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Parental socio-economic position during childhood as a determinant of self-harm in adolescence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Socio-economic position (SEP) during childhood and parental social mobility have been associated with subsequent health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. This study investigates whether parental SEP during childhood is associated with subsequent self-harm in adolescence. METHODS: This study uses data from a prospective birth-cohort study (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) which followed 14,610 births in 1991-1992 to age 16-18 years (n = 4,810). The association of parental SEP recorded pre-birth and throughout childhood with self-harm was investigated using logistic regression models, with analyses conducted separately for those reporting self-harm (a) with and (b) without suicidal intent. The impact of missing data was investigated using multiple imputation methods. RESULTS: Lower parental SEP was associated with increased risk of offspring self-harm with suicidal intent, with less consistent associations evident for self-harm without suicidal intent. Associations were somewhat stronger in relation to measures of SEP in later childhood. Depressive symptoms appeared to partially mediate the associations. Adolescents of parents reporting consistently low income levels during childhood were approximately 1.5 times more likely to engage in SH than those never to report low income. CONCLUSIONS: Lower SEP during childhood is associated with the subsequent risk of self-harm with suicidal intent in adolescence. This association is stronger in those experiencing consistently lower SEP.

Page A; Lewis G; Kidger J; Heron J; Chittleborough C; Evans J; Gunnell D

2013-06-01

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Adolescents' health-related dietary patterns by parental socio-economic position, the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is among the important determinants of diseases, and the social patterning of early eating habits may offer keys to prevention. We studied associations between selected indicators of adolescents' health-related dietary habits (daily intake of candy, soft drinks, fruit and vegetables) and parental socio-economic position (education, social class and income). METHODS: The material consisted of participants in the adolescent part (Young-HUNT) of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study during the period 1995-97, 8817 girls and boys aged 13-19 years (89% of all students in junior high schools and high schools in a Norwegian county). Data on parental socio-economic position was available from the adult part of HUNT and Statistics Norway. Cross-sectional data analyses were performed using cross-tables and binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the indicators of socio-economic position used, the parent's educational level, in particular the mother's education, showed the highest impact on adolescents' health-related dietary habits. Girls with the least educated mothers had a prevalence odds ratio of 2.5 (1.8-3.3) for drinking soft drinks daily and 0.6 (0.5-0.8) for eating vegetables daily as compared to girls with the most educated mothers. The corresponding numbers for boys were 1.9 (1.5-2.4) and 0.6 (0.5-0.8). Parental social class also showed gradients in adolescents' health-related dietary habits, but there was virtually no gradient by income. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of parental education, in particular the mother's education, are clearly associated with healthier dietary habits among adolescents. This social patterning should be recognized in public health interventions.

Nilsen SM; Krokstad S; Holmen TL; Westin S

2010-06-01

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Socio-economic position and childhood multimorbidity: a study using linkage between the Avon Longitudinal study of parents and children and the general practice research database  

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Introduction In adults, multimorbidity is associated with social position. Socially disadvantaged adults typically experience more chronic illness at a younger age than comparable individuals who are more advantaged. The relation between social position and multimorbidity amongst children and adolescents has not been as widely studied and is less clear. Methods The NHS Information Centre (NHS IC) linked participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Multimorbidity was measured in three different ways: using a count of the number of drugs prescribed, a count of chronic diseases, and a person’s predicted resource use score; the latter two measures were derived using the Johns Hopkins ACG system. A number of different socio-economic position variables measured as part of ALSPAC during pregnancy and early childhood were considered. Ordered logistic and negative binomial regression models were used to investigate associations between socio-economic variables and multimorbidity. Results After mutually adjusting for the different markers of socio-economic position, there was evidence, albeit weak, that chronic condition counts among children aged from 0 to 9 years were higher among those whose mothers were less well educated (OR?=?0.44; 95% confidence interval 0.18-1.10; p?=?0.08). Conversely, children whose mothers were better educated had higher rates of chronic illness between 10 and 18 years (OR?=?1.94; 95% CI 1.14-3.30). However, living in a more deprived area, as indicated by the Townsend score, was associated with a higher odds of chronic illness between 10 and 18 years (OR for each increasing decile of Townsend score?=?1.09; 95% CI 1.00-1.19; p?=?0.06). Conclusions We have found some evidence that, in younger children, multimorbidity may be higher amongst children whose parents are less well educated. In older children and adolescents this association is less clear. We have also demonstrated that linkage between prospective observational studies and electronic patient records can provide an effective way of obtaining objectively measured outcome variables.

2013-01-01

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Childhood and adult socio-economic position and social mobility as determinants of low back pain outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent problem and tends to be socio-economically patterned. Relatively little is known about life-course socio-economic circumstances as determinants of different types of LBP. Our aim was to examine whether childhood and adult socio-economic position and social mobility are associated with radiating and non-specific LBP and sciatica. METHOD: Data were derived from the Young Finns Study (n?=?2231). Childhood socio-economic position was based on parental education, occupational class and family income at baseline in 1980. Data on own education and LBP outcomes were collected at the end of follow-up in 2007. Social mobility was based on parental and own education. Covariates were composed of age, parental body mass index and smoking. RESULTS: Both childhood and own socio-economic position remained associated with radiating LBP and sciatica after adjustments. However, the associations varied by socio-economic indicator and gender. Stable lower socio-economic position and downward mobility were associated with radiating LBP. CONCLUSION: Childhood socio-economic circumstances affect the risk of radiating LBP and sciatica in adulthood. To prevent low back disorders, early socio-economic circumstances need to be considered alongside own socio-economic position.

Lallukka T; Viikari-Juntura E; Raitakari OT; Kähönen M; Lehtimäki T; Viikari J; Solovieva S

2013-06-01

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Health insurance, socio-economic position and racial disparities in preventive dental visits in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to determine the contributions of socio-economic position and health insurance enrollment in explaining racial disparities in preventive dental visits (PDVs) among South Africans. Data on the dentate adult population participating in the last South African Demographic and Health Survey conducted during 2003-2004 (n = 6,312) was used. Main outcome measure: Reporting making routine yearly PDVs as a preventive measure. Education, material wealth index and nutritional status indicated socio-economic position. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of PDVs. A variant of Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis was also conducted. Health insurance coverage was most common among Whites (70%) and least common among black Africans (10.1%) in South Africa. Similarly, a yearly PDV was most frequently reported by Whites (27.8%) and least frequently reported among black Africans (3.1%). Lower education and lower material wealth were associated with lower odds of making PDVs. There was significant interaction between location (urban/rural) and education (p = 0.010). The racial and socio-economic differences in PDVs observed in urban areas were not observed in rural areas. In the general dentate population, having health insurance significantly increased the odds of making PDVs (OR = 4.32; 3.04-6.14) and accounted for 40.3% of the White/non-White gap in the probability of making PDVs. Overall, socio-economic position and health insurance enrollments together accounted for 55.9% (95% CI = 44.9-67.8) of the White/non-White gap in PDVs. Interventions directed at improving both socio-economic position and insurance coverage of non-White South Africans are likely to significantly reduce racial disparities in PDVs. PMID:23282482

Ayo-Yusuf, Imade J; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G

2013-01-02

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Health insurance, socio-economic position and racial disparities in preventive dental visits in South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study sought to determine the contributions of socio-economic position and health insurance enrollment in explaining racial disparities in preventive dental visits (PDVs) among South Africans. Data on the dentate adult population participating in the last South African Demographic and Health Survey conducted during 2003-2004 (n = 6,312) was used. Main outcome measure: Reporting making routine yearly PDVs as a preventive measure. Education, material wealth index and nutritional status indicated socio-economic position. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of PDVs. A variant of Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis was also conducted. Health insurance coverage was most common among Whites (70%) and least common among black Africans (10.1%) in South Africa. Similarly, a yearly PDV was most frequently reported by Whites (27.8%) and least frequently reported among black Africans (3.1%). Lower education and lower material wealth were associated with lower odds of making PDVs. There was significant interaction between location (urban/rural) and education (p = 0.010). The racial and socio-economic differences in PDVs observed in urban areas were not observed in rural areas. In the general dentate population, having health insurance significantly increased the odds of making PDVs (OR = 4.32; 3.04-6.14) and accounted for 40.3% of the White/non-White gap in the probability of making PDVs. Overall, socio-economic position and health insurance enrollments together accounted for 55.9% (95% CI = 44.9-67.8) of the White/non-White gap in PDVs. Interventions directed at improving both socio-economic position and insurance coverage of non-White South Africans are likely to significantly reduce racial disparities in PDVs.

Ayo-Yusuf IJ; Ayo-Yusuf OA; Olutola BG

2013-01-01

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Longitudinal changes in functional capacity: effects of socio-economic position among ageing adults  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health and functional capacity have improved especially in Western countries over the past few decades. Nevertheless, the positive secular trend has not been able to decrease an uneven distribution of health. The main aim of this study was to follow-up changes in functional capacity among the same people in six years time and to detect whether the possible changes vary according to socio-economic position (SEP). In addition, it is of interest whether health behaviours have an effect on these possible changes. Methods This longitudinal follow-up study consisted of 1,898 individuals from three birth cohorts (1926–1930, 1936–40, 1946–50) who took part in clinical check-ups and answered to a survey questionnaire in 2002 and 2008. A sub-scale of physical functioning from the RAND-36 was used to measure functional capacity. Education and adequacy of income were used as indicators of socio-economic position. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used as a main method of analysis. Results Physical functioning in 2002 and 2008 was poorest among those men and women belonging to the oldest cohort. Functional capacity deteriorated in six years among men in the oldest cohort and among women in all three cohorts. Socio-economic disparities in functional capacity among ageing people existed. Especially lower adequacy of income was most consistently associated with poorer functional capacity. However, changes in functional capacity by socio-economic position remained the same or even narrowed independent of health behaviours. Conclusion Socio-economic disparities in physical functioning are mainly incorporated in the level of functioning at the baseline. No widening socioeconomic disparities in functional capacity exist. Partly these disparities even seem to narrow with ageing.

Sulander Tommi; Heinonen Heikki; Pajunen Tuuli; Karisto Antti; Pohjolainen Pertti; Fogelholm Mikael

2012-01-01

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Health Insurance, Socio-Economic Position and Racial Disparities in Preventive Dental Visits in South Africa  

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Full Text Available This study sought to determine the contributions of socio-economic position and health insurance enrollment in explaining racial disparities in preventive dental visits (PDVs) among South Africans. Data on the dentate adult population participating in the last South African Demographic and Health Survey conducted during 2003–2004 (n = 6,312) was used. Main outcome measure: Reporting making routine yearly PDVs as a preventive measure. Education, material wealth index and nutritional status indicated socio-economic position. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of PDVs. A variant of Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis was also conducted. Health insurance coverage was most common among Whites (70%) and least common among black Africans (10.1%) in South Africa. Similarly, a yearly PDV was most frequently reported by Whites (27.8%) and least frequently reported among black Africans (3.1%). Lower education and lower material wealth were associated with lower odds of making PDVs. There was significant interaction between location (urban/rural) and education (p = 0.010). The racial and socio-economic differences in PDVs observed in urban areas were not observed in rural areas. In the general dentate population, having health insurance significantly increased the odds of making PDVs (OR = 4.32; 3.04–6.14) and accounted for 40.3% of the White/non-White gap in the probability of making PDVs. Overall, socio-economic position and health insurance enrollments together accounted for 55.9% (95% CI = 44.9–67.8) of the White/non-White gap in PDVs. Interventions directed at improving both socio-economic position and insurance coverage of non-White South Africans are likely to significantly reduce racial disparities in PDVs.

Imade J. Ayo-Yusuf; Olalekan A. Ayo-Yusuf; Bukola G. Olutola

2013-01-01

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The measurement of household socio-economic position in tuberculosis prevalence surveys: a sensitivity analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the robustness of socio-economic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys. DESIGN: Data were drawn from the TB prevalence survey conducted in Lusaka Province, Zambia, in 2005-2006. We compared TB socio-economic inequalities measured through an asset-based index (Index 0) using principal component analysis (PCA) with those observed using three alternative indices: Index 1 and Index 2 accounted respectively for the biases resulting from the inclusion of urban assets and food-related variables in Index 0. Index 3 was built using regression-based analysis instead of PCA to account for the effect of using a different assets weighting strategy. RESULTS: Household socio-economic position (SEP) was significantly associated with prevalent TB, regardless of the index used; however, the magnitude of inequalities did vary across indices. A strong association was found for Index 2, suggesting that the exclusion of food-related variables did not reduce the extent of association between SEP and prevalent TB. The weakest association was found for Index 1, indicating that the exclusion of urban assets did not lead to higher extent of TB inequalities. CONCLUSION: TB socio-economic inequalities seem to be robust to the choice of SEP indicator. The epidemiological meaning of the different extent of TB inequalities is unclear. Further studies are needed to confirm our conclusions.

Boccia D; Hargreaves J; Howe LD; De Stavola BL; Fielding K; Ayles H; Godfrey-Faussett P

2013-01-01

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Early life socio-economic position and later alcohol use: birth cohort study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To investigate associations between socio-economic position in early life and later alcohol use and problem use among male and female adolescents. DESIGN: Birth cohort study. SETTING: South West England. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2711 girls and 2379 boys with one or more measures of alcohol use or problem use at age 15 years. MEASUREMENTS: Exposure measures were highest parental social class, maternal education and household disposable income (all maternal self-report before school-age); outcome measures were heavy typical drinking, frequent drinking, regular binge drinking, alcohol-related psychosocial problems and alcohol-related behavioural problems. FINDINGS: Alcohol use and related problems were relatively common amongst adolescent girls and boys. Boys were slightly more likely to report frequent drinking and girls were slightly more likely to drink heavily and to experience alcohol-related psychosocial problems. Higher maternal education appeared protective in relation to alcohol-related problems, particularly among boys. Higher household income was associated with greater risk of alcohol use and problem use, most apparently among girls. CONCLUSIONS: Children from higher-income households in England appear to be at greater risk of some types of adolescent alcohol problems, and these risks appear different in girls compared to boys. Childhood social advantage may not generally be associated with healthier behaviour in adolescence.

Melotti R; Lewis G; Hickman M; Heron J; Araya R; Macleod J

2013-03-01

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Socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors in an Italian rural population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading industrial world cause of mortality. Lower social class groups have higher incidence of CVD and also display less favourable risk factor profiles. To investigate the association and gradient between major cardiovascular risk factors (smoking habit, serum lipid profile, blood pressure, relative body weight) and socio-economic position (proxy measures selected: education and occupation) data on 2592 men and 2866 women were analysed. The effect of potential confounding factors and effect modifiers was estimated. Linear and logistic regression modelling was performed for continuous and dichotomous outcomes respectively. The lower the grade of employment or the level of education, the higher was the prevalence of obesity in the study population. The association was stronger in women than in men. Higher education was associated with a lower prevalence of smoking among men and a higher prevalence among women. Systolic blood pressure was negatively related to socio-economic position in both men and women in the age-adjusted models. Attention should be concentrated on socio-economic differences in obesity and blood pressure in this population. PMID:11855579

Vescio, M F; Smith, G D; Giampaoli, S

2001-01-01

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Adolescent physical activity predicts high education and socio-economic position in adulthood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Based on the knowledge on beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) on health and fitness, we hypothesized that PA in adolescence is related to high education and socio-economic position (SEP) in adulthood. Improved school performance may mediate the hypothesized relationship. METHODS: The Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Surveys (AHLS), collected biennially in 1981-89 (baseline) and representing 14- and 16-year-old Finns were individually linked with national registries of the highest educational level and SEP. Of the sample, 10?498 (78%) responded the surveys and were followed till the end of 2001 (age group of 28-38 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between the outcomes (highest attained educational level, SEP) and PA (sports clubs, spontaneous, intensity). RESULTS: Participating in sports club or spontaneous PA and practicing with high intensity in adolescence were associated with higher educational levels and SEP in adulthood. Childhood socio-economic background only slightly influenced the associations and largely, PA predicted the outcomes independently of background. Particularly among girls, school performance partly accounted for the associations between PA and the highest educational level and the highest SEP. CONCLUSIONS: Participation in PA in adolescence and particularly its high intensity, predicts higher educational levels and SEP in early middle age. School performance to some degree mediates the impact of PA. PA behaviours in adolescence-or possibilities to participate in PA-are a potential mechanism in generating better health of higher socio-economic and educational groups in adult age.

Koivusilta LK; Nupponen H; Rimpelä AH

2012-04-01

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A STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PARENTAL EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS IN MEDICAL COLLEGE BHAVNGAR  

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Full Text Available Carrier selection is one of the important major question in student life. Various factors affects individual’s carrier selection. Among various factors socioeconomic status and parental educational background is most important, which affects student’s carrier selection. More than student’s interest in particular field for higher education he should be affordable for necessary money required as well he should have proper guidance and inspiration for higher education. Primary guidance of students starts at home so if parents are highly qualified in education, student can get good guidance and motivation at home. In present study we tried to evaluate Socio-economic and Parental educational background of Medical students. Study was conducted in first year medical students of Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar. Students were given objective questionnaire regarding information like their native place whether in urban or rural area, income of their parents and educational level of their parents. Data was compiled and analyzed. It was observed that students from good socio-economical and high parental educational background have good chances to get admission in good professional courses. Schools in rural area should be upgraded and this students should provide necessary help and guidance to meet their needs.

Ghuntla Tejas P.; Mehta Hemant B.; Gokhale Pradnya A.; Shah Chinmay J.

2012-01-01

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Early and current socio-economic position and cardiometabolic risk factors in the Indian Migration Study  

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Aims: The aim of this study is to estimate the associations of early and current socio-economic position (SEP) on adult cardiometabolic risk factors in the Indian Migration Study (N?=?7,067). Methods and Results: Linear mixed models were used to estimate associations between early and current SEP and cardiometabolic risk factors: systolic blood pressure (SBP), body fat and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) score. In males, high current SEP was associated with higher SBP. In both genders, high early and current SEP were associated with higher body fat, current SEP dominating the associations. High early SEP was associated with higher HOMA score in males only, and the effect size halved after adjustment for current SEP. High current SEP was associated with higher HOMA score more strongly in males than in females. Conclusion: Higher SEP, more importantly in adulthood than childhood, was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in an Indian population. The relationship between SEP over the life course and urbanization should be considered in the Indian context when public health interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease are planned.

Sovio, Ulla; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Kinra, Sanjay; Bowen, Liza; Dudbridge, Frank; Nitsch, Dorothea; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

2013-01-01

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'How Poor Are You?' - A Comparison of Four Questionnaire Delivery Modes for Assessing Socio-Economic Position in Rural Zimbabwe  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Assessing socio-economic position can be difficult, particularly in developing countries. Collection of socio-economic data usually relies on interviewer-administered questionnaires, but there is little research exploring how questionnaire delivery mode (QDM) influences reporting of these indicators. This paper reports on results of a trial of four QDMs, and the effect of mode on poverty reporting. Methods This trial was nested within a community-randomised trial of an adolescent reproductive health intervention conducted in rural Zimbabwe. Participants were randomly allocated to one of four QDMs (three different self-administered modes and one interviewer-administered mode); a subset was randomly selected to complete the questionnaire twice. Questions covered three socio-economic domains: i) ownership of sellable and fixed assets; ii) ability to afford essential items; and iii) food sufficiency. Statistical analyses assessed the association between QDM and reporting of poverty, and compared the extent of response agreement between questionnaire rounds. Results 96% (n?=?1483) of those eligible took part; 395 completed the questionnaire twice. Reported levels of poverty were high. Respondents using self-administered modes were more likely to report being unable to afford essential items and having insufficient food. Among those completing the questionnaire twice using different modes, higher levels of poverty and food insufficiency were reported when they completed the questionnaire using a self-administered mode. Conclusion These data suggest that QDM plays a significant role in how different socio-economic indicators are reported, and reminds us to consider the mode of collection when identifying indicators to determine socio-economic position.

Pascoe, Sophie J. S.; Hargreaves, James R.; Langhaug, Lisa F.; Hayes, Richard J.; Cowan, Frances M.

2013-01-01

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Direct and proxy recall of childhood socio-economic position and health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The utility of proxy reporting within the life course framework has not been adequately assessed; therefore we sought to assess the magnitude and type of agreement that exists between index and proxy reports for bodyweight, health, and socio-economic position (SEP) in childhood. METHODS: Participants were enrolled as part of an ongoing study of preterm birth in African American women in Metro Detroit. Post-partum women and their mothers (n?=?333 pairs) provided retrospective reports about the woman's childhood bodyweight, health, and SEP. Agreement was assessed using kappa, weighted kappa (?), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Log-linear models were used to describe the pattern of agreement for ordinal data. RESULTS: Birthweight and weight at age 18 was reported with a high level of agreement (ICC?=?0.86 and 0.71, respectively). Kappa indicated moderate agreement for early and late childhood/adolescent weight. Log-linear models suggested that there was diagonal agreement plus linear by linear association for early childhood weight and linear by linear association in late childhood/adolescence. Reports of childhood medical problems and hospitalisations had only moderate agreement. Agreement for SEP in both early (??=?0.14) and late childhood/adolescence (??=?0.20) was poor. Log-linear models suggest a linear by linear association, indicating a positive association between the responses. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that proxy reports may be utilised in conjunction with an index report to provide an estimate of the accuracy of report or to more fully capture experiences over the life course. This may be particularly useful when multiple developmental periods are examined.

Straughen JK; Caldwell CH; Osypuk TL; Helmkamp L; Misra DP

2013-05-01

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Association between religious and socio-economic background of parents of children with solid tumors and DNR orders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The influence of socio-economic and religious background on decisions made by parents of children with incurable cancer regarding DNR orders is not fully understood. PROCEDURE: A retrospective analysis of medical charts of patients who died between January 2000 and January 2011 was performed. The following data were sought: written evidence of DNR discussion with parents, religious background, educational level, monthly income. RESULTS: There was evidence of a discussion on DNR in 73/90 charts. DNR consent was obtained in 14/17 (82.4%) cases where at least one parent had >15 years of education versus in only 24/45 (53.3%) cases where both parents had ?15 years education as determined by univariate analysis (P?=?0.03). DNR consent was also more likely to be obtained among parents of children with income >10,000 NIS (24/30, 80.0% vs. 20/38, 52.6%, P?=?0.013). Parents of Jewish (22/30, 73.3%), Islamic (16/26, 61.5%), and Christian (8/9, 88.9%) background were equally likely to provide DNR consent. However, Druze families were less likely to do so (2/8, 25.0%, P?=?0.036). CONCLUSIONS: The process of decision-making to a DNR request was associated with parents' educational level and monthly family income, and not by religious background, with the exception of Druze families. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hileli I; Weyl Ben Arush M; Hakim F; Postovsky S

2013-08-01

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Variation in supermarket exposure to energy-dense snack foods by socio-economic position.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the availability of energy-dense,nutrient-poor snack foods (and fruits and vegetables) in supermarkets located insocio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged neighbourhoods. DESIGN: Cross-sectional supermarket audit. SETTING: Melbourne, Australia. Measures included product shelf space and number of varieties for soft drinks, crisps, chocolate, confectionery and fruits and vegetables, as well as store size. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five supermarkets (response 83 %) from neighbourhoods in the lowest and highest quintile of socio-economic disadvantage. RESULTS: Shelf space allocated to soft drinks (23?6m v. 17?7m, P50?006), crisps (16?5m v. 13?0m, P50?016), chocolate (12?2m v. 10?1m, P50?022) and confectionery (6?7m v. 5?1m, P50?003) was greater in stores from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. After adjustment for store size (stores in disadvantaged areas being larger), shelf space for confectionery (6?3m v. 5?6m, P50?024) and combined shelf space for all energy-dense foods and drinks (55?0m v. 48?9m, P50?017) remained greater in stores from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. The ratio of shelf space allocated to fruits and vegetables to that for energy-dense snack foods also varied by socio-economic disadvantage after adjustment for store size (most disadvantaged v. least disadvantaged: 1?7 v. 2?1, P50?025). Varieties of fruits and vegetables and chocolate bars were more numerous in less disadvantaged areas (P,0?05). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to energy-dense snack foods and soft drinks in supermarketswas greater in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Thismay impact purchasing, consumption and cultural norms related to eatingbehaviours and may therefore work against elimination of the known socioeconomicgradient in obesity levels. Reform of supermarket stocking practicesmay represent an effective means of obesity prevention.

Cameron AJ; Thornton LE; McNaughton SA; Crawford D

2013-07-01

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Socio-economic change and parent-child relationships: implications for parental control and HIV prevention among young people in rural North Western Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines how socio-economic changes in Tanzania have impacted on parent-child relationships, in particular parental behavioural control over their children and parental influence on young people's sexual behaviour. Data came from participant observation, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with young people (14-24 years) and their parents. Socio-economic changes (education, changes in values, material needs provision) affected parent-young person relationships. Young people contributed to the economic needs of their families and parents receiving or expecting more support from their children exercised less behavioural control (in sexual and non-sexual matters of their children). Parents and young people spent less time together than in earlier generations. Parents reported that they thought their children were more knowledgeable about sexual and reproductive health than they were. As young people received more education and contributed more to their families' economic well being. they emerged as decision-makers in their own right and parental influence waned. Policy interventions addressing sexual and reproductive health among young people should consider family influence on young people as well as the influence of young people on their families and parental authority. Families, and particularly parents, should be supported to respond to the emerging challenges and changes in their families and the wider society. PMID:21424953

Wamoyi, Joyce; Fenwick, Angela; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Stones, William

2011-06-01

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Socio-economic change and parent-child relationships: implications for parental control and HIV prevention among young people in rural North Western Tanzania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines how socio-economic changes in Tanzania have impacted on parent-child relationships, in particular parental behavioural control over their children and parental influence on young people's sexual behaviour. Data came from participant observation, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with young people (14-24 years) and their parents. Socio-economic changes (education, changes in values, material needs provision) affected parent-young person relationships. Young people contributed to the economic needs of their families and parents receiving or expecting more support from their children exercised less behavioural control (in sexual and non-sexual matters of their children). Parents and young people spent less time together than in earlier generations. Parents reported that they thought their children were more knowledgeable about sexual and reproductive health than they were. As young people received more education and contributed more to their families' economic well being. they emerged as decision-makers in their own right and parental influence waned. Policy interventions addressing sexual and reproductive health among young people should consider family influence on young people as well as the influence of young people on their families and parental authority. Families, and particularly parents, should be supported to respond to the emerging challenges and changes in their families and the wider society.

Wamoyi J; Fenwick A; Urassa M; Zaba B; Stones W

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Childhood and adulthood socio-economic position and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Childhood and adulthood socio-economic position (SEP) is associated with cardiovascular disease in later life, but associations with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are not well established. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of childhood and adulthood SEP with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia). METHOD: Study participants were Swedish women (n=9507) from generation 3 of the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study (UBCoS Multigen) who delivered a live singleton offspring between 1982 and 2008. Social and health data were obtained from routine Swedish registers. Associations of own education (adulthood SEP), and parental education and social class (childhood SEP) with hypertensive disorders were studied using logistic regression with adjustments for age, calendar period, parity, smoking and body mass index. RESULTS: Low own education was associated with chronic hypertension, but not with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Increased risk of chronic hypertension was seen in women whose mothers had medium education compared with women whose mothers had high education (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.62). Women from a manual social class during childhood had twice the risk of chronic hypertension compared with those from non-manual backgrounds (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.75). Childhood SEP was not associated with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood and adulthood SEP was associated with chronic hypertension in pregnancy. In contrast, no association with childhood or adulthood SEP was seen for gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia/eclampsia.

Heshmati A; Mishra G; Koupil I

2013-05-01

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Childhood and adulthood socio-economic position and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Childhood and adulthood socio-economic position (SEP) is associated with cardiovascular disease in later life, but associations with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are not well established. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of childhood and adulthood SEP with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia). METHOD: Study participants were Swedish women (n=9507) from generation 3 of the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study (UBCoS Multigen) who delivered a live singleton offspring between 1982 and 2008. Social and health data were obtained from routine Swedish registers. Associations of own education (adulthood SEP), and parental education and social class (childhood SEP) with hypertensive disorders were studied using logistic regression with adjustments for age, calendar period, parity, smoking and body mass index. RESULTS: Low own education was associated with chronic hypertension, but not with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Increased risk of chronic hypertension was seen in women whose mothers had medium education compared with women whose mothers had high education (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.62). Women from a manual social class during childhood had twice the risk of chronic hypertension compared with those from non-manual backgrounds (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.75). Childhood SEP was not associated with gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood and adulthood SEP was associated with chronic hypertension in pregnancy. In contrast, no association with childhood or adulthood SEP was seen for gestational hypertension or pre-eclampsia/eclampsia.

Heshmati A; Mishra G; Koupil I

2013-11-01

23

Comparing the availability, price, variety and quality of fruits and vegetables across retail outlets and by area-level socio-economic position.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether area-level socio-economic position or the form of retail stream (conventional v. farmers' market) is associated with differences in the price, availability, variety and quality of a range of fresh fruit and vegetables. DESIGN: A multi-site cross-sectional pilot study of farmers' markets, supermarkets and independent fruit and vegetable retailers. Each was surveyed to assess the price, availability, variety and quality of fifteen fruit and eighteen vegetable items. SETTING: Retail outlets were located in south-east Queensland. SUBJECTS: Fifteen retail outlets were surveyed (five of each retail stream). RESULTS: Average basket prices were not significantly different across the socio-economic spectrum, but prices in low socio-economic areas were cheapest. Availability, variety and quality did not differ significantly across levels of socio-economic position; however, the areas with the most socio-economic disadvantage scored poorest for quality and variety. Supermarkets had significantly better fruit and vegetable availability than farmers' markets, although price, variety and quality scores were not different across retail streams. Results demonstrate a trend to fruit and vegetable prices being more expensive at farmers' markets, with the price of the fruit basket being significantly greater at the organic farmers' market compared with the non-organic farmers' markets. CONCLUSIONS: Neither area-level socio-economic position nor the form of retail stream was significantly associated with differences in the availability, price, variety and quality of fruit and vegetables, except for availability which was higher in supermarkets than farmers' markets. Further research is needed to determine what role farmers' markets can play in affecting fruit and vegetable intake.

Millichamp A; Gallegos D

2013-01-01

24

Correlation of cancer incidence with diet, smoking and socio- economic position across 22 districts of Tehran in 2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Variation in cancer incidence in geographical locations is due to different lifestyles and risk factors. Diet and socio-economic position (SEP) have been identified as important for the etiology of cancer but patterns are changing and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations of the incidence of common cancers with food groups, total energy, smoking, and SEP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an ecological study, disaggregated cancer data through the National Cancer Registry in Iran (2008) and dietary intake, smoking habits and SEP obtained through a population based survey within the Urban Health Equity Assessment (Urban-HEART) project were correlated across 22 districts of Tehran. RESULTS: Consumption of fruit, meat and dairy products adjusted for energy were positively correlated with bladder, colorectal, prostate and breast and total cancers in men and women, while these cancers were adversely correlated with bread and fat intake. Also prostate, breast, colorectal, bladder and ovarian cancers had a positive correlation with SEP; there was no correlation between SEP and skin cancer in both genders and stomach cancer in men. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of cancer was higher in some regions of Tehran which appeared to be mainly determined by SEP rather than dietary intake. Further individual data are required to investigate reasons of cancer clustering.

Rohani-Rasaf M; Abdollahi M; Jazayeri S; Kalantari N; Asadi-Lari M

2013-01-01

25

Duplicating the success. From positive examples to socio-economic marketing strategies for greater energy efficieny in industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the Project `Inter-disciplinary Analysis of Successful Implementation of Energy Efficiency in Industry, Commerce and Service`. Based on empirical case studies in Germany, Denmark, Austria and Switzerland, the interdisciplinary approach combines techno-economical variables from traditional barrier analyses with new socio-economic and socio-psychological aspects. It is the objective to gain a broader understanding of successful implementation processes in industrial enterprises. The positive examples include energy conservation measures within the context of individual success stories as well as efficiency programmes. The project examines the interdependencies between boundary conditions and the features and dynamics of the internal change processes analysed. It identifies main actors inside and outside of the company, the crucial determinants of their energy related behaviour, and influence factors suitable for energy policy use. The project derives first typical patterns of social innovation and organisational development. Generalizing the findings in order to contribute to holistic policy recommendations, the project puts emphasis on instruments of economic and social marketing strategies to promote cooperative energy efficiency initiatives. (au) 18 refs.

Ramesohl, S. [Wuppertal Inst. for Climate Environment Energy (Germany); Clases, C.; Prose, F. [Christian-Albrechts-Univ. Kiel, Inst.for Psychology (Germany)

1997-11-01

26

The Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Edu Lga of Kwara State Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State is investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180) students randomly selected from three secondary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ health statuses. Diverse statistical tests were performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of the effects on students’ academic performance. Parental socio-economic statuses and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the academic performance of the students. However, the parental educational qualification and health statuses of the students were identified tom have statistical significant effect o the academic performance of the students. The two variables that indicated significant influence do reflect nature of the student’ home environment and played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. Government could intervene to raise level of academic achievement among students in rural area.

Femi Ogunshola; A.M. Adewale

2012-01-01

27

Low socio-economic position is associated with poor social networks and social support: results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks and social support are supposed to contribute to the development of unequal health within populations. However, little is known about their socio-economic distribution. In this study, we explore this distribution. Methods This study analyses the association of two indicators of socio-economic position, education and income, with different measures of social networks and support. Cross-sectional data have been derived from the baseline examination of an epidemiological cohort study of 4.814 middle aged urban inhabitants in Germany (Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out to estimate the risk of having poor social networks and support across socio-economic groups. Results Socially disadvantaged persons more often report poor social networks and social support. In multivariate analyses, based on education, odds ratios range from 1.0 (highest education) to 4.9 (lowest education) in a graded way. Findings based on income show similar effects, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5. There is one exception: no association of SEP with close ties living nearby and regularly seen was observed. Conclusion Poor social networks and low social support are more frequent among socio-economically disadvantaged people. To some extent, this finding varies according to the indicator chosen to measure these social constructs.

Weyers Simone; Dragano Nico; Möbus Susanne; Beck Eva-Maria; Stang Andreas; Möhlenkamp Stephan; Jöckel Karl; Erbel Raimund; Siegrist Johannes

2008-01-01

28

Making sense of eating, weight and risk in the early teenage years: views and concerns of parents in poorer socio-economic circumstances.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports findings from a qualitative study which examined the perceptions and understandings underpinning the dietary practices in families with 'normal' weight and 'overweight' young teenagers living in poorer socio-economic circumstances. Thirty four parents/main food providers of boys and girls aged 13-14 years from socio-economically disadvantaged areas in Eastern Scotland were interviewed. Within the home there was a strong acknowledgement of these early teenagers' own food preferences; parents also saw them as having increasing responsibility for their own food choices outwith the home but these were often described as 'not healthy' choices. However, parents saw dietary issues as of fairly low priority in the hierarchy of health-relevant and other risks facing their teenagers. Equally, these interviewees felt that issues around body shape and size at this age were less potentially problematic than the risks to teenagers' mental or physical health of their becoming obsessed with weight loss. Parents often made sense of their teenager's body size and shape in terms of the variety of body types in families and inherited traits. Interviewees seemed to lack a discourse to understand weight and overweight in this age group, falling back on understandings derived from the adult lifestage.

Backett-Milburn KC; Wills WJ; Gregory S; Lawton J

2006-08-01

29

Socio-economic position and adolescents’ health in Italy: the role of selfesteem and self-efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: To underline the importance of self-esteem and self-efficacy as aspects of health promotion, we investigated the hypothesis that self-esteem and self-efficacy mediate the effect of socio-economic position on adolescents’ health. This association has been confirmed by our data.Methods: Data derive from the international Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, 2001- 02 edition: a representative sample of Italian children (age groups of 11, 13 and 15years, N=4386) was administered a questionnaire at school. We tested with a multivariate model the effect of economic wellbeing on health and behavioural outcomes, first excluding, and then including, self-esteem and self-efficacy among the determinants.Results: Perceiving poorer health, not eating enough fruits and vegetables and doing too little physical activity are conditions affected by economic well-being (O.R. of best-off to worst-off are 0.65, 0.83 and 0.46, all statistically significant), while smoking habit is not affected. Including self-esteem and self-efficacy into the model significantly lowers, or annihilates, the effect of economic conditions on these outcomes.Conclusions: Economic well-being affects adolescents’ health (perceived health and health behaviours) in Italy, but it is reasonable to hypothesize that self-esteem and self-efficacy are among the mediators of this effect. Targeted interventions aimed at enhancing self-esteem and self-efficacy could therefore help in mitigating the effect of health inequalities.

Alessio Zambon; Patrizia Lemma; Paola Dalmasso; Alberto Borraccino; Franco Cavallo

2007-01-01

30

Is parental socio-economic status related to the initiation of substance abuse by young people in an English city? An event history analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper aims to examine the relationship between parental socio-economic status (SES) and adolescent substance use. The central question posed in the title is approached in two stages. First, theoretical and empirical research in this area is reviewed. Second, data from an ongoing longitudinal study of young people in England (the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study--PADS+) are used to highlight the nature of this relationship in one city. Results from discrete-time event history analyses show that when examining what predicts initiation of substance use, familial and demographic factors emerge as important predictors, but SES does not appear to be relevant. The concluding discussion focuses on whether support is found for hypotheses derived from the existing literature and implications for future research.

Sutherland A

2012-04-01

31

Is parental socio-economic status related to the initiation of substance abuse by young people in an English city? An event history analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper aims to examine the relationship between parental socio-economic status (SES) and adolescent substance use. The central question posed in the title is approached in two stages. First, theoretical and empirical research in this area is reviewed. Second, data from an ongoing longitudinal study of young people in England (the Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study--PADS+) are used to highlight the nature of this relationship in one city. Results from discrete-time event history analyses show that when examining what predicts initiation of substance use, familial and demographic factors emerge as important predictors, but SES does not appear to be relevant. The concluding discussion focuses on whether support is found for hypotheses derived from the existing literature and implications for future research. PMID:22361091

Sutherland, Alex

2012-01-30

32

Childhood socio-economic position and risk of coronary heart disease in middle age: a study of 49,321 male conscripts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Poor social circumstances in childhood are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In previous studies, social circumstances and risk factors in adulthood have been suggested to explain this association. In the present study, we included potential explanatory factors from childhood and adolescence. METHODS: We investigated the association between childhood socio-economic position (SEP) and CHD in middle age among 49,321 Swedish males, born during 1949-51, who were conscripted for military service at 18-20 years of age. Register-based data on childhood social circumstances, educational attainment and occupational class in adulthood were used in combination with information on cognitive ability, smoking, body mass index and body height in late adolescence obtained from a compulsory conscription examination. Incidence of CHD from 1991 to 2007 (between 40 and 58 years of age) was followed in national registers. RESULTS: We demonstrated an inverse association between childhood SEP and CHD in middle age: among men with the lowest childhood SEP the crude hazard ratio of CHD was 1.47 (95% CI = 1.30-1.67). Adjustment for crowded housing in childhood, body height, cognitive ability, smoking and BMI in late adolescence attenuated relative risks of CHD considerably. Additional adjustment for educational level had a further, although limited, attenuating effect on associations, but additional adjustment for occupational class had no such effect. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that social, cognitive and behavioural factors evident prior to adulthood may be of greater importance in explaining the association between childhood SEP and CHD later in life than socio-economic indicators in adulthood.

Falkstedt D; Lundberg I; Hemmingsson T

2011-12-01

33

Socio-economic impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of an electric generating station may have socio-economic effects upon the community in which it is located. Among the possible effects during construction are changes in population leading to strains in housing, schools, employment, transportation, and increased demands on local government services. The scale of the effects varies according to the population base of the county in which the plant is located and the distance of the site from major metropolitan areas. Increased demands for county and municipal public services also vary during the construction period. In some instances the increased cost of public services can result in large budget deficits at both the county and municipal level as construction period revenue increases fail to keep pace with service costs. In the study case of potential Eastern Shore power plant sites, annual municipal budget deficits were estimated to range from 3 to 21% for nuclear plant construction. The same study projected the largest county deficit at 4%, with other counties experiencing revenues and expenditures which were essentially in balance. After a new plant starts operation, the tax revenue to county government is on the order of several million dollars per year or greater depending on plant size and local tax rates, and the service costs are small

1978-01-01

34

Gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents: socio-economic and behavioral correlates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents and its association with selected socio-economic indicators and oral-health-related behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 9,163 Chilean adolescents obtained using multistage random cluster procedures. Clinical recordings included information on missing teeth and the participants provided information on socio-demographic factors and oral-related behaviors. Two eruption-time-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between gender, tooth loss and socio-economic position/oral-health-related behaviors. RESULTS: The association between gender and tooth loss remained after adjusting for age, eruption times in both the socio-economic position regression model and the oral-health-related behaviors model. Tooth loss followed social gradients for the variables paternal income and achieved parental education, with students reporting a paternal income

López, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

2006-01-01

35

[Education and occupational social class: their relationship as indicators of socio-economic position to study social inequalities in health using health interview surveys].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim. To analyse the relationship between social class based on occupation and level of education in the study of social inequalities in health and use of health services.Dessign. Cross-sectional study (health interview survey).Setting. General population of the city of Cornellà de Llobregat (Spain).Participants. Representative sample of subjects aged 14 years old or over (1043 men and 1101 women) who personally answered the questionnaire.Measurements. We analyse the association between social class and level of studies and different independent variables (self-perceived health, smoking, medical visits) by means of logistic regression.Results. The proportion of men who declare their self-perceived health as poor is higher among those who have low education (45.4%) than among those who have primary education level or higher (25.9%). The prevalence of smoking shows a similar pattern (54.2% versus 41.5%), with a gradient effect, which is statistically non-significant. However, these differences are no longer evident if social class is used to group the individuals. No clear association is observed between the use of health services and socio economic level.Conclusions. We need to use several indicators of socioeconomic position to evaluate social inequalities In this disadvantaged population, level of education seems to be a good indicator to study social inequalities in health.

