand the possible impact it has, on the socio-economics of the region and educate the local inhabitants to derive optimum advantage from the project. In this paper, two cases of mining projects, one located remotely and the other close to a well developed city are studied and their impact on the socio-economics of the respective regions is presented. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

265

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Oconee case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Oconee nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

266

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: D. C. Cook case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the D. C. Cook nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

267

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Surry case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Surry nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

268

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Three Mile Island case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

269

Holistic Picture of Socio-economic Development: Endogenous and Exogenous Nature of Cycling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the study of nature of cycling of socio-economic changes and is focused on coordination of fragmentary concepts of development of various fields of human activity. Taking into account multidisciplinary nature of this paper, the study was carried out using qualitative research methods. The article offers the concept of economics and society evolution in the form of a holistic picture of socio-economic changes, where public worldview is an endogenous evolution factor, and solar activity is an exogenous factor. Socio-economic changes from the middle of 17th century to the present day are described in the form of eight successive stages of a large evolutionary cycle (400-440 years. Presented concept is based on a poly-objective approach of evolution of Being, therefore social and economic development is treated as a natural part of the process of Universal Evolution. Generality of the proposed evolution concept makes it possible to use it in other fields of knowledge.

Iryna M Kaparulina

2013-07-01

270

The impact of socio-economic factors and incentives on farmers' inestment behaviour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support schemes. Data from a questionnaire survey among 208 Danish pig producers are analysed by use of logistic regression and the relationships between socio-economic factors, investment incentives and farmers’ investment behaviour are empirically revealed. The results show that the farmers who rank economic incentives as the most important when making investments are those who yield the best financial results. Off-farm income and partial productivity were also higher on these farms. As hypothesised, young farmers with a large production are more likely to invest in real assets than others. No cross sectional trends relating the incentives for making investments to the investment propensity were identified. One important policy implication of the results is that improved knowledge of the socio-economic factors and their influence on investment behaviour and incentives may reduce the deadweight loss associated with many governmental investment programmes.

Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens

2011-01-01

271

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

272

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

273

The socio-economic costs of the planned development of wind power energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The socio-economic consequences of the Danish government's planned further development of wind power energy are discussed in detail. It is claimed that, currently, electricity produced by wind turbines is more expensive than that produced by power stations, if the relative environmental effects are not taken into consideration. It is expected that technological development will contribute to cost reduction by the year 2010 so that electricity produced by wind turbines will be competitive, but until then costs of wind power energy will be high and it is reckoned that losses will be in the range of 5-6 billion Danish crowns, minus 2.5 billion saved by lack of CO2 emission. The socio-economic factors regarding windmills of various sizes (150 kW and 225 kW) are calculated and the planned development of wind power until 2010 is explained. The socio-economic costs of the development programme under various conditions, including the calculation of the saved emissions of carbon dioxide, are discussed. The author states that, in the light of these arguments, he is not in agreement with the governmental plan for the development of wind-turbine produced electricity. It is suggested that this plan could be postponed until such time as wind-power produced electricity should be more competitive in price, and that it should not be pursued during a period of economic recession. (AB)

274

Socio-economic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Europe: an exploration of the role of heightened social mobility.  

Science.gov (United States)

The larger than expected socio-economic inequalities in health in more egalitarian countries might be explained by a heightened social mobility in these countries. Therefore, the aim of this explorative study was to examine the associations between country-level social mobility, income inequality and socio-economic differences in all-cause mortality, using country-level secondary data from 12 European countries. Both income equality and social mobility were found to be associated with larger socio-economic differences in mortality, particularly in women. These findings suggest that social mobility and income equality, beside their shiny side of improving population health, might have a shady side of increasing socio-economic health inequalities. PMID:24068547

Simons, Audrey M W; Groffen, Daniëlle A I; Bosma, Hans

2013-12-01

275

The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.08-1.49, poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60, more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83, more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73, and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41. The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio-economic disadvantage takes its toll on child health before birth, and continues to do so during childhood. Therefore, action to reduce health disparities needs to start very early in life, and should also address socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding habits, and day-care centre attendance.

Smit Henriette A

2011-04-01

276

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economs illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

277

Socio-economic Determinants of Output of Groundnut Production in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.  

OpenAIRE

The study examined the economics of groundnut production in Estako West Local Government Area of Edo State. The objectives of the study were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of groundnut producers, determine the costs and returns of groundnut production, identify the constraints faced by groundnut farmers and analyze the socio-economic factors determining groundnut production in the study area. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire administered...

Ekunwe, Peter A.; Emokaro, Christopher O.; Aigba, Grace A.

2013-01-01

278

Socio-economic status and health care utilization in rural Zimbabwe: findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043)  

OpenAIRE

Zimbabwe’s HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i) socio-economic status (SES) and ii) employment status on the utilization of health services ...

Michael Sweat; Morin, Stephen F.; Michal Kulich; Daniel Hlubinka; Basant Singh; Sebastian Kevany; Oliver Murima

2012-01-01

279

Ways of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport in Republic Lebanon.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consisting of economy of physical culture and sport is certain of Republic Lebanon. Opinions of the Lebanese specialists are presented on questions of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport. The necessity of decision of complex of tasks of socio-economic character is grounded for a country taking into account experience of foreign countries. It is offered to develop and realize a target comprehensive programme under the title « Lebanon - sports country ».

Michuda Y.P.

2010-08-01

280

A social work study on relationship between thinking styles, self-esteem and socio-economic conditions among university students  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a social work study on relationship between thinking style and self-esteem as well as socio-economic conditions among university students. The study selects 512 students from Islamic Azad University of Najafabad in province of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire, which measures creativity and self-esteem. We also collect students’ socio-economic conditions and analyze the information. The results of our survey disclose that thinking style and self-esteem have o...

Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi; Abbass Mokhtari

2013-01-01

281

Modifying the rebound: It depends! Explaining mobility behavior on the basis of the German socio-economic panel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel and the way this behavioral aspect is modified by additional variables. The data set used to estimate a theoretical model of the rebound effect covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). To take full advantage of the information in the data available, and to avoid problems due to possible selection effects, we estimated an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. Our results suggest that in line with the rebound hypothesis, car efficiency has a negative effect on the kilometers driven. That is, the lower the fuel consumption, the greater the distance driven. However, contrasting recent empirical literature about the rebound effect in the transportation sector, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km. In addition, we find a positive diesel effect, which implies that owning a diesel engine car is positively correlated with the distance driven. Both effects can be interpreted as support for the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way. Moreover, it can be shown that some “soft” variables such as certain attitudes towards the environment tend to amplify this non-linear rebound effect. - Research Highlights: ? We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel. ? The data sts additional travel. ? The data set covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). We estimate an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. ? Contrasting recent empirical literature, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km.? In addition, we find a positive diesel effect: Owning a diesel engine car has a positive effect on the distance driven. Both effects support the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way.? It can be shown that some “soft” variables such as certain attitudes towards the environment tend to amplify this non-linear rebound effect.

282

Socio-economic factors and health care system characteristics related to cancer survival in the elderly. A population-based analysis in 16 European countries (ELDCARE project).  

Science.gov (United States)

The ELDCARE study aims to investigate, at the ecological level, the relationships between socio-economic variables and cancer survival in patients aged 65 years and over. Survival data for patients diagnosed during the period 1985-1989 and followed up to 1994 were provided by 43 European Cancer Registries in 16 countries participating in the EUROCARE 2 project. Relative survival was computed by Hakulinen's methods. Data on socio-economic factors were collected by national statistics offices for the years around 1991. Pearson's correlation was used to study the relationships between cancer survival and socio-economic factors. We selected four groups of variables. The first group included macro-economic variables (such as Gross Domestic Product, GDP; Total Health Expenditure, THE); the second, the main characteristics of national health care systems; the third, demographic factors; and the fourth, variables on labour market organisation. The countries with the largest proportions of elderly populations, in Northern and Western Europe, spent more on health than the less affluent countries of Eastern Europe. GDP was strongly related to THE but a very high variability in Computed Tomography Scanners (CTS) among countries with similar THE was observed. Indeed, those countries with THE around US 1500 dollars per capita had survival rates for breast cancer ranging from 67 to 82%. Cancer survival in elderly patients in Europe was most strongly related to GDP and THE, especially for good prognosis cancers. Survival was strongly correlated with health care technologies, particularly CTS, but not with health employment. Survival was positively correlated with proportion of married elderly people (and negatively with widowed elderly), suggesting a role played by social support in influencing the prognosis of elderly patients. These results highlight how health outcomes in the elderly are a complex phenomenon, not determined only by GDP and THE, but affected by social organisation and life habits as well as economic development conditions. PMID:15843094

Quaglia, Alberto; Vercelli, Marina; Lillini, Roberto; Mugno, Eugenio; Coebergh, Jan Willem; Quinn, Mike; Martinez-Garcia, Carmen; Capocaccia, Riccardo; Micheli, Andrea

2005-05-01

283

Comparison of environmental and socio-economic domains of vulnerability to flood hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-economic and environmental based vulnerability models have been developed within the research context of the FP6 project BRAHMATWINN. The conceptualisation of vulnerability has been defined in the project and is characterised as a function of sensitivity and adaptive capacity, where sensitivity is used to refer to systems that are susceptible to the impacts of environmental stress. Adaptive capacity is used to refer to systems or resources available to communities that could help them adapt or cope with the adverse consequences of environmental stresses in the recovery phase. In a wider context the approach reflects the wider objective and conceptualizations of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) framework, where vulnerability is characterized as a component of overall risk. A methodology has been developed which delineates spatial units of vulnerability (VULNUS). These units share a specific common characteristic and allow the independent spatial modelling of a complex phenomena independent from administrative units and raster based approaches. An increasing detail of spatial data and complex decision problems require flexible means for scaled spatial representations, for mapping the dynamics and constant changes, and delivering the crucial information. Automated techniques of object-based image analysis (OBIA, Lang & Blaschke, 2006), capable of integrating a virtually unlimited set of spatial data sets, try to match the information extraction with our world view. To account for that, a flexible concept of manageable units is required. The term geon was proposed by Lang (2008) to describe generic spatial objects that are homogenous in terms of a varying spatial phenomena under the influence of, and partly controlled by, policy actions. The geon concept acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. It is flexible in terms of a certain perception of a problem (specific policy realm, specific hazard domain, etc.). In this study, vulnerability units have been derived as a specific instance of a geon set within an area exposed to flood risk. Using geons, we are capable of transforming singular domains of information on specific systemic components to policy-relevant, conditioned information (Kienberger et al., 2008; Tiede & Lang, 2007). According to the work programme socio-economic vulnerabilities have been modelled for the Salzach catchment. A specific set of indicators has been developed with a strong stakeholder orientation. Next to that, and to allow an easier integration within the aimed development of Water Resource Response Units (WRRUs) the environmental domain of vulnerability has additionally been modelled. We present the results of the socio-economic and environmental based approach to model vulnerability. The research methodology utilises census as well as land use/land cover data to derive and assess vulnerability. As a result, spatial units have been identified which represent common characteristics of socio-economic environmental vulnerability. The results show the spatially explicit vulnerability and its underlying components sensitivity and adaptive capacity for socio-economic and environmental domains and discuss differences. Within the test area, the Salzach River catchment in Austria, primarily urban areas adjacent to water courses are highly vulnerable. It can be stated that the delineation of vulnerability units that integrates all dimensions of sustainability are a prerequisite for a holistic and thus adaptive integrated water management approach. Indeed, such units constitute the basis for future dynamic vulnerability assessments, and thus for the assessment of uncertainties due to climate change. Kienberger, S., S. Lang & D. Tiede (2008): Socio-economic vulnerability units - modelling meaningful spatial units. In: Proceedings of the GIS Research UK 16th Annual conference GISRUK 2008, Manchester. Lang, S. (2008): Object-based image analysis for remote sensing applications: modeling reali

Leidel, M.; Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

2009-04-01

284

Ottoman forestry: socio-economic aspect and its influence today / Otomano florestal: aspecto socioeconômico e sua influência hoje  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A silvicultura é um assunto importante, pois o suprimento de madeira em geral e madeira para consumo humano direto, além de seus efeitos positivos sobre o aquecimento global e sobre a diversidade biológica, trata de uma história que remonta à antiguidade. Como um setor de trabalho intensivo nos país [...] es em desenvolvimento, mantém interações com a gestão dos recursos naturais, relações públicas e estrutura socioeconômica. Ela pode afetar a prosperidade dos países, seja positiva ou negativamente. Assim, uma análise da história da silvicultura tem importância, porque não só lança luz sobre a sua condição passada e presente, mas também explica as melhorias para a proteção das florestas. Assim, na primeira parte deste estudo, serão dadas informações gerais sobre o Sistema de Terras e Florestas e Organização Otomano. Na segunda seção, serão tratados movimentos da ocidentalização do século 19, bem como alterações socioculturais e econômicas. A terceira seção irá incluir regulamentos significativos na silvicultura, manejo florestal e administração no Império Otomano, bem como a influência da silvicultura Otomano na atual estrutura socioeconômica. Na seção final, no âmbito da discussão do título e conclusão, a silvicultura Otomano será analisada em relação as suas consequências em termos de economia, política e direito. Abstract in english Forestry is an important subject because it supplies wood and timber for direct human consumption, in addition to its positive effects on global warming and on bio-diversity, with a history dating back to antiquity. As a labor-intensive sector in developing countries, it maintains interactions with [...] natural resources management, public relations and socio-economic structure. It can affect the prosperity of countries either positively or negatively. Hence, an analysis of the history of forestry bears importance because it not only sheds light on its past and present condition, but also explains the improvements for the protection of forests. Accordingly, in the first section of this study, general information on the Ottoman Land System and Ottoman Forestry Organization will be given. In the second section, we will treat 19th century westernization movements, as well as socio-cultural and economic changes. The third section will include significant regulations on forestry, forest management, and administration in the Ottoman Empire; as well as the influence of Ottoman forestry on the actual socio-economic structure. In the final section, under the title discussion and conclusion, Ottoman forestry will be examined regarding its consequences in terms of policy, economy and law.

Sezgin, Özden; Üstüner, Birben.

