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Socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk in rural indian adolescents: evidence from the Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS)  

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Objectives This study examined association between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents to investigate whether childhood socio-economic position is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease, independently of adult behaviours. Study design and methods Participants (n = 1128, 46% girls, aged 13–18 years) were members of a birth cohort (Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study or APCAPS) established to investigate long-term effects of a pregnancy and childhood nutritional supplementation trial conducted in 29 villages near Hyderabad in South India. Cross-sectional associations between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors were examined using linear regression models. Results The mean BMI was 16.7 kg/m2 for boys and 17.8 kg/m2 for girls. Socio-economic position was positively associated with fat mass index (0.15 kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.05–0.25) and inversely associated with central-peripheral skinfold ratio (?0.04; 95% CI: ?0.06 to ?0.01) and, in boys, fasting triglycerides (?0.05; 95% CI: ?0.09 to ?0.01). Association of socio-economic position with other risk factors (blood pressure, arterial stiffness, fasting glucose, insulin and cholesterol) was weak and inconsistent, and did not persist after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, pubertal stage, height, adiposity and nutrition supplementation. Conclusions The study thus showed that lower socio-economic position may be associated with greater central adiposity and higher triglyceride levels in these settings. Socio-economic gradient in cardiovascular risk may strengthen in future with later economic and lifestyle changes. Cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should therefore focus on the youth from the low income group. PMID:25220689

Kinra, S.; Johnson, M.; Kulkarni, B.; Rameshwar Sarma, K.V.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Smith, G.D.

2014-01-01

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Close relations to parents and emotional symptoms among adolescents : beyond socio-economic impact?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between trustful communication with parents and frequency of emotional symptoms in schoolchildren and whether this relationship was modified by the family's socio-economic position. METHODS: Pooled data (n = 15,646) from the Danish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010 were analysed by multilevel multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: 8 % of all schoolchildren reported emotional symptoms almost daily. Odds ratio for daily symptoms was 2.1 (1.8-2.4) for children without trustful communication with parents compared to children with trustful communication. This association appears unaffected by family occupational class. A substantial socio-economic gradient in emotional symptoms persisted, independent of parent-child communication. CONCLUSIONS: Trustful communication with parents might have a fundamental importance, regardless of socio-economic position.

Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Holstein, BjØrn E

2014-01-01

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Socio-Economic Position and Higher Education in Australia  

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The proportion of students enrolled at university from the lowest quartile of socio-economic position has remained static at around 15% for at least the past 15 years (DEEWR, "Transforming Australia's higher education system," 2009). This paper argues that the apparent lack of progress towards equity of access has been exacerbated due to how…

Sealey, Tim N.

2011-01-01

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Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

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This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

2012-01-01

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Health Insurance, Socio-Economic Position and Racial Disparities in Preventive Dental Visits in South Africa  

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Full Text Available This study sought to determine the contributions of socio-economic position and health insurance enrollment in explaining racial disparities in preventive dental visits (PDVs among South Africans. Data on the dentate adult population participating in the last South African Demographic and Health Survey conducted during 2003–2004 (n = 6,312 was used. Main outcome measure: Reporting making routine yearly PDVs as a preventive measure. Education, material wealth index and nutritional status indicated socio-economic position. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of PDVs. A variant of Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis was also conducted. Health insurance coverage was most common among Whites (70% and least common among black Africans (10.1% in South Africa. Similarly, a yearly PDV was most frequently reported by Whites (27.8% and least frequently reported among black Africans (3.1%. Lower education and lower material wealth were associated with lower odds of making PDVs. There was significant interaction between location (urban/rural and education (p = 0.010. The racial and socio-economic differences in PDVs observed in urban areas were not observed in rural areas. In the general dentate population, having health insurance significantly increased the odds of making PDVs (OR = 4.32; 3.04–6.14 and accounted for 40.3% of the White/non-White gap in the probability of making PDVs. Overall, socio-economic position and health insurance enrollments together accounted for 55.9% (95% CI = 44.9–67.8 of the White/non-White gap in PDVs. Interventions directed at improving both socio-economic position and insurance coverage of non-White South Africans are likely to significantly reduce racial disparities in PDVs.

Imade J. Ayo-Yusuf

2013-01-01

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Longitudinal changes in functional capacity: effects of socio-economic position among ageing adults  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Health and functional capacity have improved especially in Western countries over the past few decades. Nevertheless, the positive secular trend has not been able to decrease an uneven distribution of health. The main aim of this study was to follow-up changes in functional capacity among the same people in six years time and to detect whether the possible changes vary according to socio-economic position (SEP. In addition, it is of interest whether health behaviours have an effect on these possible changes. Methods This longitudinal follow-up study consisted of 1,898 individuals from three birth cohorts (1926–1930, 1936–40, 1946–50 who took part in clinical check-ups and answered to a survey questionnaire in 2002 and 2008. A sub-scale of physical functioning from the RAND-36 was used to measure functional capacity. Education and adequacy of income were used as indicators of socio-economic position. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used as a main method of analysis. Results Physical functioning in 2002 and 2008 was poorest among those men and women belonging to the oldest cohort. Functional capacity deteriorated in six years among men in the oldest cohort and among women in all three cohorts. Socio-economic disparities in functional capacity among ageing people existed. Especially lower adequacy of income was most consistently associated with poorer functional capacity. However, changes in functional capacity by socio-economic position remained the same or even narrowed independent of health behaviours. Conclusion Socio-economic disparities in physical functioning are mainly incorporated in the level of functioning at the baseline. No widening socioeconomic disparities in functional capacity exist. Partly these disparities even seem to narrow with ageing.

Sulander Tommi

2012-12-01

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Early life socio-economic position and later alcohol use: birth cohort study  

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Aims To investigate associations between socio-economic position in early life and later alcohol use and problem use among male and female adolescents. Design Birth cohort study. Setting South West England. Participants A total of 2711 girls and 2379 boys with one or more measures of alcohol use or problem use at age 15 years. Measurements Exposure measures were highest parental social class, maternal education and household disposable income (all maternal self-report before school-age); outcome measures were heavy typical drinking, frequent drinking, regular binge drinking, alcohol-related psychosocial problems and alcohol-related behavioural problems. Findings Alcohol use and related problems were relatively common amongst adolescent girls and boys. Boys were slightly more likely to report frequent drinking and girls were slightly more likely to drink heavily and to experience alcohol-related psychosocial problems. Higher maternal education appeared protective in relation to alcohol-related problems, particularly among boys. Higher household income was associated with greater risk of alcohol use and problem use, most apparently among girls. Conclusions Children from higher-income households in England appear to be at greater risk of some types of adolescent alcohol problems, and these risks appear different in girls compared to boys. Childhood social advantage may not generally be associated with healthier behaviour in adolescence. PMID:23164048

Melotti, Roberto; Lewis, Glyn; Hickman, Matthew; Heron, Jon; Araya, Ricardo; Macleod, John

2013-01-01

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Socio-Economic Status and Parental Savings for Higher Education among Malaysian Bumiputera Families  

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Full Text Available Socioeconomic status of a family is a benchmark for a student in Malaysia to get financial aid in education, on top of their academic performance. As the number of students obtaining good grades in their Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia examination increases, entry to public universities become more competitive and the chances to get a full education financing become smaller. Most students resort to loans provided by PTPTN as many still do not have any form of saving to finance their higher education. This study attempts to explore on parental saving for children’s higher education among Bumiputera across different socio-economic groups.  A survey was conducted in UiTM and six of its affiliated colleges, with the total respondents of 371. Questionnaires to parents were distributed through the students. The results of the study reveal that only 15% of the students sampled received a form of financial aid from the government. The findings also show high correlation between the socio-economic status of parents and the level of awareness towards saving for their children. The findings are hoped to create awareness in the society that saving incentives for higher education can be utilized by all low and middle-income families in all communities.

Nor Rashidah Zainal

2009-07-01

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Life course socio-economic position and quality of life in adulthood: a systematic review of life course models  

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Abstract Background A relationship between current socio-economic position and subjective quality of life has been demonstrated, using wellbeing, life and needs satisfaction approaches. Less is known regarding the influence of different life course socio-economic trajectories on later quality of life. Several conceptual models have been proposed to help explain potential life course effects on health, including accumulation, latent, pathway and social mobility models. This sy...

Niedzwiedz Claire L; Katikireddi Srinivasa V; Pell Jill P; Mitchell Richard

2012-01-01

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The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems to apply for girls more than for boys and for parental occupation more than family affluence. For future studies it might be important to look at the effects of socio-economic status within the context of other peer, family and school related factors in order to assess to what extent those factors might mediate the effects of social class background.

Leppin Anja

2006-11-01

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A STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PARENTAL EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS IN MEDICAL COLLEGE BHAVNGAR  

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Full Text Available Carrier selection is one of the important major question in student life. Various factors affects individual’s carrier selection. Among various factors socioeconomic status and parental educational background is most important, which affects student’s carrier selection. More than student’s interest in particular field for higher education he should be affordable for necessary money required as well he should have proper guidance and inspiration for higher education. Primary guidance of students starts at home so if parents are highly qualified in education, student can get good guidance and motivation at home. In present study we tried to evaluate Socio-economic and Parental educational background of Medical students. Study was conducted in first year medical students of Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar. Students were given objective questionnaire regarding information like their native place whether in urban or rural area, income of their parents and educational level of their parents. Data was compiled and analyzed. It was observed that students from good socio-economical and high parental educational background have good chances to get admission in good professional courses. Schools in rural area should be upgraded and this students should provide necessary help and guidance to meet their needs.

Ghuntla Tejas P.

2012-09-01

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Socio-economic change and parent-child relationships: implications for parental control and HIV prevention among young people in rural North Western Tanzania.  

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This paper examines how socio-economic changes in Tanzania have impacted on parent-child relationships, in particular parental behavioural control over their children and parental influence on young people's sexual behaviour. Data came from participant observation, focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with young people (14-24 years) and their parents. Socio-economic changes (education, changes in values, material needs provision) affected parent-young person relationships. Young people contributed to the economic needs of their families and parents receiving or expecting more support from their children exercised less behavioural control (in sexual and non-sexual matters of their children). Parents and young people spent less time together than in earlier generations. Parents reported that they thought their children were more knowledgeable about sexual and reproductive health than they were. As young people received more education and contributed more to their families' economic well being. they emerged as decision-makers in their own right and parental influence waned. Policy interventions addressing sexual and reproductive health among young people should consider family influence on young people as well as the influence of young people on their families and parental authority. Families, and particularly parents, should be supported to respond to the emerging challenges and changes in their families and the wider society. PMID:21424953

Wamoyi, Joyce; Fenwick, Angela; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia; Stones, William

2011-06-01

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Socio-Economic Background, Parental Involvement and Teacher Perceptions of These in Relation to Pupil Achievement  

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Parental involvement and teacher perceptions of parental involvement in the education of children were studied in relation to level of parental education and pupil achievement. A questionnaire was administered to 218 parents and 60 teachers. Correlational analyses and paired-sample analyses showed teacher perceptions to be weakly related to…

Bakker, Joep; Denessen, Eddie; Brus-Laeven, Mariel

2007-01-01

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The Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Edu Lga of Kwara State Nigeria  

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The relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State is investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180) students randomly selected from three secondary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ healt...

Femi Ogunshola; Adewale, A. M.

2012-01-01

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Balancing the positives and negatives: the challenge of socio-economic effects assessment of the Port Hope area initiative  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI) is a community-based program directed at the development and implementation of a safe, long-term management solution for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) that has existed in two communities in the Port Hope area for some seven decades. As part of the environmental assessment of the two projects (i.e., the Port Hope Project and the Port Granby Project) being undertaken as part of the PHAI, two separate socio-economic effects assessments were completed. The assessments were designed to be broad ranging assessments of the effects of the Projects on people and their communities. This paper discusses how the assessments identified and assessed the positive and negative effects of the two Projects, what those effects were, and draws conclusions on whether the positives outweigh the negatives. (author)

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Balancing the positives and negatives: the challenge of socio-economic effects assessment of the Port Hope area initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI) is a community-based program directed at the development and implementation of a safe, long-term management solution for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) that has existed in two communities in the Port Hope area for some seven decades. As part of the environmental assessment of the two projects (i.e., the Port Hope Project and the Port Granby Project) being undertaken as part of the PHAI, two separate socio-economic effects assessments were completed. The assessments were designed to be broad ranging assessments of the effects of the Projects on people and their communities. This paper discusses how the assessments identified and assessed the positive and negative effects of the two Projects, what those effects were, and draws conclusions on whether the positives outweigh the negatives. (author)

Wlodarczyk, T.L. [Gartner Lee Limited, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Flynn, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

2006-07-01

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Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status  

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When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent–child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

2014-01-01

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Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status.  

Science.gov (United States)

When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent-child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent-child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent-child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

2014-01-01

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Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status  

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Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and school readiness.

SarahRobins

2014-06-01

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THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROMANIAN PARENTS’ EMIGRATION ON THEIR CHILDREN’S DESTINY  

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Full Text Available “Mother has been gone for six months to work abroad for me, so that I can have a better future. I miss her every day. Sometimes I tell myself it’s just a dream and when I wake up mother will be by my side. Dream or reality? Reality or dream? (A sixteen – years old adolescent. The paper shows that are general factors of emigration after post revolutionary period in Romania and also present few aspects of the migration phenomenon from this country and after that it is presenting the social and economic effects of Romanian parents emigration on their children`s destiny.

FELICIA ANDRIONI

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The Moderating Effect of Self-Motivation on the Relationship between Parent’s Socio-Economic Background and Children’s Academic Performance at Nigerian Universities  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of self-motivation on the relationship betweenparent’s socio-economic backgrounds on their children’s academic performance at Nigerian Universities, whichhas received little attention. Issues concerning University undergraduate youths have become a cause for concernamong stakeholders in the project called ‘education in Nigeria’. Such issues like expulsion from school due toexamination malpractice or cultism, withdrawal due to poor academic performance and production of half-bakedgraduates have forced many concerned people to question the role of teachers as well as parent’s socio-economicbackground. The paper adopted a survey methodology to solicit responses from 150 final year Universitystudents (2012/2013 of Business Faculties in the north, east and west regions of Nigeria; using stratifiedproportionate random sampling. After data cleaning, 130 data were analyzed using descriptive statistics andhierarchical regression. One of the results indicated that student’s self-motivation (hard work and rich parentalsocio-economic background are needed to achieve academic success; though self-motivation appears to be amore critical success factor. The paper recommended that the government and the authorities of Nigerianuniversities should intensify effort at counselling the students on the need to study hard in order to achieveacademic success rather than relying on their parentssocio-economic background. This will improve teachingand learning in Nigerian Universities. The study is limited to University Business Faculties in Nigeria. Futurestudies can investigate other tertiary institutions in Nigeria.

Isidore Ekpe

2014-10-01

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Cancer awareness and socio-economic position : results from a population-based study in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Formålet med dette studie var at undersøge ”cancer awareness”, dvs. kendskabet til symptomer på kræft, risikofaktorer for kræft og 5-års overlevelsen for fire kræfttyper, i en dansk population. Derudover ses der nærmere på sammenhænge mellem socio-økonomisk position og ”cancer awareness”. Resultaterne viser, at der er en stærk social gradient i ”cancer awareness”. Personer med et lavt uddannelsesniveau og en lav husstandsindkomst var mindre tilbøjelige til at genkende symptomer på kræft og risikofaktorer for kræft end personer med et højt uddannelsesniveau og en høj husstandsindkomst. Resultaterne viser dog ingen klar sammenhæng mellem socio-økonomisk position og kendskabet til 5-års overlevelsen af kræft. Studiet bygger på data fra i alt 3.000 tilfældigt udvalgte danskere (på mindst 30 år), som besvarede den danske version af spørgeskemaet ”Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer”. Da ”cancer awareness” har betydning for adfærd, fx lægesøgning, er det vigtigt at adressere denne ulighed i fremtidige sundhedsstrategier.

Hvidberg, Line; Pedersen, Anette Fischer

2014-01-01

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The Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Edu Lga of Kwara State Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State is investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180 students randomly selected from three secondary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ health statuses. Diverse statistical tests were performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of the effects on students’ academic performance. Parental socio-economic statuses and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the academic performance of the students. However, the parental educational qualification and health statuses of the students were identified tom have statistical significant effect o the academic performance of the students. The two variables that indicated significant influence do reflect nature of the student’ home environment and played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. Government could intervene to raise level of academic achievement among students in rural area.

Femi Ogunshola

2012-07-01

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Socio-economic position and adolescents’ health in Italy: the role of selfesteem and self-efficacy  

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Full Text Available

Background: To underline the importance of self-esteem and self-efficacy as aspects of health promotion, we investigated the hypothesis that self-esteem and self-efficacy mediate the effect of socio-economic position on adolescents’ health. This association has been confirmed by our data.

Methods: Data derive from the international Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC study, 2001- 02 edition: a representative sample of Italian children (age groups of 11, 13 and 15years, N=4386 was administered a questionnaire at school. We tested with a multivariate model the effect of economic wellbeing on health and behavioural outcomes, first excluding, and then including, self-esteem and self-efficacy among the determinants.

Results: Perceiving poorer health, not eating enough fruits and vegetables and doing too little physical activity are conditions affected by economic well-being (O.R. of best-off to worst-off are 0.65, 0.83 and 0.46, all statistically significant, while smoking habit is not affected. Including self-esteem and self-efficacy into the model significantly lowers, or annihilates, the effect of economic conditions on these outcomes.

Conclusions: Economic well-being affects adolescents’ health (perceived health and health behaviours in Italy, but it is reasonable to hypothesize that self-esteem and self-efficacy are among the mediators of this effect. Targeted interventions aimed at enhancing self-esteem and self-efficacy could therefore help in mitigating the effect of health inequalities.

Alessio Zambon

2007-09-01

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Social disparities in BMI trajectories across adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime socio-economic position: 1986–2004  

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Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is rapidly increasing in industrialized countries, with long-term health and social consequences. There is also a strong social patterning of obesity and overweight, with a higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities and those from a lower socio-economic position (SEP). Most of the existing work in this area, however, is based on cross-sectional data or single cohort studies. No national studies to date have examined how social d...

Clarke, Philippa; O’malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.

2009-01-01

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Poverty, socio-economic position, social capital and the health of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Britain: a replication.  

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Background When compared with their nonintellectually disabled peers, people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poorer health and are more likely to be exposed to poverty during childhood. Given that exposure to child poverty has been linked to poorer health outcomes, we attempted to estimate the extent to which the health inequalities faced by children and adolescents with IDs may be accounted for by their more disadvantaged socio-economic position. Methods Secondary analysis of data on a nationally representative sample of 12 160 British children aged under 17 years extracted from the Department of Work and Pensions' Families and Children Study. Results After controlling for age and sex, children with IDs were significantly more likely (corrected odds ratio = 2.49) to be reported to have less than good health than their nonintellectually disabled peers. However, 31% of the elevated risk for poorer health was accounted for by between-group differences in socio-economic position and social capital. Conclusions A socially and statistically significant proportion of the increased risk of poorer health among children and adolescents with IDs may be attributed to their increased risk of socio-economic disadvantage. PMID:17910538

Emerson, E; Hatton, C

2007-11-01

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Issues in the construction of wealth indices for the measurement of socio-economic position in low-income countries  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies often require measures of socio-economic position (SEP. The application of principal components analysis (PCA to data on asset-ownership is one popular approach to household SEP measurement. Proponents suggest that the approach provides a rational method for weighting asset data in a single indicator, captures the most important aspect of SEP for health studies, and is based on data that are readily available and/or simple to collect. However, the use of PCA on asset data may not be the best approach to SEP measurement. There remains concern that this approach can obscure the meaning of the final index and is statistically inappropriate for use with discrete data. In addition, the choice of assets to include and the level of agreement between wealth indices and more conventional measures of SEP such as consumption expenditure remain unclear. We discuss these issues, illustrating our examples with data from the Malawi Integrated Household Survey 2004–5. Methods Wealth indices were constructed using the assets on which data are collected within Demographic and Health Surveys. Indices were constructed using five weighting methods: PCA, PCA using dichotomised versions of categorical variables, equal weights, weights equal to the inverse of the proportion of households owning the item, and Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Agreement between indices was assessed. Indices were compared with per capita consumption expenditure, and the difference in agreement assessed when different methods were used to adjust consumption expenditure for household size and composition. Results All indices demonstrated similarly modest agreement with consumption expenditure. The indices constructed using dichotomised data showed strong agreement with each other, as did the indices constructed using categorical data. Agreement was lower between indices using data coded in different ways. The level of agreement between wealth indices and consumption expenditure did not differ when different consumption equivalence scales were applied. Conclusion This study questions the appropriateness of wealth indices as proxies for consumption expenditure. The choice of data included had a greater influence on the wealth index than the method used to weight the data. Despite the limitations of PCA, alternative methods also all had disadvantages.

Huttly Sharon RA

2008-01-01

28

A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children's oral health related quality of life.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children's OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL Plus via EBSCO, and Cochrane databases. Studies that have analysed the effect of parental characteristics (SES, family environment, family structure, number of siblings, household crowding, parents' age, and parents' oral health literacy) on children's OHRQoL were included. Quality assessment of the articles was done by the Effective Public Health Practice Project's Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative studies. Database search retrieved a total of 2,849 titles after removing the duplicates, 36 articles were found to be relevant. Most of the studies were conducted on Brazilian children and were published in recent two years. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and Children's Perception Questionnaire were the instruments of choice in preschool and school aged children respectively. Findings from majority of the studies suggest that the children from families with high income, parental education and family economy had better OHRQoL. Mothers' age, family structure, household crowding and presence of siblings were significant predictors of children's OHRQoL. However, definitive conclusions from the studies reviewed are not possible due to the differences in the study population, parental characteristics considered, methods used and statistical tests performed. PMID:24650192

Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal

2014-01-01

29

Note about socio-economic calculations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure projects are common and can be made at different levels of detail depending on the type of project and the decision making phase. A common feature of the different levels of detail of the socio-economic analysis is that the planned project(s) is compared with a basic; the basic alternative or a null alternative. In socio-economic evaluations it is intended to describe the effects in economic terms whenever possible (”+” is used when it is positive for the society, and ”–” when it is negative for the society). However, not all the effects for the society can be described in economic terms, and instead these effects must be described qualitatively. This note describes the socio-economic evaluation based on market prices and not factor prices which has been the tradition in Denmark till now. This is due to the recommendation from the Ministry of Transport to start using calculations based on market prices (Ministry of Transport, 2003). However, when following courses at CTT, it is recommended to use the factor price method which will be described in further details in a later chapter.

Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

2006-01-01

30

Gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents: socio-economic and behavioral correlates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents and its association with selected socio-economic indicators and oral-health-related behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 9,163 Chilean adolescents obtained using multistage random cluster procedures. Clinical recordings included information on missing teeth and the participants provided information on socio-demographic factors and oral-related behaviors. Two eruption-time-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between gender, tooth loss and socio-economic position/oral-health-related behaviors. RESULTS: The association between gender and tooth loss remained after adjusting for age, eruption times in both the socio-economic position regression model and the oral-health-related behaviors model. Tooth loss followed social gradients for the variables paternal income and achieved parental education, with students reporting a paternal income

López, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

2006-01-01

31

Perceived Parental Investment in School as a Mediator of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Indicators and Educational Outcomes in Rural America  

Science.gov (United States)

Each year, 1.3 million students fail to graduate, dropping the United States' high school graduation rate to 69%. One of the most salient predictors of high school dropout is socio-economic status (SES), which makes important an improved understanding of the reasons why SES affects educational outcomes. In this study, multilevel mediation models…

Henry, Kimberly L.; Cavanagh, Thomas M.; Oetting, Eugene R.

2011-01-01

32

Socio-economic Determinants of Demand for Private Tutoring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines socio-economic factors underlying the demand for private tutoring. The analysis utilizes two samples of students from lower- and upper-level secondary schools in Poland based on the PISA 2006 data set. Special attention is paid to channels through which private tutoring may endure socio-economic inequalities, especially in the context of the gender gap in education outcomes. We find that parents' decisions concerning private education are sensitive to student gender, which...

Safarzynska, Karolina

2011-01-01

33

Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School aged Children of Iran : Role of Personal and Parents Related Socio- Economic and Educational Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Iranian children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem.Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children [7-11 years old] from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method.chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Findings: Of the 1600 questionnaires were distributed, 918 [57%] were completed and included in the final analysis and rest of them were excluded which weren’t filled by parents and also out of our study age period range. The gender of the subjects was equally distributed [48.6% males and 51.4% females] approximately. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% [n=172] and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% [n=51]. There was not significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, not working of father, working of mother, single parent, fail school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection[UTI], not breast feeding, low birth weight to compare of non-enuretics. But unwilling pregnancy, neonatal icter, febrile convulsion, and mother smoking didn’t increase prevalence of this problem. 19.8% [n=31] of children with this problem had been seen by physician. Medication was the most preferred treatment option for enuresis [64.5%].Conclusion: Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found out Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.

Hashem Mahmoodzadeh

2013-02-01

34

Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

35

Socio-economic and environmental factors associated with Montenegro skin test positivity in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in northern Morocco  

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Full Text Available In Marocco, many aspects of human asymptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL still have to be clarified and little information is available about the factors that predispose individuals to asymptomatic infection. A prospective study was carried out in 889 healthy children under the age of 15 years living in two provinces in the endemic area in northern Morocco (the provinces of Taounate and My Yacoub from April to May 2010. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and the socio-economic and environmental characteristics associated with infection by Leishmania infantum. The Montenegro skin test (MST was used to detect asymptomatic infection. The prevalence of transmission of infection was 11.4% and approximately 2 times higher in Taounate than in My Yacoub, as measured by MST. Asymptomatic infection was associated with gender, age, presence of familial links, proximity to chickens, and the number of people in the house and locality, but it was not associated to education status, presence of dogs, livestock waste, sewage disposal, water supply system or use of insecticides

Hamid Amarouch

2012-01-01

36

Sustainable Livestock Farming for Improving Socio-Economic Condition  

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Full Text Available Sustainability is the most effective concept to improve socio-economic condition, including environment. Constructive socio-economic changes are getting priority in recent years among academia and business sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh poultry sub-sector has long supply chains having associated with various stakeholders. In this paper, a case poultry farm was taken to examine a production process that links with socio-economic benefits. Design science method under the quantitative paradigm was chosen to develop a model for the case industry. A Simulation model was developed using simul8 software to construct the real poultry operation. The objectives of this paper are to construct a sustainable model for a case poultry industry along with socio-economic issues. Later, simulated model output will examine it through various performance indicators (KPIs to find out the impacts on socio-economic benefits. Numbers of KPIs have been briefly discussed in light of the research problem to illustrate positive effects of sustainable production.

Mohammad Shamsuddoha

2013-01-01

37

Time trends in socio-economic factors and risk of hospitalisation with infectious diseases in pre-school children 1985-2004 : a Danish register-based study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper respiratory, lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, ear and fever infections. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Children of parents on sick leave or early retirement had an increased risk of being hospitalised with an infection compared with children of employed parents. A clear inverse educational gradient in risk of offspring hospitalisation was also found. From 1985 to 2004 the inverse associations between parental education and risk of hospitalisation grew stronger, whereas the comparatively weaker association between household income and risk of offspring hospitalisation decreased in magnitude. The association between socio-economic status and hospitalisation was strongest for lower respiratory, gastrointestinal and ear infections. This study documented a socially patterned hospitalisation of pre-school children in Denmark. Future studies should investigate possible explanations for the increased risk among children from families with low socio-economic status.

Biering-SØrensen, Sofie; SØndergaard, Grethe

2012-01-01

38

Socio-economic characteristics of physical activity of early school-age children  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relations between two chosen research issues: motor behaviour and socio-economic environment of children aged 7-11. In this research were used the information of the respondents from I to IV grade of primary schools in Novi Sad. The sample group consisted of 361 respondents (190 boys and 171 girls. Based on these results, the authors conclude that the opportunities and threats of socio-economic environment that children grow up in, affect their participation in a physical activity. The most important factor of socio-economic status, which determines the participation of children in a physical activity, is sport engagement of their parents.

Mati? Radenko

2014-01-01

39

Usos Sociales de la Telenovela por Familias Cubanas de Diferentes Posiciones Socioeconómicas / Social Uses of Soap Operas by Cuban Families of Different Socio-Economics Positions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio constituye un análisis de los usos sociales de la telenovela brasileña por parte de tres familias cubanas, residentes en La Habana, de diferentes posiciones socioeconómicas (alta, media y baja). Descansa en la perspectiva cualitativa y en el método etnográfico de investigación. Utiliza [...] técnicas tales como la observación participante, la entrevista en profundidad, el completamiento de frases y el grupo de discusión. Da cuenta de los procesos de apropiación y asignación de sentidos en torno a la telenovela. En las tres familias, el melodrama se erige como espacio promotor de entretenimiento, escape de la realidad y de interacciones comunicativas. Las principales diferencias se derivan de factores asociados a la ubicación de las familias en el contexto más amplio que las contiene, así como de los procesos subjetivos que generan estrategias y significaciones singulares por parte de los miembros. Abstract in english This study is an analysis of the social uses of a Brazilian soap opera in three Cuban families -specifically from Havana-from different socioeconomic positions (high, medium, and low). It relies on a qualitative perspective and ethnographic approaches. It also uses techniques such as participant obs [...] ervation, in-depth interviews, completion of sentences, and group discussion. In doing so, the study addresses the processes of appropriation and allocation of meanings around the soap opera. In all three families, melodrama rises as a space for entertainment, a way of escaping reality, and communicative interactions. The main differences arise from factors associated with the location of families in the broader context that contains them, as well as subjective processes that generate unique strategies and meanings by different family members.

Beatriz, Drake Tapia; Yilian, Machado Pérez.

2013-12-01

40

Usos Sociales de la Telenovela por Familias Cubanas de Diferentes Posiciones Socioeconómicas / Social Uses of Soap Operas by Cuban Families of Different Socio-Economics Positions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio constituye un análisis de los usos sociales de la telenovela brasileña por parte de tres familias cubanas, residentes en La Habana, de diferentes posiciones socioeconómicas (alta, media y baja). Descansa en la perspectiva cualitativa y en el método etnográfico de investigación. Utiliza [...] técnicas tales como la observación participante, la entrevista en profundidad, el completamiento de frases y el grupo de discusión. Da cuenta de los procesos de apropiación y asignación de sentidos en torno a la telenovela. En las tres familias, el melodrama se erige como espacio promotor de entretenimiento, escape de la realidad y de interacciones comunicativas. Las principales diferencias se derivan de factores asociados a la ubicación de las familias en el contexto más amplio que las contiene, así como de los procesos subjetivos que generan estrategias y significaciones singulares por parte de los miembros. Abstract in english This study is an analysis of the social uses of a Brazilian soap opera in three Cuban families -specifically from Havana-from different socioeconomic positions (high, medium, and low). It relies on a qualitative perspective and ethnographic approaches. It also uses techniques such as participant obs [...] ervation, in-depth interviews, completion of sentences, and group discussion. In doing so, the study addresses the processes of appropriation and allocation of meanings around the soap opera. In all three families, melodrama rises as a space for entertainment, a way of escaping reality, and communicative interactions. The main differences arise from factors associated with the location of families in the broader context that contains them, as well as subjective processes that generate unique strategies and meanings by different family members.

Beatriz, Drake Tapia; Yilian, Machado Pérez.

 
 
 
 
41

THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE  

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Full Text Available This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the socio economic lives of people. It was found out that the activities of microfinance institutions resulted in increased social interaction and socio economic sustainability.

MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA

2011-01-01

42

Socio-Economic Diversity and Mathematical Competences  

Science.gov (United States)

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has proved that in Germany the impact that socio-economic background has on 15-year-old pupils' achievement is stronger than in other countries. The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) showed that the correlation is less with 10-year-old children, but is still apparent.…

Thiel, Oliver

2012-01-01

43

Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption  

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Full Text Available This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that most of the sampled NHIS patrons and non patrons were literate, engaged in meaningful employment, mostly married with average income, and were still in their active ages, and demonstrated meaningful exposure to insurance health information, which enable them to be or not to be active participants of the scheme. From the regression analysis, it was evident that all the variables except religion influenced insurance consumption positively whereas religion affects health insurance consumption negatively. Based on this, we recommended among other things, a re-alignment of health insurance marketing strategies with consumers socio-economic and demographic characteristics, as a measure to boost patronage.Key words: Socio-Economic; Demographic; Health insurance; Consumption

Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

2012-10-01

44

Opportunity and/or necessity entrepreneurship? The impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few studies have tried to identify the impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs on their opportunity-necessity positioning. Based on a sample of 538 entrepreneurs, we point out that individuals who get involved in an entrepreneurial process, have encountered a situation of necessity and/or opportunity and that the latter can take various forms. We point out the impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs on the alignment of their project with a necessity...

Giacomin, Olivier; Janssen, Frank; Guyot, Jean-luc; Lohest, Olivier

2011-01-01

45

Tracking of overweight from mid-adolescence into adulthood : consistent patterns across socio-economic groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Socially differentiated tracking of health and health behaviours may contribute to health inequalities in adulthood. The modifying effect of socio-economic position on the tracking of overweight from mid-adolescence (age 15 years) into adulthood (age 27 years) was assessed in a randomly sampled Danish cohort (n?=?561). The tracking was studied by prediction analyses conducted by logistic regression analyses. Strong tracking patterns were found to be independent of socio-economic background.