Coma A; Martí M; Fernández E

2003-09-01

36

Age-period-cohort projections of ischaemic heart disease mortality by socio-economic position in a rapidly transitioning Chinese population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong. METHODS: Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups) to 2020 in Hong Kong using Poisson age-period-cohort models with autoregressive priors. RESULTS: In the low-income group, age-standardized IHD mortality rates among women declined from 33.3 deaths in 1976-1980 to 19.7 per 100,000 in 2016-2020 (from 55.5 deaths to 34.2 per 100,000 among men). The rates in the high-income group were initially higher in both sexes, particularly among men, but this had reversed by the end of the study periods. The rates declined faster for the high-income group than for the low-income group in both sexes. The rates were projected to decline faster in the high-income group, such that by the end of the projection period the high-income group would have lower IHD mortality rates, particularly for women. Birth cohort effects varied with sex, with a marked upturn in IHD mortality around 1945, i.e., for the first generation of men to grow up in a more economically developed environment. There was no such upturn in women. Birth cohort effects were the main drivers of change in IHD mortality rates. CONCLUSION: IHD mortality rates are declining in Hong Kong and are projected to continue to do so, even taking into account greater vulnerability for the first generation of men born into a more developed environment. At the same time social disparities in IHD have reversed and are widening, partly as a result of a cohort effect, with corresponding implications for prevention.

Wong IO; Cowling BJ; Leung GM; Schooling CM

2013-01-01

37

Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in school aged children: the role of personal and parents related socio-economic and educational factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Urmia, Iran children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem. METHODS: A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children (7-11 years old) from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method. Chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. FINDINGS: Of the 1600 questionnaires distributed, 918 (57%) were completed and included in the final analysis. The rest, which were not filled by parents and also those out of our study age range were excluded. Gender of the subjects was almost equally distributed (48.6% males and 51.4% females). Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% (n = 172) and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% (n=51). There was no significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, jobless father, working mother, single parent, poor school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection (UTI). CONCLUSION: Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found that Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.

Hashem M; Morteza A; Mohammad K; Ahmad-Ali N

2013-02-01

38

Predictors of Obesity Among Metis Children: Socio-economic, Behavioural and Cultural Factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the socio-economic, behavioural and Métis-specific factors that predict obesity among Métis children aged 6 to 14 years. Socio-economic factors included household structure and income, parental education and food insecurity. Cultural factors included knowledge of an Aboriginal language, participation in cultural activities, time spent with Elders and parental residential school attendance. METHODS: The 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, Children and Youth component collected data about Métis children, including child height and weight, reported by the person most knowledgeable about the child (PMK). Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to predict obesity, defined using IOTF BMI cut-offs. After testing for interactions, models were stratified by age (6-10, 11-14) and gender. RESULTS: An estimated 18.5% of Métis boys and 14.4% of girls were obese. The effects of socio-economic factors and region varied across age and gender groups, although living in a lone-parent family and rural residence had consistent effects. Many effects of cultural variables were unexpected. Although PMK residential schooling was positively associated with obesity generally, the effects were negative among older girls. As expected, children participating in frequent physical activity generally had lower risk, independent of other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Although socio-economic factors are related to risk of obesity among Métis children, the effects may not be the same across age groups and for boys and girls. There is some evidence of independent effects of Métis-specific cultural factors, including parental residential schooling, on the risk of child obesity, but further investigation and better data are needed to understand these relationships.

Cooke MJ; Wilk P; Paul KW; Gonneville SL

2013-01-01

39

Socio-economic and occupational determinants of work injury absence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Measures of socio-economic position, such as education, occupational class and income, are well-known determinants of ill-health, injury and sickness absence. The aim was to analyse socio-economic and occupational determinants of work injury absence and their contribution to overall socio-economic inequalities in all-cause sickness absence. METHODS: A register-based follow-up study included municipal employees of the City of Helsinki aged 25-59 years in 2004. The number of participants was 16,471 women and 5033 men. The mean follow-up time was 3.0 years. Education, occupational class and individual income were used as measures of socio-economic position. The main outcome was medically confirmed work injury and all-cause sickness absence of ?4 days. Inequality indices were calculated using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: High education, occupational class and individual income were consistently associated with lower work injury absence among both women and men. The inequalities in work injury absence were larger than in all-cause sickness absence, especially among men, but the contribution to overall socio-economic inequalities was limited. Among women, bus drivers, cooks and hospital attendants had the highest rates of work injuries. Among men, youth mentors, firemen and janitors had the highest rates. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that relative socio-economic inequalities in work injury absence are larger than in all-cause sickness absence. Prevention of work injuries provides a source of reducing socio-economic inequalities in health, but their effect is not very large. Prevention of work injuries should be targeted to lower white-collar and manual workers and vulnerable occupations.

Piha K; Laaksonen M; Martikainen P; Rahkonen O; Lahelma E

2013-08-01

40

Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Socio-economic impact in CKD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Socio-economic status (SES) may be conceptualized as an individual's position in society, as determined by their income, occupation, education, wealth, and housing situation. This review summarizes the current literature regarding associations of these markers of SES with both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated poor outcomes. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in the US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, PubMed database using the search terms "chronic kidney disease" and "chronic renal insufficiency," combined with "socio-economic status," "income," "occupation," "employment," "education," "social class," "wealth," and "housing." Articles not in the English language, using non-human subjects, or primarily concerning subjects with ESRD or acute kidney injury were excluded. RESULTS: Income is the most-studied aspect of SES in relation to CKD, but there is increasing literature involving occupation and education as well. Additionally, the associations of CKD and its outcomes with area-level and life course SES are both burgeoning areas of research. There are several research areas that remain mostly unexplored, including the roles of wealth and housing in defining SES-related risk in CKD. Additionally, none have explored the relative utility of composite versus individual indicators of SES in predicting risk of CKD and outcomes. CONCLUSION: Given the overwhelming evidence that SES plays an important role in the development and progression of disease, the development and testing of more targeted interventions should be a top priority in CKD research. Continuing examination of these factors, with increased rigor and focus on potentially modifiable intermediate pathways, is needed.

Plantinga LC

2013-01-01

42

Dietary patterns in UK adolescents obtained from a dual-source FFQ and their associations with socio-economic position, nutrient intake and modes of eating.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To derive dietary patterns using principal components analysis from separate FFQ completed by mothers and their teenagers and to assess associations with nutrient intakes and sociodemographic variables. DESIGN: Two distinct FFQ were completed by 13-year-olds and their mothers, with some overlap in the foods covered. A combined data set was obtained. SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK. SUBJECTS: Teenagers (n 5334) with adequate dietary data. RESULTS: Four patterns were obtained using principal components analysis: a 'Traditional/health-conscious' pattern, a 'Processed' pattern, a 'Snacks/sugared drinks' pattern and a 'Vegetarian' pattern. The 'Traditional/health-conscious' pattern was the most nutrient-rich, having high positive correlations with many nutrients. The 'Processed' and 'Snacks/sugared drinks' patterns showed little association with important nutrients but were positively associated with energy, fats and sugars. There were clear gender and sociodemographic differences across the patterns. Lower scores were seen on the 'Traditional/health conscious' and 'Vegetarian' patterns in males and in those with younger and less educated mothers. Higher scores were seen on the 'Traditional/health-conscious' and 'Vegetarian' patterns in girls and in those whose mothers had higher levels of education. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to establish healthy eating patterns by the teenage years. However, this is a time when it is difficult to accurately establish dietary intake from a single source, since teenagers consume increasing amounts of foods outside the home. Further dietary pattern studies should focus on teenagers and the source of dietary data collection merits consideration.

Northstone K; Smith AD; Cribb VL; Emmett PM

2013-06-01

43

Dietary patterns in UK adolescents obtained from a dual-source FFQ and their associations with socio-economic position, nutrient intake and modes of eating.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To derive dietary patterns using principal components analysis from separate FFQ completed by mothers and their teenagers and to assess associations with nutrient intakes and sociodemographic variables. DESIGN: Two distinct FFQ were completed by 13-year-olds and their mothers, with some overlap in the foods covered. A combined data set was obtained. SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Bristol, UK. SUBJECTS: Teenagers (n 5334) with adequate dietary data. RESULTS: Four patterns were obtained using principal components analysis: a 'Traditional/health-conscious' pattern, a 'Processed' pattern, a 'Snacks/sugared drinks' pattern and a 'Vegetarian' pattern. The 'Traditional/health-conscious' pattern was the most nutrient-rich, having high positive correlations with many nutrients. The 'Processed' and 'Snacks/sugared drinks' patterns showed little association with important nutrients but were positively associated with energy, fats and sugars. There were clear gender and sociodemographic differences across the patterns. Lower scores were seen on the 'Traditional/health conscious' and 'Vegetarian' patterns in males and in those with younger and less educated mothers. Higher scores were seen on the 'Traditional/health-conscious' and 'Vegetarian' patterns in girls and in those whose mothers had higher levels of education. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to establish healthy eating patterns by the teenage years. However, this is a time when it is difficult to accurately establish dietary intake from a single source, since teenagers consume increasing amounts of foods outside the home. Further dietary pattern studies should focus on teenagers and the source of dietary data collection merits consideration. PMID:23782861

Northstone, Kate; Smith, Andrew Dac; Cribb, Victoria L; Emmett, Pauline M

2013-06-20

44

When love hurts: Assessing the intersectionality of ethnicity, socio-economic status, parental connectedness, child abuse, and gender attitudes in juvenile violent delinquency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Researchers have not yet reached agreement about the validity of several competing explanations that seek to explain ethnic differences in juvenile violent offending. Ethnicity cannot solely explain why boys with an ethnic minority background commit more (violent) crimes. By assessing the intersectionality of structural, cultural and individual considerations, both the independent effects as well as the interplay between different factors can be examined. This study shows that aforementioned factors cumulatively play a role in severe violent offending, with parental connectedness and child abuse having the strongest associations. However, since most variables interact and ethnicity is associated with those specific factors, a conclusion to be drawn is that ethnicity may be relevant as an additional variable predicting severe violent offending although indirectly.

Lahlah E; Lens KM; Bogaerts S; van der Knaap LM

2013-08-01

45

Socio-economic mortality differentials in Ireland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

using the standard methodology which has been extensively applied in other countries. This involves relating data on deaths by socio-economic group, gathered at time of death, to the total population in each group...

Nolan, Brian

46

Time trends in socio-economic factors and risk of hospitalisation with infectious diseases in pre-school children 1985-2004 : a Danish register-based study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper respiratory, lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, ear and fever infections. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Children of parents on sick leave or early retirement had an increased risk of being hospitalised with an infection compared with children of employed parents. A clear inverse educational gradient in risk of offspring hospitalisation was also found. From 1985 to 2004 the inverse associations between parental education and risk of hospitalisation grew stronger, whereas the comparatively weaker association between household income and risk of offspring hospitalisation decreased in magnitude. The association between socio-economic status and hospitalisation was strongest for lower respiratory, gastrointestinal and ear infections. This study documented a socially patterned hospitalisation of pre-school children in Denmark. Future studies should investigate possible explanations for the increased risk among children from families with low socio-economic status.

Biering-SØrensen, Sofie; SØndergaard, Grethe

2012-01-01

47

THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the socio economic lives of people. It was found out that the activities of microfinance institutions resulted in increased social interaction and socio economic sustainability.

MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA; FUNGAI B. GOMBARUME; KOSMAS NJANIKE; ANXIOUS CHARIKINYA

2011-01-01

48

Understanding Suicide : A Socio-Economic Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis uses a panel of Swedish counties over the years 1976-2007 to investigate the relationship between suicide and a range of socio-economic determinants. Moreover, the thesis is combining sociology and economics in order to understand the part of suicide that can be considered as rational. I...

Jasmin, Jusufbegovic; Johan, Ottoson

49

Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that most of the sampled NHIS patrons and non patrons were literate, engaged in meaningful employment, mostly married with average income, and were still in their active ages, and demonstrated meaningful exposure to insurance health information, which enable them to be or not to be active participants of the scheme. From the regression analysis, it was evident that all the variables except religion influenced insurance consumption positively whereas religion affects health insurance consumption negatively. Based on this, we recommended among other things, a re-alignment of health insurance marketing strategies with consumers socio-economic and demographic characteristics, as a measure to boost patronage.Key words: Socio-Economic; Demographic; Health insurance; Consumption

Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

2012-01-01

50

ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises' reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations. PMID:24045170

Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

2013-09-14

51

ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises' reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations.

Ongondo FO; Williams ID; Dietrich J; Carroll C

2013-09-01

52

Socio-economic utility and chemical potential  

CERN Document Server

In statistical physics, the conservation of particle number results in the equalization of the chemical potential throughout a system at equilibrium. In contrast, the homogeneity of utility in socio-economic models is usually thought to rely on the competition between individuals, leading to Nash equilibrium. We show that both views can be reconciled by introducing a notion of chemical potential in a wide class of socio-economic models, and by relating it in a direct way to the equilibrium value of the utility. This approach also allows the dependence of utility across the system to be determined when agents take decisions in a probabilistic way. Numerical simulations of a urban economic model also suggest that our result is valid beyond the initially considered class of solvable models.

Lemoy, Rémi; Jensen, Pablo

2010-01-01

53

Sunshine coast TSA socio-economic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sunshine Coast Timber Supply Area covers 1.12 million hectares in the Vancouver Forest Region. This document is one of the technical papers prepared for the Area`s timber supply review, and offers information on timber supply alternatives and their socio-economic implications. The document first profiles the Area, including its environmental setting, population, labor force, communities, forest sector and other local industry, and First Nations. It then reviews the current status of timber supplies in the Area, including the current forest management guidelines and allowable annual cut, and describes timber harvest forecasts under three scenarios. The final sections of the document analyze the socio-economic impacts on the Area, its First Nations, and the province of the timber harvest under the three scenarios. Appendices include a glossary and descriptions of the impact analysis methodologies.

NONE

1995-12-31

54

The socio-economics of asthma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Is it healthy to be wealthy? The answer to this simple but provocative question can be found in a wide variety of published studies, which evaluate the socio-economic equity of healthcare and the socio-economic impact of diseases. Studies have focused on avoidable mortality, race and ethnicity, environment and access to healthcare services, and many found supporting facts of the above thesis, mostly based on cardiovascular diseases. But what about asthma? Additional factors such as risk behaviours e.g. smoking, excessive use of beta-agonists or general non-compliance with asthma medication have been investigated and found to be contributing to adverse health outcomes. Prevalence and incidence of asthma is higher in people with high socio-economic status (SES), but disease severity and premature mortality is more than twice as common in populations with low SES. The key to reduce the large socio-economic impact is, therefore, to improve the management of patients with more severe diseases. Because those patients are found more often in low SES groups, new approaches such as community disease management programmes, probably provided by a multi-disciplinary care team, have to be established. Current financial incentives within the largely sectored healthcare system are counterproductive. Furthermore, a better co-ordination of the goals of public healthcare experts with those providing individual 'clinical' healthcare is needed. Clearly communicated healthcare goals are needed to create common incentives and shared visions. Cornerstones of the new disease management efforts are co-ordinated care, high quality innovative medicines and a well-educated patient. This might help improve the implementation of current asthma management knowledge into practice.

Volmer T

2001-01-01

55

Socio-economic experiences of leprosy patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

225 adult leprosy patients were interviewed to study their socio-economic experiences, about various aspects of their lives. It was observed that 17.34%, 14.33% and 45.78% of patients experienced negative reactions from their families, spouses and society members, respectively. Out of 79 unmarried patients, 53 (67.1%) attributed leprosy as the only reason for not getting a partner for marriage. Out of 146 married patients, 34 (23.3%) were not living with their spouses; this also included 9 (6.2%) patients, deserted by their partners. Leprosy uprooted 44 (13.55%) patients from their residences, of whom 27 settled in leprosy village/settlement. The occupational status of 104 (46.22%) patients was adversely affected due to leprosy, of whom 43 became dependents and 17 beggars. Monthly income of 115 (51.1%) patients reduced to the extent of 84%, after getting leprosy. The social prejudice and deformities due to leprosy, have played key roles in socio-economic deterioration of patients. The leprosy control programme (LCP) need to be implemented more efficiently and effectively, with active involvement of communities. The socio-medical units, if included in LCP, may be utilized more effectively to prevent the socio-economic dehabilitation of patients, as well to tackle the abnormal psycholygical behaviours of patients. PMID:6632786

Kumar, A; Anbalagan, M

1983-04-01

56

Socio-economic experiences of leprosy patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

225 adult leprosy patients were interviewed to study their socio-economic experiences, about various aspects of their lives. It was observed that 17.34%, 14.33% and 45.78% of patients experienced negative reactions from their families, spouses and society members, respectively. Out of 79 unmarried patients, 53 (67.1%) attributed leprosy as the only reason for not getting a partner for marriage. Out of 146 married patients, 34 (23.3%) were not living with their spouses; this also included 9 (6.2%) patients, deserted by their partners. Leprosy uprooted 44 (13.55%) patients from their residences, of whom 27 settled in leprosy village/settlement. The occupational status of 104 (46.22%) patients was adversely affected due to leprosy, of whom 43 became dependents and 17 beggars. Monthly income of 115 (51.1%) patients reduced to the extent of 84%, after getting leprosy. The social prejudice and deformities due to leprosy, have played key roles in socio-economic deterioration of patients. The leprosy control programme (LCP) need to be implemented more efficiently and effectively, with active involvement of communities. The socio-medical units, if included in LCP, may be utilized more effectively to prevent the socio-economic dehabilitation of patients, as well to tackle the abnormal psycholygical behaviours of patients.

Kumar A; Anbalagan M

1983-04-01

57

'Faking til you make it': social capital accumulation of individuals on low incomes living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods and its implications for health and wellbeing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

People on low-income living in low socio-economic neighbourhoods have poorer health in comparison with those living in advantaged neighbourhoods. To explore neighbourhood effects on health and social capital creation, the experiences of low-income people living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods were compared, in order to examine how low-income status and differing levels of neighbourhood resources contributed to perceived health and wellbeing. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed: survey data from 601 individuals living in contrasting socio-economic areas and in-depth interviews with a new sample of 24 individuals on low-incomes. The study was guided by Bourdieu's theory of practice, which examines how social inequalities are created and reproduced through the relationship between individuals' varying resources of economic, social and cultural capital. This included an examination of individual life histories, cultural distinction and how social positions are reproduced. Participants' accounts of their early life experience showed how parental socio-economic position and socially patterned events taking place across the life course, created different opportunities for social network creation, choice of neighbourhood and levels of resources available throughout life, all of which can influence health and wellbeing. A definition of poverty by whether an individual or household has sufficient income at a particular point in time was an inadequate measure of disadvantage. This static measure of 'low income' as a category disguised a number of different ways in which disadvantage was experienced or, conversely, how life course events could mitigate the impact of low-income. This study found that the resources necessary to create social capital such as cultural capital and the ability to socially network, differed according to the socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, and that living in an advantaged area does not automatically guarantee access to potentially beneficial social networks.

Browne-Yung K; Ziersch A; Baum F

2013-05-01

58

Validity of two simple measures for estimating life-course socio-economic position in cross-sectional postal survey data in an older population: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since few cohorts encompass the whole life-course, many studies that measure socio-economic position (SEP) across the life-course rely on participant recall of SEP measures from cross-sectional postal or interview surveys. It is also particularly important that SEP measures should be appropriate for the age of the population studied, as the level of missing data has been shown to increase in older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of recall of two SEP measures in older adults, age left school and longest job, by examining their validity in a general population postal survey in North Staffordshire, UK. Methods Sets of questions on education and longest job were included in a questionnaire at different stages of the study. All patients aged 50+ registered with three general practices were sent a baseline Health Questionnaire. 6?years later, 3410 responders were mailed a follow-up Health Questionnaire; a sub-sample of these participants took part in independent qualitative interviews. Validity was assessed by: percentage completion; internal percentage agreement within each set of questions; percentage agreement of qualitative and quantitative data for age left school and longest job; comparing recall of age left school with historical change in legal school leaving age; comparing frequency of pottery job titles with those in 1981 Census data for Stoke-on-Trent. Results The adjusted response to different stages of the study was 71–85%. Completion of questions was 83–98%. Internal agreement was 84–97% (education) and 95–100% (longest job). Comparison of survey and interview data showed 86% agreement (± 1?year) for age left school and 91% agreement for longest job. The change in age left school data concurred with the historical shift in legal school leaving age. 11% of job titles were pottery in NorStOP data and 15% in Stoke-on-Trent Census data. Conclusions The results from this study provide evidence for the accuracy of recall of two simple measures of SEP (age left school and longest job) in a postal survey of older adults. Consistency with evidence from external datasets indicated the potential validity of these measures for studying life-course SEP in population surveys.

Lacey Rosie J; Belcher John; Croft Peter R

2012-01-01

59

Indicators of socio-economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Work elaborates indicators witch refers to socio - economic development. In the first part of work it is stated indicators which different authors are used. These indicators are used in empirical researches and in some sources there are theoretically treated. In the second part it is with the aid of induction method performed separation of indicators. It is elaborated economics, social, technological and indicators of urbanization. In the part of economical indicators are elaborated: national income per capita, structure of activities, level of expending.

Adamovi? Jelka M.

2002-01-01

60

Fraser tsa socio-economic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses the impacts of three harvest forecasts within a multiple account framework that focuses attention on a range of values derived from the forest resource and recognizes that a number of factors may need to be considered when examining options for forest land management. The implications of the harvest forests are evaluated on the regional level for economic development, community, and aboriginal concerns, and on the provincial level for economic development, environmental implications, and government revenues. The document also describes the current timber supply situation and current forest management guidelines and gives a socio-economic profile of the area.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Socio-economic differences in takeaway food consumption among adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine socio-economic differences in the frequency and types of takeaway foods consumed. DESIGN: A cross-sectional postal survey. SETTING: Participants were asked about their usual consumption of overall takeaway food (<4 times/month or ?4 times/month) and of twenty-two specific takeaway food items (<1 time/month or ?1 time/month); these latter foods were grouped into 'healthy' and 'less healthy' choices. Socio-economic position was measured on the basis of educational level and equivalised household income, and differences in takeaway food consumption were assessed by calculating prevalence ratios using log binomial regression. SUBJECTS: Adults aged 25-64 years from Brisbane, Australia, were randomly selected from the electoral roll (n 903; 63·7 % response rate). RESULTS: Compared with their more educated counterparts, the least educated were more regular consumers of overall takeaway food and fruit or vegetable juice and less regular consumers of sushi. For the 'less healthy' items, the least educated more regularly consumed potato chips, savoury pies, fried chicken and non-diet soft drinks; however, the least educated were less likely to consume curry. Household income was not associated with overall takeaway consumption. The lowest-income group was a more regular consumer of fruit or vegetable juice compared with the highest-income group. Among the 'less healthy' items, the lowest-income group was a more regular consumer of fried fish, ice cream and milk shakes, whereas curry was consumed less regularly. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and types of takeaway foods consumed by socio-economically disadvantaged groups may contribute to inequalities in overweight or obesity and to chronic disease.

Miura K; Giskes K; Turrell G

2012-02-01

62

Socio-economic expenditure impacts report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs.

NONE

2004-05-01

63

Socio-economic expenditure impacts report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

2004-01-01

64

The socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english South African National Parks (SANParks) plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park, name (more) ly Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor's survey (156 respondents), a community survey (132 respondents) and a business survey (11 respondents). We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.

Oberholzer, Susan; Saayman, Melville; Saayman, Andrea; Slabbert, Elmarie

2010-01-01

65

The role of cognitive ability in socio-economic inequalities in oral health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies have postulated a role for cognitive ability in socio-economic inequalities in general health. This role has not been examined for oral health inequalities. We examined whether cognitive ability was associated with oral health, and whether it influenced the relationship between oral health and socio-economic position. Data were from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), for participants aged 20-59 years. Oral health was indicated by extent of gingival bleeding, extent of loss of periodontal attachment, and tooth loss. Simple reaction time test, symbol digit substitution test, and serial digit learning test indicated cognitive ability. Education and poverty-income ratio were used as markers of socio-economic position. Participants with poorer cognitive ability had poorer oral health for all indicators. The association between oral health and socio-economic position attenuated after adjustment for cognitive ability. Cognitive ability explained part, but not all, of the socio-economic inequalities in oral health.

Sabbah W; Watt RG; Sheiham A; Tsakos G

2009-04-01

66

Socio-economic disadvantage and delusional-like experiences: a nationwide population-based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Delusional-like experiences (DLE) have been associated with low income, suggesting that more broadly defined socio-economic disadvantage may be associated with these experiences. We had the opportunity to explore the association between DLE and both individual- and area-level measures of socio-economic disadvantage. METHOD: Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLE, common psychiatric disorders, and physical disorders. Individual-level and area-level socio-economic disadvantage measures were available based on variables including income, educational attainment, employment status, and housing. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. RESULTS: Of the 8773 subjects, 8.4% (n=776) positively endorsed one or more DLE. DLE screen items were more likely to be endorsed by those who were (a) younger, (b) never married, or widowed, separated or divorced status, (c) migrants, or (d) living in rented houses. There were significant associations between socio-economic disadvantage and increased DLE endorsement, and this was found for both individual-level and area-level measures of socio-economic disadvantage. In general, the associations remained significant after adjusting for a range of potential confounding factors and in planned sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: DLE are associated with socio-economic disadvantage in the general population. We speculate that the link between socio-economic disadvantage and DLE may be mediated by psychosocial stress and general psychological distress.

Saha S; Scott JG; Varghese D; McGrath JJ

2013-01-01

67

Inter-state Disparities in Socio-economic Development in North East Region of India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of development of north east region has been estimated with the help of composite index based on optimum combination of socio-economic indicators. The state-wise data for the year 2006 on forty eight indicators were used for seven states (seven sisters) of the north east region of India. Fifteen indicators are directly concerned with agricultural development, nine indicators are directly concerned with livestock development, twelve indicators are concern with socio-economic development and the rest twelve indicators describe the level of development in infrastructural service sector. The level of development has been separately estimated for agricultural, livestock, infrastructure and overall socio-economic field. In case of socio-economic development, the Assam has been ranked first and Meghalaya is ranked last. Wide disparities were obtained in the level of development among different states. Positive Significant association is found between the Agriculture and Infrastructure fields. Literacy rate is also influencing the level of development in the positive direction. But the level of education, provision of health services, banking facilities, transport and communication system did not significantly influence the agricultural development. North eastern states require improvements of various dimensions in some of the indicators for enhancing the level of overall socio-economic development for unified balanced integration of curative, preventive and promotional health services.

Amod Sharma

2012-01-01

68

Socio-economic aspects of commuting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper contemplates on relevant socio-economic factors which have influence on variability of the scope and directions of commuting flows, with special emphasis on situation in Serbia. Due to the need for balance between work and family life, this specific form of population’s mobility often represents alternative for migration. It also has numerous implications on both commuters and their households, places of residence and work and society in general. Effects of sex, marital status, education, occupation, size and structure of a household, as well as local community onto participation in commuting and time/distance of traveling to work have been discussed. The results revealed that, apart from economic factors, non-economic ones also have important role in commuting.

Luki? Vesna

2013-01-01

69

Breast cancer and socio-economic factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW); Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $); computed tomography (CT) for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP ? CT=60.3% (sign.0.00). The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010) on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.

Anees B. Chagpar; Mario Coccia

2012-01-01

70

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semistructured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D. Ncho; Susan C.D. Wright

2013-01-01

71

Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural), generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.

A. Berezhna; Yu. Popova

2010-01-01

72

Effect of socio-economic status on the prevalence of dermatophytosis in Madras  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 462 patients living in varying socio-economic conditions were screened for tinea infection. 372/462 (70.7%) were found to be culture positive for dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte. 35% of the infected cases were from the very lo...

Ranganathan S; Menon Thangam; Selvi Sentamil; Kamalam A

73

MARITAL CONFLICTS: EFFECT OF FAMILY ECOLOGY AND SOCIO- ECONOMIC STATUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the marital conflicts among 240 couples of Jammu City having high, middle and low socio- economic status. Random sampling technique was used for sample selection and data was collected using interview guide. The results of the study revealed that marital conflicts exist in all the selected families. The main reason for marital conflicts in high socio- economic group was business tours of husbands, while conflicts due to needs of children and job of both the partners were causes of conflict in middle socio- economic group. Husband's alcoholism and low income were reasons in couples having low socio- economic status. In all these families, majority of the wives took first step for compromise as compared to husbands.

SAMRIDHI ARORA AND RASHMI CHADHA

2012-01-01

74

Are socio-economic disparities in diet quality explained by diet cost?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Socio-economic disparities in nutrition are well documented. This study tested the hypothesis that socio-economic differences in nutrient intakes can be accounted for, in part, by diet cost. METHODS: A representative sample of 1295 adults in King County (WA) was surveyed in 2008-2009, and usual dietary intakes were assessed based on a food-frequency questionnaire. The monetary value of individual diets was estimated using local retail supermarket prices for 384 foods. Nutrients of concern as identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee were fibre, vitamins A, C and E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. A nutrient density score based on all seven nutrients was another dependent measure. General linear models and linear regressions were used to examine associations among education and income, nutrient density measure and diet cost. Analyses were conducted in 2009-2010. RESULTS: Controlling for energy and other covariates, higher-cost diets were significantly higher in all seven nutrients and in overall nutrient density. Higher education and income were positively and significantly associated with the nutrient density measure, but these effects were greatly attenuated with the inclusion of the cost variable in the model. CONCLUSIONS: Socio-economic differences in nutrient intake can be substantially explained by the monetary cost of the diet. The higher cost of more nutritious diets may contribute to socio-economic disparities in health and should be taken into account in the formulation of nutrition and public health policy.

Monsivais P; Aggarwal A; Drewnowski A

2012-06-01

75

Cranbrook timber supply area: Socio-economic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the environmental setting and socio-economic profile of the Cranbrook, British Columbia Timber Supply Area, reviews the area`s forest sector, and presents three scenarios of forecasted timber harvests. The report examines the socio-economic and environmental implications of changing the current timber harvest level to the levels indicated in the scenarios. Appendices include a glossary, list of contacts, and a discussion of the methodology used to calculate economic impacts.

NONE

1995-11-01

76

Review Article Socio-economic determinants of micronutrient intake and status in Europe: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To provide the evidence base for targeted nutrition policies to reduce the risk of micronutrient/diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe, by focusing on: folate, vitamin B12, Fe, Zn and iodine for intake and status; and vitamin C, vitamin D, Ca, Se and Cu for intake. DESIGN: MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched to collect original studies that: (i) were published from 1990 to 2011; (ii) involved >100 subjects; (iii) had assessed dietary intake at the individual level; and/or (iv) included best practice biomarkers reflecting micronutrient status. We estimated relative differences in mean micronutrient intake and/or status between the lowest and highest socio-economic groups to: (i) evaluate variation in intake and status between socio-economic groups; and (ii) report on data availability. SETTING: Europe. SUBJECTS: Children, adults and elderly. RESULTS: Data from eighteen publications originating primarily from Western Europe showed that there is a positive association between indicators of socio-economic status and micronutrient intake and/or status. The largest differences were observed for intake of vitamin C in eleven out of twelve studies (5-47 %) and for vitamin D in total of four studies (4-31 %). CONCLUSIONS: The positive association observed between micronutrient intake and socio-economic status should complement existing evidence on socio-economic inequalities in diet-related diseases among disadvantaged populations in Europe. These findings could provide clues for further research and have implications for public health policy aimed at improving the intake of micronutrients and diet-related diseases.

Novakovi? R; Cavelaars A; Geelen A; Nikoli? M; Altaba II; Viñas BR; Ngo J; Golsorkhi M; Medina MW; Brzozowska A; Szczecinska A; de Cock D; Vansant G; Renkema M; Majem LS; Moreno LA; Glibeti? M; Gurinovi? M; Van't Veer P; de Groot LC

2013-06-01

77

Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies : South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark. Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s. Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of Indian and Pakistani background. The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalisme and identity construction. The results show that the South Asian youth develop complex diaspora identities, becoming a part of the receiving society and maintaining contact with the countries of origin, combining individualisation with interconnectedness. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, business related investment and direct remittances, 2) awareness of parents’ strategies, although few or no self-employed strategies and 3) collective strategy through an organisation. The conclusions pin point the challenges for Scandinavian societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia.  

Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie

78

Socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth). METHODS: Data from Wave 1 of the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2008) involving six Indian states were used. Seven health system responsiveness domains were considered for a respondent's last visit to an outpatient service in 12 months: prompt attention, dignity, clarity of information, autonomy, confidentiality, choice and quality of basic amenities. Hierarchical ordered probit models (correcting for reporting heterogeneity through anchoring vignettes) were used to assess the association of socio-economic characteristics with the seven responsiveness domains, controlling for age, gender and area of residence. Stratified analysis was also conducted among users of public and private health facilities. RESULTS: Our statistical models accounting for reporting heterogeneity revealed socio-economic disparities in all health system responsiveness domains. Estimates suggested that individuals from the lowest wealth group, for example, were less likely than individuals from the highest wealth group to report 'very good' on the dignity domain by 8% points (10% vs 18%). Stratified analysis showed that such disparities existed among users of both public and private health facilities. CONCLUSION: Socio-economic disparities exist in health system responsiveness in India, irrespective of the type of health facility used. Policy efforts to monitor and improve these disparities are required at the health system level.

Malhotra C; Do YK

2013-03-01

79

The contribution of three components of nutrition knowledge to socio-economic differences in food purchasing choices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To assess socio-economic differences in three components of nutrition knowledge, i.e. knowledge of (i) the relationship between diet and disease, (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices. DESIGN: The cross-sectional study considered household food purchasing, nutrition knowledge, socio-economic and demographic information. Household food purchasing choices were summarised by three indices, based on self-reported purchasing of sixteen groceries, nineteen fruits and twenty-one vegetables. Socio-economic position (SEP) was measured by household income and education. Associations between SEP, nutrition knowledge and food purchasing were examined using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, household type and household size. SETTING: Brisbane, Australia in 2000. SUBJECTS: Main household food shoppers (n 1003, response rate 66·4 %), located in fifty small areas (Census Collectors Districts). RESULTS: Shoppers in households of low SEP made food purchasing choices that were less consistent with dietary guideline recommendations: they were more likely to purchase grocery foods comparatively higher in salt, sugar and fat, and lower in fibre, and they purchased a narrower range of fruits and vegetables. Those of higher SEP had greater nutrition knowledge and this factor attenuated most associations between SEP and food purchasing choices. Among nutrition knowledge factors, knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease made the greatest and most consistent contribution to explaining socio-economic differences in food purchasing. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing inequalities in nutrition knowledge is likely to reduce socio-economic differences in compliance with dietary guidelines. Improving knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease appears to be a particularly relevant focus for health promotion aimed to reduce socio-economic differences in diet and related health inequalities.

McKinnon L; Giskes K; Turrell G

2013-08-01

80

ABORTION IN RELATION TO SOME SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS  

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Full Text Available The data for this study has been collected from a questionnaire examining the relationship between birth weight of the new born and some physical and socio-economic characteristics of the mother. Between Dec.1975 to Jan.1976, 1553 women who had referred to two hospitals in Tehran for labor: 981 to Farah Maternity and 572 to Firoozgar Hospital have been interviewed. The results of the study have indicated that women who had referred to Firoozgar Hospital, were older, more literate, had higher per capita income, used more contraceptives and had fewer pregnancies, all these figures are statistically significant. Regression analysis indicates that factors such as age of the mother, literacy, household income, husband's job position are not significant towards increase of abortion rate amongst these women, but when these factors are fixed and place of reference is analyzed this variable becomes significant, increase of abortion, which have not been considered in this study. Parity regardless of the above factors increases abortion rate and for each increase in the number of pregnancy, mean number of abortion is increased by 0.09.

A.Majd; S.Kohansedgh; H.Malek-Afzali

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Association of sleep duration with socio-economic status and behavioural problems among schoolchildren.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: In this population-based study, we aimed to determine the total sleep duration (TSD), its association with socio-economic status (SES) and behavioural symptoms among schoolchildren. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among schoolchildren in Istanbul. A structured questionnaire evaluating the sleep schedule variables was filled out by their parents. SES was determined according to the Turkish SES scale. RESULTS: The mean age of 2669 children was 8.2 ± 2.4 years, and 51% of the students were girls. The mean TSD was 10.20 ± 1.04, and the mean bedtime was 21.57 ± 0.56 (both in hours, minutes ± SD). Boys tended to go bed later (p = 0.004) and slept less than girls (p = 0.02). The duration of sleep disruptions increased (p < 0.001), whereas TSD decreased with age (p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression revealed that waking time and TSD decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with higher SES among both girls and boys. Sleep fragmentation was associated with habitual snoring, parasomnias, daytime sleepiness and conduct symptoms. CONCLUSION: Decreased total sleep duration is more prominent in boys, older children and children among higher socio-economic status. Insufficient sleep attributed to shortened total sleep duration by age and higher socio-economic status might have a negative effect on both sleep hygiene and psychological well-being in schoolchildren.

Arman AR; Ay P; Fis NP; Ersu R; Topuzoglu A; Isik U; Berkem M

2011-03-01

82

Communicability and Communities in Complex Socio-Economic Networks  

CERN Multimedia

The concept of communicability is introduced for complex socio-economic networks. The communicability function expresses how an impact propagates from one place to another in the network. This function is used to define unambiguously the concept of socio-economic community. The concept of temperature in complex socio-economic networks is also introduced as a way of accounting for the external stresses to which such systems are submitted. This external stress can change dramatically the structure of the communities in a network. We analyze here a trade network of countries exporting 'miscellaneous manufactures of metal.' We determine the community structure of this network showing that there are 27 communities with diverse degree of overlapping. When only communities with less than 80% of overlap are considered we found 5 communities which are well characterized in terms of geopolitical relationships. The analysis of external stress on these communities reveals that several countries are very much influenced b...

Estrada, Ernesto

2009-01-01

83

Associação entre prevalência de inatividade física e indicadores de condição socioeconômica em adolescentes Association between prevalence of physical inactivity and indicators of socio-economic status in adolescents  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A redução nos níveis de atividade física na população jovem tem sido amplamente descrita em vários países, sobretudo em alguns subgrupos dessa população. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de inatividade física em adolescentes escolares do ensino médio do município de João Pessoa - PB, e analisar sua associação com indicadores de condição socioeconômica. METODOLOGIA: Participaram do estudo 2.566 adolescentes (1.132 rapazes e 1.434 moças), de 14 a 18 anos de idade (16,5±1,17). Foram levantadas informações demográficas (sexo e idade), socioeconômicas (trabalho, tipo de escola, classe econômica, escolaridade dos pais), e mediu-se o nível de atividade física (kcal/kg/dia), mediante utilização de um diário de atividade física. Foram classificados como fisicamente inativos os adolescentes com demanda energética diária OBJECTIVE: The decrease in the levels of physical activity in the young population has been described thoroughly in several countries, above all in some subgroups of that population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity in high school adolescents from the João Pessoa city - PB and to analyze its association with indicators of socio-economic status. METHODOLOGY: 2,566 adolescents (1,132 boys and 1,434 girls), ages between 14-18 years (16.5±1.17) participated in this study. Demographic (sex and age) and socio-economic data (work, school type, economic class, and parents' educational background) were raised. Besides that, the level of physical activity (kcal/kg/day) was measured through a diary of physical activity. The adolescents were classified as physically inactive when had daily energy demand <37kcal/kg/day. The ratio prevalence (RP), with respective reliability intervals of 95% (RI95%), was used as association measure. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity positively associated with the socio-economic status, showing higher prevalence in the adolescents who did not work (boys RP=2.22; RI95%=1.62-3.04 and girls RP=1.52; RI95%=1.19-1.93), and in the girls whose parents presented higher educational background (girls RP=1.20; RI95%=1.05-1.35), compared with the adolescents who worked and the ones whose parents had lower educational background, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of physical inactivity was high, mainly in the girls. Adolescents who belonged to more priviledged socio-economic strata were more exposed to physical inactivity.

