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Sample records for parental socio-economic position

  1. Effects of parental socio-economic conditions on facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Susanne; Fieder, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Socio-economic conditions during early life are known to affect later life outcomes such as health or social success. We investigated whether family socio-economic background may also affect facial attractiveness. We used the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (n = 8434) to analyze the association between an individual's parental socio-economic background (in terms of father's highest education and parental income) and that individual's facial attractiveness (estimated by rating of high school yearbook photographs when subjects were between 17 and 20 years old), controlling for subjects' sex, year of birth, and father's age at subjects' birth. Subjects' facial attractiveness increased with increasing father's highest educational attainment as well as increasing parental income, with the latter effect being stronger for female subjects as well. We conclude that early socio-economic conditions predict, to some extent, facial attractiveness in young adulthood. PMID:25548886

  2. Close relations to parents and emotional symptoms among adolescents : beyond socio-economic impact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Holstein, BjØrn E

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between trustful communication with parents and frequency of emotional symptoms in schoolchildren and whether this relationship was modified by the family's socio-economic position. METHODS: Pooled data (n = 15,646) from the Danish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children surveys 2002, 2006 and 2010 were analysed by multilevel multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: 8 % of all schoolchildren reported emotional symptoms almost daily. Odds ratio for daily symptoms was 2.1 (1.8-2.4) for children without trustful communication with parents compared to children with trustful communication. This association appears unaffected by family occupational class. A substantial socio-economic gradient in emotional symptoms persisted, independent of parent-child communication. CONCLUSIONS: Trustful communication with parents might have a fundamental importance, regardless of socio-economic position.

  3. Cooperation of Preschool Teachers and Parents – The Differences in Environments with Different Socio-Economics Status

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    Irena Janžekovi? Žmauc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschool education is not possible without the cooperation of the parents, because it represents a complement to family education. Socio-economic status of parents is one of the factors that affect the cooperation of preschool teachers and parents. The empirical study checked whether there are differences in the types and frequency of participation of preschool teachers and parents in the areas of two Slovenian statistical regions that differ in the socio-economic status. We found that preschool teachers in the environment with lower socio-economic status more often cooperate with parents in some formal and informal modes of cooperation than they do in the environment with higher socio-economic status.

  4. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  5. Socio-Economic Status and Parental Savings for Higher Education among Malaysian Bumiputera Families

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    Nor Rashidah Zainal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status of a family is a benchmark for a student in Malaysia to get financial aid in education, on top of their academic performance. As the number of students obtaining good grades in their Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia examination increases, entry to public universities become more competitive and the chances to get a full education financing become smaller. Most students resort to loans provided by PTPTN as many still do not have any form of saving to finance their higher education. This study attempts to explore on parental saving for children’s higher education among Bumiputera across different socio-economic groups.  A survey was conducted in UiTM and six of its affiliated colleges, with the total respondents of 371. Questionnaires to parents were distributed through the students. The results of the study reveal that only 15% of the students sampled received a form of financial aid from the government. The findings also show high correlation between the socio-economic status of parents and the level of awareness towards saving for their children. The findings are hoped to create awareness in the society that saving incentives for higher education can be utilized by all low and middle-income families in all communities.

  6. Balancing parental responsibility and state obligation in fulfilling the socio-economic rights of children under the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

    OpenAIRE

    Ankut, Priscilla Yachat

    2003-01-01

    "The prevailing realities of 'severely depressed' African economies make it difficult for children to enjoy the socio-economic rights guaranteed under the Children's Charter. This study takes the view that the responsibility of parents and the obligations of the state towards children's socio-economic rights must be mutually supportive. It therefore proposes the need for balancing parental responsibility and state obligations in the struggle to ensure that the socio-economic rights of childre...

  7. Life course socio-economic position and quality of life in adulthood: a systematic review of life course models

    OpenAIRE

    Niedzwiedz Claire L; Katikireddi Srinivasa V; Pell Jill P; Mitchell Richard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A relationship between current socio-economic position and subjective quality of life has been demonstrated, using wellbeing, life and needs satisfaction approaches. Less is known regarding the influence of different life course socio-economic trajectories on later quality of life. Several conceptual models have been proposed to help explain potential life course effects on health, including accumulation, latent, pathway and social mobility models. This systematic review a...

  8. The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey

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    Leppin Anja

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems to apply for girls more than for boys and for parental occupation more than family affluence. For future studies it might be important to look at the effects of socio-economic status within the context of other peer, family and school related factors in order to assess to what extent those factors might mediate the effects of social class background.

  9. Implications of ParentsSocio-Economic Status in the Choice of English Language Learning Strategies among Nigeria’s Secondary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mallam Adamu Babikkoi; Noor Zainab binti Abdul Razak

    2014-01-01

    Studies have indicated that, less affluent families are less likely to have the financial and or time availability to provide their children with academic support compared to affluent families.This study investigated the relationship between Language Learning Strategies used by secondary school students in Nigeria and their Parents Socio-economic Status. The data for this research was provided by 559 respondents who study English as a second language and belonging to three varied socio-econom...

  10. Does life course socio-economic position influence chronic disabling pain in older adults? A general population study

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey, Rosie J.; Belcher, John; Croft, Peter R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic pain is the leading cause of disability in developed countries. Prevalence is linked with socio-economic position (SEP), but little is known about the influence of SEP on disabling pain over the life course. We have investigated the influence of different life course trajectories of SEP on disabling pain (‘pain interference’) in postal surveys of adults aged ?50 years sampled from the general population of adults registered with three UK general practices. Methods: Current...

  11. Socio-economic position and mental disorders in a working-age Finnish population: the health 2000 study

    OpenAIRE

    Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Ahola, Kirsi; Elovainio, Marko; Kivimäki, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka; Isometsä, Erkki; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Virtanen, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    Background: Mental disorders are more common in people with lower socio-economic position (SEP) but it is not known which specific SEP component is most strongly linked to poor mental health. We compared the strength of associations of three SEP components—occupation, income and education—with common mental disorders in a Finnish population. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 4561 men and women aged 30–65 years. Mental disorders were assessed usin...

  12. Low socio-economic position is associated with poor social networks and social support: results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jöckel Karl; Möhlenkamp Stephan; Stang Andreas; Beck Eva-Maria; Möbus Susanne; Dragano Nico; Weyers Simone; Erbel Raimund; Siegrist Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Social networks and social support are supposed to contribute to the development of unequal health within populations. However, little is known about their socio-economic distribution. In this study, we explore this distribution. Methods This study analyses the association of two indicators of socio-economic position, education and income, with different measures of social networks and support. Cross-sectional data have been derived from the baseline examination of an epid...

  13. A systematic review of the impact of parental socio-economic status and home environment characteristics on children’s oral health related quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Santhosh; Kroon, Jeroen; Lalloo, Ratilal

    2014-01-01

    Childhood circumstances such as socio-economic status and family structure have been found to influence psychological, psychosocial attributes and Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in children. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the published literature to assess the influence of parental Socio-Economic Status (SES) and home environment on children’s OHRQoL. A systematic search was conducted in August 2013 using PubMed, Medline via OVID, CINAHL...