Rasmussen, Mette; Holstein, BjØrn E

2012-01-01

46

ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises' reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations. PMID:24045170

Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

2013-12-01

47

EFFECT OF PROMOTIONAL MIX ON CONSUMER SOCIO-ECONOMIC VALUES FOR SELECT NONDURABLE GOODS  

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Full Text Available The effect of promotional factors (namely Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion and Public Relation those factors are main factors for the actions of a firm on socio-economic values for consume the non-durable goods and those promotional factors helps to distinguish the products from the competitors. In this study, aim to how promotional factors are effect the consumer’s socio-economic values. Quantitative data was collected using the non-probability self administered questionnaire that consists of questions with 5-points Likert scales distributed to our samples of individuals. By using ANOVA and Ranking Method, it is found that, promotional factors are maintain the close affiliation and significantly difference between the consumers purchase based on their socio-economic values. The results showed that promotional mix factors (namely Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion and Public Relation have positive and significant effect on consumers’ socio-economic values.

M. Vishnu Prasanth

2014-10-01

48

Sunshine coast TSA socio-economic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sunshine Coast Timber Supply Area covers 1.12 million hectares in the Vancouver Forest Region. This document is one of the technical papers prepared for the Area`s timber supply review, and offers information on timber supply alternatives and their socio-economic implications. The document first profiles the Area, including its environmental setting, population, labor force, communities, forest sector and other local industry, and First Nations. It then reviews the current status of timber supplies in the Area, including the current forest management guidelines and allowable annual cut, and describes timber harvest forecasts under three scenarios. The final sections of the document analyze the socio-economic impacts on the Area, its First Nations, and the province of the timber harvest under the three scenarios. Appendices include a glossary and descriptions of the impact analysis methodologies.

NONE

1995-12-31

49

Arrow TSA socio-economic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents a profile and description of the local economy and the physical and community setting within the Arrow Forest District; and an assessment of the socio-economic and environmental implications related to the range of forecast harvest levels specified in the timber supply analysis. A number of qualitative and quantitative impacts precipitated by the forecast harvest levels for the Arrow TSA were evaluated using a multiple accounts analysis approach.

NONE

1994-12-31

50

Lakes tsa socio-economic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three harvest forecasts from the Lakes TSA Timber Supply Analysis report are examined in this socio-economic assessment. They represent possible harvest flow patterns given current land base and forest management practices in the Lakes TSA. The forecasts were chosen to illustrate a range of social, environmental, and economic implications associated with different harvest levels. It presents a profile of the area, the timber supply situation, the scenario one impact analysis, alternative scenarios, and a summary.

NONE

1995-12-01

51

Understanding Suicide : A Socio-Economic Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis uses a panel of Swedish counties over the years 1976-2007 to investigate the relationship between suicide and a range of socio-economic determinants. Moreover, the thesis is combining sociology and economics in order to understand the part of suicide that can be considered as rational. In addition, suicide is studied separately for total, male and female suicide rates. Contrary to prior research in the field of suicide, this study formally tests for gender differences. Applying a ...

Jasmin, Jusufbegovic; Johan, Ottoson

2011-01-01

52

Socio-economic Impact of Sethusamudram Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Any major development project has both benefits and disadvantages to the society. Many development projects have very high economic benefit and at the same time lead to environmental hazard. One such project is Sethudamudram project initiated by Government of India. This is a project which aims at minimising the distance of navigation for the goods transport in the sea. This paper is an attempt to study the socio-economic impact of the project based on the secondary data.

Kannan, Srinivasan

2007-01-01

53

'Faking til you make it': social capital accumulation of individuals on low incomes living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods and its implications for health and wellbeing.  

Science.gov (United States)

People on low-income living in low socio-economic neighbourhoods have poorer health in comparison with those living in advantaged neighbourhoods. To explore neighbourhood effects on health and social capital creation, the experiences of low-income people living in contrasting socio-economic neighbourhoods were compared, in order to examine how low-income status and differing levels of neighbourhood resources contributed to perceived health and wellbeing. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed: survey data from 601 individuals living in contrasting socio-economic areas and in-depth interviews with a new sample of 24 individuals on low-incomes. The study was guided by Bourdieu's theory of practice, which examines how social inequalities are created and reproduced through the relationship between individuals' varying resources of economic, social and cultural capital. This included an examination of individual life histories, cultural distinction and how social positions are reproduced. Participants' accounts of their early life experience showed how parental socio-economic position and socially patterned events taking place across the life course, created different opportunities for social network creation, choice of neighbourhood and levels of resources available throughout life, all of which can influence health and wellbeing. A definition of poverty by whether an individual or household has sufficient income at a particular point in time was an inadequate measure of disadvantage. This static measure of 'low income' as a category disguised a number of different ways in which disadvantage was experienced or, conversely, how life course events could mitigate the impact of low-income. This study found that the resources necessary to create social capital such as cultural capital and the ability to socially network, differed according to the socio-economic status of the neighbourhood, and that living in an advantaged area does not automatically guarantee access to potentially beneficial social networks. PMID:23540360

Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran

2013-05-01

54

Validity of two simple measures for estimating life-course socio-economic position in cross-sectional postal survey data in an older population: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since few cohorts encompass the whole life-course, many studies that measure socio-economic position (SEP across the life-course rely on participant recall of SEP measures from cross-sectional postal or interview surveys. It is also particularly important that SEP measures should be appropriate for the age of the population studied, as the level of missing data has been shown to increase in older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of recall of two SEP measures in older adults, age left school and longest job, by examining their validity in a general population postal survey in North Staffordshire, UK. Methods Sets of questions on education and longest job were included in a questionnaire at different stages of the study. All patients aged 50+ registered with three general practices were sent a baseline Health Questionnaire. 6?years later, 3410 responders were mailed a follow-up Health Questionnaire; a sub-sample of these participants took part in independent qualitative interviews. Validity was assessed by: percentage completion; internal percentage agreement within each set of questions; percentage agreement of qualitative and quantitative data for age left school and longest job; comparing recall of age left school with historical change in legal school leaving age; comparing frequency of pottery job titles with those in 1981 Census data for Stoke-on-Trent. Results The adjusted response to different stages of the study was 71–85%. Completion of questions was 83–98%. Internal agreement was 84–97% (education and 95–100% (longest job. Comparison of survey and interview data showed 86% agreement (± 1?year for age left school and 91% agreement for longest job. The change in age left school data concurred with the historical shift in legal school leaving age. 11% of job titles were pottery in NorStOP data and 15% in Stoke-on-Trent Census data. Conclusions The results from this study provide evidence for the accuracy of recall of two simple measures of SEP (age left school and longest job in a postal survey of older adults. Consistency with evidence from external datasets indicated the potential validity of these measures for studying life-course SEP in population surveys.

Lacey Rosie J

2012-06-01

55

Fraser tsa socio-economic analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report assesses the impacts of three harvest forecasts within a multiple account framework that focuses attention on a range of values derived from the forest resource and recognizes that a number of factors may need to be considered when examining options for forest land management. The implications of the harvest forests are evaluated on the regional level for economic development, community, and aboriginal concerns, and on the provincial level for economic development, environmental implications, and government revenues. The document also describes the current timber supply situation and current forest management guidelines and gives a socio-economic profile of the area.

1994-01-01

56

Indicators of socio-economic development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Work elaborates indicators witch refers to socio - economic development. In the first part of work it is stated indicators which different authors are used. These indicators are used in empirical researches and in some sources there are theoretically treated. In the second part it is with the aid of induction method performed separation of indicators. It is elaborated economics, social, technological and indicators of urbanization. In the part of economical indicators are elaborated: national income per capita, structure of activities, level of expending.

Adamovi? Jelka M.

2002-01-01

57

Socio-economic expenditure impacts report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

58

Inter-state Disparities in Socio-economic Development in North East Region of India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The level of development of north east region has been estimated with the help of composite index based on optimum combination of socio-economic indicators. The state-wise data for the year 2006 on forty eight indicators were used for seven states (seven sisters of the north east region of India. Fifteen indicators are directly concerned with agricultural development, nine indicators are directly concerned with livestock development, twelve indicators are concern with socio-economic development and the rest twelve indicators describe the level of development in infrastructural service sector. The level of development has been separately estimated for agricultural, livestock, infrastructure and overall socio-economic field. In case of socio-economic development, the Assam has been ranked first and Meghalaya is ranked last. Wide disparities were obtained in the level of development among different states. Positive Significant association is found between the Agriculture and Infrastructure fields. Literacy rate is also influencing the level of development in the positive direction. But the level of education, provision of health services, banking facilities, transport and communication system did not significantly influence the agricultural development. North eastern states require improvements of various dimensions in some of the indicators for enhancing the level of overall socio-economic development for unified balanced integration of curative, preventive and promotional health services.

Amod Sharma

2012-07-01

59

Communicability and Communities in Complex Socio-Economic Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of communicability is introduced for complex socio-economic networks. The communicability function expresses how an impact propagates from one place to another in the network. This function is used to define unambiguously the concept of socio-economic community. The concept of temperature in complex socio-economic networks is also introduced as a way of accounting for the external stresses to which such systems are submitted. This external stress can change drama...

Estrada, Ernesto; Hatano, Naomichi

2009-01-01

60

The first injustice : Socio-economic inequalities in birth outcome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adverse birth outcomes like preterm birth and infant mortality are unevenly distributed across socio-economic groups. Risks are usually lowest in groups with high socio-economic status and increase with decreasing status. The general aim of this thesis was to contribute to the understanding of the relation between socio-economic status and birth outcomes, focussing on maternal education and class, studying a range of birth outcomes. More specific aims were to investigate the relation between ...

Gisselmann, Marit

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Socio-economic aspects of commuting  

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Full Text Available This paper contemplates on relevant socio-economic factors which have influence on variability of the scope and directions of commuting flows, with special emphasis on situation in Serbia. Due to the need for balance between work and family life, this specific form of population’s mobility often represents alternative for migration. It also has numerous implications on both commuters and their households, places of residence and work and society in general. Effects of sex, marital status, education, occupation, size and structure of a household, as well as local community onto participation in commuting and time/distance of traveling to work have been discussed. The results revealed that, apart from economic factors, non-economic ones also have important role in commuting.

Luki? Vesna

2013-01-01

62

Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

63

Family relationship and socio-economic context  

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Full Text Available This study examined associations between family income, family structure and relationship quality among members of Brazilian families. Participants (n = 77 were mothers with at least one child within the age of zero to nine years-old living in two adjacent cities in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Face-to-face interviews were conducted during home visits. Quality of family relationship was evaluated in four dimensions: general quality of family life, marital conflict, mother-children conflict, and mother-children proximity. All dimensions of family relationship were significantly correlated. Quality of family life was affected by family income, co-residence structure and presence of siblings. We concluded that the mothers' perception of the relationships among family members is interdependent, and their perception on general quality of life is affected by socio-economic variables.

Tiago Carlos Zortea

2010-06-01

64

Breast cancer and socio-economic factors  

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Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW; Gross domestic product (GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $; computed tomography (CT for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP ? CT=60.3% (sign.0.00. The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010 on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.

Anees B. Chagpar

2012-01-01

65

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situ [...] ation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch's approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D., Ncho; Susan C.D., Wright.

2013-01-01

66

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situ [...] ation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch's approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D., Ncho; Susan C.D., Wright.

67

Changes in socio-economic conditions of development of agriculture  

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Full Text Available Liberalisation of economic relations leaves its mark on agriculture. Raising competition determines a necessity of position improvement. The paper aims to present the changes in selected structures affecting production capacities of farms. In the paper the agricultural land resources, area structure of farms and socio-economic faeces of farmers were analysed. The main empirical material was the Central Statistical Office data. The research results indicate that due to the area of agricultural land, the Polish agriculture has a potential to be a significant producer. Farmers’ attributes and positive structural changes reveal an improvement of agriculture competitive capabilities. However,a scattered agrarian structure is still a feature of agriculture. On the supply side, the acceleration of structural changes in agriculture, especially by fostering land concentration, is a prerequisite for meeting competitive requirements. Therefore, an introduction of instruments supporting small farms liquidation, as well as the diversification of rural population economic activity are essential.

Bo?ena Karwat-Wo?niak

2013-06-01

68

Socio-Economic Determinants of Seed Yam Production in Oyi Local Government Area of Anambra State  

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Full Text Available This study assessed the socio-economic determinants of seed yam production in Oyi Local Government Area of Anambra State. Purposive and simple random sampling procedure was used respectively to select four communities and 120 respondents for the study. The data obtained were used to analyse the influence of socio economic factors on seed yam production and also determine the technical efficiency level of the seed yam farmers using descriptive statistics and stochastic production frontier functions. The result indicated that 88 percent of the farmers were below 60 years of age, 86 percent had more than 10 years farming experience and only 16 percent had no formal education. The findings also indicated that the effect of the socio economic variables such as age, experience, education level, household size and farm size were positive and significant. It is recommended among others that credit facilities should be provided especially to small holder farmers to engender their production capacity.

Okeke

2013-03-01

69

Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City  

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Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural, generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.

A. Berezhna

2010-12-01

70

Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their relation with socio-economic factors and hygienic habits in Tehran primary school students.  

Science.gov (United States)

School age children carry the heaviest burden of morbidity due to intestinal parasitic infections. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of these infections in primary school children living in Tehran and their association with socio-economic factors and hygienic habits. In September 1998, a total of 19,213 subjects were invited to participate. Data on health and socio-economic status and health-related behaviours, collected via questionnaires, physical examinations and stool sample analyses, were available for 19,209 persons, with a participation rate greater than 99.99%. All participants were subjected to three methods of microscopic examinations on the stool sample and an adhesive cellophane tape slide evaluation. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infection among the students was 18.4%. Coinfection with two or three parasites was seen in 2%. With increase in educational level of parents (especially mothers), the infection rate of children was decreased. Girls showed a significantly higher positive rate than boys. Using piped water, correct method of washing vegetables and increase in the economic score of the family, resulted in a decrease in the infection rate. According to the results, low level of education and consequently poor socio-economic and hygienic condition of families appear to be powerful determinants of infection. PMID:15533285

Nematian, Javad; Nematian, Edwin; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Asgari, Ali Ali

2004-01-01

71

Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

2011-03-01

72

“A Study Of Socio-economic Status And Academic Achievement, kendriya Vidyalayas Of Dibrugarh District”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Educational achievement is only an aspect of development among many sides. Academic achievement may be influenced by various socio-economic factors like age, gender, family size, parent's education and occupation and also by economic status of the family. Without having opportunities it is not possible to achieve something in any sphere of life. The main objective of this study is to study the academic achievement of the students of Class X ,CBSE Examination, 2011-12 of the Kendriya Vidyalaya...

Haimya Gohain

2012-01-01

73

What can happiness research tell us about altruism? Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Much progress has been made in recent years on developing and applying a direct measure of utility using survey questions on subjective well-being. In this paper we explore whether this new type of measurement can be fruitfully applied to the study of interdependent utility in general, and altruism between parents and adult children who moved away from home in particular. We introduce an appropriate econometric methodology and, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the years 200...

Schwarze, Johannes; Winkelmann, Rainer

2005-01-01

74

Balances Scorecard strategic development of the socio-economic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article describes the Balanced Scorecard as a tool for strategic management of development of socio-economic systems. Detail the structure of the system, including perspectives, strategic objectives, indicators, targets, cause-effect relationship, the strategic alternatives.

Tchaikovskaya Nina Vladimirovna

2008-01-01

75

Courts and the enforcement of socio-economic rights in Malawi: Jurisprudential trends, challenges and opportunities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Socio-economic rights are of special significance in a developing country such as Malawi. The framers of the Malawian Constitution included the right to development in the country's Bill of Rights. The right to development is not only included as a self-standing right, but is also a conduit for the [...] guarantee of equal access to a range of other socio-economic rights. Regrettably, the record of judicial enforcement of these rights subsequent to 1994 is disappointing. Only in a few cases, largely focusing on a narrow range of rights such as property, work, economic activity and, to a lesser extent, education, have courts directly and significantly dealt with socio-economic rights. Such consideration has also been deficient as courts have failed to develop the content of the rights and to define the nature of the obligations of both the state as well as non-state actors in relation to socio-economic rights. There has been little or no attempt to apply norms of international human rights law and comparable foreign case law. Worse still, in some related cases, courts have stated that they will not deal with any issues that raise policy considerations as such matters are outside the province of judicial competence. This is a problematic approach that could stultify the development of socio-economic rights jurisprudence. The Masangano case, however, offers some hope as it represents the first real attempt to address key socio-economic rights issues such as access to food, clothing, adequate housing and healthcare, albeit in relation to prisoners. While the final decision ultimately turned on cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment, the High Court of Malawi made some definitive affirmations of the guarantee of a number of these key rights and presented a first real attempt to fashion a time-bound remedy, that also required the state to take positive steps in allocating sufficient resources for the realisation of socio-economic rights for prisoners. The Masangano case represents a good stepping stone upon which courts can stand in developing more systematic and sophisticated jurisprudence on socioeconomic rights in Malawi.

Redson E, Kapindu.

76

Courts and the enforcement of socio-economic rights in Malawi: Jurisprudential trends, challenges and opportunities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Socio-economic rights are of special significance in a developing country such as Malawi. The framers of the Malawian Constitution included the right to development in the country's Bill of Rights. The right to development is not only included as a self-standing right, but is also a conduit for the [...] guarantee of equal access to a range of other socio-economic rights. Regrettably, the record of judicial enforcement of these rights subsequent to 1994 is disappointing. Only in a few cases, largely focusing on a narrow range of rights such as property, work, economic activity and, to a lesser extent, education, have courts directly and significantly dealt with socio-economic rights. Such consideration has also been deficient as courts have failed to develop the content of the rights and to define the nature of the obligations of both the state as well as non-state actors in relation to socio-economic rights. There has been little or no attempt to apply norms of international human rights law and comparable foreign case law. Worse still, in some related cases, courts have stated that they will not deal with any issues that raise policy considerations as such matters are outside the province of judicial competence. This is a problematic approach that could stultify the development of socio-economic rights jurisprudence. The Masangano case, however, offers some hope as it represents the first real attempt to address key socio-economic rights issues such as access to food, clothing, adequate housing and healthcare, albeit in relation to prisoners. While the final decision ultimately turned on cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment, the High Court of Malawi made some definitive affirmations of the guarantee of a number of these key rights and presented a first real attempt to fashion a time-bound remedy, that also required the state to take positive steps in allocating sufficient resources for the realisation of socio-economic rights for prisoners. The Masangano case represents a good stepping stone upon which courts can stand in developing more systematic and sophisticated jurisprudence on socioeconomic rights in Malawi.

Redson E, Kapindu.

2013-01-01

77

Homogamy in socio-economic background and education, and the dissolution of cohabiting unions  

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Full Text Available Background: Despite the increasing prevalence of cohabitation, knowledge of how socio-economic homogamy affects the stability of cohabiting unions is scant. Few studies have compared the effects of homogamy in both ascribed and achieved socio-economic status on union dissolution. Objective: Our aim is to determine how homogamy and heterogamy in educational level and parental social class affect the risk of cohabitation dissolution in Finland. Methods: We use unique Finnish register data that includes information on non-marital cohabitation. Cox regression is used to analyse the risk of dissolution in 20,452 cohabitations. We examine the dissolution rates in all possible combinations of partner status, and analyse how these estimates deviate from the main effects of each partner's status. Results: According to the findings, homogamy in parental social class is of little consequence in cohabitation dissolution, although cohabitations between people from upper-white-collar and farmer families are disproportionately likely to dissolve. Educational differences between partners are more significant determinants of cohabitation stability: extreme heterogamy is associated with an increased separation risk, and homogamy decreases the separation risk among cohabitors with a higher university degree. Conclusions: In line with the perception that personal achievement is more significant than social origins in contemporary union dynamics, similarity in educational level increases cohabitation stability more than similarity in socio-economic origin. Although previous Nordic studies report little or no association between educational homogamy or heterogamy and marriage dissolution, our study shows that educational differences do matter in cohabiting unions.

Elina Mäenpää

2014-06-01

78

Dynamics of people's socio-economic status in the face of schistosomiasis control interventions in Ukerewe district, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a paucity of research on micro-level assessment of the dynamics of socio-economic status following health interventions. The use of household asset data to determine wealth indices is a common procedure for estimating socio-economic position in low-income countries. Indeed, in such settings information about income is usually lacking and the collection of individual consumption or expenditure data would require in-depth interviews, posing a considerable risk of bias. In this study, we determined the socio-economic status of 159 households in a village in north-western Tanzania before and 1 year after participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) intervention to control schistosomiasis. We constructed a household 'wealth index' based on durable assets ownership (e.g. bicycle and radio) and household characteristics dealing with ownership of land and house construction features (e.g. type of walls and roof). We employed principal components analysis and classified households into wealth quintiles. The study revealed that asset variables with positive factor scores were associated with higher socio-economic status, whereas asset variables with negative factor scores were associated with lower socio-economic status. Overall, households which were rated as the poorest and very poor were on the decrease, whereas those rated as poor, less poor and the least poor were on the increase after PHAST intervention. This decrease/increase was significant. The median shifted from -0.761 to -0.448, and the mean from -0.204 (standard deviation (SD) 1.924) to 0.193 (SD 2.079) between pre- and post-intervention phases. The difference in socio-economic status of the people comparing the pre- and post-intervention phases was highly statistically significant (pmodel with a random effect on the households. We argue that significant changes in the socio-economic status observed in our study are attributable to the PHAST intervention, despite other sporadic interventions against schistosomiasis. PMID:23333229

Mwanga, Joseph R; Lwambo, Nicholas J S; Rumisha, Susan F; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg

2013-11-01

79

Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies : South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark. Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s. Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of Indian and Pakistani background. The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalisme and identity construction. The results show that the South Asian youth develop complex diaspora identities, becoming a part of the receiving society and maintaining contact with the countries of origin, combining individualisation with interconnectedness. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, business related investment and direct remittances, 2) awareness of parents’ strategies, although few or no self-employed strategies and 3) collective strategy through an organisation. The conclusions pin point the challenges for Scandinavian societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia.  

Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie

80

ABORTION IN RELATION TO SOME SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS  

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Full Text Available The data for this study has been collected from a questionnaire examining the relationship between birth weight of the new born and some physical and socio-economic characteristics of the mother. Between Dec.1975 to Jan.1976, 1553 women who had referred to two hospitals in Tehran for labor: 981 to Farah Maternity and 572 to Firoozgar Hospital have been interviewed. The results of the study have indicated that women who had referred to Firoozgar Hospital, were older, more literate, had higher per capita income, used more contraceptives and had fewer pregnancies, all these figures are statistically significant. Regression analysis indicates that factors such as age of the mother, literacy, household income, husband's job position are not significant towards increase of abortion rate amongst these women, but when these factors are fixed and place of reference is analyzed this variable becomes significant, increase of abortion, which have not been considered in this study. Parity regardless of the above factors increases abortion rate and for each increase in the number of pregnancy, mean number of abortion is increased by 0.09.

A.Majd

1978-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child relationship mediates the relationship between positive parenting(Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress or warmth) and empathy. In conclusion,parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy. Warmth had indirect effects on children’s empathy through near parent-child relationship.

Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli

82

Socio-economic correlates of pesticide usage: the case of citrus farmers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The socio-economic factors affecting adoption of pesticides on citrus trees in Sargodha Division, Pakistan was studied. Six villages were selected (three from each subdivision) for data collection. Overall 150 orchard owners (25 from each sample village) were interviewed. Data were analyzed using SPSS programme. Gamma test and chi-square were used to check the direction and magnitude of relationship between independent and dependent variables. Among the sample, 48% respondents were spray users. The socio-economic factors that influenced farmer's receptivity to citrus spray were age (negatively correlated), education (positively correlated), social status (positively correlated), farm size (negatively correlated) and farming experience (negatively correlated). By incurring Rs. 3,600.00 per ha on spray farmers received Rs. 19,000.00 as an incremental benefit. Marginal rate of return indicated that by spending Re. 1.00 on spray farmers would get an increase of Rs. 5.27 in their income. (author)

83

Associação entre prevalência de inatividade física e indicadores de condição socioeconômica em adolescentes Association between prevalence of physical inactivity and indicators of socio-economic status in adolescents  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A redução nos níveis de atividade física na população jovem tem sido amplamente descrita em vários países, sobretudo em alguns subgrupos dessa população. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de inatividade física em adolescentes escolares do ensino médio do município de João Pessoa - PB, e analisar sua associação com indicadores de condição socioeconômica. METODOLOGIA: Participaram do estudo 2.566 adolescentes (1.132 rapazes e 1.434 moças, de 14 a 18 anos de idade (16,5±1,17. Foram levantadas informações demográficas (sexo e idade, socioeconômicas (trabalho, tipo de escola, classe econômica, escolaridade dos pais, e mediu-se o nível de atividade física (kcal/kg/dia, mediante utilização de um diário de atividade física. Foram classificados como fisicamente inativos os adolescentes com demanda energética diária OBJECTIVE: The decrease in the levels of physical activity in the young population has been described thoroughly in several countries, above all in some subgroups of that population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity in high school adolescents from the João Pessoa city - PB and to analyze its association with indicators of socio-economic status. METHODOLOGY: 2,566 adolescents (1,132 boys and 1,434 girls, ages between 14-18 years (16.5±1.17 participated in this study. Demographic (sex and age and socio-economic data (work, school type, economic class, and parents' educational background were raised. Besides that, the level of physical activity (kcal/kg/day was measured through a diary of physical activity. The adolescents were classified as physically inactive when had daily energy demand <37kcal/kg/day. The ratio prevalence (RP, with respective reliability intervals of 95% (RI95%, was used as association measure. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity positively associated with the socio-economic status, showing higher prevalence in the adolescents who did not work (boys RP=2.22; RI95%=1.62-3.04 and girls RP=1.52; RI95%=1.19-1.93, and in the girls whose parents presented higher educational background (girls RP=1.20; RI95%=1.05-1.35, compared with the adolescents who worked and the ones whose parents had lower educational background, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of physical inactivity was high, mainly in the girls. Adolescents who belonged to more priviledged socio-economic strata were more exposed to physical inactivity.

José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

2008-04-01

84

Sustainability and Socio-Economic Impact of Tourism Development in Jakobstad - Kalajoki  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tourism is not always about business. It can also affect the society in various other ways. There are socio-economic impacts of tourism for both host community and travelers’ community. These impacts can be positive as well as negative. By upholding tourism, a certain area can become financially solvent and the host community can endorse a better lifestyle. The aim of this research was to examine the tourism situation and future prospects of the chosen touristic destinations in forms of...

Salmela, Joel; Rahman, Mohammad Mohibur

2014-01-01

85

Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country's socio-economic status  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with v [...] arious socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI), the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP) among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

Gyan P., Sharma; Karen J., Esler; James N., Blignaut.

2010-04-01

86

Positive Parenting for High-Risk Families  

Science.gov (United States)

Teen, single, divorced, foster, abusive, substance affected, and incarcerated parents and their children participated in intensive parenting education classes lasting 9 to 24 weeks. Participants were primarily single (58%), Hispanic (60%), and female (60%). Parents showed significant increases in empathy and knowledge of positive discipline…

Devall, Esther L.

2004-01-01

87

The Measurement of Socio-Economic Status: A Technical Note.  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of the socioeconomic status (SES) concept was conducted to determine whether an already established index could be used in Toronto's Study of Achievement of children from kindergarten through the elementary grades. The examination of the SES concept and the results of analyses concerning the applicability of the Blishen Socio-Economic

Eason, Gary; Crawford, Patricia

88

Socio-economic drivers in implementing bioenergy projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the international community there is considerable interest in the socio-economic implications of moving society towards the more widespread use of renewable energy resources. Such change is seen to be very necessary but is often poorly communicated to people and communities who need to accept such changes. There are pockets of activity across the world looking at various approaches to understand this fundamental matter. Typically, socio-economic implications are measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment and monetary gains, but in effect the analysis relates to a number of aspects which include social, cultural, institutional, and environmental issues. The extremely complex nature of bioenergy, many different technologies involved and a number of different, associated aspects (socio-economics, greenhouse gas mitigation potential, environment, ?) make this whole topic a complex subject. This paper is primarily a descriptive research and review of literature on employment and other socio-economic aspects of bioenergy systems as drivers for implementing bioenergy projects. Due to the limited information, this paper does not provide absolute quantification on the multiplier effects of local and or national incomes of any particular country or region. The paper intends to trigger a more in-depth discussion of data gaps, potentials, opportunities and challenges. An encouraging trend is that in many countries policy makers are beginning to perceive the licy makers are beginning to perceive the potential economic benefits of commercial biomass e.g. employment/earnings, regional economic gain, contribution to security of energy supply and all others

89

Prasad's socio-economic status classification- An update for 2014  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Almost all community- based studies focus on socio-economic stratification, which is the key parameter for proper understanding the affordability of the community of health services, amenities and their purchasing capacity. Prasad’s socioeconomic status scale measures socioeconomic status of both rural and urban community based on per capita monthly income of the family.

Shankar Reddy Dudala

2014-07-01

90

Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

2004-01-01

91

PROJECTS IN THE STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article deals with project management issues in the structure of socio-economic systems. Describes the elements of strategic planning, which allow to identify the factors of stability of project management. Particular attention is given to innovative projects from the perspective of their structural consideration.

Mosalyov Anton Igorevich

2008-01-01

92

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY - THE PROSPECTS OF BORROWING ?????????-????????????? ????????? ???????? – ??????????? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of economic development in various countries and the prospects for borrowing from the process of formation and implementation of economic and social policies as an example consider the strategy of Europe 2020 and the socio-economic development strategy of Russia until 2020

Pasko S. N.

2013-02-01

93

Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ? Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ? Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ? “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ? A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ? Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Sociantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

94

A socio-economic assessment of proposed road user charging schemes in Copenhagen  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Road pricing. congestion charging, toll-systems and other road charging instruments are intensively discussed in many countries. Although many partial analyses of the consequences have been published, few overall socio-economic analyses have been carried out. The article presents such a socio-economic analysis of four different proposed road pricing schemes for the Copenhagen area. The purpose was to assess all benefits and costs involved, including impacts on traffic and environment, maintenance and financing costs as well as tax distortion effects. It was concluded that the socio-economic surplus of the projects depends crucially on the congestion level. With the Current traffic level, road pricing will not yet be socially expedient in Copenhagen. However, if the opening year is postponed to 2015, the two most favourable schemes will turn positive. The analyses also showed that the magnitude of demand response by introducing road pricing is likely to have significant impact on the project surplus. This is an important observation because most shore term driven traffic models will then underestimate the projected surplus. Finally, it was found that the degree to which benefits outweigh costs depends considerably on the use of revenue. Although it may contribute to decreasing road congestion, recycling all of the revenue back to the transport sector turned out to be inefficient and costly.

Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

2007-01-01

95

The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.  

Science.gov (United States)

What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

2014-10-01

96

Travels Pattern and Socio-economic Characteristics of Rail Transport Passengers in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addressed the relationships between the travels pattern and socio-economic characteristics of the rail patrons in metropolitan Lagos. Data used were derived from both primary and secondary sources. The primary data focused on train passengers in order to capture their socio-economic and travel characteristics. Passengers were purposively selected from a total number of 1,100 passengers on board. A sample size of 210 was used and this represented the total number of questionnaires that were administered for the study. The study adopted the use of descriptive and inferential data analytical tools. Travel purpose showed that, 69.5% of the patrons travelled for employers' and private businesses. On the frequency of travels, 53.8% of the train patrons made between 9 and 10 trips per week. The maximum trip distance was 35 kilometers and 54.8% of the train patrons' traveled between 22 and 35 kilometers per day. Besides, 77.1% of the patrons spent between 60 and 120 minutes in a trip made in Lagos metropolis. The correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between the travel demands (trip frequency and passengers' travel time. Also, it revealed a positive relationship between marital status and age of passengers. This was supported by the stepwise multiple regression analysis. The study concluded that, the socio-economic characteristics and travel pattern variables should be complemented by policy statements for the development of rail transport system in Lagos metropolis.

Ilechukwu, V. U.

2011-04-01

97

Socio-Economic Rights: Legally Enforceable or Just Aspirational?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 cited social welfare rights without distinguishing them from civil and political rights, the separation has been widely accepted by judges, scholars and politicians. Historically, the classification of human rights into two groups, with the relegation of socio-economic rights into a lower category of human rights, emerged and developed mainly after the 1950s during the Cold War and ultimately led to the adoption of two separate UN Covenants, with different formulation and enforcement mechanisms for each set of rights; the causes and purposes of that classification are well-documented (Cranston 1973; Alston 1990; Sadurski 2005 and profoundly political. Scholars and judges have taken significant steps in the last thirty years to cast light on the legal nature of socio-economic rights. Nonetheless, there is still incredulity concerning not only their normative constitutional role, but also their judicial enforceability. Although much ink has been spilt, socio-economic rights are a hot topic again today, due to the current global economic recession and the – often controversial – state actions (or non-actions that affect the social welfare of millions. Is there any role for the judiciary within this conquered-by-state-policy realm? The goal of this paper is to defend the justiciability of socio-economic rights. To this end, I will present the arguments against their justiciability, after which I will comparatively examine the socio-economic rights jurisprudence, being careful not to get lost in the jurisprudential labyrinth.