José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

2008-01-01

84

Socio-economic inequalities in injury incidence in the Netherlands  

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Full Text Available Background: Interventions to reduce socio-economic inequalities in injury incidence should be tailored to specific priority areas that may be identified by descriptive studies. We aimed to provide an overview of existing socio-economic inequalities in injury incidence in the Netherlands and to assess the potential influence of methodological choices on the relationships found.Methods: Self-reported medically treated injuries (all injuries versus fractures) were derived from a survey among a random sample of 59 063 persons. Injuries resulting in hospital admissions (all injuries versus fractures) were derived from a prospective cohort study of 18 810 participants, linked to the National Hospital Discharge Register for a follow-up period of 7 years. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios of self-reported medically treated injuries and fractures by level of education, occupation and income, and of hospital-admitted injuries by level of education and occupation.Results: Socio-economic inequalities in injury incidence in the Netherlands were dependent on the indicator of non-fatal injury incidence, indicator of socio-economic status (SES) and studied cause of injury. In the majority of specific relations analyzed, injury risks were not or only moderately elevated in lower SES-classes.Analyses focusing on injury with higher severity levels (admitted injuries and/or admitted fractures) revealed the steepest SES gradient with odds ratios of injury of 1.5 or more of the lowest socio-economic (educational) groups compared to persons with higher SES (education). In hospital admitted traffic injuries, we found the most striking difference with a threefold higher risk in the lowest educational groups.Conclusion: Future descriptive research into socio-economic differences in injury incidence should include all three core indicators of SES and separate analyses on the more severe injuries should be conducted.

Eduard van Beeck; Frank van Lenthe; Paul Den Hertog; Margriet van Baar

2006-01-01

85

Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country's socio-economic status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically (more) significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI), the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP) among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

Sharma, Gyan P.; Esler, Karen J.; Blignaut, James N.

2010-04-01

86

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY - THE PROSPECTS OF BORROWING ?????????-????????????? ????????? ???????? – ??????????? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of economic development in various countries and the prospects for borrowing from the process of formation and implementation of economic and social policies as an example consider the strategy of Europe 2020 and the socio-economic development strategy of Russia until 2020

Pasko S. N.

2013-01-01

87

Socio-economic development and the energy situation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The socio-economic development of Sri Lanka is outlined, followed by a discussion of energy supply and demand; energy consumption by sector; the existing generating systems; alternative energy sources; ways to improve efficiency; and energy and the environment including estimated GHG emissions. 7 refs., 9 tabs.

Madurapperumn, W.S. [Institute of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (Sri Lanka)

1996-12-31

88

Socio-economic Determinants of Demand for Private Tutoring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines socio-economic factors underlying the demand for private tutoring. The analysis utilizes two samples of students from lower- and upper-level secondary schools in Poland based on the PISA 2006 data set. Special attention is paid to channels through which private tutoring may endur...

Safarzynska, Karolina

89

PROJECTS IN THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  

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Full Text Available The article deals with project management issues in the structure of socio-economic systems. Describes the elements of strategic planning, which allow to identify the factors of stability of project management. Particular attention is given to innovative projects from the perspective of their structural consideration.

Mosalyov Anton Igorevich

2008-01-01

90

Increased health risks of children with single mothers: the impact of socio-economic and environmental factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of single parenthood on children's health have been reported before. Socio-economic difficulties are discussed as mediating factors. As child health also depends on environmental conditions, we investigated the impact of environmental exposures and socio-economic factors on differences in health outcomes of children with single mothers vs. couple families. METHODS: Data on 17,218 pre-school children (47% female) from three cross-sectional surveys conducted during 2004-07 in Germany were analysed. Health and exposure assessment were primarily based on parental report. Effects of socio-economic indicators (maternal education, household income) and environmental factors (traffic load at the place of residence, perceived environmental quality) on associations of four health outcomes (parent-reported health status, asthma, overweight, psychological problems) with single parenthood were determined by logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Children with single mothers showed an increased risk regarding parent-reported poor health status [boys: odds ratio (OR) 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.82), girls: 1.73 (1.28-2.33)], psychological problems [boys: 1.90 (1.38-2.61), girls: 1.58 (1.03-2.42)], overweight [only boys: OR 1.23 (1.01-1.50) and asthma [only girls: OR 1.90 (1.15-3.15)]. Adjusting for socio-economic factors attenuated the strength of the association of family type with child health. Although environmental factors were associated with most health outcomes investigated and children of single mothers were more often exposed, these environmental factors did not alter the differences between children with single mothers and couple families. CONCLUSIONS: The increased health risks of children from single-mother families vs. couple families are partly explained by socio-economic factors, but not by the environmental exposures studied.

Scharte M; Bolte G

2013-06-01

91

Dynamics of people's socio-economic status in the face of schistosomiasis control interventions in Ukerewe district, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a paucity of research on micro-level assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic status following health interventions. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in low-income countries. Indeed, in such settings information about income is usually lacking and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 159 households in a village in north-western Tanzania before and 1 year after participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based on durable assets ownership (e.g. bicycle and radio) and household characteristics dealing with ownership of land and house construction features (e.g. type of walls and roof). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.761 to -0.448, and the mean from -0.204 (standard deviation (SD) 1.924) to 0.193 (SD 2.079) between pre- and post-intervention phases. The difference in socio-economic status of the people comparing the pre- and post-intervention phases was highly statistically significant (peconomic status observed in our study are attributable to the PHAST intervention, despite other sporadic interventions against schistosomiasis. PMID:23333229

Mwanga, Joseph R; Lwambo, Nicholas J S; Rumisha, Susan F; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg

2013-01-16

92

The Evaluation of The Impact of Socio-Economic Level on The Physical Fitness in Boys by Using AAHPERD Test Battery  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic level on the physical fitness in boys from 8 to 10 years-olds by using AAHPERD (American Alliance For Health, Physical Education, Recreation And Dance) test battery.The number of the participants in the study was 566 students; 295 students from state schools of The Ministry of National Education and 271 students from private schools.In the identification of socio-economic level of the participants in the study, level of education of parents, the number of the children in the family, the living environment, whether the children have their own rooms in at home, and the level of income of the family, which are socio-economic criteria, were taken into consideration.The order of testing and measurement was as follows: the measurement of weight, the measurement of height, sit-and-reach test, skin-fold measurement, sit-up test, pull-up test and 1 mile run-and-walk test.At the statistical analyses of the data the mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values of AAHPERD tests applied to the subjects were obtained and Correlation Analyses (Pearson) tests were used for the evaluation of the relationship among the AAHPERD tests and socio-economic level of the participants,.As a result, it was found that the socio-economic level had an impact on physical fitness of the student; and that in boys from 8 to 10 years-olds who had a higher socio-economic level, the sum of skinfold values and the strength of sit-up were higher compared to those obtained from the boys who had a lower socio-economic level; and that the boys who had a lower socio-economic level yielded higher values of flexibility, strength in pull-up and cardiovascular endurance.

Dursun GÜLER; Mehmet GÜNAY

2004-01-01

93

Socio-economic disadvantage and body mass over the life course in women and men: results from the Northern Swedish Cohort.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Obesity and body mass in adulthood relate both to current and to childhood socio-economic status, particularly in women, but the underlying life course processes are not known. This study aims at examining whether the life course socio-economic status-body mass association in women and men is explained by the cumulative risk or adolescent sensitive period models whether associations are similar at different life course stages; and whether health behaviours explain the associations. METHODS: A total of 476 women and 517 men participated in this 27-year prospective cohort study (participation rate 93%). Body mass index was assessed at the age of 16 and 43 years and self-reported at the age of 21 and 30 years. Information on socio-economic status by own or parental (age 16 years) occupation, smoking, snuff, alcohol, physical activity and diet was collected at each age. RESULTS: In women, cumulative socio-economic status and socio-economic status in adolescence were related to body mass index at the age of 16, 21, 30 and 43 years and to the 27-year change in body mass, independently of health behaviours and for adolescent socio-economic status also of later socio-economic attainment. Associations were generally stronger for body mass at older age. In men, associations were mostly non-significant, although health behaviours contributed strongly to body mass. CONCLUSIONS: In women, both the sensitive period (in adolescence) and cumulative risk models explain the socio-economic-body mass link. Efforts to reduce the social inequality in body mass in women should be directed at the early life course, but focusing on unhealthy behaviours might not be a sufficient approach.

Gustafsson PE; Persson M; Hammarström A

2012-06-01

94

Parental ADHD Symptoms and Self-Reports of Positive Parenting.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: In 2 studies, we tested whether parental attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with self-reports of more positive parenting, even after accounting for observed positive parenting behaviors. Method: In Study 1, 96 mothers with sons 8-11 years of age participated; 44% of the boys were diagnosed with ADHD. The majority of mothers and sons were European Caucasian. In Study 2, 48 parents (24 mother-father pairs) with children 6-12 years of age participated. All children in Study 2 were diagnosed with ADHD, and 75% of the children were boys. More than 90% of the families were Caucasian. In both studies, parents self-reported on their positive parenting, and positive parenting was observed in parent-child interactions. Results: In models including relevant demographic variables, other parental psychopathologies, and both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, parents with higher levels of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms self-reported engaging in significantly more positive parenting behaviors than were observed. Parental inattentive symptoms were not uniquely associated with self-reports of positive parenting. This pattern was found for both mothers and fathers, and across families with and without children diagnosed with ADHD. Conclusions: Results suggest that high levels of parental ADHD symptoms may be associated with over-estimation of positive parenting behaviors. Reasons for the distinction between the types of ADHD symptoms associated with higher self-reports of positive parenting and the clinical implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Lui JH; Johnston C; Lee CM; Lee-Flynn SC

2013-06-01

95

Perinatal mortality and low birthweight by socio-economic background: evidence for Ireland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

variation across socio-economic groups in perinatal mortality and low birthweight rates in Ireland. The results show significant effects of socio-economic background, mother's age and parity (number of previous births) ...

Nolan, Brian; Magee, Hugh

96

The Socio-Economic Background Of The Hotel Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The socio-economic background of the hotel workers decides about the different social and economic reasons, for which these workers joined to hotel work. Hence, the present section attempted to know about the socio-economic background of the hotel workers. Urbanization, industrialization, and modernization have brought rtimerous changes in Western societies, after industrial revolution. Industrial Revolution contributed towards establishing colonial regimes in Asia and Africa. The Society experienced structural changes and brought a phenomenal change in human relations. It is for the first time the Western liberal ideas travelled the Asian and African nationalities'. Colonialism brought East and West together and encouraged cultural give and take between them. New occupations and industries emerged in almost all societies in the world. The traditional set up of the society was seriously disturbed. India was one of the important colony of the Britishers.

Atik-ur-rahaman S.M

2012-01-01

97

Control of the socio-economic systems using herding interactions  

CERN Multimedia

Collective behavior of the complex socio-economic systems is heavily influenced by the herding, group, behavior of individuals. The importance of the herding behavior may enable the control of the collective behavior of the individuals. In this contribution we consider a simple agent-based herding model modified to include agents with controlled state. We show that in certain case even the smallest fixed number of the controlled agents might be enough to control the behavior of a very large system.

Kononovicius, Aleksejus

2013-01-01

98

Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs.

1996-01-01

99

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.How to cite this article: Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Ferreira, M., 2009, ‘The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park’, Koedoe 51(1), Art. #158, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v51i1.158

Melville Saayman; Andrea Saayman; Madelien Ferreira

2009-01-01

100

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ISSUES CHARACTERISTIC TO THE JIU VALLEY RESIDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sociological research was conducted in 2008 on a sample of 1 612 adults, aiming at highlighting the socio-economic situation of the population in the Jiu Valley and, therefore, the problems addressing the local people. Failure or even the lack of financial resources is a consequence of lack of jobs in the area and, as a result the low living standard of the population

ION PÂRVULESCU; ROXANA PLE?A; RALUCA RIDZI

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Socio-economic implications of lignite development. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This working paper addresses the socio-economic implications of lignite development in the rural areas of Arkansas and Louisiana. It draws upon the experience with lignite development in Texas as well as the coal and lignite development in the West. The general implications of lignite development are identified and discussed and are illustrated with a case study of Mt. Pleasant, Texas. Requirements for future research relevant to Arkansas and Louisiana are identified

1979-01-01

102

Greenhills Coal Project. Stage I. Socio-economic assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is an impact assessment of socio-economic effects which has been prepared for Kaiser Resources for their proposed Greenhills Project. Kaiser is seeking approval for the extraction and processing of coal in the East Kootenay region of British Columbia. This study combines work previously done, with additional data and analysis in order to, 1) forecast socio-economic conditions likely to exist without Greenhills, 2) document the program as far as possible at this preliminary planning state, 3) project socio-economic conditions likely to result from Greenhills, and 4) provide an overview of the effect of two additional mining properties (at Elk River and Fording Mine). Results of this report indicate the major impact of proposed mine to be the creation of many new jobs and an increase in the population of the area, with resulting needs for more housing and community services, such as education, in the towns of Elkford and Sparwood. Recommendations are also made as to possible Government involvement in the development of these communities.

1980-01-01

103

Socio-economic patterning of tobacco use in Indian states.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies in India have identified marked variations in overall tobacco use between socio-economic groups. We examined whether associations between socio-economic status (SES) and tobacco use varied across individual Indian states by tobacco type. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey of 100,855 households in 24 Indian states and Union Territories conducted in 2009-2010. Outcome measures were household tobacco consumption by type. Logistic and linear regression models were used to examine associations at the household level between education, income and use and volume of tobacco consumed. RESULTS: Overall, 52% of households used any form of tobacco product; the predominant form was smokeless tobacco (22%), followed by bidi (17%) and cigarettes (4%). Increasing household income and higher education level were associated with a higher likelihood of cigarette use but a lower likelihood of bidi and smokeless tobacco use in some Indian states. Increasing household income was associated with higher volumes of cigarette and bidi use among consuming households; however, association between educational level and volume of tobacco consumption was inconsistent. CONCLUSION: SES has a varying impact on different types of tobacco use in Indian states. Policy makers should consider socio-economic patterning of tobacco use when designing, implementing and evaluating tobacco control interventions in different states of India.

Agrawal S; Karan A; Selvaraj S; Bhan N; Subramanian SV; Millett C

2013-08-01

104

Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional/ Patterns, beliefs and parenting practices related with punishment and the generational transmission of these in four families of low socio-economic level in the city of Bogotá/ Padrões, crenças e práticas parentais relacionadas à punição e transmissão geracional em quatro famílias baixo nivel socioeconômico na cidade de Bogotá  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever os padrões, as crenças e as práticas parentais relacionadas à punição e sua transmissão intergeracional em quatro famílias baixo nivel socioeconômico na cidade de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semi-estruturadas, histórias de vida, observações de campo e o Software Atlas.ti para analisar os resultados. Descobrimos que os padrões de paternidade associada com a punição são enquadrados no papel de avô (ó) como um cu (more) idador durante a semana, no fim de semana o pai / mãe e a educadora, o filho (a) como o ímpio. Crenças são estabelecidas em torno da criança tão forte e frágil, e a punição como um instrutor, ambivalente, abusivo e temido. Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaciones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuel (more) o o de la abuela como cuidador o cuidadora entre semana, en el del padre o madre como cuidador o cuidadora de fin de semana, y en el del niño o niña como el sujeto travieso. Las creencias se establecen en torno al niño o niña como fuerte y frágil, y al castigo como formador, ambivalente, maltratante y temido. Abstract in english This study is aimed to describe patterns, beliefs and parenting practices related to punishment and the intergenerational transmission of these in four families of low socio-economic level in the city of Bogotá. We used semi-structured interviews, life histories, field observations and Atlas.ti software to analyze the results. We found that parenting patterns associated with punishment are framed in the role of grandparent as the weak caregiver, the father/mother as week (more) end caregivers and the child as mischievous. Beliefs are established around the child as strong and fragile, and the punishment as a trainer, ambivalent, abusive and feared.

Pulido, Sandra; Castro-Osorio, Juliana; Peña, Marlyn; Ariza-Ramírez, Diana Paola

2013-01-01

105

Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... Plan Print Home » Family Checkup Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised October ... Family Center at the University of Oregon, highlight parenting skills that are important in preventing the initiation ...

106

Socio-economic Scenarios in Climate Assessments (IC11). Synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is widely recognised that projections of social and economic futures are circumscribed by irreducible uncertainties and ignorance. A common analytical response is to develop scenarios that map a range of alternative possible outcomes. The application of scenarios in climate assessments in the Netherlands was investigated in this report, focusing on the use of the socio-economic scenarios 'Welvaart en Leefomgeving' (WLO - The Future of the Dutch Built Environment). This research was carried out within the Climate Changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) programme. WLO scenarios have been applied in climate assessment studies. WLO generates figures and data that are useful. Nevertheless we encountered several CcSP projects that did not apply any socio-economic scenarios, whilst this seemed necessary based on their objectives. In general, climate assessments make little sense if socio-economic developments are not taken into account. Interestingly, some of the studies that did apply socio-economic scenarios, picked only one or two of the scenarios generated by WLO. From a theoretical point of view this selective 'shopping' may lead to a tunnel vision, because it is impossible to estimate which scenario is more probable than the others. At the other hand it is often impractical to explore all four scenarios. The time horizon of WLO was in several cases too short for climate assessments. As it is probable that the structure of society has changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www.climatescenarios.nl) that provides key scenario data from WLO and other sources. On this site climate researchers have quick access to the most important socio-economic data derived from WLO and other scenarios. After registration they can also add new data.

2011-01-01

107

Socio-Economic Burden of Influenza among Children Younger than 5 Years in the Outpatient Setting in Suzhou, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The disease burden of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza in China has not been well described. The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiology and socio-economic burden of influenza in children younger than 5 years in outpatient and emergency department settings. Methods A prospective study of laboratory-confirmed influenza among children presenting to the outpatient settings in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital with symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) was performed from March 2011 to February 2012. Throat swabs were collected for detection of influenza virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Data were collected using a researcher administered questionnaire, concerning demographics, clinical characteristics, direct and indirect costs, day care absence, parental work loss and similar respiratory illness development in the family. Results Among a total of 6,901 children who sought care at internal outpatient settings, 1,726 (25%) fulfilled the criteria of ILI and 1,537 were enrolled. Influenza was documented in 365 (24%) of enrolled 1,537 ILI cases. Among positive patients, 52 (14%) were type A and 313 (86%) were type B. About 52% of influenza outpatients had over-the-counter medications before physician visit and 41% visited hospitals two or more times. Children who attended daycare missed an average of 1.9 days. For each child with influenza-confirmed disease, the parents missed a mean of 1.8 work days. Similar respiratory symptoms were reported in 43% of family contacts of influenza positive children after onset of the child's illness. The mean direct and indirect costs per episode of influenza were $123.4 for outpatient clinics and $134.6 for emergency departments, and $125.9 for influenza A and $127.5 for influenza B. Conclusions Influenza is a common cause of influenza-like illness among children and has substantial socio-economic impact on children and their families regarding healthcare seeking and day care/work absence. The direct and indirect costs of childhood influenza impose a heavy financial burden on families. Prevention measures such as influenza vaccine could reduce the occurrence of influenza in children and the economic burden on families.

Wang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Jing; Jiang, Yanwei; Ding, Yunfang; Hua, Jun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Liling; Feng, Zijian; Iuliano, Danielle; McFarland, Jeffrey; Zhao, Genming

2013-01-01

108

Psychosocial correlates of leisure-time walking among Australian adults of lower and higher socio-economic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adults of lower socio-economic status (SES) participate less in physical activity than those of higher SES. Understanding the correlates of physical activity participation and how these may differ between socio-economic groups can inform policies and physical activity promotion strategies. The psychosocial correlates of leisure-time walking (the most common voluntary physical activity of adults) were assessed using a survey of 2488 randomly sampled Australian adults (response rate = 74.2%). Among respondents of higher SES, there were higher levels of positive cognitions towards physical activity, and walking for leisure was more prevalent than among those of lower SES. Relationships of psychosocial attributes with leisure-time walking differed by SES. The strongest correlate of leisure-time walking was perceived barriers for lower SES adults and enjoyment for those of higher SES. Social support from friends was associated with walking for both groups, while the effect of support from family was significant only for adults of lower SES. Strategies influencing leisure-time walking may have to target the specific needs of different socio-economic groups. For example, removing perceived barriers may be more appropriate to promote walking among lower SES adults. Interventions tailored for lower SES groups may help close the socio-economic gap in physical activity participation.

Janssen E; Sugiyama T; Winkler E; de Vries H; te Poel F; Owen N

2010-04-01

109

Dynamics of people's socio-economic status in the face of schistosomiasis control interventions in Ukerewe district, Tanzania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is a paucity of research on micro-level assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic status following health interventions. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in low-income countries. Indeed, in such settings information about income is usually lacking and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 159 households in a village in north-western Tanzania before and 1 year after participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based on durable assets ownership (e.g. bicycle and radio) and household characteristics dealing with ownership of land and house construction features (e.g. type of walls and roof). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.761 to -0.448, and the mean from -0.204 (standard deviation (SD) 1.924) to 0.193 (SD 2.079) between pre- and post-intervention phases. The difference in socio-economic status of the people comparing the pre- and post-intervention phases was highly statistically significant (p<0.001). This observation was confirmed by a multinomial model with a random effect on the households. We argue that significant changes in the socio-economic status observed in our study are attributable to the PHAST intervention, despite other sporadic interventions against schistosomiasis.

Mwanga JR; Lwambo NJ; Rumisha SF; Vounatsou P; Utzinger J

2013-11-01

110

The socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks) plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park, namely Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor’s survey (156 respondents), a community survey (132 respondents) and a business survey (11 respondents). We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved.Conservation implications: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.How to cite this article:How to cite this article: Oberholzer, S., Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Slabbert, E., 2010, ‘The socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park’, Koedoe 52(1), Art. #879, 9 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v52i1.879

Susan Oberholzer; Melville Saayman; Andrea Saayman; Elmarie Slabbert

2010-01-01

111

Determinants of childhood immunization uptake among socio-economically disadvantaged migrants in East China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ? 24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. RESULTS: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents' educational level and the frequency of mother's utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. CONCLUSIONS: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Hu Y; Li Q; Chen E; Chen Y; Qi X

2013-07-01

112

Modifying the 'Positive Parenting Program' for parents with intellectual disabilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many parents with intellectual disabilities (ID) want and/or need professional guidance and support to learn skills and strategies to prevent and manage child behaviour problems. However, the available support is rarely suitable, and suitable support is rarely available. The aim of this study was to determine whether a popular mainstream parenting training programme, known as 'Group Triple P' (Positive Parenting Program), could be successfully modified for this parent group. METHOD: A pilot study was undertaken to determine whether a modified version of Group Triple P would engage and retain parents with ID. A non-experimental, pre-test post-test study, involving a total of 30 parents with ID, was then undertaken to obtain preliminary efficacy data. RESULTS: Parent engagement and participation levels were high. No parent 'dropped out' of the programme. After completing the modified Group Triple P programme, parents reported a decrease in psychological distress, maladaptive parenting and child conduct problems. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the information and support they received. CONCLUSION: Research-informed adaptation of mainstream behavioural family interventions, such as Group Triple P, could make 'suitable support' more readily available, and more engaging for parents with ID.

Glazemakers I; Deboutte D

2013-07-01

113

The first injustice : socio-economic inequalities in birth outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adverse birth outcomes like preterm birth and infant mortality are unevenly distributed across socio-economic groups. Risks are usually lowest in groups with high socio-economic status and increase with decreasing status. The general aim of this thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the relation between socio-economic status and birth outcomes, focussing on maternal education and class, studying a range of birth outcomes. More specific aims were to investigate the relation between maternal education and infant health, to study the combined influence of maternal childhood and adult social class on inequalities in infant health and to explore the contribution of maternal working conditions to class inequalities in birth outcomes. The studies are population based, focussing on singletons births 1973-1990. During the period under study, educational differences in birth outcomes increased, especially between those with the lowest and highest education. The low birth weight paradox emerged, suggesting that the distribution of determinants for low birthweight infants differs for these groups. Further, an independent association was found between maternal childhood social class and low birthweight and neonatal mortality, but not for postneonatal mortality. Since this was found for the two outcomes closest to birth, this indicates that the association is mediated through the maternal body. Finally, there is a contribution of maternal working conditions to class inequalities in birth outcome. Lower job control, higher job hazards and higher physical demands were all to some degree related to increased risk of the following adverse birth outcomes: infant mortality, low birthweight, very low birthweight, foetal growth, preterm birth, very and extremely preterm birth. Working conditions demonstrated disparate associations with the birth outcomes, indicating a high complexity in these relationships.

Gisselmann M

114

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business d (more) evelopment in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION:The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

Saayman, Melville; Saayman, Andrea; Ferreira, Madelien

2009-01-01

115

Socio-economic Parameters and Mortality in Turner Syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized by hypogonadism, short adult height, increased morbidity and mortality; contrasted by self-reported normal quality of life and perception of health. Small studies have indicated a similar level of education compared to the background population.Aim: To study the socio-economic profile in TS and the impact of these factors on mortality.Materials and methods: Register study using Danish nationwide registries. 979 TS females and 94,850 controls were included. Information concerning cohabitation, motherhoods, level of education (bachelor degree), income, retirement and death were obtained. 103 TS and 5,989 controls died during the study period. For the socio-economic parameters, median age at first relevant episode was calculated. Income was analyzed using conditional logistic regression, and the other parameters using Cox regression.Results: In comparison with controls TS had significantly fewer partnerships (hazard ratio (HR): 0.45), fewer motherhoods (HR: 0.18)and retired earlier (HR: 1.8). After the diagnosis of Turner syndrome the risk of retiring was increased. Educational attainment (HR: 1.0) as well as risk of unemployment was similar. Before the age of 30, low income was significantly more frequent; hereafter it was similar to controls. Mortality was significantly increased (HR: 2.9) and slightly lower after adjustment for cohabitation and education (HR: 2.7).Conclusions: A divergent socio-economic profile is apparent, with a reduced proportion of Turner syndrome persons finding a partner and becoming mothers. The educational level was similar to controls. The increased mortality in Turner syndrome was not materially affected after adjustment for cohabitation and education.

Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Hjerrild, Britta

2012-01-01

116

Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational) inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65) who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level), television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status), social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family) and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities). Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status) and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity) partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the neighborhood and promoting friend support for activity.

Teychenne Megan; Ball Kylie; Salmon Jo

2012-01-01

117

Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs) which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

Michael Dauderstädt

2013-01-01

118

Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

1985-01-01

119

Poverty and Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Africa: The Nigerian Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a growing incidence of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. Poverty is a multidimensional social phenomenon that can be analytically divided into two main perspectives: human poverty which is the lack of human capabilities and income poverty, which is the lack of income necessary to satisfy basic need e.g. poor life expectancy, poor maternal health, illiteracy, poor nutritional levels, poor access to safe drinking water and perceptions of well-being. The paper examines several initiatives focused on poverty eradication that Nigeria have adopted through national actions to fight both human and income poverty. In analysizing the issues raised, we anchored the paper on an eclectic approach of radical, Marxist model of political economy and the social exclusion theories. The study established among others, that a lot of effort has been made in poverty reduction through poverty alleviation programs in Nigeria. However, it is of knowledge that in spite of the previous efforts of various governments to alleviate poverty in Nigeria and the efforts of the current government to effect same, nothing much had changed in the living conditions and standards of the people. Poverty is still growing at an alarming rate. The challenges of poverty alleviation strategies in the Nigerian situation were articulated in the context of sustainable socio-economic development and the paper concludes that poverty alleviation in contemporary Nigeria require both socio-economic policies geared towards sustainable development. However, to enhance the human capital of the poor in particular, priorities for educational reforms should be in the areas of basic education, vocational training, water and sanitation, health care delivery, agriculture and housing for all. It is the position of this paper that until African leaders in general and Nigeria in particular begin to think „We? and not „I?, the fight against poverty that could engender sustainable socio-economic development will for long remain a mirage.

Igbokwe-Ibeto Chinyeaka Justine; Akhakpe Ighodalo; Oteh Chukwuemeka Okpo

2012-01-01

120

Socio-economic impact of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development in Alberta : final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarized the results of a socio-economic benefits analysis of coalbed methane (CBM) and natural gas from coal (NGC) development in the Horseshoe Canyon in Alberta. Economic analysis assumptions for evaluating the economic outcomes of different scenarios of future CBM development in the region were also provided. The data and forecasts were used to evaluate the socio-economic benefits of CBM development through the use of an economic impact assessment model. The study resulted in a revised resource assessment for the Horseshoe Canyon coals of approximately 36 trillion standard cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place. Nine different development scenarios were run which predicted peak Horseshoe Canyon CBM rates of between 1.4 and 1.9 Bdf/day between 2011 and 2017, with sustained rates of approximately 185 MMcf/day as far into the future as 2050. The analysis indicated that CBM development in the region will result in approximately $9 billion of cumulative investment between 2006 and 2026, resulting in total production revenues of $80 to $106 billion. Between 2006 and 2064, CBM development will contribute between $97 and $123 billion to Alberta's gross domestic product (GDP), and another $7 to $12 billion in GDP outside of Alberta. GDP and other socio-economic impacts were distributed over 19 different economic sectors in the report. Results of the report suggested that over 650,000 man-years of employment, and between $15 to $19 billion in tax and royalty revenues will be created by CBM development in the region. Tax and royalty revenues include provincial, federal, and municipal governments. It was concluded that the development of CBM in Alberta will have a significant and positive impact on the future economy of Alberta and Canada. It was noted that there are non-economic impacts associated with the development, including environmental and sociological impacts, that were not addressed in the study. 4 tabs., 4 figs.

 
 
 
 
121

Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56) and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68), respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

Gray Linsay; Leyland Alastair H

2009-01-01

122

Socio-economic status is inversely related to bed net use in Gabon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48), running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92), shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73), ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96) and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67). In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19) and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45). Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs) is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.

Goesch Julia N; Schwarz Norbert G; Decker Marie-Luise; Oyakhirome Sunny; Borchert Lea B; Kombila Ulrich D; Poetschke Marc; Lell Bertrand; Issifou Saadou; Kremsner Peter G; Grobusch Martin P

2008-01-01

123

Declining inequality? The changing impact of socio-economic background and ability on education in Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper addresses several debates surrounding the reproduction of socio-economic inequality: (i) the persistent inequality thesis, which maintains that despite the increases in educational participation socio-economic inequalities in education have not declined; (ii) the related thesis of maximally maintained inequality, which proposes that socio-economic inequalities decline only when participation levels for the most privileged socio-economic group approach saturation levels; (iii) the meritocracy debate on the importance of ability vis-à-vis socio-economic background and changes in its influence over time; and (iv) the effect of policy changes on socio-economic inequalities in education. These issues are addressed using data from six Australian youth cohorts born between 1961 and the mid-1980s.

Marks G

2003-12-01

124

Socio-economic factors associated with infant mortality in Italy: an ecological study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction One issue that continues to attract the attention of public health researchers is the possible relationship in high-income countries between income, income inequality and infant mortality (IM). The aim of this study was to assess the associations between IM and major socio-economic determinants in Italy. Methods Associations between infant mortality rates in the 20 Italian regions (2006–2008) and the Gini index of income inequality, mean household income, percentage of women with at least 8 years of education, and percentage of unemployed aged 15–64 years were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Univariate linear regression and multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to determine the magnitude and direction of the effect of the four socio-economic variables on IM. Results The Gini index and the total unemployment rate showed a positive strong correlation with IM (r?=?0.70; p?b?=?0.15, p? Conclusions In Italy, a high-income country where health care is universally available, variations in IM were strongly associated with relative and absolute income and unemployment rate. These results suggest that in Italy IM is not only related to income distribution, as demonstrated for other developed countries, but also to economic factors such as absolute income and unemployment. In order to reduce IM and the existing inequalities, the challenge for Italian decision makers is to promote economic growth and enhance employment levels.

Dallolio Laura; Di Gregori Valentina; Lenzi Jacopo; Franchino Giuseppe; Calugi Simona; Domenighetti Gianfranco; Fantini Maria

2012-01-01

125

Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)

2005-01-01

126

Socio-economic, familial and perinatal factors associated with obesity in Sydney schoolchildren.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To examine associations between socio-economic, familial and perinatal factors with overweight/obesity in 6- and 12-year-old schoolchildren. METHODS: Eligible year-1 (1765/2238, mean age 6.7 years) and year-7 students (2353/3144, mean age, 12.7 years) from a random cluster sample of 55 Sydney schools were examined during 2003-2005. Height, weight and body mass index were measured. Overweight or obesity was classified using International Obesity Task Force cut points. Information about each child's socio-demographic status, familial and perinatal information was sought in parental questionnaires. RESULTS: After multivariate adjustment, lower parental education was significantly associated with prevalent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children, odds ratio (OR) 1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.01) and OR 2.16 (CI 1.34-4.13), respectively. Smoking during pregnancy was associated with a higher likelihood of being obese among both 6- and 12-year-old children, OR 1.90 (CI 1.05-3.46) and OR 1.78 (CI 1.22-2.61). Population attributable risk estimates indicate that 14.9% and 10.1% of prevalent cases of obesity in 12-year-old children may be attributable to being: an only child or a heavy newborn, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We show interdependent relationships between socio-economic, familial and perinatal factors and childhood weight status. Improved understanding of these pathways may help in developing childhood obesity prevention strategies.

Gopinath B; Baur LA; Burlutsky G; Robaei D; Mitchell P

2012-01-01

127

Socio-economic analysis of CCS/EOR in Denmark; Samfundsoekonomisk analyse af CCS/EOR i Danmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Danish Energy Agency has initiated an analysis of the socio-economic sustainability of a CCS / EOR system based on CO{sub 2} capture from Danish sources and injected into selected Danish North Sea oil fields. The analysis shall assess the socioeconomic consequences of such a project as well as highlight the budgetary economic effects for the parties involved. Taking into account a realistic time frame for conversion of the cogeneration power plants and for the extent of the possible capture of CO{sub 2} in each of these plants, it has been chosen only to presuppose the establishment of CCS in three plants, namely Studstrupvaerket, Fynsvaerket and Nordjyllandsvaerket. Only the oil fields Dan, Halfdan and Gorm were selected for the analysis. The analysis shows that in the selected oil fields it is possible to increase the oil production by approx. 151 million. barrels of oil to the year 2049, which corresponds to approx. 40% of the estimated potential in these fields. The increased oil production requires that approx. 95 million. tonnes of CO{sub 2} is captured in the three power plants, which are subsequently transported and injected in the oil fields in the North Sea. The transport of CO{sub 2} from the CHP plants to the North Sea are assumed to be done by ship, since this solution is economically favorable and also offers logistical advantages and increased flexibility. The analysis shows that both the budget economic and the socio-economic analysis as a whole provide a positive economic net present value over a 30-year period. The socio-economic benefit is expected to be about. 3.5 billion DKK higher. This difference is due to especially the following conditions: a) CO{sub 2} emissions of CO{sub 2} transport are only included in the socio-economic analysis, since shipping is outside the quota system. In the socio-economic analysis, the estimated value of damage impact on the environment is included; b) The value of the oil produced after 2049 is included in the socio-economic analysis as terminal values, while the budget economic analysis does not include effects beyond 30 years; c) The value of district heating losses in the socio-economic analysis are assumed to correspond to the socio-economic costs of district heating, while the value in the budget economic analysis is calculated as the district heating consumers' expected additional price at the transition from cogeneration to district heating.; d) The cost of SO{sub 2} emissions is in the socio-economic analysis set to damaging effects while in the budget economic analysis it is set to the level of charges. (LN)

NONE

2012-12-15

128

ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECT OF GROWING MISCANTHUS GENOTYPES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deliberate cultivation of plants for energy biomass is becoming increasingly important. Biomass should significantly contribute to increase the share of renewable energy in the European Union. On the research locality of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra localized in the village Kolí?any (Slovak Republic) is implemented basic research focused on the growth and production of the two genotypes energy grass Miscanthus. Research is carried out since 2010. In the third year after planting (the year 2012) were confirmed biomass production depending on the genotype of 35.45 and 36.67 t ha-1. Based on the analysis of growth and production performance of Miscanthus genotypes can be evaluated the high environmental and socio-economic aspects of growing energy crops, depending on the specific agro-ecological conditions.

Marián KOTRLA; Martin PR?ÍK

2013-01-01

129

Common Organizing Mechanisms in Ecological and Socio-economic Networks  

CERN Document Server

Previous work has shown that species interacting in an ecosystem and actors transacting in an economic context may have notable similarities in behavior. However, the specific mechanism that may underlie similarities in nature and human systems has not been analyzed. Building on stochastic food-web models, we propose a parsimonious bipartite-cooperation model that reproduces the key features of mutualistic networks - degree distribution, nestedness and modularity -- for both ecological networks and socio-economic networks. Our analysis uses two diverse networks. Mutually-beneficial interactions between plants and their pollinators, and cooperative economic exchanges between designers and their contractors. We find that these mutualistic networks share a key hierarchical ordering of their members, along with an exponential constraint in the number and type of partners they can cooperate with. We use our model to show that slight changes in the interaction constraints can produce either extremely nested or rand...

Saavedra, Serguei; Uzzi, Brian

2011-01-01

130

Socio-economic research for innovative energy technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the 21st century global environment and energy issues become very important, and this is characterized by the long-term (in the scale of a few tens years) and world-wide issue. In addition, future prospect of these issues might be quite uncertain, and scientific prediction could be very difficult. For these issues vigorous researches and various efforts have been carried out from various aspects; e.g., world-wide discussion such as COP3 in Kyoto, promotion of the energy-saving technology and so on. Development of environment-friendly energy has been promoted, and new innovative technologies are explored. Nuclear fusion is, of course, a promising candidate. While, there might be some criticism for nuclear fusion from the socio-economic aspect; e.g., it would take long time and huge cost for the fusion reactor development. In addition, other innovative energy technologies might have their own criticism, as well. Therefore, socio-economic research might be indispensable for future energy resources. At first we have selected six items as for the characteristics, which might be important for future energy resources; i.e., energy resource, environmental load, economics, reliability/stability, flexibility on operation and safety/security. Concerning to innovative energy technologies, we have nominated seven candidates; i.e., advanced coal technology with CO2 recovery system, SOFC top combined cycle, solar power, wind power, space solar power station, advanced fission and fusion. Based on questionnaires for ordinary people and fusion scientists, we have tried to assess the fusion energy development, comparing with other innovative energy technologies. (author)

2006-01-01

131

Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country’s socio-economic status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI), the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP) among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

Gyan P. Sharma; Karen J. Esler; James N. Blignaut

2010-01-01

132

Explaining household socio-economic related child health inequalities using multiple methods in three diverse settings in South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Despite free healthcare to pregnant women and children under the age of six, access to healthcare has failed to secure better child health outcomes amongst all children of the country. There is growing evidence of socioeconomic gradient on child health outcomes METHODS: The objectives of this study were to measure inequalities in child mortality, HIV transmission and vaccination coverage within a cohort of infants in South Africa. We also used the decomposition technique to identify the factors that contribute to the inequalities in these three child health outcomes. We used data from a prospective cohort study of mother-child pairs in three sites in South African. A relative index of household socio-economic status was developed using principal component analysis. This paper uses the concentration index to summarise inequalities in child mortality, HIV transmission and vaccination coverage. RESULTS: We observed disparities in the availability of infrastructure between least poor and most poor families, and inequalities in all measured child health outcomes. Overall, 75 (8.5%) infants died between birth and 36 weeks. Infant mortality and HIV transmission was higher among the poorest families within the sample. Immunisation coverage was higher among the least poor. The inequalities were mainly due to the area of residence and socio-economic position. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that socio-economic inequalities are highly prevalent within the relatively poor black population. Poor socio-economic position exposes infants to ill health. In addition, the use of immunisation services was lower in the poor households. These inequalities need to be explicitly addressed in future programme planning to improve child health for all South Africans.

Nkonki LL; Chopra M; Doherty TM; Jackson D; Robberstad B

2011-01-01

133

Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development Over Time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59 years) were assessed on three occasions, with 2-year lags between each assessment. Parent personality and observed positive parenting both predicted 12(th) graders personality. Additionally, we found evidence for an indirect link between parent personality and later adolescent personality through positive parenting. The results suggest that parents may play a significant role in the development of adolescent personality traits that promote competence and personal well-being across the life course.