  14. Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent-child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent-child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent-child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness. PMID:25009516

  15. Socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality in low- and middle-income countries: A review of the international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Houweling, A. J.; Kunst, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the probability of dying in childhood is strongly related to the socio-economic position of the parents or household in which the child is born. This article reviews the evidence on the magnitude of socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality within LMICs, discusses possible causes and highlights entry points for intervention. Sources of data: Evidence on socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality in LMICs is mostly bas...

  16. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status

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    SarahRobins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009 that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provides preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child’s name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms, but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams. Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child’s name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children’s early literacy skills and school readiness.

  17. The Ecology of Young Children's Behaviour and Social Competence: Child Characteristics, Socio-Economic Factors and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Using a longitudinal, UK representative sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, the present study examined the effects of socio-economic factors on mother- and teacher-rated behaviour, and the unique and cumulative contribution of both risk and protective factors inherent in children's proximal and distal influences to behaviour during the…

  18. Low socio-economic position is associated with poor social networks and social support: results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study

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    Jöckel Karl

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks and social support are supposed to contribute to the development of unequal health within populations. However, little is known about their socio-economic distribution. In this study, we explore this distribution. Methods This study analyses the association of two indicators of socio-economic position, education and income, with different measures of social networks and support. Cross-sectional data have been derived from the baseline examination of an epidemiological cohort study of 4.814 middle aged urban inhabitants in Germany (Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out to estimate the risk of having poor social networks and support across socio-economic groups. Results Socially disadvantaged persons more often report poor social networks and social support. In multivariate analyses, based on education, odds ratios range from 1.0 (highest education to 4.9 (lowest education in a graded way. Findings based on income show similar effects, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5. There is one exception: no association of SEP with close ties living nearby and regularly seen was observed. Conclusion Poor social networks and low social support are more frequent among socio-economically disadvantaged people. To some extent, this finding varies according to the indicator chosen to measure these social constructs.

  19. Socio-economic position as an intervention against overweight and obesity in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shunquan; Ding, Yingying; Wu, Fuquan; Li, Ruisheng; Hu, Yan; Hou, Jun; Mao, Panyong

    2015-01-01

    Studies that investigated the association between socio-economic position (SEP) and obesity in children suggest inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to summarize and quantify the current evidence on SEP and risks of overweight and obesity in children aged 0–15 years. Relevant studies published between 1990 to Sep 4, 2014 were searched in Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Risk estimates from individual studies were pooled using random-effects models, according to lowest vs the highest SEP category. A total of 62 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The odds of both overweight risk and obesity risk were higher in the children with lowest SEP than in those with highest SEP (OR, 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03–1.17, and OR, 1.41, 95% CI: 1.29–1.55, respectively). Sub-group analyses showed that the inverse relationships between SEP and childhood overweight and obesity were only found in high-income countries and in more economic developed areas. In conclusion, our study suggests that children with lower SEP had higher risks of overweight and obesity, and the increased risks were independent of the income levels of countries. PMID:26112253

  20. Cancer awareness and socio-economic position : results from a population-based study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Line; Pedersen, Anette Fischer

    2014-01-01

    Formålet med dette studie var at undersøge ”cancer awareness”, dvs. kendskabet til symptomer på kræft, risikofaktorer for kræft og 5-års overlevelsen for fire kræfttyper, i en dansk population. Derudover ses der nærmere på sammenhænge mellem socio-økonomisk position og ”cancer awareness”. Resultaterne viser, at der er en stærk social gradient i ”cancer awareness”. Personer med et lavt uddannelsesniveau og en lav husstandsindkomst var mindre tilbøjelige til at genkende symptomer på kræft og risikofaktorer for kræft end personer med et højt uddannelsesniveau og en høj husstandsindkomst. Resultaterne viser dog ingen klar sammenhæng mellem socio-økonomisk position og kendskabet til 5-års overlevelsen af kræft. Studiet bygger på data fra i alt 3.000 tilfældigt udvalgte danskere (på mindst 30 år), som besvarede den danske version af spørgeskemaet ”Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer”. Da ”cancer awareness” har betydning for adfærd, fx lægesøgning, er det vigtigt at adressere denne ulighed i fremtidige sundhedsstrategier.

  1. Barriers to healthcare seeking, beliefs about cancer and the role of socio-economic position. A Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Line; Wulff, Christian Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer-related health behaviours may be affected by barriers to healthcare seeking and beliefs about cancer. The aim was to assess anticipated barriers to healthcare seeking and beliefs about cancer in a sample of the Danish population and to assess the association with socio-economic position. METHODS: A population-based telephone interview with 3000 randomly sampled persons aged 30years or older was performed using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure from 31 May to 4 July 2011. The Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure includes statements about four anticipated barriers to healthcare seeking and three positively and three negatively framed beliefs about cancer. For all persons, register-based information on socio-economic position was obtained through Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: Two anticipated barriers, worry about what the doctor might find and worry about wasting the doctor's time, were present among 27% and 15% of the respondents, respectively. Overall, a high proportion of respondents concurred with positive beliefs about cancer; fewer concurred with negative beliefs. Having a low educational level and a low household income were strongly associated with having negative beliefs about cancer. CONCLUSION: The fact that worry about what the doctor might find and worry about wasting the doctor's time were commonly reported barriers call for initiatives in general practice. The association between low educational level and low household income and negative beliefs about cancer might to some degree explain the negative socio-economic gradient in cancer outcome.

  2. Socio-economic position and adolescents’ health in Italy: the role of selfesteem and self-efficacy

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    Alessio Zambon

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To underline the importance of self-esteem and self-efficacy as aspects of health promotion, we investigated the hypothesis that self-esteem and self-efficacy mediate the effect of socio-economic position on adolescents’ health. This association has been confirmed by our data.

    Methods: Data derive from the international Health Behaviours in School-aged Children (HBSC study, 2001- 02 edition: a representative sample of Italian children (age groups of 11, 13 and 15years, N=4386 was administered a questionnaire at school. We tested with a multivariate model the effect of economic wellbeing on health and behavioural outcomes, first excluding, and then including, self-esteem and self-efficacy among the determinants.

    Results: Perceiving poorer health, not eating enough fruits and vegetables and doing too little physical activity are conditions affected by economic well-being (O.R. of best-off to worst-off are 0.65, 0.83 and 0.46, all statistically significant, while smoking habit is not affected. Including self-esteem and self-efficacy into the model significantly lowers, or annihilates, the effect of economic conditions on these outcomes.

    Conclusions: Economic well-being affects adolescents’ health (perceived health and health behaviours in Italy, but it is reasonable to hypothesize that self-esteem and self-efficacy are among the mediators of this effect. Targeted interventions aimed at enhancing self-esteem and self-efficacy could therefore help in mitigating the effect of health inequalities.

  3. Social disparities in BMI trajectories across adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime socio-economic position: 1986–2004

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Philippa; O’malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is rapidly increasing in industrialized countries, with long-term health and social consequences. There is also a strong social patterning of obesity and overweight, with a higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities and those from a lower socio-economic position (SEP). Most of the existing work in this area, however, is based on cross-sectional data or single cohort studies. No national studies to date have examined how social d...