Ilias Trispiotis

2010-04-01

98

The Evaluation of The Impact of Socio-Economic Level on The Physical Fitness in Boys by Using AAHPERD Test Battery  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic level on the physical fitness in boys from 8 to 10 years-olds by using AAHPERD (American Alliance For Health, Physical Education, Recreation And Dance test battery.The number of the participants in the study was 566 students; 295 students from state schools of The Ministry of National Education and 271 students from private schools.In the identification of socio-economic level of the participants in the study, level of education of parents, the number of the children in the family, the living environment, whether the children have their own rooms in at home, and the level of income of the family, which are socio-economic criteria, were taken into consideration.The order of testing and measurement was as follows: the measurement of weight, the measurement of height, sit-and-reach test, skin-fold measurement, sit-up test, pull-up test and 1 mile run-and-walk test.At the statistical analyses of the data the mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values of AAHPERD tests applied to the subjects were obtained and Correlation Analyses (Pearson tests were used for the evaluation of the relationship among the AAHPERD tests and socio-economic level of the participants,.As a result, it was found that the socio-economic level had an impact on physical fitness of the student; and that in boys from 8 to 10 years-olds who had a higher socio-economic level, the sum of skinfold values and the strength of sit-up were higher compared to those obtained from the boys who had a lower socio-economic level; and that the boys who had a lower socio-economic level yielded higher values of flexibility, strength in pull-up and cardiovascular endurance.

Dursun GÜLER

2004-06-01

99

Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional / Patterns, beliefs and parenting practices related with punishment and the generational transmission of these in four families of low socio-economic level in the city of Bogotá / Padrões, crenças e práticas parentais relacionadas à punição e transmissão geracional em quatro famílias baixo nivel socioeconômico na cidade de Bogotá  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever os padrões, as crenças e as práticas parentais relacionadas à punição e sua transmissão intergeracional em quatro famílias baixo nivel socioeconômico na cidade de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semi-estruturadas, histórias de vida, observações de campo e o So [...] ftware Atlas.ti para analisar os resultados. Descobrimos que os padrões de paternidade associada com a punição são enquadrados no papel de avô (ó) como um cuidador durante a semana, no fim de semana o pai / mãe e a educadora, o filho (a) como o ímpio. Crenças são estabelecidas em torno da criança tão forte e frágil, e a punição como um instrutor, ambivalente, abusivo e temido. Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaci [...] ones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuelo o de la abuela como cuidador o cuidadora entre semana, en el del padre o madre como cuidador o cuidadora de fin de semana, y en el del niño o niña como el sujeto travieso. Las creencias se establecen en torno al niño o niña como fuerte y frágil, y al castigo como formador, ambivalente, maltratante y temido. Abstract in english This study is aimed to describe patterns, beliefs and parenting practices related to punishment and the intergenerational transmission of these in four families of low socio-economic level in the city of Bogotá. We used semi-structured interviews, life histories, field observations and Atlas.ti soft [...] ware to analyze the results. We found that parenting patterns associated with punishment are framed in the role of grandparent as the weak caregiver, the father/mother as weekend caregivers and the child as mischievous. Beliefs are established around the child as strong and fragile, and the punishment as a trainer, ambivalent, abusive and feared.

Sandra, Pulido; Juliana, Castro-Osorio; Marlyn, Peña; Diana Paola, Ariza-Ramírez.

100

Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional / Patterns, beliefs and parenting practices related with punishment and the generational transmission of these in four families of low socio-economic level in the city of Bogotá / Padrões, crenças e práticas parentais relacionadas à punição e transmissão geracional em quatro famílias baixo nivel socioeconômico na cidade de Bogotá  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever os padrões, as crenças e as práticas parentais relacionadas à punição e sua transmissão intergeracional em quatro famílias baixo nivel socioeconômico na cidade de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semi-estruturadas, histórias de vida, observações de campo e o So [...] ftware Atlas.ti para analisar os resultados. Descobrimos que os padrões de paternidade associada com a punição são enquadrados no papel de avô (ó) como um cuidador durante a semana, no fim de semana o pai / mãe e a educadora, o filho (a) como o ímpio. Crenças são estabelecidas em torno da criança tão forte e frágil, e a punição como um instrutor, ambivalente, abusivo e temido. Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaci [...] ones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuelo o de la abuela como cuidador o cuidadora entre semana, en el del padre o madre como cuidador o cuidadora de fin de semana, y en el del niño o niña como el sujeto travieso. Las creencias se establecen en torno al niño o niña como fuerte y frágil, y al castigo como formador, ambivalente, maltratante y temido. Abstract in english This study is aimed to describe patterns, beliefs and parenting practices related to punishment and the intergenerational transmission of these in four families of low socio-economic level in the city of Bogotá. We used semi-structured interviews, life histories, field observations and Atlas.ti soft [...] ware to analyze the results. We found that parenting patterns associated with punishment are framed in the role of grandparent as the weak caregiver, the father/mother as weekend caregivers and the child as mischievous. Beliefs are established around the child as strong and fragile, and the punishment as a trainer, ambivalent, abusive and feared.

Sandra, Pulido; Juliana, Castro-Osorio; Marlyn, Peña; Diana Paola, Ariza-Ramírez.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Socio-economic aspects of waste management facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Besides technical aspects and those of safety, it is the economic and social environment of a future underground geologic repository which plays a major role. Compared to other large scale technical plants, facilities for radioactive waste management must overcome incomparably greater obstacles. All the more care must be taken in clarifying the issues affecting the public and the economy in the region of a potential site. On behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for Energy (BFE), Ruetter + Partner conducted a basic study which, in a number of case studies, dealt with the socio-economic aspects of experiences with existing and planned facilities in Switzerland and abroad. The study focused on these main points, which are outlined briefly in the article: - Socio-economic issues in the site selection procedure. - Methodological approach. - Findings made in the case studies. - Factors influencing the acceptance of a repository. (orig.)

102

Danube - the Common Way between Great Socio-Economic Disparities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper deals with the idea that a common river-Danube- can cover a lot of disparities connected to socio-economic, cultural, historical and religious approaches. As a result, the analysis in the paper is focused on economic disparities in all Danube countries, even that they are members or not of the EU27. The analysis is based on the latest official statistical data and is followed by a forecast for 2013-2014 in order to observe if the disparities will decrease or not. The main conclusion of the paper is that Danube can be a way and an instrument to solve regional disparities. The same Danube River can support a better socio-economic integration of the Danube countries, as well.

Romeo Ionescu

2013-08-01

103

Pubertal timing and health-related behaviours in adolescence - socio- economic outcomes in a follow-up study from Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background. Pubertal timing is connected with health-related lifestyle in adulthood. We studied whether early or late pubertal timing is predictive of socio-economic outcomes in early adulthood and whether the associations are mediated by health behaviours.

Methods. Survey data (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987 from samples of 14-year-old Finns (N=4246, response rate 85% were linked with respondents’ attained educational level, socio-economic and labour market position in 2001 (ages 28-34. Ages of menarche and first ejaculation indicated pubertal timing.

Results. As compared to adolescents with average age pubertal timing, boys and girls maturing at an early age more often participated in health-compromising behaviours, while those maturing at a later age participated less frequently. Pubertal timing was not associated with attained educational level or socioeconomic position in girls and not with labour market position at the time of follow-up in either sex. In boys, independently of health behaviours, early or late onset of puberty predicted low educational level, while late onset predicted low socio-economic position.

Conclusion. Timing of puberty has a stronger connection with socio-economic outcomes in boys than in girls. Deviance from the normative pace of physical development, especially late maturation, is among boys slightly depicted in the hierarchy of socio-economic positions of the society. As pubertal timing is connected with health-related behaviours – especially with smoking – the pacing of developmental transitions should be considered in planning programmes preventing unhealthy behavioural patterns often linked with negative attitudes towards schooling.

Leena K Koivusilta

2006-03-01

104

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4% of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.

Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

How to cite this article: Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Ferreira, M., 2009, ‘The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park’, Koedoe 51(1, Art. #158, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v51i1.158

Madelien Ferreira

2009-01-01

105

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ISSUES CHARACTERISTIC TO THE JIU VALLEY RESIDENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sociological research was conducted in 2008 on a sample of 1 612 adults, aiming at highlighting the socio-economic situation of the population in the Jiu Valley and, therefore, the problems addressing the local people. Failure or even the lack of financial resources is a consequence of lack of jobs in the area and, as a result the low living standard of the population

ION PÂRVULESCU

2010-01-01

106

Control of the socio-economic systems using herding interactions  

CERN Document Server

Collective behavior of the complex socio-economic systems is heavily influenced by the herding, group, behavior of individuals. The importance of the herding behavior may enable the control of the collective behavior of the individuals. In this contribution we consider a simple agent-based herding model modified to include agents with controlled state. We show that in certain case even the smallest fixed number of the controlled agents might be enough to control the behavior of a very large system.

Kononovicius, Aleksejus

2013-01-01

107

Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

radation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

108

Socio-economic inequalities: a statistical physics perspective  

CERN Document Server

Socio-economic inequalities are manifested in different aspects of our social life. We discuss various aspects, beginning with the evolutionary and historical origins, and discussing the major issues from the social and economic point of view. The subject has attracted scholars from across various disciplines, including physicists, who bring in a unique perspective to the field. The major attempts to analyze the results, address the causes, and understand the origins using statistical tools and statistical physics concepts are discussed.

Chatterjee, Arnab

2014-01-01

109

Socio-economic resources, relationship processes, and separation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis consists of three empirical papers that all study relationship processes and their effects on divorce. Of particular interest is the role that socio-economic resources play in this story. In the first empirical paper of this thesis I investigate why there exists a negative correlation between women’s education and the risk of divorce. The second paper addresses whether the correlation between income and separation is causal by looking at the effects of lottery wins. The last emp...

Boertien, Diederik

2013-01-01

110

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the St. Lucie nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

111

Socio Economic Study Of Vellapatti Village In Tuticorin District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fisheries are a sunrise sector of our economy. Its role in increasing food supply, generating job opportunities, raising nutritional level and earning foreign exchange has been important. The traditional fishing technology (artisanal, which accounted for 37 per cent in 2010, is currently contributing only 8 per cent. This paper aims to study the socio economic background of the fishermen in Vellapatti village of Tuticorin district. The study utilised both primary and secondary data. Primary data relating to the socio economic background of the fishermen were collected through pre-designedquestionnaire from 150 fishermen families from the selected Vellapatti village. Present study is empirical in nature and covered only three months period (2012. Percentage analysis, averages, chi square test and probability analysis were used. From the study it is clear that before Tsunami 20% of the fishermen families have income between Rs. 4000-6000 and after Tsunami 78% of the fishermen families have income between Rs. 4000-6000. The average monthly income of the fishermen families was Rs.3750 before Tsunami and after Tsunami it was Rs.5250. The result of chisquare- test revealed that there is significant difference between monthly income of the fishermen before and after tsunami in Vellapatti village of Tuticorin District. The present study concludes that the lack of awareness and viable alternative livelihood programmes are major hindrances to improving their socio-economic status and also threatens the sustainable use of the fishing resources.

D.Amutha

2012-10-01

112

Associations of multiple socio-economic circumstances with physical functioning among Finnish and British employees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: To further increase our understanding of socio-economic health inequalities, we need studies considering multiple socio-economic circumstances and comparing different cultural contexts. This study compared the associations of past and present socio-economic circumstances with physical functioning between employees from Finland and Britain.

Laaksonen, Elina; Martikainen, Pekka; Head, Jenny; Rahkonen, Ossi; Marmot, Michael G.; Lahelma, Eero

2009-01-01

113

Constitutional basis for the enforcement of ''executive'' policies that give effect to socio-economic rights in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Although "executive" policies remain an important governance tool, there appears to be confusion on the status and possible basis for their judicial enforcement in South Africa. The aim of this article is to critically reflect on the status and possible constitutional basis for the enforceability of [...] "executive" policies that give effect to socio-economic rights in South Africa. Based on the jurisprudence of courts and some examples of "executive" policies, this article demonstrates that the constitutional basis for the enforceability of "executive" policies could be located inter alia in the positive duties imposed on government by sections 24(b), 25(5), 26(2) and 27(2) of the Constitution to "take reasonable legislative and other measures" within the context of available resources to give effect to relevant rights. This article argues that these duties amount to a constitutional delegation of authority to the legislative and executive branches of government to concretise socio-economic rights. In addition, this article demonstrates that where "executive" policies give effect to socio-economic rights pursuant to powers delegated by enabling provisions in original legislation that covers the field of socio-economic rights, such policies may be perceived to have the force of law, thereby providing a legal basis for their judicial enforcement.

ON, Fuo.

2013-04-01

114

Socio-economic Parameters and Mortality in Turner Syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized by hypogonadism, short adult height, increased morbidity and mortality; contrasted by self-reported normal quality of life and perception of health. Small studies have indicated a similar level of education compared to the background population.Aim: To study the socio-economic profile in TS and the impact of these factors on mortality.Materials and methods: Register study using Danish nationwide registries. 979 TS females and 94,850 controls were included. Information concerning cohabitation, motherhoods, level of education (bachelor degree), income, retirement and death were obtained. 103 TS and 5,989 controls died during the study period. For the socio-economic parameters, median age at first relevant episode was calculated. Income was analyzed using conditional logistic regression, and the other parameters using Cox regression.Results: In comparison with controls TS had significantly fewer partnerships (hazard ratio (HR): 0.45), fewer motherhoods (HR: 0.18)and retired earlier (HR: 1.8). After the diagnosis of Turner syndrome the risk of retiring was increased. Educational attainment (HR: 1.0) as well as risk of unemployment was similar. Before the age of 30, low income was significantly more frequent; hereafter it was similar to controls. Mortality was significantly increased (HR: 2.9) and slightly lower after adjustment for cohabitation and education (HR: 2.7).Conclusions: A divergent socio-economic profile is apparent, with a reduced proportion of Turner syndrome persons finding a partner and becoming mothers. The educational level was similar to controls. The increased mortality in Turner syndrome was not materially affected after adjustment for cohabitation and education.

Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Hjerrild, Britta

2012-01-01

115

ANXIETY IN ADOLESCENTS & SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF FAMILY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To study the role of Socio-Economic factors in increasing anxiety level of adolescents, a study was conducted among the adolescents of Nanded district With an Objective – “To study the Role of Socio-Economic Factors of Family in Arousing Anxiety of Adolescents.” Sample was selected by Stratified Random Sampling method among 265 girls and 262 boys from 16 to 18 years age group belonging to three income groups. Assessment of anxiety level in adolescents was carried out with the help I.P.A.T. Anxiety scale, by Samuel.E.Krug. For the convenience of adolescents Hindi version of this test was used revised by Dr.S.D.Kapoor. The obtained data was examined with the help of scoring key and was statistically co-related with socio-economic factors of adolescents. Results indicate that, 1Family income was significantly co-related with 5% level in boys with apprehension (0.249** and tension (0.256** and with 1% level with same norms i.e. apprehension (0511* and tension (0.521* in girls.2 Family income was also significantly co-related with low self control in boys (0274* and girls (0.277* with1% level.3 Specially in boys it was found that father's education was significantly co-related with apprehension (0.255* at 1% level.4 When anxiety norms of both girls and boys were studied through the test of variance i.e. one way ANOVA no significant difference was found. Scores for the norms like emotional instability, apprehension and tension were found with more percent in boys than girls. Whereas scores of indirect factors related to anxiety were found more in girls along with low self control and suspicion.

CHETANA V.DONGLIKAR

2013-02-01

116

Dietary patterns of school-age children in Scotland: association with socio-economic indicators, physical activity and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in May to September 2006. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in school-aged children from the survey and investigate associations with socio-economic factors, obesity and physical activity. Habitual diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ. Height and weight were measured by trained fieldworkers. A total of 1233 FFQ were available for analysis. Dietary patterns were identified by age (5-11 and 12-17 years) and sex using principal components analysis. Associations between factor scores and socio-economic status, education level of the main food provider, physical activity levels and BMI category (based on UK 1990 charts) were examined. Three dietary patterns were identified in each age and sex group. 'Healthier' patterns loading highly for fruit and vegetables were significantly associated with higher socio-economic status and higher education levels of the main food provider whereas more 'unhealthy' patterns ('snacks' and 'puddings') were associated with lower socio-economic status and lower education levels of the main food provider. There was no consistent association between dietary patterns and BMI group or time spent in physical activity. However, inactivity (screen time) was inversely associated with 'healthier' patterns in all age and sex groups and positively associated with 'puddings' and 'snacks' in girls aged 5-11 years. Clear dietary patterns can be identified in school-age children in Scotland, which are consistently related to socio-economic factors and inactivity. This has implications for targeting health promotion at subgroups in terms of lifestyle changes required. PMID:19835641

Craig, Leone C A; McNeill, Geraldine; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Masson, Lindsey F; Holmes, Bridget A

2010-02-01

117

Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational inequalities in women's television viewing. Methods Cross-sectional data were provided by 1,554 women (aged 18-65 who participated in the 'Socio-economic Status and Activity in Women study' of 2004. Based on an ecological framework, women self-reported their socio-economic position (highest education level, television viewing, as well as a number of potential intrapersonal (enjoyment of television viewing, preference for leisure-time sedentary behavior, depression, stress, weight status, social (social participation, interpersonal trust, social cohesion, social support for physical activity from friends and from family and physical activity environmental factors (safety, aesthetics, distance to places of interest, and distance to physical activity facilities. Results Multiple mediating analyses showed that two intrapersonal factors (enjoyment of television viewing and weight status and two social factors (social cohesion and social support from friends for physical activity partly explained the educational inequalities in women's television viewing. No physical activity environmental factors mediated educational variations in television viewing. Conclusions Acknowledging the cross-sectional nature of this study, these findings suggest that health promotion interventions aimed at reducing educational inequalities in television viewing should focus on intrapersonal and social strategies, particularly providing enjoyable alternatives to television viewing, weight-loss/management information, increasing social cohesion in the neighborhood and promoting friend support for activity.

Teychenne Megan

2012-01-01

118

Revelstoke TSA socio-economic assessment: Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report evaluates the socio-economic and environmental impacts of three alternative timber harvest scenarios for the Revelstoke Timber Supply Area. It follows the multiple account guidelines framework laid down by the Ministry of Forests, the aim of which is to focus attention on the full range of economic and non-economic impacts and values that are derived by all forest-land user groups. It contains a Revelstoke area profile, a current Timber Supply Area profile, and a scenario one, two, and three impact assessment.

1994-01-01

119

Development Application - Terra Nova Development - Socio-Economic Impact Statement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Socio-Economic Impact Statement contained in this volume is part of the overall application for approval of the the development of the Terra Nova Field, prepared and submitted by Petro-Canada on behalf and in cooperation with its co-proponents. It describes the baseline conditions for, and the effects of the Terra Nova Development on the fishery, industry, employment, demography, housing, social infrastructure and services, public infrastructure, and municipal government. A description of the scope of the assessment and the methodology employed is complemented by a 10-page glossary and a 36-item bibliography

120

Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. PMID:25288814

Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A

2014-11-13

 
 
 
 
121

Socio-economic applications of finite state mean field games.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we present different applications of finite state mean field games to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community or consumer choice behaviour in the free market. The corresponding finite state mean field game models are hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, for which we present and validate different numerical methods. We illustrate the behaviour of solutions with various numerical experiments, which show interesting phenomena such as shock formation. Hence, we conclude with an investigation of the shock structure in the case of two-state problems. PMID:25288816

Gomes, Diogo; Velho, Roberto M; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

2014-11-13

122

Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

123

Socio-economic determinants of eating practices of Ukrainians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy eating practices are among important public health goals worldwide. We aimed to investigate socio-economic determinants of the nutrition habits of Ukrainian families. METHODS: Data from the “UKRAINIAN LONGITUDINAL MONITORING SURVEY 2007” were analysed. Factor analysis produced variables characterising eating practices, which were re-coded in binary variables indicating low/high food consumption. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify associations between socio-economic state and eating modes. RESULTS: Three dimensions of nutrition practices were identified in the factor analysis: “standard diet” variable associated with quantities of most food products consumed, it actually shows how much food in general the household consumes, “fruit-and-vegetable diet” variable was associated with quantities of various fruits and vegetables included in the questionnaire, and “processed-(pre-packed-food diet” variable was created based on its associations with products like sausage. More “processed” food was consumed by members of households which were generally better-off (equipped with dvd-player, computer (laptop, garage, and Russian-speakers. More plant food was consumed by the households with attributes of rural living (equipped with bottled gas, central or individual system of heating, those who possessed a motorcycle or a truck. The owners of a plot adjacent to rural house or land used for gardening were eating more fruits and vegetables. A small group of well-off urban dwellers (like those possessing tumble-dryers, tend to eat more plant food; however, this group is not numerous. CONCLUSION: Plant food eating in Ukraine stays a factor of survival rather than healthy eating for those households which dwell in rural areas and have no means to choose foods they want. Those people who achieve better socio-economic status tend to increase processed food portion of their diets. Only a very small group of affluent Ukrainian citizens tend to eat much fruit and vegetables contributing to U-form relationship between socio-economic status and antioxidant-rich food consumption.

Chagarna, Natalia

2012-07-01

124

Danube - the Common Way between Great Socio-Economic Disparities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper deals with the idea that a common river-Danube- can cover a lot of disparities connected to socio-economic, cultural, historical and religious approaches. As a result, the analysis in the paper is focused on economic disparities in all Danube countries, even that they are members or not of the EU27. The analysis is based on the latest official statistical data and is followed by a forecast for 2013-2014 in order to observe if the disparities will decrease or not. The main conclusion...

Romeo Ionescu

2013-01-01

125

The new socio-economic scenarios for climate change research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scientific community is developing a new generation of scenarios to inform the choices we have to make when it comes to responding to climate change. This new generation of scenarios integrates more fully the mechanisms that regulate climate and provides insights to spatial and temporal resolutions unexplored in previous exercises. In addition, it gives a framework for integrating explicit climate policies for mitigation and adaptation, which allows assessing the benefits and costs of climate policies in different socio-economic scenarios. Finally, it introduces a new way of working that strengthens the collaboration between different research communities on climate change. (authors)

126

Agenda for socio-economic life-cycle research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In October 1977, the Social Science Research Council convened a conference on the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Force Participation to review research based on NLS data and to suggest promising future directions that this study might take. This paper presents a research agenda that emerged from this meeting. While not exhaustive, the agenda does identify a number of new or continuing research areas which are important for developing a better understanding of the socio-economic life cycle. The agenda is organized into four broad topics: work-family relationships, labor force socialization, structural variables, and methodological issues.

Peterson, J.L.

127

Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

Michael Dauderstädt

2013-03-01

128

Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The most potent risk factor for affective disorders is a family history of affective disorder but the specific factors that are transmitted in families are unknown. It is possible to investigate the relation between risk factors and affective disorder by using a high-risk design e.g.: a study of the healthy relatives of patients with affective disorders. AIM: To compare psychopathology and socio-economic status between twins with a co-twin history of affective disorder and twins without. METHODS: In a cross-sectional high-risk case-control study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nation-wide registers. Participants were assessed using semi-structured psychiatric interviews and self-rating of psychopathology. RESULTS: High-Risk twins had a lower education level, a lower work position and tendency towards being more often unemployed and early retired than the Low-Risk twins. Furthermore, they presented higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and were more likely to experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Healthy twins with a high genetic liability to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine the causality of these findings, thus genetic liability to affective disorder, socio-economic status and minor psychopathology seem to have a complex interrelation.

Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

2006-01-01

129

Poverty and Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Africa: The Nigerian Experience  

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Full Text Available There has been a growing incidence of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. Poverty is a multidimensional social phenomenon that can be analytically divided into two main perspectives: human poverty which is the lack of human capabilities and income poverty, which is the lack of income necessary to satisfy basic need e.g. poor life expectancy, poor maternal health, illiteracy, poor nutritional levels, poor access to safe drinking water and perceptions of well-being. The paper examines several initiatives focused on poverty eradication that Nigeria have adopted through national actions to fight both human and income poverty. In analysizing the issues raised, we anchored the paper on an eclectic approach of radical, Marxist model of political economy and the social exclusion theories. The study established among others, that a lot of effort has been made in poverty reduction through poverty alleviation programs in Nigeria. However, it is of knowledge that in spite of the previous efforts of various governments to alleviate poverty in Nigeria and the efforts of the current government to effect same, nothing much had changed in the living conditions and standards of the people. Poverty is still growing at an alarming rate. The challenges of poverty alleviation strategies in the Nigerian situation were articulated in the context of sustainable socio-economic development and the paper concludes that poverty alleviation in contemporary Nigeria require both socio-economic policies geared towards sustainable development. However, to enhance the human capital of the poor in particular, priorities for educational reforms should be in the areas of basic education, vocational training, water and sanitation, health care delivery, agriculture and housing for all. It is the position of this paper that until African leaders in general and Nigeria in particular begin to think „We? and not „I?, the fight against poverty that could engender sustainable socio-economic development will for long remain a mirage.

Igbokwe-Ibeto Chinyeaka Justine

2012-06-01

130

Socio-economic status is inversely related to bed net use in Gabon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48, running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92, shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73, ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67. In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45. Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.

Borchert Lea B

2008-04-01

131

The Contribution of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and Socio-Cultural Influence to Turkish Students' Task Value Beliefs in Science  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate how well gender, socio-economic status of family, and socio-cultural influences (perceived parents' achievement goals, and perceived teachers' achievement goals) predict middle school students' task value beliefs in science. Background Characteristics Survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning…

Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra

2014-01-01

132

Socio-economic aspects of different biofuel development pathways  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several policy drivers for biofuels on a larger scale in the EU transport sector, including increased security of energy supply, reduced emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), and new markets for the agricultural sector. The purpose of this socio-economic cost analysis is to provide an overview of the costs of meeting EU biofuels targets, taking into account several external costs and benefits. Biofuels are generally more expensive than traditional fossil fuels, but the expected increasing value of GHG emission reductions will over time reduce the cost gap. High crude oil prices significantly improve the economic benefit of biofuels, but increased demand for biomass for energy purposes is likely to increase the price of biofuels feedstock and biofuels costs. The key question is to what extent increasing oil prices will be passed on to biofuels costs. Socio-economic least costs for biofuels production require a market with a clear pricing of GHG emissions to ensure that this factor is included in the decision-making of actors in all links of the fuel chain.

133

Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

2012-01-01

134

Decomposing Kenyan socio-economic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and measles immunization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Skilled birth attendance (SBA and measles immunization reflect two aspects of a health system. In Kenya, their national coverage gaps are substantial but could be largely improved if the total population had the same coverage as the wealthiest quintile. A decomposition analysis allows identifying the factors that influence these wealth-related inequalities in order to develop appropriate policy responses. The main objective of the study was to decompose wealth-related inequalities in SBA and measles immunization into their contributing factors. Methods Data from the Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey 2008/09 were used. The study investigated the effects of socio-economic determinants on [1] coverage and [2] wealth-related inequalities of SBA utilization and measles immunization. Techniques used were multivariate logistic regression and decomposition of the concentration index (C. Results SBA utilization and measles immunization coverage differed according to household wealth, parent’s education, skilled antenatal care visits, birth order and father’s occupation. SBA utilization further differed across provinces and ethnic groups. The overall C for SBA was 0.14 and was mostly explained by wealth (40%, parent’s education (28%, antenatal care (9%, and province (6%. The overall C for measles immunization was 0.08 and was mostly explained by wealth (60%, birth order (33%, and parent’s education (28%. Rural residence (?19% reduced this inequality. Conclusion Both health care indicators require a broad strengthening of health systems with a special focus on disadvantaged sub-groups.

Van Malderen Carine

2013-01-01

135

Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery Based on Spatial Correlation Analysis in Guangxi Province, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. Methods Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. Results The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other. PMID:25036182

Nie, Chengjing; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Zhong, Gemei; Zhang, Lan

2014-01-01

136

The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy  

CERN Document Server

What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesise that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large data sets: price on on-line exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in on-line social media, volume of information search, and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observ...

Garcia, David; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

2014-01-01

137

Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. ice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)

138

An empirical investigation of socio-economic resilience to natural disasters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an empirical investigation of socio-economic resilience to natural disasters of a tropical cyclone-prone coastal community in Bangladesh. It applies the state-and-transition model, a widely used applied ecology model, to (1) assess the current state of socio-economic resilience to tropical cyclone, (2) identify its drivers and (3) examine its nexus with poverty and socio-economic vulnerability. The results of this study can be summarized into three key findings. First, tro...

Akter, Sonia; Mallick, Bishawjit

2013-01-01

139

Methodological Foundations of the Study of the Socio-economic Value of Tourism ???????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of the article is in scientific justification of the methodological foundations of the study of the socio-economic value of tourism. Using results of the theoretical analysis, the article identifies essence of the socio-economic value of tourism as a type of economic activity. It establishes that the aggregated character of carrying out the tourist activity has impact on the socio-economic value of tourism, which is generated in different links of the production chain of the tourist ...

Boyko Margarita G.

2013-01-01

140

the creating of conditions for transition of resource territory to sustainable socio-economic development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Presented article is devoted the problem of forming conditions for sustainable socio-economic development of resource territory after exhaustion of mineralresource potential. The features of socio-economic development of the resource territories situated in the conditions of the Far North cause the necessity of transition of such territory to sustainable socio-economic development. The basic conditions of transition of resource territory to sustainable socioeconomic developm...

Nagaeva; Olga Sergeevna

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Socio-Economic Analogues of the Gas Laws (Boyle's and Charles')  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most social scientists would reject the possibility of socio-economic analogues of the gas laws (Boyle’s and Charles’) on verisimilitude grounds. The gas laws relate the variables temperature, pressure, and volume. The possibility of socio-economic analogues of the gas laws and their variables is suggested by the similarity of two mathematical models. One model is the Inequality Process (IP), a particle system model that explains a wide scope of socio-economic phenomena. The IP is isomorp...

Angle, John

2011-01-01

142

Socio-economic analysis of CCS/EOR in Denmark; Samfundsoekonomisk analyse af CCS/EOR i Danmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Danish Energy Agency has initiated an analysis of the socio-economic sustainability of a CCS / EOR system based on CO{sub 2} capture from Danish sources and injected into selected Danish North Sea oil fields. The analysis shall assess the socioeconomic consequences of such a project as well as highlight the budgetary economic effects for the parties involved. Taking into account a realistic time frame for conversion of the cogeneration power plants and for the extent of the possible capture of CO{sub 2} in each of these plants, it has been chosen only to presuppose the establishment of CCS in three plants, namely Studstrupvaerket, Fynsvaerket and Nordjyllandsvaerket. Only the oil fields Dan, Halfdan and Gorm were selected for the analysis. The analysis shows that in the selected oil fields it is possible to increase the oil production by approx. 151 million. barrels of oil to the year 2049, which corresponds to approx. 40% of the estimated potential in these fields. The increased oil production requires that approx. 95 million. tonnes of CO{sub 2} is captured in the three power plants, which are subsequently transported and injected in the oil fields in the North Sea. The transport of CO{sub 2} from the CHP plants to the North Sea are assumed to be done by ship, since this solution is economically favorable and also offers logistical advantages and increased flexibility. The analysis shows that both the budget economic and the socio-economic analysis as a whole provide a positive economic net present value over a 30-year period. The socio-economic benefit is expected to be about. 3.5 billion DKK higher. This difference is due to especially the following conditions: a) CO{sub 2} emissions of CO{sub 2} transport are only included in the socio-economic analysis, since shipping is outside the quota system. In the socio-economic analysis, the estimated value of damage impact on the environment is included; b) The value of the oil produced after 2049 is included in the socio-economic analysis as terminal values, while the budget economic analysis does not include effects beyond 30 years; c) The value of district heating losses in the socio-economic analysis are assumed to correspond to the socio-economic costs of district heating, while the value in the budget economic analysis is calculated as the district heating consumers' expected additional price at the transition from cogeneration to district heating.; d) The cost of SO{sub 2} emissions is in the socio-economic analysis set to damaging effects while in the budget economic analysis it is set to the level of charges. (LN)

NONE

2012-12-15

143

Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key [...] of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs) which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

Michael, Dauderstädt.

144

Socio-economic Scenarios in Climate Assessments (IC11). Synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

s changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www.climatescenarios.nl) that provides key scenario data from WLO and other sources. On this site climate researchers have quick access to the most important socio-economic data derived from WLO and other scenarios. After registration they can also add new data.

145

Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key [...] of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs) which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

Michael, Dauderstädt.

2013-03-01

146

Common Organizing Mechanisms in Ecological and Socio-economic Networks  

CERN Document Server

Previous work has shown that species interacting in an ecosystem and actors transacting in an economic context may have notable similarities in behavior. However, the specific mechanism that may underlie similarities in nature and human systems has not been analyzed. Building on stochastic food-web models, we propose a parsimonious bipartite-cooperation model that reproduces the key features of mutualistic networks - degree distribution, nestedness and modularity -- for both ecological networks and socio-economic networks. Our analysis uses two diverse networks. Mutually-beneficial interactions between plants and their pollinators, and cooperative economic exchanges between designers and their contractors. We find that these mutualistic networks share a key hierarchical ordering of their members, along with an exponential constraint in the number and type of partners they can cooperate with. We use our model to show that slight changes in the interaction constraints can produce either extremely nested or rand...