Schofield TJ; Conger RD; Donnellan MB; Jochem R; Widaman KF; Conger KJ

2012-04-01

134

An Updated Prasad’s Socio Economic Status Classification for 2013  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is imperative to understand the Socio-Economic Status (SES) of the community in order to correlate its impact on health and quality of living standards. Almost all community- based studies focus on socio-economic stratification, which is the key parameter for proper understanding the affordability of the community of health services, amenities and their purchasing capacity.

Shankar Reddy Dudala; Arlappa N

2013-01-01

135

Assessing associations between socio-economic environment and self-reported health in Amsterdam using bespoke environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The study of the relationship between residential environment and health at micro area level has a long time been hampered by a lack of micro-scale data. Nowadays data is registered at a much more detailed scale. In combination with Geographic Information System (GIS)-techniques this creates opportunities to look at the relationship at different scales, including very local ones. The study illustrates the use of a 'bespoke environment' approach to assess the relationship between health and socio-economic environment. METHODS: We created these environments by buffer-operations and used micro-scale data on 6-digit postcode level to describe these individually tailored areas around survey respondents in an accurate way. To capture the full extent of area effects we maximized variation in socio-economic characteristics between areas. The area effect was assessed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Although the contribution of the socio-economic environment in the explanation of health was not strong it tended to be stronger at a very local level. A positive association was observed only when these factors were measured in buffers smaller than 200 meters. Stronger associations were observed when restricting the analysis to socioeconomically homogeneous buffers. Scale effects proved to be highly important but potential boundary effects seemed not to play an important role. Administrative areas and buffers of comparable sizes came up with comparable area effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that socio-economic area effects reveal only on a very micro-scale. It underlines the importance of the availability of micro-scale data. Through scaling, bespoke environments add a new dimension to study environment and health.

Veldhuizen EM; Stronks K; Kunst AE

2013-01-01

136

Housing improvements for health and associated socio-economic outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The well established links between poor housing and poor health indicate that housing improvement may be an important mechanism through which public investment can lead to health improvement. Intervention studies which have assessed the health impacts of housing improvements are an important data resource to test assumptions about the potential for health improvement. Evaluations may not detect long term health impacts due to limited follow-up periods. Impacts on socio-economic determinants of health may be a valuable proxy indication of the potential for longer term health impacts. OBJECTIVES: To assess the health and social impacts on residents following improvements to the physical fabric of housing. SEARCH METHODS: Twenty seven academic and grey literature bibliographic databases were searched for housing intervention studies from 1887 to July 2012 (ASSIA; Avery Index; CAB Abstracts; The Campbell Library; CINAHL; The Cochrane Library; COPAC; DH-DATA: Health Admin; EMBASE; Geobase; Global Health; IBSS; ICONDA; MEDLINE; MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations; NTIS; PAIS; PLANEX; PsycINFO; RIBA; SCIE; Sociological Abstracts; Social Science Citations Index; Science Citations Index expanded; SIGLE; SPECTR). Twelve Scandinavian grey literature and policy databases (Libris; SveMed+; Libris uppsök; DIVA; Artikelsök; NORART; DEFF; AKF; DSI; SBI; Statens Institut for Folkesundhed; Social.dk) and 23 relevant websites were searched. In addition, a request to topic experts was issued for details of relevant studies. Searches were not restricted by language or publication status. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies which assessed change in any health outcome following housing improvement were included. This included experimental studies and uncontrolled studies. Cross-sectional studies were excluded as correlations are not able to shed light on changes in outcomes. Studies reporting only socio-economic outcomes or indirect measures of health, such as health service use, were excluded. All housing improvements which involved a physical improvement to the fabric of the house were included. Excluded interventions were improvements to mobile homes; modifications for mobility or medical reasons; air quality; lead removal; radon exposure reduction; allergen reduction or removal; and furniture or equipment. Where an improvement included one of these in addition to an included intervention the study was included in the review. Studies were not excluded on the basis of date, location, or language. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Studies were independently screened and critically appraised by two review authors. Study quality was assessed using the risk of bias tool and the Hamilton tool to accommodate non-experimental and uncontrolled studies. Health and socio-economic impact data were extracted by one review author and checked by a second review author. Studies were grouped according to broad intervention categories, date, and context before synthesis. Where possible, standardized effect estimates were calculated and statistically pooled. Where meta-analysis was not appropriate the data were tabulated and synthesized narratively following a cross-study examination of reported impacts and study characteristics. Qualitative data were summarized using a logic model to map reported impacts and links to health impacts; quantitative data were incorporated into the model. MAIN RESULTS: Thirty-nine studies which reported quantitative or qualitative data, or both, were included in the review. Thirty-three quantitative studies were identified. This included five randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 10 non-experimental studies of warmth improvements, 12 non-experimental studies of rehousing or retrofitting, three non-experimental studies of provision of basic improvements in low or mIddle Income countries (LMIC), and three non-experimental historical studies of rehousing from slums. Fourteen quantitative studies (42.4%) were assessed to be poor quality and were not included in the synthesis. Twelve studies reporting qualitative data

Thomson H; Thomas S; Sellstrom E; Petticrew M

2013-01-01

137

Decomposing Kenyan socio-economic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and measles immunization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Skilled birth attendance (SBA) and measles immunization reflect two aspects of a health system. In Kenya, their national coverage gaps are substantial but could be largely improved if the total population had the same coverage as the wealthiest quintile. A decomposition analysis allows identifying the factors that influence these wealth-related inequalities in order to develop appropriate policy responses. The main objective of the study was to decompose wealth-related inequalities in SBA and measles immunization into their contributing factors. METHODS: Data from the Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey 2008/09 were used. The study investigated the effects of socio-economic determinants on [1] coverage and [2] wealth-related inequalities of SBA utilization and measles immunization. Techniques used were multivariate logistic regression and decomposition of the concentration index (C). RESULTS: SBA utilization and measles immunization coverage differed according to household wealth, parent's education, skilled antenatal care visits, birth order and father's occupation. SBA utilization further differed across provinces and ethnic groups. The overall C for SBA was 0.14 and was mostly explained by wealth (40%), parent's education (28%), antenatal care (9%), and province (6%). The overall C for measles immunization was 0.08 and was mostly explained by wealth (60%), birth order (33%), and parent's education (28%). Rural residence (-19%) reduced this inequality. CONCLUSION: Both health care indicators require a broad strengthening of health systems with a special focus on disadvantaged sub-groups.

Van Malderen C; Ogali I; Khasakhala A; Muchiri SN; Sparks C; Van Oyen H; Speybroeck N

2013-01-01

138

Growth in prepubertal Nigerian children is highly dependent on socio-economic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To relate height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of prepubertal children in Sagamu, Nigeria, to parental socio-economic class (SEC). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1606 children aged 5-11 years from eight public and eight private primary schools. Height, weight and BMI from 1557 prepubertal children were standardized using two references: US-CDC birth cohorts 1929-1974 and Swedish birth cohort 1974. RESULTS: Children in private schools were taller and heavier than those in public schools (p < 0.0001). Most children (73.2%) belonged to lower SEC, 17.6% to middle and 9.2% to upper. HeightSDS , weightSDS and BMISDS increased with increasing parental SEC. Upper SEC children were taller and heavier with higher BMIs than those from lower SEC (p < 0.0001). HeightSDS , weightSDS and BMISDS were below '0' in all SEC and gender groups (all p < 0.002). Younger children were taller and heavier than the older (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Fathers/mothers with higher education/occupation had taller and heavier children with higher BMI than other groups. Children in private schools were taller and heavier than children in public schools. Disparities in parental SEC still constrain optimal child growth in Nigeria: whereas height and weight of children of upper SEC were close to the US-CDC29-74 reference mean, they were still below Swedish74 reference mean representing more optimal growth.

Fetuga B; Ogunlesi T; Olanrewaju D; Jonsson B; Albertsson-Wikland K

2013-08-01

139

NEW SPECIES IN THE ADRIATIC ICHTHYOFAUNA AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES FOR CROATIAN MARINE FISHERIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Any change in marine ecosystems has effect on users of marine bioresources, primarily in marine fisheries. The impact of climate change on the marine fisheries sector is complex and the effects can be both positive and negative in economic terms. Changes include the entire marine environment, the change in the migration patterns of fish in open waters, potential changes in the growing season and the time required for fish farming, as well as a potential increase in the number of invasive species. This has led to an increased number of new fish species caught, but also to the endangerment of fish and other produce. Numerous new species of fish have been recorded in the Adriatic Sea in the past thirty years. This paper presents the actual and potential socio-economic impacts of some new species in the Croatian Adriatic ichthyofauna on Croatian marine fisheries.

Jakov Dul?i?; Željana ?o?o; Branko Dragi?evi?; Marlena ?ukteraš

2012-01-01

140

Socio-economic effects of bioenergy; Bioenergian yhteiskuntataloudelliset vaikutukset  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report studies the socio-economic effects and benefits of domestic fuels - peat and wood, and agricultural energy plants also - in power and heat generation. For evaluation of employment and income effects, it compares the costs of domestic as well a imported fuels as regards production, transportation and power stations by looking especially at the direct labour input and inputs in terms of intermediate products and investment. Their indirect employment effects and allocation to domestic factor income and imports are introduced by means of an input-output model. The net changes in the disposable incomes of local households, firms and municipalities, the government and others are derived from factor incomes by means of income redistribution. The economy-wide profitability of the domestic fuels was evaluated using a macroeconomic model, the FMS model system. The particular question posed was how much the domestic fuels could cost at most to be economically profitable. It was shown that macroeconomic profitability is affected essentially by real production costs and the import prices of the imported fuels. Subsidies and differentiated fuel taxes have only little impact on the macroeconomic profitability although they change the private profitability of the fuels considerably. This is why fuel taxes were excluded in the macroeconomic profitability evaluations

Maeenpaeae, I.; Maennistoe, J.

1995-12-31

 
 
 
 
141

Dynamic impacts of socio-economic development in rural Texas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several development policies and programs have been enacted to improve the economic vitality, social well-being, and quality of life in rural communities. Predominant among these is the attempt by many rural communities to attract or expand industry to promote economic growth. The main objective of this study is to develop a dynamic interactive model that accommodates the projection of socio economic growth and the impact of additional employment from a new plant in a rural community. The economic account contains projections of business activities, income and employment by sector. A local input-output model is constructed by using the location quotient technique. The Leontief dynamic input-output framework is used to project the output levels by economic sector while considering capital replacement and expansion requirements as well as current consumption. The demographic account uses an age-sex cohort survival method to project population. The annual local labor force is estimated by labor participation rates for each age and sex cohort, and is used to determine the migration activities required to match employment requirements. The public service account is projected by the average standards method, and includes age-specific usage coefficients for local areas. The projections encompass education, medical, housing, criminal justice, fire protection, water supply, water treatment, sewage treatment, solid waste disposal, and transportation requirements.

Kao, C.S.

1985-01-01

142

EU socio-economic research on fusion: Findings and program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1997 the European Commission launched a Socio-Economic Research program to study under which conditions future fusion power plants may become competitive, compatible with the energy supply system and acceptable for the public. It has been shown, among others, that: 1) local communities are ready to support the construction of an experimental fusion facility, if appropriate communication and awareness campaigns are carried out; 2) since the externalities are much lower than for competitors, fusion power plants may become the major producer of base load electricity at the end of the century in Europe, if climate changes have to be mitigated, if the construction of new nuclear fission power plants continues to be constrained and if nuclear fusion power plants become commercially available in 2050. Cooperating with major international organizations, the program for next year aims to demonstrating, through technical economic programming models and global multi-regional energy environmental scenarios, that the potential global benefits of fusion power plants in the second half of the century largely outdo the RD and D costs borne in the first half to make it available. Making the public aware of such benefits through field experiences will be part of the program. (author)

2003-01-01

143

Socio-economic status of workers of building construction industry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Informal/unorganised sector covers 92% of the total work force in India. About 50% of the construction industrial workers belonged to informal/unorganised sector. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status of construction worker and availing of the social security measures by this working group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The study covered 150 subjects with an average age of 32 years and mean duration of work was nine years. They were poorly paid with an average income of Rs. 4956/-per month. Though the literacy rate was high (79%) yet most of them were addicted to different habits like drinking alcohol, smoking bidi, tobacco chewing etc., Abusing the family members were noted in (30%) of the cases. Their regular intake of food, usually inadequate in quantity and was mainly consisted of rice, pulses, vegetables. Though most of the subjects (73%) were living in kacha houses yet the latrine facilities were available to 62% of total covered houses. Majority of them were unaware of the different social security schemes/measures. The details have been discussed here.

Tiwary G; Gangopadhyay PK; Biswas S; Nayak K; Chatterjee MK; Chakraborty D; Mukherjee S

2012-05-01

144

Rehabilitation of burn patients: an underestimated socio-economic burden.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Patients with burns utilise intensive medical care and rehabilitation. Deep dermal burns lead to scar contractures. Virtually no published data exists on costs for treatment of acute burns in comparison to burn sequelae. Our purpose was to collect financial data on burn therapy to estimate the socio-economic burden of thermal injuries. METHODS: German-DRG for in-patient treatment of burns was collected from our burn center. DRG-related T95.- coding served as a search tool for burn associated sequelae. To include rehabilitation costs, data from the largest health care insurance and a workmen compensation fund were acquired. FINDINGS: Acute burn treatment comprised 92% of costs for intensive care with approximately 4.600 EUR per percent total burned surface area (TBSA). Expenses for non-intensive care patients were significantly lower than for burn sequelae. Rehabilitation expenses were 4.4-fold higher than costs for acute burns including 59% for manual therapy and 37% for auxiliary material. CONCLUSIONS: TBSA multiplied by factor 4600 could serve for cost calculation of severely burned patients. Approximately 0.3 billion EUR in total or 270.000 EUR per patient/year were spent on burn sequelae. Early admission to specialized burn centers is advocated with state-of-the-art treatment to minimize burn sequelae and health care expenses.

Mirastschijski U; Sander JT; Weyand B; Rennekampff HO

2013-03-01

145

Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band - a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies) of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a) breast-feeding (b) personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. METHODS: Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random) of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. RESULTS: Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs--at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude--that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. CONCLUSION: CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

Beale N; Kane G; Gwynne M; Peart C; Taylor G; Herrick D; Boyd A

2006-01-01

146

Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies) of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a) breast-feeding (b) personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random) of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children), a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

Beale Norman; Kane Gill; Gwynne Mark; Peart Carole; Taylor Gordon; Herrick David; Boyd Andy

2006-01-01

147

Hair cortisol reflects socio-economic factors and hair zinc in preschoolers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the relationship between children's hair cortisol and socioeconomic status of the family, as measured by parental education and income. Low family socioeconomic status has traditionally been considered a long-term environmental stressor. Measurement of hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cumulative stress exposure across an extended period of time. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between hair cortisol and parental education as well as parental income in a representative sample of preschoolers. Data on hair cortisol, family income, and parental education were collected for a representative sample of 339 children (Mean age=4.6 years; SD=.5 years) from across 23 neighbourhoods of the city of Vancouver, Canada. As maternal education was shown previously to be associated with hair zinc level, hair zinc measurements were included as well in order to explore potential relationships between hair zinc and hair cortisol. The relationship between hair cortisol and parental education was examined using hierarchical regression, with hair zinc, gender, age, and single parenthood included as covariates. Maternal and paternal education both were correlated significantly with hair cortisol (r=-0.18; p=.001). The relationship remained statistically significant even after controlling for all demographic covariates as well as for hair zinc and after taking the neighbourhood-level clustering of the data into account. Parental income, on the other hand, was not related significantly to children's hair cortisol. This study provides evidence that lower maternal and paternal education are associated with higher hair cortisol levels. As hair cortisol provides an integrated index of cortisol exposure over an extended time period, these findings suggest a possibly stable influence of SES on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Cumulative exposure to cortisol during early childhood may be greater in children from low socio-economic backgrounds, possibly through increased exposure to environmental stressors.

Vaghri Z; Guhn M; Weinberg J; Grunau RE; Yu W; Hertzman C

2013-03-01

148

Natural positional-functional zones of the main European basins; 1 : 28 600 000; Principal natural-positional nodal areas of Central Europe; 1 : 2 450 000; Natural barriers and socio-economic corridors; 1 : 1 000 000; Selected types of positional-nodal regions; 15 satellite interpretations; Positional-nodal macroregions and their structural parts; 1 : 1 000 000; Schematic typification of positional-nodal macroregions and regions; 1 : 2 000 000; Dominant natural barriers - the Liptovska kotlina Basin and the Horehronie area; satellite interpretation; Position of natural-settlement microregions and dissection of their core parts; 1 : 1 000 000; Positional-functional characteristics of natural-settlement nodal microregions; 1 : 1 500 000; Natural-settlement nodal regions; 1 : 500 000; Division of natural-settlement nodal regions; 1 : 3 000 000  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This group of maps is original - the maps assess positional aspect of natural and socio-economic element and their mutual relationships. It is based on natural barriers of Slovakia, which define the nodal natural-settlement macroregions, regions, and microregions. These units are evaluated on the maps from the point of view of their spatial structure and dissection. The basic map in this group is the map No. 24. Natural-settlement nodal regions (barriers and developmental axes). It was produced by harmonisation of natural-nodal regions with administrative boundaries of communes. Mountain ridges (as natural barriers) in the mountainous areas, as well as the minor ridges in hilly and upland areas, but also position of units (spatial structure) in lowlands, typological differences (for instance, distinct, including economic, difference in accessibility of underground waters in flood-plains and loess hills) or the barrier effect of important rivers were decisive for establishment of unit boundaries. As this is the case of combination of natural and socio-economic settlement gravitation, the boundaries of units follow the boundaries of cadasters, or boundaries of higher administrative units. The natural- nodal regions, microregions and their parts are characterised in the following maps from the point of view of position, dissection of their core parts and prevailing function. It was possible then to define, for instance, microregions, transitory, boundary and ending isolated, eventually core and marginal microregions. (authors)

2002-01-01

149

Estudo comparativo sobre superdotação com famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida Comparative study on giftedness with socio-economically disadvantaged families  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e comparar características de famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida relacionadas ao desenvolvimento de comportamentos de superdotação. Participaram da pesquisa 28 famílias residentes no Distrito Federal, sendo 14 com superdotados e 14 sem filhos superdotados. Os dados foram coletados por meio do Inventário de Sucesso Parental - PSI, do Teste de Pensamento Criativo - TCP-DT e de questionário sobre características individuais e familiares do superdotado. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizados o teste t, a correlação de Pearson e estatística descritiva. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao nível de comunicação, uso do tempo, práticas de ensino parental e satisfação parental. Os genitores de superdotados e não superdotados avaliaram o nível de comunicação e satisfação parental em relação a comportamento dos filhos de forma mais positiva do que seus filhos. Os resultados também indicaram uma maior participação dos pais de alunos superdotados na vida acadêmica de seus filhos. A maioria dos alunos superdotados, que participou do estudo, era do gênero masculino e ocupava posição especial na família como primogênitos e unigênitos. Além disso, não foi observada relação entre os níveis de criatividade de pais e filhos. Ficou evidenciado, porém, que os alunos superdotados apresentaram desempenho superior no teste de criatividade quando comparados aos alunos não superdotados. Os resultados chamam a atenção para o papel que a família pode desempenhar no estímulo de habilidades, talentos e interesses.The purpose of this study was to describe and to compare characteristics of socio-economically disadvantaged families in relation to the development of gifted behavior. Twenty-eight families from the Federal District participated in this study, among whom 14 had gifted children and 14 had non-gifted children. The data was collected through the Parent Success Inventory - PSI, the Test of Creative Thinking - Drawing Production, and a questionnaire about individual and family characteristics of the gifted. Data was analyzed using the t-test, Pearson's correlation and descriptive statistics. Differences were found between the groups with respect to communication, use of time, parental teaching practices and parental satisfaction. Parents of gifted students and non-gifted students evaluated the level of communication and parental satisfaction more positively than their children did. The results also indicated that the parents of gifted students participated more in the academic lives of their children. The majority of gifted students were boys, who occupied a special family position as the eldest or only child. In addition, no relationship was observed between creativity levels of parents and children. Nevertheless, the evidence showed that gifted students obtained higher performance on creativity tests when compared to non-gifted students. The results highlight the role that the family plays in fostering abilities, talents and interests.

Jane Farias Chagas; Denise de Souza Fleith

2009-01-01

150

Estudo comparativo sobre superdotação com famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida/ Comparative study on giftedness with socio-economically disadvantaged families  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e comparar características de famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida relacionadas ao desenvolvimento de comportamentos de superdotação. Participaram da pesquisa 28 famílias residentes no Distrito Federal, sendo 14 com superdotados e 14 sem filhos superdotados. Os dados foram coletados por meio do Inventário de Sucesso Parental - PSI, do Teste de Pensamento Criativo - TCP-DT e de questionário sobre característi (more) cas individuais e familiares do superdotado. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizados o teste t, a correlação de Pearson e estatística descritiva. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao nível de comunicação, uso do tempo, práticas de ensino parental e satisfação parental. Os genitores de superdotados e não superdotados avaliaram o nível de comunicação e satisfação parental em relação a comportamento dos filhos de forma mais positiva do que seus filhos. Os resultados também indicaram uma maior participação dos pais de alunos superdotados na vida acadêmica de seus filhos. A maioria dos alunos superdotados, que participou do estudo, era do gênero masculino e ocupava posição especial na família como primogênitos e unigênitos. Além disso, não foi observada relação entre os níveis de criatividade de pais e filhos. Ficou evidenciado, porém, que os alunos superdotados apresentaram desempenho superior no teste de criatividade quando comparados aos alunos não superdotados. Os resultados chamam a atenção para o papel que a família pode desempenhar no estímulo de habilidades, talentos e interesses. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to describe and to compare characteristics of socio-economically disadvantaged families in relation to the development of gifted behavior. Twenty-eight families from the Federal District participated in this study, among whom 14 had gifted children and 14 had non-gifted children. The data was collected through the Parent Success Inventory - PSI, the Test of Creative Thinking - Drawing Production, and a questionnaire about individual and famil (more) y characteristics of the gifted. Data was analyzed using the t-test, Pearson's correlation and descriptive statistics. Differences were found between the groups with respect to communication, use of time, parental teaching practices and parental satisfaction. Parents of gifted students and non-gifted students evaluated the level of communication and parental satisfaction more positively than their children did. The results also indicated that the parents of gifted students participated more in the academic lives of their children. The majority of gifted students were boys, who occupied a special family position as the eldest or only child. In addition, no relationship was observed between creativity levels of parents and children. Nevertheless, the evidence showed that gifted students obtained higher performance on creativity tests when compared to non-gifted students. The results highlight the role that the family plays in fostering abilities, talents and interests.

Chagas, Jane Farias; Fleith, Denise de Souza

2009-04-01

151

National identity of high-school adolescents in an era of socio-economic change: Russia and Ukraine in the post-perestroika period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study focuses on the national identity of high-school adolescents in Russia and Ukraine in the post-perestroika period. Adolescents studying in public high schools in 12 medium-size and large cities completed questionnaires in 1999 (n = 468) and 2007 (n = 646). Russian adolescents consistently reported a more positive attitude towards their country and a stronger identification with the nation than did Ukrainian adolescents. The effect of socio-economic changes on the two components of national identity differed: the adolescents reported a more positive attitude towards their country in 2007 than in 1999, while their identification with the nations did not change significantly. Social support received from peers was associated with a more positive attitude towards the country and a stronger identification with the nation, while social support received from parents and teachers was not related to the national identity of adolescents. Adolescents' better psychological adjustment was associated with a more positive attitude towards the country but was not related to their identification with the nation. Adolescents who belonged to the ethnic majority reported a more positive attitude towards the country and a stronger identification with the nation as compared to adolescents who belonged to ethnic minorities.

Tartakovsky E

2011-02-01

152

Socio-Economic Statues and Physical Activity Levels of 3th Grade Students: A Case Study in Istanbul Beykoz Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The children and adolescent period is critical time to acquire positive lifestyle habits. The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI?s and socio-economic level of their school environments. This study also reviewed the articles about physical activity level of children, its relation to their socio-economic status and some other related tasks. Inactive life style sustained together with bad eating habits brings many healthy problems such as obesity and cardiovascular disease Approach: Technological development brings with it improving life style causing sedentary life for the public in developed and also developing Country. Physical activity can be viewed as a form of healthy life because it predicts functioning and adaptation and offers capabilities that enable people to live healthy. In this purposed three different socio-economic levels of six schools were determined accordance with declaration of National Education Department in Beykoz province. Each couple of school reflected one?s Socio-Economic Status (SES). Totally 250 students from three different SES were participated (low-SES, n = 92; middle-SES, n = 73; high-SES, n = 85). Student?s height and weight were measured and their Body Mass Index (BMI) was determined. BMIs were classified according to Cole?s BMI tables which were underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Children Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ), which is proposed by World Health Organization, was used for assessment of their Physical Activity Level (PAL). Data from the questionnaires was collected in a suitable relational database and analyzed with SPSS statistical package. Logit log linear analysis was applied to understand the trend of qualitative variables (SES, BMIs and PALs). Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI?s and socio-economic level of their school environments. Results and Conclusion: It was observed that the effects of SES, gender and BMI on PAL were not statistically significant (p>0.05). On the other hand, there were a significant interaction between PAL and SES (p<0.01); PAL, SES and BMI (p<0.05); and also PAL, SES and Gender (p<0.05). The results would be more reliable when the study performed in big population and different provinces of the big cities in further studies.

Pinar Salih; Kucuk Y. Meral; Kaya Fatih; Ozdol Yeliz; Biçer Bilal

2011-01-01

153

PHASING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROJECTS FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

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Full Text Available ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper describes appropriate phases and review points (or ‘gates’) for South African projects aimed at transferring technology for socio-economic development. Data gathering was done through a Delphi survey supplemented by a focus group session. A total of 42 knowledgeable respondents participated. The most significant phases of projects under consideration were confirmed, and relevant activities per phase and criteria for reviewing at the ‘gates’ between phases were identified. A total of 59% of resources should be made available for pre- and post-implementation activities, compared with the 41% of project resources to be made available during implementation. The causes of the failure of technology transfer projects under consideration were also identified. It is concluded that the use of a phased approach would improve the probability of project success.AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel beskryf die relevante fases en oorsig punte (of ‘hekke’) vir Suid-Afrikaanse projekte wat gemik is op die oordrag van tegnologie vir sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkeling. Die insameling van data is gedoen deur middel van ’n Delphi opname wat aangevul is met ’n fokusgroep. ’n Totaal van 42 kundige respondente het deelgeneem. Die mees beduidende fases van projekte onder bespreking is bevestig, en relevante aktiwiteite per fase asook kriteria vir oorsigpunte by die ‘hekke’ tussen die fases is geïdentifiseer. ’n Totaal van 59% van die hulpbronne behoort aangewend te word tydens die fases voor en na implementering, in vergeleke met 41% tydens implementering. Die oorsake vir mislukking van projekte onder bespreking is ook geïdentifiseer. Die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat die gebruik van ’n gefaseerde benadering die waarskynlikheid van projek sukses behoort te verhoog.

E. Beukman; H. Steyn

2012-01-01

154

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE EDUCATION OF N-W.F.P (PAKISTAN)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of students in the urban and rural areas of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group were collected to examine the various socio-economic factors which affect our education system. A logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate) person(s) and the risk factors are Father literacy [FE], Father income[FI] Parents’ attitude towards education[PA], Mother literacy [ME], Present examination system [PE], Present education curriculum [PC].The results of the analysis show that the factors Father Education combined with Parents’ Attitude towards Education, Father Income combined with Mother Education, Father Income combined with Parents’ Attitude towards Education are some of the factors which affect the education in N-W.F.P. Thus we concluded that there are a number of socioeconomic factors which affect our education.

Atta Ur RAHMAN; Salah UDDIN

2009-01-01

155

School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents : risk factors differ between socio-economic groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups.

Andersen, Anette; Holstein, BjØrn E

2007-01-01

156

South Asian Diasporic Youth in Denmark: Socio-Economic Strategies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on two empirical studies, this article investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s. Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of  Indian and Pakistani background (n=5). The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalism and identity construction. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, businessrelated investment and direct remittances, 2) awareness of parents’ strategies, although few or no self-employed strategies and 3) collective strategy through an organisation. There are considerable temporal as well as qualitative differences in the strategies as compared to the parental generation.  

Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie

2009-01-01

157

Elucidating the spatially varying relation between cervical cancer and socio-economic conditions in England  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR) was applied to the relation between cervical cancer disease incidence rates in England and socio-economic deprivation, social status and family structure covariates. Local parameters were estimated which describe ...

Cheng Edith MY; Atkinson Peter M; Shahani Arjan K

158

Postresection survival outcomes of pancreatic cancer according to demographic factors and socio-economic status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Aim Aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of demographic factors (DGF) and socio-economic status (SES) on survival after pancreatic cancer resection in a German setting. Methods Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreaticoduodenectomy were id...

159

Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. METHODS: Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18--46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. RESULTS: The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. CONCLUSION: For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking. To increase both transport-related and leisure-time walking, it is necessary to improve both objective walkability-related characteristics (street connectivity and proximity of destinations), and perceptions of personal safety, favourable aesthetics and neighbourhood social cohesion.

Van Dyck D; Veitch J; De Bourdeaudhuij I; Thornton L; Ball K

2013-09-01

160

To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which higher intellectual abilities protect higher socio-economic groups from functional decline and to examine whether the contribution of intellectual abilities is independent of childhood deprivation and low birth weight and other socio-economic and developmental factors in early life. Methods The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS) is a prospective cohort study based upon participants in a registration network of general practices in The Netherlands. Information was available on 1211 men and women, 24 – 81 years old, who were without cognitive impairment at baseline (1993 – 1995), who ever had a paid job, and who participated in the six-year follow-up. Main outcomes were longitudinal decline in important components of quality of life and successful aging, i.e., self-reported physical, affective, and cognitive functioning. Results Persons with a low occupational level at baseline showed more functional decline than persons with a high occupational level. Socio-economic and developmental factors from early life hardly contributed to the adult socio-economic differences in functional decline. Intellectual abilities, however, took into account more than one third of the association between adult socio-economic status and functional decline. The contribution of the intellectual abilities was independent of the early life factors. Conclusion Rather than developmental and socio-economic characteristics of early life, the findings substantiate the importance of intellectual abilities for functional decline and their contribution – as potential, but neglected confounders – to socio-economic differences in functioning, successful aging, and quality of life. The higher intellectual abilities in the higher socio-economic status groups may also underlie the higher prevalences of mastery, self-efficacy and efficient coping styles in these groups.

Bosma Hans; van Boxtel Martin PJ; Kempen Gertrudis IJM; van Eijk Jacques; Jolles Jelle

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior, and parenting in South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than nonaffected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child well-being. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and nonaffected caregiver-child dyads (n?=?2477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS's association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression, and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty.

Lachman JM; Cluver LD; Boyes ME; Kuo C; Casale M

2013-08-01

162

Socio- economic impact study of the electrification by the photovoltaic solar system in the AIJ/RPTES project area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a summary of the results of the study relating to the socio-economical impact of the electrification by photovoltaic solar system in the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES. The localities concerned with the study are the provinces of BALE and the MOUHOUN. The data analyzes relating to the electrification by solar system of the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES, revealed that solar electrical energy contributed to a significant degree to the socio-economic development, especially at the level of the structures having profited from the solar equipment. The principal conclusions drawn from these analyzes attested that: the solar system corresponds as well as possible for rural environment as well on the technological level as on the capacity plan of maintenance. The following reasons come to corroborate this fact: the weakness of the costs of management of the photovoltaic modules; the photovoltaic technic, in spite of a low incidental maximum power (1 kw/ m2), satisfied the priority needs for the rural populations (lighting, access to information and education, conservation of the vaccines in the CSPS, etc). - be photovoltaic installations cause: an average financial profit by CSPS of 180 487.5 FCFA/an, and a financial economy in the parents of the new-born babies estimated at 36,600 FCFA/an in each CSPS; an average financial economy by household of 49,452 FCFA/an.

2000-01-01

163

Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ? 94 cm (men) or ? 80 cm (women) and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women), aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI) and the second model (WC) in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are positively associated with overweight, while educational level and health related sports are negatively related to overweight in both genders. In men, alcohol consumption and smoking in the past are also among the lifestyle factors associated with overweight. This study also indicates that BMI and WC do not have the same discriminative function regarding different lifestyle factors.

Duvigneaud Nathalie; Wijndaele Katrien; Matton Lynn; Deriemaeker Peter; Philippaerts Renaat; Lefevre Johan; Thomis Martine; Duquet William

2007-01-01

164

Prevalence of Violence against Children in Families in Tripura and Its Relationship with Socio-economic Factors  

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Full Text Available Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females) studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study after obtaining their informed consent from eight randomly selected English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala, Tripura (India). Data were collected by using a specially designed ‘Semi-structured Questionnaire’. Results: Findings revealed that about 20.9% (67/320), 21.9% (70/230) and 18.1% (58/230) of the children experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence respectively. Male children were more likely to be victims of psychological and physical violence while female children experienced more sexual violence (p=sign). Further analysis of data revealed some relationship between violence against children and nuclear family (p=sign), uncongenial and/or disturbed family environment (p=sign) and dominating, short-tempered and/or aggressive parent personality (p=sign), irrespective of the nature of the violence. Physical violence was found to be more prevalent in high income families (p=sign) while children from the lower income group of families experienced more psychological violence (p=sign). Sexual violence was found to be equally prevalent in all socio-economic groups. The study also clearly indicated that academic performance of violence-experienced children, irrespective of nature of violence and socio-economic groups was poor compared to academic performance of non-violence-experienced children (p=sign). Conclusions: About one-fifth of the children under study did experience violence in Tripura. Findings speak in favor of an intervention program for creating awareness among parents and teachers about the issue of violence against children, targeted at parents when they meet for periodic parent-teachers meetings in the educational institutions.

Sibnath Deb; Subhasis Modak

2010-01-01

165

Reducing flood vulnerability and risk under changing socio-economic conditions - A qualitative case study in Upper Austria  

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Within the last decades severe flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe. Especially in 2002, Upper Austria was seriously affected. Beside the natural variability of precipitation events the increase of losses is strongly connected with socio-economic developments. Especially the increase of settlement areas and the specific values of such modern settlement areas in flood prone areas induced this increase of losses. The presented case study was initiated to analyse different consequences of the currently observed socio-economic trend and further socio-economic projections within the watershed of the so-called Ottnanger Redl in Upper Austria, a watershed which was affected by the event in 2002. The temporal dimension of this change in damage potential is analysed for the 1990s, current conditions and future scenarios (Statistics Austria). Beside the socio-economic development the common structural vulnerability but also the positive effect of legislation and standards concerning flood-adapted constructions are considered. The hydrological-hydraulic is realized based on a scaled scenario approach. Therefore, documented precipitation events at rain gauges are considered for precipitation run-off simulations. To include further events the gauged events are scalled in their intensity. The hydrological loads of these scenarios are considered within different 2D hydraulic simulations; representation of past, current and future settlement structure. Based on the current settlement structure and its transfer in an asset value database, the past structure of the 1990s is reconstructed with remote sensing methods. The future structure (different pragmatic scenarios) in contrast is estimated on the basis of the current situation, socio-economic projections of Statistics Austria, land-use planes and local development concepts of the individual communities and in cooperation with the Regional Government of Upper Austria. The monetary evaluation is conducted with visualized verified building footprints, high resolved building characteristics on address level, building cross cubature analyses based on LiDAR data and monetary evaluation guidelines for different sectors and building functionalities of the Oberösterreichische Versicherung (regional insurance companies). Furthermore, this monetary evaluation approach is crosschecked with further approaches. First, to analyse the flood risk situation under past, current and future socio-economic situations for the different hydraulic loads without any measures to reduce current vulnerability, common flood vulnerability approaches (loss ratio) are considered. In a next step, the introduced legislation and standards in Upper Austria concerning flood adapted constructions is implemented within the applied vulnerability approaches. Thus, the effect of flood adapted construction measures as well as different settlement scenarios on the risk situation can be analysed. The stochastic nature of flood events is furthermore considered within a Monte-Carlo based evaluation routine. The results of the study show exemplarily the positive effect of object-based measures to reduce the susceptibility of the elements at risk and, furthermore, demonstrate the consequences of different settlement scenarios on the flood risk situation within the study area. As the project is still in progress, the contribution will introduce the general framework and highlight some first results.

Huttenlau, Matthias; Reiss, Julia; Achleitner, Stefan; Plörer, Manuel; Hofer, Michael; Weingraber, Felix

2013-04-01

166

Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The impact of socio-economic position and integration level on the observed ethnic differences in dietary habits has received little attention. OBJECTIVES: To identify and describe dietary patterns in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, to explore ethnic differences in odds ratio (OR) for belonging to a dietary pattern, when adjusted for socio-economic status and integration level and to examine whether the dietary patterns were reflected in levels of biomarkers related to obesity and hyperglycaemia. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was a part of the STORK Groruddalen study. In total, 757 pregnant women, of whom 59% were of a non-Western origin, completed a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 28±2. Dietary patterns were extracted through cluster analysis using Ward's method. RESULTS: Four robust clusters were identified where cluster 4 was considered the healthier dietary pattern and cluster 1 the least healthy. All non-European women as compared to Europeans had higher OR for belonging to the unhealthier dietary patterns 1-3 vs. cluster 4. Women from the Middle East and Africa had the highest OR, 21.5 (95% CI 10.6-43.7), of falling into cluster 1 vs. 4 as compared to Europeans. The ORs decreased substantially after adjusting for socio-economic score and integration score. A non-European ethnic origin, low socio-economic and integration scores, conduced higher OR for belonging to clusters 1, 2, and 3 as compared to cluster 4. Significant differences in fasting and 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and total cholesterol were observed across the dietary patterns. After adjusting for ethnicity, differences in fasting insulin (p=0.015) and HOMA-IR (p=0.040) across clusters remained significant, despite low power. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that socio-economic and integration level may explain a large proportion of the ethnic differences in dietary patterns.

Sommer C; Sletner L; Jenum AK; Mørkrid K; Andersen LF; Birkeland KI; Mosdøl A

2013-01-01

167

Physical-Socio-Economic Modeling of Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the global nature of climate change, any assessment of the effects of plans, policies, and response to climate change demands a model that encompasses the entire Earth System, including socio- economic factors. Physics-based climate models of the factors that drive global temperatures, rainfall patterns, and sea level are necessary but not sufficient to guide decision making. Actions taken by farmers, industrialists, environmentalists, politicians, and other policy makers may result in large changes to economic factors, international relations, food production, disease vectors, and beyond. These consequences will not be felt uniformly around the globe or even across a given region. Policy models must comprehend all of these considerations. Combining physics-based models of the Earth's climate and biosphere with societal models of population dynamics, economics, and politics is a grand challenge with high stakes. We propose to leverage our recent advances in modeling and simulation of military stability and reconstruction operations to models that address all these areas of concern. Following over twenty years' experience of successful combat simulation, JPL has started developing Minerva, which will add demographic, economic, political, and media/information models to capabilities that already exist. With these new models, for which we have design concepts, it will be possible to address a very wide range of potential national and international problems that were previously inaccessible. Our climate change model builds on Minerva and expands the geographical horizon from playboxes containing regions and neighborhoods to the entire globe. This system consists of a collection of interacting simulation models that specialize in different aspects of the global situation. They will each contribute to and draw from a pool of shared data. The basic models are: the physical model; the demographic model; the political model; the economic model; and the media/information operations model. Each of these models focuses on part of the overall picture while; each contributes information about its area of expertise to a common pool and draws from that pool and the feedbacks from the other models as needed. Existing high-quality physical models are based on analysis of the dynamic interactions of atmospheric, land, and ocean processes. The demographic model tracks the civilian demographics needed by the other models. The populations of neighborhood group age-gender cohorts are affected by births, deaths, aging, and migration. This model provides labor supply and product demand curves to the economic model. The political model focuses on political actors and describes how they use their clout to seek their goals. Clout is derived from civilian support, the formal and informal alliances that actors make with each other, military strength, wealth, and control of information. It considers how they are constrained by their cultural heritage. It deals with shifting alliances. The economic model determines local and international prices and production quantities for a small number of products, including imports and exports and black markets; wages, jobs, and unemployment for a small number of labor categories; capital, growth, and inflation; resource usage and pollution. The media/information operations model addresses the effects of the control and content of inter- group and intra-group communications-and the side effects of these on other groups. This model will consist of rules (probably a large number of them) detailing the effects of media/information operations of various kinds on civilian parameters used in the other models, such as political goals, concern saliencies, and shapes of supply and demand curves.

Chamberlain, R. G.; Vatan, F.