  4. The effect of health, socio-economic position, and mode of data collection on non-response in health interview surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Gundgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between potential explanatory factors (socio-economic factors and health) and non-response in two general population health interview surveys (face-to-face and telephone), and to compare the effects of the two interview modes on non-response patterns. METHODS: Data derives from The Danish Health Interview Survey 2000 (face-to-face interview) and The Funen County Health Survey 2000/2001 (telephone interview). Data on all invited individuals were obtained from administrative registers and linked to survey data at individual level. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between potential explanatory factors and non-response. RESULTS: The overall response rate was higher in the face-to-face interview survey (74.5%) than in the telephone survey (69.2%). Refusal was the most common reason for non-response and the same factors were generally associated with non-response in both modes of interview. The non-response rate was high among persons withlow socio-economic position. No significant associations between health and non-response were found. CONCLUSIONS: Health status does not play a systematic role for non-response rates in health interview surveys, but the non-response rate is higher in lower socio-economic groups. Analyses of non-response should be performed to understand the implications of survey findings.

  5. The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Leppin Anja; Richter Matthias; Nic Gabhainn Saoirse

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive) alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic d...

  6. Recalled Test Anxiety in Relation to Achievement, in the Context of General Academic Self-Concept, Study Habits, Parental Involvement and Socio-Economic Status among Grade 6 Ethiopian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…

  7. Note about socio-economic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    2006-01-01

    This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects – in this context we refer to the guidelines for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations – reference is here made to ”Road Infrastructure Planning – a Decision-oriented approach” (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure projects are common and can be made at different levels of detail depending on the type of project and the decision making phase. A common feature of the different levels of detail of the socio-economic analysis is that the planned project(s) is compared with a basic; the basic alternative or a null alternative. In socio-economic evaluations it is intended to describe the effects in economic terms whenever possible (”+” is used when it is positive for the society, and ”–” when it is negative for the society). However, not all the effects for the society can be described in economic terms, and instead these effects must be described qualitatively. This note describes the socio-economic evaluation based on market prices and not factor prices which has been the tradition in Denmark till now. This is due to the recommendation from the Ministry of Transport to start using calculations based on market prices (Ministry of Transport, 2003). However, when following courses at CTT, it is recommended to use the factor price method which will be described in further details in a later chapter.

  8. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

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    C. Poeplau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past two decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988–1997 (Inventory I, 2001–2007 (Inventory II and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III, and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0–20 cm SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr?1 over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72. Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  9. Positive trends in organic carbon storage in Swedish agricultural soils due to unexpected socio-economic drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeplau, C.; Bolinder, M. A.; Eriksson, J.; Lundblad, M.; Kätterer, T.

    2015-03-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle as a potential sink or source. Land management influences SOC storage, so the European Parliament decided in 2013 that changes in carbon stocks within a certain land use type, including arable land, must be reported by all member countries in their national inventory reports for greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show the temporal dynamics of SOC during the past two decades in Swedish agricultural soils, based on soil inventories conducted in 1988-1997 (Inventory I), 2001-2007 (Inventory II) and from 2010 onwards (Inventory III), and link SOC changes with trends in agricultural management. From Inventory I to Inventory II, SOC increased in 16 out of 21 Swedish counties, while from Inventory I to Inventory III it increased in 18 out of 21 counties. Mean topsoil (0-20 cm) SOC concentration for the entire country increased from 2.48 to 2.67% C (a relative increase of 7.7%, or 0.38% yr-1) over the whole period. We attributed this to a substantial increase in ley as a proportion of total agricultural area in all counties. The horse population in Sweden has more than doubled since 1981 and was identified as the main driver for this management change (R2 = 0.72). Due to subsidies introduced in the early 1990s, the area of long-term set-aside (mostly old leys) also contributed to the increase in area of ley. The carbon sink function of Swedish agricultural soils demonstrated in this study differs from trends found in neighbouring countries. This indicates that country-specific or local socio-economic drivers for land management must be accounted for in larger-scale predictions.

  10. Gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents: socio-economic and behavioral correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in tooth loss among Chilean adolescents and its association with selected socio-economic indicators and oral-health-related behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on 9,163 Chilean adolescents obtained using multistage random cluster procedures. Clinical recordings included information on missing teeth and the participants provided information on socio-demographic factors and oral-related behaviors. Two eruption-time-adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between gender, tooth loss and socio-economic position/oral-health-related behaviors. RESULTS: The association between gender and tooth loss remained after adjusting for age, eruption times in both the socio-economic position regression model and the oral-health-related behaviors model. Tooth loss followed social gradients for the variables paternal income and achieved parental education, with students reporting a paternal income

  11. Parental Socio-Economic Status, Family Structure and Living Environment as Predictors of Violence against Children in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Oni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to find out whether parental socioeconomic status, family structure and living environment are predictors of violence against children. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the population of the study consisted of all the children in public primary schools and in junior secondary schools within Lagos state of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. Random samples of twenty five children were picked from each of the sixteen schools selected. This gives a total 400 participants that were used for the study. Experts in Sociology, measurement and evaluation certified the content validity of the questionnaire, while the co-efficient of the reliability of the four sections of the questionnaire were ascertained to be 0.63; 0.68; 0.66 and 0.73, respectively for sections A,B,C and D. Chi-square statistical tools was used to test the hypotheses formulated. Major findings of the study include the fact that parental socioeconomic status significantly influence violence against children, family structure significantly influence violence against children and that living environment also significantly influence violence against children. This study conclude by recommending among others that the Lagos State government should put machinery in motion to improve the poverty level of individuals living in Lagos State of Nigeria and should also make available social services and amenities that are supportive of family well being in order to avoid any form of violence against children.

  12. Socio-economic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of an electric generating station may have socio-economic effects upon the community in which it is located. Among the possible effects during construction are changes in population leading to strains in housing, schools, employment, transportation, and increased demands on local government services. The scale of the effects varies according to the population base of the county in which the plant is located and the distance of the site from major metropolitan areas. Increased demands for county and municipal public services also vary during the construction period. In some instances the increased cost of public services can result in large budget deficits at both the county and municipal level as construction period revenue increases fail to keep pace with service costs. In the study case of potential Eastern Shore power plant sites, annual municipal budget deficits were estimated to range from 3 to 21% for nuclear plant construction. The same study projected the largest county deficit at 4%, with other counties experiencing revenues and expenditures which were essentially in balance. After a new plant starts operation, the tax revenue to county government is on the order of several million dollars per year or greater depending on plant size and local tax rates, and the service costs are small

  13. Perceived Parental Investment in School as a Mediator of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Indicators and Educational Outcomes in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L.; Cavanagh, Thomas M.; Oetting, Eugene R.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, 1.3 million students fail to graduate, dropping the United States' high school graduation rate to 69%. One of the most salient predictors of high school dropout is socio-economic status (SES), which makes important an improved understanding of the reasons why SES affects educational outcomes. In this study, multilevel mediation models…

  14. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School aged Children of Iran : Role of Personal and Parents Related Socio- Economic and Educational Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Mahmoodzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Iranian children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem.Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children [7-11 years old] from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method.chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Findings: Of the 1600 questionnaires were distributed, 918 [57%] were completed and included in the final analysis and rest of them were excluded which weren’t filled by parents and also out of our study age period range. The gender of the subjects was equally distributed [48.6% males and 51.4% females] approximately. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% [n=172] and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% [n=51]. There was not significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, not working of father, working of mother, single parent, fail school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection[UTI], not breast feeding, low birth weight to compare of non-enuretics. But unwilling pregnancy, neonatal icter, febrile convulsion, and mother smoking didn’t increase prevalence of this problem. 19.8% [n=31] of children with this problem had been seen by physician. Medication was the most preferred treatment option for enuresis [64.5%].Conclusion: Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found out Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.