Saavedra, Serguei; Uzzi, Brian

2011-01-01

147

Vitamin A status of socio-economically backward children.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive survey was carried out to asses the Vitamin A status of pre-school (0-6 yrs). and school age (6-12 yrs.) children of socio-economically backward families from slums of Bombay and its suburbs. The Vitamin A, protein, calories and iron from the rice and dal based diet was found to be below recommended dietary allowances (RDA). Among the 1956 children surveyed 20% of the children showed low (RBST) and conjuctival impression cytology (CIC) indicted the signs of mild conjuctival xerosis and of early epithelial changes which were correlated with serum vitamin A levels. Serum iron, PCV, Hb and RBC levels were below normal. The anthropometric measurements of these children were below 50th percentile of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) standards. Due to lack of proper nutrition, the overall growth of children is either retarded or not upto the standard levels as was noted in majority of the children. PMID:10829900

Aspatwar, A P; Bapat, M M

1995-01-01

148

Ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper presents an ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge conducted ten years after the opening in July 2000. The study applies historical micro data to re construct the travel pattern with no bridge in place and compare this to the current situation. To complete the socio-economic assessment, the consumer benefits including all freight and passenger modes, are compared with the cost profile of the bridge. The monetary contributions are extrapolated to a complete 50 year period. It is revealed that the bridge from 2000–2010 generated a consumer surplus of €2 billion in 2000 prices discounted at 3.5% p.a., which should be compared with a total construction cost of approximately €4 billion. Seen over the 50 year period and by assuming a medium growth scenario the bridge is expected to generate an internal rate of return in the magnitude of 9% corresponding to a benefit-cost rate of 2.2.A main advantage of analysing infrastructure ex post is the ability to learn and understand behavioural andmethodological elements not foreseen at the ex ante stages. Following this we offer an extended discussion including two parts. Firstly we compare the ex ante predictions for the bridge to the current transport flows. The importance of having the right assumptions and the ability to model the phasing-in process are underlined. Secondly, we offer a wider discussion on why some projects are more beneficial than others. This is done by comparing the Oresund Bridge, the Channel Tunnel, and the Great Belt Link.

Rich, Jeppe

2013-01-01

149

Socio-economic benefits from Hibernia operations in 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report identifies and describes the socio-economic effects of oil production from this offshore site, over and above the initial socio-economic effects of construction and fabrication. It documents a wide range of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians who benefit, directly and indirectly, from Hibernia operations. It builds on a series of reports which have examined the effects of Hibernia construction activity on employment, businesses and communities, including those resulting from spending and technology transfer. The report discusses the large scale and long term nature of the social and economic benefits of production activity and a wide range of benefits and beneficiaries. The report documents the ways in which Hibernia and other offshore oil activity are helping to transform the provincial economy. Another section of the report provides an overview of economic benefits. Based on information from Hibernia's production, expenditures and employment during 1998, the provincial government's Newfoundland and Labrador Econometric Model was used to calculate and describe Hibernia's effect on the gross domestic product, employment, unemployment rate, total incomes, retail sales and housing starts. Another section looks at the range of infrastructure that has resulted from Hibernia and other offshore petroleum activity, including industrial, training and research and development infrastructure. A further section on training and technology transfer describes the ways in which the oil industry has increased local training capabilities and provided opportunties for Newfoundlanders and Labradorians to learn locally and work elsewhere. Another section examines the effects of all this on a range of companies. A last section provides a brief review of the findings related to the activity to date and what can be expected in the future. 8 refs., 2 tabs

150

Socio-economic research for innovative energy technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 21st century global environment and energy issues become very important, and this is characterized by the long-term (in the scale of a few tens years) and world-wide issue. In addition, future prospect of these issues might be quite uncertain, and scientific prediction could be very difficult. For these issues vigorous researches and various efforts have been carried out from various aspects; e.g., world-wide discussion such as COP3 in Kyoto, promotion of the energy-saving technology and so on. Development of environment-friendly energy has been promoted, and new innovative technologies are explored. Nuclear fusion is, of course, a promising candidate. While, there might be some criticism for nuclear fusion from the socio-economic aspect; e.g., it would take long time and huge cost for the fusion reactor development. In addition, other innovative energy technologies might have their own criticism, as well. Therefore, socio-economic research might be indispensable for future energy resources. At first we have selected six items as for the characteristics, which might be important for future energy resources; i.e., energy resource, environmental load, economics, reliability/stability, flexibility on operation and safety/security. Concerning to innovative energy technologies, we have nominated seven candidates; i.e., advanced coal technology with CO2 recovery system, SOFC top combined cycle, solar power, wind power, space solar power station, advanced fission and fusion. Based on questionnaires for ordinary people and fusion scientists, we have tried to assess the fusion energy development, comparing with other innovative energy technologies. (author)

151

Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country’s socio-economic status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI, the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

James N. Blignaut

2010-04-01

152

Explaining household socio-economic related child health inequalities using multiple methods in three diverse settings in South Africa  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite free healthcare to pregnant women and children under the age of six, access to healthcare has failed to secure better child health outcomes amongst all children of the country. There is growing evidence of socioeconomic gradient on child health outcomes Methods The objectives of this study were to measure inequalities in child mortality, HIV transmission and vaccination coverage within a cohort of infants in South Africa. We also used the decomposition technique to identify the factors that contribute to the inequalities in these three child health outcomes. We used data from a prospective cohort study of mother-child pairs in three sites in South African. A relative index of household socio-economic status was developed using principal component analysis. This paper uses the concentration index to summarise inequalities in child mortality, HIV transmission and vaccination coverage. Results We observed disparities in the availability of infrastructure between least poor and most poor families, and inequalities in all measured child health outcomes. Overall, 75 (8.5% infants died between birth and 36 weeks. Infant mortality and HIV transmission was higher among the poorest families within the sample. Immunisation coverage was higher among the least poor. The inequalities were mainly due to the area of residence and socio-economic position. Conclusion This study provides evidence that socio-economic inequalities are highly prevalent within the relatively poor black population. Poor socio-economic position exposes infants to ill health. In addition, the use of immunisation services was lower in the poor households. These inequalities need to be explicitly addressed in future programme planning to improve child health for all South Africans.

Doherty Tanya M

2011-04-01

153

Health inequities: lower socio-economic conditions and higher incidences of intestinal parasites  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections affect child health and development and slow down growth, while reducing adults' productivity and work capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidences of intestinal parasitic infections and the socio-economic status of two near primary school children in Manisa, a western city of Turkey. Methods A total of 352 children were involved a questionnaire study from a private school (Ülkem Primary School – ÜPS, 116 children and a community-based school (?ehzadeler Primary School – ?PS, 236 children. Of these, stool samples could be obtained from a total of 294 students; 97 (83.6% from ÜPS, and 197 (83.5% from ?PS. The wet mount preparations of the stool samples were examined; samples were also fixed in polyvinyl alcohol and examined with modified formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 10.0. The chi-squared test was used for the analytic assessment. Results The percentages of the students found to be infected with intestinal parasites, were 78 (39.6% and 13 (13.4% in ?PS and ÜPS, respectively. Totally 91 (31.0% of the students from both schools were found to be infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite and Blastocystis hominis was prevalent independently from the hygienic conditions. The factors which significantly (p Conclusion Intestinal parasitic infections in school children were found to be a public health problem that increased due to lower socio-economic conditions. We conclude that organization of education seminars including the topics such as prevention of the infectious diseases, improving general hygienic conditions, and application of supportive programs for the parents may be suggested not only to reduce intestinal parasitic infections, but also to elevate the socio-cultural levels.

Limoncu M Emin

2007-11-01

154

Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior, and parenting in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than nonaffected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child well-being. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and nonaffected caregiver-child dyads (n=2477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS's association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression, and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty. PMID:23930647

Lachman, Jamie M; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Kuo, Caroline; Casale, Marisa

2014-01-01

155

The Socio-Economic Status of Vocational Education and Training Students in Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

This report examines the relationship between socio-economic status and participation in the vocational education and training (VET) sector. Research indicates that students from low socio-economic status areas are over-represented in the VET sector; it also shows that VET students from these areas complete qualifications at a better-than-average…

Foley, Paul

2007-01-01

156

Socio-economic impacts - an overview based on coal mining projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields

157

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS IN INTERCOLLEGIATE PARTICIPATION OF KABADDI AND FOOTBALL PLAYERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the socio-economic status between Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition. The objective of the study was to find out whether there is any significant difference in the socio-economic status of Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition For the purpose of this study 30 Kabaddi players and 30 Football players were selected as a sample who participated in Intercollegiate Competition of S.G.B .Amravati University, Amravati (M.S. Subjects was selected using Simple Random Sampling Method for this study. The research Scholar selected Socio-economic status Scale for Kabaddi and Football Players. Socio-economic status. Questionnaire developed by National Psychological Corporation, Agra made by Rajiv Lochan Bharadwaj (Socio-economic status Scale To assess the Socio-economic status measure and compare Kabaddi and Football Players who participated in Intercollegiate Competition and find out the status of Socio-economic of Kabaddi and Football players. From the statistical analysis it is quite clear that Kabaddi and Football players does not difference significantly with respect to their Social status but significantly with respect to their Economical status and Socio-economical status.

PUSHPALATA M. DESHMUKH

2013-02-01

158

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS IN INTERCOLLEGIATE PARTICIPATION OF KABADDI AND FOOTBALL PLAYERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the socio-economic status between Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition. The objective of the study was to find out whether there is any significant difference in the socio-economic status of Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition For the purpose of this study 30 Kabaddi players and 30 Football players were selected as a sample who participated in Intercollegiate Competition of S.G.B .Amravati University, Amravati (M.S. Subjects was selected using Simple Random Sampling Method for this study. The research Scholar selected Socio-economic status Scale for Kabaddi and Football Players. Socio-economic status. Questionnaire developed by National Psychological Corporation, Agra made by Rajiv Lochan Bharadwaj (Socio-economic status Scale To assess the Socio-economic status measure and compare Kabaddi and Football Players who participated in Intercollegiate Competition and find out the status of Socio-economic of Kabaddi and Football players. From the statistical analysis it is quite clear that Kabaddi and Football players does not difference significantly with respect to their Social status but significantly with respect to their Economical status and Socio-economical status.

KU. PUSHPALATA M. DESHMUKH

2013-01-01

159

School Socio-Economic Composition and Student Outcomes in Australia: Implications for Educational Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

It is established that the socio-economic status (SES) of individual students is strongly associated with academic achievement but less is known about this relationship when both student and school socio-economic status are considered. To examine these associations at a finer grain, with the intent of informing educational funding policy, we…

Perry, Laura; McConney, Andrew

2010-01-01

160

An Updated Prasad’s Socio Economic Status Classification for 2013  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is imperative to understand the Socio-Economic Status (SES) of the community in order to correlate its impact on health and quality of living standards. Almost all community- based studies focus on socio-economic stratification, which is the key parameter for proper understanding the affordability of the community of health services, amenities and their purchasing capacity.

Shankar Reddy Dudala; Arlappa N

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Women's Socio-Economic Development in India: The Role of Non-Governmental Organizations  

Science.gov (United States)

Jacobs (2000) and McLean (2000) affirm the need to expand boundaries of HRD to include multiple topics in a variety of contexts. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provide possibilities and limitations for the socio-economic development of women in India. The roles of NGOs in serving the socio-economic needs of women provide a broader,…

Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

2004-01-01

162

Institutional Strategies for Capturing Socio-Economic Impact of Academic Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Evaluation of socio-economic impact is an emerging theme for publicly-funded academic research. Within this context, the paper suggests that the concept of institutional research capital be expanded to include the capture and evaluation of socio-economic impact. Furthermore, it argues that understanding the typology of impacts and the tracking…

Scoble, Rosa; Dickson, Keith; Hanney, Steve; Rodgers, G. J.

2010-01-01

163

Physical Activity for Children in Terms of Socio-Economic Dimensions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse the physical activity of children in the first cycle of education in terms of socio-economic dimensions. The sample respondents included 132 children from four basic schools in north-eastern Slovenia. Data were collected through questionnaires and analysed with the statistical program SPSS. We used the t-test, ANOVA and post-hoc analysis to sum up the differences. The statistical significance of the results was assessed at the level of 5% of the risk. Results have shown that boys are more physically active than girls. The analysis showed that children from urban schools are physically active for twenty minutes a day more than children from rural schools. Education of children´s parents is statistically associated with the physical activity of children - the children of parents with the highest levels of education are physically the most active. Physical activity of a child´s father is statistically significant in relation to physical activity of his children. Despite the fact that especially in the last few years, the importance of physical activity for the development and health of children has been emphasised, there are still a lot of children who are insufficiently physically active. Many parents and children give the rapid tempo of life and the lack of time for a better quality of their life as excuses for this situation.

Klavdija Strniša

2014-03-01

164

Role identification, community socio-economic status demands, and stress outcomes in police officers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study applied the 'job demands-resources' and 'conservation of resources' models to police work, with the specific aim to examine the possible interaction between objectively measured work demands (community socio-economic status (SES)) and personal resources (role identification) on stress-related outcomes. A total of 89 officers from 10 small, suburban police departments (five from high SES areas and five from low SES areas) completed surveys that focused on community SES demands and role identification as factors that potentially influence positive and negative psychological outcomes. Results indicated that community (SES) demands and role identification interacted to predict a variety of the outcomes. Role identification as a psychological resource served to reduce the effects of high community SES demands on emotional exhaustion. Implications of these results for future police research are discussed. PMID:19408135

Grawitch, Matthew J; Barber, Larissa K; Kruger, Mark H

2010-01-01

165

NEW SPECIES IN THE ADRIATIC ICHTHYOFAUNA AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES FOR CROATIAN MARINE FISHERIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Any change in marine ecosystems has effect on users of marine bioresources, primarily in marine fisheries. The impact of climate change on the marine fisheries sector is complex and the effects can be both positive and negative in economic terms. Changes include the entire marine environment, the change in the migration patterns of fish in open waters, potential changes in the growing season and the time required for fish farming, as well as a potential increase in the number of invasive species. This has led to an increased number of new fish species caught, but also to the endangerment of fish and other produce. Numerous new species of fish have been recorded in the Adriatic Sea in the past thirty years. This paper presents the actual and potential socio-economic impacts of some new species in the Croatian Adriatic ichthyofauna on Croatian marine fisheries.

Marlena ?ukteraš

2012-12-01

166

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach.

Cunningham Heather

2010-07-01

167

Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children  

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Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.

Inge Huybrechts

2011-03-01

168

Estudo comparativo sobre superdotação com famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida / Comparative study on giftedness with socio-economically disadvantaged families  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e comparar características de famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida relacionadas ao desenvolvimento de comportamentos de superdotação. Participaram da pesquisa 28 famílias residentes no Distrito Federal, sendo 14 com superdotados e 14 sem filhos s [...] uperdotados. Os dados foram coletados por meio do Inventário de Sucesso Parental - PSI, do Teste de Pensamento Criativo - TCP-DT e de questionário sobre características individuais e familiares do superdotado. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizados o teste t, a correlação de Pearson e estatística descritiva. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao nível de comunicação, uso do tempo, práticas de ensino parental e satisfação parental. Os genitores de superdotados e não superdotados avaliaram o nível de comunicação e satisfação parental em relação a comportamento dos filhos de forma mais positiva do que seus filhos. Os resultados também indicaram uma maior participação dos pais de alunos superdotados na vida acadêmica de seus filhos. A maioria dos alunos superdotados, que participou do estudo, era do gênero masculino e ocupava posição especial na família como primogênitos e unigênitos. Além disso, não foi observada relação entre os níveis de criatividade de pais e filhos. Ficou evidenciado, porém, que os alunos superdotados apresentaram desempenho superior no teste de criatividade quando comparados aos alunos não superdotados. Os resultados chamam a atenção para o papel que a família pode desempenhar no estímulo de habilidades, talentos e interesses. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to describe and to compare characteristics of socio-economically disadvantaged families in relation to the development of gifted behavior. Twenty-eight families from the Federal District participated in this study, among whom 14 had gifted children and 14 had non-gifted [...] children. The data was collected through the Parent Success Inventory - PSI, the Test of Creative Thinking - Drawing Production, and a questionnaire about individual and family characteristics of the gifted. Data was analyzed using the t-test, Pearson's correlation and descriptive statistics. Differences were found between the groups with respect to communication, use of time, parental teaching practices and parental satisfaction. Parents of gifted students and non-gifted students evaluated the level of communication and parental satisfaction more positively than their children did. The results also indicated that the parents of gifted students participated more in the academic lives of their children. The majority of gifted students were boys, who occupied a special family position as the eldest or only child. In addition, no relationship was observed between creativity levels of parents and children. Nevertheless, the evidence showed that gifted students obtained higher performance on creativity tests when compared to non-gifted students. The results highlight the role that the family plays in fostering abilities, talents and interests.

Jane Farias, Chagas; Denise de Souza, Fleith.

2009-04-01

169

EU socio-economic research on fusion: Findings and program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1997 the European Commission launched a Socio-Economic Research program to study under which conditions future fusion power plants may become competitive, compatible with the energy supply system and acceptable for the public. It has been shown, among others, that: 1) local communities are ready to support the construction of an experimental fusion facility, if appropriate communication and awareness campaigns are carried out; 2) since the externalities are much lower than for competitors, fusion power plants may become the major producer of base load electricity at the end of the century in Europe, if climate changes have to be mitigated, if the construction of new nuclear fission power plants continues to be constrained and if nuclear fusion power plants become commercially available in 2050. Cooperating with major international organizations, the program for next year aims to demonstrating, through technical economic programming models and global multi-regional energy environmental scenarios, that the potential global benefits of fusion power plants in the second half of the century largely outdo the RD and D costs borne in the first half to make it available. Making the public aware of such benefits through field experiences will be part of the program. (author)

170

Health and socio-economic hazards associated with khat consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

The consumption of the stimulant leaf Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) is widespread in several countries of East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The leaf comes from a small evergreen shrub that can grow to the size of a tree. Young buds and tender leaves are chewed to attain a state of euphoria and stimulation. Khat leaves contain cathinones, an active brain stimulant that is similar in structure and pharmacological activity to amphetamines. Like amphetamines, Khat ingestion in low doses results in decreased appetite, euphoria, increased intellectual efficiency, and hyperalertness.High doses and chronic use of Khat can cause more serious adverse neurological, psychiatric, cardiovascular, dental, gastrointestinal and genitourinary effects. Besides damaging health, Khat has adverse socio-economic consequences effects on many other aspects of life including the loss of thousands of acres of arable land and billions of hours of work.The purpose of this review is to describe briefly the adverse consequences of habitual chewing of Khat on health, and help educate the general public. The study is based on literature review that includes internet search and journals. PMID:23012161

Ageely, Hussein M A

2008-01-01

171

Council tax valuation band predicts breast feeding and socio-economic status in the ALSPAC study population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast-feeding rates in the UK are known to vary by maternal socio-economic status but the latter function is imperfectly defined. We test if CTVB (Council Tax Valuation Band – a categorical assessment of UK property values and amenities governing local tax levies of maternal address predicts, in a large UK regional sample of births, (a breast-feeding (b personal and socio-economic attributes of the mothers. Methods Retrospective study of a subset (n.1390 selected at random of the ALSPAC sample (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large, geographically defined cohort of mothers followed from early pregnancy to 8 weeks post-delivery. Outcome measures are attitudes to breast-feeding prior to delivery, breast-feeding intention and uptake, demographic and socio-economic attributes of the mothers, CTVB of maternal home address at the time of each birth. Logistic regression analysis, categorical tests. Results Study sample: 1360 women divided across the CTVBs – at least 155 in any band or band aggregation. CTVB predicted only one belief or attitude – that bottle-feeding was more convenient for the mother. However only 31% of 'CTVB A infants' are fully breast fed at 4 weeks of life whereas for 'CTVB E+ infants' the rate is 57%. CTVB is also strongly associated with maternal social class, home conditions, parental educational attainment, family income and smoking habit. Conclusion CTVB predicts breast-feeding rates and links them with social circumstances. CTVB could be used as the basis for accurate resource allocation for community paediatric services: UK breast-feeding rates are low and merit targeted promotion.

Herrick David

2006-01-01

172

Promoting Socio-Economic Development: How Mobile Telephony Is an Agent for Creating High-Paying Jobs in Ghana from the Service Providers' Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploration study examined solely, mobile telephony (which is an important aspect of ICTs) and how it promotes the creation of high-paying jobs that positively impact socio-economic development in Ghana from the service providers. perspective. This academic study focusing solely on Ghana mobile telephony service providers is the first of its…

Boateng, Ofori

2011-01-01

173

Socio-Economic Statues and Physical Activity Levels of 3th Grade Students: A Case Study in Istanbul Beykoz Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The children and adolescent period is critical time to acquire positive lifestyle habits. The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI?s and socio-economic level of their school environments. This study also reviewed the articles about physical activity level of children, its relation to their socio-economic status and some other related tasks. Inactive life style sustained together with bad eating habits brings many healthy problems such as obesity and cardiovascular disease Approach: Technological development brings with it improving life style causing sedentary life for the public in developed and also developing Country. Physical activity can be viewed as a form of healthy life because it predicts functioning and adaptation and offers capabilities that enable people to live healthy. In this purposed three different socio-economic levels of six schools were determined accordance with declaration of National Education Department in Beykoz province. Each couple of school reflected one?s Socio-Economic Status (SES. Totally 250 students from three different SES were participated (low-SES, n = 92; middle-SES, n = 73; high-SES, n = 85. Student?s height and weight were measured and their Body Mass Index (BMI was determined. BMIs were classified according to Cole?s BMI tables which were underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Children Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ, which is proposed by World Health Organization, was used for assessment of their Physical Activity Level (PAL. Data from the questionnaires was collected in a suitable relational database and analyzed with SPSS statistical package. Logit log linear analysis was applied to understand the trend of qualitative variables (SES, BMIs and PALs. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI?s and socio-economic level of their school environments. Results and Conclusion: It was observed that the effects of SES, gender and BMI on PAL were not statistically significant (p>0.05. On the other hand, there were a significant interaction between PAL and SES (p<0.01; PAL, SES and BMI (p<0.05; and also PAL, SES and Gender (p<0.05. The results would be more reliable when the study performed in big population and different provinces of the big cities in further studies.

Pinar Salih

2011-01-01

174

South Asian Diasporic Youth in Denmark: Socio-Economic Strategies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on two empirical studies, this article investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s. Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of  Indian and Pakistani background (n=5). The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalism and identity construction. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, businessrelated investment and direct remittances, 2) awareness of parents’ strategies, although few or no self-employed strategies and 3) collective strategy through an organisation. There are considerable temporal as well as qualitative differences in the strategies as compared to the parental generation.  

Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie

2009-01-01

175

Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social entification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

176

PHASING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROJECTS FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper describes appropriate phases and review points (or ‘gates’ for South African projects aimed at transferring technology for socio-economic development. Data gathering was done through a Delphi survey supplemented by a focus group session. A total of 42 knowledgeable respondents participated. The most significant phases of projects under consideration were confirmed, and relevant activities per phase and criteria for reviewing at the ‘gates’ between phases were identified. A total of 59% of resources should be made available for pre- and post-implementation activities, compared with the 41% of project resources to be made available during implementation. The causes of the failure of technology transfer projects under consideration were also identified. It is concluded that the use of a phased approach would improve the probability of project success.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel beskryf die relevante fases en oorsig punte (of ‘hekke’ vir Suid-Afrikaanse projekte wat gemik is op die oordrag van tegnologie vir sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkeling. Die insameling van data is gedoen deur middel van ’n Delphi opname wat aangevul is met ’n fokusgroep. ’n Totaal van 42 kundige respondente het deelgeneem. Die mees beduidende fases van projekte onder bespreking is bevestig, en relevante aktiwiteite per fase asook kriteria vir oorsigpunte by die ‘hekke’ tussen die fases is geïdentifiseer. ’n Totaal van 59% van die hulpbronne behoort aangewend te word tydens die fases voor en na implementering, in vergeleke met 41% tydens implementering. Die oorsake vir mislukking van projekte onder bespreking is ook geïdentifiseer. Die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat die gebruik van ’n gefaseerde benadering die waarskynlikheid van projek sukses behoort te verhoog.

E. Beukman

2012-01-01

177

SOCIO - ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MIGRANTS IN ALIGARH CITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present research work, an attempt has been made to examine the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of migrants in various types of migration-streams in Aligarh city. The study is based on the primary data collected from the field work by the direct questionnaire to the respondents in city. It can be inferred from the analysis of the study that among the in-migrants, the proportion of migration of Muslims has been distinctly more economic motivated than Hindus and other religious groups while among out-migrants, the ratio of Muslims and Hindus is more or less same in economic migration from the city. The literacy level is highest among the return-migrants and lowest in the inmigrants, particularly in rural migrants. In all types of population the ratio of non-workers among females is much higher than among males. In migration-streams, step-migration due to economic causes is greater than those due to social causes because social migration has been recorded only up to two steps but in economic motivated migration some migrants have moved up to four steps or more. Moreover, economic migration among males is up to four steps or more but among females it is exclusively confined to the second step. The economic motivated migration of both males and females has been over much longer distance than that caused by social factors. The ratio of males is much higher than females in longdistance return-migrants whereas in short-distance migration the trend gets reversed.

Sharafat Ali

2014-06-01

178

School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents : risk factors differ between socio-economic groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups.

Andersen, Anette; Holstein, BjØrn E

2007-01-01

179

Child restraint use in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney during transition to new legislation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child restraints protect a young child against injury in crashes but best practice child restraint use is low in Australia, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. We investigated factors associated with restraint use to inform the development of education and distribution programmes to support new Australian legislation on child passengers among families in low socio-economic areas of metropolitan Sydney. We interviewed a parent or carer of 1160 children aged 2-5 years enrolled at one of 28 early childhood centres in low socio-economic areas of urban Sydney. Appropriate child restraint use was defined as a forward facing child restraint (FFCR) for 2-3 year olds and a FFCR or booster seat for children aged 4 years or more. Predictors of self-reported appropriate use were explored using logistic regression. Analysis was conducted on one child from each family in the target age range (2-5 years): 586 (51%) were male and the mean age was 3.5 (Standard Deviation 0.8) years. There were 432 (45%) families with annual income below $60,000, 248 (22%) spoke a language other than English at home and 360 (33%) had 3 or more children. Fifty-four percent of carers indicated that their 2-3 year old children travelled in a FFCR. Inappropriate use among children in this age group was more likely when the carer was benefits of child restraints. They also had lower household incomes and more concerns about cost of child restraints and booster seats. These findings can inform development of interventions to promote best practice child restraint use, which will reach non-English speaking families in this region. They also confirm the importance of economic and logistic barriers to best practice child restraint use. PMID:22921907

Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q

2013-01-01

180

Analytical Assessment of Financial Ability of Local Budgets to Ensure Socio-Economic Development of Regions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes conceptual grounds of functioning of local budgets, their role, importance and aim in socio-economic development of the state and its regions. The main task of the study is improvement of theoretical and methodological grounds for assessment of financial capability of local budgets as an instrument of socio-economic development of regions and development of practical recommendations on strategic directions of financial provision of regional development. The proposed model of assessment of ability of a local budget to ensure socio-economic development of a region is based on indicators of the budget potential, financial potential of the population and investment potential of the region. The article justifies importance of re-formation of local budgets as a main component of socio-economic development of territories through application of strategic directions of financial provision of local budgets with absolute, average, low and crisis levels of financial capacity.

Ryabushka Lyudmila Borisivna

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

The Systematic Approach Measurements to Socio-Economic Development of the Regions of Ukraine ???????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article considers the measurement of socio-economic status of the regions of Ukraine on the stage of economic growth and the formation of a national system of territorial administration.? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????.

Novikova Marina N.

2012-06-01

182

Goals and priorities of socio-economic reforms with consideration of the current economic situation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article defines goals and priorities of reforms in Ukraine with consideration of the current situation in economy and social sphere. It marks the necessity of changing strategic goals and giving realistic orientation to the process of reformation. The author marks the necessity of development of institutional grounds of state management, activation of internal reserves of development of socio-economic processes, development of science intensive technologies and innovation activity, development of the weighted socio-economic policy, refusal from the paternalistic model and consequent establishment of conditions for activation of possibilities of the population to solve their social problems independently. The article provides a strategic contour of participation of the state in achievement of goals of socio-economic development, which includes a strategic analysis and identification of goals, strategic and tactical levels of goal-setting, strategic control and regulation of socio-economic development.

Dykha Mariya V.

2013-03-01

183

Personality, socio-economic status and inflammation: cross-sectional, population-based study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects.

2013-01-01

184

Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth: a comparative study of the Nordic countries from 1981 to 2000  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (12 years of education, mothers with

Petersen, Christina B; Mortensen, Laust H

2009-01-01

185

A Study on Obesity in Relation to Socio -Economic Status in Men and Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Obesity now a day’s considered an epidemic earlier was considered a disease of western world, and highly affluent society. But now days it is seen more in low socio economic group also. Objective: To investigate obesity in relation to socio economic status inmen & women in Indians. Methods: We reviewed data from a health check up program of workers at Municipal Corporationworking as sweeperswhich was done at SAIMS Medical CollegeIndore and executives coming for routin...

Vinod Porwal, Anand Verma

2013-01-01

186

Socio-economic effects of HIV/AIDS in African countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This desk study was commissioned by NORAD to review recent literature on socio-economic consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa with focus on Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The report gives a general socio-economic overview and identifies some issues of importance for Norway's assistance to the five focus countries. It is hoped that the report will provide useful background material for development assistance officials and other interested parties. Overal...

Isaksen, Jan; Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Spissøy, Arild

2002-01-01

187

Law, dignity & socio-economic rights: the case of asylum seekers in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the interplay of dignity, law and rights as regards the socio-economic rights of asylum seekers. It does so by posing some questions as regards the extent to which this concept of 'reception' is preferable to the issue of socio-economic rights. This paper is not going to discuss the (rather depressing) situation in different EU member states; rather, this paper considers whether systems and processes of international and European human rights law offer heighted ...

Thornton, Liam

2014-01-01

188

Management of multi-dwelling buildings in different socio-economic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis deals with the management of multi-dwelling buildings in different socio-economic systems. The basic objective of management in multi-dwelling buildings, irrespective of socio-economic system, lies in providing operation, maintenance and preservation of essential qualities of multi-dwelling buildings in the manner that it serves its purpose during its lifetime. The main theme of thesis analyses management of multi-dwelling buildings from different perspectives in the countries o...

Polajnar, Matija

2013-01-01

189

Cultural Impediments to Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria: Lessons from the Chinese Economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper attempts to describe how human environment is an important determinant of socio-economic development. Over the past three decades, Nigeria has been confronted with deep-seated socio-economic crisis evident in high level of poverty, inflation, foreign debt overhang, closure of industries, epileptic power supply, budget deficit, absolute lack of good governance at the grass root, environmental degradation and high unemployment. In the early part of the 21st century, there was high...

Adebayo Olufemi Fadeyi; Waziri Babatunde Adisa

2012-01-01

190

To what extent does IQ 'explain' socio-economic variations in function?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to examine the extent to which higher intellectual abilities protect higher socio-economic groups from functional decline and to examine whether the contribution of intellectual abilities is independent of childhood deprivation and low birth weight and other socio-economic and developmental factors in early life. Methods The Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS is a prospective cohort study based upon participants in a registration network of general practices in The Netherlands. Information was available on 1211 men and women, 24 – 81 years old, who were without cognitive impairment at baseline (1993 – 1995, who ever had a paid job, and who participated in the six-year follow-up. Main outcomes were longitudinal decline in important components of quality of life and successful aging, i.e., self-reported physical, affective, and cognitive functioning. Results Persons with a low occupational level at baseline showed more functional decline than persons with a high occupational level. Socio-economic and developmental factors from early life hardly contributed to the adult socio-economic differences in functional decline. Intellectual abilities, however, took into account more than one third of the association between adult socio-economic status and functional decline. The contribution of the intellectual abilities was independent of the early life factors. Conclusion Rather than developmental and socio-economic characteristics of early life, the findings substantiate the importance of intellectual abilities for functional decline and their contribution – as potential, but neglected confounders – to socio-economic differences in functioning, successful aging, and quality of life. The higher intellectual abilities in the higher socio-economic status groups may also underlie the higher prevalences of mastery, self-efficacy and efficient coping styles in these groups.

van Eijk Jacques

2007-07-01

191

The study of infectious intestinal disease in England: socio-economic impact.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To assess the socio-economic impact of infectious intestinal disease (IID) on the health care sector, cases and their families, cases of IID ascertained from a population cohort component and those presenting to general practices were sent a socio-economic questionnaire 3 weeks after the acute episode. The impact of the illness was measured and the resources used were identified and costed. The duration, severity and costs of illness linked to viruses were less than those linked to bacteria. ...

Roberts, J. A.; Cumberland, P.; Sockett, P. N.; Wheeler, J.; Rodrigues, L. C.; Sethi, D.; Roderick, P. J.; Infectious Intestinal Disease Study Executive, I. I. D.

2003-01-01

192

Some Socio-economic Factors affecting Solid Wastes Generation and Disposal in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified...

Kayode, A. M.; Omole, F. K.

2011-01-01

193

Evolutionary quantum game theory in the context of socio-economic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The evolution of socio-economic systems depend on the interdependent decision processes of its underlying system components. The mathematical model to describe the strategic decision of players within a socio-economic game is "game theory". "Quantum game theory" is a mathematical and conceptual amplification of classical game theory. The space of all conceivable decision paths is extended from the purely rational, measurable space in the Hilbertspace of complex numbers - which is the mathemat...