2012-03-01

285

Understanding, creating, and managing complex techno-socio-economic systems: Challenges and perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This contribution reflects on the comments of Peter Allen [1], Bikas K. Chakrabarti [2], Péter Érdi [3], Juval Portugali [4], Sorin Solomon [5], and Stefan Thurner [6] on three White Papers (WP) of the EU Support Action Visioneer (www.visioneer.ethz.ch). These White Papers are entitled "From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises" (WP 1) [7], "From Social Simulation to Integrative System Design" (WP 2) [8], and "How to Create an Innovation Accelerator" (WP 3) [9]. In our reflections, the need and feasibility of a "Knowledge Accelerator" is further substantiated by fundamental considerations and recent events around the globe. newpara The Visioneer White Papers propose research to be carried out that will improve our understanding of complex techno-socio-economic systems and their interaction with the environment. Thereby, they aim to stimulate multi-disciplinary collaborations between ICT, the social sciences, and complexity science. Moreover, they suggest combining the potential of massive real-time data, theoretical models, large-scale computer simulations and participatory online platforms. By doing so, it would become possible to explore various futures and to expand the limits of human imagination when it comes to the assessment of the often counter-intuitive behavior of these complex techno-socio-economic-environmental systems. In this contribution, we also highlight the importance of a pluralistic modeling approach and, in particular, the need for a fruitful interaction between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. newpara In an appendix we briefly summarize the concept of the FuturICT flagship project, which will build on and go beyond the proposals made by the Visioneer White Papers. EU flagships are ambitious multi-disciplinary high-risk projects with a duration of at least 10 years amounting to an envisaged overall budget of 1 billion EUR [10]. The goal of the FuturICT flagship initiative is to understand and manage complex, global, socially interactive systems, with a focus on sustainability and resilience.

Helbing, D.; Balietti, S.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.

2011-05-01

286

Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

287

Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

2013-06-01

288

Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial 'socially' performs in comparison with its alternatives. 'Industrial economics' methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a 'pragmatic regulatory impact analysis', that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines tha but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is 'pragmatic' in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess 'what happens' with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of economic and social effects expected from nanotechnology.

289

Socio-economic outcome after blunt orthopaedic trauma: Implications on injury prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Several large studies have identified factors associated with long-term outcome after orthopaedic injuries. However, long-term social and economic implications have not been published so far. The aim of this investigation is to study the long-term socio-economic consequences of patients sustaining severe trauma. Methods Patients treated at a level one trauma center were invited for a follow-up (at least 10 years examination. There were 637 patients who responded and were examined. Inclusion criteria included injury severity score (ISS ? 16 points, presence of lower and upper extremity fractures, and age between 3 and 60 years. Exclusion criteria included the presence of amputations and paraplegia. The socio-economic outcome was evaluated in three age groups: group I ( 50 years. The following parameters were analyzed using a standardized questionnaire: financial losses, net income losses, pension precaution losses, need for a bank loan, and the decrease in number of friends. Results 510 patients matched all study criteria, and breakdown of groups were as follows: 140 patients in group I, 341 patients in group II, and 29 patients in group III. Financial losses were reported in all age groups (20%-44%. Younger patients (group I were associated with less income losses when compared with other groups (p Conclusions Economic consequences are reported by polytraumatized patients even ten or more years after injury. Financial losses appear to be common in patients between 19 and 50 years. In contrast, social deprivation appears to be most pronounced in the younger age groups. Early socio-economic support and measures of injury prevention should focus on these specific age groups.

Zilkens Anna

2011-05-01

290

Induced abortion in Denmark: effect of socio-economic situation and country of birth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Equal access to health care is considered a key in Scandinavian healthcare policy. However, problematic differences between the socio-economic situation of immigrants and that of native Scandinavians are increasingly challenging this aspect of the Scandinavian welfare model. The present study focuses on how socio-economic characteristics and country of birth are associated with induced abortion. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information among 1351 women requesting abortion and a control group of 1306 women intending birth. RESULTS: The strongest factor associated with the decision to have an abortion was being single (OR 39.1; 23.8-64.2), followed by being aged 19 years or below (OR 29.6; 13.4-65.5), having two children or more (OR 7.05; 5.29-9.39) and being unskilled (OR 2.48; 1.49-4.10), student (OR 2.29; 1.52-3.43) or unemployed (OR 1.65; 1.11-2.46). When evaluating the effect of social exposure on abortion among Danish-born and foreign-born women, the higher rate of abortion among non-Westerners was found to be caused by the composition of non-Westerners more often being unemployed, having a low income and having two or more children rather than the fact that they are coming from a non-Western country. CONCLUSION: Immigrant women comprise a vulnerable group, with a poor socio-economic status. This situation exposes immigrant women to increased risk of induced abortion. In a society with an increasing heterogeneous population, the vulnerable situation of immigrant women has to be addressed, if equal access to health care is to be maintained.

Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine

2008-01-01

291

Collapse of Socio-economic Base of Bangladesh by Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Untreated groundwater, often enriched in arsenic-one of the most important pollutants and trace elements of the aquatic system recently regarded as the major threat to drinking water-was and is being extensively used as a source of drinking for the decades in rural and semi-urban areas of the developing countries which results in a high incidence of arsenic with deleterious effects on humans and food chain. In Bangladesh, India, Vietnam and other developed countries, arsenic contamination in groundwater is considered to be the key environmental health problem of the twenty first century. In Bangladesh arsenic was first detected in the district of Chapai Nawabgonj bordering the West-Bengal district of India in 1993; since then higher levels of arsenic (exceeding the WHO standard of 0.01 mg L-1 and Bangladesh standard of 0.05 mg L-1 have been detected in many regions of the country including 61 districts out of 64. It is estimated that of the 140 million inhabitants of Bangladesh more than 100 million are at the risk of arsenic hazard, such arsenic hazards collapses the societal structure and socio-economic backbone of poor people of rural Bangladesh. The study tries to discuss the chronological extent and severity of the biggest global arsenic calamity prevailed in Bangladesh, socio-economic impact of arsenic hazard on the poor people of rural society living more than seventy percent under poverty limit in Bangladesh. Specially due consideration was given on the socio-economic impact on arsenic victims particularly earning male family member, young male, married female and young female going to be married as well as arsenic affected family and their interaction with non-arsenic-victim of the society.

M.A.I. Chowdhury

2006-01-01

292

Evaluating socio-economic state of a country analyzing airtime credit and mobile phone datasets  

CERN Document Server

Reliable statistical information is important to make political decisions on a sound basis and to help measure the impact of policies. Unfortunately, statistics offices in developing countries have scarce resources and statistical censuses are therefore conducted sporadically. Based on mobile phone communications and history of airtime credit purchases, we estimate the relative income of individuals, the diversity and inequality of income, and an indicator for socioeconomic segregation for fine-grained regions of an African country. Our study shows how to use mobile phone datasets as a starting point to understand the socio-economic state of a country, which can be especially useful in countries with few resources to conduct large surveys.

Gutierrez, Thoralf; Blondel, Vincent D

2013-01-01

293

Socio Economic Status of Women Vendors in Towns of Kokrajhar District  

OpenAIRE

The study aims to examine the personal profile, family profile, migratory status, living, working and economic conditions of the women vendors of the towns of Kokrajhar district. It also aims to access their health condition. To study the socio-economic status of the women vendors, data was collected from the sampled women vendors with the help of a questionnaire. Data collected from the sample was entered in SPSS (V.13) and analysis was done. The finding of the study will help the people es...

Roselin Basumatary

2013-01-01

294

Constitutional socio-economic rights and international law: "You are not alone"  

OpenAIRE

The second oratio was a keynote speech delivered by Torsten Stein, the Director of the Institute of European Studies and holder of the chair for European law and European Public Law at Saarland University, Germany. He delivered his speech during November 2012 at the 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights, which was held by the Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus) in collaboration w...

Torsten Stein

2013-01-01

295

Crowd Avoidance and Diversity in Socio-Economic Systems and Recommendation  

CERN Document Server

Recommender systems recommend objects regardless of potential adverse effects of their overcrowding. We address this shortcoming by introducing crowd-avoiding recommendation where each object can be shared by only a limited number of users or where object utility diminishes with the number of users sharing it. We use real data to show that contrary to expectations, the introduction of these constraints enhances recommendation accuracy and diversity even in systems where overcrowding is not detrimental. The observed accuracy improvements are explained in terms of removing potential bias of the recommendation method. We finally propose a way to model artificial socio-economic systems with crowd avoidance and obtain first analytical results.

Gualdi, Stanislao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

2013-01-01

296

The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost-benefit analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far. The main problem when including passenger delays is to determine the value of time for passenger delays and how to include the delays in a socio-economic analysis. This is due to the fact that passenger delays are not defined unambiguously. In general, delays can occur on different parts of a journey; while the passengers are waiting for the train (waiting time, first waiting time or even hidden waiting time) or while the passenger are sitting in the train (or bus). Furthermore a delay can also be negative, meaning that a passenger will arrive before planned (a so-called negative delay). It is necessary to consider how to define the value of time for the different types of delays as well as how to include these elements in a cost-benefit analysis. This article proposes that a delay is defined solely by the difference between the scheduled and realized arrival time. The recommendations are listed as follows: • The value of time for a delay is defined as done by the Danish Ministry of Transport (Trafikministeriet, 2003) no matter how or when the delay has occurred. The size of the delay is calculated solely by the difference between the planned and realized arrival time. • A negative delay is defined as the value of time of hidden waiting time. A negative delay is calculated as the difference between the planned and realized arrival time and is considered a surplus in the cost benefit analysis • A delay will not be included if the passenger arrives at his or her final destination on time even though the passenger may have experienced a delay (or travelled along a different route than planned) during the journey. Note that this paper is regarded as a prequel to the article “Optimization of timetable supplement from a passenger based socio-economic point of view” (Thorhauge, 2010). This article is based on the results of (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010).

Thorhauge, Mikkel

297

Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP

Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M

2012-01-01

298

Admission to hospital following head injury in England: Incidence and socio-economic associations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Head injury in England is common. Evidence suggests that socio-economic factors may cause variation in incidence, and this variation may affect planning for services to meet the needs of those who have sustained a head injury. Methods Socio-economic data were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics and merged with Hospital Episodes Statistics obtained from the Department of Health. All patients admitted for head injury with ICD-10 codes S00.0–S09.9 during 2001–2 and 2002–3 were included and collated at the level of the extant Health Authorities (HA for 2002, and Primary Care Trust (PCT for 2003. Incidence was determined, and cluster analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to look at patterns and associations. Results 112,718 patients were admitted during 2001–2 giving a hospitalised incidence rate for England of 229 per 100,000. This rate varied across the English HA's ranging from 91–419 per 100,000. The rate remained unchanged for 2002–3 with a similar magnitude of variation across PCT's. Three clusters of HA's were identified from the 2001–2 data; those typical of London, those of the Shire counties, and those of Other Urban authorities. Socio-economic factors were found to account for a high proportion of the variance in incidence for 2001–2. The same pattern emerged for 2002–3 at the PCT level. The use of public transport for travel to work is associated with a decreased incidence and lifestyle indicators, such as the numbers of young unemployed, increase the incidence. Conclusion Head injury incidence in England varies by a factor of 4.6 across HA's and PCT's. Planning head injury related services at the local level thus needs to be based on local incidence figures rather than regional or national estimates. Socio-economic factors are shown to be associated with admission, including travel to work patterns and lifestyle indicators, which suggests that incidence is amenable to policy initiatives at the macro level as well as preventive programmes targeted at key groups.

Tennant Alan

2005-03-01

299

A Study on Socio-Economic Status of Maid-Servant in Purulia Town  

OpenAIRE

Over last few decades, there have been rapid growths in the number of women employee in India and majority of them being engaged in informal sector of the economy where jobs are often low paid and repetitive. An attempt has been made in this study to trace out the socio-economic status of maid-servant as well as the manner in which they lives in the informal sector in Purulia Municipal area of the same district of West Bengal. The study has been carried out through personal interview and obse...

SHYAMAL KUMAR BISWAS

2012-01-01

300

The Virtual Manufacturing concept: Scope, Socio-Economic Aspects and Future Trends  

CERN Document Server

The research area "Virtual Manufacturing (VM)'' is the use of information technology and computer simulation to model real world manufacturing processes for the purpose of analysing and understanding them. As automation technologies such as CAD/CAM have substantially shortened the time required to design products, Virtual Manufacturing will have a similar effect on the manufacturing phase thanks to the modelling, simulation and optimisation of the product and the processes involved in its fabrication. After a description of Virtual Manufacturing (definitions and scope), we present some socio-economic factors of VM and finaly some "hot topics'' for the future are proposed.

Chablat, Damien; Noël, Eric; Woelk, Peer-Oliver

2007-01-01

301

Patterns of migration and socio-economic change in Lao PDR  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the thesis is to investigate patterns and consequences of internal and international migration in Laos during the period 1985-2005 on both a macro-and a micro-level. The thesis focuses on the influences of socio-economic change and government policies on inter-regional and rural-urban migration as well as on crossborder migration from Laos to Thailand. The study also examines the effects of migration and industrial factory work on gender relations during economic transition and con...

Phouxay, Kabmanivanh

2010-01-01

302

Budget Architectonics as Tools on Socio-economic Development of Society ????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article explores the role and the economic substance of the budget architectonics that is dynamic institutional processes of fiscal policy in the specific socio-economic conditions of the state, which is the formation of a hierarchical system of fiscal space components of which are the best value for the budget, social, fiscal, monetary and public debt indicators that determine the budget process aimed at ensuring the effective and efficient management of public funds to improve the living standards and welfare of citizens, the major directions of budget management in view of the appropriate balance of fiscal policy.? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?????????????, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????, ? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????, ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????, ???????????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????.

Makogon Valentina D.

2012-04-01

303

Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. T...

Williams Allison; Kitchen Peter; Chowhan James

2011-01-01

304

Integrating socio-economical dimensions in the ICRP cost-benefit model (a theoretical approach)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report aims at analysing, from a methodological point of view, the main problems associated with the integration of socio-economical dimensions in the cost-benefit model recommended by the ICRP in its publication no. 26. After recalling the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis, the elements to be retained in the objective function characterizing the analysis, and the question of the social benefit definitions are discussed. The theory of social surplus with an illustration taken from the radiological protection field is presented

305

Tuberculosis treatment outcomes and socio-economic status: a prospective study in Duque de Caxias, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective study was conducted to evaluate tuberculosis treatment outcomes according to socio-economic status (SES) using different classification criteria. Patients aged ?18 years under treatment for ?8 weeks were interviewed. Outcomes were classified as successful (cure/completed) or unsuccessful (default/failure/death). The overall treatment default ratio was 20.9% and the unsuccessful outcome rate was 24.1%. Unsuccessful treatment was associated with SES according to any criteria used, except for the definition of poverty line. Poverty seems to be hampering the achievement of the World Health Organization targeted 90% cure rate in developing settings. PMID:21682975

Belo, M T C T; Luiz, R R; Teixeira, E G; Hanson, C; Trajman, A

2011-07-01

306

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF HILL COMMUNITY– A FIELD STUDY ON RISHOP VILLAGE OF DARJEELING DISTRICT.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Socio-economic status of plain and hill area differ to a large degree from each other. Such type of study is very much common for both the areas. Rishop village of Darjeeling is very much interesting from social as well as economic point of view. On one hand tourism is a part of their economic life, on the other hand they are exceptional in West Bengal in terms of language, religion, way of life style etc. All these are due to the especial category of physical, and atmospheric set up

ARIJIT GHOSH

2013-04-01

307

Physical Activity for Children in Terms of Socio-Economic Dimensions  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to analyse the physical activity of children in the first cycle of education in terms of socio-economic dimensions. The sample respondents included 132 children from four basic schools in north-eastern Slovenia. Data were collected through questionnaires and analysed with the statistical program SPSS. We used the t-test, ANOVA and post-hoc analysis to sum up the differences. The statistical significance of the results was assessed at the level of 5% of the risk. ...