  15. Validity of two simple measures for estimating life-course socio-economic position in cross-sectional postal survey data in an older population: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP)

    OpenAIRE

    Lacey Rosie J; Belcher John; Croft Peter R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Since few cohorts encompass the whole life-course, many studies that measure socio-economic position (SEP) across the life-course rely on participant recall of SEP measures from cross-sectional postal or interview surveys. It is also particularly important that SEP measures should be appropriate for the age of the population studied, as the level of missing data has been shown to increase in older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of recall of t...

  16. Seasca bliain faoi bhláth: socio-economic rights and the European Convention on Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Liam

    2013-01-01

    This paper firstly provides an overview of the rights and freedoms contained in the ECHR, before going on to examine in more detail the protection of socio-economic rights under the ECHR. The issue of positive obligations, discrimination and socio-economic rights will be briefly examined, before a sustained review of socio-economic rights and (i) the right to life; (ii) inhuman and degrading treatment; (iii) family and private life; (iv) property and (v) education rights. 

  17. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  18. Income Redistribution and Socio-economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mericková Beáta Mikušová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The trade off efficiency and equity issue, which is represented by income redistribution, becomes increasingly debated not only in economic and social, but also in political dimension. Solution of this trade-off problem is projected into the implementation of social policy and results achieved in macroeconomics policy, with the goal to define the optimal scope and character of the income redistribution processes. The submitted empirical study responds to this problem through the investigation of research question focused on the existence of a relationship between the social protection expenditure (expenditure on policy of family, old age and unemployment and the achieved level of socio-economic development (quantified by Human Development Index HDI. The existence of this relationship is statistically tested in a sample of 15 countries. The research sample is heterogeneous in relation to the analyzed indicators, and it contains countries with a different level of economics development and income redistribution policy. Based on the results of quantitative analysis in most surveyed countries, impact of social protection expenditure on the reached level of economic development was confirmed. The correlation between the social protection expenditure and socio-economic development is positive in the case of the family and old-age pension policy, and negative in the case of employment policy

  19. Sustainable Livestock Farming for Improving Socio-Economic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamsuddoha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is the most effective concept to improve socio-economic condition, including environment. Constructive socio-economic changes are getting priority in recent years among academia and business sector in Bangladesh. Bangladesh poultry sub-sector has long supply chains having associated with various stakeholders. In this paper, a case poultry farm was taken to examine a production process that links with socio-economic benefits. Design science method under the quantitative paradigm was chosen to develop a model for the case industry. A Simulation model was developed using simul8 software to construct the real poultry operation. The objectives of this paper are to construct a sustainable model for a case poultry industry along with socio-economic issues. Later, simulated model output will examine it through various performance indicators (KPIs to find out the impacts on socio-economic benefits. Numbers of KPIs have been briefly discussed in light of the research problem to illustrate positive effects of sustainable production.

  20. IPCC Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Socio-Economic Baseline Dataset consists of population, human development, economic, water resources, land...

  1. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  2. Socio-economic impacts of bioenergy production

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The first international book to address the wide-ranging socio-economic impacts of bioenergy Offers a multi-disciplinary, multi-national analysis of different bioenergy value chains Builds on results of the EU-supported project on "Global Assessment of Biomass of Bio-product Impacts on Socio-Economics and Sustainability"

  3. Time trends in socio-economic factors and risk of hospitalisation with infectious diseases in pre-school children 1985-2004 : a Danish register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-SØrensen, Sofie; SØndergaard, Grethe

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper respiratory, lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, ear and fever infections. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Children of parents on sick leave or early retirement had an increased risk of being hospitalised with an infection compared with children of employed parents. A clear inverse educational gradient in risk of offspring hospitalisation was also found. From 1985 to 2004 the inverse associations between parental education and risk of hospitalisation grew stronger, whereas the comparatively weaker association between household income and risk of offspring hospitalisation decreased in magnitude. The association between socio-economic status and hospitalisation was strongest for lower respiratory, gastrointestinal and ear infections. This study documented a socially patterned hospitalisation of pre-school children in Denmark. Future studies should investigate possible explanations for the increased risk among children from families with low socio-economic status.

  4. Fruit and vegetable intake in relation to health-related and socio-economic characteristics among parents-to-be in Västerbotten, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriks, Sophia; Hooft, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was part of the Salut programme with the goal to improve the health and well-being of the population of Västerbotten. The target group in this study were the parents-to-be. An adequate fruit and vegetable (FV) intake can contribute to a better health and can be influenced by several factors. This can be used to describe the characteristics for different groups.Aims The aim of this study was to describe the FV intake among parents-to-be in Västerbotten. A further aim wa...

  5. Homogamy in socio-economic background and education, and the dissolution of cohabiting unions

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Mäenpää; Marika Jalovaara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the increasing prevalence of cohabitation, knowledge of how socio-economic homogamy affects the stability of cohabiting unions is scant. Few studies have compared the effects of homogamy in both ascribed and achieved socio-economic status on union dissolution. Objective: Our aim is to determine how homogamy and heterogamy in educational level and parental social class affect the risk of cohabitation dissolution in Finland. Methods: We use unique Finnish register data...

  6. Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country’s socio-economic status

    OpenAIRE

    Blignaut, James N.; Sharma, Gyan P.; Esler, Karen J.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relations...

  7. Socio-economic Models During the Period of Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Elena MANOLESCU

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the state involving importance in finding the solutions for getting over the present economic crisis through responsibility, the labor relations and the affairs environment regulation and the income redistribution. Into this work, are analyzed the 4 socio-economic European models: the Anglo-Saxon liberal model, the Scandinavian universalistic model, the continental corporatist model, the Mediterranean model and the European Union countries position into these models. Also...

  8. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ?143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations’ activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises’ reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations

  9. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongondo, F.O., E-mail: f.ongondo@soton.ac.uk [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Williams, I.D. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Dietrich, J. [Technische Universität Berlin, Centre for Scientific Continuing Education and Cooperation, Cooperation and Consulting for Environmental Questions (kubus) FH10-1, Fraunhoferstraße 33-36, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Carroll, C. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Lanchester Building, University of Southampton, University Rd., Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We analyse ICT equipment reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. • Most common ICT products dealt with are computers and related equipment. • In the UK in 2010, ?143,750 appliances were reused. • Marketing and legislative difficulties are the common hurdles to reuse activities. • Socio-economic enterprises can significantly contribute to resource efficiency. - Abstract: In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the UK from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the UK in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the UK market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into “reuse parks” would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations’ activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises’ reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations.