Hanauske, Matthias

2011-01-01

194

Persistent problems of access to appropriate, affordable TB services in rural China: experiences of different socio-economic groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale Tuberculosis (TB control programmes in China have been hailed a success. Concerns remain, however, about whether the programme is reaching all sections of the population, particularly poorer groups within rural communities, and whether there are hidden costs. This study takes a household perspective to investigate receipt of appropriate care and affordability of services for different socio-economic groups with TB symptoms in rural China. Methods Secondary analysis of Chinese National Household Health Survey for 2003: 40,000 rural households containing 143,991 individuals, 2,308 identified as TB suspects. Outcomes: use of services and expenditure of TB suspects, by gender and socio-economic position, indicated by household income, education, material assets, and insurance status. Results 37% of TB suspects did not seek any professional care, with low-income groups less likely to seek care than more affluent counterparts. Of those seeking care, only 35% received any of the recommended diagnostic tests. Of the 182 patients with a confirmed TB diagnosis, 104 (57% received treatment at the recommended level, less likely if lacking health insurance or material assets. The burden of payment for services amounted to 45% of annual household income for the low-income group, 16% for the high-income group. Conclusion Access to appropriate, affordable TB services is still problematic in some rural areas of China, and receipt of care and affordability declines with declining socio-economic position. These findings highlight the current shortcomings of the national TB control programme in China and the formidable challenge it faces if it is to reach all sections of the population, including the poor with the highest burden of disease.

Whitehead Margaret

2007-02-01

195

Coupling socio-economic factors and eco-hydrological processes using a cascade-modeling approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers. The simplified cascade models provided insights for an improved understanding of the socio-ecohydrological system. Results show that the upstream population has transformed LULC such that runoff during the period 1986-2010 was 32% higher than during the period 1961-1985. Cut-flower export volumes and downstream population growth explain 71% of the water abstracted from Lake Naivasha. The influence of upstream population on LULC and upstream hydrological processes explained 59% and 30% of the variance in lake storage volumes and sediment yield respectively. The downstream LULC changes had significant impact on large wild herbivore mammal species on the fringe zone of the lake. This study shows that, in cases where observed socio-economic developments are substantial, the use of a cascade-modeling approach, that couple socio-economic factors to eco-hydrological processes, can greatly improve our understanding of the eco-hydrological processes of a catchment.

Odongo, V. O.; Mulatu, D. W.; Muthoni, F. K.; van Oel, P. R.; Meins, F. M.; van der Tol, C.; Skidmore, A. K.; Groen, T. A.; Becht, R.; Onyando, J. O.; van der Veen, A.

2014-10-01

196

Effective Parenting: Positive Support for Families. Position Statement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Raising self-disciplined children is one challenge among many facing parents in American society today. Parents have little or no training in effective parenting, and they are often removed from extended families that have in the past been available to provide support and relief from the stress of child rearing. Discipline is often viewed as…

National Association of School Psychologists, Bethesda, MD.

197

Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ? 94 cm (men or ? 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are positively associated with overweight, while educational level and health related sports are negatively related to overweight in both genders. In men, alcohol consumption and smoking in the past are also among the lifestyle factors associated with overweight. This study also indicates that BMI and WC do not have the same discriminative function regarding different lifestyle factors.

Duvigneaud Nathalie

2007-02-01

198

Prevalence of Violence against Children in Families in Tripura and Its Relationship with Socio-economic Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study after obtaining their informed consent from eight randomly selected English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala, Tripura (India. Data were collected by using a specially designed ‘Semi-structured Questionnaire’. Results: Findings revealed that about 20.9% (67/320, 21.9% (70/230 and 18.1% (58/230 of the children experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence respectively. Male children were more likely to be victims of psychological and physical violence while female children experienced more sexual violence (p=sign. Further analysis of data revealed some relationship between violence against children and nuclear family (p=sign, uncongenial and/or disturbed family environment (p=sign and dominating, short-tempered and/or aggressive parent personality (p=sign, irrespective of the nature of the violence. Physical violence was found to be more prevalent in high income families (p=sign while children from the lower income group of families experienced more psychological violence (p=sign. Sexual violence was found to be equally prevalent in all socio-economic groups. The study also clearly indicated that academic performance of violence-experienced children, irrespective of nature of violence and socio-economic groups was poor compared to academic performance of non-violence-experienced children (p=sign. Conclusions: About one-fifth of the children under study did experience violence in Tripura. Findings speak in favor of an intervention program for creating awareness among parents and teachers about the issue of violence against children, targeted at parents when they meet for periodic parent-teachers meetings in the educational institutions.

Subhasis Modak

2010-01-01

199

Socio- economic impact study of the electrification by the photovoltaic solar system in the AIJ/RPTES project area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report is a summary of the results of the study relating to the socio-economical impact of the electrification by photovoltaic solar system in the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES. The localities concerned with the study are the provinces of BALE and the MOUHOUN. The data analyzes relating to the electrification by solar system of the zones of the project AIJ/RPTES, revealed that solar electrical energy contributed to a significant degree to the socio-economic development, especially at the level of the structures having profited from the solar equipment. The principal conclusions drawn from these analyzes attested that: the solar system corresponds as well as possible for rural environment as well on the technological level as on the capacity plan of maintenance. The following reasons come to corroborate this fact: the weakness of the costs of management of the photovoltaic modules; the photovoltaic technic, in spite of a low incidental maximum power (1 kw/ m2), satisfied the priority needs for the rural populations (lighting, access to information and education, conservation of the vaccines in the CSPS, etc). - be photovoltaic installations cause: an average financial profit by CSPS of 180 487.5 FCFA/an, and a financial economy in the parents of the new-born babies estimated at 36,600 FCFA/an in each CSPS; an average financial economy by household of 49,452 FCFA/an

200

IPCC workshop on socio-economic scenarios. Workshop report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the IPCC Workshop on Socio-Economic Scenarios (WoSES) was to facilitate the development of socioeconomic narratives and pathways by the integrated assessment modelling, impacts, and adaptation communities. Describing these pathways and narratives is a core step to analyzing the interdependent issues of adaptation and mitigation in an integrated manner. The Workshop participants agreed that structured and consistent assessments of possible future impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation, and mitigation would benefit from using shared qualitative narrative and quantitative descriptions of potential socioeconomic and ecosystem reference conditions that underlie challenges to mitigation and adaptation. These descriptions should be flexible enough to provide a framework for comparison within which regional or local studies of adaptation and vulnerability could build their own narratives. The defining socioeconomic conditions of these scenarios are designated Shared Socioeconomic reference Pathways (SSPs). The SSPs define the state of human and natural societies at a macro scale and have two elements: a narrative storyline and a set of quantified measures that define the high-level state of society as it evolves over the 21st century under the assumption of no significant climate change. This assumption defines the SSPs as a baseline independent of climate change projections. The set of SSPs was chosen to characterize the range of uncertainty in mitigation efforts required to achieve particular radiative forcing pathways, in adaptation efforts that could be undertaken to prepare for and respond to the climate change associated with those pathways, and in residual impacts. This will allow assessment of scenarios along two axes: socioeconomic challenges to mitigation, and socioeconomic challenges to adaptation. This conceptualization of SSPs allows them to be combined with different degrees of anthropogenic interference with the climate system (measured in terms of radiative forcing as e.g. described in the RCPs). Each combination of an SSP and a radiative forcing level (represented in a matrix, hence matrix approach) defines a family of macro-scale scenarios. A variety of adaptation and mitigation policies are compatible with each family of macro-scale scenarios (i.e. matrix cells). Shared climate Policy Assumptions (SPAs) define a third axis that includes information on mitigation and adaptation policies, e.g. global and sectoral coverage of greenhouse gas reduction regimes, and the aggressiveness of adaptation in different world regions. This approach facilitates investigation and comparison of different policies, something that was challenging under previous scenario frameworks. For any combination of SSP, RCP, and SPA, there will be a number of possible climate change projections that are associated with a different model of the physical climate system, adding another dimension to each cell. The resultant scenarios can be used for individual research projects and for integrated assessments of mitigation, adaptation, and residual climate impacts. (LN)

Edenhofer, O.; Pichs-Madruga, R.; Sokona, Y. (and others)

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Physical-Socio-Economic Modeling of Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the global nature of climate change, any assessment of the effects of plans, policies, and response to climate change demands a model that encompasses the entire Earth System, including socio- economic factors. Physics-based climate models of the factors that drive global temperatures, rainfall patterns, and sea level are necessary but not sufficient to guide decision making. Actions taken by farmers, industrialists, environmentalists, politicians, and other policy makers may result in large changes to economic factors, international relations, food production, disease vectors, and beyond. These consequences will not be felt uniformly around the globe or even across a given region. Policy models must comprehend all of these considerations. Combining physics-based models of the Earth's climate and biosphere with societal models of population dynamics, economics, and politics is a grand challenge with high stakes. We propose to leverage our recent advances in modeling and simulation of military stability and reconstruction operations to models that address all these areas of concern. Following over twenty years' experience of successful combat simulation, JPL has started developing Minerva, which will add demographic, economic, political, and media/information models to capabilities that already exist. With these new models, for which we have design concepts, it will be possible to address a very wide range of potential national and international problems that were previously inaccessible. Our climate change model builds on Minerva and expands the geographical horizon from playboxes containing regions and neighborhoods to the entire globe. This system consists of a collection of interacting simulation models that specialize in different aspects of the global situation. They will each contribute to and draw from a pool of shared data. The basic models are: the physical model; the demographic model; the political model; the economic model; and the media/information operations model. Each of these models focuses on part of the overall picture while; each contributes information about its area of expertise to a common pool and draws from that pool and the feedbacks from the other models as needed. Existing high-quality physical models are based on analysis of the dynamic interactions of atmospheric, land, and ocean processes. The demographic model tracks the civilian demographics needed by the other models. The populations of neighborhood group age-gender cohorts are affected by births, deaths, aging, and migration. This model provides labor supply and product demand curves to the economic model. The political model focuses on political actors and describes how they use their clout to seek their goals. Clout is derived from civilian support, the formal and informal alliances that actors make with each other, military strength, wealth, and control of information. It considers how they are constrained by their cultural heritage. It deals with shifting alliances. The economic model determines local and international prices and production quantities for a small number of products, including imports and exports and black markets; wages, jobs, and unemployment for a small number of labor categories; capital, growth, and inflation; resource usage and pollution. The media/information operations model addresses the effects of the control and content of inter- group and intra-group communications-and the side effects of these on other groups. This model will consist of rules (probably a large number of them) detailing the effects of media/information operations of various kinds on civilian parameters used in the other models, such as political goals, concern saliencies, and shapes of supply and demand curves.

Chamberlain, R. G.; Vatan, F.

2008-12-01

202

Childhood obesity and overweight prevalence trends in England: evidence for growing socio-economic disparities  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Previous data indicate a rapidly increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight among English children and an emerging socioeconomic gradient in prevalence. The main aim of this study was to update prevalence trends among school-age children and assess the changing socioeconomic gradient. Design A series of nationally representative household-based health surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in England. Subjects 15,271 white children (7880 boys) aged 5 to 10 years with measured height and weight. Measurements Height and weight were directly measured by trained fieldworkers. Overweight (including obesity) and obesity prevalence were calculated using the international body mass index cut-offs. Socioeconomic position (SEP) score was a composite score based on income and social class. Multiple linear regression assessed the prevalence odds with time point (1997/8, 2000/1, 2002/3, 2004/5, 2006/7) as the main exposure. Linear interaction terms of time by SEP were also tested for. Results There are signs that the overweight and obesity trend has levelled off from 2002/3 to 2006/7. The odds ratio (OR) for overweight in 2006/7 compared to 2002/3 was 0.99 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.11) and for obesity OR = 1.06 (0.86 to 1.29). The socioeconomic gradient has increased in recent years, particularly 2006/7. Compared to 1997/8, the 2006/7 age and sex-adjusted OR for overweight was 1.88 (1.52 to 2.33) in low SEP, 1.25 (1.04 to 1.50) in middle SEP, and 1.13 (0.86 to 1.48) in high SEP children. Conclusion Childhood obesity and overweight prevalence among school-age children in England has stabilised in recent years, but children from lower socio-economic strata have not benefited from this trend. There is an urgent need to reduce socio-economic disparities in childhood overweight and obesity. PMID:19884892

Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Wardle, Jane; Cole, Tim J

2013-01-01

203

Spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to health statistics, malaria accounts for about 30% and 15% of hospital admissions and deaths, respectively. The risk of P. falciparum infection varies across the country. This study describes the spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of P. falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania. METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 villages located in highland, lowland and urban areas of Korogwe district. Four cross-sectional malaria surveys involving individuals aged 0-19 years were conducted during short (Nov-Dec) and long (May-Jun) rainy seasons from November 2005 to June 2007. Household socio-economic status (SES) data were collected between Jan-April 2006 and household's geographical positions were collected using hand-held geographical positioning system (GPS) unit. The effects of risk factors were determined using generalized estimating equation and spatial risk of P. falciparum infection was modelled using a kernel (non-parametric) method. RESULTS: There was a significant spatial variation of P. falciparum infection, and urban areas were at lower risk. Adjusting for covariates, high risk of P. falciparum infection was identified in rural areas of lowland and highland. Bed net coverage levels were independently associated with reduced risk of P. falciparum by 19.1% (95%CI: 8.9-28.2, p

Mmbando, Bruno P; Kamugisha, Mathias L

2011-01-01

204

Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

... These five questions, developed by the Child and Family Center at the University of Oregon, highlight parenting skills that are important in preventing the initiation and progression of drug use among youth. For ...

205

Perinatal complications and socio-economic differences in cerebral palsy in Sweden – a national cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a controversy regarding the existence of a socio-economic gradient for cerebral palsy. Perinatal emergencies and preterm birth increase the risk for the offspring to develop cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of socio-economic indicators with cerebral palsy (CP and the role of perinatal health as mediator of this association. Methods Register study of a national cohort of 805,543 children born 1987–93, including 1,437 children with cerebral palsy that were identified in hospital discharge data from national registers. Socio-economic indicators of the household were taken from the Census of 1985. Logistic regression and chi-square analyses of linearity were used to test hypotheses. Results There was a linear association between the incidence of CP (excluding cases caused by registered injuries or malformations as well as of major perinatal indicators and the socio-economic status (SES of the household of the mother (p Conclusion This study suggests that there is a continuous socio-economic gradient for CP in Sweden. Further studies in more complete populations of children with cerebral palsy are needed to confirm this. Perinatal complications seem to mediate some of this gradient.

Hjern Anders

2008-10-01

206

Methodological Foundations of the Study of the Socio-economic Value of Tourism ???????????????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????  

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Full Text Available The goal of the article is in scientific justification of the methodological foundations of the study of the socio-economic value of tourism. Using results of the theoretical analysis, the article identifies essence of the socio-economic value of tourism as a type of economic activity. It establishes that the aggregated character of carrying out the tourist activity has impact on the socio-economic value of tourism, which is generated in different links of the production chain of the tourist activity. In the result of the study the article justifies that the tourist added value is a collective indicator, which reflects influence of tourism upon economic and social spheres and identifies its socio-economic value. The article generalises and determines the methodical essence of approaches to calculation of the tourist added value. The prospect of further studies in this direction is development of satellite accounts of tourism for determination of inter-branch connections, which, while influencing development of the tourist infrastructure and accompanying types of activity, identify the socio-economic value of tourism for the national economy.???? ?????? ??????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????? ???????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????. ?? ??????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ????????????? ????????????. ???????????, ??? ?????????????? ???????? ????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????, ??????? ???????????? ? ????????? ??????? ???????????????? ???? ????????????? ????????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ??????????, ??? ????????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ?????????????? ???????????, ??????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??? ?????????-????????????? ????????. ???????? ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ??????? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????. ????????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ? ?????? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????????? ????????????? ??????, ???????, ????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ?????????????? ? ????????????? ????? ????????????, ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ??????? ??? ???????????? ?????????.

Boyko Margarita G.

2013-07-01

207

Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing  

Science.gov (United States)

In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development.

Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

2014-06-01

208

Land Use Change and Its Determinant Factors in Northern Laos: Spatial and Socio-economic Analysis  

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Full Text Available Changes in land use areoften associated with policy implementation and socio-economic factors. The objective of this study was to interpret the patterns of land use and changes in land cover with a watershed area, especially focusing on the detection of change of agricultural land. The socio-economic factors contributing to land change was also analyzed. This study adopted both spatial and socio-economic analysis with remote sensing and logistic regression model. Land use maps of the study area for the years 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010 were interpreted from Landsat 5 TM and prepared with eight classes of land use/land cover types. This study revealed that the land use/land cover in the study area had dynamically changed with socio-economic factors in each period. Particularly, 70% of forest covers had significantly decreased in contrast to the increase of other land use types such as secondary forest/mixed or shrubland and agricultural land. The logistic regression model provided results of socio-economic factors that influenced land use changein each period.

Southavilay Boundeth

2012-11-01

209

Parenting Children with Developmental Delays: The Role of Positive Beliefs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parents of children with developmental delays consistently report higher levels of child behavior problems and also parenting stress than parents of typically developing children. This study examined how mothers' positive beliefs influence the relation between children's behavior problems and mothers' parenting stress among families of children who are developmentally delayed (DD: n = 72) or typically developing (TD: n = 95) and assessed at ages 3, 5, and 7 years. Positive beliefs had a main effect on parenting stress at all ages, which was mediated by child behavior problems for mothers in the DD group at every age and across time. In the TD group, mediation was found at age 3 years. Additionally, support was found for a moderation effect of positive beliefs on the relation between child behavior problems and parenting stress, but only in the DD group at age 3. These findings have implications for interventions drawing on Seligman's (1991) work on learned optimism, the positive counterpart of learned helplessness. PMID:20107620

Paczkowski, Emilie; Baker, Bruce L

2008-07-01

210

Enhancing forest carbon sequestration in China: toward an integration of scientific and socio-economic perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article serves as an introduction to this special issue, "China's Forest Carbon Sequestration", representing major results of a project sponsored by the Canadian International Development Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. China occupies a pivotal position globally as a principle emitter of carbon dioxide, as host to some of the world's largest reforestation efforts, and as a key player in international negotiations aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emission. The goals of this project are to develop remote sensing approaches for quantifying forest carbon balance in China in a transparent manner, and information and tools to support land-use decisions for enhanced carbon sequestration (CS) that are science based and economically and socially viable. The project consists of three components: (i) remote sensing and carbon modeling, (ii) forest and soil assessment, and (iii) integrated assessment of the socio-economic implications of CS via forest management. Articles included in this special issue are highlights of the results of each of these components. PMID:17182169

Chen, J M; Thomas, S C; Yin, Y; Maclaren, V; Liu, J; Pan, J; Liu, G; Tian, Q; Zhu, Q; Pan, J-J; Shi, X; Xue, J; Kang, E

2007-11-01

211

Traditional Knowledge and Institutions in Socio-Economic Development of Aboriginal Community  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the perspectives of use of traditional knowledge in national socio-economic development in general and in the development of local communities of aboriginal nations of Siberia in particular. This study aims to analyze the traditional economic activity with the help of the questionnaire of 1500 respondents (from different ethnic groups in different parts of the Siberian region - Khakasia. The results of empirical research have shown that in Khakas communities traditional kinds of activity are extended and they are of great importance for people as earlier. Comparative analysis of labor productivity in animal husbandry and wildlife management allows to draw a conclusion of positive influence of traditional knowledge on these fields of activity. Some clusters of traditional economic institutions of the indigenous people of Southern Siberia have been identified. The results of evolution of traditional institutions and their current state are presented. Even the transformed institutions are accepted by members of national communities as earlier. The research demonstrates the traditional institutions and knowledgemay be the factor of economic increase and social development for local society. Moreover, it is a national heritage and it needs to be managed.

Svetlana Panikaroca

2013-08-01

212

Effect of socio-economic status on the prevalence of dermatophytosis in Madras  

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Full Text Available A total of 462 patients living in varying socio-economic conditions were screened for tinea infection. 372/462 (70.7% were found to be culture positive for dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte. 35% of the infected cases were from the very low income group (group-I, 34.2% from low income group (group-II, 23.3% from middle income group (group-III and 1.8% from moderately rich group (group-IV. Recurrent, chronic and extensive dermatophytosis were found to be most common in group-I (20.3% and group-II (17.8%, whereas localized infections were common in group-IV (66.6% and group-III (65.7%. Recurrence chronicity were more frequent in tinea cruris and tinea corporis. The present study suggests that group-I and group-II may be the likely reservoirs of human ringworm infections in Madras

Ranganathan S

1995-01-01

213

Unanticipated Educational Consequences of a Positive Parent-Child Relationship  

Science.gov (United States)

If today there exists a single transcendent idea about the family-school connection, it is that a positive parent-child relationship improves children's chances of succeeding in school. However, using data from the Texas Higher Education Opportunity Project (N = 5,836), we demonstrate that, although positive parent-child relations are associated…

Turley, Ruth N. Lopez; Desmond, Matthew; Bruch, Sarah K.

2010-01-01

214

Constructing public worlds : Culture and socio-economic context in the development of children's representations of the public sphere  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

: This paper explores how children in different cultures and socio-economic contexts develop representations about the public sphere. It addresses how contexts of representation shape the form and content of children’s thinking while expressing the two-way transactions between the child and their social world. Drawings by children from two age groups (seven- and 10-year-olds) and two socio-economic milieus (affluent and deprived), in four cultures (Germany, Mexico, Brazil and Romania), supported by observations and interviews, were used to investigate children’s representations of their public world and their position within it. Findings show that public spheres characterised by collectivism, poverty and/or marginalisation: a) accelerate decentration bringing the public world and its complexity to the foreground of children’s depictions, and b) show a strong link between self and the public world. In affluent or individualistic public spheres we recognise the classical developmental pathway proposed by Piaget, with a clear increase in the separation between self and society as children grow. Children’s representations are flexible semiotic systems whose form and content interact productively with the context in which they develop. These results reject conceptions of children’s knowledge as a prototype of adult knowledge, suggesting that children’s societal knowledge evolves through adaptive strategies to specific socio-cultural environments.

Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Priego-Hernandez, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

215

Analysis of the energy access improvement and its socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Access to modern energy is one of the most basic requirements for development. In rural areas of developing countries, there are a large number of people who do not have access to LPG and depend on traditional biomass such as wood, crop, and dung for cooking. In addition, energy has numerous and complex links with poverty reduction. Therefore, it is important to estimate the impacts of energy access improvement on socio-economic situation in the rural areas of developing countries quantitatively. This study focuses on socio-economic impacts of cooking demand through changes in stoves adopted by the rural households. We have developed an energy-economic model of rural areas in India to analyze the links between energy, income, and health hazard, applying both opportunity cost for using fuelwood and exposure to Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM). As a result of the analysis, there is a positive relation between the opportunity cost and the average RSPM exposure of women in the rural areas. Following to increase in the opportunity cost, that is, income, the cost of an improved wood stove becomes relatively lower first than that of a traditional wood stove, and then a gas stove attains price competitiveness. It is achieved that the average RSPM exposure is below the WHO and Japanese criteria for Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), 190 and 100 [{mu}g/m{sup 3}], at the opportunity cost of US$9 and 15/GJ, respectively. (author)

Kanagawa, Makoto; Nakata, Toshihiko [Management of Science and Technology Department, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-Yama 6-6-11-815, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

2007-04-20

216

Policies and Socio-economics influencing on Agricultural Production: A Case Study on Maize Production in Bokeo Province, Laos.  

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Full Text Available Since 2005s, agricultural land in northern Laos has become to be dominated by maize mono-cropping. The rapid expansion of this commercial crop has the resulted of policy implementations and demand of maize from the neighboring countries. The purpose of this study was aim to analyze the impact of commercial agricultural policy and socio-economic factors influencing on maize production in Houyxai Distirct, Bokeo Province of Laos. A survey of 98 maize farmers by face to face interviews was conducted in September 2010. Ordinary Least Square regression model was applied in order to explain how these policies and socio-economic factors effect to farmers and contribute to maize production. The results revealed that 94% of the variation in maize production (ton is explained by the selected explanatory variables. Seven variables have a positive significant and one variable has a negative effect on maize production volume. The results also demonstrated that the most important effect to maize production is a “policy push” mainly variables of farmland, farmer organization, support market and credit access and a “market pull” by private sectors with providing input factors namely seeds, land preparation and techniques. Therefore, the government should look at the way of credit providing system that may effect in high production cost, at the same time the expansion of farm size is needed to take into account.

boundeth southavilay

2012-08-01

217

Does the FTO Gene Interact with the Socio?Economic Status on the Obesity Development Among Young European Children? : Results from the IDEFICS Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Various twin studies revealed that the influence of genetic factors on psychological diseases or behavior is more expressed in socio?economically advantaged environments. Other studies predominantly show an inverse relation between socio?economic status (SES) and childhood obesity in western developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the FTO gene interacts with the socio?economic status (SES) on childhood obesity in a subsample of the IDEFICS cohort (N=4406). A structural equation model (SEM) is applied with the latent constructs obesity, dietary habits, physical activity and fitness habits, and parental SES to estimate the main effects of the latter three variables and a FTO polymorphism on obesity. Further, a multiple group SEM is used to explore whether an interaction effect between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 within the FTO gene and SES exists. Overall model fit was inconsistent (RMSEA=0.05; CFI=0.79). Significant main effects are shown for SES (standardized ?s=?0.057), the FTO homozygous risk genotype AA (?s=0.177) and physical activity and fitness habits (?s=?0.113). The explained variance of obesity is about 9%. The multiple group SEM shows that SES and FTO interact in their effect on childhood obesity (??2=7.3, df=2, p=0.03) insofar as children carrying the protective TT genotype are more susceptible to a favorable social environment.

Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Frauke

218

Evaluation of socio-economic effects of R and D results at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. 2. Socio-economic evaluation of the basic research at JAERI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), as a core organization devoted to comprehensive nuclear energy research, has steadily promoted various types of research and development (R and D) studies since its establishment in June 1956. Research activities are aimed at performing (1) R and D for nuclear energy, (2) the utilization and application of radiation-based technologies, and (3) the establishment of basic and fundamental research in the nuclear field. Last year, the socio-economic effects on items (1) and (2) were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. The quantitative evaluation of item (3) from the viewpoint of a socio-economic effect, however, calls for a different concept and methodology than previously used cost-benefit approach. Achievements obtained from the activities conducted over the last 10 years implied that socio-economics in basic research funded by the public could contribute to the (1) increase in useful intellectual stocks, (2) upbringing of highly skilled college graduates, (3) construction of new scientific facilities and creation of methodologies, (4) stimulation and promotion of social interrelations by networking, (5) increase of one's ability to solve scientific problems, and (6) establishment of venture companies. In this study, we focused on item (4) for the analysis because it assumed that the external economic effect has a link with the socio-economic effects accompanying the networking formation. For the criteria of socio-economic effects we assume that the external effect becomes significant in proportion to the width of networking and/or the magnitude of cooperation measured by numbers of co-writing studies between JAERI and the research bodies, namely private and governmental sectors and universities. Taking these criteria into consideration, the subsequent four items are prepared for quantitative study. They are (1) to clarify the basic research fields where JAERI has been established a significant effort to date, (2) to ascertain a significant difference in the emphasized basic research fields (hereinafter abbreviated as EBRF) that exist among JAERI and other major research bodies, (3) to notify the actual width of networking in EBRF and quantity of socio-economic effect, and (4) to reveal the networking predominance from the viewpoint of the socio-economic effect during EBRF overlapping among JAERI and the other research bodies. Because the Department of Materials Science has the largest scale factors compared with the other departments in JAERI, it was selected. The obtained results are: (1) EBRF in the department are represented by the following keywords: ion irradiation, actinides, tandem accelerator, molten salt, EXAFS, neutron irradiation, synchrotron radiation, lanthanide, transmutation, ECR ion source, etc. They are all related to nuclear energy. (2) Between JAERI and 5 other (KEK, Tokyo University, etc.) research organizations, some keywords in EBRF overlap. They include synchrotron radiation, irradiation, electron microscope, neutron, cross section, fabrication and accelerators. Those did not show a significant difference in EBRF. Generally, the two organizations tended to compensate and uplift the national standard level for each other rather than compete. (3) Actinides, neutron irradiation and transmutation are representative keywords from EBRF. Additionally, neutron, nuclear reactions and actinides showed that their networking was well developed and strongly linked between JAERI and the external research bodies. They resulted in producing large socio-economic effects. (4) Actual networking on actinides showed that the volume of papers shared during the past 25 years was 25% by JAERI, 52% by the public (universities and governmental sectors), and 17% by private sectors. The growth rate of networking found by co-papers between JAERI and the public was 3-4% per 25 years and 8% during the last 5 years. Furthermore, authors networking studied here implied that JAERI independently participated in the basic research fields and gradually enlarged the external ef

219

Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland`s social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs.

Locke, J.; Storey, K. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, NF (Canada)

1997-12-31

220

Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008. The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences.

Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Family Size and its Socio-economic Implications on the Inhabitants of Delta State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The size of the family is a matter of great concern not only to the state alone, but also to the welfare and health of the individual, family and the community. This study assessed the basic factors responsible for choice of family size and the socio-economic implications of such choices. The specific objective is to access the relationships that exist between family sizes and socio-economic life of the inhabitants of Delta State of Nigeria. The review indicated that family size depends on: family income, cost of children and wages. It realized that choice of family size is influenced by socio- economic variables in the State. Hence a campaign that will sensitize families on the need to maintain a manageable family size should be taken seriously by appropriate government agencies.

Okogu, J.

2011-12-01

222

Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

2014-05-01

223

Triple P-Positive Parenting Program: A Population Approach to Promoting Competent Parenting.  

Science.gov (United States)

While parenting interventions based on social learning approaches are effective, they have significant limitations in achieving a level of population reach that will do enough to decrease the prevalence of dysfunctional parenting. Evidence is reviewed for the efficacy and effectiveness of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program as a comprehensive,…

Sanders, Matthew R.

2003-01-01

224

CONSTITUTIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: "YOU ARE NOT ALONE"  

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Full Text Available The second oratio was a keynote speech delivered by Torsten Stein, the Director of the Institute of European Studies and holder of the chair for European law and European Public Law at Saarland University, Germany. He delivered his speech during November 2012 at the 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights, which was held by the Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus in collaboration with the Konrad-Adenauer Foundation. He shared some thoughts about the nature, development and implementation of socio-economic rights within an international and European setting.

Torsten Stein

2013-04-01

225

The Different Impacts of Socio-economic Factors on Suicide between Males and Females  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The number of suicides in Japan has substantially increased during its low growth period. The main argument of Durkheim’s (1951) seminal work in the field of sociology is that suicide is under influences of not only individual traits but also of the society one belongs to. ?Recently it was found that the effect of socio-economic variables on suicide rates depends on gender. This paper attempts to examine the difference of socio-economic factors on suicide between males and females. ...

Yamamura, Eiji

2007-01-01

226

The socio-economic aspects involved in compliance to antiretroviral therapy : Princess Marina Hospital, Gaborone  

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This study emanates from the need to understand the socio-economic factors that might have contributed to the patients dropping out of the MASA antiretroviral therapy programme in Botswana. The aim of the study was to explore the socio-economic factors that are involved in compliance to antiretroviral therapy. It is crucial to know what these factors are and the strategies that can be deployed to address them. This will assist in the achievement of the programme goals. The type of research th...

Podisi, Mpho Keletso

2005-01-01

227

Sensitivity analysis of socio-economic values of time for public transport projects  

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The socio-economic time benefits of two light rail projects in Copenhagen are investigated using three different sets of values of time. The first set is the one the Ministry of Transport recommends for use in socio-economic analysis in Denmark; this is used as basis for comparison with the two other sets of values of time. The second set is the expected new recommended values of time that has the same time values for non-business travel. The third set is estimated from traffic modelling para...

Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

2007-01-01

228

Socio Economic Status of Women Vendors in Towns of Kokrajhar District  

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Full Text Available The study aims to examine the personal profile, family profile, migratory status, living, working and economic conditions of the women vendors of the towns of Kokrajhar district. It also aims to access their health condition. To study the socio-economic status of the women vendors, data was collected from the sampled women vendors with the help of a questionnaire. Data collected from the sample was entered in SPSS (V.13 and analysis was done. The finding of the study will help the people especially the policy makers to know the socio-economic condition of the women vendors. It will help in planning for the welfare of such workers.

Roselin Basumatary

2013-04-01

229

Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community  

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Full Text Available The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and their impact on socio economic dimension of farmer’s lives. For data analysis quantitative techniques of multiple regression & regression for moderation were applied by using SPSS 16.

Raja Irfan Sabir

2014-08-01

230

Environmental and Socio-economic Determinants of Malaria Prevalence in Uganda  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to establish the relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. An understanding of the factors that are associated w ith malaria prevalence is critical for the design of policies aimed at reducing malaria prevalence. Regression results using OLS indicate no relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. There is need for further study using disaggregated data, panel data, and adding more control variables to the health production model to identify the factors that are associated with malaria prevalence in Uganda.