2008-12-01

168

Socio-economic conditionings of families with children treated due to scoliosis in Eastern Poland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Scoliosis is a serious clinical problem which requires a systematic physical therapy and control of body balance--treatment from the moment of achieving skeletal maturity by a child. In the situation of neglect of such a management, the deformation of the spine often requires surgical intervention. The role of parents in the process of treatment of a child is undeniable. The study concerned the determination of socio-economic conditions and the engagement of parents with children treated due to scoliosis in Eastern Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted by means of a diagnostic survey. The study group consisted of 193 parents (148 females (76.7%) and 45 males (23.3%))--a randomly selected sample of the parents of children who participated in scoliosis rehabilitation courses in rehabilitation centres in Eastern Poland. The significance of the relationships between variables was investigated by means of chi-square test for independence. The differences between the empirical and theoretical sample distribution was examined by means of chi-square goodness-of-fit test. The significance level was set at p=0.05. RESULTS: The study group covered 47.7% of inhabitants of the rural areas and small towns, and 52.3% of inhabitants of medium-size and large cities. Respondents with a higher economic status were more engaged in the treatment of their child with scoliosis. A greater number of parents with university education level reported to a specialist; however the frequency of these visits, similar to incomplete families, was the lowest. CONCLUSIONS: The accessibility to specialists is lower in the rural than urban areas. 1. There is a relationship between the economic standard of the family and engagement in the treatment of a child with scoliosis. 2. There is a need to develop a system of education of parents concerning scoliosis and the consequences of neglecting treatment. 3. The system of public health services is insufficient for satisfying health demands of patients with the diagnosis of scoliosis.

Latalski M; Fatyga M; Kuzaka R; Bylina J; Trzpis T; Kopytiuk R; Jarosz MJ; Latalska M

2012-01-01

169

Socio-economic determinants of HIV testing and counselling: a comparative study in four African countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Research indicates that individuals tested for HIV have higher socio-economic status than those not tested, but less is known about how socio-economic status is associated with modes of testing. We compared individuals tested through provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC), those tested through voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and those never tested. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at health facilities in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda, as part of the Multi-country African Testing and Counselling for HIV (MATCH) study. A total of 3659 clients were asked about testing status, type of facility of most recent test and socio-economic status. Two outcome measures were analysed: ever tested for HIV and mode of testing. We compared VCT at stand-alone facilities and PITC, which includes integrated facilities where testing is provided with medical care, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) facilities. The determinants of ever testing and of using a particular mode of testing were analysed using modified Poisson regression and multinomial logistic analyses. RESULTS: Higher socio-economic status was associated with the likelihood of testing at VCT rather than other facilities or not testing. There were no significant differences in socio-economic characteristics between those tested through PITC (integrated and PMTCT facilities) and those not tested. CONCLUSIONS: Provider-initiated modes of testing make testing accessible to individuals from lower socio-economic groups to a greater extent than traditional VCT. Expanding testing through PMTCT reduces socio-economic obstacles, especially for women. Continued efforts are needed to encourage testing and counselling among men and the less affluent.

Obermeyer CM; Neuman M; Hardon A; Desclaux A; Wanyenze R; Ky-Zerbo O; Cherutich P; Namakhoma I

2013-09-01

170

Socio-economic impacts on flooding: a 4000-year history of the Yellow River, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyze 4000-year flood history of the lower Yellow River and the history of agricultural development in the middle river by investigating historical writings and quantitative time series data of environmental changes in the river basin. Flood dynamics are characterized by positive feedback loops, critical thresholds of natural processes, and abrupt transitions caused by socio-economic factors. Technological and organizational innovations were dominant driving forces of the flood history. The popularization of iron plows and embarkment of the lower river in the 4th century BC initiated a positive feedback loop on levee breaches. The strength of the feedback loop was enhanced by farming of coarse-sediment producing areas, steep hillslope cultivation, and a new river management paradigm, and finally pushed the flood frequency to its climax in the seventeenth century. The co-evolution of river dynamics and Chinese society is remarkable, especially farming and soil erosion in the middle river, and central authority and river management in the lower river.

Chen Y; Syvitski JP; Gao S; Overeem I; Kettner AJ

2012-11-01

171

Importance of bio-medical and socio-economic factors for increase of life expectancy  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes the connection between life expectancy according to sex and numerous factors on which its level depends on. Statistical analysis understood application of correlation and regression analysis for determining the connection strength of life expectancy and researched factors separately and then all factors together, as well as separately groups of health-medical and socio-economic factors. The analysis was carried out for a group of developed countries, medium developed, mixed group and Yugoslavia (now SCG) on available data for the second half of the 20th century. Analysis results for Yugoslavia showed that the greatest influence on life expectancy of all factors together were setting aside funds for social security (p<0.05). If only health-medical factors are observed, then child mortality up to 5 years and tumor mortality are in question. With women, the greatest influence is with child mortality up to five years old among all factors (socio-economic factors on life expectancy was very strong in present conditions of mortality, not only in positive, but in negative direction as well, and that their influence in that second half of the 20th century was greater than the influence of health-medical factors. Also, it seems that the males are more sensitive to these factors than women.

Radivojevi? Biljana M.; Veljanovi?-Mora?a Vukica

2004-01-01

172

Spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to health statistics, malaria accounts for about 30% and 15% of hospital admissions and deaths, respectively. The risk of P. falciparum infection varies across the country. This study describes the spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of P. falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania. METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 villages located in highland, lowland and urban areas of Korogwe district. Four cross-sectional malaria surveys involving individuals aged 0-19 years were conducted during short (Nov-Dec) and long (May-Jun) rainy seasons from November 2005 to June 2007. Household socio-economic status (SES) data were collected between Jan-April 2006 and household's geographical positions were collected using hand-held geographical positioning system (GPS) unit. The effects of risk factors were determined using generalized estimating equation and spatial risk of P. falciparum infection was modelled using a kernel (non-parametric) method. RESULTS: There was a significant spatial variation of P. falciparum infection, and urban areas were at lower risk. Adjusting for covariates, high risk of P. falciparum infection was identified in rural areas of lowland and highland. Bed net coverage levels were independently associated with reduced risk of P. falciparum by 19.1% (95%CI: 8.9-28.2, p

Mmbando, Bruno P; Kamugisha, Mathias L

2011-01-01

173

Traditional Knowledge and Institutions in Socio-Economic Development of Aboriginal Community  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the perspectives of use of traditional knowledge in national socio-economic development in general and in the development of local communities of aboriginal nations of Siberia in particular. This study aims to analyze the traditional economic activity with the help of the questionnaire of 1500 respondents (from different ethnic groups) in different parts of the Siberian region - Khakasia. The results of empirical research have shown that in Khakas communities traditional kinds of activity are extended and they are of great importance for people as earlier. Comparative analysis of labor productivity in animal husbandry and wildlife management allows to draw a conclusion of positive influence of traditional knowledge on these fields of activity. Some clusters of traditional economic institutions of the indigenous people of Southern Siberia have been identified. The results of evolution of traditional institutions and their current state are presented. Even the transformed institutions are accepted by members of national communities as earlier. The research demonstrates the traditional institutions and knowledgemay be the factor of economic increase and social development for local society. Moreover, it is a national heritage and it needs to be managed.

Svetlana Panikaroca; Maxim Vlasov

2013-01-01

174

Effect of socio-economic status on the prevalence of dermatophytosis in Madras  

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Full Text Available A total of 462 patients living in varying socio-economic conditions were screened for tinea infection. 372/462 (70.7%) were found to be culture positive for dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte. 35% of the infected cases were from the very low income group (group-I), 34.2% from low income group (group-II), 23.3% from middle income group (group-III) and 1.8% from moderately rich group (group-IV). Recurrent, chronic and extensive dermatophytosis were found to be most common in group-I (20.3%) and group-II (17.8%), whereas localized infections were common in group-IV (66.6%) and group-III (65.7%). Recurrence chronicity were more frequent in tinea cruris and tinea corporis. The present study suggests that group-I and group-II may be the likely reservoirs of human ringworm infections in Madras

Ranganathan S; Menon Thangam; Selvi Sentamil; Kamalam A

1995-01-01

175

The theological responses to the socio-economic activities that undermine water as a resource  

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Full Text Available This article focuses, from a theological perspective, on both the ecological crisis and the politico-economic dealings in relation to water – especially with regard to the unsound ways in which governments deal with this resource. Texts are read from an anthropogenic perspective, as opposed to an anthropocentric one. Such a reading scenario calls for responses from theology with regard to the human position in creation. Humans are not a grand master plan of creation, but the completion and fulfilment of it, given an enormous sense of responsibility for the earth. The article argues that the human–earth relation should be understood from the point of responsibility based on solidarity, interdependency and stewardship. Theologians are challenged to embrace eco-ethics.How to cite this article: Resane, T., 2010, ‘The theological responses to the socio-economic activities that undermine water as a resource’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 66(1), Art. #328, 7 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v66i1.328

Thomas Resane

2010-01-01

176

Analysis of the energy access improvement and its socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Access to modern energy is one of the most basic requirements for development. In rural areas of developing countries, there are a large number of people who do not have access to LPG and depend on traditional biomass such as wood, crop, and dung for cooking. In addition, energy has numerous and complex links with poverty reduction. Therefore, it is important to estimate the impacts of energy access improvement on socio-economic situation in the rural areas of developing countries quantitatively. This study focuses on socio-economic impacts of cooking demand through changes in stoves adopted by the rural households. We have developed an energy-economic model of rural areas in India to analyze the links between energy, income, and health hazard, applying both opportunity cost for using fuelwood and exposure to Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM). As a result of the analysis, there is a positive relation between the opportunity cost and the average RSPM exposure of women in the rural areas. Following to increase in the opportunity cost, that is, income, the cost of an improved wood stove becomes relatively lower first than that of a traditional wood stove, and then a gas stove attains price competitiveness. It is achieved that the average RSPM exposure is below the WHO and Japanese criteria for Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), 190 and 100 [{mu}g/m{sup 3}], at the opportunity cost of US$9 and 15/GJ, respectively. (author)

Kanagawa, Makoto; Nakata, Toshihiko [Management of Science and Technology Department, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-Yama 6-6-11-815, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

2007-04-20

177

Policies and Socio-economics influencing on Agricultural Production: A Case Study on Maize Production in Bokeo Province, Laos.  

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Full Text Available Since 2005s, agricultural land in northern Laos has become to be dominated by maize mono-cropping. The rapid expansion of this commercial crop has the resulted of policy implementations and demand of maize from the neighboring countries. The purpose of this study was aim to analyze the impact of commercial agricultural policy and socio-economic factors influencing on maize production in Houyxai Distirct, Bokeo Province of Laos. A survey of 98 maize farmers by face to face interviews was conducted in September 2010. Ordinary Least Square regression model was applied in order to explain how these policies and socio-economic factors effect to farmers and contribute to maize production. The results revealed that 94% of the variation in maize production (ton) is explained by the selected explanatory variables. Seven variables have a positive significant and one variable has a negative effect on maize production volume. The results also demonstrated that the most important effect to maize production is a “policy push” mainly variables of farmland, farmer organization, support market and credit access and a “market pull” by private sectors with providing input factors namely seeds, land preparation and techniques. Therefore, the government should look at the way of credit providing system that may effect in high production cost, at the same time the expansion of farm size is needed to take into account.

boundeth southavilay; Teruaki Nanseki; Shigeyoshi Takeuchi

2012-01-01

178

Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren aged 7-12 years living in remote areas in Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia to investigate the potential determinants influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function was measured by intelligence quotient (IQ), while examination scores of selected school subjects were used in assessing educational achievement. Blood samples were collected to assess serum Fe status. All children were screened for soil-transmitted helminthes. Demographic and socio-economic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Almost two-thirds (67·6 %) of the subjects had poor IQ and most of them (72·6 %) had insufficient educational achievement. Output of the stepwise multiple regression model showed that poor IQ was significantly associated with low household income which contributed the most to the regression variance (r2 0·059; P = 0·020). Low maternal education was also identified as a significant predictor of low IQ scores (r2 0·042; P = 0·043). With educational achievement, Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) was the only variable to show significant association (r2 0·025; P = 0·015). In conclusion, the cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren are poor and influenced by household income, maternal education and IDA. Thus, effective and integrated measures to improve the nutritional and socio-economic status of rural children would have a pronounced positive effect on their education.

Al-Mekhlafi HM; Mahdy MA; Sallam AA; Ariffin WA; Al-Mekhlafi AM; Amran AA; Surin J

2011-10-01

179

Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out among Aboriginal schoolchildren aged 7-12 years living in remote areas in Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia to investigate the potential determinants influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function was measured by intelligence quotient (IQ), while examination scores of selected school subjects were used in assessing educational achievement. Blood samples were collected to assess serum Fe status. All children were screened for soil-transmitted helminthes. Demographic and socio-economic data were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Almost two-thirds (67·6 %) of the subjects had poor IQ and most of them (72·6 %) had insufficient educational achievement. Output of the stepwise multiple regression model showed that poor IQ was significantly associated with low household income which contributed the most to the regression variance (r2 0·059; P = 0·020). Low maternal education was also identified as a significant predictor of low IQ scores (r2 0·042; P = 0·043). With educational achievement, Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) was the only variable to show significant association (r2 0·025; P = 0·015). In conclusion, the cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren are poor and influenced by household income, maternal education and IDA. Thus, effective and integrated measures to improve the nutritional and socio-economic status of rural children would have a pronounced positive effect on their education. PMID:21492493

Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A; Sallam, Atiya A; Ariffin, W A; Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Amran, Adel A; Surin, Johari

2011-04-15

180

Socio-Economic Implications of Retirement on Retired Public Servants in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study examined the socio-economic implications of retirement on retried public servants in Ekiti State, Nigeria.  Economic difficult might be a principal factor for maladjustment among retirees in Ekiti State.  Data for this study were collected from Primary source.  Four hundred (400) questionnaires were administered in this study.  Data for this study were analyzed with the aid of frequency count, percentage,  mean and statistical methods.  Results for this study showed that retirees in the study area had socio-economic problems resulting from poor pay, delay in payment of gratuity and pension, and hyper inflation on their meagre income.  This study, therefore, recommended that, the management of pension fund should be given to private pension administrators with credible records in order to forestall mismanagement of pension funds.  This study will be of immeasurable value to Government, Public Servants, Retirees, planners and researchers.Key words: Implication; Recommendations; Retirement socio-economic and public servants

Ayodeji OLATUNDE; Omojola Omowumi AWOSUSI

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland's social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs.

1997-01-01

182

Socio-Economic and Cultural Impacts of Resettlement on Bakassi People of Cross River State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The socio-economic and cultural impact of resettlement on Bakassi people of Cross River State, Nigeria was examined. The study elicited data from 516 respondents who were purposively selected from the Bakassi resettlement site at Ekpiri Ikang in Cross River State. Data were generated with the aid of structured questionnaire and statistically analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was observed that, the resettlement of Bakassi people significantly influenced their occupations, culture and accommodation pattern. It was recommended among others, that the Affected Persons (APs) should be properly compensated and adequate accommodation provided.Key words: Socio-economic; Resettlement and Cultural Impacts

Ogaboh A. M. Ogaboh; J. J. Akpanudoedehe; E. M. Ushie

2010-01-01

183

Environmental and Socio-economic Determinants of Malaria Prevalence in Uganda  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to establish the relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. An understanding of the factors that are associated w ith malaria prevalence is critical for the design of policies aimed at reducing malaria prevalence. Regression results using OLS indicate no relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. There is need for further study using disaggregated data, panel data, and adding more control variables to the health production model to identify the factors that are associated with malaria prevalence in Uganda.

Niringiye Aggrey; O.G. Douglason

2010-01-01

184

Child restraint use in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney during transition to new legislation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Child restraints protect a young child against injury in crashes but best practice child restraint use is low in Australia, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. We investigated factors associated with restraint use to inform the development of education and distribution programmes to support new Australian legislation on child passengers among families in low socio-economic areas of metropolitan Sydney. We interviewed a parent or carer of 1160 children aged 2-5 years enrolled at one of 28 early childhood centres in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney. Appropriate child restraint use was defined as a forward facing child restraint (FFCR) for 2-3 year olds and a FFCR or booster seat for children aged 4 years or more. Predictors of self-reported appropriate use were explored using logistic regression. Analysis was conducted on one child from each family in the target age range (2-5 years): 586 (51%) were male and the mean age was 3.5 (Standard Deviation 0.8) years. There were 432 (45%) families with annual income below $60,000, 248 (22%) spoke a language other than English at home and 360 (33%) had 3 or more children. Fifty-four percent of carers indicated that their 2-3 year old children travelled in a FFCR. Inappropriate use among children in this age group was more likely when the carer was <36 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.45), in families with ?3 children (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.10-2.44) and when the carer believed that a booster seat was just as safe as a FFCR (OR 2.98, 2.05-4.32). Eight-eight percent of carers of 4-5 year olds reported use of a booster seat or FFCR. Non-use was associated with low household income (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.67-5.75), in families with ?3 children (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.09-3.76) and families where a language other than English is spoken at home (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.10-5.21). Non-English speaking families had less awareness of the new law and poorer knowledge of safety benefits of child restraints. They also had lower household incomes and more concerns about cost of child restraints and booster seats. These findings can inform development of interventions to promote best practice child restraint use, which will reach non-English speaking families in this region. They also confirm the importance of economic and logistic barriers to best practice child restraint use.

Keay L; Hunter K; Brown J; Bilston LE; Simpson JM; Stevenson M; Ivers RQ

2013-01-01

185

Predictors of a favourable socio-economic situation in middle age for Swedish conscripts with self-reported drug use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Risk and protective factors for adverse outcomes among drug users in the general population have been identified. This study considers whether some of these factors predict favourable socio-economic situations in middle age. METHODS: A 37-year follow-up of 49,411 Swedish male conscripts 1969/70, born 1949-1951. Based on self-reports at conscription, 36,191 living subjects in 2006 were divided into users of certain dominant drugs (n=3946) and non-users (n=32,245). Individual data from conscription and national registers were linked. Using logistic bivariate and multivariate regression, odds ratios (ORs) for the categories of dominant-drug users, compared with non-users, were computed for outcomes in 1990 and in 2006: education ?12 years, being in work, and having a disposable income above the median. The ORs were calculated after considering familial, social and individual risk and protective factors, with separate analyses being performed for drug-use categories. RESULTS: Small changes were observed in the ORs for the outcomes in 1990 and 2006. After adjustment for protective and risk factors, users of the various dominant drugs had increased ORs with an education ?12 years but lower or non-significantly different from non-users for the other outcomes. The ORs decreased with severity of drug use. Among drug users, high intellectual ability, having a father from highest SES group, and communication with parents were among the factors that increased the probability of favourable socio-economic outcomes, especially when several protective factors were involved. CONCLUSIONS: Protective factors increase the probability of favourable outcomes, but least among individuals with severe drug use.

Davstad I; Leifman A; Allebeck P; Romelsjö A

2013-02-01

186

Attitudes towards the Euro: An Empirical Study Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)  

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This paper investigates changing attitudes towards the euro over time in Germany using longitudinal micro-data from the German Socio Economic Panel Study. We observe that a large part of the German population was worried about the new currency both before and after its introduction. Social psychological theories provide insight into these…

Isengard, Bettina; Schneider, Thorsten

2007-01-01

187

The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

David, Alex Hugh

2010-01-01

188

Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

2007-01-01

189

The effect of community-level socio-economic conditions on threatening racial encounters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper contributes to the emerging literature on racial and ethnic tension by analyzing the relationship between local socio-economic conditions and the propensity for outsiders to have threatening racial encounters with insiders. We use unique data for a sample of active-duty Army personnel tha...

Antecol, Heather; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.

190

Chronic bronchitis in the general population: influence of age, gender and socio-economic conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic bronchitis (CB) is an indicator of an increased risk of developing COPD, but its symptoms are often underestimated. Demographic and socio-economic conditions might influence its prevalence, reporting and impact. Data from a large epidemiological survey of the French general population were analyzed to determine the burden of CB, the magnitude of under-diagnosis and the influence of age, gender and socio-economic conditions. Altogether, 9050 participants aged 45 years or more provided complete data. The prevalence of symptoms and diagnosis of CB was 3.5% and 3.4%, respectively. CB was associated with impaired health status and activity and, in women, work loss. Among subjects with symptoms of CB, only 28.6% declared a known diagnosis of respiratory disease. Factors associated with symptoms of CB in multivariate analysis were male gender, active smoking, lower income and occupational category: the highest prevalence was observed in manual workers (5.6%) and self-employed subjects (5.2%). The under-diagnosis of CB was more marked in men and subjects of higher socio-economic categories. These results confirm that CB is markedly under-diagnosed in the general population. Socio-economic conditions influence both its prevalence (higher in low categories) and rate of diagnosis (lower in high categories), which should be considered when elaborating prevention and detection campaigns.

Ferré A; Fuhrman C; Zureik M; Chouaid C; Vergnenègre A; Huchon G; Delmas MC; Roche N

2012-03-01

191

Recirculation of biofuel ash - business economics and socio-economic calculations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report gives a comparison between a system where ashes from combustion of biofuels are returned to the forest soil and a system where the ashes are placed in a landfill. The comparison is made for a business economics perspective as well as for a socio-economic perspective 18 refs, 1 fig, 27 tabs.

1997-01-01

192

How socio-economic status contributes to participation in leisure-time physical activity  

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The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify individual, social, and environmental contributors (mediators) to individual- and area-level differences in leisure-time physical activity across socio-economic groups. A two-stage stratified sampling design was used to recruit 20– to 65-year-old...

193

QUAID-I-AZAM MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH ASIA  

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Full Text Available Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founding father of Pakistan led the freedom movement for the socio-economic development of the Muslims in South Asia. Although Jinnah and his socio-economic thought was the product of his time and it was in continuity with emancipatory thinking within Muslim political and scholarly circles which events after 1857 imposed upon them; yet his vision, commitment and perseverance make him one of the few statesmen world ever produced. The development of Jinnah’s socio-economic vision paralles his studies, visits and stays in England where he came across liberal and welfare ideas. Throughout his career he advocated nondiscriminatory socio-economic development of Indian masses, particularly the Muslims. From the text of Waqf-e-Alal-Aulad bill (1913) to the Muslim League’s resolution (1937) for an economic, social and cultural program; to establishing Federation of Muslim Chamber of Commerce and appointment of Economic Planning Committee (1943) dealing with diverse areas of social and economic welfare of masses and to his speech of August 11, 1947 where minorities’ rights and their equal inclusion in the development process is stressed, Jinnah stands prominent as a leader struggling to establishing a modern Muslim welfare state.

Munir Ahmed; Muhammad S. Ahmad; Muhammad Saeed

2013-01-01

194

The socio-economic monitoring of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant region: methodology, programme, implementation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article is devoted to the argumentation of the main principles of socio-economic monitoring of the Ignalina NPP region. The programme and the territorial levels of the monitoring as well as the main results of the trial of the programme are presented. (author)

2002-01-01

195

Some Socio-economic Factors affecting Solid Wastes Generation and Disposal in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified. Data for this study were obtained through the administration of questionnaire and review of existing literature. The information obtained from the field was analyzed using frequency and correlation matrix. The finding showed that the composition of waste generated in Ibadan Metropolis was a reflection of variation of socio-economic factors of the people. Also, socio-economic factors such as income, age, education, occupation and building types had greater influence on the choice of method of disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. It was recommended therefore that effective solid waste management can be achieved through the adoption of urban renewal strategy on the chaotic areas, provision of sizable fund by the government and proper education to the people among others.

Kayode, A. M.; Omole, F. K.

2011-01-01

196

Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

2013-01-01

197

Socio-Economic Trends in the Swedish Taxi Sector -Deregulation, Recommodification, Ethnification  

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This paper addresses the socio-economic consequences of the rapid deregulation of the Swedish taxi sector in the early 1990s. The deregulated taxi sector is illustrative of the ethnic labour market segmentation brought about by the evolution of the Swedish model from the universal welfare state, rel...

Slavnic, Zoran; Urban, Susanne

198

Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)  

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A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

2009-01-01

199

Family support and ease of access link socio-economic status and sports club membership in adolescent girls: a mediation study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Much research has been conducted into the determinants of physical activity (PA) participation among adolescent girls. However, the more specific question of what are the determinants of particular forms of PA participation, such as the link between participation through a sports club, has not been investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between participation in a sports club and socio-economic status (SES), access to facilities, and family and peer support, for female adolescents. METHODS: A survey of 732 female adolescent school students (521 metropolitan, 211 non-metropolitan; 489 Year 7, 243 Year 11) was conducted. The survey included demographic information (living arrangements, ethnicity indicators, and indicators of SES such as parental education and employment status and locality); access to facilities; and family and peer support (travel, encouragement, watching, praise, joint participation). For each characteristic, sports club participants and non-participants were compared using chi-square tests. Multiple mediation analyses were used to investigate the role of access, family and peer support in the link between SES and sport participation. RESULTS: There were significant associations (p<0.05) between sports club participation and: all demographic characteristics; all measures of family and peer support; and access to sport-related facilities. Highest levels of participation were associated with monolingual Australian-born families, with two parents, at least one of whom was well-educated, with both parents employed, and high levels of parental assistance, engagement and support. Participation in club sport among both younger and older adolescent girls was significantly positively associated with the SES of both their neighbourhoods and their households, particularly in metropolitan areas. These associations were most strongly mediated by family support and by access to facilities. CONCLUSIONS: To facilitate and promote greater participation in club sport among adolescent girls from low SES neighbourhoods and households, strategies should target modifiable determinants such as facility access and parental support. This will involve improving access to sports facilities and promoting, encouraging and assisting parents to provide support for their daughters' participation in sport clubs.

Eime RM; Harvey JT; Craike MJ; Symons CM; Payne WR

2013-01-01

200

Parents' Optimism, Positive Parenting, and Child Peer Competence in Mexican-Origin Families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study examined how parents' optimism influences positive parenting and child peer competence in Mexican-origin families. DESIGN: A sample of 521 families (521 mothers, 438 fathers, and 521 11-year-olds) participated in the cross-sectional study. We used structural equation modeling to assess whether effective parenting would mediate the effect of parents' optimism on child peer competence and whether mothers' and fathers' optimism would moderate the relation between positive parenting and child social competence. RESULTS: Mothers' and fathers' optimism were associated with effective parenting, which in turn was related to children's peer competence. Mothers' and fathers' optimism also moderated the effect of parenting on child peer competence. High levels of parental optimism buffered children against poor parenting; at low levels of parental optimism, positive parenting was more strongly related to child peer competence. CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with the hypothesis that positive parenting is promoted by parents' optimism and is a proximal driver of child social competence. Parental optimism moderates effects of parenting on child outcomes.

Castro-Schilo L; Ferrer E; Taylor ZE; Robins RW; Conger RD; Widaman KF

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

The Effect of Socio-Economic Status on Authoritarianism  

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Full Text Available IntroductionScientific review of the authoritarian personality began in 1950 with the pioneering work of Adorno and his colleagues. Following their attempt, extensive studies were carried out in social psychology, political science, and sociology in this field. Despite the extensive amount of research on authoritarianism in Western societies, few have been conducted in developing countries. The dimensions of this phenomenon in Third World countries can be extensive. The importance of the study of Authoritarianism in Iranian society goes to the Constitutional Revolution (August 1906), when this issue has been in Iranian intellectual discourse. But since the origin of authoritarianism has always been searched in political elite, little attention has been paid to the roots of this phenomenon in the context of social and interpersonal interactions between individuals. Studies show that authoritarian attitudes have adverse social consequences for society in addition to their political consequences. Thus, the scientific study of this phenomenon and its social roots seems necessary. Authoritarian personality has European roots. These studies are influenced by Marx and Freud's theories from theoretical perspective and they are rooted in studies carried out on workers in France and Germany from empirical perspective (Roiser & Willing, 1995:77-97). A study conducted in the Institute of Social Research in Frankfurt in the late 1920s included a wide set of cultural, social and political attitudes among white collar and blue collar workers in Weimar Germany. These studies reported a minority who has authoritarian attitudes. In another study carried out by Horkheimer, Fromm and Marcuse in 1936, family roots of authoritarian personality were explored. Material and MethodsAccording to the theory proposed, in this study we intend to test the integrated model; in that based on Lipstadt's theory of authoritarianism in the lower class, we identify the mechanisms that in the socioeconomic class lead to authoritarian character. For this purpose, we move from three paths toward authoritarianism- in the first path which combines Lipstadt and Adorno's theory we expect that the class influences authoritarianism from parental authoritarian control. In the second path, we expect that the class influences authoritarianism from parental authoritarian and self-esteem control. This path combines Lipstadt, Adorno and Cohen's theory. In the third path, we expect that the class influences authoritarianism through feeling of anomie. This path combines Lipstadt, Merton, Ferum and Arendt's theory. The model is depicted in the following schema. Here, we examine each of the paths. Figure 1: Theoretical model of the study The population of this study was students of Shahid Chamran University. Based on Krejcie and Morgan table, a sample of 377 individuals is representative of a population of 20000 individuals. In this study, 420 were selected through systematic random sampling. In that the list of student names was taken from each faculty and then students' names were randomly selected and they were asked to refer to a class and complete the devised questionnaire. 13 incomplete questionnaires were excluded and 407 remained for final analysis. In our sample, 191 were males and 216 females. Respondents' age was 21.84 with a standard deviation of 2.34. Ethnic composition of the sample was as follows: 33 Turks, 51 Arabs, 84 Kord, 103 Lor and 136 were Fars. Authoritarianism Scale items were composed of 9 items derived from well-known scales measuring these variables. In this study, instead of using an objective socioeconomic base approach, the mental approach was applied. In this way, instead of assessing respondent's status based on achieved data with regard to their income and education and ranking them in three levels, the respondent self-assesses his economic status. To measure parental authoritarian control variable, we used 10 items which were derived from Daniel Shek's (2006) scale and have been used in various studies by different research

Nasrollah Pour Afkari; Behzad Hakiminya; Arash Heydari; Shahrooz Foroutankia

2013-01-01

202

Growth in Literacy and Numeracy Achievement: Evidence and Explanations of a Summer Slowdown in Low Socio-Economic Schools  

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The phenomenon of summer slide or setback has gained a great deal of attention in the USA. It is understood to account for as much as 80% of the difference in achievement for students between low and high socio-economic families over their elementary schooling. In a mixed method longitudinal study of reforms in low socio-economic school…

Vale, Colleen; Weaven, Mary; Davies, Anne; Hooley, Neil; Davidson, Kristy; Loton, Daniel

2013-01-01

203

Obesity and Association with Area of Residence, Gender and Socio-Economic Factors in Algerian and Tunisian Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. Methods Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35–70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n?=?2741, men n?=?2004) and Tunisia (women n?=?2964, men n?=?2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI)?=?weight/height 18.5 kg/m2, obesity as BMI ?30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ?0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. Results Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9–8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8–32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4–39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1–11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2–15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4–5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1–4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9–3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0–5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. Conclusion The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity inequalities.

Atek, Madjid; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila; Laid, Youcef; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mezimeche, Nadia; Bougatef, Souha; Beji, Chiraz; Boutekdjiret, Leila; Martin-Prevel, Yves; Lebcir, Hassiba; Gartner, Agnes; Kolsteren, Patrick; Delpeuch, Francis; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Maire, Bernard

2013-01-01

204

Obesity and association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic factors in algerian and tunisian adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The epidemiological transition has resulted in a major increase in the prevalence of obesity in North Africa. This study investigated differences in obesity and its association with area of residence, gender and socio-economic position among adults in Algeria and Tunisia, two countries with socio-economic and socio-cultural similarities. METHODS: Cross-sectional studies used stratified, three-level, clustered samples of 35-70 year old adults in Algeria, (women n?=?2741, men n?=?2004) and Tunisia (women n?=?2964, men n?=?2379). Thinness was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI)?=?weight/height <18.5 kg/m(2), obesity as BMI ?30, and abdominal obesity as waist circumference/height ?0.6. Associations with area of residence, gender, age, education, profession and household welfare were assessed. RESULTS: Prevalence of thinness was very low except among men in Algeria (7.3% C.I.[5.9-8.7]). Prevalence of obesity among women was high in Algeria (30.1% C.I.[27.8-32.4]) and Tunisia (37.0% C.I.[34.4-39.6]). It was less so among men (9.1% C.I.[7.1-11.0] and 13.3% C.I.[11.2-15.4]).The results were similar for abdominal obesity. In both countries women were much more obesity-prone than men: the women versus men obesity Odds-Ratio was 4.3 C.I.[3.4-5.5] in Algeria and 3.8 C.I.[3.1-4.7] in Tunisia. Obesity was more prevalent in urban versus rural areas in Tunisia, but not in Algeria (e.g. for women, urban versus rural Odds-Ratio was 2.4 C.I.[1.9-3.1] in Tunisia and only 1.2 C.I.[1.0-5.5] in Algeria). Obesity increased with household welfare, but more markedly in Tunisia, especially among women. Nevertheless, in both countries, even in the lowest quintile of welfare, a fifth of the women were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevention of obesity, especially in women, is a public health issue in both countries, but there were differences in the patterning of obesity according to area of residence and socio-economic position. These specificities must be taken into account in the management of obesity inequalities.

Atek M; Traissac P; El Ati J; Laid Y; Aounallah-Skhiri H; Eymard-Duvernay S; Mézimèche N; Bougatef S; Béji C; Boutekdjiret L; Martin-Prével Y; Lebcir H; Gartner A; Kolsteren P; Delpeuch F; Romdhane HB; Maire B

2013-01-01

205

Socio-economic inequalities in malnutrition among children and adolescents in Colombia: the role of individual-, household- and community-level characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine socio-economic inequalities in malnutrition among Colombian children and adolescents, and to assess the contribution of individual-, household- and community-level factors to those inequalities. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were used from two sources: 2005 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey and 2005 Colombian census. Malnutrition outcomes included stunting and overweight. Multilevel Poisson models were used to estimate the association between individual, household and contextual characteristics and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence ratios of the poorest quintile (v. richest) were compared to assess the contribution of different characteristics to inequalities in malnutrition. SETTING: Population-based, representative of Colombia. SUBJECTS: Children and adolescents ,18 years of age (n 30 779) from the Colombian Demographic and Health Survey. RESULTS: Children and adolescents living in the poorest households were close to five times more likely to be stunted, while those from the richest households were 1?3–2?8 times more likely than their poorest counterparts to be overweight. Care practices and household characteristics, particularly mother’s education, explained over one-third of socio-economic inequalities in stunting. The proportion explained by access to services was not negligible (between 6% and 14 %). Access to sanitation was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of stunting for all age groups. Between 14% and 32% of socio-economic disparities in overweight were explained by maternal and household characteristics. Mother’s overweight was positively associated with overweight of the child. CONCLUSION: Socio-economic inequalities in stunting and overweight coexist among children and adolescents in Colombia. Malnutrition inequalities are largely explained by household characteristics, suggesting the need for targeted interventions.

Garcia S; Sarmiento OL; Forde I; Velasco T

2013-09-01

206

Pathways of neighbourhood-level socio-economic determinants of adverse birth outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although socio-economic factors have been identified as one of the most important groups of neighbourhood-level risks affecting birth outcomes, uncertainties still exist concerning the pathways through which they are transferred to individual risk factors. This poses a challenge for setting priorities and developing appropriate community-oriented public health interventions and planning guidelines to reduce the level of adverse birth outcomes. METHOD: This study examines potential direct and mediated pathways through which neighbourhood-level socio-economic determinants exert their impacts on adverse birth outcomes. Two hypothesized models, namely the materialist and psycho-social models, and their corresponding pathways are tested using a binary-outcome multilevel mediation analysis. Live birth data, including adverse birth outcomes and person-level exposure variables, were obtained from three public health units in the province of Ontario, Canada. Corresponding neighbourhood-level socio-economic, psycho-social and living condition variables were extracted or constructed from the 2001 Canadian Census and the first three cycles (2001, 2003, and 2005) of the Canadian Community Health Surveys. RESULTS: Neighbourhood-level socio-economic-related risks are found to have direct effects on low birth weight and preterm birth. In addition, 20-30% of the total effects are contributed by indirect effects mediated through person-level risks. There is evidence of four person-level pathways, namely through individual socio-economic status, psycho-social stress, maternal health, and health behaviours, with all being simultaneously at work. Psycho-social pathways and buffering social capital-related variables are found to have more impact on low birth weight than on preterm birth. CONCLUSION: The evidence supports both the materialist and psycho-social conceptualizations and the pathways that describe them, although the magnitude of the former is greater than the latter.

Meng G; Thompson ME; Hall GB

2013-01-01

207

How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems. (author)

2007-01-01

208

How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO{sub 2} emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems. (author)

Krajnc, N. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Domac, J. [Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb (Croatia)

2007-12-15

209

Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based) with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban) was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women) used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%), oral tobacco(13.5%), hukka (12%) and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%). Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01) and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001). Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens. Conclusion There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed.

Alam Ali; Iqbal Azhar; Mohamud Khalif; Laporte Ronald E; Ahmed Ashfaq; Nishtar Sania

2008-01-01

210

SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY  

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Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture) is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals.

Monica Dumitrascu; Mihaela Lungu; S. L. Stefanescu; R. Lacatusu

2005-01-01

211

Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region  

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Full Text Available The western North Pacific (WNP) is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs). However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr – driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower) by 14% (9%) in the positive (negative) phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980–2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

C. Welker; E. Faust

2013-01-01

212

Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this well-documented association. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cohort study of 4289 US male former military personnel with data on four widely used markers of socio-economic position (early adulthood and current income, occupational prestige, and education), IQ test scores (early adulthood and middle-age), a range of nine established CVD risk factors (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total blood cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, body mass index, smoking, blood glucose, resting heart rate, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s), and later mortality. We used the relative index of inequality (RII) to quantify the relation between each index of socio-economic position and mortality. Fifteen years of mortality surveillance gave rise to 237 deaths (62 from CVD and 175 from 'other' causes). In age-adjusted analyses, as expected, each of the four indices of socio-economic position was inversely associated with total, CVD, and 'other' causes of mortality, such that elevated rates were evident in the most socio-economically disadvantaged men. When IQ in middle-age was introduced to the age-adjusted model, there was marked attenuation in the RII across the socio-economic predictors for total mortality (average 50% attenuation in RII), CVD (55%), and 'other' causes of death (49%). When the nine traditional risk factors were added to the age-adjusted model, the comparable reduction in RII was less marked than that seen after IQ adjustment: all-causes (40%), CVD (40%), and 'other' mortality (43%). Adding IQ to the latter model resulted in marked, additional explanatory power for all outcomes in comparison to the age-adjusted analyses: all-causes (63%), CVD (63%), and 'other' mortality (65%). When we utilized IQ in early adulthood rather than middle-age as an explanatory variable, the attenuating effect on the socio-economic gradient was less pronounced although the same pattern was still present. CONCLUSION: In the present analyses of socio-economic gradients in total and CVD mortality, IQ appeared to offer greater explanatory power than that apparent for traditional CVD risk factors.

Batty GD; Shipley MJ; Dundas R; Macintyre S; Der G; Mortensen LH; Deary IJ

2009-08-01

213

Logit analysis of socio-economic factors influencing people to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana  

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Full Text Available This study analyzes the socio-economic factors that influence people’s decision to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana. Using a well structured interview schedule, a random sample of 98 people from Elmina in the central region of Ghana was selected for the study. Results from the descriptive statistics analysis of respondents identified fishing as a family business, minimum skills requirement and ready market for fish demand as factors that motivated majority of the people into fishing. Lack of storage facilities, access to credit, lack of government assistance and unpredictable changes in weather conditions on sea were the main constraints to fishing activities. Results from the logistic regression model indicated that household size and access to credit were significant factors that positively influenced people’s decision to become fishermen. The regression analysis further revealed that engaging in other income generating activity and being educated significantly reduces the probability to start fishing business.

Acquah Henry D.; Abunyuwah Isaac

2011-01-01

214

The epidemiology and socio-economic impact of Rift Valley fever epidemics in Tanzania: A review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A review was conducted to provide comprehensive update on Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Tanzania, with particular attention devoted to trend of occurrence, epidemiological factors, socio-economic impact and measures which were applied to its control. Information presented in this paper was obtained through extensive literature review. Rift Valley fever was documented for the first time in Tanzania in 1977. This was followed by epidemics in 1997 and 2007. Contrary to the latest epidemic in 2007 sporadic cases of RVF during the previous epidemics were confined to mainly livestock and mostly affecting northern parts of Tanzania. The latest disease epidemic expanded to cover wider areas (mostly northern and central zones) of the country involving both human and domestic ruminants. During the latest disease outbreak 52.4% (n = 21) of regions in Tanzania mainland were affected and majority (72.7, n = 11) of the regions had concurrent infections in human and animals. Phylogenetic comparison of nucleotide and amimo acid sequences revealed different virus strains between Kenya and Tanzania.Epidemiological factors that were considered responsible for the previous RVF epidemics in Tanzania included farming systems, climatic factors, vector activities and presence of large population of ruminant species, animal movements and food consumption habits. Majority of the RVF positive cases in the latest epidemic were livestock under pastoral and agro-pastoral farming systems.The disease caused serious effects on rural people's food security and household nutrition and on direct and indirect losses to livestock producers in the country. Psycho-social distress that communities went through was enormous, which involved the thinking about the loss of their family members and/or relatives, their livestock and crop production. Socially, the status of most livestock producers was eroded in their communities.Cessation of lucrative trade in ruminants resulted in serious economic losses to the populations who were totally dependent upon this income. Livestock internal market flows drastically dropped by 37% during latest epidemic. Rift Valley fever epidemics had dramatic impact of RVF outbreak on the international animal trade in which there was a 54% decline in exports equivalent to loss of $352 750.00. The estimate of loss as a result of deaths for cattle was $4 243 250.00 whereas that of goats and sheep was $2 202 467.00.Steps taken to combat epidemics included restriction of animal movements, ban of the slaughter of cattle and vaccination of livestock and health education.From past epidemics we have learnt that each subsequent outbreak had expanded to cover wider areas of the country. The disease had dramatic socio-economic impacts both at community and nation at large. The main challenges related to the control of RVF outbreaks included lack of preparedness plan for RVF, poor coordination and information transmission, limited facilities and manpower for RVF outbreak intervention. Control of the 2007 RVF epidemic was largely the result of animal and human health agencies working in an integrated manner.