  10. Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that most of the sampled NHIS patrons and non patrons were literate, engaged in meaningful employment, mostly married with average income, and were still in their active ages, and demonstrated meaningful exposure to insurance health information, which enable them to be or not to be active participants of the scheme. From the regression analysis, it was evident that all the variables except religion influenced insurance consumption positively whereas religion affects health insurance consumption negatively. Based on this, we recommended among other things, a re-alignment of health insurance marketing strategies with consumers socio-economic and demographic characteristics, as a measure to boost patronage.Key words: Socio-Economic; Demographic; Health insurance; Consumption

  11. Socio-economic project evaluation in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical basis for a socio-economic project evaluation can be doubtful and specific analyses can involve quite essential uncertainty. Among serious theoretical problems of the energy sector there should be named the price distortions, due to various taxes. The choice of the presumed calculation interest can be difficult, due to the extremely long-range energy-political planning. (EG) 10 refs

  12. EFFECT OF PROMOTIONAL MIX ON CONSUMER SOCIO-ECONOMIC VALUES FOR SELECT NONDURABLE GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vishnu Prasanth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of promotional factors (namely Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion and Public Relation those factors are main factors for the actions of a firm on socio-economic values for consume the non-durable goods and those promotional factors helps to distinguish the products from the competitors. In this study, aim to how promotional factors are effect the consumer’s socio-economic values. Quantitative data was collected using the non-probability self administered questionnaire that consists of questions with 5-points Likert scales distributed to our samples of individuals. By using ANOVA and Ranking Method, it is found that, promotional factors are maintain the close affiliation and significantly difference between the consumers purchase based on their socio-economic values. The results showed that promotional mix factors (namely Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion and Public Relation have positive and significant effect on consumers’ socio-economic values.

  13. Usos Sociales de la Telenovela por Familias Cubanas de Diferentes Posiciones Socioeconómicas / Social Uses of Soap Operas by Cuban Families of Different Socio-Economics Positions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz, Drake Tapia; Yilian, Machado Pérez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio constituye un análisis de los usos sociales de la telenovela brasileña por parte de tres familias cubanas, residentes en La Habana, de diferentes posiciones socioeconómicas (alta, media y baja). Descansa en la perspectiva cualitativa y en el método etnográfico de investigación. Utiliza [...] técnicas tales como la observación participante, la entrevista en profundidad, el completamiento de frases y el grupo de discusión. Da cuenta de los procesos de apropiación y asignación de sentidos en torno a la telenovela. En las tres familias, el melodrama se erige como espacio promotor de entretenimiento, escape de la realidad y de interacciones comunicativas. Las principales diferencias se derivan de factores asociados a la ubicación de las familias en el contexto más amplio que las contiene, así como de los procesos subjetivos que generan estrategias y significaciones singulares por parte de los miembros. Abstract in english This study is an analysis of the social uses of a Brazilian soap opera in three Cuban families -specifically from Havana-from different socioeconomic positions (high, medium, and low). It relies on a qualitative perspective and ethnographic approaches. It also uses techniques such as participant obs [...] ervation, in-depth interviews, completion of sentences, and group discussion. In doing so, the study addresses the processes of appropriation and allocation of meanings around the soap opera. In all three families, melodrama rises as a space for entertainment, a way of escaping reality, and communicative interactions. The main differences arise from factors associated with the location of families in the broader context that contains them, as well as subjective processes that generate unique strategies and meanings by different family members.

  14. “A Study Of Socio-economic Status And Academic Achievement, kendriya Vidyalayas Of Dibrugarh District”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimya Gohain

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Educational achievement is only an aspect of development among many sides. Academic achievement may be influenced by various socio-economic factors like age, gender, family size, parent's education and occupation and also by economic status of the family. Without having opportunities it is not possible to achieve something in any sphere of life. The main objective of this study is to study the academic achievement of the students of Class X ,CBSE Examination, 2011-12 of the Kendriya Vidyalayas of Dibrugarh district and to study whether the socio-economic status the parents have any effect on the academic achievement of their children.

  15. Socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Chetna; Do, Young Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the magnitude of socio-economic disparities in health system responsiveness in India after correcting for potential reporting heterogeneity by socio-economic characteristics (education and wealth).

  16. ICT reuse in socio-economic enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongondo, F O; Williams, I D; Dietrich, J; Carroll, C

    2013-12-01

    In Europe, socio-economic enterprises such as charities, voluntary organisations and not-for-profit companies are involved in the repair, refurbishment and reuse of various products. This paper characterises and analyses the operations of socio-economic enterprises that are involved in the reuse of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment. Using findings from a survey, the paper specifically analyses the reuse activities of socio-economic enterprises in the U.K. from which Europe-wide conclusions are drawn. The amount of ICT products handled by the reuse organisations is quantified and potential barriers and opportunities to their operations are analysed. By-products from reuse activities are discussed and recommendations to improve reuse activities are provided. The most common ICT products dealt with by socio-economic enterprises are computers and related equipment. In the U.K. in 2010, an estimated 143,750 appliances were reused. However, due to limitations in data, it is difficult to compare this number to the amount of new appliances that entered the U.K. market or the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment generated in the same period. Difficulties in marketing products and numerous legislative requirements are the most common barriers to reuse operations. Despite various constraints, it is clear that organisations involved in reuse of ICT could contribute significantly to resource efficiency and a circular economy. It is suggested that clustering of their operations into "reuse parks" would enhance both their profile and their products. Reuse parks would also improve consumer confidence in and subsequently sales of the products. Further, it is advocated that industrial networking opportunities for the exchange of by-products resulting from the organisations' activities should be investigated. The findings make two significant contributions to the current literature. One, they provide a detailed insight into the reuse operations of socio-economic enterprises. Previously unavailable data has been presented and analysed. Secondly, new evidence about the by-products/materials resulting from socio-economic enterprises' reuse activities has been obtained. These contributions add substantially to our understanding of the important role of reuse organisations. PMID:24045170

  17. Educational Justice and Socio-Economic Segregation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighouse, Harry

    2007-01-01

    Sociologists exploring educational injustice often focus on socio-economic segregation as a central measure of injustice. The comprehensive ideal, furthermore, has the idea of socio-economic integration built into it. The current paper argues that socio-economic segregation is valuable only insofar as it serves other, more fundamental values. This…

  18. Grid of Socio-economic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaosheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating effectively the loss caused by flood disaster has theoretical significance and practical value to flood-fighting, emergency rescues, flood relief and post-disaster compensation. However, the regional socioeconomic data affected by flood is usually collected in administrative region in the current flood loss evaluation method. The flood affected area and administrative area boundary do not necessarily match. The accuracy and practicability of flood loss evaluation based on loss rate are not soundly reliable. As an international IT research hotspot, Spatial Information Grid provides a new approach for flood damage assessment. This paper studies the flood loss assessment based on spatial information grid of socio-economic data. First, we establish a flood zone socio-economic data spatial information grid, including flood inundation zone special character mesh, grid cells use ranks number as the two key fields superimposed grid superimposed and flood damage assessment of spatial information grid. Followed by analysis of flood special character of the network division and attribute selection, considering the computational speed and convenience of other factors, taken rule quadrilateral partition method to divide the flood special character mesh, chose elevation, water depth, water velocity, water pollution degree of flood special Network personality attributes and based on GIS technology to generate a flood special character mesh. Then through the analysis of different disaster bodies submerged under different circumstances the loss difference, the loss rate is established based on flood damage assessment model. Finally, ArcEngine developed using C# and socio-economic data based on the realization of the spatial information grid flood damage assessment systems and use of heavy rainfall Poyang Lake county flood damage assessment data were calculated. The example shows that, based on socio-economic data for spatial information grid flood damage assessment methodology applied not only spatial information grid technology and flooded the area with flood damage to the region’s socio-economic data organically combined, so that it can quickly and accurately ground for inundated areas to assess the economic loss calculation. But how to select the appropriate grid scales and combining hydrological dynamics model enables more accurate flood special character network is the next step needs to continue to improve the research content.