Niringiye Aggrey

2010-10-01

231

SOCIO - ECONOMIC PROFILE OF THE SELFHELP GROUP WOMEN IN ANDHRA PRADESH  

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Full Text Available In India, social structure of the people is intimately connected with the economic activities. Economic and social conditions are interrelated. The present study made an attempt to assess the impact of SHG programme on socio-economic conditions of the sample women SHG members in Andhra Pradesh. In order to understand the impact of SHG programme, it is necessary to analyze the social and economic conditions of the SHG women respondents. For the purpose of the study a stratified multi stage random sampling technique is used. The study reveals that SHGs have provided a good environment for the upliftment of the socio-economic conditions of the rural poor women.

Rajani Manikonda

2014-09-01

232

The role of parent depressive symptoms in positive and negative parenting in a preventive intervention.  

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This study examined the role of parent depressive symptoms as a mediator of change in behaviorally observed positive and negative parenting in a preventive intervention program. The purpose of the program was to prevent child problem behaviors in families with a parent who has current or a history of major depressive disorder. One hundred eighty parents and one of their 9- to 15-year-old children served as participants and were randomly assigned to a family group cognitive-behavioral (FGCB) intervention or a written information (WI) comparison condition. At two months after baseline, parents in the FGCB condition had fewer depressive symptoms than those in the WI condition, and these symptoms served as a mediator for changes in negative, but not positive, parenting at 6 months after baseline. The findings indicate that parent depressive symptoms are important to consider in family interventions with a parent who has current or a history of depression. PMID:22612463

Forehand, Rex; Thigpen, Jennifer C; Parent, Justin; Hardcastle, Emily J; Bettis, Alexandra; Compas, Bruce E

2012-08-01

233

Positive Parenting as a Mediator of the Relations between Parental Psychological Distress and Mental Health Problems of Parentally Bereaved Children  

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This study investigated a positive parenting composite of multiple measures of warmth and consistent discipline as a mediator of the relations between surviving parents' psychological distress and parentally bereaved children's mental health problems using both cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal models. The study included 214 bereaved…

Kwok, Oi-man; Haine, Rachel A.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Ayers, Tim S.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

2005-01-01

234

Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES independent of body mass index. Methods Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females. The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary behavior. Differences in PA and sedentary behavior by SES were initially tested using ANOVA. Further analyses used ANCOVA controlling for BMI, as well as leg length in the pedometer cohort. Results In study 1, mean daily steps differed significantly among SES groups with lower SES groups approximating 10,500 steps/day compared to about 12,000 steps/day in the higher SES groups. These differences remained significant (p Conclusions Children from a low SES show a trend of lower PA levels and spend more time in sedentary behavior than high SES children; however, differences in PA were influenced by BMI. The higher BMI in these children might be another factor contributing to increased health risks among low SES children compared to children from with a higher SES.

Heelan Kate

2010-04-01

235

Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China  

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With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

2014-03-01

236

Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender  

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This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

2010-01-01

237

Socio-Economic Predictors of Health Insurance Claims: Evidence from Ghana  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between socio-economic variables and health insurance claims and if other variables mediate between these relationships. In this work, data was collected from the insured of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme with the help of the National Health Insurance database and the patients’ attendance register of the Koforidua Regional Hospital, from 1st January to 31st December 2011. The generalized linear regression (GLR models and the SPSS version 17.0 were used for the analysis. The result shows that socio-economic variables have a statistically significant independent association with health insurance claims, demonstrating in each case that the more socially disadvantaged the greater the health insurance claims. Alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking are mediators of the relationship between each socio-economic measure and health insurance claims. Low income has a significant effect on health insurance claims independent of the other socio-economic variables, but this becomes non-significant after adjusting for alcohol and smoking. It is suggested that the government should consider building more health centers, clinics and cheap-compounds in at least every community, to help reduce the travel time in accessing health care. The ministry of health and the Ghana health service should engage older citizens by encouraging them to use hospitals when they are sick instead of other alternative care providers.

Samuel Antwi

2014-02-01

238

Fiscal Adjustment Socio-Economic Development of Country During Post Crisis Recovery ????????? ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????  

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The article considers the approaches to defining the essence of the budget adjustment, highlighted features of the mechanism of fiscal adjustment socio-economic development of country during post-crisis recovery and identified possible implementation of measures to improve the effectiveness of budget regulation in Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????, ???????? ???...

Pasechnyy Nikolay D.

2012-01-01

239

Fiscal Adjustment Socio-Economic Development of Country During Post Crisis Recovery ????????? ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????  

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Full Text Available The article considers the approaches to defining the essence of the budget adjustment, highlighted features of the mechanism of fiscal adjustment socio-economic development of country during post-crisis recovery and identified possible implementation of measures to improve the effectiveness of budget regulation in Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????.

Pasechnyy Nikolay D.

2012-05-01

240

Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status  

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This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People  

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Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

2006-01-01

242

Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Australian Mining Towns: A Comparative Analysis  

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Understanding the links between resource dependence and socio-economic wellbeing has long been a subject of interest amongst social scientists in North America. By contrast, relatively few Australian studies exist on this topic. This is despite the significant role of resource industries in shaping Australia's economic and social geography. Where…

Tonts, Matthew; Plummer, Paul; Lawrie, Misty

2012-01-01

243

The Socio-Economic Scene in the Seventies and its Relevance to Education  

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Comments on the constituents of the socio-economic scene in India: removal of poverty, economic self-reliance, democratic political order, balanced regional development and spread of the institutions, values and attitudes of a free and just society. (Author/PG)

Adiseshiah, Malcolm S.

1973-01-01

244

Cost-Sharing in Higher Education: Differences between Countries and between Distinct Socio-Economic Groups  

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The paper studies the relation between different national cost-sharing models and how students from different socio-economic backgrounds finance their higher education in six different European countries: the Czech Republic, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain. The findings reveal considerable differences both between the…

Schwarzenberger, Astrid; Opheim, Vibeke

2009-01-01

245

QUAID-I-AZAM MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH ASIA  

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Full Text Available Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founding father of Pakistan led the freedom movement for the socio-economic development of the Muslims in South Asia. Although Jinnah and his socio-economic thought was the product of his time and it was in continuity with emancipatory thinking within Muslim political and scholarly circles which events after 1857 imposed upon them; yet his vision, commitment and perseverance make him one of the few statesmen world ever produced. The development of Jinnah’s socio-economic vision paralles his studies, visits and stays in England where he came across liberal and welfare ideas. Throughout his career he advocated nondiscriminatory socio-economic development of Indian masses, particularly the Muslims. From the text of Waqf-e-Alal-Aulad bill (1913 to the Muslim League’s resolution (1937 for an economic, social and cultural program; to establishing Federation of Muslim Chamber of Commerce and appointment of Economic Planning Committee (1943 dealing with diverse areas of social and economic welfare of masses and to his speech of August 11, 1947 where minorities’ rights and their equal inclusion in the development process is stressed, Jinnah stands prominent as a leader struggling to establishing a modern Muslim welfare state.

Munir Ahmed

2013-10-01

246

KUPPUSWAMY’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS SCALE – A REVISION OF ECONOMIC PARAMETER FOR 2012  

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All community based studies focus on socio-economic stratification as this is the key to understanding affordability of health services, amenities and purchasability. When it is taken as a summation of education, occupation and income it reflects the value system expected for that level of education and occupation. Income is parallel to standard of living.

Ravi Kumar, Dr B. P.; Dr.Shankar Reddy Dudala; Rao, Dr A. R.

2013-01-01

247

KUPPUSWAMY’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS SCALE – A REVISION OF ECONOMIC PARAMETER FOR 2012  

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Full Text Available All community based studies focus on socio-economic stratification as this is the key to understanding affordability of health services, amenities and purchasability. When it is taken as a summation of education, occupation and income it reflects the value system expected for that level of education and occupation. Income is parallel to standard of living.

Dr.B.P.Ravi Kumar

2013-04-01

248

?????????? ?????????-????????????? ???? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??? ??? ???????????/REALIZATION OF SOCIO-ECONOMICAL RIGHTS OF FOREIGNERS AND STATELESS PERSONS  

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Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ???? ? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??? ??? ??????????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ???????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ? ????????? ????????? ?????????? ???? ????????? ? ?????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ????????????????.In this paper the characteristics of the socio-economic rights and freedoms of foreign nationals and stateless persons in the modern Russian conditions. The study makes a number of doctrinal conclusions about the structure of the mechanism of realization of the rights of non-citizens, and propose changes to the existing legislation.

????? ???????? ????????/Basic Vladimir Petrovich

2013-03-01

249

Socio-economic Condition of Child Worker of Bangladesh in Their Adulthood: An Econometric Analysis  

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Full Text Available This study has mainly focused on the current socio-economic condition of those people who were child labor in their childhood. In this study, economic indicators are income and employment status. On the other hand, level of education, health status and role in case of decision making in the society are studied as social indicators. According to this study, socio-economic condition of child workers in their adulthood is not very satisfactory. In this research work, we have used Linear Probability Model (LPM and Weighted Least Square (WLS regression analysis to make comparison of current socio-economic status between people who were child labor in their childhood and those who were not child worker in past. We have found that person who was not child worker in early stage of his/her life have higher probability to enjoy better socio-economic condition than that of person who worked as child worker in past. In fact, we have identified that a children who is working as a child worker has 0.61 or 61% probability to have low standard of living in his/her future life.

Syed Imran Ali Meerza

2011-01-01

250

Mass Media Campaign Improves Cervical Screening across All Socio-Economic Groups  

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Low socio-economic status (SES) has been associated with lower cervical screening rates. Mass media is one known strategy that can increase cervical screening participation. This study sought to determine whether a mass media campaign conducted in Victoria, Australia, in 2005 was effective in encouraging women across all SES groups to screen. Data…

Anderson, Jenny O.; Mullins, Robyn M.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Spittal, Matthew J.; Wakefield, Melanie

2009-01-01

251

Some Socio-economic Factors affecting Solid Wastes Generation and Disposal in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified. Data for this study were obtained through the administration of questionnaire and review of existing literature. The information obtained from the field was analyzed using frequency and correlation matrix. The finding showed that the composition of waste generated in Ibadan Metropolis was a reflection of variation of socio-economic factors of the people. Also, socio-economic factors such as income, age, education, occupation and building types had greater influence on the choice of method of disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. It was recommended therefore that effective solid waste management can be achieved through the adoption of urban renewal strategy on the chaotic areas, provision of sizable fund by the government and proper education to the people among others.

Kayode, A. M.

2011-04-01

252

Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)  

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A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

2009-01-01

253

Building Lectures and Building Bridges with Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Students  

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This paper is an empirical analysis of the first stage of an ongoing effort to introduce technology to enhance student learning in introductory corporate finance within a multi-campus and multi-mode regional Australian University. The engagement and performance of low socio-economic status (SES) students is of particular interest because…

Phillips, Peter; Loch, Birgit

2011-01-01

254

Attitudes towards the Euro: An Empirical Study Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)  

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This paper investigates changing attitudes towards the euro over time in Germany using longitudinal micro-data from the German Socio Economic Panel Study. We observe that a large part of the German population was worried about the new currency both before and after its introduction. Social psychological theories provide insight into these…

Isengard, Bettina; Schneider, Thorsten

2007-01-01

255

Socio-Economic Background, Senior Secondary Mathematics, and Post-Secondary Pathways  

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The relationship between socio-economic background and completion of senior secondary mathematics study leading to various post-schooling pathways has been an area of keen interest to researchers, school systems and policy makers for some time. This paper briefly considers some aspects of this relationship using recent Victorian data relating to…

Yeoh, Eng; Leigh-Lancaster, David

2010-01-01

256

Efficiency in Public Education - The role of socio-economic variables  

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This study measures the efficiency of public education using an inefficiency effects function that controls the socio-economic and environmental factors simultaneously.  The model developed by Battese and Coelli (1995) is applied to a panel dataset. The study found that although the mean efficiency scores obtained from the m...

Kalyan Chakraborty

2009-01-01

257

The Effect of Socio-Economic Status on Authoritarianism  

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Full Text Available IntroductionScientific review of the authoritarian personality began in 1950 with the pioneering work of Adorno and his colleagues. Following their attempt, extensive studies were carried out in social psychology, political science, and sociology in this field. Despite the extensive amount of research on authoritarianism in Western societies, few have been conducted in developing countries. The dimensions of this phenomenon in Third World countries can be extensive. The importance of the study of Authoritarianism in Iranian society goes to the Constitutional Revolution (August 1906, when this issue has been in Iranian intellectual discourse. But since the origin of authoritarianism has always been searched in political elite, little attention has been paid to the roots of this phenomenon in the context of social and interpersonal interactions between individuals. Studies show that authoritarian attitudes have adverse social consequences for society in addition to their political consequences. Thus, the scientific study of this phenomenon and its social roots seems necessary. Authoritarian personality has European roots. These studies are influenced by Marx and Freud's theories from theoretical perspective and they are rooted in studies carried out on workers in France and Germany from empirical perspective (Roiser & Willing, 1995:77-97. A study conducted in the Institute of Social Research in Frankfurt in the late 1920s included a wide set of cultural, social and political attitudes among white collar and blue collar workers in Weimar Germany. These studies reported a minority who has authoritarian attitudes. In another study carried out by Horkheimer, Fromm and Marcuse in 1936, family roots of authoritarian personality were explored. Material and MethodsAccording to the theory proposed, in this study we intend to test the integrated model; in that based on Lipstadt's theory of authoritarianism in the lower class, we identify the mechanisms that in the socioeconomic class lead to authoritarian character. For this purpose, we move from three paths toward authoritarianism- in the first path which combines Lipstadt and Adorno's theory we expect that the class influences authoritarianism from parental authoritarian control. In the second path, we expect that the class influences authoritarianism from parental authoritarian and self-esteem control. This path combines Lipstadt, Adorno and Cohen's theory. In the third path, we expect that the class influences authoritarianism through feeling of anomie. This path combines Lipstadt, Merton, Ferum and Arendt's theory. The model is depicted in the following schema. Here, we examine each of the paths. Figure 1: Theoretical model of the study The population of this study was students of Shahid Chamran University. Based on Krejcie and Morgan table, a sample of 377 individuals is representative of a population of 20000 individuals. In this study, 420 were selected through systematic random sampling. In that the list of student names was taken from each faculty and then students' names were randomly selected and they were asked to refer to a class and complete the devised questionnaire. 13 incomplete questionnaires were excluded and 407 remained for final analysis. In our sample, 191 were males and 216 females. Respondents' age was 21.84 with a standard deviation of 2.34. Ethnic composition of the sample was as follows: 33 Turks, 51 Arabs, 84 Kord, 103 Lor and 136 were Fars. Authoritarianism Scale items were composed of 9 items derived from well-known scales measuring these variables. In this study, instead of using an objective socioeconomic base approach, the mental approach was applied. In this way, instead of assessing respondent's status based on achieved data with regard to their income and education and ranking them in three levels, the respondent self-assesses his economic status. To measure parental authoritarian control variable, we used 10 items which were derived from Daniel Shek's (2006 scale and have been used in various studies by different researchers

Arash Heydari

2013-01-01

258

Socio-economic health differences in The Netherlands: a review of recent empirical findings.  

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Evidence on variation in the frequency of health problems between socio-economic groups in the Dutch population has accumulated rapidly in recent years. This paper presents a review of these recent data. It is clear now that a lower socio-economic status is associated with a higher frequency of a wide range of health problems. This negative association has consistently been found for the following health indicators: birth weight; adult body height; prevalence of health complaints; prevalence of many chronic conditions; prevalence of disability; incidence of long-term work incapacity; perceived general health; adult mortality. Inconsistent findings were reported for: children's body height; prevalence of some chronic conditions; incidence of sickness absence (short-term work incapacity); perinatal mortality. The magnitude of the differences varies from study to study, and possibly from health problem to health problem. In studies categorizing the study population in 3-6 hierarchically ordered socio-economic groups on the basis of either education or occupational status, the Relative Risks (of the lowest versus the highest socio-economic group) mostly lie between 1 and 2. Exceptions are prevalence of disability and incidence of long-term work incapacity where Relative Risks between 2 and 4 have been found. A direct comparison with data from other countries is problematic, but at first sight the differences as observed in the Netherlands seem to be of the same order of magnitude as those observed in other industrialized countries. Although most Relative Risks imply 'weak associations' from a technical-epidemiological point of view, the Population Attributable Risks are substantial (generally between 0.25 and 0.40), underlining the public health impact of socio-economic health differences. Information on trends in health inequalities over time is limited to children's body height and adult mortality. For children's body height a substantial decrease of inequalities was found between 1964-1966 and 1980. For adult mortality, on the other hand, there is (indirect) evidence of a widening of the mortality gap between the 1950s and the 1980s. The evidence on specific factors which are involved in the 'causal chain' between socio-economic status and health problems is rather limited at the moment. A negative association with socio-economic status has been reported for the following risk factors: smoking; obesity; a number of unfavourable material living conditions; a number of unfavourable physical working conditions; psychosocial stress; lack of social support; less adequate supply/use of health care.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1557663

Mackenbach, J P

1992-02-01

259

How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems

260

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

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Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Growth in Literacy and Numeracy Achievement: Evidence and Explanations of a Summer Slowdown in Low Socio-Economic Schools  

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The phenomenon of summer slide or setback has gained a great deal of attention in the USA. It is understood to account for as much as 80% of the difference in achievement for students between low and high socio-economic families over their elementary schooling. In a mixed method longitudinal study of reforms in low socio-economic school…

Vale, Colleen; Weaven, Mary; Davies, Anne; Hooley, Neil; Davidson, Kristy; Loton, Daniel

2013-01-01

262

Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case-control study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. Method A population-based case–control study of young adults (18–34 years) compared cases of suicide (n?=?84) with randomly selected controls (n?=?250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Results Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Conclusion Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for intervention. PMID:24597482

2014-01-01

263

Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region  

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Full Text Available The western North Pacific (WNP is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs. However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr – driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower by 14% (9% in the positive (negative phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980–2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

C. Welker

2013-01-01

264

Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region  

Science.gov (United States)

The western North Pacific (WNP) is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs). However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr - driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower) by 14% (9%) in the positive (negative) phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980-2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

Welker, C.; Faust, E.

2013-01-01

265

Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%, oral tobacco(13.5%, hukka (12% and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%. Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01 and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001. Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens. Conclusion There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed.

Laporte Ronald E

2008-02-01

266

SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY  

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Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

Monica Dumitrascu

2005-10-01

267

Assessment of health related physical fitness, socio economic status and psychomotor ability of tribal school going children of west Bengal  

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Full Text Available The present study was aimed at assessment of health related physical fitness, socio economic status and psychomotor ability of tribal school going children of West Ben- gal. Five hundred subjects age ranging from 14 to 16 years from four different districts of West Bengal namely North 24 parganas, South 24 parganas, Cooch Behar and Burdwan were selected for the study. The study was restricted to the Health Related Physical Fitness variables, Socio Economic Status Questionnaire by Rajeev Lochan Bharadwaj and Reaction ability to measure Socio economic status and Psychomotor ability of tribal school going children respectively. Associations of Health related Physical fitness with Socio Economic Status and psychomotor ability of Tribal School Children of West Bengal was examined by using correlation technique. Further to assess the Health related physical fitness, Socio Economic Status and psychomotor ability of Tribal School Children of West Bengal, percentile scale was used.

GOPAL CHANDRA SAHA

2014-04-01

268

A STUDY OF AGGRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENTS OF JAMMU DISTRICT IN RELATION TO SEX, SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS AND TYPES OF INSTITUTION  

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Full Text Available The most difficult and challenging area in the sphere of aggression among individuals is that of aggression among adolescents. The research was designed as an initial attempt to assess aggression of adolescent and its relation to sex, socioeconomic and socioeconomic status. A sample of 250 students of 10th class was randomly taken from government and private schools of Jammu district of J&K State. The students ranged in age from 15 to 17 years. All subjects completed Aggression inventory. Socio economic scale was used to assess the socioeconomic status of the subjects. Three way ANOVA was employed to assess the correlation between aggression, sex and socioeconomic status. Results provide evidence that aggression has a positive correlation with Sex, type of institution and socioeconomic status. Further findings indicate that low socioeconomic students are significantly more aggressive than high socioeconomic status adolescents. Finally results show that boys are more aggressive in comparison to girls.

MOHAN GALGOTRA

2013-02-01

269

Socio-economic Determinants of the Adoption of Yam Minisett Technology in the Middle Belt Region of Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The paper assessed the socio-economic determinants of adoption of yam minisett technology in the middle belt region of Nigeria; where 120 farmers were sampled through multi-stage random technique from six villages in two Local Government Areas of Kogi and Benue States. Data collected by structured interview were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages and means; and probit regression model. Results showed that 98.33 percent of farmers were aware of the technology while only 9.32 percent adopted the technology. The probit analysis indicated that age of the farmers, farm size, years of farming experience, amount of credit available and frequency of extension contacts were positively related to adoption and would probably increase adoption of the improved yam minisett technology. There is need to increase availability of credit, fertilizers and yam minisett dust, as well as improve extension services in the study area.

Josephine Bosede Ayoola

2012-04-01

270

A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age-adjusted odds ratio in male subjects was 1.9 (0.9, 3.9) but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, a lower socio-economic class, categorised either by occupational or educational level, was an additional risk factor for diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese who had known risk factors for glucose intolerance. These subjects should have increased priority for health education and regular diabetes screening. Our findings further emphasise the complex relationships between societal affluence, personal income and educational level

271

Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child's undesirable behavior. The parents' sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347

Massey, Sean G; Merriwether, Ann M; Garcia, Justin R

2013-01-01

272

Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people. PMID:1508934

Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A

1992-05-01

273

High alcohol consumption in middle-aged adults is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socio-economic group. Results from the GAZEL cohort study.  

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Our results suggest that high alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive performance only in the low socio-economic group, due possibly to greater cognitive reserve in the higher socio-economic groups.

Sabia, Se?verine; Gue?guen, Alice; Berr, Claudine; Berkman, Lisa; Ankri, Joe?l; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Singh-manoux, Archana

2011-01-01

274

Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study  

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Full Text Available Background: The impact of socio-economic position and integration level on the observed ethnic differences in dietary habits has received little attention. Objectives: To identify and describe dietary patterns in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, to explore ethnic differences in odds ratio (OR for belonging to a dietary pattern, when adjusted for socio-economic status and integration level and to examine whether the dietary patterns were reflected in levels of biomarkers related to obesity and hyperglycaemia. Design: This cross-sectional study was a part of the STORK Groruddalen study. In total, 757 pregnant women, of whom 59% were of a non-Western origin, completed a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 28±2. Dietary patterns were extracted through cluster analysis using Ward's method. Results: Four robust clusters were identified where cluster 4 was considered the healthier dietary pattern and cluster 1 the least healthy. All non-European women as compared to Europeans had higher OR for belonging to the unhealthier dietary patterns 1–3 vs. cluster 4. Women from the Middle East and Africa had the highest OR, 21.5 (95% CI 10.6–43.7, of falling into cluster 1 vs. 4 as compared to Europeans. The ORs decreased substantially after adjusting for socio-economic score and integration score. A non-European ethnic origin, low socio-economic and integration scores, conduced higher OR for belonging to clusters 1, 2, and 3 as compared to cluster 4. Significant differences in fasting and 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol were observed across the dietary patterns. After adjusting for ethnicity, differences in fasting insulin (p=0.015 and HOMA-IR (p=0.040 across clusters remained significant, despite low power. Conclusion: The results indicate that socio-economic and integration level may explain a large proportion of the ethnic differences in dietary patterns.

Christine Sommer

2013-07-01

275

Socio-Economic Inequality, Human Trafficking, and the Global Slave Trade  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss human trafficking within the broader framework of socio-economic inequality. The presence of socio-economic inequality in the world creates a system where those in power very easily dominate and take advantage of those people without power. One of the most serious contemporary effects of inequalities between and within nations is the phenomenon of global sex trade or human trafficking for the purposes of sex. Deriving from unequal power relations, human trafficking is a serious global crime that involves the exploitation of many, but mostly females and children. This paper provides an extensive discussion of inequality and its links with human trafficking as contemporary slavery. In conclusion, the paper provides a list of selected intra-national and multi-national service organizations that are adopting strategies for combating trafficking through the reduction of social and economic inequality. Implications for social welfare advocates and international collaborative efforts are highlighted.

John R. Barner

2014-04-01

276

Agent-Based and Macroscopic Modeling of the Complex Socio-Economic Systems  

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Full Text Available Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeling of complex socio-economic systems.Design/methodology/approach – The collective behavior is often modeled using stochastic and ordinary calculus, while the inter-individual interactions are modeled using agent-based models. In order to obtain the ideal model, one should start from these frameworks and build a bridge to reach another. This is a formidable task, if we consider the top-down approach, namely starting from the collective behavior and moving towards inter-individual interactions. The bottom-up approach also fails, if complex inter-individual interaction models are considered, yet in this case we can start with simple models and increase the complexity as needed.Findings – The bottom-up approach, considering simple agent-based herding model as a model for the inter-individual interactions, allows us to derive certain macroscopic models of the complex socio-economic systems from the agent-based perspective. This provides interesting insights into the collective behavior patterns observed in the complex socio-economic systems.Research limitations/implications –The simplicity of the agent-based herding model might be considered to be somewhat limiting. Yet this simplicity implies that the model is highly universal. It reproduces universal features of social behavior and also can be further extended to fit different socio-economic scenarios.Practical implications – Insights provided in this contribution might be used to modify existing policy making tools in order to cope with the social transformations in the contemporary society.Originality/Value – The relationship between the inter-individual and the collective behavior is an interesting topic considered to be coming from rather different fields by many scientists. Yet the topic has received due attention only in the recent years. Consequently, the truly systematic approaches directly bridging between these two concepts are somewhat rare. These approaches also differ among themselves – some of the research groups consider questionnaires to understand the individual incentives of the humans, some suggest varying applications of the known physical models and some have roots in the behavioral economics and utility optimization. Our approach in this sense is unique as we start from a simple agentbased herding model and use the ideas from the statistical physics to obtain its macroscopic treatments for the different socio-economic scenarios. In this contribution we present our previous approaches, namely considering new product diffusion in the market and also a financial market model, and also our most recent results, related to the leadership in the social communities and predator-prey type competition in the socio-economic systems. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the correspondence between the considered simple agent-based herding model and the considered macroscopic models was not previously discussed by the other research groups.Research type: research paper.

Valentas Dani?nas

2013-08-01

277

Socio-economic determinants of helmet-wearing behaviour in Pune city, India.  

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This study was an attempt to investigate the socio-economic determinants of helmet wearing in an urban setting of India. A household survey using multistage cluster random sampling was conducted among 9014 individuals in Pune city from March 2008 to February 2009. Among 2259 individuals who reported driving two-wheeled vehicles, 1509 (66.8%) reported possession of a helmet, and among those who had reported possession of a helmet, only 700 (46.0%) reported regular use of helmets. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that residence, type of family, gender and socio-economic status were significantly associated with possession of helmet, and gender, residence and family type were significantly associated with regular helmet use while possessing one. In conclusion, this study showed that helmet-wearing behaviour is mostly influenced by the neighbourhood environment and norms and family and peer influence on behaviour rather than education and economic status. PMID:24107090

Mirkazemi, Roksana; Kar, Anita

2014-12-01

278

Behavioural, physical and socio-economic factors in household cooling energy consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As global warming continues, the current trend implies that the uptake of air conditioning in the residential sector will go up, thus potentially increasing domestic cooling energy consumption. In this context, this paper investigates the significance of behavioural, physical and socio-economic parameters on cooling energy in order to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. It demonstrates that such factors exert a significant indirect as well as direct influence on energy use, showing that it is particularly important to understand indirect relationships. An initial study of direct factors affecting cooling energy reveals that occupant behaviour is the most significant issue (related to choices about how often and where air conditioning is used). This is broadly confirmed by path analysis, although climate is seen to be the single most significant parameter, followed by behavioural issues, key physical parameters (e.g. air conditioning type), and finally socio-economic aspects (e.g. household income).

279

The socio-economic impact assessment for nuclear fuel waste disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste will undergo public scrutiny as it is examined under the Canadian Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP). This process presents a number of challenges in preparing the socio-economic impact assessment (SEIA) component of an Environment Impact Statement. These challenges relate to defining the scope of the SEIA, adapting site-specific methodologies to an assessment of a concept, and addressing evolving public concerns and issues. This paper reports that in meeting these challenges a generic process-oriented SEIA has been developed that emphasizes the importance of defining policies and processes to manage socio-economic impacts. In addition, public involvement and attitude research has facilitated the assessment of the concept at the societal level

280

Multi Commercial Economy: The Development of Socio-Economic Network Complexity of Batik Industry in Surakarta  

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Full Text Available This study analyzes that why the socio economic networking development in batik business become more complex along with the contact of commercially economic culture for fulfillment of the consumption and the commercially economic culture for the production improvement. The method of this study is naturalistic inquiry, to describe the interrelation of culture and economy which is stimultaneously forming a dual commercially economic and the development of socio economic networking complexity of batik business. The two of commercially economic model of  batik business are separatedly grow, but there is a connection among them. This interconnection is complementary or interfilling in the production relation and trading relation. The vertical interconnection is among the big and small industries, while interspace connection is among the batik industrial center in village and in urban. Those complexity of social economic networking trend to use the coorporation relation pattern of mutualism and domination which is cost saving.

Mahendra Wijaya

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Socio-Economic Impact of Social Forestry on Farmers in District Faisalabad  

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Full Text Available Present study deals with the survey which was conducted to study the Socio-economic impact of social forestry on farmers in District Faisalabad. Forest community of plants and animals dominated by woody vegetation. In Pakistan there is not appropriate forestry system and farmers are not aware of social forestry. The main purpose of the study were to measure : to examine Socio-economic characteristics of farmers affecting planting : to examine the motivating factors behind the adoption of social forestry. To determine the farmer’s awareness about the advantages and disadvantages of social forestry. This study was undertaken in District Faisalabad. A sample of 150 respondents were selected. Date were analyzed by using statistical techniques.

Ume-Laila

2001-01-01

282

Agent-based and macroscopic modeling of the complex socio-economic systems  

CERN Document Server

The current economic crisis has provoked an active response from the interdisciplinary scientific community. As a result many papers suggesting what can be improved in understanding of the complex socio-economics systems were published. Some of the most prominent papers on the topic include (Bouchaud, 2009; Farmer and Foley, 2009; Farmer et al, 2012; Helbing, 2010; Pietronero, 2008). These papers share the idea that agent-based modeling is essential for the better understanding of the complex socio-economic systems and consequently better policy making. Yet in order for an agent-based model to be useful it should also be analytically tractable, possess a macroscopic treatment (Cristelli et al, 2012). In this work we shed a new light on our research group's contributions towards understanding of the correspondence between the inter-individual interactions and collective behavior. We also provide some new insights into the implications of the global and local interactions, the leadership and the predator-prey i...

Kononovicius, Aleksejus

2013-01-01

283

Hydro-socio-economic implications for water management strategies: the case of Roussillon coastal aquifer  

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In many Mediterranean coastal areas, agriculture, drinking water supply, tourism and industry strongly depend on the available groundwater resources. As a result of the significant economic development during the last three decades along the coast, abstractions from coastal aquifers have increased tremendously, frequently leading to overexploitation and saltwater intrusion. Geological, hydrogeological and socio-economical studies as a multidisciplinary approach on a coastal Mediterranean aqui...

Aunay, B.; Duvail, C.; Do?rfliger, N.; Grelot, F.; Le Strat, P.; Montginoul, M.; Rinaudo, J. D.

2006-01-01

284

Socio-economic Status of Livestock farmers of Narasapura Village - A Benchmark Analysis  

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Full Text Available The study was conducted following exploratory research design to ascertain the profile characteristics of livestock farmers. Findings indicated that majority of the farmers had low to medium profile. Hence efforts should be undertaken by the Government, Veterinary Universities and other extension agencies in providing information on livestock farming practices so that they could bring about change in their living and improve the socio-economic status of livestock farmers. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 215-218

V. Chandrashekhar Murthy

2010-10-01

285

A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways – Part 1: Water use  

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Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr?1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr?1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

N. Hanasaki

2013-07-01

286

The health and socio-economic circumstances of British lone mothers over the last two decades  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article examines the trends in the socio-economic circumstances and health of lone mothers compared to couple mothers from 1979 to 1995 in Great Britain using secondary analysis of data from General Household Survey and covering 9,159 lone mothers and 51,922 couple mothers living in private households. The main measures are self perceived general health, limiting long-standing illness, poverty and working status.

Shouls, S; Whitehead, M

1999-01-01

287

Changes in the influence of socio-economic status on obesity among aging Canadian baby boomers.  

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A trend analysis was conducted on the influence of socio-economic (SES) status on obesity levels in Canadian baby boomers over time. Two, large scale national studies conducted 10 years apart were analyzed. Riley’s Social Change Model was used to frame how the influence of SES on obesity will converge over time due to social changes to food production and eating habits coupled with reliance on modern technology. Partial support was found for convergence of SES and obesity associations over ...

Cummings, Linda Martha Dawn

2009-01-01

288

An Overview Of Socio Economic Status Of Padmapuram Village Of Andhra Pradesh  

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Socio economic development of an area is the best reflection of the quality of life of its people. The distribution of social and economic services is crucial not only for promoting economic growth but also for assuring the social justice and improving the quality of life. Growing disparities and social tensions in this area is associated with unequal and unplanned developmental programmes. Padmapuram is a village in Araku valley in Visakhapatanam district of Andhra Pradesh. It has been found...