Sindato C; Karimuribo E; Mboera EG

2012-01-01

215

A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age-adjusted odds ratio in male subjects was 1.9 (0.9, 3.9) but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, a lower socio-economic class, categorised either by occupational or educational level, was an additional risk factor for diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese who had known risk factors for glucose intolerance. These subjects should have increased priority for health education and regular diabetes screening. Our findings further emphasise the complex relationships between societal affluence, personal income and educational level

2001-01-01

216

Association of obesity with socio-economic factors and obesity-related chronic diseases in rural southwest China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study examines how obesity is distributed across socio-economic gradients, and investigates the relationship between obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases in rural Yunnan province of China. STUDY DESIGN: The study design is a cross-sectional community survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three rural areas of Yunnan province between 2008 and 2010, among 10,007 consenting individuals aged ?18 years. Information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking habits, self-reported stroke and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and family history of obesity-related chronic diseases was obtained using a standard questionnaire. Fasting blood sugar level, blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip circumference measurements were recorded for each individual. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence of obesity and central obesity was 8.8% and 46.0% among the study populations, respectively. Obesity and central obesity were more common in females than in males. After adjusting for age, sex, and current smoking and drinking status, individuals who belonged to an ethnic minority group had a lower probability of being both obese and centrally obese. Educational level was found to be negatively associated with the prevalence of obesity, and yearly household income was found to be positively associated with prevalence of central obesity. The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that obese and centrally obese people were more likely to suffer from diabetes, hypertension, and stoke. A positive association of IHD was only found in centrally obese people. CONCLUSIONS: In order to reduce the obesity epidemic in rural southwest China, effective interventions must address socio-economic factors. Reducing obesity has a profound impact on the reduction of morbidity associated with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

Cai L; He J; Song Y; Zhao K; Cui W

2013-03-01

217

Changes in socio-economic differences in food habits over time.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine absolute socio-economic differences in food habits and their changes over time. DESIGN: A longitudinal study using the cohort baseline mail surveys conducted in 2000-2002 (n 8960, response rate 67 %) and the follow-up in 2007 (n 7332, response rate 83 %), including data on seven food habits recommended in the national dietary guidelines, as well as socio-economic and sociodemographic variables. SETTING: Data from the Helsinki Health Study survey, followed up for 5-7 years. SUBJECTS: Municipal employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. RESULTS: Apart from fish and vegetable-based margarine on bread, the proportions of the recommended food items were higher for women than for men. The consumption of the recommended food items either increased or remained stable over the follow-up period. On the basis of the slope index of inequality (SII) it was observed that socio-economic differences widened with regard to the consumption of fresh vegetables and fish and use of vegetable-based margarine or oil in cooking, with the upper classes consuming these foods more often. The largest differences were observed in the consumption of fresh vegetables, for which the SII value among women was 2·38 (95 % CI 1·93, 2·95) at baseline and 2·47 (95 % CI 2·01, 3·03) at follow-up, and 3·36 (95 % CI 1·80, 6·28) and 3·47 (95 % CI 1·95, 6·19) for men, respectively. Socio-economic differences were non-existent for milk, and the reverse was observed for dark bread and vegetable-based margarine on bread. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of the recommended food items increased in the examined cohort over time. This increase was mostly similar throughout the socio-economic groups and thus the socio-economic differences remained stable. The upper classes followed the guidelines better with regard to the consumption of vegetables and fish and in the use of vegetable-based margarine or oil in cooking.

Seiluri T; Lahelma E; Rahkonen O; Lallukka T

2011-11-01

218

Twenty years of socio-economic inequalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence in Spain, 1987-2006.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To analyse trends in socio-economic inequalities in the prevalence of diabetes among men and women aged ?35 years in Spain during the period 1987-2006. METHODS: We analysed trends in the age-standardized prevalence of self-reported diabetes and obesity in relation to level of education using data from the Spanish National Health Survey for the years 1987, 1993, 1995, 1997, 2001, 2003 and 2006 (86?345 individuals aged ?35 years). To assess the relationship between education level and diabetes and obesity, we computed the Slope Index of Inequality and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) for each year. Additional models were fit to take into account mediator variables in socio-economic position (SEP) diabetes inequalities. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was higher among persons of low educational level, increasing more rapidly over time among people with lower education level (5.0-12.6% in men, and 8.4-13.1% in women between 1987 and 2006) than among those with higher education level (6.3-8.7% in men and 3.8-4.0% in women). Relative inequalities showed a weak tendency to increase. In women, the RII of self-reported diabetes increased from 3.04 (1.95-4.74) in 1987 to 4.28 (2.98-6.13) in 2006, while in men were constant since 1993. Trends in SEP inequalities in diabetes prevalence were attenuated when mediator variables were taken into account in women but not in men. CONCLUSION: SEP inequalities in diabetes existed >20 years ago and have increased, especially among women. These patterns may be explained by trends in health behaviours and obesity, but only to a limited extent.

Espelt A; Kunst AE; Palència L; Gnavi R; Borrell C

2012-12-01

219

Socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were carried out from June 1974 to May 1975 on the socio-economic status, health and nutritional status of the people in 4 villages, in the irrigation area of the Nong Wai Pioneer Agricultural Project of Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. The result obtained were compared with those in 2 non-irrigated villages in the same province, in order to identify the health and nutritional problems which might arise during the water resource development in the irrigation area. It was found that in the irrigated villages 90% of the peoples were farmers, while in the non-irrigated villages all were farmers. The socio-economic status of the people in the irrigated villages was much better than those in the non-irrigated ones. The income per family in the former was about three times greater than that in the latter. In the study of the health conditions of the villagers, the vulnerable age group including pre-school children under 7 years of age and school children in the elementary school class 1 and class 2, aged 7-9 years old, served as subjects for investigation. Haematological and physical examinations revealed many children with mild to moderate anaemia, vitamin B2 deficiency and a few cases of hepatomegaly. Anaemic children were found to be more prevalent in the non-irrigated villages than in the irrigated area. The overall parasitic infection rates in children in the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were similar with respect to severity of the infection. Hookworm infection, opisthorchiasis, strongyloidiasis and giardiasis were the leading parasitic infections, while amoebiasis was rare. Ascariasis and trichuriasis were not found. However, the first two helminthic infections had a low grade of intensity. The nutritional status of pre-school children, showed that there were more children with good growth in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated one. Serum proteins, albumin and globulin, and urinary urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio revealed normal findings indicating that the children had sufficient protein intake. The results of the urinary hydroxyproline-creatinine index suggested that many of the children in both groups of the villages were at marginal malnutrition status. Surveys on domestic animals including cattle, buffaloes, pigs, and field rats revealed no important zoonotic diseases except leptospirosis in a few rats. Some fish were found to harbour metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini, while some snails were positive for cercariae of O. viverrini, Schistosoma spindale, and Echinostoma malayanum. The overall findings indicated that the water resource development by establishing better irrigation, resulted in an improved socio-economic and nutritional status among the villagers, but health conditions and associated parasitic diseases and some nutritional deficiency still existed in the children. However, the findings from this study provide only preliminary data concerning the socio-economic status, health, and nutritional status of the villagers in the irrigation area... PMID:1030856

Harinasuta, C; Sornamani, S; Migasena, P; Vivatanasesth, P; Pongpaew, P; Intarakao, C; Vudhivai, N

1976-12-01

220

Socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies were carried out from June 1974 to May 1975 on the socio-economic status, health and nutritional status of the people in 4 villages, in the irrigation area of the Nong Wai Pioneer Agricultural Project of Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. The result obtained were compared with those in 2 non-irrigated villages in the same province, in order to identify the health and nutritional problems which might arise during the water resource development in the irrigation area. It was found that in the irrigated villages 90% of the peoples were farmers, while in the non-irrigated villages all were farmers. The socio-economic status of the people in the irrigated villages was much better than those in the non-irrigated ones. The income per family in the former was about three times greater than that in the latter. In the study of the health conditions of the villagers, the vulnerable age group including pre-school children under 7 years of age and school children in the elementary school class 1 and class 2, aged 7-9 years old, served as subjects for investigation. Haematological and physical examinations revealed many children with mild to moderate anaemia, vitamin B2 deficiency and a few cases of hepatomegaly. Anaemic children were found to be more prevalent in the non-irrigated villages than in the irrigated area. The overall parasitic infection rates in children in the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were similar with respect to severity of the infection. Hookworm infection, opisthorchiasis, strongyloidiasis and giardiasis were the leading parasitic infections, while amoebiasis was rare. Ascariasis and trichuriasis were not found. However, the first two helminthic infections had a low grade of intensity. The nutritional status of pre-school children, showed that there were more children with good growth in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated one. Serum proteins, albumin and globulin, and urinary urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio revealed normal findings indicating that the children had sufficient protein intake. The results of the urinary hydroxyproline-creatinine index suggested that many of the children in both groups of the villages were at marginal malnutrition status. Surveys on domestic animals including cattle, buffaloes, pigs, and field rats revealed no important zoonotic diseases except leptospirosis in a few rats. Some fish were found to harbour metacercariae of Opisthorchis viverrini, while some snails were positive for cercariae of O. viverrini, Schistosoma spindale, and Echinostoma malayanum. The overall findings indicated that the water resource development by establishing better irrigation, resulted in an improved socio-economic and nutritional status among the villagers, but health conditions and associated parasitic diseases and some nutritional deficiency still existed in the children. However, the findings from this study provide only preliminary data concerning the socio-economic status, health, and nutritional status of the villagers in the irrigation area...

Harinasuta C; Sornamani S; Migasena P; Vivatanasesth P; Pongpaew P; Intarakao C; Vudhivai N

1976-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

A Pilot Web Based Positive Parenting Intervention to Help Bipolar Parents to Improve Perceived Parenting Skills and Child Outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Children of bipolar parents are at elevated risk for psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder. Helping bipolar parents to optimize parenting skills may improve their children's mental health outcomes. Clear evidence exists for benefits of behavioural parenting programmes, including those for depressed mothers. However, no studies have explored web-based self-directed parenting interventions for bipolar parents. Aims: The aim of this research was to conduct a pilot study of a web-based parenting intervention based on the Triple P-Positive Parenting Programme. Method: Thirty-nine self-diagnosed bipolar parents were randomly allocated to the web-based intervention or a waiting list control condition. Parents reported on their index child (entry criterion age 4-10 years old). Perceived parenting behaviour and child behaviour problems (internalizing and externalizing) were assessed at inception and 10 weeks later (at course completion). Fifteen participants (4 control group and 11 intervention group) did not provide follow-up data. Results: Levels of child behaviour problems (parent rated; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) were above clinical thresholds at baseline, and problematic perceived parenting (self-rated; Parenting Scale) was at similar levels to those in previous studies of children with clinically significant emotional and behavioural problems. Parents in the intervention group reported improvements in child behaviour problems and problematic perceived parenting compared to controls. Conclusions: A web-based positive parenting intervention may have benefits for bipolar parents and their children. Initial results support improvement in child behaviour and perceived parenting. A more definitive study addressing the limitations of the current work is now called for.

Jones S; Calam R; Sanders M; Diggle PJ; Dempsey R; Sadhnani V

2013-04-01

222

Socio-economic determinants of helmet-wearing behaviour in Pune city, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was an attempt to investigate the socio-economic determinants of helmet wearing in an urban setting of India. A household survey using multistage cluster random sampling was conducted among 9014 individuals in Pune city from March 2008 to February 2009. Among 2259 individuals who reported driving two-wheeled vehicles, 1509 (66.8%) reported possession of a helmet, and among those who had reported possession of a helmet, only 700 (46.0%) reported regular use of helmets. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that residence, type of family, gender and socio-economic status were significantly associated with possession of helmet, and gender, residence and family type were significantly associated with regular helmet use while possessing one. In conclusion, this study showed that helmet-wearing behaviour is mostly influenced by the neighbourhood environment and norms and family and peer influence on behaviour rather than education and economic status.

Mirkazemi R; Kar A

2013-10-01

223

Socio-Economic Impact of Social Forestry on Farmers in District Faisalabad  

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Full Text Available Present study deals with the survey which was conducted to study the Socio-economic impact of social forestry on farmers in District Faisalabad. Forest community of plants and animals dominated by woody vegetation. In Pakistan there is not appropriate forestry system and farmers are not aware of social forestry. The main purpose of the study were to measure : to examine Socio-economic characteristics of farmers affecting planting : to examine the motivating factors behind the adoption of social forestry. To determine the farmer’s awareness about the advantages and disadvantages of social forestry. This study was undertaken in District Faisalabad. A sample of 150 respondents were selected. Date were analyzed by using statistical techniques.

Ume-Laila; Farkhanda Anjum

2001-01-01

224

Agent-Based and Macroscopic Modeling of the Complex Socio-Economic Systems  

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Full Text Available Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeling of complex socio-economic systems.Design/methodology/approach – The collective behavior is often modeled using stochastic and ordinary calculus, while the inter-individual interactions are modeled using agent-based models. In order to obtain the ideal model, one should start from these frameworks and build a bridge to reach another. This is a formidable task, if we consider the top-down approach, namely starting from the collective behavior and moving towards inter-individual interactions. The bottom-up approach also fails, if complex inter-individual interaction models are considered, yet in this case we can start with simple models and increase the complexity as needed.Findings – The bottom-up approach, considering simple agent-based herding model as a model for the inter-individual interactions, allows us to derive certain macroscopic models of the complex socio-economic systems from the agent-based perspective. This provides interesting insights into the collective behavior patterns observed in the complex socio-economic systems.Research limitations/implications –The simplicity of the agent-based herding model might be considered to be somewhat limiting. Yet this simplicity implies that the model is highly universal. It reproduces universal features of social behavior and also can be further extended to fit different socio-economic scenarios.Practical implications – Insights provided in this contribution might be used to modify existing policy making tools in order to cope with the social transformations in the contemporary society.Originality/Value – The relationship between the inter-individual and the collective behavior is an interesting topic considered to be coming from rather different fields by many scientists. Yet the topic has received due attention only in the recent years. Consequently, the truly systematic approaches directly bridging between these two concepts are somewhat rare. These approaches also differ among themselves – some of the research groups consider questionnaires to understand the individual incentives of the humans, some suggest varying applications of the known physical models and some have roots in the behavioral economics and utility optimization. Our approach in this sense is unique as we start from a simple agentbased herding model and use the ideas from the statistical physics to obtain its macroscopic treatments for the different socio-economic scenarios. In this contribution we present our previous approaches, namely considering new product diffusion in the market and also a financial market model, and also our most recent results, related to the leadership in the social communities and predator-prey type competition in the socio-economic systems. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the correspondence between the considered simple agent-based herding model and the considered macroscopic models was not previously discussed by the other research groups.Research type: research paper.

Aleksejus Kononovi?ius; Valentas Dani?nas

2013-01-01

225

Effect of socio-economic status on quality of life in people affected with respiratory allergy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study we investigated the impact of respiratory allergy on quality of life in young people, and examined whether socio-economic status modifies the above dependence. The study was conducted in 458 female and 363 male university students, aged 18-25. Information on socio-economic status (SES) was collected using a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and specific allergens were medically diagnosed. Quality of life (QoL) was based on the Polish version of the SF-36 test. Respiratory allergy or respiratory and food allergy were declared by 19.2 % of women and 19.0 % of men. The prevalence of allergy was higher in students with high SES. The students suffering from allergy obtained lower scores in all domains of QoL, but the differences were statistically insignificant. However, the overall test result in allergic students was significantly lower than that in non-allergic students. Differences QoL were significantly associated with socio-economic variables. In persons with low SES, the differences in QoL between those suffering from allergy and those who did not have allergy were larger than in persons with high SES. The results indicate that the course of allergic diseases is highly dependent on socio-economic status. The prevalence of allergy among students of low status is lower than among those of high status. However, allergy to a greater extent impairs the quality of life of students with low than high SES.

Pawlinska-Chmara R; Wronka I; Marchewka J

2013-01-01

226

Socio-economic Status of Livestock farmers of Narasapura Village - A Benchmark Analysis  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted following exploratory research design to ascertain the profile characteristics of livestock farmers. Findings indicated that majority of the farmers had low to medium profile. Hence efforts should be undertaken by the Government, Veterinary Universities and other extension agencies in providing information on livestock farming practices so that they could bring about change in their living and improve the socio-economic status of livestock farmers. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000): 215-218

K. Sathyanarayan; V. Jagadeeswary; V. Chandrashekhar Murthy; S. Wilfred Ruban and G. Sudha

2010-01-01

227

A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways – Part 1: Water use  

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Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment), and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr?1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr?1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

N. Hanasaki; S. Fujimori; T. Yamamoto; S. Yoshikawa; Y. Masaki; Y. Hijioka; M. Kainuma; Y. Kanamori; T. Masui; K. Takahashi; S. Kanae

2013-01-01

228

[Vaccination of medical personnel against hepatitis B: epidemiological and socio-economic aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological and social aspects of the vaccinal prophylaxis of medical personnel against hepatitis B are discussed on the basis of the morbidity analysis in viral hepatitis, the results of dynamic screening for the presence of hepatitis B markers and the state of postvaccination immunity. The reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the vaccine "Euvax B", as well as the socio-economic effect of vaccinal prophylaxis, are evaluated. PMID:11569255

Fel'dblium, I V; Isaeva, N V; Iudaeva, G F; Lukina, A I

229

[Vaccination of medical personnel against hepatitis B: epidemiological and socio-economic aspects  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemiological and social aspects of the vaccinal prophylaxis of medical personnel against hepatitis B are discussed on the basis of the morbidity analysis in viral hepatitis, the results of dynamic screening for the presence of hepatitis B markers and the state of postvaccination immunity. The reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the vaccine "Euvax B", as well as the socio-economic effect of vaccinal prophylaxis, are evaluated.

Fel'dblium IV; Isaeva NV; Iudaeva GF; Lukina AI

2001-07-01

230

Relation of waste generation and composition to socio-economic factors: a case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To develop an effective waste management strategy for a given region, it is important to know the amount of waste generated and the composition of the waste stream. Past research has shown that the amount of waste generated is proportional to the population and the average mean living standards or the average income of the people. In addition, other factors may affect the amount and composition of waste. These are climate, living habits, level of education, religious and cultural beliefs, and social and public attitudes. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in a suburban municipal area in Sri Lanka to determine the solid waste generation rate and waste composition based on field surveys and to determine the related socio-economic factors. A database was developed that included information on the quantity and composition of waste generated in a sample of households in the study area over a time period. The collected data was analysed to relate waste generation and composition data to various socio-economic factors. Over 400 sample households were selected for the study using a stratified random sampling methodology based on municipal wards and property values. A technique that considers both the number of households in a particular income group (property value range) and the standard deviation of property values within a given income group was used to determine the appropriate sample size for each municipal ward. Through category and regression analyses, the quantities of waste and waste composition were related to several socio-economic factors. The paper describes the basis for the sample selection, the methodology adopted for data collection, the socio-economic parameters used for the analysis, and the relationships developed from the analysis.

Bandara NJ; Hettiaratchi JP; Wirasinghe SC; Pilapiiya S

2007-12-01

231

Relation of waste generation and composition to socio-economic factors: a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

To develop an effective waste management strategy for a given region, it is important to know the amount of waste generated and the composition of the waste stream. Past research has shown that the amount of waste generated is proportional to the population and the average mean living standards or the average income of the people. In addition, other factors may affect the amount and composition of waste. These are climate, living habits, level of education, religious and cultural beliefs, and social and public attitudes. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in a suburban municipal area in Sri Lanka to determine the solid waste generation rate and waste composition based on field surveys and to determine the related socio-economic factors. A database was developed that included information on the quantity and composition of waste generated in a sample of households in the study area over a time period. The collected data was analysed to relate waste generation and composition data to various socio-economic factors. Over 400 sample households were selected for the study using a stratified random sampling methodology based on municipal wards and property values. A technique that considers both the number of households in a particular income group (property value range) and the standard deviation of property values within a given income group was used to determine the appropriate sample size for each municipal ward. Through category and regression analyses, the quantities of waste and waste composition were related to several socio-economic factors. The paper describes the basis for the sample selection, the methodology adopted for data collection, the socio-economic parameters used for the analysis, and the relationships developed from the analysis. PMID:17450419

Bandara, Nilanthi J G J; Hettiaratchi, J Patrick A; Wirasinghe, S C; Pilapiiya, Sumith

2007-04-21

232

A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways - Part 1: Water use  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment), and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr-1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr-1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

2013-07-01

233

Socio-economic and cultural determinants of human african trypanosomiasis at the Kenya - Uganda transboundary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Kenya and Uganda have reported different Human African Trypanosomiasis incidences in the past more than three decades, with the latter recording more cases. This cross-sectional study assessed the demographic characteristics, tsetse and trypanosomiasis control practices, socio-economic and cultural risk factors influencing Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b.r.) infection in Teso and Busia Districts, Western Kenya and Tororo and Busia Districts, Southeast Uganda. A conceptual framework was postulated to explain interactions of various socio-economic, cultural and tsetse control factors that predispose individuals and populations to HAT. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted between April and October 2008. Four administrative districts reporting T.b.r and lying adjacent to each other at the international boundary of Kenya and Uganda were purposely selected. Household data collection was carried out in two villages that had experienced HAT and one other village that had no reported HAT case from 1977 to 2008 in each district. A structured questionnaire was administered to 384 randomly selected household heads or their representatives in each country. The percent of respondents giving a specific answer was reported. Secondary data was also obtained on socio-economic and political issues in both countries. RESULTS: Inadequate knowledge on the disease cycle and intervention measures contributed considerable barriers to HAT, and more so in Uganda than in Kenya. Gender-associated socio-cultural practices greatly predisposed individuals to HAT. Pesticides-based crop husbandry in the 1970's reportedly reduced vector population while vegetation of coffee and banana's and livestock husbandry directly increased occurrence of HAT. Livestock husbandry practices in the villages were strong predictors of HAT incidence. The residents in Kenya (6.7%) applied chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapeutic controls against trypanosomiasis to a larger extent than Uganda (2.1%). CONCLUSION: Knowledge on tsetse and its control methods, culture, farming practice, demographic and socio-economic variables explained occurrence of HAT better than landscape features.

Rutto JJ; Osano O; Thuranira EG; Kurgat RK; Odenyo VA

2013-01-01

234

A Case Study On Socio-Economic Condition Of Tea Garden Labourers –Lohpohia Tea Estate Of Jorhat District, Assam.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tea Estate labourers play an important role in our society. Our society will never be complete without their involvement and contribution. Therefore, it is essential to study the socio-economic condition of this particular section. In our proposed study, I want to highlight the socio-economic conditions of this section not in general but specifically in connection with Lopohia Tea Estate of Jorhat district. Accordingly, we have framed some objectives to study the socio-economic condition of labourers of that particular Tea Estate

Gadapani Sarma

2013-01-01

235

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

236

Socio-economic variation in CT scanning in Northern England, 1990-2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status is known to influence health throughout life. In childhood, studies have shown increased injury rates in more deprived settings. Socio-economic status may therefore be related to rates of certain medical procedures, such as computed tomography (CT) scans. This study aimed to assess socio-economic variation among young people having CT scans in Northern England between 1990 and 2002 inclusive. Methods Electronic data were obtained from Radiology Information Systems of all nine National Health Service hospital Trusts in the region. CT scan data, including sex, date of scan, age at scan, number and type of scans were assessed in relation to quintiles of Townsend deprivation scores, obtained from linkage of postcodes with census data, using ?2 tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results During the study period, 39,676 scans were recorded on 21,089 patients, with 38,007 scans and 19,485 patients (11344 male and 8132 female) linkable to Townsend scores. The overall distributions of both scans and patients by quintile of Townsend deprivation scores were significantly different to the distributions of Townsend scores from the census wards included in the study (p Conclusions Social inequalities exist in the numbers of young people undergoing CT scans with those from deprived areas more likely to do so. This may reflect the rates of injuries in these individuals and implies that certain groups within the population may receive higher radiation doses than others due to medical procedures.

Pearce Mark S; Salotti Jane A; McHugh Kieran; Pyo Kim Kwang; Craft Alan W; Lubin Jay; Ron Elaine; Parker Louise

2012-01-01

237

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

238

British Columbia offshore oil and gas socio-economic issue papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs

2004-01-01

239

Socio-economic inequalities: a review of methodological issues and the relationships with cancer survival.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the past few decades, many studies on socio-economic factors and health outcomes have been developed using various methodologies with differing approaches. A bibliographic research in MEDLINE/PubMed and SCOPUS was carried out for the period 2000-2011 to describe the influence of socio-economic status (SES) on cancer survival, in particular with reference to the outcome of European research results and the results of some cases of other Western studies. This review is divided into two sections: the first describing the different approaches of the study on individuals and populations of the concept of "social class" as well as methods used to measure the association between deprivation and health (i.e. ecological level studies, deprivation indexes, etc.); and the second discussing the association between socio-economic factors and cancer survival, describing the roles of various determinants of differences in survival, such as clinical and pathological prognostic factors, together with consideration of diagnosis and treatment and some patients' characteristics.

Quaglia A; Lillini R; Mamo C; Ivaldi E; Vercelli M

2013-03-01

240

Prevalence, trends and associated socio-economic factors of obesity in South Asia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim: Worldwide obesity levels have increased unprecedentedly over the past couple of decades. Although the prevalence, trends and associated socio-economic factors of the condition have been extensively reported in Western populations, less is known regarding South Asian populations. Methods: A review of articles using Medline with combinations of the MeSH terms: 'Obesity', 'Overweight' and 'Abdominal Obesity' limiting to epidemiology and South Asian countries. Results: Despite methodological heterogeneity and variation according to country, area of residence and gender , the most recent nationally representative and large regional data demonstrates that without any doubt there is a epidemic of obesity, overweight and abdominal obesity in South Asian countries. Prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity (based on Asian cut-offs: overweight ? 23 kg/m(2), obesity ? 25 kg/m(2)) ranged from 3.5% in rural Bangladesh to over 65% in the Maldives. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent than general obesity in both sexes in this ethnic group. Countries with the lowest prevalence had the highest upward trend of obesity. Socio-economic factors associated with greater obesity in the region included female gender, middle age, urban residence, higher educational and economic status. Conclusion: South Asia is significantly affected by the obesity epidemic. Collaborative public health interventions to reverse these trends need to be mindful of many socio-economic constraints in order to provide long-term solutions. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Jayawardena R; Byrne NM; Soares MJ; Katulanda P; Hills AP

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

A guide to socio-economic impact monitoring in the Northwest Territories  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A monitoring program was conducted to investigate the economic and social effects of an oilfield expansion and pipeline project on northern peoples in Canada. The goals of this report are to document the essential elements of the program and to make recommendations for future monitoring efforts in the Northwest Territories. The basic principle underlying this report is that socio-economic monitoring of large-scale industrial projects is an important government function and that monitoring, by providing socio-economic impact information, helps to formulate policy aimed at reducing regional economic and social inequalities. The purpose of monitoring is twofold: to record the economic and social characteristics of a population over time and to identify changes in that population caused by the construction of a large-scale industrial project; and to improve the management of development impacts. The first step in the monitoring program involved community surveys to gather necessary socio-economic information from households and businesses. Particular attention was paid to the impacts on native peoples. Data were gathered for three key periods: pre-construction, construction, and post-construction of the pipeline and related facilities. Responses were recorded in a form facilitating computerized data processing. The design of the monitoring program is discussed, considering the data needed, the selection of questions, questionnaire design, and data collection procedures. Field survey methods, creation and maintenance of a data base, and creation of reports are also described. Recommendations are provided for future monitoring programs.

Bone, R.M.; Stewart, D.A.

1987-01-01

242

Gender, socio-economic variables and target organ damage in new-diagnosed hypertensive patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study as to ascertain whether gender and socio-economic variables can explain differences in the degree of severity of hypertension (HT) at the time of diagnosis. Patients were recently diagnosed and never-treated hypertensives, seen in primary care sites and aged 15-75. This study also included a cohort of normotensive patients. All individuals were invited to respond a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic and socio-economic data. Target organ damage (TOD) is considered a marker of severity. Three hundred and eighty-eight individuals responded to the questionnaire, 277 hypertensive, 111 normotensive. In an ordered probit model, the odds ratio of presenting with more than one TOD were: Aged >67 (OR=1.22; 1.06-1.38), being a smoker (OR=1.21; 1.02-1.40) or ex-smoker (OR=2.89; 1.27-4.51), primary school education (OR=2.17; 1.47-2.87), being male (OR=0.75; 0.59-0.90), being an agricultural worker (OR=0.03; 0.00-0.05) or a salaried professional (OR=0.96; 0.94-0.99). The results show differences in the severity of the HT in the initial assessment of the patient according to gender or other socio-economic variables. It is particularly important at the time of carrying out the diagnosis and the HT assessment. PMID:19591005

de Tuero, Gabriel Coll; Barcelò, Maria Antònia; Saez, Marc

2009-01-01

243

The impact of socio-economic factors and incentives on farmers' inestment behaviour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support schemes. Data from a questionnaire survey among 208 Danish pig producers are analysed by use of logistic regression and the relationships between socio-economic factors, investment incentives and farmers’ investment behaviour are empirically revealed. The results show that the farmers who rank economic incentives as the most important when making investments are those who yield the best financial results. Off-farm income and partial productivity were also higher on these farms. As hypothesised, young farmers with a large production are more likely to invest in real assets than others. No cross sectional trends relating the incentives for making investments to the investment propensity were identified. One important policy implication of the results is that improved knowledge of the socio-economic factors and their influence on investment behaviour and incentives may reduce the deadweight loss associated with many governmental investment programmes.

Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens

2011-01-01

244

Health-related knowledge and preferences in low socio-economic kindergarteners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to determine physical activity (PA) and nutrition knowledge and preferences in low socio-economic status kindergarten children. Methods Following height and weight measurement, 795 low socio-economic status kindergarten children (age 3.8-6.8 y.o) completed a photo-pair knowledge and preferences food and exercise questionnaire. Results No difference was found between nutrition and PA knowledge scores (52.3 ± 0.9 versus 52.6 ± 0.8%, respectively). There was no difference between the nutrition knowledge and preference score (52.3 ± 0.9 versus 50.9 ± 0.9%, respectively). PA preference was significantly higher than knowledge (56.9 ± 1.5 versus 52.6 ± 0.8%, respectively; p Conclusion Our data demonstrate diversities in physical activity and nutrition knowledge and preferences among low socio-economic status kindergarten children. These findings may be important for the development of health promotion programs in low socioeconomic kindergarten children.

Nemet Dan; Geva Deganit; Meckel Yoav; Eliakim Alon

2012-01-01

245

Socio-economic inequalities in all-cause mortality in Europe: an exploration of the role of heightened social mobility.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The larger than expected socio-economic inequalities in health in more egalitarian countries might be explained by a heightened social mobility in these countries. Therefore, the aim of this explorative study was to examine the associations between country-level social mobility, income inequality and socio-economic differences in all-cause mortality, using country-level secondary data from 12 European countries. Both income equality and social mobility were found to be associated with larger socio-economic differences in mortality, particularly in women. These findings suggest that social mobility and income equality, beside their shiny side of improving population health, might have a shady side of increasing socio-economic health inequalities.

Simons AM; Groffen DA; Bosma H

2013-09-01

246

Measuring trends in male mortality by socio-economic group in Ireland: a note on the quality of the data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

analysis of trends in male mortality differentials by socio-economic group (SEG) in Ireland between 1981 and 1991. The study is based on mortality data supplied by the Central Statistics Office and population data ...

O'Shea, Eamon

247

Ways of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport in Republic Lebanon.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consisting of economy of physical culture and sport is certain of Republic Lebanon. Opinions of the Lebanese specialists are presented on questions of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport. The necessity of decision of complex of tasks of socio-economic character is grounded for a country taking into account experience of foreign countries. It is offered to develop and realize a target comprehensive programme under the title « Lebanon - sports country ».

Michuda Y.P.; Youssef Youssef Ali.

2010-01-01

248

Oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary countries development; O impacto do pagamento de royalties do petroleo no desenvolvimento socio-economico dos municipios beneficiarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research proposes to evaluate oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary counties indicators. In the first step, it has been made royalties payments distribution among beneficiary counties (942), what showed a meaningful paid resources concentration between 1993 and 1999, when 20% of the beneficiaries apportioned of 98,5% from this period paid royalties. For these 188 greatest exaction counties the royalties impact analyses on County Human Development Index (IDH-M) evolution showed the received royalties amount positively influenced the 2000 IDH-M additional comparing to 1991. It indicates the petroleum industry contribution to municipal development of those counties which receive these resources. (author)

Lucchesi, Cesar Augusto M.; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

2004-07-01

249

Positive parenting practices associated with subsequent childhood weight change.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We aimed to identify positive parenting practices that set children on differential weight-trajectories. Parenting practices studied were cognitively stimulating activities, limit-setting, disciplinary practices, and parent warmth. Data from two U.S. national longitudinal data sets and linear and logistic regression were used to examine association of initial parenting practices with subsequent change in body mass index (BMI) Z-score and being overweight, stratified by income and gender. Lower change in BMI Z-score and lower likelihood of being or becoming overweight occurred among girls if parents engaged in cognitively stimulating activities or set bedtime; among low-income girls if parents helped with art and set bedtime; among high-income girls if they participated in dance or music, parents talked about nature or visited a museum or library, or parents had rules about number of hours for watching television; among low-income boys if they participated in dance or parents built something with them or set bedtime; and among high-income boys if they participated in dance or music. Greater expression of warmth was associated with lower change in BMI Z-score. Parenting practices facilitating cognitive stimulation, setting limits, and expressing warmth are associated with lower likelihood of being or becoming overweight and can be promoted by healthcare professionals.

Avula R; Gonzalez W; Shapiro CJ; Fram MS; Beets MW; Jones SJ; Blake CE; Frongillo EA

2011-12-01

250

A STUDY ON RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENT LEVELAND THEIR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SECONDARY CHILDREN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environment is a global concept today. Environmental Education is an approach to learning. Environmental Education means the educational process dealing with man's relationship of population, pollution resource, conservation, technology, energy, urban and rural planning to the total biosphere.A self-made questionnaire was made in order to find the relationship between the Environmental Education aptitude and socioeconomic status among class IX Children of rural, urban and semi urban. The question paper contents fifty (50) questions and it divided into two sector. In sector-I content (10) questions by which the socioeconomic status of the children can be known and Sector-II consists of four type questions by which Environmental Education aptitude can be understood.Socioeconomic status is evaluated from the response of sector-I questions by analyzing the educational status of the family, occupation of the parents & the monthly income of the family of a particular student or sample. After classifying the samples into 3 classes of status (upper, middle & lower) according to their socioeconomic condition, the mean of the marks was computed. The mean score of every status group is then analyzed to know the relationship between Environmental Education achievement level and socioeconomic status. Although there are many factor are responsible for the academic achievements in Environmental Education. But from this observation it may conclude that there is a strong relationship between Environmental Education achievement and socio-economic status.

GOUTAM CHAKRABORTY; JAYANTA META

2012-01-01

251

Intergenerational changes in birth parameters in Krakow (Poland) in the context of socio-economic transformation from 1985-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Background: Analyses of birth parameters worldwide reveal relatively high variability over time, often related to socioeconomic factors. Aim: The aim was to determine the existence of inter-generational changes in birth parameters in Kraków (Poland) in recent years and factors responsible. Subjects and methods: This research analysed data on 7800 newborns (e.g. body length and weight) and their parents in the years 1985-2010. The significance of differences was calculated using ANOVA. To examine the potential effect of environmental factors, MANOVA were used. Results: In the case of birth weight no significant changes were observed. A significant decreasing tendency in birth length from the beginning of the 21st century was shown - this observation is quite rare. Accordingly, BMI increased significantly in the 2000s. A decreasing tendency was observed for head circumference. Conclusion: In the analysed period Poland experienced significant socio-economic changes, which could have partly contributed to the observed changes. Some of the observed trends in birth parameters are recent phenomena and it seems necessary to continue the research to confirm if these changes form a steady trend or are only temporary. Tracking any phenomena related to the development is important for the determination of disruptive factors and the reduction of their adverse effects.

Kryst L

2013-08-01

252

Modifying the rebound: It depends! Explaining mobility behavior on the basis of the German socio-economic panel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel and the way this behavioral aspect is modified by additional variables. The data set used to estimate a theoretical model of the rebound effect covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). To take full advantage of the information in the data available, and to avoid problems due to possible selection effects, we estimated an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. Our results suggest that in line with the rebound hypothesis, car efficiency has a negative effect on the kilometers driven. That is, the lower the fuel consumption, the greater the distance driven. However, contrasting recent empirical literature about the rebound effect in the transportation sector, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km. In addition, we find a positive diesel effect, which implies that owning a diesel engine car is positively correlated with the distance driven. Both effects can be interpreted as support for the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way. Moreover, it can be shown that some “soft” variables such as certain attitudes towards the environment tend to amplify this non-linear rebound effect. - Research Highlights: ? We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel. ? The data set covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). We estimate an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. ? Contrasting recent empirical literature, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km.? In addition, we find a positive diesel effect: Owning a diesel engine car has a positive effect on the distance driven. Both effects support the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way.? It can be shown that some “soft” variables such as certain attitudes towards the environment tend to amplify this non-linear rebound effect.

2012-01-01

253

Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child's undesirable behavior. The parents' sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported.