  19. Validity of two simple measures for estimating life-course socio-economic position in cross-sectional postal survey data in an older population: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacey Rosie J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since few cohorts encompass the whole life-course, many studies that measure socio-economic position (SEP across the life-course rely on participant recall of SEP measures from cross-sectional postal or interview surveys. It is also particularly important that SEP measures should be appropriate for the age of the population studied, as the level of missing data has been shown to increase in older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of recall of two SEP measures in older adults, age left school and longest job, by examining their validity in a general population postal survey in North Staffordshire, UK. Methods Sets of questions on education and longest job were included in a questionnaire at different stages of the study. All patients aged 50+ registered with three general practices were sent a baseline Health Questionnaire. 6?years later, 3410 responders were mailed a follow-up Health Questionnaire; a sub-sample of these participants took part in independent qualitative interviews. Validity was assessed by: percentage completion; internal percentage agreement within each set of questions; percentage agreement of qualitative and quantitative data for age left school and longest job; comparing recall of age left school with historical change in legal school leaving age; comparing frequency of pottery job titles with those in 1981 Census data for Stoke-on-Trent. Results The adjusted response to different stages of the study was 71–85%. Completion of questions was 83–98%. Internal agreement was 84–97% (education and 95–100% (longest job. Comparison of survey and interview data showed 86% agreement (± 1?year for age left school and 91% agreement for longest job. The change in age left school data concurred with the historical shift in legal school leaving age. 11% of job titles were pottery in NorStOP data and 15% in Stoke-on-Trent Census data. Conclusions The results from this study provide evidence for the accuracy of recall of two simple measures of SEP (age left school and longest job in a postal survey of older adults. Consistency with evidence from external datasets indicated the potential validity of these measures for studying life-course SEP in population surveys.

  20. The socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susan, Oberholzer; Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Elmarie, Slabbert.

    Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks) plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact [...] on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa's oldest marine park, namely Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor's survey (156 respondents), a community survey (132 respondents) and a business survey (11 respondents). We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.

  1. ICT and Socio-Economic Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haisken-DeNew, John P.; D'AMBROSIO, Conchita

    2003-01-01

    Using an innovative dataset for ICT use for five countries in Europe,we examine the impact and association of ICT on socio-economic exclusion.Using OLS regression we find significant wage premiums for PC and internet usage at the workplace.Following Dinardo/Fortin/Lemieux (1997),we examine the impact of ICT on the distribution of wages.We find that the risk of economic exclusion increases markedly for those not having ICT at the workplace,with the largest effects being found in Britain.To exa...

  2. Dynamic motifs in socio-economic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Shao, Shuai; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2014-12-01

    Socio-economic networks are of central importance in economic life. We develop a method of identifying and studying motifs in socio-economic networks by focusing on “dynamic motifs,” i.e., evolutionary connection patterns that, because of “node acquaintances” in the network, occur much more frequently than random patterns. We examine two evolving bi-partite networks: i) the world-wide commercial ship chartering market and ii) the ship build-to-order market. We find similar dynamic motifs in both bipartite networks, even though they describe different economic activities. We also find that “influence” and “persistence” are strong factors in the interaction behavior of organizations. When two companies are doing business with the same customer, it is highly probable that another customer who currently only has business relationship with one of these two companies, will become customer of the second in the future. This is the effect of influence. Persistence means that companies with close business ties to customers tend to maintain their relationships over a long period of time.

  3. Socio-economic expenditure impacts report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudette D., Ncho; Susan C.D., Wright.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situ [...] ation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17). The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch's approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

  5. Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudette D. Ncho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory usingpurposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realisedas 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in SoshanguveExtension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using opencoding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and geneticconstitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and workingconditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of peopleliving in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approachfrom registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned andimplemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in thecommunity without evidence based on a family perspective.

  6. Changes in socio-economic conditions of development of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo?ena Karwat-Wo?niak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Liberalisation of economic relations leaves its mark on agriculture. Raising competition determines a necessity of position improvement. The paper aims to present the changes in selected structures affecting production capacities of farms. In the paper the agricultural land resources, area structure of farms and socio-economic faeces of farmers were analysed. The main empirical material was the Central Statistical Office data. The research results indicate that due to the area of agricultural land, the Polish agriculture has a potential to be a significant producer. Farmers’ attributes and positive structural changes reveal an improvement of agriculture competitive capabilities. However,a scattered agrarian structure is still a feature of agriculture. On the supply side, the acceleration of structural changes in agriculture, especially by fostering land concentration, is a prerequisite for meeting competitive requirements. Therefore, an introduction of instruments supporting small farms liquidation, as well as the diversification of rural population economic activity are essential.

  7. Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

  8. SOCIO ECONOMIC SITUATION OF DALITS & INCLUSIVE GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikramsingh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dalits are being punished by God for sins in a previous life. Under the religious codes of Hinduism a Dalit only hope is to be a good servant of the high caste and upon death and rebirth. They will be reincarnated a high caste. The Dalit status has often been historically associated with occupations regarded as ritually impure. Such as any involving leatherwork. Butchering or removal of rubbish animal carcasses and waste. Dalits work as manual labourers cleaning streets. Latrines, and Screws engaging in these activities were considered to be polluting to the individual and this pollution was considered contagious almost 90 percent of Dalits live in rural areas economic exploitation remains their most acute problem they are almost all marginal farmers or landless labourers. Large number of migrate to cities or to labour scarce rural areas in different parts of India. Many are in debt and are obliged to work off their debts as bonded labourers despite the fact that this practice was abolished by the law in 1976. Dalit workers have joined labour unions or made progress in gaining education and economic mobility. Many Dalit families have left rural areas to live in slums and on the pavements; Inclusive growth has become the buzzword in policy-spheres with recent phenomenon of rapid growth with characteristic patterns of exclusion. The social inequalities have raised questions about welfare approaches of Government planning, Employment generation programmes, social development, infrastructure, health-care and rural diversification very much important especially for the Dalits. This paper highlights the origin of Dalits, Need, socio-economic situation, Inclusive growth and the objectives of the paper is to know the socio-economic situation of dalits, employment generation programmes and various elements of inclusive growth.

  9. Socio-Economic Statues and Physical Activity Levels of 3th Grade Students: A Case Study in Istanbul Beykoz Province

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Salih; Kucuk Y. Meral; Kaya Fatih; Ozdol Yeliz; Biçer Bilal

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The children and adolescent period is critical time to acquire positive lifestyle habits. The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI?s and socio-economic level of their school environments. This study also reviewed the articles about physical activity level of children, its relation to their socio-economic status and some other related tasks. Inactive life style sustained t...

  10. Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Berezhna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural, generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.