Arindam Chattopadhyay

2012-01-01

289

Socio-economic analysis : a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

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Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation ...

Brignon, Jean-marc

2011-01-01

290

Applications of small-world networks to some socio-economic systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Small-world networks (SWN) are found to be closer to the real social systems than both regular and random lattices. Then, a model for the evolution of economic systems is generalized to SWN. The Sznajd model for the two-state opinion formation problem is applied to SWN. Then a simple definition of leaders is included. These models explain some socio-economic aspects.

Elgazzar, A. S.

2003-06-01

291

A socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity on the Ghanaian market: implications for breeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the development of tailor-made varieties. Forty-seven cowpea accessions were collected from traders interviewed for morphological characterization to ascertain the degree of diversity. Data was subjected to H...

Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E. S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J. P.; Ruivenkamp, G. T. P.

2011-01-01

292

Time in discrete agent-based models of socio-economic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We formulate the problem of computing time in discrete dynamical agent-based models in the context of socio-economic modeling. For such formulation, we outline a simple solution. This requires minimal extensions of the original untimed model. The proposed solution relies on the notion of agent-specific schedules of action and on two modeling assumptions. These are fulfilled by most models of pratical interest. For models for which stronger assumptions can be made, we discuss alternative formu...

Botta, Nicola; Mandel, Antoine; Ionescu, Cezar

2010-01-01

293

The Dinokeng Big 5 Game Reserve : envisaging a socio-economic development partnership  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Gauteng Province has directed its socio-economic development focus towards pursuing a number of innovative projects that should transform its urban-rural infrastructure significantly. One such project is the envisaged Dinokeng Big 5 Game Reserve in the north-eastern part of the Province. An important founding principle of the project is that a unique mutually beneficial partnership agreement should be negotiated in which local communities (historically disadvantaged), land owners...

Rooyen, Enslin

2005-01-01

294

Informal waste harvesting in Victoria Falls town, Zimbabwe: Socio-economic benefits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waste harvesting, which occurs mostly but not exclusively at open waste dumps in Zimbabwe, constitutes one of the most important survival options for the urban poor. This paper analyses and discusses socio-economic benefits of informal waste harvesters in Victoria Falls town. Victoria Falls town has an estimated population of 31,000 and is presently the fastest growing urban centre in Zimbabwe. An estimated 8000 tonnes of solid wastes are generated in the town every month. Questionnaires were...

Masocha, M.

2006-01-01

295

The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypot...

Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio Juan; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

2014-01-01

296

Socio Economic Changes Among The Tsunami Affected Families In Tamil Nadu – An Empirical Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to assess the socio economic changes among the tsunami affected families in Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu. The participants were adult tsunami affected families (141 male and 47 female; N =188) in Palayar village of Sirkali block in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu. A self prepared interview schedule was used for data collection. The mean age of the respondents was 37.6 years. About half of them had studied up to middle school level. The mean score of the educa...

Arun Prakash, A.; Sethuramalingam, V.

2012-01-01

297

THE IMPLICATIONS OF FEDERALISM AND DECENTRALISATION ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN ETHIOPIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we will show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data.In both cases an overall increa...

Petra Zimmermann-Steinhart; Yakob Bekele

2012-01-01

298

Where artisanal mines and forest meet: socio-economic and environmental impacts in the Congo Basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While mineral exploitation can provide significant income and employment, it may negatively impact the environment, being ultimately detrimental to livelihoods in the long term. The consequences of mining are of concern in high value forest ecosystems such as the Sangha Tri-National (TNS) landscape covering Cameroon, the Central African Republic and Republic of the Congo. This paper captures the socio-economic and environmental impacts of small-scale mining in the TNS. Using structured questi...

Ingram, V.; Tieguhong, J. C.; Schure, J.; Nkamgnia, E.; Tadjuidje, M. H.

2011-01-01

299

The Effect of Corruption on Socio-Economic Development of Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study springs up because socio- economic development is very pertinent to all, hence it would be regarded as the apex of our social existence. It will help to identify how deeply corruption has really affected socio- economic development of Nigeria. However, this study aims to enable us know the causes of corruption, and to find out how deep corruption has eaten into the fabric of Nigeria’s society, etc. It also tends to examine the effect of corruption on Nigeria’s various socio- economic developments and tries to explore on the damage which this disease has caused to the image of the nation since 1985 up till the year 2010. By then, the effort of the anti- graft agencies EFCC and ICPC would also be examined to see if they have been efficient in discharging their duties, and to suggest the better way in more holistic and independent manner which would help as an encouragement for them to face the fight or war against corruption without fear or favour of the power that be. The result of this evaluation here is to show that this issue of corruption in Nigeria is an important national issue and has to be treated with all carefulness. There is great need for people to be shakier over the damage which corruption would cause if neglected. Based on the analysis of this work, government would know how best to fight corruption and alleviate the heat of it so as to build stronger and healthier economy. A lot of work would have been done on this subject; some might have done it with less seriousness. To allow for socio- economic development, this subject has to be treated objectively with utmost care. And it is that objectives I would say, this work have  appeared to achieve it.

Goddy Osa Lgbaekemen

2014-09-01

300

Features of socio-economic mechanism of management labour potential of enterprises of food industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the article the features of socio-economic mechanism of management are exposed by labour potential of enterprises of food industry. Certain organizational approaches and methodology of research of labour potential of enterprise. Worked out to recommendation in relation to overcoming of existent problems of economic development of enterprises of food industry. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/34264

?????, ?. ?.; ?????, ?. ?.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Marketing of public and business affairs subsystems of socio-economic environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Romanian society is crossing one of the most important stages of its transition toward the integration in the European Union started with January 1st, 2007; this will define the final processes bound for the socio-economic reconstruction. Based on the previous experiences, an assumption rose up that, at this moment in the Romanian society there are two systems ñ business and public administration, placed on opposite, antagonistic, unfriendly sides. At the same time, there is the opinion ...

Adriana Grigorescu

2008-01-01

302

Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scot...

Leyland Alastair H; Gray Linsay

2009-01-01

303

Fisheries Development and Fisheries Dependent Communities in Portugal: Socio-Economic Change and Strategic Planning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The socio-economic subsystem encompassing fisheries may be defined as including not only the harvesting sector but also several related activities occurring both upstream (shipbuilding, gear manufacture) and downstream (processing, distribution and trade). But these closely interrelated economic activities can also be set within a much broader system which would include the ecological, institutional and political influences which frame economic behaviour. The value of this broader conceptuali...

Moniz, Anto?nio; Kova?cs, Ilona; Vicente, Duarte; Ramos, Ana R.

2000-01-01

304

Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided...

Nargis Akhter; Feroz Ahmed; Sohrab Hossain

2011-01-01

305

Personality, socio-economic status and inflammation: cross-sectional, population-based study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, 666 subjects were recruited from areas of high (most deprived – “MD”) and low (least deprived – “LD”) deprivation. IL-6, ICAM-1, CRP and fibrinogen were measured a...

Millar, Keith; Lloyd, Suzanne M.; Mclean, Jennifer S.; Batty, David G.; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; Deans, Kevin A.; Ford, Ian; Mcconnachie, Alex; Mcginty, Agnes; Mottus, Re?ne; Packard, Chris J.; Sattar, Naveed; Shields, Paul G.; Nathan, Yoga

2013-01-01

306

Predicted versus actual psycho-socio-economic impacts of mining and infrastructure projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the accuracy of predicted psycho-socio-economic impacts resulting from mining and infrastructure projects is investigated by comparing it to impacts shown to actually occur. A systems theoretical approach was followed in conjunction with a qualitative methodology in order to conceptualise impacts in the social systems they occur. Data was collected through a document review (which included a total of 17 documents pertaining to predicted impacts, and 24 documents pertaining to a...

Lotter, Karien

2013-01-01

307

Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

Asogwa, Benjamin C.; Ezihe, J. A. C.; Ater, P. I.

2013-01-01

308

Multi-dimensional Assessment of the Level of Enterprise Socio-economic Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of the article is generalisation and development of methodical technique within the taxonomic method and distance and similarity method for convolution on the basis of the system of measured features-symptoms into a single joint characteristic of the latent notion “level of enterprise socio-economic development”. Algorithms of taxonomic analysis and distance and similarity method are systemised, generalised, itemised and presented as technological schemes with consideration of in...

Nadtoka Tatyana B.; Vinogradov Aleksandr G.

2014-01-01

309

Socio-economic variation in CT scanning in Northern England, 1990-2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status is known to influence health throughout life. In childhood, studies have shown increased injury rates in more deprived settings. Socio-economic status may therefore be related to rates of certain medical procedures, such as computed tomography (CT scans. This study aimed to assess socio-economic variation among young people having CT scans in Northern England between 1990 and 2002 inclusive. Methods Electronic data were obtained from Radiology Information Systems of all nine National Health Service hospital Trusts in the region. CT scan data, including sex, date of scan, age at scan, number and type of scans were assessed in relation to quintiles of Townsend deprivation scores, obtained from linkage of postcodes with census data, using ?2 tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results During the study period, 39,676 scans were recorded on 21,089 patients, with 38,007 scans and 19,485 patients (11344 male and 8132 female linkable to Townsend scores. The overall distributions of both scans and patients by quintile of Townsend deprivation scores were significantly different to the distributions of Townsend scores from the census wards included in the study (p Conclusions Social inequalities exist in the numbers of young people undergoing CT scans with those from deprived areas more likely to do so. This may reflect the rates of injuries in these individuals and implies that certain groups within the population may receive higher radiation doses than others due to medical procedures.

Pearce Mark S

2012-01-01

310

The impact of socio-economic factors and incentives on farmers' inestment behaviour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support schemes. Data from a questionnaire survey among 208 Danish pig producers are analysed by use of logistic regression and the relationships between socio-economic factors, investment incentives and farmers’ investment behaviour are empirically revealed. The results show that the farmers who rank economic incentives as the most important when making investments are those who yield the best financial results. Off-farm income and partial productivity were also higher on these farms. As hypothesised, young farmers with a large production are more likely to invest in real assets than others. No cross sectional trends relating the incentives for making investments to the investment propensity were identified. One important policy implication of the results is that improved knowledge of the socio-economic factors and their influence on investment behaviour and incentives may reduce the deadweight loss associated with many governmental investment programmes.

Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens

2011-01-01

311

Climate Change and Shrimp Farming in Andhra Pradesh, India: Socio-economics and Vulnerability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approximately 70% of shrimp consumed globally is farmed. India is ranked among the top five shrimp farming countries globally, and occurs mainly in the eastern coastal state of Andhra Pradesh (AP. More than 90% of the farms are less than 2 ha and are farmer owned, operated and managed. The objective of this study was to increase our understanding of climatic and socio-economic factors influencing this sector, through a survey of 300 shrimp farmers in AP in 2009/10. The farming communities were divisible into two groups: members of a society/cooperative and those operating individually. The latter were large scale adopting more intensive practices. The average production cost was Indian Rupees (IRS 80,186 ha-1 and net income in summer and winter was IRS 221,901 and IRS 141,715, respectively. The mean technical efficiency estimated using Stochastic frontier function was 7% and 54%. The present study attempts to explain the difference in efficiencies using socio-economic and climatic variables, the latter being a novel approach. Among socio-economic variables, farming experience and membership in society were found to have a significant influence to improve technical and economic efficiencies. Further improvements in identifiable facets of the practices and a consequent increase in technical efficiency will make the sector less vulnerable to climatic change impacts.

Udaya Sekhar Nagothu

2012-06-01

312

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

313

British Columbia offshore oil and gas socio-economic issue papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) biblrategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs

314

Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

HA Qazi

2009-09-01

315

Introducing Modern Energy Services into Developing Countries: The Role of Local Community Socio-Economic Structures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable energy technologies are widely sought-after as essential elements in facing global challenges such as energy security, global warming and poverty reduction. However, in spite of their promising advantages, sustainable energy technologies make only a marginal contribution to meeting energy related needs in both industrialised and developing countries, in comparison to the widespread use of unsustainable technologies. One of the most significant constraints to their adoption and broad diffusion is the socio-economic context in which sustainable energy technologies are supposed to operate. The same holds true for community-based energy projects in developing countries supported by the WISIONS initiative. Practical strategies dealing with these socio-economic challenges are crucial elements for project design and, particularly, for the implementation of project activities. In this paper experiences from implementing community-based projects are reviewed in order to identify the practical elements that are relevant to overcome socio-economic challenges. In order to systematise the findings, an analytical framework is proposed, which combines analytical tools from the socio-technical transition framework and insights from participative approaches to development.

Willington Ortiz

2012-03-01

316

Improving access to cancer genetics services in primary care: socio-economic data from North Kirklees.  

Science.gov (United States)

A primary care cancer genetics project, funded by Macmillan Cancer Support and the Department of Health, has been running in North Kirklees since 2004. North Kirklees has a high ethnic minority population (mainly South Asian) and 50% of its wards lie in the most deprived quintiles in England. Previous audits in the department of genetics have shown lower than expected referral rates for patients from lower socio-economic classes and no referrals from ethnic minority patients. The aims of the project included improving access to cancer genetics services for disadvantaged patients from lower socio-economic groups and the ethnic minority population. A practice nurse and a General Practitioner with a Special Interest in genetics, both with appropriate language skills, and a 0.5 FTE genetic counsellor have set up local clinics in several primary care sites in North Kirklees where they provide full genetic counselling services in the community. Demographic details, ethnic origin and education information are collected from each patient seen. Comparing information prior to and during the project demonstrates an increase in numbers of referrals for patients from lower socio-economic classes, those with educational achievements at GCSE level or below, and those from South Asian backgrounds. Local clinics and increasing awareness of cancer genetics services for professionals and the public can improve access to such services. PMID:17520351

Srinivasa, J; Rowett, E; Dharni, N; Bhatt, H; Day, M; Chu, C E

2007-01-01

317

Socio-economic factors and suicide rates in European Union countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Are socio-economic factors valid determinants of suicide? The modern sociological theory of suicide is based on Durkheim's studies. In addition to these fundamental social determinants, modern theorists have put more attention on economic factors. The purpose of the research is to determine the relationship between suicide rates and socio-economic factors, such as demography, economic development, education, healthcare systems, living conditions and labour market. All data were collected from a Eurostat publication and they concern 25 European Union countries. In order to test this relationship, a discriminant analysis was performed using an ordinal dependent variable and a set of independent variables concerning socio-economic factors. A dataset of 37 independent variables was used. We estimated a model with five variables: annual growth rates for industry, people working in S&T (% of total employment), at-risk-of-poverty rate, all accidents (standardized rates), and healthcare expenditures (% of GDP). Highly significant values of Wilk's Lambda assess a good discriminating power of the model. The accuracy too is very high: all cases are correctly classified by the model. Countries with high suicide rate levels are marked by high levels of at-risk-of-poverty rates, high annual growth rates for industry and low healthcare expenditures. PMID:19251457

Ferretti, Fabio; Coluccia, Anna

2009-04-01

318

Socio-Economic Implications of Retirement on Retired Public Servants in Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study examined the socio-economic implications of retirement on retried public servants in Ekiti State, Nigeria.  Economic difficult might be a principal factor for maladjustment among retirees in Ekiti State.  Data for this study were collected from Primary source.  Four hundred (400 questionnaires were administered in this study.  Data for this study were analyzed with the aid of frequency count, percentage,  mean and statistical methods.  Results for this study showed that retirees in the study area had socio-economic problems resulting from poor pay, delay in payment of gratuity and pension, and hyper inflation on their meagre income.  This study, therefore, recommended that, the management of pension fund should be given to private pension administrators with credible records in order to forestall mismanagement of pension funds.  This study will be of immeasurable value to Government, Public Servants, Retirees, planners and researchers.

Key words: Implication; Recommendations; Retirement socio-economic and public servants

Ayodeji OLATUNDE

2011-12-01

319

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Peach Bottom case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

320

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

 
 
 
 
321

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Three Mile Island case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

322

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: D. C. Cook case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the D. C. Cook nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

323

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Surry case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Surry nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

324

The Joint Influence of Parental Modeling and Positive Parental Concern on Cigarette Smoking in Middle and High School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to examine the interaction between parental smoking status and parental attitudes, as measured by positive parental concern, on the risk of adolescent cigarette smoking. Parental smoking and parental concern about smoking were measured in a cross-sectional study of 37,244 students, a random sample of Maryland middle…

Kalesan, Bindu; Stine, Joan; Alberg, Anthony J.

2006-01-01

325

Relación entre perímetro abdominal, nivel socioeconómico y presión arterial Relation of abdominal circumference and socio-economic status to blood pressure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Relacionar perímetro abdominal y condición socioeconómica con presión arterial (PA en comunidad urbana de Concepción. Métodos: Se midió el perímetro abdominal (PeA de 8472 residentes mayores de 15 años de edad, proporcionados por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico. La PA fue medida con normas estandarizadas, realizando dos visitas en diferentes días, la segunda si la PA era mayor de 140/90 mm Hg. Los Pe A se distribuyeron en cuartiles, relacionando cada cuartil con los respectivos promedios de presión sistólica y diastólica y se establecieron coeficientes de correlación lineal mediante "r" de Pearson entre PeA y PA. Además, se estableció la frecuencia de cada cuartil de Pe A por nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: Los Pea tuvieron la siguiente distribución (cm: 1er cuartil, 96. La prevalencia de hipertensión para niveles socioeconómicos alto, medio y bajo fue 17,9%, 19,5% y 24,5%, respectivamente. La PA promedio (mmHg en hombres y en mujeres del 1er cuartil de PeA fue 112 y 109; en el 2º cuartil 118 y 118; en el 3er cuartil 123 y 122 y en el 4º cuartil 129 y 129, respectivamente. Los coeficientes de correlación entre PeA y presión sistólica y presión diastólica resultaron significativos en ambos géneros: r = 0,343, pAim: To correlate abdominal circumference (AC and socio-economic status with blood pressure( BP in an urban community of Concepción, Chile Methods: AC was measured in 8472 subjects above 15years of age, stratified by age, gender and socio-economic status. BP was measured by standard procedures, with a repeat recording when the initial valué was > 140/90mmHg. BP was compared in quartiles of abdominal circumference and according to socio-economic status. Pearson "r" was used to correlate BP and AC Results: Cut points for quartiles of AC were 78, 87, and 96 cm. Prevalence of hypertension in high, médium and low socio-economic status was 17.9%, 19.5% and 24.5%, respectively Mean systolic BP was 112 - 109 mmHg (males - females in the first AC quartile, 118 - 118, 123-122 and 129-129 in the second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. A significant correlation between AC and BP (systolic and diastolic was observed in both genders (r 0.345 and 0.281 for males and females, respectively, p<0.00001. 22% of low socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile compared to 28.8% in the 4th quartile. In contrast 38.9% of high socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile while 15.5% did so in the 4th quartile (p<0001. Conclusion: A positive correlation ofAC and blood pressure was shown in both genders. A greater AC in low socio-economic subjects maybe related to a higher prevalence of hypertension in this group.

Eduardo Fasce H

2010-01-01

326

The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.08-1.49, poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60, more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83, more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73, and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41. The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio-economic disadvantage takes its toll on child health before birth, and continues to do so during childhood. Therefore, action to reduce health disparities needs to start very early in life, and should also address socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding habits, and day-care centre attendance.

Smit Henriette A

2011-04-01

327

Oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary countries development; O impacto do pagamento de royalties do petroleo no desenvolvimento socio-economico dos municipios beneficiarios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research proposes to evaluate oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary counties indicators. In the first step, it has been made royalties payments distribution among beneficiary counties (942), what showed a meaningful paid resources concentration between 1993 and 1999, when 20% of the beneficiaries apportioned of 98,5% from this period paid royalties. For these 188 greatest exaction counties the royalties impact analyses on County Human Development Index (IDH-M) evolution showed the received royalties amount positively influenced the 2000 IDH-M additional comparing to 1991. It indicates the petroleum industry contribution to municipal development of those counties which receive these resources. (author)

Lucchesi, Cesar Augusto M.; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

2004-07-01

328

Energy utilisation of infants in Southern Brazil : breast-feeding pattern and socio-economic status in relation to obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence of obesity is increasing world-wide. The aetiology is complex: genetic factors, intake of energy dense foods, and lack of physical activity can only partly explain the increased prevalence. Originally, obesity was considered a problem mainly of the higher socio-economic class, but in countries undergoing the transition from a developing to an industrialised society, depending on the stage of transition obesity increasingly occurs in the lower socio-economic classes. A...

Haisma, Hinke Hendrika

2004-01-01

329

Ways of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport in Republic Lebanon.  

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Full Text Available Consisting of economy of physical culture and sport is certain of Republic Lebanon. Opinions of the Lebanese specialists are presented on questions of perfection of socio-economic bases of development of physical culture and sport. The necessity of decision of complex of tasks of socio-economic character is grounded for a country taking into account experience of foreign countries. It is offered to develop and realize a target comprehensive programme under the title « Lebanon - sports country ».

Michuda Y.P.

2010-08-01

330

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economs illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

331

Modifying the rebound: It depends! Explaining mobility behavior on the basis of the German socio-economic panel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel and the way this behavioral aspect is modified by additional variables. The data set used to estimate a theoretical model of the rebound effect covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). To take full advantage of the information in the data available, and to avoid problems due to possible selection effects, we estimated an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. Our results suggest that in line with the rebound hypothesis, car efficiency has a negative effect on the kilometers driven. That is, the lower the fuel consumption, the greater the distance driven. However, contrasting recent empirical literature about the rebound effect in the transportation sector, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km. In addition, we find a positive diesel effect, which implies that owning a diesel engine car is positively correlated with the distance driven. Both effects can be interpreted as support for the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way. Moreover, it can be shown that some “soft” variables such as certain attitudes towards the environment tend to amplify this non-linear rebound effect. - Research Highlights: ? We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel. ? The data sts additional travel. ? The data set covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). We estimate an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. ? Contrasting recent empirical literature, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km.? In addition, we find a positive diesel effect: Owning a diesel engine car has a positive effect on the distance driven. Both effects support the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way.? It can be shown that some “soft” variables such as certain attitudes towards the environment tend to amplify this non-linear rebound effect.

332

A STUDY ON RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENT LEVELAND THEIR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SECONDARY CHILDREN  

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Full Text Available Environment is a global concept today. Environmental Education is an approach to learning. Environmental Education means the educational process dealing with man's relationship of population, pollution resource, conservation, technology, energy, urban and rural planning to the total biosphere.A self-made questionnaire was made in order to find the relationship between the Environmental Education aptitude and socioeconomic status among class IX Children of rural, urban and semi urban. The question paper contents fifty (50 questions and it divided into two sector. In sector-I content (10 questions by which the socioeconomic status of the children can be known and Sector-II consists of four type questions by which Environmental Education aptitude can be understood.Socioeconomic status is evaluated from the response of sector-I questions by analyzing the educational status of the family, occupation of the parents & the monthly income of the family of a particular student or sample. After classifying the samples into 3 classes of status (upper, middle & lower according to their socioeconomic condition, the mean of the marks was computed. The mean score of every status group is then analyzed to know the relationship between Environmental Education achievement level and socioeconomic status. Although there are many factor are responsible for the academic achievements in Environmental Education. But from this observation it may conclude that there is a strong relationship between Environmental Education achievement and socio-economic status.

GOUTAM CHAKRABORTY

2012-12-01

333

Child care, socio-economic status and problem behavior: a study of gene-environment interaction in young Dutch twins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influences of formal child care before age 4 on behavioral problems at 3, 5, and 7 years of age were assessed in 18,932 Dutch twins (3,878 attended formal child care). The effect of formal child care was studied on the average level of problem behavior and as moderator of genetic and non-genetic influences, while taking into account effects of sex and parental socio-economic status (SES). There was a small association between attending formal child care and higher externalizing problems, especially when SES was low. Heritability was lower for formal child care and in lower SES conditions. These effects were largest at age 7 and for externalizing problems. In 7 year-old boys and girls, the difference in heritability between the formal child care group of low SES and the home care group of high SES was 30% for externalizing and ~20% for internalizing problems. The decrease in heritability was explained by a larger influence of the environment, rather than by a decrease in genetic variance. These results support a bioecological model in which heritability is lower in circumstances associated with more problem behavior. PMID:24878694

Middeldorp, Christel M; Lamb, Diane J; Vink, Jacqueline M; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I

2014-07-01

334

HIV and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status, Popayan-Colombia (2008-2009  

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Full Text Available Objective: to determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of PopayanColombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated Results: Mean age 33,5±10,2; 66%women.Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86% (95% CI: 1.87-5.85, greater in men (7.38%; p=0,013. Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 hours . Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection

Mueses, Hector Fabio

2013-03-01

335

Body mass index, socio-economic status and socio-behavioral practices among Tz'utujil Maya women.  

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This study investigates the associations between body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status (SES) and related socio-behavioral practices including marriage and market visits in a population of adult Tz'utujil Maya women in Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala, aged 18-82. Mixed qualitative and quantitative methods include cross-sectional anthropometric measurements and semi-structured interviews gathered in 2007, as well as participant observation and purposive interviews conducted in 2007-2008. The regional quota sample of 53 semi-structured interviews was designed to be representative of the cantones (municipal divisions) of Santiago Atitlán. BMI was positively associated with years of schooling, income and literacy, all measures of SES. A statistical analysis of our data indicates that increased income, increased market visits and being married are significantly positively associated with BMI. Qualitative analysis based on the grounded theory method reveals relevant themes including a preoccupation with hunger and undernutrition rather than obesity, a preference for food quantity over dietary diversity, the economic and social influence of a husband, the effects of market distance and the increasing consumption of food from tiendas. These themes help to explain how SES, socio-behavioral practices and BMI are positively associated and can inform future public health interventions related to obesity and undernutrition. PMID:19299213

Nagata, Jason M; Valeggia, Claudia R; Barg, Frances K; Bream, Kent D W

2009-03-01

336

Comparison of environmental and socio-economic domains of vulnerability to flood hazards  

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Socio-economic and environmental based vulnerability models have been developed within the research context of the FP6 project BRAHMATWINN. The conceptualisation of vulnerability has been defined in the project and is characterised as a function of sensitivity and adaptive capacity, where sensitivity is used to refer to systems that are susceptible to the impacts of environmental stress. Adaptive capacity is used to refer to systems or resources available to communities that could help them adapt or cope with the adverse consequences of environmental stresses in the recovery phase. In a wider context the approach reflects the wider objective and conceptualizations of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) framework, where vulnerability is characterized as a component of overall risk. A methodology has been developed which delineates spatial units of vulnerability (VULNUS). These units share a specific common characteristic and allow the independent spatial modelling of a complex phenomena independent from administrative units and raster based approaches. An increasing detail of spatial data and complex decision problems require flexible means for scaled spatial representations, for mapping the dynamics and constant changes, and delivering the crucial information. Automated techniques of object-based image analysis (OBIA, Lang & Blaschke, 2006), capable of integrating a virtually unlimited set of spatial data sets, try to match the information extraction with our world view. To account for that, a flexible concept of manageable units is required. The term geon was proposed by Lang (2008) to describe generic spatial objects that are homogenous in terms of a varying spatial phenomena under the influence of, and partly controlled by, policy actions. The geon concept acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. It is flexible in terms of a certain perception of a problem (specific policy realm, specific hazard domain, etc.). In this study, vulnerability units have been derived as a specific instance of a geon set within an area exposed to flood risk. Using geons, we are capable of transforming singular domains of information on specific systemic components to policy-relevant, conditioned information (Kienberger et al., 2008; Tiede & Lang, 2007). According to the work programme socio-economic vulnerabilities have been modelled for the Salzach catchment. A specific set of indicators has been developed with a strong stakeholder orientation. Next to that, and to allow an easier integration within the aimed development of Water Resource Response Units (WRRUs) the environmental domain of vulnerability has additionally been modelled. We present the results of the socio-economic and environmental based approach to model vulnerability. The research methodology utilises census as well as land use/land cover data to derive and assess vulnerability. As a result, spatial units have been identified which represent common characteristics of socio-economic environmental vulnerability. The results show the spatially explicit vulnerability and its underlying components sensitivity and adaptive capacity for socio-economic and environmental domains and discuss differences. Within the test area, the Salzach River catchment in Austria, primarily urban areas adjacent to water courses are highly vulnerable. It can be stated that the delineation of vulnerability units that integrates all dimensions of sustainability are a prerequisite for a holistic and thus adaptive integrated water management approach. Indeed, such units constitute the basis for future dynamic vulnerability assessments, and thus for the assessment of uncertainties due to climate change. Kienberger, S., S. Lang & D. Tiede (2008): Socio-economic vulnerability units - modelling meaningful spatial units. In: Proceedings of the GIS Research UK 16th Annual conference GISRUK 2008, Manchester. Lang, S. (2008): Object-based image analysis for remote sensing applications: modeling reali

Leidel, M.; Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

2009-04-01

337

Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of economic and social effects expected from nanotechnology.

Brignon, Jean-Marc

2011-07-01

338

Understanding, creating, and managing complex techno-socio-economic systems: Challenges and perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This contribution reflects on the comments of Peter Allen [1], Bikas K. Chakrabarti [2], Péter Érdi [3], Juval Portugali [4], Sorin Solomon [5], and Stefan Thurner [6] on three White Papers (WP) of the EU Support Action Visioneer (www.visioneer.ethz.ch). These White Papers are entitled "From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises" (WP 1) [7], "From Social Simulation to Integrative System Design" (WP 2) [8], and "How to Create an Innovation Accelerator" (WP 3) [9]. In our reflections, the need and feasibility of a "Knowledge Accelerator" is further substantiated by fundamental considerations and recent events around the globe. newpara The Visioneer White Papers propose research to be carried out that will improve our understanding of complex techno-socio-economic systems and their interaction with the environment. Thereby, they aim to stimulate multi-disciplinary collaborations between ICT, the social sciences, and complexity science. Moreover, they suggest combining the potential of massive real-time data, theoretical models, large-scale computer simulations and participatory online platforms. By doing so, it would become possible to explore various futures and to expand the limits of human imagination when it comes to the assessment of the often counter-intuitive behavior of these complex techno-socio-economic-environmental systems. In this contribution, we also highlight the importance of a pluralistic modeling approach and, in particular, the need for a fruitful interaction between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. newpara In an appendix we briefly summarize the concept of the FuturICT flagship project, which will build on and go beyond the proposals made by the Visioneer White Papers. EU flagships are ambitious multi-disciplinary high-risk projects with a duration of at least 10 years amounting to an envisaged overall budget of 1 billion EUR [10]. The goal of the FuturICT flagship initiative is to understand and manage complex, global, socially interactive systems, with a focus on sustainability and resilience.

Helbing, D.; Balietti, S.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.

2011-05-01

339

A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 1: Water use  

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Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect the key concepts underpinning each situation. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigation area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, industrial water withdrawal, and municipal water withdrawal. The first three factors are used to estimate agricultural water withdrawal. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century at 5-yr intervals. Each factor displays a wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigation area in 2085 varies between 270 and 450 km2, industrial water between 246 and 1714 km3 yr?1, and domestic water withdrawal between 573 and 1280 km3 yr?1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments by identifying the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyzing the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

T. Masui

2012-12-01

340

Collapse of Socio-economic Base of Bangladesh by Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater  

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Full Text Available Untreated groundwater, often enriched in arsenic-one of the most important pollutants and trace elements of the aquatic system recently regarded as the major threat to drinking water-was and is being extensively used as a source of drinking for the decades in rural and semi-urban areas of the developing countries which results in a high incidence of arsenic with deleterious effects on humans and food chain. In Bangladesh, India, Vietnam and other developed countries, arsenic contamination in groundwater is considered to be the key environmental health problem of the twenty first century. In Bangladesh arsenic was first detected in the district of Chapai Nawabgonj bordering the West-Bengal district of India in 1993; since then higher levels of arsenic (exceeding the WHO standard of 0.01 mg L-1 and Bangladesh standard of 0.05 mg L-1 have been detected in many regions of the country including 61 districts out of 64. It is estimated that of the 140 million inhabitants of Bangladesh more than 100 million are at the risk of arsenic hazard, such arsenic hazards collapses the societal structure and socio-economic backbone of poor people of rural Bangladesh. The study tries to discuss the chronological extent and severity of the biggest global arsenic calamity prevailed in Bangladesh, socio-economic impact of arsenic hazard on the poor people of rural society living more than seventy percent under poverty limit in Bangladesh. Specially due consideration was given on the socio-economic impact on arsenic victims particularly earning male family member, young male, married female and young female going to be married as well as arsenic affected family and their interaction with non-arsenic-victim of the society.

M.A.I. Chowdhury

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial 'socially' performs in comparison with its alternatives. 'Industrial economics' methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a 'pragmatic regulatory impact analysis', that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is 'pragmatic' in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess 'what happens' with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of economic and social effects expected from nanotechnology.