Klavdija Strniša; Jurij Planinšec

2014-01-01

308

Spatial analysis of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases during summer months in Berlin taking bioclimatic and socio-economic aspects into account  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available International environmental health studies of the past years have discussed the impacts of heat stress on human health. In particular, respiratory morbidity has shown significant heat effects in European cities. Metropolitan areas such as Berlin are characterised by an intra-urban spatial variability in socio-economic and bioclimatic conditions that is assumed to result in spatial differences in respiratory health risks. In essence, the elderly, children and people with chronic diseases suffer most from heat stress. A spatial epidemiological approach was chosen to map elevated risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with respiratory diseases (RD during the summer months (June–September from 2000 to 2009 and to link respiratory health risks to bioclimatic and socio-economic conditions in Berlin. The study aims to detect significant clusters with elevated relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD in due consideration of socio-economic conditions as a covariate for health outcomes. The findings from the purely spatial analysis show significant intra-urban disparities in the relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD. The highest relative risks within significant clusters were basically detected in the north-western and south-eastern city centre based on the study period 2000–2009 and also during the hot months of July and August in 2003 and 2006. The correlation analysis depicted significantly positive relationships between relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD and population density, socio-economic conditions and the annual mean number of days with heat loads on the basis of the period 1971–2000 and the average of the periods 1971–2000 and 2021–2050 at the zip code level in Berlin. To specifically implement health care intervention and prevention strategies into urban planning and to apply a directed practice of telemedicine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, spatial epidemiological analyses are an important approach to identifying heat-vulnerable urban areas.

Scherber, Katharina

2014-04-01

309

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

Science.gov (United States)

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

2011-10-01

310

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika [Geography Department, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Prishchepov, Alexander [Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO), Department of Structural Development of Farms and Rural Areas, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambin, Eric F [Earth and Life Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, place L. Pasteur 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Radeloff, Volker C, E-mail: patrick.hostert@geo.hu-berlin.de [Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1598 (United States)

2011-10-15

311

THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROMANIAN PARENTS’ EMIGRATION ON THEIR CHILDREN’S DESTINY  

OpenAIRE

“Mother has been gone for six months to work abroad for me, so that I can have a better future. I miss her every day. Sometimes I tell myself it’s just a dream and when I wake up mother will be by my side. Dream or reality? Reality or dream? (A sixteen – years old adolescent). The paper shows that are general factors of emigration after post revolutionary period in Romania and also present few aspects of the migration phenomenon from this country and after that it is presenting the soci...

FELICIA ANDRIONI

2011-01-01

312

Socio-economic indicators influencing the adoption of hybrid Sorghum: The Sekhukhune District perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The study observed the poor use of hybrid sorghum cultivars by subsistence farmers. The project sought to establish which, if any, socio-economic factors influence the adoption of hybrid sorghum cultivars by this sector of the farming community. The focus was on Makhuduthamaga Municipality in Sekhuk [...] hune District of Limpopo Province in South Africa, and was confined to the sorghum belt situated around Lepellane catchments in Schoonoord area. The population of the study consisted of farmers that planted sorghum using either hybrid or non-hybrid sorghum cultivars. Non-probability quota sampling method was used with field interviews through structured questionnaire, to collect quantitative sets of data. The study found that there were socio-economic differences between the hybrid user and non-hybrid users. These factors included farmers' gender, level of literacy, access to extension service, membership to agricultural co-operatives, access to credit and inputs, sorghum output, farm income, access to farm land, and cultural influences.

N. R., Diale.

313

Capital Flight to Savings Gap in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Socio-Economic Determinants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Capital Flight has long been recognized as a problem for developing nations. Savings gap in some of these nations has widened over the years due to rising Capital Flight. This has limped domestic investment growth, employment creation and poverty alleviation. With these in view, this study seeks to underscore the socio-economic determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Approaching the study, two measures of Capital Flight (hot money method and residual method are modeled against a number of socio-economic factors identified in the literature. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Error Correction Mechanism are employed to sieve out the significant determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Amongst the host, only lagged Capital Flight, fiscal balance and exchange rate are found to be the significant determinants of Capital Flight in the country. The study concludes that unless sound macroeconomic measures are taken to address these factors, Capital Flight will remain high in Nigeria. Domestic investment will remain very low. Poverty levels will remain high, and the quest for economic development will remain elusive. The key out of Nigeria’s colossal savings gap is keeping domestic capital at home. This is achievable using the strategies discussed in the study.

Chukwuma Dim

2014-01-01

314

Female Foeticide in Delhi/NCR: Exploring the Socio-Economic and Cultural Dimensions  

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Full Text Available Background: The social and psychological fibres of India are predominantly patriarchal and contributing extensively to the secondary status of women. It is yet to be seen if the difference in attitudes towards the practice of female foeticide varies in different socio-economic strata, and in among the different communities of India. Methodology: The present study is based on a door-to-door survey comprising 100 families, conducted in slum areas of Delhi/NCR. Most of the families living in these areas were immigrants from different states of India with different cultural practices and beliefs. Results: Though the studied participants differed in their cultural perceptions on role and status of women in society, majority of them testified that the practice is more prevalent in the middle and upper class society, and escalating demands of dowry was cited as the main reason behind it. Conclusion: The extent of practice of female foeticide is seen to vary among different socio-economic strata and communities. Taking this diversity into consideration, customized social-awareness campaigns must be organized in accordance with different cultural and socioeconomic circumstances existing in the diverse range of communities in India.

Deb Roumi, Bhatnagar P, Avasthy D

2012-09-01

315

A bridge between liquids and socio-economic systems: the key role of interaction strengths  

CERN Document Server

One distinctive and pervasive aspect of social systems is the fact that they comprise several kinds of agents. Thus, in order to draw parallels with physical systems one is lead to consider binary (or multi-component) compounds. Recent views about the mixing of liquids in solutions gained from neutron and X-ray scattering show these systems to have a number of similarities with socio-economic systems. It appears that such phenomena as rearrangement of bonds in a solution, gas condensation, selective evaporation of molecules can be transposed in a natural way to socio-economic phenomena. These connections provide a novel perspective for looking at social systems which we illustrate through some examples. For instance, we interpret suicide as an escape phenomenon and in order to test that interpretation we consider social systems characterized by very low levels of social interaction. For those systems suicide rates are found to be 10 to 100 times higher than in the general population. Another interesting paral...

Röhner, B M

2004-01-01

316

TRADITIONAL HONEY COLLECTING: EMERGING LIVELIHOOD PROBLEMS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC UPLIFT OF MAWALLIS COMMUNITY IN SUNDARBAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mawallis are the professional honey collectors of the Sundarban Impact Zone. They use indigenous traditional knowledge and technique to collect honey from the forest for a long time. At present, few issues are affecting these lives and livelihoods. One of the key issues is the issue of governance. A large number of mawalli are presently left out of the purview of the forest departmental rule and regulation. I have identified some major problems faced by the mawallis during honey collection period. The main objectives of the study are to identify the causes of livelihood vulnerabilities of the mawallis and to find out possible ways to reduce their vulnerabilities. A total of 60 samples of the mawallis were studied and observed. Form the observation came out major problems like tiger attack, snake and crocodile, forest robbers, corrupt forest officials, unkind BSF officials, money lender, lack of tools and lack of arms to protect themselves etc. They face other difficulties like political grouping, external social and environmental pressures, migration and the encroachment on this culture by modern lifestyles. All these problems have weakened their traditional knowledge and socio-economic background. For the same causes they are unable to hold on to their traditional heritage and are facing a challenge every day for their livelihood. In this circumstance they are on the verge of losing their socio-economic security. The study recommends some points for protection their livelihood.

Dr. Tapan Ray

2013-10-01

317

Socio-economic and demographic profile of the West Valley, New York area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis is focused on the target area population and economic indicators. It is concluded that the area surrounding the plant is economically poor, if not in fact depressed. It is typical of older agricultural areas in much of the eastern U.S. The area is rural in character with little commercial and industrial development. The area is sparsely populated with little prospect for significant increases in population. During the period of construction and operation of the reprocessing plant there appeared to be no consistent areawide patterns of socio-economic development. The only socio-economic impact which may be inferred from the presence of the plant occurred in the immediate vicinity of the plant (i.e. the town of Ashford). This is not surprising considering the small scale of the employment (150-250 persons) at the facility. Growth projections made in the early 1960's (at the time of plant development) were not met. Future county planning does not consider the plant a significant factor. In fact this is because the fate of the plant is out of local hands. More importantly, however, planning into the 1980's and 1990's shows that the plant is not expected to have future impact. (i.e. substantial new growth is not projected in the immediate vicinity of the facility.)

Danziger, R.

1978-06-01

318

The socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report highlights the socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France. It outlines that France is among the first three world leader on each link of the supply chain, and that the electronuclear sector has therefore a significant role in the French economy: 125.000 direct jobs and 410.000 generated jobs, a direct contribution of 0,71% to the GDP, each link of the supply chain (upstream, building, exploitation and maintenance, downstream) is present in the French economy, the electronuclear sector is part of the economic activity of local communities, the expertise of specialised companies contributes to their competitiveness in other domains, and the sector now invests to prepare its future. The socio-economic impacts of an EPR are analysed in terms of activity during nearly 90 years, with respect to its location, and according to technical and economic criteria. The last part outlines that the weight of this sector in the French economy could significantly increase

319

Secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome. Socio-economic and lifestyle determinants: a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although cardiovascular disease mortality rates seem to decline, especially among middle-aged people in developed countries, the prevalence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) increases, representing the most common cause of morbidity in both developed and developing countries and generating large economic burden. It is estimated that one fifth of the ACS patients die suddenly and half of them belong to a fast growing popula- tion age-group, i.e., those between 70 and .80 years. A substantial number of these deaths has been attributed to various lifestyles, modifiable factors; therefore, it can be prevented. However, factors such as dietary habits and behaviours, physical activity, life stress and smoking habits, although thoroughly discussed, are not well understood and appreciated in the spectrum of secondary ACS prevention. The latter deserves further attention under the prism of socio-economic status that has changed dramatically in the last years in some populations. The aim of this review was to discuss the role of lifestyle factors on secondary ACS prevention under the prism of individual's socio-economic status. Based on the retrieved information it was revealed that there is vast evidence that secondary prevention of cardiovascular events cannot be accomplished simply through medical treatment, but it requires a multifaceted approach incorporating lifestyle modifications, too. Therefore, public health policy endeavours should be directed towards multifocal strategies, i.e., to motivate and support cardiac patients to consistently follow treatment regimens and to establish more effective and efficient community lifestyle interventions. PMID:25438395

Notara, Venetia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos E

2014-09-01

320

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation. The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes - a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

Archer, D. R.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H. J.; Shah, S. M.

2010-08-01

321

Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency's mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations

322

Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authoritystent with policy making authority

323

ACCESS TO PUBLIC OPEN SPACE: IS DISTRIBUTION EQUITABLE ACROSS DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC AREAS  

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Full Text Available During the past decade, the role of the built environment on physical activity has been well investigated by public health, transportation and urban design scholars and it has been shown that different aspects of the built environment can influence physical activity Public open spaces (POS like parks have many health benefits and they can be important settings and destinations for having physical activity. Inequality in access to POS which may influence the amount of physical activity can be a reason for lower physical activity among deprived neighbourhoods. This paper aims to examine whether objective access to public open spaces (POS like parks is equally across the different socio-economic status (SES areas in the City of Melbourne. Objective access to POS was measured in network distance using geographic information systems (GIS and area SES was obtained using the SEIFA (Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas index. The results showed there was a significant difference in access to POS according to the SES areas. There was a significant negative correlation between the access to POS and the SES areas in which lower SES areas had poorer access to POS in comparison with the higher ones.

Mohammad Javad Koohsari

2011-12-01

324

Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individuological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed

325

Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people  

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Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

2010-12-01

326

Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage : results from the World Health Survey  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage was observed within most of the countries, although lower income countries showed greater levels of relative inequalitythan higher income countries. Overall, lowest coverage and highest relative inequality were found in the low-income countries. The findings of this study may inform policies for oral health at global and national levels. To achieve universal coverage in oral healthcare, relevant interventions should reach the poorest population groups.

Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L

2012-01-01

327

Household energy consumption in the UK: A highly geographically and socio-economically disaggregated model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Devising policies for a low carbon society requires a careful understanding of energy consumption in different types of households. In this paper, we explore patterns of UK household energy use and associated carbon emissions at national level and also at high levels of socio-economic and geographical disaggregation. In particular, we examine specific neighbourhoods with contrasting levels of deprivation, and typical 'types' (segments) of UK households based on socio-economic characteristics. Results support the hypothesis that different segments have widely differing patterns of consumption. We show that household energy use and associated carbon emissions are both strongly, but not solely, related to income levels. Other factors, such as the type of dwelling, tenure, household composition and rural/urban location are also extremely important. The methodology described in this paper can be used in various ways to inform policy-making. For example, results can help in targeting energy efficiency measures; trends from time series results will form a useful basis for scenario building; and the methodology may be used to model expected outcomes of possible policy options, such as personal carbon trading or a progressive tax regime on household energy consumption

328

Inequalities in health : the interaction between socio-economic and personal circumstances  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This longitudinal study utilizes a data set from the Survey of Living Conditions conducted by Statistics Sweden (SCB) during the years 1980-1981 and 1988-1989. It comprises a representative sample of the employed Swedish population (2,861 individuals) between the ages of 20 and 65. The objective of the study is to analyse the interaction between socio-economic and personal circumstances in explaining inequalities in health. It is based on a theoretical framework which presupposes that inequalities in health are likely to be explained by a complicated process involving a multitude of factors. At the same time, differential exposures and differential responses to risk factors between socio-economic classes for certain health outcomes are determined. The joint effect on general health status, seven years later, of being a manual worker and having reported psychosomatic symptoms is 113% greater than would have been expected on the assumption of additivity of the singular effects of these variables. It is suggested that it is necessary to highlight in further research the complex interactions and pathways between factors associated with health outcomes to improve our understanding of the causal processes involved and determine appropriate preventive measures.

Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

1996-01-01

329

Multi-dimensional Assessment of the Level of Enterprise Socio-economic Development  

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Full Text Available The goal of the article is generalisation and development of methodical technique within the taxonomic method and distance and similarity method for convolution on the basis of the system of measured features-symptoms into a single joint characteristic of the latent notion “level of enterprise socio-economic development”. Algorithms of taxonomic analysis and distance and similarity method are systemised, generalised, itemised and presented as technological schemes with consideration of innovations in the format of their practical use. The article develops recommendations on increase of accuracy and justification of joint assessments, which take into account results of the classical and modified algorithms of building multi-dimensional assessments within the framework of each method. The article gives recommendations on a comparative analysis of results of assessment of latent properties on the basis of features-symptoms of their manifestation at simultaneous application of several variations of the considered methods of multi-dimensional analysis, by criteria of co-ordination of variants of assessment and selection of the preferred variant. Using example of a real enterprise, the article justifies a possibility of trustworthy assessment of the level of its socio-economic development on the basis of accounting indicators, which reflect manifestation of internal factors only.

Nadtoka Tatyana B.

2014-01-01

330

Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise downscaling procedure based on expert-judgement and pairwise comparison is presented to obtain quantitative socio-economic parameters, e.g. prices and productivity estimates that are input to the ACCELERATES integrated land use model. In the first step, the global driving forces are identified and quantified for each of the four SRES scenario families. In the second step, European agricultural driving forces are derived for each scenario from global driving forces. Finally, parameters for the agricultural land use model are quantified. The stepwise procedure is appropriate when developing socio-economic scenarios that are consistent with climate change scenarios used in climate impact studies. Furthermore, the pairwise comparison approach developed by Saaty [Saaty, T.L., 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw Hill, New York] provides a useful tool for the quantification from narrative storylines of scenario drivers and model parameters. Descriptions of the narratives are, however, helpful at each step to facilitate the discussion and communication of the resulting scenarios.

Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.

2006-01-01

331

Sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Brazil considering land use change, GHG emissions and socio-economic aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three sustainability aspects of bioethanol production in Brazil were considered in this paper. Results show that the recent expansion of sugarcane has mostly occurred at the expense of pasturelands and other temporary crops, and that the hypothesis of induced deforestation is not confirmed. Avoided greenhouse gas emissions due to the use of anhydrous ethanol blended with gasoline in Brazil (E25) were estimated as 78%, while this figure would be 70% in case of its use in Europe (E10). Conversely, considering the direct impacts of land use change, the avoided emissions (e.g., ethanol consumed in Europe) would vary from -2.2% (i.e., emissions slightly higher than gasoline) to 164.8% (a remarkable carbon capture effect) depending on the management practices employed previous to land use change and also along sugarcane cropping. In addition, it was shown that where the bulk of sugarcane production takes place, in state of Sao Paulo, positive socio-economic aspects are observed. The general conclusion is that a significant share of ethanol production in Brazil can be considered sustainable, in particular regarding the three aspects assessed. However, as production conditions are extremely heterogeneous, a generalization of results is not possible.

332

Sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Brazil considering land use change, GHG emissions and socio-economic aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three sustainability aspects of bioethanol production in Brazil were considered in this paper. Results show that the recent expansion of sugarcane has mostly occurred at the expense of pasturelands and other temporary crops, and that the hypothesis of induced deforestation is not confirmed. Avoided greenhouse gas emissions due to the use of anhydrous ethanol blended with gasoline in Brazil (E25) were estimated as 78%, while this figure would be 70% in case of its use in Europe (E10). Conversely, considering the direct impacts of land use change, the avoided emissions (e.g., ethanol consumed in Europe) would vary from -2.2% (i.e., emissions slightly higher than gasoline) to 164.8% (a remarkable carbon capture effect) depending on the management practices employed previous to land use change and also along sugarcane cropping. In addition, it was shown that where the bulk of sugarcane production takes place, in state of Sao Paulo, positive socio-economic aspects are observed. The general conclusion is that a significant share of ethanol production in Brazil can be considered sustainable, in particular regarding the three aspects assessed. However, as production conditions are extremely heterogeneous, a generalization of results is not possible.

Walter, Arnaldo, E-mail: awalter@fem.unicamp.br [University of Campinas (FEM and NIPE) (Brazil); Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE) (Brazil); Dolzan, Paulo; Quilodran, Oscar [University of Campinas (FEM and NIPE) (Brazil); Oliveira, Janaina G. de [University of Campinas (FEM and NIPE) (Brazil); Shcolar of CNPq (Brazil); Silva, Cinthia da; Piacente, Fabricio [University of Campinas (FEM and NIPE) (Brazil); Segerstedt, Anna [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany)

2011-10-15

333

Socio-economic analysis for the authorisation of chemicals under REACH: a case of very high concern?  

Science.gov (United States)

Under the European chemicals' legislation, REACH, substances that are identified to be of "very high concern" will de facto be removed from the market unless the European Commission grants authorisations permitting specific uses. Companies who apply for an authorisation without demonstrating "adequate control" of the risks have to show by means of a socio-economic analysis (SEA) that positive impacts of use outweigh negative impacts for human health and ecosystems. This paper identifies core challenges where further in-depth guidance is urgently required in order to ensure that a SEA can deliver meaningful results and that it can effectively support decision-making on authorisation. In particular, we emphasise the need (i) to better guide the selection of tools for impact assessment, (ii) to explicitly account for stock pollution effects in impact assessments for persistent and very persistent chemicals, (iii) to define suitable impact indicators for PBT/vPvB chemicals given the lack of reliable information about safe concentration levels, (iv) to guide how impacts can be transformed into values for decision-making, and (v) to provide a well-balanced discussion of discounting of long-term impacts of chemicals. PMID:25220186

Gabbert, Silke; Scheringer, Martin; Ng, Carla A; Stolzenberg, Hans-Christian

2014-11-01

334

A STUDY OF IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ON THE PERSONALITY AND LEVEL OF ASPIRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS  

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Full Text Available The present research work intents to study the impact of socio-economic status on personality and level of aspiration of secondary school students. Hence the researchers aim at to find out the impact of socio-economic status (SES on the Personality and level of aspiration of secondary school students according socio-economic status. Researchers selecting 1000 samples out of total population on the basis random sampling techniques with the help of standardized tools collected data and on the basis of normative survey method analysis and interpretation with required statistical technique like Mean, F-ratio and level of significance tested the hypotheses find out the purposive findings to focus on proper suggestive suggestion towards conclusion.

Sanjeet Kumar Tiwari

2015-01-01

335

IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study examined the impact of socio-economic characteristics on the performance of small-scale enterprises in the study area. It also identified the salient impacts of socio-economic traits on the development and expansion of small-scale enterprises in the country; established the productive prospects of progressive small-scale enterprises in the study area. The study was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria where copies of structured questionnaire were purposively administered on selected respondents. Evidence from the study shows that socio-economic characteristics of small scale entrepreneurs tend to influence the performance and productivity of Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria.Further analysis shows that gender, age and educational qualification had significant influence on the performance of the selected small-scale enterprises in the study area . The paper suggests integrated approach to the development of individual entrepreneurial capacity and promotion of sustainable small-scale enterprises.

Abdul-azeez ibraheem adegoke

2010-03-01

336

Maternal and Neonatal Mortality in South-West Ethiopia: Estimates and Socio-Economic Inequality  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Ethiopia has achieved the fourth Millennium Development Goal by reducing under 5 mortality. Nevertheless, there are challenges in reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate maternal and neonatal mortality and the socio-economic inequalities of these mortalities in rural south-west Ethiopia. Methods We visited and enumerated all households but collected data from those that reported pregnancy and birth outcomes in the last five years in 15 of the 30 rural kebeles in Bonke woreda, Gamo Gofa, south-west Ethiopia. The primary outcomes were maternal and neonatal mortality and a secondary outcome was the rate of institutional delivery. Results We found 11,762 births in 6572 households; 11,536 live and 226 stillbirths. There were 49 maternal deaths; yielding a maternal mortality ratio of 425 per 100,000 live births (95% CI:318–556). The poorest households had greater MMR compared to richest (550 vs 239 per 100,000 live births). However, the socio-economic factors examined did not have statistically significant association with maternal mortality. There were 308 neonatal deaths; resulting in a neonatal mortality ratio of 27 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 24–30). Neonatal mortality was greater in households in the poorest quartile compared to the richest; adjusted OR (AOR): 2.62 (95% CI: 1.65–4.15), headed by illiterates compared to better educated; AOR: 3.54 (95% CI: 1.11–11.30), far from road (?6 km) compared to within 5 km; AOR: 2.40 (95% CI: 1.56–3.69), that had three or more births in five years compared to two or less; AOR: 3.22 (95% CI: 2.45–4.22). Households with maternal mortality had an increased risk of stillbirths; OR: 11.6 (95% CI: 6.00–22.7), and neonatal deaths; OR: 7.2 (95% CI: 3.6–14.3). Institutional delivery was only 3.7%. Conclusion High mortality with socio-economic inequality and low institutional delivery highlight the importance of strengthening obstetric interventions in rural south-west Ethiopia. PMID:24787694

Yaya, Yaliso; Eide, Kristiane Tislevoll; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Lindtjørn, Bernt

2014-01-01

337

Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (? = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure, wealth status, and child-death experience by mothers. All of these were strong predictors for CEB. It can be concluded that programs should aim to reduce fertility rates by focusing on these identified factors so that fertility as well as infant and maternal mortality and morbidity will be decreased and the overall well-being of the family maintained and enhanced.

Adhikari Ramesh

2010-04-01

338

Socio-economic Variables Associated with Poverty in Crude Oil Polluted Crop Farms in Rivers State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

This study focused on the use of socio-economic variables as determinants of poverty in crude oil polluted crop farms in Rivers State, Nigeria. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of socio-economic variables on the poverty level of farm-households, and to estimate the probability and intensity of poverty among the farmers in crude oil polluted and nonpulluted farms. A multistage sampling technique was use to collect data for this study. A total of 340 questionnaires wer...

Thankgod Peter Ojimba

2011-01-01

339

SPATIAL DICHOTOMY OF LITERACY IN RELATION WITH SOCIO-ECONOMIC ATTRIBUTE: A CASE STUDY OF HOOGHLY DISTRICT  

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Full Text Available Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next. Literacy being a part of education is the key to socio-economic progress as well as human resource development. The present work aimed at assessing the spatial variation in terms of literacy and their related problems among the blocks of Hooghly District. The study reveals that the area with higher socio-economic prospect showing higher literacy rate and are ignorant to educational attributes related with selected parameters among various pockets of the district.

ALOKANANDA GHOSH

2013-05-01

340

Identifying Moderators of the Link Between Parent and Child Anxiety Sensitivity: The Roles of Gender, Positive Parenting, and Corporal Punishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A substantial body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor for the development of anxiety problems and research has now begun to examine the links between parenting, parent anxiety sensitivity and their child's anxiety sensitivity. However, the extant literature has provided mixed findings as to whether parent anxiety sensitivity is associated with child anxiety sensitivity, with some evidence suggesting that other factors may influence the association. Theoretically, specific parenting behaviors may be important to the development of child anxiety sensitivity and also in understanding the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. In this study, 191 families (n?=?255 children and adolescents aged 6-17 and their parents) completed measures of child anxiety sensitivity (CASI) and parenting (APQ-C), and parents completed measures of their own anxiety sensitivity (ASI) and their parenting (APQ-P). Corporal punishment was associated with child anxiety sensitivity and the child's report of their parent's positive parenting behaviors moderated the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. The child's gender was also found to moderate the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity, such that there was a positive association between girls' and their parents anxiety sensitivity and a negative association in boys. The findings advance the understanding of child anxiety sensitivity by establishing a link with corporal punishment and by showing that the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity may depend upon the parenting context and child's gender. PMID:25301177

Graham, Rebecca A; Weems, Carl F

2014-10-10

341

Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced changes in economic conditions, educational levels, and labor markets at the same time as cultural changes have taken place in relation to processes of individualization and reflexivity. Based on empirical data the aim of this paper is to investigate whether and to what extent changes in the structural preconditions for volunteering have had an effect on factors that are commonly associated with volunteering. We use survey data from Denmark collected over a period from 1990 to 2008.

Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov

2013-01-01

342

Influence of regional investment activity on socio-economic differentiation development level  

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Full Text Available The strategic goal of national competitiveness requires efficient organization of a single economic space within the existing administrative-territorial entities. The influence of the regional investment activity on production output and population living standards is estimated by the analytical group of statistical indicators, the analysis of which confirmed the existence of the direct link between regional investment activity and indicators of living standards differentiation. The gross fixed capital formation is considered as a determinant of regional socio-economic differentiation level, and the most important integral indicator is a balanced financial result, which determines the formation of resources for investment activity. The optimization of the structure of these sources is mainly conditioned by the priorities of the regional investment policy.

Chernova Tatyana Vasilyevna

2012-06-01

343

Socio-Economic Consequences of Improved Indoor Air Quality in Danish Primary Schools  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper reports an attempt to estimate the socio-economic effects of upgrading the indoor air quality in Danish schools to the level of Swedish schools. The OECD “PISA” score is used to quantify the effects together with the Danish Rational Economic Agent Model (DREAM). The following effects are taken into consideration: a) increased PISA score increases productivity; b) increased PISA score reduces the duration of primary education; c) improved indoor air quality reduces absenteeism in teachers. The results show that improved air quality in Danish schools could result in an increase in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of €173 million per annum, and in the public finances of €37 million per annum

Wargocki, Pawel; Foldbjerg, Peter

2014-01-01

344

Towards international E-stat for monitoring the socio-economic activities across the globe  

CERN Document Server

We investigate relationship between annual electric power consumption per capita and gross domestic production (GDP) per capita for 131 countries. We found that the relationship can be fitted with a power-law function. We examine the relationship for 47 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we investigate values of annual electric power production reported by four international organizations. We collected the data from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Statistics by International Energy Agency (IEA), OECD Factbook (Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics), and United Nations (UN) Energy Statistics Yearbook. We found that the data structure, values, and unit depend on the organizations. This implies that it is further necessary to establish data standards and an organization to collect, store, and distribute the data on socio-economic systems.

Sato, Aki-Hiro

2012-01-01

345

Socio-Economic Conditions of Collectors of Post- Consumer Clothing Waste in Mumbai, India  

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Full Text Available Discarded clothing from households are collected in exchange for utensils by men and women called bhandivale in Mumbai. This unique door-to-door recycling service earns them a livelihood. With the objective to understand the background of the bhandivale in Mumbai, the percentage of bhandivale in various age groups, the male to female ratio among the sample of respondents, caste-wise and sub-castes distribution, their migratory status, State of origin, original occupation, domicile, possession of ration card and income are studied. A field survey was undertaken; data was gathered through personal interviews. Literature reviewed showed the presence of Waghri tribes involved in the trade of used clothes. In this study the presence of two more tribal communities were found, namely Gondhali and Kunchikorve.A comparative study between the three sub-caste revealed that Gondhali and Kunchikorvehave better educational and socio-economic conditions than the Waghri.