  11. SOCIO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HIV INFECTED VICTIMS OF VINDHYA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Hamendra Kumar Verma; Pandey, Devendra N.

    2014-01-01

    In the research report we have studied the relationships between socio-economic factors and HIV prevalence in Rewa and Mauganj of Rewa district of Vindhya region of Madhya Pradesh using district level data and also analyzed the drivers of the epidemic and found out what socio-economic and other factors make people susceptible to HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection.

  12. The socio-economic dimension of modern globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Sidenko

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the views of eminent analysts on the driving forces of and explanations for economic globalization today. It examines the main characteristics of this process, such as the growth of world trade, the increased mobility of financial capital, the growing role of transnational corporations and the development of network technologies and the internet. The author analyzes the positive impact of globalization on the development of productive forces and human development. Problems arising from the growing interdependence of a globalized world, such as environmental issues, security, increased worldwide disparity of socio-economic development of countries and regions, are also examined. In conclusion, the author voices the need for establishing a system of global management.

  13. Socio-economic Models During the Period of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MANOLESCU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the state involving importance in finding the solutions for getting over the present economic crisis through responsibility, the labor relations and the affairs environment regulation and the income redistribution. Into this work, are analyzed the 4 socio-economic European models: the Anglo-Saxon liberal model, the Scandinavian universalistic model, the continental corporatist model, the Mediterranean model and the European Union countries position into these models. Also, are pointed out the EU countries economic performances by analyzing the rankings of these countries on base of Global Competitiveness Index 2010-2011 and the evolution of this index during 2009-2011. The article follows to underline the necessity of the state action for durable, healthy, sustainable economic growth, capable for getting over the economic crisis and for ensuring the social welfare and economic competitiveness.

  14. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Design Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Setting Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. Subjects In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45–69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40–60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21 326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Results Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII) = 2·02–5·17) and women (RII = 2·09–3·57). Conclusions The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position. PMID:20843403

  15. Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated parents as well as greater number of books at home together with a separate study room are more likely to have tentative views and less likely to have fixed views about science compared to students with unemployed mother, uneducated parents, less books at home, and no separate study room. Generally, results revealed while family SES correlated positively with tentative views, it was negatively associated with fixed views, implying that students from high SES family were more likely to believe that knowledge is uncertain and not handed down by authority compared to students from low SES family. This study, however, failed to indicate any relationship between father work-status, buying daily newspaper and epistemological beliefs. In addition, Multivariate Analysis of Variance indicated that boys more likely to have tentative beliefs compared to girls.

  16. Socio-economic effects of bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report studies the socio-economic effects and benefits of domestic fuels - peat and wood, and agricultural energy plants also - in power and heat generation. For evaluation of employment and income effects, it compares the costs of domestic as well a imported fuels as regards production, transportation and power stations by looking especially at the direct labour input and inputs in terms of intermediate products and investment. Their indirect employment effects and allocation to domestic factor income and imports are introduced by means of an input-output model. The net changes in the disposable incomes of local households, firms and municipalities, the government and others are derived from factor incomes by means of income redistribution. The economy-wide profitability of the domestic fuels was evaluated using a macroeconomic model, the FMS model system. The particular question posed was how much the domestic fuels could cost at most to be economically profitable. It was shown that macroeconomic profitability is affected essentially by real production costs and the import prices of the imported fuels. Subsidies and differentiated fuel taxes have only little impact on the macroeconomic profitability although they change the private profitability of the fuels considerably. This is why fuel taxes were excluded in the macroeconomic profitability evaluations

  17. Elucidating the spatially varying relation between cervical cancer and socio-economic conditions in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Edith MY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographically weighted Poisson regression (GWPR was applied to the relation between cervical cancer disease incidence rates in England and socio-economic deprivation, social status and family structure covariates. Local parameters were estimated which describe the spatial variation in the relations between incidence and socio-economic covariates. Results A global (stationary regression model revealed a significant correlation between cervical cancer incidence rates and social status. However, a local (non-stationary GWPR model provided a better fit with less spatial correlation (positive autocorrelation in the residuals. Moreover, the GWPR model was able to represent local variation in the relations between cervical cancer incidence and socio-economic covariates across space, whereas the global model represented only the overall (or average relation for the whole of England. The global model could lead to misinterpretation of the relations between cervical cancer incidence and socio-economic covariates locally. Conclusions Cervical cancer incidence was shown to have a non-stationary relationship with spatially varying covariates that are available through national datasets. As a result, it was shown that if low social status sectors of the population are to be targeted preferentially, this targeting should be done on a region-by-region basis such as to optimize health outcomes. While such a strategy may be difficult to implement in practice, the research does highlight the inequalities inherent in a uniform intervention approach.

  18. Macroeffects in a traditional socio-economic project evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macroeffects in socio-economic project include evaluation employment, investment size and balance of payments, fuel consumption, use of raw materials and environmental effects. Energy efficiency can be elucidated by analysis of input- and environmental consequences. (EG)

  19. The socio-economic impact of telehealth: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennett, P A; Affleck Hall, L; Hailey, D; Ohinmaa, A; Anderson, C; Thomas, R; Young, B; Lorenzetti, D; Scott, R E

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the socio-economic impact of telehealth, focusing on nine main areas: paediatrics, geriatrics, First Nations (i.e. indigenous peoples), home care, mental health, radiology, renal dialysis, rural/remote health services and rehabilitation. A systematic search led to the identification of 4646 citations or abstracts; from these, 306 sources were analysed. A central finding was that telehealth studies to date have not used socio-economic indicators consistently. However, specific telehealth applications have been shown to offer significant socio-economic benefit, to patients and families, health-care providers and the health-care system. The main benefits identified were: increased access to health services, cost-effectiveness, enhanced educational opportunities, improved health outcomes, better quality of care, better quality of life and enhanced social support. Although the review found a number of areas of socio-economic benefit, there is the continuing problem of limited generalizability. PMID:14680514

  20. Courts and the enforcement of socio-economic rights in Malawi: Jurisprudential trends, challenges and opportunities

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Redson E, Kapindu.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic rights are of special significance in a developing country such as Malawi. The framers of the Malawian Constitution included the right to development in the country's Bill of Rights. The right to development is not only included as a self-standing right, but is also a conduit for the [...] guarantee of equal access to a range of other socio-economic rights. Regrettably, the record of judicial enforcement of these rights subsequent to 1994 is disappointing. Only in a few cases, largely focusing on a narrow range of rights such as property, work, economic activity and, to a lesser extent, education, have courts directly and significantly dealt with socio-economic rights. Such consideration has also been deficient as courts have failed to develop the content of the rights and to define the nature of the obligations of both the state as well as non-state actors in relation to socio-economic rights. There has been little or no attempt to apply norms of international human rights law and comparable foreign case law. Worse still, in some related cases, courts have stated that they will not deal with any issues that raise policy considerations as such matters are outside the province of judicial competence. This is a problematic approach that could stultify the development of socio-economic rights jurisprudence. The Masangano case, however, offers some hope as it represents the first real attempt to address key socio-economic rights issues such as access to food, clothing, adequate housing and healthcare, albeit in relation to prisoners. While the final decision ultimately turned on cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment, the High Court of Malawi made some definitive affirmations of the guarantee of a number of these key rights and presented a first real attempt to fashion a time-bound remedy, that also required the state to take positive steps in allocating sufficient resources for the realisation of socio-economic rights for prisoners. The Masangano case represents a good stepping stone upon which courts can stand in developing more systematic and sophisticated jurisprudence on socioeconomic rights in Malawi.