Brignon, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.brignon@ineris.fr [INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata BP2 - 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

2011-07-06

342

Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relations between neighbourhood socio-economic status and features of public open spaces (POS) hypothesised to influence children's physical activity. Data were from the first follow-up of the Children Living in Active Neighbourhoods (CLAN) Study, which involved 540 families of 5-6 and 10-12-year-old children in Melbourne, Australia. The Socio-Economic Index for Areas Index (SEIFA) of Relative Socio-economic Advantage/Disadvantage was used to assign a socioeconomic index score to each child's neighbourhood, based on postcode. Participant addresses were geocoded using a Geographic Information System. The Open Space 2002 spatial data set was used to identify all POS within an 800 m radius of each participant's home. The features of each of these POS (1497) were audited. Variability of POS features was examined across quintiles of neighbourhood SEIFA. Compared with POS in lower socioeconomic neighbourhoods, POS in the highest socioeconomic neighbourhoods had more amenities (e.g. picnic tables and drink fountains) and were more likely to have trees that provided shade, a water feature (e.g. pond, creek), walking and cycling paths, lighting, signage regarding dog access and signage restricting other activities. There were no differences across neighbourhoods in the number of playgrounds or the number of recreation facilities (e.g. number of sports catered for on courts and ovals, the presence of other facilities such as athletics tracks, skateboarding facility and swimming pool). This study suggests that POS in high socioeconomic neighbourhoods possess more features that are likely to promote physical activity amongst children. PMID:18086547

Crawford, David; Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Roberts, Rebecca; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Salmon, Jo

2008-12-01

343

Socio-Economic Inequalities in Oral Health: The Case of Greece  

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Full Text Available Background: The literature on the socioeconomic determinants of oral health inequalities is rather limited. Since oral health is an integral part of general health, the investigation of oral and general health inequalities becomes an important research topic. The recent economic crisis has aggravated the level of general and oral health in Greece and evidence on inequalities is interesting for policy guidelines. Objective: The purpose of the present study is to measure the magnitude of self reported oral health inequalities in relation to certain demographic and socio-economic indicators such as gender, age, education and income status. Methods: We launched a cross-sectional survey across urban and rural population in Greece and we selected a random sample of 1500 individuals consisting of three age groups: 15 - 18 years, 35 - 45 years, and 65 to 74 years old. Self-reported general and oral health were both recorded and analyzed by means of an ordinal scale ranging from 0 = worse health to 100 = perfect health. Likert-type of scale questions were further used to capture self assessments of oral health. Dental Inequalities were assessed with reference to the following socio-economic variables: age, education, and income levels. Results: Statistically significant oral health inequalities were identified among the socio-economic groups in Greece. Lower levels of oral health were associated with those confronting financial difficulties, the aged and the less educated. The Gini Coefficient for Oral Health Goral = 0.344 (s.d. = 0.0033 was higher in comparison to general health Ggeneral = 0.289 (s.d. = 0.0016 indicating the need for public health intervention in the area of oral health. Conclusions: The paper demonstrates the significance of socioeconomic inequalities in oral health in Greece.

John Yfantopoulos

2014-09-01

344

Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX - An unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX personsretired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated.

Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Juul, Svend

2013-01-01

345

Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. PMID:23542668

Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

2013-06-01

346

Induced abortion in Denmark: effect of socio-economic situation and country of birth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Equal access to health care is considered a key in Scandinavian healthcare policy. However, problematic differences between the socio-economic situation of immigrants and that of native Scandinavians are increasingly challenging this aspect of the Scandinavian welfare model. The present study focuses on how socio-economic characteristics and country of birth are associated with induced abortion. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information among 1351 women requesting abortion and a control group of 1306 women intending birth. RESULTS: The strongest factor associated with the decision to have an abortion was being single (OR 39.1; 23.8-64.2), followed by being aged 19 years or below (OR 29.6; 13.4-65.5), having two children or more (OR 7.05; 5.29-9.39) and being unskilled (OR 2.48; 1.49-4.10), student (OR 2.29; 1.52-3.43) or unemployed (OR 1.65; 1.11-2.46). When evaluating the effect of social exposure on abortion among Danish-born and foreign-born women, the higher rate of abortion among non-Westerners was found to be caused by the composition of non-Westerners more often being unemployed, having a low income and having two or more children rather than the fact that they are coming from a non-Western country. CONCLUSION: Immigrant women comprise a vulnerable group, with a poor socio-economic status. This situation exposes immigrant women to increased risk of induced abortion. In a society with an increasing heterogeneous population, the vulnerable situation of immigrant women has to be addressed, if equal access to health care is to be maintained.

Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine

2008-01-01

347

Socio-economic outcome after blunt orthopaedic trauma: Implications on injury prevention  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Several large studies have identified factors associated with long-term outcome after orthopaedic injuries. However, long-term social and economic implications have not been published so far. The aim of this investigation is to study the long-term socio-economic consequences of patients sustaining severe trauma. Methods Patients treated at a level one trauma center were invited for a follow-up (at least 10 years examination. There were 637 patients who responded and were examined. Inclusion criteria included injury severity score (ISS ? 16 points, presence of lower and upper extremity fractures, and age between 3 and 60 years. Exclusion criteria included the presence of amputations and paraplegia. The socio-economic outcome was evaluated in three age groups: group I ( 50 years. The following parameters were analyzed using a standardized questionnaire: financial losses, net income losses, pension precaution losses, need for a bank loan, and the decrease in number of friends. Results 510 patients matched all study criteria, and breakdown of groups were as follows: 140 patients in group I, 341 patients in group II, and 29 patients in group III. Financial losses were reported in all age groups (20%-44%. Younger patients (group I were associated with less income losses when compared with other groups (p Conclusions Economic consequences are reported by polytraumatized patients even ten or more years after injury. Financial losses appear to be common in patients between 19 and 50 years. In contrast, social deprivation appears to be most pronounced in the younger age groups. Early socio-economic support and measures of injury prevention should focus on these specific age groups.

Zilkens Anna

2011-05-01

348

Ottoman forestry: socio-economic aspect and its influence today / Otomano florestal: aspecto socioeconômico e sua influência hoje  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A silvicultura é um assunto importante, pois o suprimento de madeira em geral e madeira para consumo humano direto, além de seus efeitos positivos sobre o aquecimento global e sobre a diversidade biológica, trata de uma história que remonta à antiguidade. Como um setor de trabalho intensivo nos país [...] es em desenvolvimento, mantém interações com a gestão dos recursos naturais, relações públicas e estrutura socioeconômica. Ela pode afetar a prosperidade dos países, seja positiva ou negativamente. Assim, uma análise da história da silvicultura tem importância, porque não só lança luz sobre a sua condição passada e presente, mas também explica as melhorias para a proteção das florestas. Assim, na primeira parte deste estudo, serão dadas informações gerais sobre o Sistema de Terras e Florestas e Organização Otomano. Na segunda seção, serão tratados movimentos da ocidentalização do século 19, bem como alterações socioculturais e econômicas. A terceira seção irá incluir regulamentos significativos na silvicultura, manejo florestal e administração no Império Otomano, bem como a influência da silvicultura Otomano na atual estrutura socioeconômica. Na seção final, no âmbito da discussão do título e conclusão, a silvicultura Otomano será analisada em relação as suas consequências em termos de economia, política e direito. Abstract in english Forestry is an important subject because it supplies wood and timber for direct human consumption, in addition to its positive effects on global warming and on bio-diversity, with a history dating back to antiquity. As a labor-intensive sector in developing countries, it maintains interactions with [...] natural resources management, public relations and socio-economic structure. It can affect the prosperity of countries either positively or negatively. Hence, an analysis of the history of forestry bears importance because it not only sheds light on its past and present condition, but also explains the improvements for the protection of forests. Accordingly, in the first section of this study, general information on the Ottoman Land System and Ottoman Forestry Organization will be given. In the second section, we will treat 19th century westernization movements, as well as socio-cultural and economic changes. The third section will include significant regulations on forestry, forest management, and administration in the Ottoman Empire; as well as the influence of Ottoman forestry on the actual socio-economic structure. In the final section, under the title discussion and conclusion, Ottoman forestry will be examined regarding its consequences in terms of policy, economy and law.

Sezgin, Özden; Üstüner, Birben.

349

Ottoman forestry: socio-economic aspect and its influence today / Otomano florestal: aspecto socioeconômico e sua influência hoje  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A silvicultura é um assunto importante, pois o suprimento de madeira em geral e madeira para consumo humano direto, além de seus efeitos positivos sobre o aquecimento global e sobre a diversidade biológica, trata de uma história que remonta à antiguidade. Como um setor de trabalho intensivo nos país [...] es em desenvolvimento, mantém interações com a gestão dos recursos naturais, relações públicas e estrutura socioeconômica. Ela pode afetar a prosperidade dos países, seja positiva ou negativamente. Assim, uma análise da história da silvicultura tem importância, porque não só lança luz sobre a sua condição passada e presente, mas também explica as melhorias para a proteção das florestas. Assim, na primeira parte deste estudo, serão dadas informações gerais sobre o Sistema de Terras e Florestas e Organização Otomano. Na segunda seção, serão tratados movimentos da ocidentalização do século 19, bem como alterações socioculturais e econômicas. A terceira seção irá incluir regulamentos significativos na silvicultura, manejo florestal e administração no Império Otomano, bem como a influência da silvicultura Otomano na atual estrutura socioeconômica. Na seção final, no âmbito da discussão do título e conclusão, a silvicultura Otomano será analisada em relação as suas consequências em termos de economia, política e direito. Abstract in english Forestry is an important subject because it supplies wood and timber for direct human consumption, in addition to its positive effects on global warming and on bio-diversity, with a history dating back to antiquity. As a labor-intensive sector in developing countries, it maintains interactions with [...] natural resources management, public relations and socio-economic structure. It can affect the prosperity of countries either positively or negatively. Hence, an analysis of the history of forestry bears importance because it not only sheds light on its past and present condition, but also explains the improvements for the protection of forests. Accordingly, in the first section of this study, general information on the Ottoman Land System and Ottoman Forestry Organization will be given. In the second section, we will treat 19th century westernization movements, as well as socio-cultural and economic changes. The third section will include significant regulations on forestry, forest management, and administration in the Ottoman Empire; as well as the influence of Ottoman forestry on the actual socio-economic structure. In the final section, under the title discussion and conclusion, Ottoman forestry will be examined regarding its consequences in terms of policy, economy and law.

Sezgin, Özden; Üstüner, Birben.

2012-03-01

350

Socio-economic assessment of timber supply options for the northern portion of the kalum tsa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report gives a socio-economic impact assessment of the effects of selected harvest scenarios for the Kalum North using a multiple accounts analysis evaluative framework. The report defines the study area in general and with respect to each of the resources in the area; describes the communities within the planning area, including demographics, economic factors, environmental setting, and specific aboriginal concerns; describes the annual allowable cut (AAC) scenarios; gives an impact assessment of each scenario from a regional and provincial accounts perspective; and provides a summary of the results. A glossary of terms is included.

NONE

1993-12-31

351

COMPARISON OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIO-ECONOMIC RESEARCH PERFORMANCES IN EASTERN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES  

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Full Text Available Scientific research performance measurement and its analysis creates the context where universities are forced to develop strategies to increase the values obtained from indicators such as number of scientific articles, the number of citations of these articles, h-index, g-index, etc. The purpose of this article is to analyze the performance differences arising in the socio-economic science between major universities in South-Eastern Europe, many of them EU Members. In addition, to see where they stand compared to Western Europe, will include a brief review of the results of a major university as LondonSchool of Economics and Political Science.

Carmen Anton

2012-12-01

352

Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP

Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M

2012-01-01

353

Patterns of migration and socio-economic change in Lao PDR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the thesis is to investigate patterns and consequences of internal and international migration in Laos during the period 1985-2005 on both a macro-and a micro-level. The thesis focuses on the influences of socio-economic change and government policies on inter-regional and rural-urban migration as well as on crossborder migration from Laos to Thailand. The study also examines the effects of migration and industrial factory work on gender relations during economic transition and con...

Phouxay, Kabmanivanh

2010-01-01

354

Application of Electronic Data Collection in Research of Socio-Economic Importance of Forest Functions  

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Full Text Available The main topic of the project is the application of electronic data collection using the web interface to the research of the socio-economic importance of forest functions. A unique system for data collection, the provision of evidence and processing was designed. The system leads to the simplification of the research, to the possibility of extending the investigation in the field and to the survey of forest visit trends in the long term. The approach will enable the formation of an extended database. The paper describes the steps of the project’s implementation. The e-survey started at the end of September 2010 continues to this time.

J. Pospíšil

2011-03-01

355

Physical growth and health related physical fitness in adolescents of differents socio economic status  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study had as objective to compare: the physical growth through the body mass (BM), stature and body mass index (BMI) between sex and socio-economic status (SES) by age; the health-related physical fitness (HRPF)between gender and SES; the HRPF for sex and SES with the criterion-referenced proposed by AAHPERD (1988). The sample was composed by 191 boys and 212 girls, with ages between 14.49 and 17.50 years, self-evaluated in 4 or 5 TANNER (1962) stages, students from public and private sc...

Milton Silva

2006-01-01

356

The SocioEconomic analysis of repository siting (SEARS): Guide to data base preparation: Final draft  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This guide describes the data bases in the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system. This model is a user-interactive, computerized model for projecting the economic, demographic, public service, and fiscal impacts of repository siting. This guide provides a description of the data bases, sources of data, data formats, and preprocessing programs for adapting and implementing the SEARS system and is seen as an essential reference for technical users of the model. It should be used in conjunction with reports describing the model's features and characteristics. 95 refs., 3 tabs.

Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Kiel, B.; Parpia, B.

1984-11-01

357

Socio-economic effects of migration after 1989. Study case: Feldru, Transylvania  

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Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the socio-economic effects of migration in a Transylvanian village after 1989. Some relevant issues are: migration impact beyond official statistics and how migration affects social groups or gender relations in the village. It is an anthropological research using qualitative methods that highlights the specificity of migration in the village proved by: women’s empowerment, changing of social status for returning migrants, youth and social pressure generated by migration. The results provide a new perspective on migration research, focused on family changes and social status differences between migrants and nonmigrants.

Gabriel Girigan

2011-12-01

358

Budget Architectonics as Tools on Socio-economic Development of Society ????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article explores the role and the economic substance of the budget architectonics that is dynamic institutional processes of fiscal policy in the specific socio-economic conditions of the state, which is the formation of a hierarchical system of fiscal space components of which are the best value for the budget, social, fiscal, monetary and public debt indicators that determine the budget process aimed at ensuring the effective and efficient management of public funds to improve the living standards and welfare of citizens, the major directions of budget management in view of the appropriate balance of fiscal policy.? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?????????????, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????, ? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????, ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????, ???????????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????.

Makogon Valentina D.

2012-04-01

359

SOCIO- ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF ANGANWADI WORKERS: A CASE STUDY OF RAICHUR DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Anganawadi worker and helper are the basic functionaries of the ICDS who run the Anganawadi centre and implement the ICDS scheme in coordination with the functionaries of the health, education, rural development and other departments. Their services also include the health and nutrition of pregnant women, nursing mothers, and adolescent girls. Today in India, about 2 million Anganawadi workers are reaching out to a population of 70 million women, children and sick people, helping them become and stay healthy. The present study focuses on “Socio-Economic Condition of Anganwadi workers, with special reference to Raichur District.

KAMALAAMALAPPA

2013-06-01

360

SOCIO-ECONOMICS FACTORS INFLUENCING LITERACY IN THE WESTERN SATPURA REGION: A GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY”  

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Full Text Available Literacy is a dynamic process. The distribution of literacy is uneven in different parts of a region. The various geographical factors like the nature of relief, amount of rainfall, agricultural productivity, availability of water, accessibility etc. influence the distribution of population. The influence of these factors is clearly seen in the socioeconomic development of the region. This socio-economic development directly and indirectly accelerates the rate of literacy. As the Western Satpura region is socioeconomically less developed, therefore, the proportion of literate population is less and the rate of acceleration is also rather slow.

R. C. AHIRE

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY WOMEN IN GULBARGA CITY  

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Full Text Available The problem of elderly is a major social problem across the world. Many of the studies were already made onthe elderly, but only a few such studies throws light on the problems of the elderly women. Hence, the present study ismade on the elderly women in Gulbarga city. About 150 elderly women were surveyed in Gulbarga city throughInterview Schedule to collect the information on socio-economic and health conditions of the elderly women. Thestudy revealed that majority of the respondents are satisfied with the basic needs, but are not satisfied with their life,as they are not getting adequate care and respect from the younger.

K.S Malipatil

2012-06-01

362

The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost-benefit analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far. The main problem when including passenger delays is to determine the value of time for passenger delays and how to include the delays in a socio-economic analysis. This is due to the fact that passenger delays are not defined unambiguously. In general, delays can occur on different parts of a journey; while the passengers are waiting for the train (waiting time, first waiting time or even hidden waiting time) or while the passenger are sitting in the train (or bus). Furthermore a delay can also be negative, meaning that a passenger will arrive before planned (a so-called negative delay). It is necessary to consider how to define the value of time for the different types of delays as well as how to include these elements in a cost-benefit analysis. This article proposes that a delay is defined solely by the difference between the scheduled and realized arrival time. The recommendations are listed as follows: • The value of time for a delay is defined as done by the Danish Ministry of Transport (Trafikministeriet, 2003) no matter how or when the delay has occurred. The size of the delay is calculated solely by the difference between the planned and realized arrival time. • A negative delay is defined as the value of time of hidden waiting time. A negative delay is calculated as the difference between the planned and realized arrival time and is considered a surplus in the cost benefit analysis • A delay will not be included if the passenger arrives at his or her final destination on time even though the passenger may have experienced a delay (or travelled along a different route than planned) during the journey. Note that this paper is regarded as a prequel to the article “Optimization of timetable supplement from a passenger based socio-economic point of view” (Thorhauge, 2010). This article is based on the results of (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010).

Thorhauge, Mikkel

363

Crowd Avoidance and Diversity in Socio-Economic Systems and Recommendation  

CERN Document Server

Recommender systems recommend objects regardless of potential adverse effects of their overcrowding. We address this shortcoming by introducing crowd-avoiding recommendation where each object can be shared by only a limited number of users or where object utility diminishes with the number of users sharing it. We use real data to show that contrary to expectations, the introduction of these constraints enhances recommendation accuracy and diversity even in systems where overcrowding is not detrimental. The observed accuracy improvements are explained in terms of removing potential bias of the recommendation method. We finally propose a way to model artificial socio-economic systems with crowd avoidance and obtain first analytical results.

Gualdi, Stanislao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

2013-01-01

364

Integrating socio-economical dimensions in the ICRP cost-benefit model (a theoretical approach)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report aims at analysing, from a methodological point of view, the main problems associated with the integration of socio-economical dimensions in the cost-benefit model recommended by the ICRP in its publication no. 26. After recalling the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis, the elements to be retained in the objective function characterizing the analysis, and the question of the social benefit definitions are discussed. The theory of social surplus with an illustration taken from the radiological protection field is presented

365

Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

366

Effects of mothers' socio-economic status on the management of febrile conditions in their under five children in a resource limited setting  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research is shifting focus to the role of socioeconomic indicators in the promotion of health. As such an understanding of the roles that socio-economic factors play in improving health and health-seeking behaviour is important for public health policy. This is because the share of resources devoted to different policy options should depend on their relative effectiveness. Objective To measure the effect of socio-economic status (age, education, occupation, income, religion and family structure of mothers on the management of febrile conditions in under-fives children Method Two hundred mothers who brought their febrile under-five children to a health facility were interviewed on the treatment they gave to their children before reporting at health facility. Data collected were entered and analyzed using the SPSS software. Binary logistic regression was adopted for the quantitative analysis of the effect of socio-economic variables on the mothers' actions prior to utilizing the health facility. Results Results showed that while mothers' age was negatively correlated (-0.13, occupation was positively correlated (0.17 with under-fives mothers' action. Education, religion, income and family structure were however insignificant at 5% level Conclusion This poses a lot of challenges to policy makers in the developing nations where women's education and earning capacity is low. There is therefore a need to increase the number of women benefiting from micro credit. This will ensure that more women are engaged in a form of occupation that is profitable and can sustain the economic and health needs of the family.

Ayandiran Olufemi E

2006-01-01

367

Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika [Geography Department, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Prishchepov, Alexander [Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO), Department of Structural Development of Farms and Rural Areas, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambin, Eric F [Earth and Life Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, place L. Pasteur 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Radeloff, Volker C, E-mail: patrick.hostert@geo.hu-berlin.de [Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1598 (United States)

2011-10-15

368

The socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report highlights the socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France. It outlines that France is among the first three world leader on each link of the supply chain, and that the electronuclear sector has therefore a significant role in the French economy: 125.000 direct jobs and 410.000 generated jobs, a direct contribution of 0,71% to the GDP, each link of the supply chain (upstream, building, exploitation and maintenance, downstream) is present in the French economy, the electronuclear sector is part of the economic activity of local communities, the expertise of specialised companies contributes to their competitiveness in other domains, and the sector now invests to prepare its future. The socio-economic impacts of an EPR are analysed in terms of activity during nearly 90 years, with respect to its location, and according to technical and economic criteria. The last part outlines that the weight of this sector in the French economy could significantly increase

369

Education in health: the influence from socio-economic-cultural of pregnant woman  

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Full Text Available Objective: to describe the socio-economic-cultural pregnant women who use outpatient prenatal care and identify the themes of education for the pregnancy and puerperal period elected by women. Methods: it’s a cross-sectional, exploratory and descriptive study. In a prenatal care from healthcare center located in Rio de Janeiro were carried out 90 semi-structured interviews with pregnant women. This study was approved by Research Ethics Committee in Health Municipal Secretariat-RJ, number of register 231/08. Results: the predominant age group (48% was that of pregnant women 18 to 25 years, most (62% did not complete high school and are employed in the service sector. The absolute majority (94% have family income less than three minimum wages. The most women (76% did not plan the current pregnancy and 33% had previous abortion. Some women were drinking alcohol (13.3% and smoking (7.7%. Signs and symptoms of labor was the theme of education elected by the majority (56%. Conclusion: to understand the socio-economic and cultural allowed be identified vulnerabilities to the health of women. This research has great relevance to support the planning of health care. Through health education we can contribute to a good outcome of pregnancy and future pregnancies and to reduce the rates of maternal and neonatal mortality.

Alana Stéphanie Esteves Villar

2010-01-01

370

Domestic dog health worsens with socio-economic deprivation of their home communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-? and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife. PMID:24681221

Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N

2014-07-01

371

Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage : results from the World Health Survey  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage was observed within most of the countries, although lower income countries showed greater levels of relative inequalitythan higher income countries. Overall, lowest coverage and highest relative inequality were found in the low-income countries. The findings of this study may inform policies for oral health at global and national levels. To achieve universal coverage in oral healthcare, relevant interventions should reach the poorest population groups.

Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L

2012-01-01

372

Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed

373

Socio-economic Aspects of Gum Arabic Production in Dalanj Area, South Korodofan, Sudan  

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Full Text Available Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers’ associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production.

M.H. Mohammed

2013-01-01

374

SOCIO - ECONOMIC STATUS OF DALIT WOMEN-A STUDY IN ANDHRA PRADESH  

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Full Text Available The present paper examines issues related to the Dalit women vis-à-vis socio-economic problems of Andhra Pradesh. The disadvantages of caste, class gender and the exclusionary mechanism entrenched hierarchical social relations have had differential outcomes for Dalit women in our society. The constitution of India is enriched with several provisions for schedule castes to safeguard and promote their cultural, social, educational, and economic status in order to bring them in the mainstream of the nation. This paper also explores, who are living outside the mainstream of the society due to their lower social and economic status. The caste-based stratification of the society adversely affected the equality of opportunities to the disadvantage of these groups. It also examined the demerits of caste attached to the present scheduled castes in general and scheduled caste women in particular. The scheduled caste women are disadvantaged by their caste and gender and as such they are subject to exploitation and discrimination by their family members, by their caste people and by forward castes. The female feticide, illiteracy, gender inequality, different types of violence, dowry, child marriage, etc are few of the problems faced by scheduled caste women in present society. Apart from, this paper addresses the socio economic status of the Dalit women in Andhra Pradesh as well as in India.

D. Swarupa Rani

2014-03-01

375

Dietary and socio-economic factors in relation to Helicobacter pylori re-infection  

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Full Text Available AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori re-infection.METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H pylori infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups:?I-examined group (111 persons with H pylori re-infection and II-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected. The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic factors.RESULTS: A statistically significant lower frequency of fermented dairy products (P < 0.0001, vegetables (P = 0.02, and fruit (P = 0.008 consumption was noted among patients with H pylori re-infection as compared to those who had not been re-infected.CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of probiotic bacteria, mainly Lactobacillus, and antioxidants, mainly vitamin C (contained in fruit and vegetables, might decrease the risk of H pylori re-infection.

Miros?aw Jarosz, Ewa Rychlik, Magdalena Siuba, Wioleta Respondek, Ma?gorzata Ry?ko-Skiba, Iwona Sajór, Sylwia Guga?a, Tomasz B?a?ejczyk, Janusz Ciok

2009-03-01

376

Female Foeticide in Delhi/NCR: Exploring the Socio-Economic and Cultural Dimensions  

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Full Text Available Background: The social and psychological fibres of India are predominantly patriarchal and contributing extensively to the secondary status of women. It is yet to be seen if the difference in attitudes towards the practice of female foeticide varies in different socio-economic strata, and in among the different communities of India. Methodology: The present study is based on a door-to-door survey comprising 100 families, conducted in slum areas of Delhi/NCR. Most of the families living in these areas were immigrants from different states of India with different cultural practices and beliefs. Results: Though the studied participants differed in their cultural perceptions on role and status of women in society, majority of them testified that the practice is more prevalent in the middle and upper class society, and escalating demands of dowry was cited as the main reason behind it. Conclusion: The extent of practice of female foeticide is seen to vary among different socio-economic strata and communities. Taking this diversity into consideration, customized social-awareness campaigns must be organized in accordance with different cultural and socioeconomic circumstances existing in the diverse range of communities in India.

Deb Roumi, Bhatnagar P, Avasthy D

2012-09-01

377

Challenges to socio-economic impact modeling: lessons from the Alaska OCS Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurately assessing the socio-economic impacts of large-scale resource developments is a complex undertaking which must take account of the conditions under which development is occurring, including the local environmental, economic, social, and cultural conditions. Such impact assessments and modeling efforts are also affected by the policy context of model development. Thus, such factors as the characteristics of the project, the diversity of potential information demands, population and settlement densities, the local economic structure, and the demographic and socio-cultural uniqueness of the affected area all influence the accuracy and usefulness of assessments. This paper examines the context that has surrounded the development and use of models for assessing the socio-economic impacts of outer continental shelf (OCS) petroleum development on rural villages in Alaska - a setting which posed major challenges for impact modelling because of its unique characteristics. It thus provides both a description of the pragmatic steps and an example of the general principles necessary to design and use such models effectively.

Leistritz, F.L.; Chase, R.A.; Ekstrom, B.L.; Knapp, G.; Huskey, L.; Murdock, S.H.; Scott, M.J.

1985-12-01

378

Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia (at the following sites: Apatin, Ba?ka Palanka, Ba?ko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources, present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was realized during 2004 and 2005. Data were collected via survey with a structured interview. Socio-economic circumstances, together with ecological factors, have had an influence on the fish stock and number of commercial fishermen. Awareness of the occurring problems, both economic and ecological ones, is apparent, regardless of whether it is assessed in the field of commercial or recreational fishing. Fishery sector in Serbia is in a prolonged process of transition, with the enforcement of fishing regulations, but also the lack of control that leaves space for illegal commercial fishing. The statements, consciousness, experience and behavior of commercial fishermen represent a good basis for planning the sustainable development of fishing in this section of the Danube River. PMID:21674225

Smederevac-Lali?, Marija; Peši?, Radmilo; Cveji?, Slobodan; Simonovi?, Predrag

2012-05-01

379

Household energy consumption in the UK: A highly geographically and socio-economically disaggregated model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Devising policies for a low carbon society requires a careful understanding of energy consumption in different types of households. In this paper, we explore patterns of UK household energy use and associated carbon emissions at national level and also at high levels of socio-economic and geographical disaggregation. In particular, we examine specific neighbourhoods with contrasting levels of deprivation, and typical 'types' (segments) of UK households based on socio-economic characteristics. Results support the hypothesis that different segments have widely differing patterns of consumption. We show that household energy use and associated carbon emissions are both strongly, but not solely, related to income levels. Other factors, such as the type of dwelling, tenure, household composition and rural/urban location are also extremely important. The methodology described in this paper can be used in various ways to inform policy-making. For example, results can help in targeting energy efficiency measures; trends from time series results will form a useful basis for scenario building; and the methodology may be used to model expected outcomes of possible policy options, such as personal carbon trading or a progressive tax regime on household energy consumption

380

The combined impact of rural residence and socio-economic status on premature mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The health of rural and urban populations differs, with rural areas appearing healthier. However, it is unknown whether the benefit of living in rural areas is felt by individuals in all levels of deprivation, or whether some suffer a disadvantage of rural residence. For England and Wales 2001-2003 premature mortality rates were calculated, subdivided by individual deprivation and gender, for areas with differing rurality characteristics. Premature mortality data (age 50-retirement) and a measure of the individual's deprivation (National Statistics Socio-economic Classification 1-7) was obtained from death certificates. Overall premature mortality was examined as well as premature mortality subdivided by major cause. Male premature mortality rates (age 50-64) fell with increasing rurality for individuals in all socio-economic status classifications. The most deprived individuals benefitted most from residence in increasingly rural areas. Similar trends were observed when premature mortality was subdivided by the major causes of death. Female premature mortality rates (age 50-59) demonstrated similar trends but the differences between urban and rural areas were less marked. PMID:24071654

Jones, Natalia R; Lake, Iain R

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
381

Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people  

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Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

2010-12-01

382

Marketing of Public and Business Affairs Subsystems of Socio-Economic Environment  

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Full Text Available The Romanian society is crossing one of the most important stages of its transition toward the integration in the European Union started with January 1st, 2007; this will define the final processes bound for the socio-economic reconstruction. Based on the previous experiences, an assumption rose up that, at this moment in the Romanian society there are two systems ñ business and public administration, placed on opposite, antagonistic, unfriendly sides. At the same time, there is the opinion that a proper public and private marketing could be the link between them. The link between these systems should make the relation useful to create and handle the cooperation and cooperation climate in these two environments. The paper aims to present the systems, their characteristics, the opinion about the other, the identified link components, and to propose a solution for the link improvement. A small survey of the membersí opinions, in both systems, will be the base of the analysis. The first stage is to analyze each environment as an independent system: business system (BSy and public administration system (PASy. We will present the structure, characteristics, interactions with other socio-economic components, etc. The second stage will focus on the role of public and private marketing as tools of feedback reaction of the systems to the general environment dynamics. The marketing behavior is typical for the BSy and its level of marketing knowledge is higher than the poor level of marketing knowledge in PASy lacking the marketing attitude about public services.

Adriana Grigorescu

2008-06-01

383

A bridge between liquids and socio-economic systems: the key role of interaction strengths  

CERN Document Server

One distinctive and pervasive aspect of social systems is the fact that they comprise several kinds of agents. Thus, in order to draw parallels with physical systems one is lead to consider binary (or multi-component) compounds. Recent views about the mixing of liquids in solutions gained from neutron and X-ray scattering show these systems to have a number of similarities with socio-economic systems. It appears that such phenomena as rearrangement of bonds in a solution, gas condensation, selective evaporation of molecules can be transposed in a natural way to socio-economic phenomena. These connections provide a novel perspective for looking at social systems which we illustrate through some examples. For instance, we interpret suicide as an escape phenomenon and in order to test that interpretation we consider social systems characterized by very low levels of social interaction. For those systems suicide rates are found to be 10 to 100 times higher than in the general population. Another interesting paral...

Röhner, B M

2004-01-01

384

The Christian ethics of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching  

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Full Text Available This paper highlights the relationship between economic scienceand Christian moral in order to analyze the idea of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching (CST. In the first period leading up to the Second Vatican Council (1891-1962, from Pope Leo XIII to Pope John XXIII, the idea of development was connected both to technical and industrial progress, and to the universal values of justice, charity, and truth,which national communities were asked to follow. During the Conciliar period (1962-1979, the concept of development assumes a social and economic dimension, and so it becomes one of the main pillars of Catholic Social Teaching, which introduces the earliest definition of integral human development. Ultimately, in the post-Conciliar phase (1979-2009 including Benedict XVI’s pontificate, the idea of integral human development reaches its maturity by incorporating the complexity of real-world economic interactions. Finally, this paper shows how the ethics bolstered by the Catholic Social Teaching is characterized by two distinct but complementary lines of thought: moral rules for both political action, and for socio-economic issues.

Tony E. Persico

2011-11-01

385

ACCESS TO PUBLIC OPEN SPACE: IS DISTRIBUTION EQUITABLE ACROSS DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC AREAS  

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Full Text Available During the past decade, the role of the built environment on physical activity has been well investigated by public health, transportation and urban design scholars and it has been shown that different aspects of the built environment can influence physical activity Public open spaces (POS like parks have many health benefits and they can be important settings and destinations for having physical activity. Inequality in access to POS which may influence the amount of physical activity can be a reason for lower physical activity among deprived neighbourhoods. This paper aims to examine whether objective access to public open spaces (POS like parks is equally across the different socio-economic status (SES areas in the City of Melbourne. Objective access to POS was measured in network distance using geographic information systems (GIS and area SES was obtained using the SEIFA (Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas index. The results showed there was a significant difference in access to POS according to the SES areas. There was a significant negative correlation between the access to POS and the SES areas in which lower SES areas had poorer access to POS in comparison with the higher ones.

Mohammad Javad Koohsari

2011-12-01

386