Suman D. Mundkur

2014-01-01

346

Some ecological and socio-economic considerations for biomass energy crop production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this paper is to suggest a regional approach to ensure that energy crop production will proceed in an ecologically and economically sustainable way. At this juncture, we have the opportunity to build into the system some ecological and socio-economic values which have not traditionally been considered. If crop species are chosen and sited properly, incorporation of energy crops into our agricultural system could provide extensive wildlife habitat and address soil and water quality concerns, in addition to generating renewable power. We recommend that three types of agricultural land be targeted for perennial biomass energy crops: (1) highly erodible land; (2) wetlands presently converted to agricultural uses; and (3) marginal agricultural land in selected regions. Fitting appropriate species to these lands, biomass crops can be successfully grown on lands not ecologically suited for conventional farming practices, thus providing an environmental benefit in addition to producing an economic return to the land owner. (author)

347

GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area  

CERN Document Server

The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

2010-01-01

348

Efficiency in Public Education - The role of socio-economic variables  

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Full Text Available This study measures the efficiency of public education using an inefficiency effects function that controls the socio-economic and environmental factors simultaneously.  The model developed by Battese and Coelli (1995 is applied to a panel dataset. The study found that although the mean efficiency scores obtained from the model are lower than the efficiency scores from a conventional stochastic frontier model, the estimates are robust and consistent.   The empirical application used three-year panel data from Kansas school districts and found Kansas schools are generally efficient and the most of the educational inputs under the control of the school administration were either had a low or no influence on students’ achievement scores.  However, students’ socioeconomic factors were found to have a significant influence on their achievement scores.  

Kalyan Chakraborty

2009-08-01

349

Rural Households : Socio-Economic Characteristics, Community Organzing and Adaptation Abilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations of informal organization and community adaptive capacities, and finally, it discusses the issues of vulnerability and adaptation to climatic and environmental change from a household perspective.

Bruun, Ole

2013-01-01

350

Exploring Socio-Economic Factors Behind Domestic Violence Against Women in Sargodha District  

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Full Text Available Violence against Women has become a global concern because this specific issue affects the life of women adversely. Domestic violence is most persistent form of Violence against Women. It is a severe violation of human rights. Many demographic, economic, psychological factors may be responsible for the domestic violence but social factors contain prime importance in this regard. Pakistani society is facing the trouble of increase in domestic violence because this issue is still under acknowledged and underreported. An exploratory study was conducted to probe the socio-economic factors behind domestic violence. Interview schedule was utilized as a tool to accumulate concerning data. A representative sample of (N=100 was collected through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. 56% of women indicated that they have faced physical violence and a huge majority i.e., 71% has faced psychological violence. The results suggest that women are more prone to bear and face domestic violence due to economic dependence.

Zarqa Azhar

2012-09-01

351

Socio-economic and cultural aspecrs of changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

! is chapter evaluates the possibility for projecting socio-economic and cultural impacts on Greenland’s society caused directly or indirectly by changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet. ! ere are, as yet, no well-documented direct causative links between the conditions for a society dictated by nature, and the way a given society develops. ! is chapter describes the development of the modern Greenland society from a historical perspective and introduces a number of speci" c cases that illustrate the propensity for change in a society that is derived from the Inuit culture. ! e Inuit culture has survived at the margin of human existence over a millennium of climate change and external cultural in# uences

MoshØj, Charlotte Margaret

2009-01-01

352

Socio economic ties between aruba and la Guajira since the Pre-Columbian period  

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Full Text Available Las relaciones socio-económicas sólidas entre Aruba y Colombia han existido desde el precolombino y su extensión se puede remontar al periodo Precerámico. Actividades funerarias específicas en forma de tinte rojo en cráneos sugieren la continuidad de un sistema de creencias Precerámico que a través de La Guajira alcanza Aruba. La expansión de la organización política Caquetío hacia la Guajira y establecerse en el Cabo de la Vela comienzo del siglo 15 se intensificó la relación entre La Guajira y Aruba durante el Período de cerámica. La relación socioeconómica con grupos de Ranchería valle y Sierra Nevada no sólo se basaba en el comercio ventajoso, sino en la difusión de las ideas, las técnicas y los conceptos religiosos que consiguió asimilables por el Caquetío de Aruba. La colonización española de la región durante el período histórico y la llegada de colonos europeos a partir de entonces sacó un enorme aumento en el tráfico hacia y desde La Guajira, como resultado de un crecimiento exponencial en el comercio y las relaciones sociales dentro de la región. El comercio e intercambio continuaron después en los comienzos del siglo 20. La reciente aparición de los viajes aéreos entre Aruba y La Guajira sacó la continuidad y la diversificación de las relaciones socio-económicas existentes por lo que más personas y bienes fueron capaces de tráfico de ida y vuelta que antes. Los vínculos socioeconómicos entre Aruba y La Guajira se expresan hoy en día en una relación familiar, económico y político cercano por el que se pone el acento en la cooperación mutua.ABSTRACTStrong socio economic relations between Aruba and Colombia have existed since the Pre Columbian and its extent can be traced to the Preceramic Period. Specific burial activities in the form of red dye on skulls suggest the continuum of a Preceramic belief system that through La Guajira reached Aruba. The expansion of the Caquetio polity towards la Guajira and settling in Cabo de la Vela beginning of the 15th century intensified the relation between La Guajira and Aruba during the Ceramic Period. The socio economic relation with groups of Rancheria valley and Sierra Nevada was not only based on advantageous trade but on the diffusion of ideas, techniques and religious concepts that got assimilated by the Caquetio of Aruba. The Spanish colonization of the region during the Historic Period and influx of European settlers thereafter brought forth a tremendous increase in traffic to and from La Guajira as a result of an exponential growth in commerce and social relations within the region. Commerce and trade continued after the 1920’s. The recent advent of air travel between Aruba and La Guajira brought forth continuity and further diversification of the existing socio economic ties whereby more people and goods were able to traffic back and forth than before. The socio economic ties between Aruba and La Guajira are expressed nowadays in a close familiar, economic and political relation whereby emphasis is laid on mutual cooperation.Keywords: Trade; economic relations; history 

Harold Kelly

2014-11-01

353

How Socio-Economic Conditions Influence Forest Policy Development in Central and South-East Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, several findings on socio-economic conditions derived from national reports and a web-based questionnaire are discussed and related to the changing role of forestry and the future forest policy development. A number of Central and South-eastern European countries taking part in a SEE-ERA-NET project ReForMan project ( www.reforman.de ) participated in data acquisition: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Serbia and Slovenia. The aim of the research was to illustrate the present structure of forestry sector, as well as investigate newly emerging topics in forestry of Central and South-eastern Europe. The results indicated certain patterns in attitudes and perceptions among stakeholders that can be related to socio-economic conditions defined for each country. Clear differences between member and non-member countries exist only in level of implementation of EU legislation. Results showed consensus on main threats to the forests among all countries, but also some country specifics in perceptions of factors influencing forestry, their importance and professional competencies. These results could be additionally explained by influence of historical conditions which shaped development of forest sector in SEE region especially in its organizational dimension as well as in perceived role of forestry expressed through recognition of main forest functions. The influence of European forest policy processes in the region is evident through adaptation of EU legislation and perceived implications of international processes on national levels. Based on this observation, two possible options for future development of the forestry sector can be foreseen: (i) focusing on the productive function of forests and fostering its' sustainable use; or (ii) putting an emphasis on environmental and social issues. In both cases supporting public participation in decision-making processes is recommendable. Another conclusion based on perceived medium to low professional competencies to cope with new topics, that there is lack of confidence and need for professional support in decisionmaking processes.

Vuleti?, Dijana; Poto?i?, Nenad; Krajter, Silvija; Seletkovi?, Ivan; Fürst, Christine; Makeschin, Franz; Gali?, Zoran; Lorz, Carsten; Matijaši?, Dragan; Zupani?, Matjaž; Simon?i?, Primož; Vacik, Harald

2010-12-01

354

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

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Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

D. R. Archer

2010-08-01

355

Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

D. R. Archer

2010-03-01

356

A fuzzy stochastic framework for managing hydro-environmental and socio-economic interactions under uncertainty  

Science.gov (United States)

An amplified interconnectedness between a hydro-environmental and socio-economic system brings about profound challenges of water management decision making. In this contribution, we present a fuzzy stochastic approach to solve a set of decision making problems, which involve hydrologically, environmentally, and socio-economically motivated criteria subjected to uncertainty and ambiguity. The proposed methodological framework combines objective and subjective criteria in a decision making procedure for obtaining an acceptable ranking in water resources management alternatives under different type of uncertainty (subjective/objective) and heterogeneous information (quantitative/qualitative) simultaneously. The first step of the proposed approach involves evaluating the performance of alternatives with respect to different types of criteria. The ratings of alternatives with respect to objective and subjective criteria are evaluated by simulation-based optimization and fuzzy linguistic quantifiers, respectively. Subjective and objective uncertainties related to the input information are handled through linking fuzziness and randomness together. Fuzzy decision making helps entail the linguistic uncertainty and a Monte Carlo simulation process is used to map stochastic uncertainty. With this framework, the overall performance of each alternative is calculated using an Order Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator accounting for decision makers' experience and opinions. Finally, ranking is achieved by conducting pair-wise comparison of management alternatives. This has been done on the basis of the risk defined by the probability of obtaining an acceptable ranking and mean difference in total performance for the pair of management alternatives. The proposed methodology is tested in a real-world hydrosystem, to find effective and robust intervention strategies for the management of a coastal aquifer system affected by saltwater intrusion due to excessive groundwater extraction for irrigated agriculture and municipal use. The results show that the approach gives useful support for robust decision-making and is sensitive to the decision makers' degree of optimism.

Subagadis, Yohannes Hagos; Schütze, Niels; Grundmann, Jens

2014-05-01

357

Predisposed to participate? The influence of family socio-economic background on children's sports participation and daily amount of physical activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

From a Bourdieu-inspired understanding of how personal resources (‘capitals’) enable certain practices in certain contexts, the links between families’ cultural, social and economic capitals, and children’s daily physical activity were investigated in 500 suburban Danish schoolchildren using questionnaire data and accelerometer measures. Family socio-economic position (SEP) was found to be positively associated with children’s participation in organized sport, which could be explained by differences in family capitals. By contrast, this study found no relationship between families’ SEP and the amounts of general physical activity in children. This reflected the tendencies for club-organized sport to contribute a relatively small amount to the overall amount of physical activity in children, and for children of low SEP to be equally active in other settings such as school-breaks, day care and neighbourhood playgrounds.

Nielsen, Glen; GrØnfeldt, Vivian

2012-01-01

358

Associação entre prevalência de inatividade física e indicadores de condição socioeconômica em adolescentes / Association between prevalence of physical inactivity and indicators of socio-economic status in adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A redução nos níveis de atividade física na população jovem tem sido amplamente descrita em vários países, sobretudo em alguns subgrupos dessa população. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de inatividade física em adolescentes escolares do ensino médio do município de Joã [...] o Pessoa - PB, e analisar sua associação com indicadores de condição socioeconômica. METODOLOGIA: Participaram do estudo 2.566 adolescentes (1.132 rapazes e 1.434 moças), de 14 a 18 anos de idade (16,5±1,17). Foram levantadas informações demográficas (sexo e idade), socioeconômicas (trabalho, tipo de escola, classe econômica, escolaridade dos pais), e mediu-se o nível de atividade física (kcal/kg/dia), mediante utilização de um diário de atividade física. Foram classificados como fisicamente inativos os adolescentes com demanda energética diária Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The decrease in the levels of physical activity in the young population has been described thoroughly in several countries, above all in some subgroups of that population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity in high school adolescents from th [...] e João Pessoa city - PB and to analyze its association with indicators of socio-economic status. METHODOLOGY: 2,566 adolescents (1,132 boys and 1,434 girls), ages between 14-18 years (16.5±1.17) participated in this study. Demographic (sex and age) and socio-economic data (work, school type, economic class, and parents' educational background) were raised. Besides that, the level of physical activity (kcal/kg/day) was measured through a diary of physical activity. The adolescents were classified as physically inactive when had daily energy demand

José Cazuza de, Farias Júnior.

2008-04-01

359

Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

Gotsadze George

2007-08-01

360

Prácticas educativas y creencias de profesores de secundaria pertenecientes a escuelas de diferentes contextos socioeconómicos / Educational practices and beliefs of secondary education teachers who belong to schools with different socio-economic contexts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan las diferencias en las prácticas educativas de profesores de secundaria que trabajan en escuelas que se sitúan en distintos contextos socioeconómicos y se identifican sus creencias sobre el aprendizaje y la influencia que ejerce el nivel socioeconómico bajo en este proce [...] so. Para la obtención de los datos se realizaron observaciones de las clases y se aplicó una entrevista a los profesores. Los resultados indican diferencias en algunos aspectos de las prácticas educativas, según el contexto socioeconómico de las escuelas: los profesores que enseñan a alumnos de niveles socioeconómicos bajos dedicaron menos tiempo de sus clases a actividades de reestructuración de conocimientos y habilidades, expresaron en menos ocasiones una valoración positiva del trabajo académico de sus alumnos y en sus grupos se observó una frecuencia menor de estructuras comunicativas simétricas. La mayoría de los maestros sostuvo la idea de que las condiciones que entraña la pobreza influyen en la presencia de problemas de aprendizaje. Abstract in english This article deals with the differences in the educational practices of secondary education teachers who work in schools that are located in different socio-economic contexts and identifies their beliefs about learning and the influence that the lower socio-economic level has on this process. The da [...] ta gathering was made by means of classrooms observations and an interview to the teachers. The results show that there are differences in some aspects of the educational practice according to the socio-economic contexts in which the schools are inscribed: the teachers who teach to students who belong to lower socio-economic contexts spent less time to knowledge and ability restructuring, expressed less frequently a positive appraisal of their students' academic work and within their classrooms a lower frequency of symmetric communicational structures could be observed. Most of the teachers believe that the conditions created by poverty have an impact on learning problems.

María Teresa, Fernández Nistal; Ana María, Tuset Bertran; Ricardo Ernesto, Pérez Ibarra; Claudia, García Hernández.