Massey SG; Merriwether AM; Garcia JR

2013-01-01

254

Demographic and socio-economic factors affecting the physical development, haemoglobin and parasitic infection status of schoolchildren in Sanliurfa province, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional population-based survey was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status and parasitic infections of schoolchildren and demographic, socio-economic factors in Sanliurfa province, southern Turkey. Nine hundred and eight schoolchildren took part in the survey: 57.2% boys and 42.7% girls. The children's mean z scores were as follows: height for age-0.8 (+/-1.0) and weight for age-1.0 (+/-0.9). The mean haemoglobin concentration was 123 g/l (+/-2.1) and the prevalence of parasitic infections was 55.1%. In total, 50.2% of children were hungry when they arrived at school and 13.4% worked after school. Over 70% (70.4%) of mothers and 18.1% of fathers were illiterate, 16.1% of fathers were unemployed and 46.3% of fathers were engaged in low-income labour. The mean number of children in each family was 5.4 (+/-2.5), and the mean number of children from each family who attended school was 2.1 (+/-1.1). The school-attendance ratio was 0.4 (+/-1.0). Data indicated that older children had significantly lower mean z scores of height (P < 0.0001) and weight for age (P < 0.0001) than younger children, and boys had significantly lower mean z scores of height for age than girls (P < 0.0001). Children living in shantytown areas had significantly lower mean z scores of height for age (P < 0.0001) and weight for age (P < 0.0001), lower mean haemoglobin concentrations (P : 0.003)and a worse parasitic infection status (P < 0.0001) than those living in apartment areas. Children who were hungry when they arrived at school had significantly lower mean haemoglobin concentrations than those who had eaten (P : 0.04). Multiple regression analyses indicated that mean z scores of height for age were significantly related to maternal (multiple R = 0.183; P < 0.0001) and paternal illiteracy (multiple R = 0.216; P : 0.004). Mean z scores of weight for age were significantly related to maternal illiteracy (multiple R = 0.154; P < 0.0001), as was parasitic infection status (multiple R = 0.261; P < 0.0001 ) and the number of children in the family (multiple R = 0.267; P : 0.005). Hunger status was significantly related to maternal (multiple R = 0.095; P : 0.016) and paternal illiteracy (multiple R = 0.104; P : 0.005), as was belonging to a large family (multiple R = 0.104; p: 0.009). These findings indicate that school health programmes may improve the nutritional and health status of schoolchildren. The participation of the local community, which such a programme would entail, may help to increase maternal awareness regarding the feeding of their children before sending them to school. School health programmes may also motivate parents to send their daughters to school, thus increasing maternal literacy in the future. In turn, better levels of maternal literacy will positively affect the socio-economic development of society. PMID:15037047

Ulukanligil, M; Seyrek, A

2004-03-01

255

Demographic and socio-economic factors affecting the physical development, haemoglobin and parasitic infection status of schoolchildren in Sanliurfa province, Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cross-sectional population-based survey was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status and parasitic infections of schoolchildren and demographic, socio-economic factors in Sanliurfa province, southern Turkey. Nine hundred and eight schoolchildren took part in the survey: 57.2% boys and 42.7% girls. The children's mean z scores were as follows: height for age-0.8 (+/-1.0) and weight for age-1.0 (+/-0.9). The mean haemoglobin concentration was 123 g/l (+/-2.1) and the prevalence of parasitic infections was 55.1%. In total, 50.2% of children were hungry when they arrived at school and 13.4% worked after school. Over 70% (70.4%) of mothers and 18.1% of fathers were illiterate, 16.1% of fathers were unemployed and 46.3% of fathers were engaged in low-income labour. The mean number of children in each family was 5.4 (+/-2.5), and the mean number of children from each family who attended school was 2.1 (+/-1.1). The school-attendance ratio was 0.4 (+/-1.0). Data indicated that older children had significantly lower mean z scores of height (P < 0.0001) and weight for age (P < 0.0001) than younger children, and boys had significantly lower mean z scores of height for age than girls (P < 0.0001). Children living in shantytown areas had significantly lower mean z scores of height for age (P < 0.0001) and weight for age (P < 0.0001), lower mean haemoglobin concentrations (P : 0.003)and a worse parasitic infection status (P < 0.0001) than those living in apartment areas. Children who were hungry when they arrived at school had significantly lower mean haemoglobin concentrations than those who had eaten (P : 0.04). Multiple regression analyses indicated that mean z scores of height for age were significantly related to maternal (multiple R = 0.183; P < 0.0001) and paternal illiteracy (multiple R = 0.216; P : 0.004). Mean z scores of weight for age were significantly related to maternal illiteracy (multiple R = 0.154; P < 0.0001), as was parasitic infection status (multiple R = 0.261; P < 0.0001 ) and the number of children in the family (multiple R = 0.267; P : 0.005). Hunger status was significantly related to maternal (multiple R = 0.095; P : 0.016) and paternal illiteracy (multiple R = 0.104; P : 0.005), as was belonging to a large family (multiple R = 0.104; p: 0.009). These findings indicate that school health programmes may improve the nutritional and health status of schoolchildren. The participation of the local community, which such a programme would entail, may help to increase maternal awareness regarding the feeding of their children before sending them to school. School health programmes may also motivate parents to send their daughters to school, thus increasing maternal literacy in the future. In turn, better levels of maternal literacy will positively affect the socio-economic development of society.

Ulukanligil M; Seyrek A

2004-03-01

256

Comparison of environmental and socio-economic domains of vulnerability to flood hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-economic and environmental based vulnerability models have been developed within the research context of the FP6 project BRAHMATWINN. The conceptualisation of vulnerability has been defined in the project and is characterised as a function of sensitivity and adaptive capacity, where sensitivity is used to refer to systems that are susceptible to the impacts of environmental stress. Adaptive capacity is used to refer to systems or resources available to communities that could help them adapt or cope with the adverse consequences of environmental stresses in the recovery phase. In a wider context the approach reflects the wider objective and conceptualizations of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) framework, where vulnerability is characterized as a component of overall risk. A methodology has been developed which delineates spatial units of vulnerability (VULNUS). These units share a specific common characteristic and allow the independent spatial modelling of a complex phenomena independent from administrative units and raster based approaches. An increasing detail of spatial data and complex decision problems require flexible means for scaled spatial representations, for mapping the dynamics and constant changes, and delivering the crucial information. Automated techniques of object-based image analysis (OBIA, Lang & Blaschke, 2006), capable of integrating a virtually unlimited set of spatial data sets, try to match the information extraction with our world view. To account for that, a flexible concept of manageable units is required. The term geon was proposed by Lang (2008) to describe generic spatial objects that are homogenous in terms of a varying spatial phenomena under the influence of, and partly controlled by, policy actions. The geon concept acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. It is flexible in terms of a certain perception of a problem (specific policy realm, specific hazard domain, etc.). In this study, vulnerability units have been derived as a specific instance of a geon set within an area exposed to flood risk. Using geons, we are capable of transforming singular domains of information on specific systemic components to policy-relevant, conditioned information (Kienberger et al., 2008; Tiede & Lang, 2007). According to the work programme socio-economic vulnerabilities have been modelled for the Salzach catchment. A specific set of indicators has been developed with a strong stakeholder orientation. Next to that, and to allow an easier integration within the aimed development of Water Resource Response Units (WRRUs) the environmental domain of vulnerability has additionally been modelled. We present the results of the socio-economic and environmental based approach to model vulnerability. The research methodology utilises census as well as land use/land cover data to derive and assess vulnerability. As a result, spatial units have been identified which represent common characteristics of socio-economic environmental vulnerability. The results show the spatially explicit vulnerability and its underlying components sensitivity and adaptive capacity for socio-economic and environmental domains and discuss differences. Within the test area, the Salzach River catchment in Austria, primarily urban areas adjacent to water courses are highly vulnerable. It can be stated that the delineation of vulnerability units that integrates all dimensions of sustainability are a prerequisite for a holistic and thus adaptive integrated water management approach. Indeed, such units constitute the basis for future dynamic vulnerability assessments, and thus for the assessment of uncertainties due to climate change. Kienberger, S., S. Lang & D. Tiede (2008): Socio-economic vulnerability units - modelling meaningful spatial units. In: Proceedings of the GIS Research UK 16th Annual conference GISRUK 2008, Manchester. Lang, S. (2008): Object-based image analysis for remote sensing applications: modeling reali

Leidel, M.; Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

2009-04-01

257

A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 1: Water use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment), and climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect the key concepts underpinning each situation. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigation area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, industrial water withdrawal, and municipal water withdrawal. The first three factors are used to estimate agricultural water withdrawal. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century at 5-yr intervals. Each factor displays a wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigation area in 2085 varies between 270 and 450 km2, industrial water between 246 and 1714 km3 yr?1, and domestic water withdrawal between 573 and 1280 km3 yr?1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments by identifying the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyzing the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

N. Hanasaki; S. Fujimori; T. Yamamoto; S. Yoshikawa; Y. Masaki; Y. Hijioka; M. Kainuma; Y. Kanamori; T. Masui; K. Takahashi; S. Kanae

2012-01-01

258

Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

2013-03-28

259

Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated.

Stochholm K; Juul S; Gravholt CH

2013-06-01

260

Collapse of Socio-economic Base of Bangladesh by Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Untreated groundwater, often enriched in arsenic-one of the most important pollutants and trace elements of the aquatic system recently regarded as the major threat to drinking water-was and is being extensively used as a source of drinking for the decades in rural and semi-urban areas of the developing countries which results in a high incidence of arsenic with deleterious effects on humans and food chain. In Bangladesh, India, Vietnam and other developed countries, arsenic contamination in groundwater is considered to be the key environmental health problem of the twenty first century. In Bangladesh arsenic was first detected in the district of Chapai Nawabgonj bordering the West-Bengal district of India in 1993; since then higher levels of arsenic (exceeding the WHO standard of 0.01 mg L-1 and Bangladesh standard of 0.05 mg L-1) have been detected in many regions of the country including 61 districts out of 64. It is estimated that of the 140 million inhabitants of Bangladesh more than 100 million are at the risk of arsenic hazard, such arsenic hazards collapses the societal structure and socio-economic backbone of poor people of rural Bangladesh. The study tries to discuss the chronological extent and severity of the biggest global arsenic calamity prevailed in Bangladesh, socio-economic impact of arsenic hazard on the poor people of rural society living more than seventy percent under poverty limit in Bangladesh. Specially due consideration was given on the socio-economic impact on arsenic victims particularly earning male family member, young male, married female and young female going to be married as well as arsenic affected family and their interaction with non-arsenic-victim of the society.

M.A.I. Chowdhury; M.T. Uddin; M.F. Ahmed; M.A. Ali; S.M.A. Rasul; M.A. Hoque; R. Alam; R. Sharmin; S.M. Uddin; M.S. Islam

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Environmental and socio-economic risk modelling for Chagas disease in Bolivia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accurately defining disease distributions and calculating disease risk is an important step in the control and prevention of diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies, with maximum entropy (Maxent) ecological niche modelling computer software, were used to create predictive risk maps for Chagas disease in Bolivia. Prevalence rates were calculated from 2007 to 2009 household infection survey data for Bolivia, while environmental data were compiled from the Worldclim database and MODIS satellite imagery. Socio-economic data were obtained from the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics. Disease models identified altitudes at 500-3,500 m above the mean sea level (MSL), low annual precipitation (45-250 mm), and higher diurnal range of temperature (10-19 °C; peak 16 °C) as compatible with the biological requirements of the insect vectors. Socio-economic analyses demonstrated the importance of improved housing materials and water source. Home adobe wall materials and having to fetch drinking water from rivers or wells without pump were found to be highly related to distribution of the disease by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) (0.69 AUC, 0.67 AUC and 0.62 AUC, respectively), while areas with hardwood floors demonstrated a direct negative relationship (-0.71 AUC). This study demonstrates that Maxent modelling can be used in disease prevalence and incidence studies to provide governmental agencies with an easily learned, understandable method to define areas as either high, moderate or low risk for the disease. This information may be used in resource planning, targeting and implementation. However, access to high-resolution, sub-municipality socio-economic data (e.g. census tracts) would facilitate elucidation of the relative influence of poverty-related factors on regional disease dynamics.

Mischler P; Kearney M; McCarroll JC; Scholte RG; Vounatsou P; Malone JB

2012-09-01

262

Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children. PMID:18086547

Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo

2007-11-19

263

Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children.

Crawford D; Timperio A; Giles-Corti B; Ball K; Hume C; Roberts R; Andrianopoulos N; Salmon J

2008-12-01

264

HIV and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status, Popayan-Colombia (2008-2009)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of PopayanColombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated Results: Mean age 33,5±10,2; 66%women.Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86% (95% CI: 1.87-5.85), greater in men (7.38%; p=0,013). Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 hours) . Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection

Mueses, Hector Fabio; Pinzón, María Virginiaa; Tello, Inés Constanza; Rincón-Hoyos, Hernan Gilbertoa; Galindo, Jaime

2013-01-01

265

The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost-benefit analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far. The main problem when including passenger delays is to determine the value of time for passenger delays and how to include the delays in a socio-economic analysis. This is due to the fact that passenger delays are not defined unambiguously. In general, delays can occur on different parts of a journey; while the passengers are waiting for the train (waiting time, first waiting time or even hidden waiting time) or while the passenger are sitting in the train (or bus). Furthermore a delay can also be negative, meaning that a passenger will arrive before planned (a so-called negative delay). It is necessary to consider how to define the value of time for the different types of delays as well as how to include these elements in a cost-benefit analysis. This article proposes that a delay is defined solely by the difference between the scheduled and realized arrival time. The recommendations are listed as follows: • The value of time for a delay is defined as done by the Danish Ministry of Transport (Trafikministeriet, 2003) no matter how or when the delay has occurred. The size of the delay is calculated solely by the difference between the planned and realized arrival time. • A negative delay is defined as the value of time of hidden waiting time. A negative delay is calculated as the difference between the planned and realized arrival time and is considered a surplus in the cost benefit analysis • A delay will not be included if the passenger arrives at his or her final destination on time even though the passenger may have experienced a delay (or travelled along a different route than planned) during the journey. Note that this paper is regarded as a prequel to the article “Optimization of timetable supplement from a passenger based socio-economic point of view” (Thorhauge, 2010). This article is based on the results of (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010).

Thorhauge, Mikkel

266

The SocioEconomic analysis of repository siting (SEARS): Guide to data base preparation: Final draft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guide describes the data bases in the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system. This model is a user-interactive, computerized model for projecting the economic, demographic, public service, and fiscal impacts of repository siting. This guide provides a description of the data bases, sources of data, data formats, and preprocessing programs for adapting and implementing the SEARS system and is seen as an essential reference for technical users of the model. It should be used in conjunction with reports describing the model's features and characteristics. 95 refs., 3 tabs

1984-01-01

267

SOCIO-ECONOMICS FACTORS INFLUENCING LITERACY IN THE WESTERN SATPURA REGION: A GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY”  

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Full Text Available Literacy is a dynamic process. The distribution of literacy is uneven in different parts of a region. The various geographical factors like the nature of relief, amount of rainfall, agricultural productivity, availability of water, accessibility etc. influence the distribution of population. The influence of these factors is clearly seen in the socioeconomic development of the region. This socio-economic development directly and indirectly accelerates the rate of literacy. As the Western Satpura region is socioeconomically less developed, therefore, the proportion of literate population is less and the rate of acceleration is also rather slow.

R. C. AHIRE; A. A. BADGUJAR

2012-01-01

268

COMPARISON OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIO-ECONOMIC RESEARCH PERFORMANCES IN EASTERN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES  

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Full Text Available Scientific research performance measurement and its analysis creates the context where universities are forced to develop strategies to increase the values obtained from indicators such as number of scientific articles, the number of citations of these articles, h-index, g-index, etc. The purpose of this article is to analyze the performance differences arising in the socio-economic science between major universities in South-Eastern Europe, many of them EU Members. In addition, to see where they stand compared to Western Europe, will include a brief review of the results of a major university as LondonSchool of Economics and Political Science.

Carmen Anton; Nelu Florea; Silviu-Mihail Ti??

2012-01-01

269

Crowd Avoidance and Diversity in Socio-Economic Systems and Recommendation  

CERN Multimedia

Recommender systems recommend objects regardless of potential adverse effects of their overcrowding. We address this shortcoming by introducing crowd-avoiding recommendation where each object can be shared by only a limited number of users or where object utility diminishes with the number of users sharing it. We use real data to show that contrary to expectations, the introduction of these constraints enhances recommendation accuracy and diversity even in systems where overcrowding is not detrimental. The observed accuracy improvements are explained in terms of removing potential bias of the recommendation method. We finally propose a way to model artificial socio-economic systems with crowd avoidance and obtain first analytical results.

Gualdi, Stanislao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

2013-01-01

270

Evaluating socio-economic state of a country analyzing airtime credit and mobile phone datasets  

CERN Multimedia

Reliable statistical information is important to make political decisions on a sound basis and to help measure the impact of policies. Unfortunately, statistics offices in developing countries have scarce resources and statistical censuses are therefore conducted sporadically. Based on mobile phone communications and history of airtime credit purchases, we estimate the relative income of individuals, the diversity and inequality of income, and an indicator for socioeconomic segregation for fine-grained regions of an African country. Our study shows how to use mobile phone datasets as a starting point to understand the socio-economic state of a country, which can be especially useful in countries with few resources to conduct large surveys.

Gutierrez, Thoralf; Blondel, Vincent D

2013-01-01

271

Socio-economic correlates of relapsed patients admitted in a Nigerian mental health institution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Relapse in psychiatric disorders is highly distressing, costly and engenders burn-out syndrome among mental-health workers. AIMS: To study the socio-economic factors associated with relapse in individual admitted with psychiatric disorders and the pattern of socio-economic impact of relapse in those groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of all relapsed patients without cognitive deficit admitted into the federal Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria between June and October 2007 was conducted using a self-validated Structured Interview Schedule (Relapse Socio-economic Impact Interview Schedule) and Key Informant Interview Guide. Secondary data were elicited from the patient folders, case notes, ward admission registers and nominal rolls. Data were summarised using mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentiles. Pearson's moment correlation coefficient was used to test the association among variables. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the pre-morbid and the post-morbid states. RESULTS: This study involved 102 respondents. Their mean age was 36.5 ± 9.8 years, mainly of male gender (72.5%) suffering from schizophrenic disorder (37.8%). Relapse and re-admission ranged between 2 and 12. Unemployment rate, marital separation and divorce increased more than 5-fold from pre-morbid to morbid states. Few (4.9%) could still settle their hospital/drug bills on their own, while most (95.1%) depended on family, philanthropist and government/waivers to pay for their bills. Their social relationships were negatively influenced with most of them expressing social isolation and low quality of life. There were significant relationships (P<0.05) between age, sex, number of relapses, number of admissions, pre-morbid marital status, morbid state marital status, pre-morbid state occupational status and morbid state occupational status. There was significant change (P= 0.00) in the quality of life, societal integration/acceptability, economic status, employment status and marital status of the respondents between the pre-morbid and post-morbid periods. The illness significantly affected the emotional status of the participants. CONCLUSION: Relapse and readmission in psychiatric patients have a negative impact on socio-economic well-being of patients, family and the society. Efforts should be taken to provide early interventions.

Gbiri CA; Badru FA; Ladapo HT; Gbiri AA

2011-03-01

272

Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

1996-01-01

273

Socio-economic benefits of weather and climate services in Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a rising interest around the world for a better understanding of the economic and social value added of weather services. National hydro-meteorological services and international cooperative bodies in meteorology have ever more to justify their use of public budgets. Furthermore, the development of hydrological and meteorological services is to a large extent steered by expectations regarding the eventual benefits of the envisaged new developments. This article provides a compact overview of the impediments for uptake of socio-economic benefit (SEB) studies, methods and results of SEB studies to date. It also discusses some pitfalls and crucial steps to enhance a broader uptake of SEB studies.

Perrels, A.; Frei, Th.; Espejo, F.; Jamin, L.; Thomalla, A.

2013-05-01

274

Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP

Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M

2012-01-01

275

SOCIO- ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF ANGANWADI WORKERS: A CASE STUDY OF RAICHUR DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Anganawadi worker and helper are the basic functionaries of the ICDS who run the Anganawadi centre and implement the ICDS scheme in coordination with the functionaries of the health, education, rural development and other departments. Their services also include the health and nutrition of pregnant women, nursing mothers, and adolescent girls. Today in India, about 2 million Anganawadi workers are reaching out to a population of 70 million women, children and sick people, helping them become and stay healthy. The present study focuses on “Socio-Economic Condition of Anganwadi workers, with special reference to Raichur District.

KAMALAAMALAPPA; LAXMAN KAWALE

2013-01-01

276

Admission to hospital following head injury in England: Incidence and socio-economic associations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Head injury in England is common. Evidence suggests that socio-economic factors may cause variation in incidence, and this variation may affect planning for services to meet the needs of those who have sustained a head injury. Methods Socio-economic data were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics and merged with Hospital Episodes Statistics obtained from the Department of Health. All patients admitted for head injury with ICD-10 codes S00.0–S09.9 during 2001–2 and 2002–3 were included and collated at the level of the extant Health Authorities (HA) for 2002, and Primary Care Trust (PCT) for 2003. Incidence was determined, and cluster analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to look at patterns and associations. Results 112,718 patients were admitted during 2001–2 giving a hospitalised incidence rate for England of 229 per 100,000. This rate varied across the English HA's ranging from 91–419 per 100,000. The rate remained unchanged for 2002–3 with a similar magnitude of variation across PCT's. Three clusters of HA's were identified from the 2001–2 data; those typical of London, those of the Shire counties, and those of Other Urban authorities. Socio-economic factors were found to account for a high proportion of the variance in incidence for 2001–2. The same pattern emerged for 2002–3 at the PCT level. The use of public transport for travel to work is associated with a decreased incidence and lifestyle indicators, such as the numbers of young unemployed, increase the incidence. Conclusion Head injury incidence in England varies by a factor of 4.6 across HA's and PCT's. Planning head injury related services at the local level thus needs to be based on local incidence figures rather than regional or national estimates. Socio-economic factors are shown to be associated with admission, including travel to work patterns and lifestyle indicators, which suggests that incidence is amenable to policy initiatives at the macro level as well as preventive programmes targeted at key groups.

Tennant Alan

2005-01-01

277

Effects of mothers' socio-economic status on the management of febrile conditions in their under five children in a resource limited setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research is shifting focus to the role of socioeconomic indicators in the promotion of health. As such an understanding of the roles that socio-economic factors play in improving health and health-seeking behaviour is important for public health policy. This is because the share of resources devoted to different policy options should depend on their relative effectiveness. Objective To measure the effect of socio-economic status (age, education, occupation, income, religion and family structure) of mothers on the management of febrile conditions in under-fives children Method Two hundred mothers who brought their febrile under-five children to a health facility were interviewed on the treatment they gave to their children before reporting at health facility. Data collected were entered and analyzed using the SPSS software. Binary logistic regression was adopted for the quantitative analysis of the effect of socio-economic variables on the mothers' actions prior to utilizing the health facility. Results Results showed that while mothers' age was negatively correlated (-0.13), occupation was positively correlated (0.17) with under-fives mothers' action. Education, religion, income and family structure were however insignificant at 5% level Conclusion This poses a lot of challenges to policy makers in the developing nations where women's education and earning capacity is low. There is therefore a need to increase the number of women benefiting from micro credit. This will ensure that more women are engaged in a form of occupation that is profitable and can sustain the economic and health needs of the family.

Olaogun Adenike AE; Adebayo Abayomi A; Ayandiran Olufemi E; Olasode Olayinka A

2006-01-01

278

Efficacy of Positive Parenting on Improving Children’s Behavior Problems and Parenting Styles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: Parenting style has a significant impact on the natural development of children. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Positive Parenting Program also known as Triple-P, on the improvement of parenting methods, children’s behavioral problems, mothers’ psychological problems and marital issues. Method: In an interactive semi-experimental study (pretest, post-test), 120 mothers working at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, who had at least one child, were evaluated. Data were gathered before and after the sessions, using Demographic Questionnaire, Parenting Scale, Being a Parent Scale, Parent Problem Checklist, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. Constructive parenting methods were taught in 8 two-hour sessions. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The mean age of mothers participating in the study was 36.76±5.27. The results related to SDQ in children showed that a change in the mean total score of SDQ at the end of the intervention is statistically significant (p<0.01). Based on the general change, the mean scores related to the measures of Parenting Scale (p<0.01), Being a Parent (p<0.01), Parent Problem (p<0.01), and disagreement between parents (p<0.01) were statistically significant. In the dyadic adjustment scale the mean score of adjustment changed from 21.15±4.88 to 21.25±4.58, which was not statistically significant. The differences in the indicators of depression, anxiety and psychological pressure were also significant. Conclusion: Positive parenting education can be effective in the improvement of different aspects of parenting. ?

Mehdi Tehrani-Doost; Zahra Shahrivar; Javad Mahmoudi Gharaie; Javad Alaghband-Rad

2009-01-01

279

Ottoman forestry: socio-economic aspect and its influence today/ Otomano florestal: aspecto socioeconômico e sua influência hoje  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A silvicultura é um assunto importante, pois o suprimento de madeira em geral e madeira para consumo humano direto, além de seus efeitos positivos sobre o aquecimento global e sobre a diversidade biológica, trata de uma história que remonta à antiguidade. Como um setor de trabalho intensivo nos países em desenvolvimento, mantém interações com a gestão dos recursos naturais, relações públicas e estrutura socioeconômica. Ela pode afetar a prosperidade dos paí (more) ses, seja positiva ou negativamente. Assim, uma análise da história da silvicultura tem importância, porque não só lança luz sobre a sua condição passada e presente, mas também explica as melhorias para a proteção das florestas. Assim, na primeira parte deste estudo, serão dadas informações gerais sobre o Sistema de Terras e Florestas e Organização Otomano. Na segunda seção, serão tratados movimentos da ocidentalização do século 19, bem como alterações socioculturais e econômicas. A terceira seção irá incluir regulamentos significativos na silvicultura, manejo florestal e administração no Império Otomano, bem como a influência da silvicultura Otomano na atual estrutura socioeconômica. Na seção final, no âmbito da discussão do título e conclusão, a silvicultura Otomano será analisada em relação as suas consequências em termos de economia, política e direito. Abstract in english Forestry is an important subject because it supplies wood and timber for direct human consumption, in addition to its positive effects on global warming and on bio-diversity, with a history dating back to antiquity. As a labor-intensive sector in developing countries, it maintains interactions with natural resources management, public relations and socio-economic structure. It can affect the prosperity of countries either positively or negatively. Hence, an analysis of th (more) e history of forestry bears importance because it not only sheds light on its past and present condition, but also explains the improvements for the protection of forests. Accordingly, in the first section of this study, general information on the Ottoman Land System and Ottoman Forestry Organization will be given. In the second section, we will treat 19th century westernization movements, as well as socio-cultural and economic changes. The third section will include significant regulations on forestry, forest management, and administration in the Ottoman Empire; as well as the influence of Ottoman forestry on the actual socio-economic structure. In the final section, under the title discussion and conclusion, Ottoman forestry will be examined regarding its consequences in terms of policy, economy and law.

Özden, Sezgin; Birben, Üstüner

2012-03-01

280

Ottoman forestry: socio-economic aspect and its influence today Otomano florestal: aspecto socioeconômico e sua influência hoje  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Forestry is an important subject because it supplies wood and timber for direct human consumption, in addition to its positive effects on global warming and on bio-diversity, with a history dating back to antiquity. As a labor-intensive sector in developing countries, it maintains interactions with natural resources management, public relations and socio-economic structure. It can affect the prosperity of countries either positively or negatively. Hence, an analysis of the history of forestry bears importance because it not only sheds light on its past and present condition, but also explains the improvements for the protection of forests. Accordingly, in the first section of this study, general information on the Ottoman Land System and Ottoman Forestry Organization will be given. In the second section, we will treat 19th century westernization movements, as well as socio-cultural and economic changes. The third section will include significant regulations on forestry, forest management, and administration in the Ottoman Empire; as well as the influence of Ottoman forestry on the actual socio-economic structure. In the final section, under the title discussion and conclusion, Ottoman forestry will be examined regarding its consequences in terms of policy, economy and law.A silvicultura é um assunto importante, pois o suprimento de madeira em geral e madeira para consumo humano direto, além de seus efeitos positivos sobre o aquecimento global e sobre a diversidade biológica, trata de uma história que remonta à antiguidade. Como um setor de trabalho intensivo nos países em desenvolvimento, mantém interações com a gestão dos recursos naturais, relações públicas e estrutura socioeconômica. Ela pode afetar a prosperidade dos países, seja positiva ou negativamente. Assim, uma análise da história da silvicultura tem importância, porque não só lança luz sobre a sua condição passada e presente, mas também explica as melhorias para a proteção das florestas. Assim, na primeira parte deste estudo, serão dadas informações gerais sobre o Sistema de Terras e Florestas e Organização Otomano. Na segunda seção, serão tratados movimentos da ocidentalização do século 19, bem como alterações socioculturais e econômicas. A terceira seção irá incluir regulamentos significativos na silvicultura, manejo florestal e administração no Império Otomano, bem como a influência da silvicultura Otomano na atual estrutura socioeconômica. Na seção final, no âmbito da discussão do título e conclusão, a silvicultura Otomano será analisada em relação as suas consequências em termos de economia, política e direito.

Sezgin Özden; Üstüner Birben

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

Science.gov (United States)

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

2011-10-01

282

Portrait of socio-economic inequality in childhood morbidity and mortality over time, Quebec, 1990-2005.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To determine the age and cause groups contributing to absolute and relative socio-economic inequalities in paediatric mortality, hospitalisation and tumour incidence over time. METHODS: Deaths (n= 9559), hospitalisations (n= 834,932) and incident tumours (n= 4555) were obtained for five age groupings (<1, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 years) and four periods (1990-1993, 1994-1997, 1998-2001, 2002-2005) for Québec, Canada. Age- and cause-specific morbidity and mortality rates for males and females were calculated across socio-economic status decile based on a composite deprivation score for 89 urban communities. Absolute and relative measures of inequality were computed for each age and cause. RESULTS: Mortality and morbidity rates tended to decrease over time, as did absolute and relative socio-economic inequalities for most (but not all) causes and age groups, although precision was low. Socio-economic inequalities persisted in the last period and were greater on the absolute scale for mortality and hospitalisation in early childhood, and on the relative scale for mortality in adolescents. Four causes (respiratory, digestive, infectious, genito-urinary diseases) contributed to the majority of absolute inequality in hospitalisation (males 85%, females 98%). Inequalities were not pronounced for cause-specific mortality and not apparent for tumour incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Socio-economic inequalities in Québec tended to narrow for most but not all outcomes. Absolute socio-economic inequalities persisted for children <10 years, and several causes were responsible for the majority of inequality in hospitalisation. Public health policies and prevention programs aiming to reduce socio-economic inequalities in paediatric health should account for trends that differ across age and cause of disease.

Barry MS; Auger N; Burrows S

2012-06-01

283

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

2011-01-01

284

Gender, socio-economic status and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and old adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies that addressed social and economic determinants of cardiovascular diseases, consistently showed an increase prevalence of the individual features of metabolic syndrome in the lower socio-economic strata. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the association between social class and metabolic syndrome in a sample of urban middle-aged and old Portuguese adults. Methods We evaluated 1962 subjects (1207 women and 755 men) aged 40 or more years. Marital status, education, occupation, menarche age and height distribution were used as socioeconomic indicators. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the ATP III, by the presence of at least three of the following characteristics: waist circumference >102 cm in men and >88 cm in women; triglycerides ? 150 mg/dl; HDL cholesterol Fisher's exact test. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression to estimate the magnitude of the associations. Results Metabolic syndrome was significantly more frequent in females (24.9 vs. 17.4, p Conclusion This study showed that gender influenced the association of socio-economic status indicators with metabolic syndrome. Females in lower social classes, as defined by education and occupational classification, more frequently presented metabolic syndrome, no such association was found in males.

Santos Ana C; Ebrahim Shah; Barros Henrique

2008-01-01

285

Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage : results from the World Health Survey  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage was observed within most of the countries, although lower income countries showed greater levels of relative inequalitythan higher income countries. Overall, lowest coverage and highest relative inequality were found in the low-income countries. The findings of this study may inform policies for oral health at global and national levels. To achieve universal coverage in oral healthcare, relevant interventions should reach the poorest population groups.

Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L

2012-01-01

286

A socio-economic approach to One Health policy research in southern Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic) which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.

Kayunze KA; Kiwara AD; Lyamuya E; Kambarage DM; Rushton J; Coker R; Kock R; Rweyemamu MM

2012-01-01

287

Socio-Economic And Educational Developments In Bidar District:A Historical Perspective  

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Full Text Available Bidar district is popular for different religions, castes and cultures due to its historical developments through the ages. Many of the Hindu rulers such as Rastrakuta, Chalukya, Kalachuri and such others were ruled the Bidar district. Later, Muslim rulers such as Nizams were also ruled region. As such, there are more Hindus and Muslims in Bidar district with their rich culture. Similarly, social and religious reformers such as Basaveshwar, Guru Nanak also played significant role in social reformation based on equality. Many of the organizations and associations such as Arya Samaj were also affected very much for the development of downtrodden people and weaker sections in socio-economic and educational development. Consequently, many of the weaker sections in Bidar district, even though depressed with social evils and discriminations, due to the development in education in Bidar district, the statistics revealed that the depressed classes are developing and improving their socio-economic status. The ideas of philosophers, role of associations and education are playing important role in development of weaker sections and depressed classes in Bidar district. The paper provided statistics to prove the same.

Santosh. Tippanna; Sarvodaya. S.S

2012-01-01

288

TV Viewing and BMI by Race/Ethnicity and Socio-Economic Status  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To assess the association between TV viewing and obesity by race/ethnicity and socio-economic status. Design Cross-sectional analysis of 5,087 respondents to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative sample of US adults. Multivariate regression models were computed to assess the association between quartiles of TV viewing and BMI, stratified by race/ethnicity, educational attainment, employment and health insurance status. Results Findings indicate that increased TV viewing was associated with higher odds for being overweight/obese in the entire sample, while adjusting for physical activity and other confounders. After stratification by race/ethnicity, increased odds for overweight/obesity in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of TV viewing (e.g., 3rd quartile- cumulative OR?=?1.43, 95%CI 1.07–1.92) was observed in non-Hispanic whites, with statistical significance. In non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the odds were similar to whites, but did not reach statistical significance. Significant relations between greater TV viewing and increased BMI were observed in college graduates and non-graduates, those with health insurance and the employed. Conclusions This study extends previous research by examining potential inconsistencies in this association between various racial/ethnic groups and some socio-economic variables, which primarily were not found.

Shuval, Kerem; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Leonard, Tammy

2013-01-01

289

Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authority.

Rubin, B.M. Gailmard, S.; Marsh, D.; Septoff, A.

1996-12-31

290

Household energy consumption in the UK: A highly geographically and socio-economically disaggregated model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Devising policies for a low carbon society requires a careful understanding of energy consumption in different types of households. In this paper, we explore patterns of UK household energy use and associated carbon emissions at national level and also at high levels of socio-economic and geographical disaggregation. In particular, we examine specific neighbourhoods with contrasting levels of deprivation, and typical 'types' (segments) of UK households based on socio-economic characteristics. Results support the hypothesis that different segments have widely differing patterns of consumption. We show that household energy use and associated carbon emissions are both strongly, but not solely, related to income levels. Other factors, such as the type of dwelling, tenure, household composition and rural/urban location are also extremely important. The methodology described in this paper can be used in various ways to inform policy-making. For example, results can help in targeting energy efficiency measures; trends from time series results will form a useful basis for scenario building; and the methodology may be used to model expected outcomes of possible policy options, such as personal carbon trading or a progressive tax regime on household energy consumption.

2008-01-01

291

Household energy consumption in the UK: A highly geographically and socio-economically disaggregated model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Devising policies for a low carbon society requires a careful understanding of energy consumption in different types of households. In this paper, we explore patterns of UK household energy use and associated carbon emissions at national level and also at high levels of socio-economic and geographical disaggregation. In particular, we examine specific neighbourhoods with contrasting levels of deprivation, and typical 'types' (segments) of UK households based on socio-economic characteristics. Results support the hypothesis that different segments have widely differing patterns of consumption. We show that household energy use and associated carbon emissions are both strongly, but not solely, related to income levels. Other factors, such as the type of dwelling, tenure, household composition and rural/urban location are also extremely important. The methodology described in this paper can be used in various ways to inform policy-making. For example, results can help in targeting energy efficiency measures; trends from time series results will form a useful basis for scenario building; and the methodology may be used to model expected outcomes of possible policy options, such as personal carbon trading or a progressive tax regime on household energy consumption. (author)

Druckman, A.; Jackson, T. [Research Group on Lifestyles, Values and Environment (RESOLVE), University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2008-08-15

292

Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency`s mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

Stewart, J.C. [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Saraswatula, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

1994-12-31

293

Using GIS to develop socio-economic profiles of areas adjacent to DOE facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the research addressed in this paper is to identify and analyze the offsite effects of DOE activities at the Savannah River Site. The paper presents the socio-economic conditions of the areas surrounding the site in order to evaluate the possible effects of DOE activities. The study employed a geographic information system (GIS) in order to evaluate spatial relationships between otherwise unrelated factors. Socio-economic data used in the study are publicly available and were obtained mainly from the Bureau of the Census. The Department of Energy (DOE), currently dealing with the environmental management of a large number of sites throughout the United States, must consider the effects of its activities on surrounding populations and ensure compliance with the various federal regulations, such as the executive order on environmental justice. Environmental justice is the process of studying and achieving equal distribution of the effects of environmental pollution on populations across social and economic lines. An executive order signed by the President has directed federal agencies, including the Department of Energy, to make achieving environmental justice a part of the agency's mission by identifying and addressing disproportionately high and adverse human health or environmental effects of its programs, policies, and activities on minority and low-income populations.

1994-01-01

294

Do socio-economic factors influence supermarket content and shoppers' purchases?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ISSUE ADDRESSED: Obesity is at crisis proportions. Individuals of low socio-economic status (SES) are more likely to consume higher energy dense diets than their high socio-economic status counterparts. The contribution of supermarket purchases of energy dense, nutrient poor foods has not been well-researched and has largely depended on unverified self-report. METHODS: We estimated the proportion of supermarket shelf space dedicated to non-core foods in nine supermarkets (in five high and four low SES areas) in metropolitan Sydney. We analysed 204 shoppers' dockets (102 from high and 102 from low SES areas) for purchases of confectionery; sugar sweetened, carbonated beverages and cordials, sweet biscuits and cakes, and crisps and popcorn. RESULTS: After adjusting for the number of people shopped for, low SES shoppers purchased significantly more non-core foods than high SES shoppers (p=0.039), especially chips and sugar sweetened, carbonated beverages and cordials. There was no difference in the shelf space dedicated to non-core foods, or between non-core foods purchased and the proportion of shelf space occupied by them in either low or high SES areas. CONCLUSIONS: Increased purchase of non-core foods by low SES shoppers who are already at higher risk of obesity than high SES shoppers is cause for concern. Further research is required to explore underlying reasons for this association.

Vinkeles Melchers NV; Gomez M; Colagiuri R

2009-12-01

295

Socio-economic health inequalities in Brazil: gender and age effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyses Brazilian socio-economic inequalities in health by measuring the concentration indices for the following variables: health expectancy, self-assessed health status and chronic health problems. Data used were taken from the 1996/1997 Living Standard Measurement Study (LSMS). In summary, as far as gender distinction is concerned, the results showed that up to 5 years of age the mortality rates, reported appearance of chronic health problems as well as the self-assessed health indicated that the boys were in worse health condition than the girls. After this age group there was a tendency for differences to disappear until adulthood, when the situation changed and the women consistently considered themselves less healthy. With reference to the socio-economic inequalities, one generally finds larger differences within the women's groups. The analysis for the different age groups indicated that the pro-rich inequalities increased with age. Both results were clearly proved, especially for the health expectancy variable, by adopting an adjustment of the dominance concept derived from literature on economic inequalities, consisting of comparing concentration curves. PMID:11921312

Diaz, M Dolores Montoya

2002-03-01

296

Socio-economic health inequalities in Brazil: gender and age effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper analyses Brazilian socio-economic inequalities in health by measuring the concentration indices for the following variables: health expectancy, self-assessed health status and chronic health problems. Data used were taken from the 1996/1997 Living Standard Measurement Study (LSMS). In summary, as far as gender distinction is concerned, the results showed that up to 5 years of age the mortality rates, reported appearance of chronic health problems as well as the self-assessed health indicated that the boys were in worse health condition than the girls. After this age group there was a tendency for differences to disappear until adulthood, when the situation changed and the women consistently considered themselves less healthy. With reference to the socio-economic inequalities, one generally finds larger differences within the women's groups. The analysis for the different age groups indicated that the pro-rich inequalities increased with age. Both results were clearly proved, especially for the health expectancy variable, by adopting an adjustment of the dominance concept derived from literature on economic inequalities, consisting of comparing concentration curves.

Diaz MD

2002-03-01

297

Cultural Impediments to Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria: Lessons from the Chinese Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe how human environment is an important determinant of socio-economic development. Over the past three decades, Nigeria has been confronted with deep-seated socio-economic crisis evident in high level of poverty, inflation, foreign debt overhang, closure of industries, epileptic power supply, budget deficit, absolute lack of good governance at the grass root, environmental degradation and high unemployment. In the early part of the 21st century, there was high hope among Nigerians that the emergence of democracy and the increasing global capitalist markets feasible in the oil and telecommunication sectors will result in high level of accelerated development. Elsewhere in Asia, globalization and world capitalist market have changed the faces of fundamental problems of underdevelopment. Studies have even confirmed that the successes recorded by China in the global markets confirm that a country’s economy does not grow in vacuum; it exists within the environment and thrives therein. The failure and crises experienced in Nigeria today have been linked with cultural factors such as corruption, leadership failure, lack of entrepreneurial skills, over dependence on western values and culture, insincerity and weak bureaucracies. Using quantitative data and content analysis, the paper concludes that Nigerian government at all levels must rise up to the challenges posed by the problems of underdevelopment in the 21st century.

Adebayo Olufemi Fadeyi; Waziri Babatunde Adisa

2012-01-01

298

A bridge between liquids and socio-economic systems: the key role of interaction strengths  

CERN Multimedia

One distinctive and pervasive aspect of social systems is the fact that they comprise several kinds of agents. Thus, in order to draw parallels with physical systems one is lead to consider binary (or multi-component) compounds. Recent views about the mixing of liquids in solutions gained from neutron and X-ray scattering show these systems to have a number of similarities with socio-economic systems. It appears that such phenomena as rearrangement of bonds in a solution, gas condensation, selective evaporation of molecules can be transposed in a natural way to socio-economic phenomena. These connections provide a novel perspective for looking at social systems which we illustrate through some examples. For instance, we interpret suicide as an escape phenomenon and in order to test that interpretation we consider social systems characterized by very low levels of social interaction. For those systems suicide rates are found to be 10 to 100 times higher than in the general population. Another interesting paral...