361

Limitation of Socio-Economic Rights in the 2010 Kenyan Constitution: A Proposal for the Adoption of a Proportionality Approach in the Judicial Adjudication of Socio-Economic Rights Disputes  

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Full Text Available On 27 August 2010 Kenya adopted a transformative Constitution with the objective of fighting poverty and inequality as well as improving the standards of living of all people in Kenya. One of the mechanisms in the 2010 Constitution aimed at achieving this egalitarian transformation is the entrenchment of justiciable socio-economic rights (SERs, an integral part of the Bill of Rights. The entrenched SERs require the State to put in place a legislative, policy and programmatic framework to enhance the realisation of its constitutional obligations to respect, protect and fulfill these rights for all Kenyans. These SER obligations, just like any other fundamental human rights obligations, are, however, not absolute and are subject to legitimate limitation by the State. Two approaches have been used in international and comparative national law jurisprudence to limit SERs: the proportionality approach, using a general limitation clause that has found application in international and regional jurisprudence on the one hand; and the reasonableness approach, using internal limitations contained in the standard of progressive realisation, an approach that has found application in the SER jurisprudence of the South African Courts, on the other hand. This article proposes that if the entrenched SERs are to achieve their transformative objectives, Kenyan courts must adopt a proportionality approach in the judicial adjudication of SER disputes. This proposal is based on the reasoning that for the entrenched SERs to have a substantive positive impact on the lives of the Kenyan people, any measure by the government aimed at their limitation must be subjected to strict scrutiny by the courts, a form of scrutiny that can be achieved only by using the proportionality standard entrenched in the article 24 general limitation clause.

Nicholas Wasonga Orago

2013-12-01

362

Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: ? Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. ? Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. ? Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.? Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.? Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

363

An AHP decision making model for optimal allocation of energy subsidy among socio-economic subsectors in Iran  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) decision model for sectoral allocation of energy subsidy based on several criteria. With determination of priorities for these criteria through questionnaire and AHP method, the overall rank of these criteria that have the most influence on distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic sub-sectors, are as the following: inflation, economic growth, labor intensity, distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic levels, energy intensity and social cost of air pollution. According to the model, the first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector and the last priority is related to transportation sector. Investigating the impact of changing priority of the criteria on overall results indicates that the socio-economic sub sectors’ ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria. - Highlights: ? Commerce subsector is the best sub sector with an overall priority score of 0.331. ? The first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector. ? When we increase the priority of each criterion first time, then overall rank of the outcome has little changing. ? The socio-economic sub sectors' ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria.

364

Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: {yields} Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. {yields} Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. {yields} Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.{yields} Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.{yields} Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

Santos, Mario, E-mail: mgsantoss@gmail.com [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Freitas, Raul, E-mail: raulfreitas@portugalmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Crespi, Antonio L., E-mail: aluis.crespi@gmail.com [Herbarium, UTAD Botanical Garden, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Hughes, Samantha Jane, E-mail: shughes@utad.pt [Department of Forest and Landscape, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Cabral, Joao Alexandre, E-mail: jcabral@utad.pt [Laboratory of Applied Ecology, CITAB-Centre for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environment and Biological Sciences, University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal)

2011-10-15

365

Analysing the Types of TV Programmes Viewed by Children from Different Socio-Economic Strata Based on Their Self-Report in the Turkish Context  

Science.gov (United States)

This research investigated the amount of time that children from different socio-economic strata spend watching television per week and whether there was a difference among children from low, middle and upper socio-economic strata with regard to viewing programme types, including action adventure, news and information, competitions, sports,…

Kabadayi, Abdulkadir

2006-01-01

366

A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever: Research Gaps and Needs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to evaluate them. Of the 52 papers selected for this review, 13 types of socio-economic impact were identified according to the sector impacted, the level and temporal scale of the impact. RVF has a dramatic impact on producers and livestock industries, affecting public and animal health, food security and the livelihood of the pastoralist communities. RVF also has an impact on international trade and other agro-industries. The risk of introducing RVF into disease-free countries via the importation of an infected animal or mosquito is real, and the consequent restriction of access to export markets may induce dramatic economic consequences for national and local economies. Despite the important threat of RVF, few studies have been conducted to assess the socio-economic impact of the disease. The 17 studies identified for quantitative analysis in this review relied only on partial cost analysis, with limited reference to mid- and long-term impact, public health or risk mitigation measures. However, the estimated impacts were high (ranging from $5 to $470 million USD losses). To reduce the impact of RVF, early detection and rapid response should be implemented. Comprehensive disease impact studies are required to provide decision-makers with science-based information on the best intervention measure to implement ensuring efficient resource allocation. Through the analysis of RVF socio-economic impact, this scoping study proposes insights into the mechanisms underpinning its often-underestimated importance. This study highlights the need for comparative socio-economic studies to help decision-makers with their choices related to RVF disease management. PMID:25256804

Peyre, M; Chevalier, V; Abdo-Salem, S; Velthuis, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Thiry, E; Roger, F

2014-09-24

367

Impact of music therapy to promote positive parenting and child development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of a 10-week group music therapy program for marginalized parents and their children aged 0-5 years was examined. Musical activities were used to promote positive parent-child relationships and children's behavioral, communicative and social development. Participants were 358 parents and children from families facing social disadvantage, young parents or parents of a child with a disability. Significant improvements were found for therapist-observed parent and child behaviors, and parent-reported irritable parenting, educational activities in the home, parent mental health and child communication and social play skills. This study provides evidence of the potential effectiveness of music therapy for early intervention. PMID:18375628

Nicholson, Jan M; Berthelsen, Donna; Abad, Vicky; Williams, Kate; Bradley, Julie

2008-03-01

368

Socio Economic Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers: Evidence from Western Kenya  

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Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio economic factors on the adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies appears to be low resulting to probably the low production. It is not understood well why farmers who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, either do not adopt or adopt the technologies and then abandon. An ex-post-facto survey design which utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used in the study. For quantitative data collection, a sample of 220 small scale farmers selected using systematic random sampling from the small scale farmers in the Division were engaged. For qualitative data, 40 small scale farmers and 37 Key Informants selected using purposive sampling from the division were used. Results of the study indicated that households education status, gender, access to credit and membership in social groups were important variables which had positively and significantly influenced adoption of INRM technologies. The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance of institutional support in the areas of extension, strengthening social groups and improving market and credit condition to enhance adoption of INRM technologies. The study will be significant to planners, policy makers, researchers, extension and farmers to build the case for interventions on INRM within the development sector for improved and sustainable agriculture and rural development.

Isaiah K. Okuthe

2013-09-01

369

HIV-positive parents, HIV-positive children, and HIV-negative children’s perspectives on disclosure of a parent’s and child’s illness in Kenya  

OpenAIRE

HIV disclosure from parent to child is complex and challenging to HIV-positive parents and healthcare professionals. The purpose of the study was to understand the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. Sixteen HIV-positive parents, seven HIV-positive children, and five HIV-negative children completed semistructured, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the Van Kaam method; NVivo 8 software was used to assist data analysis...

Grace Gachanja; Burkholder, Gary J.; Aimee Ferraro

2014-01-01

370

Socio-Economic Principles of the Development of the Area Urban Housing Renewal Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The city is determined as a "clot" of many elements: people, infrastructure, real estate, jobs and others. These components require the scientific basis for new approaches in providing housing organizational and economic recovery, designed to use organizational, managerial, financial, legal and even administrative resources in the housing and communal services of cities and regions of Ukraine that will allow their inhabitants to provide further use of housing nowadays.Moreover, people who live in modern cities occupy rather small, but economically active area, generating a number of phenomena of social and economic nature: the housing market with its laws, problems of the role and limits of government responsibility and problems of local governments in meeting housing problems of citizens, and models of maintenance andrenewal of urban housing, etc., that foregrounds issues highlighted in the article.At the same time socio-economic factors as prerequisites for the development of housing sector of city and region economy in special scientific literature are remained out of sufficient attention, hampering the process of monitoring and forecasting regional trends and defining the prospects of creating conditions for public-private partnership in the housing sector. Therefore the purpose of the article is to study social and economic foundations of the development of housing sector at the regional level and the scientific substantiation of their impact on the processes of regeneration of urban housing in the context of sustained development of the region. Therefore, comprehensive research on the socio-economic changes and scientific substantiation of their impact on the processes of housing development are of great theoretical and practical importance.The mechanism of housing renewal should be developed not only by finding the new sources of financial support, but also by improving the economic-and-organizational and legal support, usage the strategies of development and monitoring.It is substantiated, that the change in financing of the housing system that is accompanied by increasing of the rates and tariffs for housing services for the population and by the decreasing and even to canceling the level of budgetary subsidies, increases the interest of housing businesses in the timely receipt of payments from the population, and at the same time creates the problem of laying investment component in the tariffs for the population to pay housing services.

A. Kosiak

2011-03-01

371

Virtual land use and agricultural trade. Estimating environmental and socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liberalization has caused an increase in the global trade of goods and services. In particular, the value and physical volume of agricultural goods traded have largely increased. As the environmental and social consequences of trade are complex, they are rarely included in the national and international agricultural policies. One reason is that there is a lack of concepts and methods for assessing the environmental and social impacts of trade policies. In this paper we develop a method for quantifying and assessing the land use hidden in the export and import of agricultural goods for the case of Switzerland. For our analysis we focus on arable crops. The first methodological step of our research illustrates the spatial relationship of Switzerland with countries all over the world through the import and export of land use for arable crops. The second step links this spatial dimension with a qualitative assessment of the environmental and socio-economic impacts of agricultural land use. We applied the method to the case of wheat cultivation within Switzerland and import to Switzerland. The major problem we were confronted with was the availability of data, which had both to be reliable and available for the countries wheat is imported from. The results show that the calculation of land use is credible. In spite of the problems related with data availability, the assessment results for each indicator are in agreement with the current situation in the respective countrierrent situation in the respective countries. In addition, the aggregation seems to accurately reflect the countries' agricultural polices. The developed method is used to estimate the overall environmental and socio-economic impacts of an increase in wheat imports to Switzerland. We argue that this method could be applied for anticipating potential impacts of trade agreements. Still, further research is required for fine-tuning of the utility functions, including a weighting procedure in the aggregation procedure. For practical applications important aspects like water shortage should enlarge our limited set of indicators. In addition the average impact on a country level was assessed. To refine that, different agricultural systems ranging from intensive to extensive to organic should be considered. Beyond our scope was to analyze impacts due to other life cycle stages than the agricultural production. For informed decision, however, information on the whole life cycle of agricultural products is required. (author)

372

Clasificación socioeconómica de los municipios de Bolivia / Socio-economic classification of the municipalities of Bolivia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este artículo aplica técnicas multivariantes de Análisis Cluster para conformar conglomerados homogéneos de municipios de Bolivia. La finalidad de esta clasificación es identificar aspectos demográficos y socioeconómicos comunes de los municipios como punto de partida en el diseño e implementación d [...] e políticas de desarrollo en el ámbito municipal. Otra utilidad es la evaluación o medición de la eficiencia municipal pues es un requisito contar con grupos homogéneos. Se considera el conjunto de municipios de Bolivia que reportan información financiera respecto al presupuesto de la Iniciativa para los Países Pobres Altamente Endeudados (HIPCII), presupuestos destinados a la ejecución de proyectos sociales y de desarrollo. El estudio se realiza desde el punto de vista de la gestión y la Ley de Descentralización Administrativa que establece como norma, la búsqueda de una buena administración y uso de los recursos financieros. Las variables usadas son número de habitantes, proporción de población urbana e índice de necesidades básicas insatisfechas. Los resultados identifican seis cluster con aspectos socioeconómicas diferentes. Tres de ellos presentan un marcado carácter rural con elevados índices de pobreza. Abstract in english This article applies multivariate Cluster analysis techniques to create homogeneous clusters of municipalities in Bolivia. The purpose of this classification is to identify common demographic and socio-economic aspects of the municipalities as a starting point in the design and implementation of dev [...] elopment policies in the municipal area. Another tool is the evaluation or measurement of municipal efficiency is a requirement to have homogeneous groups. He is the set of municipalities of Bolivia reporte dinancial information with respect to the budget ofthe initiative highly indebted poor countries (HIPCII), budgets for the implementation of social projects and development. The study is carried out from the point of view of the management and the law on administrative decentralization, establishing as a rule, the search for a good administration and use of financial resources. The variables used are number of inhabitants, proportion of urban population and index of unsatisfied basic needs. The results identified six cluster with different socio-economic aspects. Three of them have a strong rural character with high rates of poverty.

Nina, Dante Ayaviri.

2014-05-01

373

Expectations of JAERI on INIS from a viewpoint of socio-economic evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand a socio-economic effect of basic research in JAERI, the stimulation and promotion of social interrelations through a formation of networking was studied quantitatively. As an analytical tool, top {100} keywords selected from the research papers written by the Material Science (MS) in JAERI were used as inputs of INIS. Reasons for selection of INIS instead of INSPEC in the present study areas follows: (a) The density of nuclear data in INIS was rather high than that in INSPEC; the former is more suitable for the present analysis due to having more nuclear data, (b) INSPEC may rather be suitable for study of international networking because of a worldwide large database. Our study is, however, focused to rather domestic or Japanese networking matters, therefore the high rate logging of Japanese data in INIS is more preferable. With respect to one-to-one correspondence between author's affiliation and his belonging, INSPEC had the top author's affiliation alone but INIS had all author's affiliation. This is very significantly helpful for studying the formation of networking. Obtained typical results are: (1) Worldwide trend of MS was studied by INIS by means of top {100} keywords as input. Research activity of MS in JAERI represented by top {100} keywords is not much different from that of other nuclear advanced countries participated to INIS. (2) Emphasized basic research fields (EBRF) of MS in JAERI can be clarified by selected keywords of 'ion irradiatioed by selected keywords of 'ion irradiation' and 'actinides', those have a strong relation to nuclear. 'Actinides' was included in 7,237 papers in INIS, where the share of JAERI over 25 years was 25%, while 52% by public sectors (PS) and 17% by private organizations (PO) in Japan. The growth rate of networking between JAERI and PS was of order of 3-4% per 25 years and 8% per recent 5 years. The rate of networking formation is markedly increased recently. (3) Between JAERI and the other 5 selected research bodies, only 7 out of over 110 keywords such as 'neutron' and 'accelerators' were overlapped. In the overlapped region the two compensated and uplifted the national standard level each other. For 'neutron' (2,988 papers), the networking between JAERI and PS was grown to the magnitude of 16% per recent 5 years; meaning that the socio-economic effect becomes large under the influence of research activity made by JAERI

374

Socio-Economic Impacts of Mutant Rice Varieties in Southern Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice production plays an important role in the socio-economic development of Vietnam, especially in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) region, which is responsible for more than half of the total and 90% of the national rice export. Before 1995, no mutant rice varieties (MRVs) were cultivated in the MRD. At present, rice variety improvement is the main focus of the national breeding programme and 8 rice mutants have been developed, occupying 10.3% of the total modern varieties in Southern Vietnam. The mutant varieties developed so far have better resistance to lodging, disease and insect damages, higher tolerance to soil stresses such as acid sulphate soil, drought etc., and also exhibit earliness and higher yield potential. Some of the best mutant varieties, namely VND95-19, VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB-100 have already been released for large-scale production in the MRD. VND95-20 has become one of the top 5 exported varieties and is grown annually on more than 300,000 ha in Southern Vietnam. Some of these mutants have given promising recombinants through hybridization and in particular the varieties VN121, VN124, OM2717 and OM2718 have been released into production. A successful combination of aromatic characteristics, short duration, high yield, tolerance to new diseases (GSV and RSV) and insects (BPH), and consequent reduction of spraying times of pesticide per crop, have greatly benefitted health and environmental protection. During the past 8 years under the IAEA Technical the past 8 years under the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) project, the total cultivated area of MRVs in Southern Vietnam has been more than 2.54 millions ha. Until 2008, the 8 rice mutant varieties produced an added return of 374 million USD over the previous years and continue to produce added return for farmers. More specifically, VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB100, VND95-19, OM2717, OM2718, VN121 and VN124 returned 300.00, 9.0, 37.5, 6.0, 12.0, 8.4, 0.8 and 0.7 million USD, respectively. The application of MRVs reduced spraying times per crop two- to three-fold due to their tolerance to diseases and insects. MRVs are used in the strategy programme 'Eradicate hunger and alleviate poverty' of different national projects, particularly for the ethnic minorities in mountainous and remote regions of Southern Vietnam. Due to the significant contribution of MRVs to socio-economic development, their development has received many prizes by the national and local Government. (author)

375

Socio-economic impacts of mutant rice varieties in southern Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice plays an important role of socio-economic development in Vietnam, especially in Mekong River Delta (MRD) where is more than half of the total and 90% of national export rice. Rice variety improvement is main project in national breeding program. However, no mutant rice variety (MRV) was cultivated in MRD before 1995. Recently, 8 rice mutants occupy 10.3% of total modern varieties in Southern Vietnam. The mutated characters developed so far consist of better resistance to lodging, disease and insect damages, higher tolerance to soil stresses such as acid sulphate soil, drought etc, and also earliness and higher yield potential. Some best mutant varieties: VND95-19, VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB-100 have been released for large-scale production in MRD. Among them, VND95-20 has become one of the top 5 varieties for export and grown annually more than 300,000ha in Southern Vietnam. In combination with hybridization method, some mutants gave promising recombinants. Selected varieties as VN121, VN24-4, OM2717, OM2718 have been released into production. Successful combination of aromatic character with short duration, high yield, tolerant to new diseases (GSV and RSV) and insects (BPH), consequently reduction of 2-3 spraying times of pesticide / crop, supported for health and environmental protection. For 8 past years under IAEA TC project, total cultivated area of MRV was more than 2.54 millions ha in Southern Vietnam. Until 2008, 8 mutant varieties produced the added returnmutant varieties produced the added return of 374 millions USD for past years and continue producing added return for farmers. Eight MRV of VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB100, VND95-19, OM2717, OM 2718, VN 121 and VN24-4 occupied the added return values as 300.00; 9.0; 37.5; 6.0; 12.0; 8.4; 0.8 and 0.7 millions USD, respectively. Application of MRV is reduced 2-3 spraying times / crop due to their tolerance to diseases and insects. MRV are used in strategy program of 'Eradicate hunger and alleviate poverty' of different national projects, particularly for the ethnic minorities in mountainous and remote areas in Southern Vietnam. Due to significant contribution for socio-economic development, achievement of mutant rice varieties have been received many prizes of national and local Government. (author)

376

Relationship between household socio-economic status and under-five mortality in Rufiji DSS, Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Disparities in health outcomes between the poor and the better off are increasingly attracting attention from researchers and policy makers. However, policies aimed at reducing inequity need to be based on evidence of their nature, magnitude, and determinants. Objectives: The study aims to investigate the relationship between household socio-economic status (SES and under-five mortality, and to measure health inequality by comparing poorest/least poor quintile mortality rate ratio and the use of a mortality concentration index. It also aims to describe the risk factors associated with under-five mortality at Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (RDSS, Tanzania. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study included 11,189 children under-five residing in 7,298 households in RDSS in 2005. Principal component analysis was used to construct household SES. Kaplan–Meier survival incidence estimates were used for mortality rates. Health inequality was measured by calculating and comparing mortality rates between the poorest and least poor wealth quintile. We also computed a mortality concentration index. Risk factors of child mortality were assessed using Poisson regression taking into account potential confounders. Results: Under-five mortality was 26.9 per 1,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI (23.7–30.4]. The poorest were 2.4 times more likely to die compared to the least poor. Our mortality concentration index [?0.16; 95% CI (?0.24, ?0.08] indicated considerable health inequality. Least poor households had a 52% reduced mortality risk [incidence rate ratio (IRR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.30–0.80]. Furthermore, children with mothers who had attained secondary education had a 70% reduced risk of dying compared to mothers with no education [IRR = 0.30; 95% CI (0.22–0.88]. Conclusion: Household socio-economic inequality and maternal education were associated with under-five mortality in the RDSS. Targeted interventions to address these factors may contribute towards accelerating the reduction of child mortality in rural Tanzania.

Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch

2013-01-01

377

Socio - Economic Implication of Use of Gsm among Abeokuta Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The euphoria that greeted the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM has reached its peak with grave implication for socio-economic conditions of many Nigerians same of who have been complaining about exploitation and unsatisfactory services provided by Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM operation in the country. However, many Nigerians even with high cost of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM phone will not stop at anything as holding a Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM phone has become a status symbol. Thus, the paper examines the socio-economic implications of the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM among residents in Abeokuta, Nigeria. The result reveal that despite the problems associated with the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM no one can do without it because it is highly useful for economic motives. Consequently unpas the findings it is recommended that government should checkmate exorbitant changes of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM operators.
Key words: Telecommunication; Economic; Mobile; Technology

Résumé: L'euphorie qui a salué l'utilisation du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM a atteint son apogée avec les implications en profondeur pour les conditions socio-économiques de nombreux Nigériens, les même que ceux qui se plaignaient de l'exploitation et des services insatisfaisants fournis par le Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM dans le pays. Toutefois, beaucoup de Nigérians, même avec un coût élevé de téléphone du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM, n'abandonneront pas les services du Système global des télécommunications mobiles (SGM, car celui-ci est devenu un symbole de statut social. Ainsi, le document examine les implications socio-économiques de l'utilisation du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM chez les résidents d'Abeokuta, au Nigéria. Le résultat révèle que, malgré les problèmes liés à l'utilisation du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM, personne ne peut s'en passer parce qu'il est très utile pour des motifs économiques. Par conséquence, il est recommandé que le gouvernement devrait éviter des changements exorbitants du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM.
Mots-clés: Telecommunications; Économique; Mobile; Technologie

Akinola George Dosunmu

2011-07-01

378

Newsletters: Treasures or Trash? Parenting Newsletter Series Results in Positive Behavior Changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey of rural parents who received extension parenting newsletters sent home with kindergartners (369 in phase 1, 459 in Phase 2) indicated that a majority learned new information and made positive changes in parenting behaviors. Newsletters appeared to be a cost-effective outreach tool to provide parenting education to this audience.…

Garton, Martha; Hicks, Kelly; Leatherman, Miriam; Miltenberger, Margaret; Mulkeen, Patricia; Nelson-Mitchell, Lorella; Winland, Carol

2003-01-01

379

Socio-economic inequity in demand for insecticide-treated nets, in-door residual house spraying, larviciding and fogging in Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimally prioritize and use public and private budgets for equitable malaria vector control, there is a need to determine the level and determinants of consumer demand for different vector control tools. Objectives To determine the demand from people of different socio-economic groups for indoor residual house-spraying (IRHS, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, larviciding with chemicals (LWC, and space spraying/fogging (SS and the disease control implications of the result. Methods Ratings and levels of willingness-to-pay (WTP for the vector control tools were determined using a random cross-sectional sample of 720 householdes drawn from two states. WTP was elicited using the bidding game. An asset-based socio-economic status (SES index was used to explore whether WTP was related to SES of the respondents. Results IRHS received the highest proportion of highest preferred rating (41.0% followed by ITNs (23.1%. However, ITNs had the highest mean WTP followed by IRHS, while LWC had the least. The regression analysis showed that SES was positively and statistically significantly related to WTP across the four vector control tools and that the respondents' rating of IRHS and ITNs significantly explained their levels of WTP for the two tools. Conclusion People were willing to pay for all the vector-control tools, but the demand for the vector control tools was related to the SES of the respondents. Hence, it is vital that there are public policies and financing mechanisms to ensure equitable provision and utilisation of vector control tools, as well as protecting the poor from cost-sharing arrangements.

Mustafa Sara

2005-12-01

380

A socio-economic impact assessment of a project to identify and implement best management practices at the Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme at farm level  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Best Management Practices (BMP) project on social and economic wellbeing at the Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme (ZIS) in central Eastern Cape Province. The BMP project is a knowledge-based initiative aimed at introducing management practices in o [...] rder to improve production and livelihoods in the study area. The study employed a survey to collect socio-economic data amongst farming households. The 2005 (pre-BMP project) baseline study based on the same respondents allowed for the tracking of changes after the implementation of the project. A socio-economic impact assessment (SEIA) framework was used to assess the impacts. The results showed the BMP project to have impacted on social and economic wellbeing of households. Skills introduced were in the areas of water management, agronomic practices, marketing and institutional arrangements. In 2007 more than half of farmers worked on their farms daily, an improvement on 2005, when none of the farmers reported working over weekends. The average time spent on the farms per day also increased from 4 (in 2005) to 7 h (in 2007). Agriculture's contribution to household income improved from 71% in 2005 to 81% in 2007 and reduced household poverty and food insecurity levels. The number of households earning incomes below the poverty line dropped from 61°% in 2005 to 38% in 2007. A marked increase was noted in winter land use, which was almost non-existent in 2005. The on-farm trials introduced by the BMP team improved the farmers': maize planting time, plant population density, fertiliser management, crop yield and participation in community activities. Seedling transplanting was preferred to direct maize seeding. Positive impacts on institutions were seen in the restructuring of the management system; improved marketing systems; institutional arrangements for managing water; and institutions for maintaining irrigation infrastructure.

MC, Tshuma; N, Monde.

381

Socio-economic implications of climate change: Canadian climate impacts program study results  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review is presented of results of the Canadian Climate Impacts Program series of studies examining the socio-economic impacts of climate change. In the Great Lakes basin, climate change may impact on numerous economic sectors. Lower lake levels could result in increased dredging of ports and channels or reduced cargo loads. Lower lake levels added to increased use of water could result in a loss of 4,165 GWh of power generation for the Canadian hydro-electric generating stations on the Great Lakes. A warmer climate may lead to crop failures in the agricultural heartlands of Ontario, as the advantages of higher temperature may be offset by moisture stress. The downhill ski industry may be decimated in southern Ontario. Rising sea levels may cause increased risk of storm surges and river flooding in the coastal areas of Canada. A warmer climate would probably be beneficial to aquaculture and allow longer inshore fishing seasons. Costs to oil and gas exploration due to sea ice and icebergs would be practically eliminated. Results for the Praire provinces were mixed: one study concluded that impacts would be minimal while another predicted a moderate reduction in spring wheat potential. 24 refs., 1 fig

382

Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

2014-01-01

383

Residents’ Socio-Economic Characteristics as Drivers of Housetypes in Ogbomoso, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The function of housing is first and foremost to provide houses to families and other households, housing is therefore an important urban survival strategy. And this has made socio-economic status of family or individual to always play an important role in the choice of housing especially in urban centres. In this study a sample of 400 houses emerged from the survey of houses conducted from the pre-colonial, colonial and sub- urban residential areas of Ogbomoso. The study examined the social, economic, demographic characteristics of the residents in the housetypes as drivers of these housetypes in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. The study revealed that 40.3% of the sample were family houses, where residents were of multiple ownership status and who by reason of their kith and kin relationship did not pay rents and they belonged to the low-income category. 34.3% of the sample were rooming houses where residents also belonged to the low-income category and majority were renters in the house. The study concluded that family and rooming houses were predominant in Ogbomoso. The study corroborated the fact that poverty is the central and dominant problems of the poor in developing country, and their low earning power manifests in a variety of ways especially in lack of sufficient funds to procure housing, and as a results the rental housing sector has been and will continue to be the major provider of the bulk of housing for the low income households.

Okeyinka Yetunde

2013-01-01

384

Rural Population Density Effect on Socio-economic Characteristics: A Review  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Rural population density has a very significant independent influence over important demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the world rural communities. Thus, the understanding of rural population density becomes an important issue to be studied. Approach: Using the rural settled areas of Shaqlawa District as a case study, this study seeks to reveal the specific importance of rural population density as an important variable in understanding the socioeconomic characteristics of sparsely settled rural regions, where spares and falling density presents practical and conceptual problems for rural planners. Results and Conclusion: It is obvious that the need of rural areas for socioeconomic development and regeneration along with the need for diversification of their economic base so as to meet the changes is today greater than ever. The motivation behind of this project is based on the fact that during the last few decades the rural settlement in the study area has been dramatically changed. However at the same time there is a realization that certain parts of the rural area have been left behind in development and the authority is currently promoting rural area in order to sustain local economies and to enhance employment and growth.

Ayoob K. Ismael

2011-01-01

385

Socio-economic considerations for developing private wind energy projects on Crown land  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation discussed issues related to wind projects on Crown lands in Canada. Crown land wind projects differ from projects on private lands in relation to tenures; costs; Aboriginal relationships; and aesthetic concerns. Wind project developers must also negotiate with forestry, mining and petroleum industry stakeholders operating within the region. Roads and rights-of-way must be considered, and project developers must develop plans to negotiate with or preserve agricultural grazing rights; hunting and trapping rights; and recreational trails and sites. While projects on Crown lands are usually located away from residential areas, members of the public can express concerns over the impact of wind projects on wilderness areas. However, local government bylaws that apply to wind energy projects do not typically apply to wind projects on Crown lands. The lengthier application process required for wind projects on Crown lands translates into higher costs for wind projects. In addition, treaty rights, title and obligations to First Nations communities vary from region to region. It is important for wind power proponents to examine precedents in the proposed project areas and involve themselves in early consultation processes. It was concluded that wind energy project planners must be aware of the socio-economic differences between private and Crown lands. tabs., figs.

Hewitt, L. [Hemmera, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2008-07-01

386

The implications of federalism and decentralisation on socio-economic conditions in Ethiopia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we wil [...] l show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data. In both cases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits. The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.

P, Zimmermann-Steinhart; Y, Bekele.