Röhner, B M

2004-01-01

299

Education in health: the influence from socio-economic-cultural of pregnant woman  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to describe the socio-economic-cultural pregnant women who use outpatient prenatal care and identify the themes of education for the pregnancy and puerperal period elected by women. Methods: it’s a cross-sectional, exploratory and descriptive study. In a prenatal care from healthcare center located in Rio de Janeiro were carried out 90 semi-structured interviews with pregnant women. This study was approved by Research Ethics Committee in Health Municipal Secretariat-RJ, number of register 231/08. Results: the predominant age group (48%) was that of pregnant women 18 to 25 years, most (62%) did not complete high school and are employed in the service sector. The absolute majority (94%) have family income less than three minimum wages. The most women (76%) did not plan the current pregnancy and 33% had previous abortion. Some women were drinking alcohol (13.3%) and smoking (7.7%). Signs and symptoms of labor was the theme of education elected by the majority (56%). Conclusion: to understand the socio-economic and cultural allowed be identified vulnerabilities to the health of women. This research has great relevance to support the planning of health care. Through health education we can contribute to a good outcome of pregnancy and future pregnancies and to reduce the rates of maternal and neonatal mortality.

Selma Villas Boas Teixeira; Cristiane Rodrigues da Rocha; Diego Silva Domingues de Moraes; Danielle Moreira Marques; Alana Stéphanie Esteves Villar

2010-01-01

300

Evolutionary quantum game theory in the context of socio-economic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution of socio-economic systems depend on the interdependent decision processes of its underlying system components. The mathematical model to describe the strategic decision of players within a socio-economic game is ''game theory''. ''Quantum game theory'' is a mathematical and conceptual amplification of classical game theory. The space of all conceivable decision paths is extended from the purely rational, measurable space in the Hilbert-space of complex numbers - which is the mathematical space where quantum theory is formulated. By the concept of a potential entanglement of the imaginary quantum strategy parts, it is possible to include cooperate decision path, caused by cultural or moral standards. If this strategy entanglement is large enough, then additional Nash equilibria can occur, previously present dominant strategies could become nonexistent and new evolutionary stable strategies do appear for some game classes. Within this PhD thesis the main results of classical and quantum games are summarized and all of the possible game classes of evolutionary (2 player)-(2 strategy) games are extended to quantum games. It is shown that the quantum extension of classical games with an underlying dilemma-like structure give different results, if the strength of strategic entanglement is above a certain barrier. After the German summary and the introduction paper, five different applications of the theory are discussed within the thesis. (orig.)

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

TV viewing and BMI by race/ethnicity and socio-economic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between TV viewing and obesity by race/ethnicity and socio-economic status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of 5,087 respondents to the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), a nationally representative sample of US adults. Multivariate regression models were computed to assess the association between quartiles of TV viewing and BMI, stratified by race/ethnicity, educational attainment, employment and health insurance status. RESULTS: Findings indicate that increased TV viewing was associated with higher odds for being overweight/obese in the entire sample, while adjusting for physical activity and other confounders. After stratification by race/ethnicity, increased odds for overweight/obesity in the 3(rd) and 4(th) quartiles of TV viewing (e.g., 3(rd) quartile-cumulative OR?=?1.43, 95%CI 1.07-1.92) was observed in non-Hispanic whites, with statistical significance. In non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics, the odds were similar to whites, but did not reach statistical significance. Significant relations between greater TV viewing and increased BMI were observed in college graduates and non-graduates, those with health insurance and the employed. CONCLUSIONS: This study extends previous research by examining potential inconsistencies in this association between various racial/ethnic groups and some socio-economic variables, which primarily were not found.

Shuval K; Gabriel KP; Leonard T

2013-01-01

302

Integrated Socio-Economic and Biophysical Data to Underpin Collaborative Watershed Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Watersheds are widely accepted as a useful geography for organizing natural resource management in Australia and the United States. It is assumed that effective action needs to be underpinned by an understanding of the interactions between people and the environment. While there has been some social research as part of watershed planning, there have been few attempts to integrate socio-economic and biophysical data to improve the efficacy of watershed management. This paper explores that topic. With limited resources for social research, watershed partners in Australia chose to focus on gathering spatially referenced socio-economic data using a mail survey to private landholders that would enable them to identify and refine priority issues, develop and improve communication with private landholders, choose policy options to accomplish watershed targets, and evaluate the achievement of intermediate watershed plan objectives. Experience with seven large watershed projects provides considerable insight about the needs of watershed planners, how to effectively engage them, and how to collect and integrate social data as part of watershed management.

Curtis, Allan; Byron, Ian; Mackay, Jacinta

2005-06-01

303

A socio-economic approach to One Health policy research in southern Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious (more) Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic) which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.

Kayunze, Kim A.; Kiwara, Angwara D.; Lyamuya, Eligius; Kambarage, Dominic M.; Rushton, Jonathan; Coker, Richard; Kock, Richard; Rweyemamu, Mark M.

2012-01-01

304

A Study on Socio-Economic Status of Maid-Servant in Purulia Town  

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Full Text Available Over last few decades, there have been rapid growths in the number of women employee in India and majority of them being engaged in informal sector of the economy where jobs are often low paid and repetitive. An attempt has been made in this study to trace out the socio-economic status of maid-servant as well as the manner in which they lives in the informal sector in Purulia Municipal area of the same district of West Bengal. The study has been carried out through personal interview and observation. Results indicate that most of the maid-servants (78%) are satisfied in their profession and most of the respondents (82.35%) do not engaged with other work except maid-servant for earning. However, economic compulsion is the main hardship for taking the job as maid-servants. The general educational status of the maid-servants is not satisfactory and wages of the maid-servants are very low. The maid-servants are subject to variety of exploitations starting from low wages to maltreatment and sexual harassment by the employer. In view of this exploitation it is necessary to improve their socio-economic status and working conditions.

SHYAMAL KUMAR BISWAS

2012-01-01

305

Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed.

1998-01-01

306

Socio-economic determinants of suicide: an ecological analysis of 35 countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A long tradition of research has shown a relationship between suicide rates and socio-economic factors. However, most investigations have neglected to account for country-specific influences. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between socio-economic variables and gender-specific suicide rates in 35 countries, using analytic techniques able to control for effects embedded within different country contexts. METHOD: Data relating to male and female age-standardised suicide rates (obtained from the WHO Statistical Information System) were analysed using fixed-effect regression. The possible associations between suicide rates and social variables were tested using data for 35 countries over the period 1980-2006. RESULTS: Findings indicated that higher male and female suicide rates were associated with increased female labour force participation, unemployment, and the proportion of persons over 65 years. Reductions in male and female suicide rates were associated with increased health spending per capita. The study also revealed that higher fertility was associated with a reduction in male suicide. Female labour force participation had a stronger effect on male suicide rates. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that variables related to the labour market and the economy were better explanatory factors of suicide rates than population-level indicators of interpersonal relationships. Although results were generally similar for males and females, males appeared to be more sensitive to changes in the social environment than women.

Milner A; McClure R; De Leo D

2012-01-01

307

Marketing of Public and Business Affairs Subsystems of Socio-Economic Environment  

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Full Text Available The Romanian society is crossing one of the most important stages of its transition toward the integration in the European Union started with January 1st, 2007; this will define the final processes bound for the socio-economic reconstruction. Based on the previous experiences, an assumption rose up that, at this moment in the Romanian society there are two systems business and public administration, placed on opposite, antagonistic, unfriendly sides. At the same time, there is the opinion that a proper public and private marketing could be the link between them. The link between these systems should make the relation useful to create and handle the cooperation and cooperation climate in these two environments. The paper aims to present the systems, their characteristics, the opinion about the other, the identified link components, and to propose a solution for the link improvement. A small survey of the members opinions, in both systems, will be the base of the analysis. The first stage is to analyze each environment as an independent system: business system (BSy) and public administration system (PASy). We will present the structure, characteristics, interactions with other socio-economic components, etc. The second stage will focus on the role of public and private marketing as tools of feedback reaction of the systems to the general environment dynamics. The marketing behavior is typical for the BSy and its level of marketing knowledge is higher than the poor level of marketing knowledge in PASy lacking the marketing attitude about public services.

Adriana Grigorescu

2008-01-01

308

Marketing of Public and Business Affairs Subsystems of Socio-Economic Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Romanian society is crossing one of the most important stages of its transition toward the integration in the European Union started with January 1st, 2007; this will define the final processes bound for the socio-economic reconstruction. Based on the previous experiences, an assumption rose up that, at this moment in the Romanian society there are two systems ñ business and public administration, placed on opposite, antagonistic, unfriendly sides. At the same time, there is the opinion that a proper public and private marketing could be the link between them. The link between these systems should make the relation useful to create and handle the cooperation and cooperation climate in these two environments. The paper aims to present the systems, their characteristics, the opinion about the other, the identified link components, and to propose a solution for the link improvement. A small survey of the membersí opinions, in both systems, will be the base of the analysis. The first stage is to analyze each environment as an independent system: business system (BSy) and public administration system (PASy). We will present the structure, characteristics, interactions with other socio-economic components, etc. The second stage will focus on the role of public and private marketing as tools of feedback reaction of the systems to the general environment dynamics. The marketing behavior is typical for the BSy and its level of marketing knowledge is higher than the poor level of marketing knowledge in PASy lacking the marketing attitude about public services.

Adriana Grigorescu

2008-01-01

309

Socio-economic Aspects of Gum Arabic Production in Dalanj Area, South Korodofan, Sudan  

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Full Text Available Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season) the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers’ associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production.

A.O. Koli; A.M. Eltayeb; E.M. Sanjak; M.H. Mohammed

2013-01-01

310

Assessment of knowledge level of dairy farmers in Nagpur district and the co-relation between socio-economic variables with their training needs  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the knowledge level of dairy farmers in Nagpur district and to find the co-relation between the socio-economic variables and the training needs. This study was conducted in 15 villages from 3 talukas of Nagpur district by personally interviewing 225 dairy farmers. Here, majority of the respondents (55.11%) had medium level of knowledge followed by the respondents with high level of knowledge (24.00%) while some of the respondents (20.89%) had low level of knowledge. The study of co-relation between socio-economic variables of the respondents showed that variables like education (0.437), herd size (0.486), annual income (0.445), daily milk production (0.583), daily milk sale (0.486), social participation (0.500) and the knowledge (0.634) were significantly and positively co-related with the training needs. Whereas, variables like age (0.043), family size (0.103) and land holding (0.084) were found to be positively but non-significantly co-related with the training needs while, the caste (-0.093) was found to be negatively and non-significantly co-related with the training needs at 0.05% level of probability. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000): 199-201

A.P.Patil; S.H. Gawande; M.P.Nande and M.R.Gobade

2009-01-01

311

Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise downscaling procedure based on expert-judgement and pairwise comparison is presented to obtain quantitative socio-economic parameters, e.g. prices and productivity estimates that are input to the ACCELERATES integrated land use model. In the first step, the global driving forces are identified and quantified for each of the four SRES scenario families. In the second step, European agricultural driving forces are derived for each scenario from global driving forces. Finally, parameters for the agricultural land use model are quantified. The stepwise procedure is appropriate when developing socio-economic scenarios that are consistent with climate change scenarios used in climate impact studies. Furthermore, the pairwise comparison approach developed by Saaty [Saaty, T.L., 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw Hill, New York] provides a useful tool for the quantification from narrative storylines of scenario drivers and model parameters. Descriptions of the narratives are, however, helpful at each step to facilitate the discussion and communication of the resulting scenarios.

Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.

2006-01-01

312

INCOME GENERATING ACTIVITIES THROUGH MICROCREDIT AND WOMENS SOCIO-ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT: A STUDY OF DISTRICT KASUR, PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available In the present study an attempt has been made to know about the role of microcredit in income generating activities of women and its impact on their socio-economic empowerment. The target population of the present study was those women who had availed microcredit facilities from some microcredit providing institutions or organizations in district Kasur. Survey method was used as a technique of data collection. The majority of population was illiterate or semi-literate, so interview schedule was used as a tool of data collection. Through two stage clusters sampling respondents were selected in this study. The findings showed that microcredit has significant impact on the up lift of socio-economic empowerment of the borrowers in district Kasur. The results showed that most of the females who availed the facility of microcredit finally got socioeconomic empowerment. Only 82 females had low level of socio-economic empowerment.Majority 174 respondents had medium level of socio-economic empowerment. Another 40respondents argued that they have high level of socio-economic empowerment after gettingmicrocredit facility.

Tauqeer Hussain Shah; Huma Butt

2011-01-01

313

Rural Tourism as a Prospective Direction of Entrepreneurship in the Socio-Economic Mechanism of Rural Development ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ? ?????????-????????????? ????????? ???????? ????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of rural tourism as a prospective direction of activity of entrepreneurship in rural districts of Ukraine, since it positively influences restoration, preservation and development of local traditions, trades, monuments of historical and cultural heritage and also expands channels of realisation of products of private farms of rural population. It analyses the essence of the rural tourism and its place in the complex socio-economic rural development. It identifies main problems of development of this sphere of activity. It focuses main attention on the fact that practical realisation of the state policy in the sphere of support of rural tourism bears today, as well as during numerous years in the past, mainly a declaratory character, and the state target financing of development of rural tourism is practically absent both at the state and regional levels. The article uses the analysis to present prospects of further development of rural tourism taking into account experience of EU country-members, in which adoption of state and local programmes, directed at development of entrepreneurship in the sphere of rural tourism, their proper performance and sufficient financing, realisation of measures of these programmes through funds of support of entrepreneurship is one of prospective directions of development of rural territories.?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ?????????, ?????????? ????????-??????????? ????????, ? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????. ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ????. ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ????????????. ???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????, ??? ? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???, ??????????????? ????????????? ????????, ? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????????????????, ??? ? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????. ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ???? ????? - ?????? ??, ? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????????? ? ????? ????????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????.

Dovgal Yelena V.

2013-01-01

314

Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Adoption of Soya Bean Production Technologies in Takum Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined socio-economic factors affecting the adoption of soya bean production technologies in Takum Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. Interview schedules were administered to 180 respondents which were analyzed by the use of descriptive (frequencies and percentages) and inferential (multiple regression analysis) statistics. The study revealed that majority of the respondents adopted the recommended technologies with respect to improved seeds, planting time and harvesting time representing 52.20%, 50.70% and 68.90% respectively. While on the other hand, majority of the respondents did not adopt the recommended technologies with regards to fertilizer application, spacing, weeding frequency and the use of chemicals with 52.20%, 53.30%, 61.10% and 67.80% respectively. The regression analysis revealed that educational level, farming experience and sources of information had significantly and positively influenced the adoption of improved soya bean production technologies by respondents. The major constraints to adoption of soya bean production technologies by respondents were poor extension services (75.60%) and lack of credit facilities (72.20%. The study recommends that agricultural extension services should adequately be provided with input support services in the form of credit facilities among others.

Mustapha, S. B.; Makinta, A. A.; Zongoma, B. A.; Iwan, A. S.

2012-01-01

315

Household context and child mortality in rural South Africa: the effects of birth spacing, shared mortality, household composition and socio-economic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Household characteristics are important influences on the risk of child death. However, little is known about this influence in HIV-endemic areas. We describe the effects of household characteristics on children's risk of dying in rural South Africa. METHODS: We use data describing the mortality of children younger than 5 years living in the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system study population in rural northeast South Africa during the period 1994-2008. Using discrete time event history analysis we estimate children's probability of dying by child characteristics and household composition (other children and adults other than parents) (N = 924 818 child-months), and household socio-economic status (N = 501 732 child-months). RESULTS: Children under 24 months of age whose subsequent sibling was born within 11 months experience increased odds of dying (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1-5.7). Children also experience increased odds of dying in the period 6 months (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.6), 3-5 months (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.5-5.9), and 2 months (OR 11.8; 95% CI 7.6-18.3) before another household child dies. The odds of dying remain high at the time of another child's death (OR 11.7; 95% CI 6.3-21.7) and for the 2 months following (OR 4.0; 95% CI 1.9-8.6). Having a related but non-parent adult aged 20-59 years in the household reduces the odds (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.5-0.8). There is an inverse relationship between a child's odds of dying and household socio-economic status. CONCLUSIONS: This detailed household profile from a poor rural setting where HIV infection is endemic indicates that children are at high risk of dying when another child is very ill or has recently died. Short birth intervals and additional children in the household are further risk factors. Presence of a related adult is protective, as is higher socio-economic status. Such evidence can inform primary health care practice and facilitate targeting of community health worker efforts, especially when covering defined catchment areas.

Houle B; Stein A; Kahn K; Madhavan S; Collinson M; Tollman SM; Clark SJ

2013-08-01

316

The effect of socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghana: results of a nationwide survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghana are not well understood and their influence has been relatively overlooked. This paper seeks to examine the influence of socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghanaians three different age groups. The data employed in the study were drawn from Global Ageing and Adult Health survey conducted in Ghana by SAGE and was based on the design for the World Health Survey. The survey was conducted in 2007 and collected data on socio-economic characteristics and other variables of the individuals interviewed. The overall results suggest that chronic diseases in relatively older Ghanaians reflects social and economic exposures with the differentials observed only partially explained by current social and economic conditions. Our results were by and large very much expected from the current medical knowledge available.

Saeed BI; Abdul-Aziz AR; Nguah SB; Zhao X

2013-09-01

317

The effect of socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in ghana: results of a nationwide survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghana are not well understood and their influence has been relatively overlooked. This paper seeks to examine the influence of socio-economic predictors of chronic diseases in Ghanaians three different age groups. The data employed in the study were drawn from Global Ageing and Adult Health survey conducted in Ghana by SAGE and was based on the design for the World Health Survey. The survey was conducted in 2007 and collected data on socio-economic characteristics and other variables of the individuals interviewed. The overall results suggest that chronic diseases in relatively older Ghanaians reflects social and economic exposures with the differentials observed only partially explained by current social and economic conditions. Our results were by and large very much expected from the current medical knowledge available. PMID:23985113

Saeed, Bashiru I I; Abdul-Aziz, A R; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Zhao, Xicang

2013-06-16

318

A social work study on relationship between thinking styles, self-esteem and socio-economic conditions among university students  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between thinking style and self-esteem as well as socio-economic conditions among university students. The study selects 512 students from Islamic Azad University of Najafabad in province of Esfahan, Iran and distributes a questionnaire, which measures creativity and self-esteem. We also collect students’ socio-economic conditions and analyze the information. The results of our survey disclose that thinking style and self-esteem have overlap with each other. In addition, students with better socio-economic conditions are more creative and use complex style of thinking. The study also provides some guidelines for practically implementing the results of our survey among other students.

Sahar Mirghobad Khodarahmi; Abbass Mokhtari

2013-01-01

319

Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality.

Scalone F

2013-10-01

320

Socio-economic status and geographies of psychiatric inpatient service use. Places, provision, power and well-being.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This editorial briefly summarises some aspects of research on socio-economic status and use of mental health services that have particular relevance for the theme of this issue of Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale. This discussion takes a view from the perspective of health geography, which examines how the relationships between individuals and their social and physical environment result in variations in health and health care use. Three particular issues are considered here. First, the geographical distribution and organisation of psychiatric services may interact with social and economic factors in ways that are important for service use. Second, increasingly sophisticated ecological modelling strategies have elucidated the associations between socio-economic factors and service use at the population level. Third, more intensive, qualitative research complements these statistical analyses and encouraged reflection on the socio-economic processes, within psychiatric care settings, as well as in wider society, which influence service use.

Curtis S

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Socio-economic determinants of early discontinuation of anti-depressant treatment in young adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Early discontinuation of anti-depressant treatment is common. This study analysed whether socio-economic factors influence early discontinuation among new anti-depressant users aged 20-34 years. METHODS: Our study population included all Swedes aged 20-34 years who purchased anti-depressants in 2006 and had not purchased such drugs in the preceding 6 months (n = 25,003). We obtained prescription data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Information about demographic and socio-economic factors (country of birth, marital status, household size, education level, occupation, income and social assistance) was collected from Statistics Sweden by record linkage. We defined early discontinuation as filling only one anti-depressant prescription within a 6-month period. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to analyse the socio-economic factors associated with early discontinuation. RESULTS: We identified 6536 individuals (26.1%) as early discontinuers. Early discontinuation was less common among women [odds ratio (OR) = 0.82; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.75-0.87] and in those with at least two years of higher education (OR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.61-0.83), whereas it was more common among those born outside Sweden (OR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.48-2.10) and those who received social assistance (OR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.11-1.44). Compared with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, SSRI, early discontinuation was more common among individuals who started treatment with a tri-cyclic anti-depressant, TCA, (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 2.24-2.98) or an anti-depressant other than SSRIs, TCAs or selective serotonin-norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors/norepinephrine (noradrenaline) re-uptake inhibitors (OR = 2.90; 95% CI 2.05-4.10). CONCLUSION: Early discontinuation occurred more commonly among social assistance recipients and those with immigrant background, suggesting that those groups might require greater support when initiating anti-depressant therapy.

Sundell KA; Waern M; Petzold M; Gissler M

2013-06-01

322

Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006). The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644). Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA) was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions). Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB) among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (? = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure, wealth status, and child-death experience by mothers. All of these were strong predictors for CEB. It can be concluded that programs should aim to reduce fertility rates by focusing on these identified factors so that fertility as well as infant and maternal mortality and morbidity will be decreased and the overall well-being of the family maintained and enhanced.

Adhikari Ramesh

2010-01-01

323

Explosive anger in postconflict Timor Leste: interaction of socio-economic disadvantage and past human rights-related trauma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Countries emerging from major conflict commonly experience recurrent periods of communal instability. A psychosocial theory, Adaptation and Development after Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT), suggests that experiences of past human rights abuses interact with socio-economic disadvantage in the postconflict period to generate or maintain explosive forms of anger. Previous research has supported a link between trauma exposure and anger but the role of ongoing socio-economic disadvantage requires further clarification. METHODS: The present study examined a structural equation model based on cross-sectional epidemiological data (n = 1245) collected in post-conflict Timor Leste in 2004. The model included four trauma dimensions derived from a prior factor analysis; a latent variable of post-conflict distress symptoms (derived from measures of PTSD and depression/anxiety); an index of socio-economic distress; and an indigenously-based measure of explosive anger. RESULTS: The final model yielded a good fit (chi-square = 26.59 df = 20 p = 0.15 CFI = 0.99; TLI = 0.99; RMSEA = 0.016). Postconflict distress symptoms mediated the associations of trauma dimensions and socio-economic disadvantage with anger. Trauma dimensions associated with human rights violations and witnessing murder were partly mediated by ongoing socio-economic disadvantage in the path to postconflict distress and anger. LIMITATIONS: Longitudinal studies will be needed to confirm the chronological sequencing of these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: The study offers empirical support for a link between past trauma related to human rights violations and ongoing socio-economic disadvantage in the path to distress and anger.

Brooks R; Silove D; Steel Z; Steel CB; Rees S

2011-06-01

324

Socio-Economic Aspects Influencing Food Consumption Patterns Among Children under Age of Five in Rural Area of Sudan  

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Full Text Available A secondary analysis of data for 150 children under the age of five was carried out in three villages of El Fau rural area of Gadarif state. The community mainly consists of farmers of a semi nomadic nature who own different sizes of herds and agricultural lands; they are the farmers of the Arabic pedigree. The rest of the community is workers from western Sudan, who were brought from their original areas to enhance the nomadic settlement strategy of the Sudanese government in the mid seventies. These worker groups comprise of different tribes namely Tama, Hawsa, Birgid, Masalet and Folany. Farming is the major activity practiced almost by all the community members and the government controls the farming system. The study was carried out to investigate some of the social and economic factors, which have a direct and indirect effect on feeding patterns and nutritional status of children under age of five. Mothers were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire, about the social norms affecting both mother and child’s nutritional and health status, in addition to the feeding habits of the children (including breastfeeding and weaning practices). In addition, information was collected about the socio-economic status of the family. The income of the family was assessed. The results revealed low parental education (76.7% of the mothers and 54.0% of the fathers are illiterate), socioeconomic-demographic factors and poor nutrition of knowledge of mothers as well as and feeding practices led to the prevalence of nutritional aneamia (65.3% of the children with haemoglobin concentration of 50% or below) in addition to the prevalence of wasting, where 6% of the children are moderately malnourished and 3.3% of them are severely malnourished. It is recommended that an improvement in societal infrastructure, better maternal education and nutrition are needed to maintain the children’s nutritional status in several rural areas of Sudan.

Muna A. Abdalla; Saad A. Sulieman; Abdullahi H. El Tinay; Abdul Gader H. Khattab

2009-01-01

325

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the southern California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego Counties in southern California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon, and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

326

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the northern California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino Counties in northern California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing, public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

327

Baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in the central California planning area. Final report, 1970-2020  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents baseline socio-economic profiles of Sonoma, Marin, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties in central California. It is one of six reports prepared under the contract to develop baseline socio-economic profiles of coastal counties in California, Oregon, and Washington. The profiles cover demographics, economics, housing public services and facilities, public finance, energy consumption, land use, and port capacity, marine traffic, and fishing. Secondary sources were used to prepare the profiles. The focus of the profiles is 1980, but 1970 to 2020 is covered to the extent possible with existing data.

Brown, G.; Kolp, P.; Wallace, B.

1987-10-01

328

Cellular automata for the spreading of technologies in socio-economic systems  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce an agent-based model for the spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems where the technology is mainly used for the collaboration/interaction of agents. Agents use products of different technologies to collaborate with each other which induce costs proportional to the difference of technological levels. Additional costs arise when technologies of different providers are used. Agents can adopt technologies and providers of their interacting partners in order to reduce their costs leading to microscopic rearrangements of the system. Analytical calculations and computer simulations revealed that starting from a random configuration of different technological levels a complex time evolution emerges where the spreading of advanced technologies and the overall technological progress of the system are determined by the amount of advantages more advanced technologies provide, and by the structure of the social environment of agents. We show that agents tend to form clusters of iden...

Kun, Ferenc; Farkas, Janos

2008-01-01

329

GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area  

CERN Document Server

The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

2010-01-01

330

Socio Economic Changes Among The Tsunami Affected Families In Tamil Nadu – An Empirical Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to assess the socio economic changes among the tsunami affected families in Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu. The participants were adult tsunami affected families (141 male and 47 female; N =188) in Palayar village of Sirkali block in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu. A self prepared interview schedule was used for data collection. The mean age of the respondents was 37.6 years. About half of them had studied up to middle school level. The mean score of the education of the family members after tsunami is little higher than the mean score of the education of family members before tsunami. There is no change in the occupation among the selected families after tsunami but there is a statistically significant difference in the average monthly family income of the households and size of the families before and after tsunami.

A. Arun Prakash; V. Sethuramalingam

2012-01-01

331

Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

2005-01-01

332

Socio-economic analysis of fuelwood use in a rural area of Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present article is based on the socio-economic analysis of fuelwood use in 70 villages in Trabzon, Turkey. Energy requirements of the 70 villages studied are subsidized considerably by the surrounding forest in the form of firewood. It was noticed that the amount of fuelwood consumption in the 70 villages was 171 371 m3 in 1990. The total amount of fuelwood per house provided by the forest enterprise was 12 212 m3 in the same year and, therefore, the amount of illegal fuelwood consumption was 159 160 m3. This study showed that the amount of fuelwood provided by the forest enterprise for each house in the villages was only 7% of the amount of fuelwood in the villages used. Finally, the economic, social, cultural, legal, technical, managerial and psychological reasons for the illegal fuelwood consumption from the State Forests have been studied and necessary and appropriate solutions have been proposed. (author).

1995-01-01

333

Socio-economic analysis of fuelwood use in a rural area of Turkey  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present article is based on the socio-economic analysis of fuelwood use in 70 villages in Trabzon, Turkey. Energy requirements of the 70 villages studied are subsidized considerably by the surrounding forest in the form of firewood. It was noticed that the amount of fuelwood consumption in the 70 villages was 171 371 m{sup 3} in 1990. The total amount of fuelwood per house provided by the forest enterprise was 12 212 m{sup 3} in the same year and, therefore, the amount of illegal fuelwood consumption was 159 160 m{sup 3}. This study showed that the amount of fuelwood provided by the forest enterprise for each house in the villages was only 7% of the amount of fuelwood in the villages used. Finally, the economic, social, cultural, legal, technical, managerial and psychological reasons for the illegal fuelwood consumption from the State Forests have been studied and necessary and appropriate solutions have been proposed. (author)

Tuerker, M.F.; Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey)

1995-12-31

334

GIS: (Geographic Information System) An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

Mr.Nayak S.K; Dr.S.B.Thorat,; Dr.Kalyankar N.V.

2010-01-01

335

Rural Households : Socio-Economic Characteristics, Community Organzing and Adaptation Abilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations of informal organization and community adaptive capacities, and finally, it discusses the issues of vulnerability and adaptation to climatic and environmental change from a household perspective.

Bruun, Ole

2013-01-01

336

Interdisciplinarity in Socio-economics, mathematical analysis and predictability of complex systems  

CERN Multimedia

In this essay, I attempt to provide supporting evidence as well as some balance for the thesis on `Transforming socio-economics with a new epistemology' presented by Hollingworth and Mueller (2008). First, I review a personal highlight of my own scientific path that illustrates the power of interdisciplinarity as well as unity of the mathematical description of natural and social processes. I also argue against the claim that complex systems are in general `not susceptible to mathematical analysis, but must be understood by letting them evolve over time or with simulation analysis'. Moreover, I present evidence of the limits of the claim that scientists working within Science II do not make predictions about the future because it is too complex. I stress the potentials for a third `Quantum Science' and its associated conceptual and philosophical revolutions, and finally point out some limits of the `new' theory of networks.

Sornette, D

2008-01-01

337

The socio-economic analysis of fuelwood consumption with the principal components analysis in Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

People living in and around the state-owned forests have been illegally using wood for fuelwood because of social, economic and cultural problems in Turkey. The forestry sector has little share in gross national product due to the fact that the raw material is used as fuelwood instead of being used in industry. In this study, a socio-economic model consisting of 10 variables with regard to the consumption of fuelwood is examined by the principal components analysis. Forty-seven villages of the Macka Region of Trabzon Province were selected as the case study area for this research. Data required for this study were obtained through household surveys and Forestry Ministry Records. (author)

1997-01-01

338

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE INSURANCE MARKET  

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Full Text Available The article presents the main results of the insurance sphere development in the Republic of Bashkortostan. It traces the dynamics and structure of changes in classes of the insurance. The analysis of the insurance market development was performed via a set of diagnostics methods applied to regional insurance market and factors significantly influencing the basic segments of the insurance market. Using the assessment indicators of the regional insurance market and its dependence on the investment potential of the region, the author has established a cause-and-effect relationship between the insurance market and socio-economic development of the region. There has been formulated problems retaining the regional insurance market development. There has also been offered development priorities. The author has used the following methods in the analysis: the comparative and statisical analysis, the peer review method, the time series construction.

Kabirova Alina Salavatovna

2013-01-01

339

An additive regression model for investigating the relationship between childhood health and socio-economic status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health risks associated with socio-economic status (SES) have extensively been studied in epidemiology. It is not uncommon that data used exhibit spatial correlation, nonlinear effects, overdispersion and heterogeneity, and structured additive regression (STAR) models permit incorporating these features in a single analytical framework. Nevertheless, most STAR models assume constant spatial effects. However, due to social or disease transmission processes, covariates may be space-varying. We explore this feature by fitting a multinomial logistic model on a joint response variable constructed from four health indicators (i.e. a child having fever, diarrhoea, or being stunted and underweight) and examine its relationship with SES estimated as a space-varying coefficient (SVC) variable. Implementation of the model follow a Bayesian framework. Our comparison with models that assume constant spatial effects shows superiority of the SVC model as well as confirms the fact that SES varies in space.

Kazembe LN

2013-09-01

340

The socio-economic cost of power generation. Die sozialen Kosten der Elektrizitaetserzeugung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given the existing supply structures, chances are small for wind power and photovoltaic power plants to play a determining role in the near future. An accelerated marketing and implementation should be avoided from the economic point of view. The external cost of fossil and nuclear power plants is well below their operational cost. The risk of misallocation can be excluded. Considering the widely differing results and evaluations, one must be prepared for a rather lengthy controversy on the socio-economic and external cost of power generation. On the part of the authors, efforts remain to be going into the subject-related completion of databases, and the monetary evaluation of effects to be quantified. (orig./UA).

Friedrich, R. (Stuttgart Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme)

1989-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Socio-Economic Profile of Silk Weavers: A MicroLevel Study of Srinagar City  

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Full Text Available Kashmiri silk weavers and silk products are of international repute. Though the Kashmiri silk products are enjoying a ready market both at home and abroad, there are grey areas demanding immediate attention to sustain and further improve this traditional craft and to help the Kashmiri silk weavers to achieve new heights. In the present study, we have analysed the socio-economic profile and the problems of silk weavers in Srinagar city, trying to offer possible recommendations to address the grey areas. This study is based on both primary and secondary data sources. A primary survey was conducted in Srinagar City during the year 2012, consisting of 100 respondents chosen randomly. The study results revealed that the situation of the weavers was worrying: they were feeble due to illiteracy, financial constraints, health problems, meagre remuneration and poor Government support.

TAWHEED YOUSUF; ISHFAQ KHAN; TAWSEEF YOUSUF; TARIQAHMAD RAJA

2013-01-01

342

Some ecological and socio-economic considerations for biomass energy crop production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of this paper is to suggest a regional approach to ensure that energy crop production will proceed in an ecologically and economically sustainable way. At this juncture, we have the opportunity to build into the system some ecological and socio-economic values which have not traditionally been considered. If crop species are chosen and sited properly, incorporation of energy crops into our agricultural system could provide extensive wildlife habitat and address soil and water quality concerns, in addition to generating renewable power. We recommend that three types of agricultural land be targeted for perennial biomass energy crops: (1) highly erodible land; (2) wetlands presently converted to agricultural uses; and (3) marginal agricultural land in selected regions. Fitting appropriate species to these lands, biomass crops can be successfully grown on lands not ecologically suited for conventional farming practices, thus providing an environmental benefit in addition to producing an economic return to the land owner. (author)

1996-01-01

343

EMPLOYMENT STATUS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BEGGARS: A STUDY IN ALIGARH DISTRICT  

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Full Text Available Beggars in India are the victim of an imbalanced socio-economic system. Theyare the most vulnerable people in our society. They are the example of humandegradation to the lowest extent, and they are a menace to the healthy society. Most ofthem are the product of economic deprivation, destitution and neglect (Cama, 1945).Begging is commonly defined as the act of stopping people on the street to ask forassistance, for example in the form of food or money (Bose & Hwang, 2002 and Collins& Blomley, 2003). According to the Census of India (2001), beggars are “vagrants,prostitutes and person having unidentified source of income and those with unspecifiedsource of subsistence and not engaged in any economically productive work duringreference period called beggars.”

JABIR HASAN KHAN; MENKA; FALAK BUTOOL

2013-01-01

344

Relations between Internet use, socio-economic status (SES), social support and subjective health.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to explore relations between Internet use, socio-economic status (SES), social support and subjective health. Participants were from representative samples between 15 and 80 years of age from seven different European countries. Two different survey datasets were used: (i) eHealth trends (eHT; N = 7934) and (ii) the European social survey (ESS2; N = 11248). Internet users who had used the Internet for health purposes were compared with Internet users who had not used it for health purposes. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the relationships between SES, Internet use, social support and subjective health. Use of other media was compared to Internet use in relation to social support and subjective health. Internet use was found to be more closely related to social support and subjective health than use of other media. Internet use was also found to be a plausible mediator between SES and subjective health, especially through interacting with social support. PMID:18083686

Wangberg, Silje C; Andreassen, Hege K; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Santana, Silvina Maria Vagos; Sørensen, Tove; Chronaki, Catharine E

2007-12-13

345

Efficiency in Public Education - The role of socio-economic variables  

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Full Text Available This study measures the efficiency of public education using an inefficiency effects function that controls the socio-economic and environmental factors simultaneously.  The model developed by Battese and Coelli (1995) is applied to a panel dataset. The study found that although the mean efficiency scores obtained from the model are lower than the efficiency scores from a conventional stochastic frontier model, the estimates are robust and consistent.   The empirical application used three-year panel data from Kansas school districts and found Kansas schools are generally efficient and the most of the educational inputs under the control of the school administration were either had a low or no influence on students’ achievement scores.  However, students’ socioeconomic factors were found to have a significant influence on their achievement scores.  

Kalyan Chakraborty

2009-01-01

346

Migrant mortality from diabetes mellitus across Europe: the importance of socio-economic change.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR) is more affluent than the country of birth (COB). We obtained mortality data from 7 European countries. To assess migrant diabetes mortality, we used direct standardization and Poisson regression. First, migrant mortality was estimated for each country separately. Then, we merged the data from all mortality registers. Subsequently, to examine the second hypothesis, we introduced gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of COB in the models, as an indicator of socio-economic circumstances. The overall pattern shows higher diabetes mortality in migrant populations compared to local-born populations. Mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were highest in migrants originating from either the Caribbean or South Asia. MRRs for the migrant population as a whole were 1.9 (95% CI 1.8-2.0) and 2.2 (95% CI 2.1-2.3) for men and women respectively. We furthermore found a consistently inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality. Most migrant groups have higher diabetes mortality rates than the local-born populations. Mortality rates are particularly high in migrants from North Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia or low-GDP countries. The inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality suggests that socio-economic change may be one of the key aetiological factors.

Vandenheede H; Deboosere P; Stirbu I; Agyemang CO; Harding S; Juel K; Rafnsson SB; Regidor E; Rey G; Rosato M; Mackenbach JP; Kunst AE

2012-02-01

347

Socio-economic inequalities in Norwegian health care utilization over 3 decades: the HUNT Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate socio-economic inequalities in health care utilization from the 1980s and through the last 3 decades in a Norwegian county population. METHODS: Altogether, 166 758 observations of 97 251 individuals during surveys in 1984-86 (83% eligible responses), 1995-97 (51% eligible responses) and 2006-08 (50% eligible responses) of the total population of adults (?20 years) from Nord-Trøndelag county in Norway were included. Health care utilization was measured as at least one visit to general practitioner (GP), hospital outpatient services and inpatient care in the past year. Socio-economy was measured by both education and income and rescaled to measure relative indexes of inequality (RII). Relative and absolute inequalities were estimated from multilevel logistic regression. Estimates were adjusted for age, sex, municipality size and self-reported health. Results: GP utilization was higher among individuals with higher education in 1984-86. Among men the RII was 0.54 (CI: 0.48-0.62), and among women RII was 0.67 (CI: 0.58-0.77). In 2006-08, the corresponding RII was 1.31 (CI: 1.13-1.52) for men and 1.00 (CI: 0.85-1.18) for women, indicating higher or equal GP utilization among those with lower education, respectively. The corresponding RIIs for outpatient consultations were 0.58 (CI: 0.49-0.68) for men and 0.40 (CI: 0.34-0.46) for women in 1984-86, and 0.53 (CI: 0.46-0.62) for men and 0.47 (CI: 0.41-0.53) for women in 2006-08. Conclusion: Through the last 3 decades, the previous socio-economic differences in GP utilization have diminished. Despite this, highly educated people were more prone to utilize hospital outpatient consultations throughout the period 1984-2008.

Vikum E; Bjørngaard JH; Westin S; Krokstad S

2013-05-01

348

Socio-economic class, rurality and risk of cutaneous melanoma by site and gender in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a cancer usually associated with high socio-economic level in the literature. Few studies have, however, assessed this relationship by gender and site or the association between CM and rurality. Methods A major-sized historical occupational Swedish cohort comprising 2,992,166 workers was used to estimate relative risk of cutaneous melanoma, broken down by gender and anatomical site, for occupational sectors (as a proxy of socio-economic class) and rurality. To this end, Poisson models were fitted for each site in men and women, including occupational sector and town size, with adjustment for age, period of diagnosis and geographical area as possible confounding factors. Results White collar workers presented a marked increased of risk in men in all melanoma cases, as well as in trunk, upper and lower limbs. This pattern was less clear for women, in which some heterogeneity appeared, as low risks in lower socioeconomic sectors in trunk, or risk excesses in white collar workers in lower limbs did not achieve statistical significance. Males also showed significant differences in risk by rural/urban distribution, but in women this association was limited to CM of lower limb. Risk of CM of head/neck did not vary by occupational sector or town size, thus depicting a specific epidemiological profile, which proved common to both sexes. Conclusion While differences in risk between men and women could suggest greater homogeneity in UV-exposure behaviour among women, the uniform risk pattern in head and neck melanoma, present in both sexes, might support the coexistence of different aetiological pathways, related to anatomical site.

Pérez-Gómez Beatriz; Aragonés Nuria; Gustavsson Per; Lope Virginia; López-Abente Gonzalo; Pollán Marina

2008-01-01

349