2012-08-01

387

Socio-Economic Status and the Structural Change of Dietary Intake in Hungary  

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Full Text Available Typically, big changes in the economic system lead to alterations on families’ disposable income and thus on their spending for different types of products, including food. These may imply in the long run a structural modification of the population’s diet quality. After the fall of the socialist system, in the past two decades, Central and Eastern European countries, including Hungary, went through a profound and sometimes difficult transition of their political and economic systems, shifting from a centralized plan to an open-market economy, and, perhaps more importantly, the European Union integration. Economic change in lower-income and transitional economies of the world appears to coincide with increasing rapid social change. With respect to nutrition, there is evidence that these countries are changing their diets and that changes seem to happen at a faster pace than ever before (e.g. Ivanova et al., 2006. In this paper, we analyse the evolution of Hungarian dietary patterns based on socio-economic status (SES data between 1993 and 2007. Data allows defining and profiling several clusters based on aggregated consumption data, and then inspecting the influence of SES variables using OLS and multinomial logit estimations

Bakucs Zoltán

2014-10-01

388

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF MANUAL SCAVENGERS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GULBARGA DISTRICT OF KARNATAKA STATE  

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Full Text Available Manual scavenging as a social issue has received national policy attention since India’s independence The Employment of Manual Scavengers and Dry Latrine Construction(Prohibition Act, 1993makes provisions for the abolition of this practice, and for the identification and rehabilitation of manual scavengers. Adeadline of December 2007 was set by the Supreme Court for necessary actions to betaken by states, but several reports show that this is not the case in Karnataka. In Karnataka those employed as manual scavengers and sweepers are called as pourakarmika/s. The main objectives of this study are to find out the economic status and life style of the respondents. Descriptive research design was adopted in this study. The universe of the population was 100. Out of the 100 population the researcher selected 55 respondents through Proportionate random sampling methods was adapted in lottery method manner. Only Self-prepared questionnaire was used to measure the socio-economic condition among scavengers. Interview schedule method was used for data collection. The study reveals result that only 38.2 percentage of the respondent earn income between Rs.4500 to 6500 per month. 61.8 percentage of the respondent were not having nutritional food. (44.6% were facing the stigma and discrimination from the society. (54.5% feel that the society had a bad opinion about their occupation. (72.73% were getting debt form different finance agencies.

Jnanmitra Bhimasha

2015-02-01

389

Socio-economic and psychological predictors of domestic greywater and rainwater collection: Evidence from Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThe importance of securing water supply necessitates that all options be explored. Research has indicated that demand on water catchments can be substantially decreased when a large proportion of households reuse greywater and/or install rainwater tanks. This paper reports on an internet survey completed by 354 households residing in the Australian Capital Territory and surrounding regions. Statistical analyses examined the relationship between socio-economic and psychological variables and the likelihood of the garden being irrigated with greywater and/or rainwater. The results show income, gender, age and education could not differentiate residents who were irrigating their garden with water from a tank from residents who were not. Residents who used tank water on their gardens had a higher self-reported understanding of a range of water supply options. Female participants and lower income residents were more likely to use greywater on their garden. Participants who irrigated the garden with greywater were more likely to judge various other water collection and recycling proposals as being appropriate. General concerns about water collection and reuse risks were not found to predict which households used tank water and/or greywater on their garden.

Ryan, Anthony M.; Spash, Clive L.; Measham, Thomas G.

2009-12-01

390

Socio-Economic Development and Primary Energy Sources Substitution Towards Decarbonization  

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Full Text Available Scanning the last 250 years, we can observe five great technological transformations that happened in the socio-eco-nomic development. On the other hand, there is a relationship between the socio-economic development and the substi-tution process of primary energy sources. Since the industrial revolution, there has been a smooth but growing substitu-tion among primary energy sources. First the switch from wood to coal, then this last one by oil and natural gas. These are non-solid fossils, which leads to a decrease of the carbonic intensity. These substitutions implied some important technological transformations. Bearing in mind a sustainable development of energy systems and using technological forecasting tolls, this study points out to the leadership of the alternative energies among the primary energy sources until 2050 - 2070. In this sense, even with the predictable overall increase of energy consumption, this study also shows that through the substitution dynamic it is possible not only to reduce the carbonic intensity, but also to reduce the car-bonic emission in absolute terms from 2040 - 2060 on.

Tessaleno Campos Devezas

2011-06-01

391

Re-evaluation of the socio-economical cost for straw  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The socio-economical price for straw is calculated. Prices per ton are for the year 1984, 230 Danish kroner per ton and 15.53 kroner per giga joule, for 1990, 291 kroner per ton and 19.40 per giga joule and for 1992, 171 kroner per ton and 11.81 per giga joule. This development reflects that in the case of some machines there has been a fall in price, and that the operation capacity has in many instances increased. The calculation of storage costs must be seen in relation to the current discussion on acceptable straw qualities. The calculated storage costs are based on the consideration of 6 storage possibilities. It was attempted to price the management methods in relation to equipment which is most used by farmers and lorry drivers daily. An example of this is that tranportation calculations are based on the probable use of secondhand renovated lorries, as new ones can not be afforded. Sliced straw is not included in the calculations. (AB) (16 refs.)

392

Prospect of Nuclear Power Today as Part of Ghana Energy Mix and Socio-Economic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Energy is essential for economic development and improvement of quality of life in every human settlement. Considering her economic aspirations and population growth, Ghana’s energy demand, particularly that of electricity is sure to rise in coming years. Ghana’s total installed electricity generation capacity currently stands at 1810MW, with a current population is estimated to be 24.4 million based on 2010 population census. The country and for that matter is confronted with the challenge of meeting her energy needs in a cost effective and environmentally friendly manner so as to attain middle income status. This policy document presents nuclear power as the most versatile, convenient and competitive source of electrical energy that should be planned for now and will be worth introducing into Ghana’s energy mix for sustainable development of the country.  Nuclear Power Plants can serve as a competitive source of electrical energy for enhancing Ghana’s energy security and socio-economic development for her to attain middle income as purported by political policies.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.60.2.1109

Sylvester Attakorah Birikorang

2012-06-01

393

Effect of Farmers Socio-economic Toward Adoption Level of Agricultural Technology in Sigi Regency Indonesia  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 Know the adoption level of agricultural technology on Field School Program of Integrated Plant Management in Sigi Regency Indonesia and (2 Analyze the effect of farmers socio-economic toward agricultural technology adoption on Field School Program of Integrated Plant Management. The study was conducted in Sigi Regency Indonesia. The number of respondents in this study were 67 household heads. Sampling was done by simple random. Descriptive statistic was used to answer the first objective and multiple regression analysis was used to answer the second objective. The result showed that, technology adoption on Field School Program of Integrated Plant Management was still low in Sigi Regency Indonesia, it was because the resource of farmers was still low. The household income, age of household heads, land area of rice farming, frequency of following agricultural extension, frequency of visiting demonstration plot and education of household heads affected technology adoption on Field School Program of Integrated Plant Management in Sigi Regency Indonesia. The increasing of farmers resource was very needed so that farmers could adopt the better agricultural technology.

Max Nur Alam

2015-01-01

394

Socio-economic perspectives on shifting cultivation landscapes in Northern Laos  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite the rapid agricultural transition that has occurred in the past decade, shifting cultivation remains a widespread agricultural practice in the northern uplands of Lao PDR. Little information is available on the basic socio-economic situation and respective possible patterns in shifting cultivation landscapes on a regional level. On the basis of a recent approximation of the extent of shifting cultivation landscapes for two time periods and disaggregated village level census data, this paper characterizes these landscapes in terms of key socioeconomic parameters for the whole of northern Laos. Results showed that over 550,000 people live in shifting cultivation regions. The poverty rate of this population of 46.5 % is considerably higher than the national rural rate. Most shifting cultivation landscapes are located in remote locations and a high share of the population comprises ethnic minorities, pointing to multi-dimensional marginality of these areas. We discuss whether economic growth and increasedmarket accessibility are sufficient to lift these landscapes out of poverty.

Heinimann, Andreas; Hett, Cornelia

2013-01-01

395

Crises and collective socio-economic phenomena: cartoon models and challenges  

CERN Document Server

Financial and economic history is strewn with bubbles and crashes, booms and busts, crises and upheavals of all sorts. Understanding the origin of these events is arguably one of the most important problems in economic theory. In this paper, we review recent efforts to include heterogeneities and interactions in models of decision. We argue that the Random Field Ising model (RFIM) indeed provides a unifying framework to account for many collective socio-economic phenomena that lead to sudden ruptures and crises. We discuss different models that can capture potentially destabilising self-referential feedback loops, induced either by herding, i.e. reference to the peers, or trending, i.e. reference to the past, and account for some of the phenomenology missing in the standard models. We discuss some empirically testable predictions of these models, for example robust signatures of RFIM-like herding effects, or the logarithmic decay of spatial correlations of voting patterns. One of the most striking result, ins...

Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

2012-01-01

396

Brackish Shrimp Farming in Northeastern Brazil: The Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts and Sustainability  

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Full Text Available Despite the economic importance of farmed shrimp, a number of technical, environmental, economic and social problems have been widely reported in the international literature. This paper focuses on the environmental and socio-economic impacts of semi-intensive and intensive shrimp farming in the coastal region of Northeastern Brazil and the identification of options for sustainable production. In this Region, the total area dedicated to shrimp farming is approximately 18,500 ha, of which 5750 ha are located in Ceará State. The estuary of Jaguaribe river has the largest number of shrimp farms in the state of Ceará. Currently, the industry has 64 participating farms with a total area dedicated to shrimp farming of 2411.3 ha. In 2011, the total production was 13,110 tons of shrimp with an average yield of 6330 kg ha1.year-1 in a pond area of 2071.2 ha. This industry employs 2350 people that represent 23.2% of jobs generated in the two municipalities where the Jaguaribe river estuary is inserted. Compared with other countries, Brazil has reduced its exports due to high cost inputs for shrimp farming. However, the Brazilian shrimp industry has benefited from high domestic prices, despite the decreases in international price of shrimp. In 2011, the prices for size category ranged between U$ 4.67 - 6.04 for 80/100 (count of head-on shrimp, U$ 4.95 - 6.60 for 70/80 and U$ 5.

Tadeu Dote Sá

2013-12-01

397

Organisational culture as a socio-economic phenomenon in the context of the modern management paradigm  

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Full Text Available The article studies cognitive component of the “organisational culture” category and marks our three groups of approaches to the aspect description of the studied category: aspects of the organisational culture formed by the control system; aspects of the organisational culture inherent in the controlled system; and universal aspects inherent in both control and controlled systems. The article provides the authors’ definition of the organisational culture as a complex element of the internal environment of the organisation that has certain phenomenological properties (synergy, dynamics, uniqueness, adaptability, mentality, hierarchy, aggregation, communicativeness and sociality; integrating spiritual, material, static and procedural elements with the aim of formation of a single management philosophy for ensuring external adaptation and efficient functioning of an enterprise. The article establishes the role and place of the organisational culture as a socio-economic phenomenon in the context of the modern management paradigm through specification of prerequisites of formation and development of the neo-classical concept of the organisational culture; features of the modern management paradigm; phenomenological properties of the culture; factors of influence upon the organisational culture and tendencies of development of the phenomenon of the national organisational culture.

Shubin Aleksandr A.

2013-03-01

398

Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions ("SSS-peer", "SSS-scholastic" and "SSS-sports") had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13-15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

2014-11-01

399

Bushfires in the Krachi District: the Socio-Economic and Environmental Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Bushfires are becoming one of the environmental challenges confronting Ghana and increasingly it has become difficult for the Government to control it because this activity is deeply rooted in the socio-cultural and economic systems of the people. The effects of bushfire on rural livelihoods and on the ecosystem in Ghana are extensive and damaging. Bushfires have accelerated environmental degradation especially in the fragile savannah ecosystem, yet there is very little in the form of public education, published data and information concerning the frequency, intensity, duration and effects of bushfire on the environment and human welfare in Ghana. The study did a change detection of biomass cover using pre and post fire normalized burnt ratio of Landsat TM+ imageries of 2002 and 2003 to determine fire severity on vegetative cover. The socio-economic impact of this disaster was collected using social survey approaches such as interviews and focus group meetings. Some of the consequences of the bushfire include the burning of food stuffs, houses as well as domestic animals. The environmental impacts of these bushfires have been very devastating and these involve the lost of biodiversity (plants and animals) and the depletion of organic matter of the soil thus impoverishing the soils. The research found out that, the continuous prevalence of this activity was due to the laxity in the implementation of bye-laws regulating bushfire burning due to the lack of personnel and logistics to state agencies in the District to combat the problem.

Kusimi, J. M.; Appati, J. W.

2012-07-01

400

Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided by their owners. Majority of the respondents mentioned that their earnings have improved their economic condition significantly and more than half of them have past work experience of the same job. The tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh are not only generating income from the beauty parlors they are providing a valuable service to the new consumer society. The main stream society is not yet ready to provide this type of services. So, we should not treat this migrant community as temporary visitors rather we should treat them as indispensable and contributing factor of the social and economic development in Bangladesh. There should be initiative from the government of Bangladesh to inspect health; safety; welfare and other related issues of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh and take necessary actions in this regard. Finally, the future research directions are presented.

Nargis Akhter

2011-05-01

401

Development of geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast: socio-economic, demographic, and political considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The institutional aspect of the study attempts to identify possible effects of geothermal research, development, and utilization on the area and its inhabitants in three chapters. Chapters I and II address key socio-economic and demographic variables. The initial chapter provides an overview of the area where the resource is located. Major data are presented that can be used to establish a baseline description of the region for comparison over time and to delineate crucial area for future study with regard to geothermal development. The chapter highlights some of the variables that reflect the cultural nature of the Gulf Coast, its social characteristics, labor force, and service in an attempt to delineate possible problems with and barriers to the development of geothermal energy in the region. The following chapter focuses on the local impacts of geothermal wells and power-generating facilities using data on such variables as size and nature of construction and operating crews. Data are summarized for the areas studied. A flow chart is utilized to describe research that is needed in order to exploit the resource as quickly and effectively as possible. Areas of interface among various parts of the research that will include exchange of data between the social-cultural group and the institutional, legal, environmental, and resource utilization groups are identified. (MCW)

Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Williamson, J.K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

1976-01-01

402

Socio-Economic Welfare Policies For The Rehabilitation Of Devadasis In Belgaum District  

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Full Text Available Devadasi practice is an ancient practice which offers girls to the deities in Hindu temples. The girls should not marry and hence become prey for social evils such as forced prostitution. Realizing the disadvantages of Devadasi practice, the Government of Karnataka passed legislation the Karnataka Devadasi Act in 1982 to prohibit Devadasi practice. Still due to social beliefs, the practice still prevailed in Karnataka, especially in the temples of Renuka Yellamma Temples of Saundatti and Chandragutti. The Government of Karnataka also formulated rehabilitation and welfare schemes for the overall socio-economic development of Devadasis. The present study is a survey of 400 devadasis in Saundatti taluka of Belgaum district and the information was collected from interview schedule. It is suggested from the study that there is need for more social welfare and rehabilitation schemes for devadasis and there is also need to increase awareness of the Devadasis on the rehabilitation and social welfare schemes, so as to get the benefits from the same.

Deveraj. A

2012-10-01

403

Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area  

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Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

Subhash Singh Parihar

2014-03-01

404

Are good ideas enough?: The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors [...] on the