  1. Girls' socio-economic rights in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article explores girls' socio-economic rights fulfilment in South Africa. After setting out the international law context, the article turns to the lived reality of girls in this country through an examination of their rights to healthcare services, nutrition, social services and security, and shelter. The research indicates that whilst girls are babies and young children they enjoy relatively equal access with their male counterparts to socio-economic services made available to children...

  2. The justiciability of socio-economic rights in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Dinokopila, Bonolo Ramadi

    2013-01-01

    The judicial enforcement of socio-economic rights remains a challenge in many countries. This is generally attributable to the inadequacy of a particular country’s legal framework, in particular its constitutional framework. Given the importance of judicial remedies in litigation, in particular public interest litigation, this article considers possibilities for the judicial enforcement of socio-economic rights in Botswana. It discusses the institutional, legal and constituti...

  3. Homogamy in socio-economic background and education, and the dissolution of cohabiting unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Mäenpää

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the increasing prevalence of cohabitation, knowledge of how socio-economic homogamy affects the stability of cohabiting unions is scant. Few studies have compared the effects of homogamy in both ascribed and achieved socio-economic status on union dissolution. Objective: Our aim is to determine how homogamy and heterogamy in educational level and parental social class affect the risk of cohabitation dissolution in Finland. Methods: We use unique Finnish register data that includes information on non-marital cohabitation. Cox regression is used to analyse the risk of dissolution in 20,452 cohabitations. We examine the dissolution rates in all possible combinations of partner status, and analyse how these estimates deviate from the main effects of each partner's status. Results: According to the findings, homogamy in parental social class is of little consequence in cohabitation dissolution, although cohabitations between people from upper-white-collar and farmer families are disproportionately likely to dissolve. Educational differences between partners are more significant determinants of cohabitation stability: extreme heterogamy is associated with an increased separation risk, and homogamy decreases the separation risk among cohabitors with a higher university degree. Conclusions: In line with the perception that personal achievement is more significant than social origins in contemporary union dynamics, similarity in educational level increases cohabitation stability more than similarity in socio-economic origin. Although previous Nordic studies report little or no association between educational homogamy or heterogamy and marriage dissolution, our study shows that educational differences do matter in cohabiting unions.

  4. Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli

    This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child relationship mediates the relationship between positive parenting(Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress or warmth) and empathy. In conclusion,parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy. Warmth had indirect effects on children’s empathy through near parent-child relationship.

  5. Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies : South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie

    Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark. Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s. Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of Indian and Pakistani background. The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalisme and identity construction. The results show that the South Asian youth develop complex diaspora identities, becoming a part of the receiving society and maintaining contact with the countries of origin, combining individualisation with interconnectedness. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, business related investment and direct remittances, 2) awareness of parents’ strategies, although few or no self-employed strategies and 3) collective strategy through an organisation. The conclusions pin point the challenges for Scandinavian societies, South Asian countries and the South Asian diaspora living in Scandinavia.  

  6. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  7. Socio-economic correlates of pesticide usage: the case of citrus farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The socio-economic factors affecting adoption of pesticides on citrus trees in Sargodha Division, Pakistan was studied. Six villages were selected (three from each subdivision) for data collection. Overall 150 orchard owners (25 from each sample village) were interviewed. Data were analyzed using SPSS programme. Gamma test and chi-square were used to check the direction and magnitude of relationship between independent and dependent variables. Among the sample, 48% respondents were spray users. The socio-economic factors that influenced farmer's receptivity to citrus spray were age (negatively correlated), education (positively correlated), social status (positively correlated), farm size (negatively correlated) and farming experience (negatively correlated). By incurring Rs. 3,600.00 per ha on spray farmers received Rs. 19,000.00 as an incremental benefit. Marginal rate of return indicated that by spending Re. 1.00 on spray farmers would get an increase of Rs. 5.27 in their income. (author)

  8. SOCIO - ECONOMIC STATUS OF AGED: A SOCIOLOGICAL EVALUVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath Tippanna Bella

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research paper mainly focus on Socio-economic status of aged: a sociological evaluvation. Socioeconomic status (SES is often measured as a combination of education, income and occupation. It is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group. When viewed through a social class lens, privilege, power and control are emphasized. Furthermore, an examination of SES as a gradient or continuous variable reveals inequities in access to and distribution of resources. by education, occupational status, family income, net worth, and financial assets—for aged, it can nevertheless have important effects on elders’ quality of life and the kind of care their families can provide.In the first place, many low-income elders have insufficient resources.study investigates the variations by older people’s socio-economic status in the use of informal and formal help from outside the household in india it was older people in low SES groups who mostly used such help. SES gradients in the utilisation of both formal and informal care, and that differences in age, health and marital status largely accounted for the former but not the latter. This article examines the prevalence of socioeconomic status of aged. Various socio-behavioral factors are found to play a significant role in determining the health conditions of aged people. Also, illiteracy and poverty are found to have their own impact on health during aging. It is also noted that due to adverse familial relationships, many stress-related disorders occur which may result in the poor health of the elderly. Demands for aged pensions were made by most of the elderly people in india. positive attitudes toward empowering elderly patients to take an active part in maintaining their health the ability to deal with and prioritise the numerous problems that the aged may present with, including associated diagnostic and management dilemmas feeling comfortable when working with the aged, their families, carers and friends working within multidisciplinary healthcare teams recognising the special issues (including discrimination facing older people from diverse backgrounds, including issues of gender differences, ethnicity, poverty and issues.

  9. THE IMPACT OF MICRO FINANCE INSTITUTIONS ON THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC LIVES OF PEOPLE IN ZIMBABWE

    OpenAIRE

    MARGARET MUTENGEZANWA; Gombarume, Fungai B.; KOSMAS NJANIKE; ANXIOUS CHARIKINYA

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of an exploratory research whose main purpose was to investigate the impact of micro finance institutions on the socio economic lives of Zimbabweans. The study sought to establish whether micro finance empowers the poor and reduces poverty. The study was conducted through the use of eighty questionnaires randomly distributed to clients of five micro finance institutions. The study revealed that there is a positive relationship between microcredit and the soc...

  10. Sustainability and Socio-Economic Impact of Tourism Development in Jakobstad - Kalajoki

    OpenAIRE

    Salmela, Joel; Rahman, Mohammad Mohibur

    2014-01-01

    Tourism is not always about business. It can also affect the society in various other ways. There are socio-economic impacts of tourism for both host community and travelers’ community. These impacts can be positive as well as negative. By upholding tourism, a certain area can become financially solvent and the host community can endorse a better lifestyle. The aim of this research was to examine the tourism situation and future prospects of the chosen touristic destinations in forms of...

  11. Personality, work, and satisfaction: evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Winkelmann, Liliana; Winkelmann, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies in positive psychology have indicated that work satisfaction is an important determinant of individual well-being. Research has suggested that people are most satisfied with their work when they are doing what they are drawn to naturally. We provide further evidence on this issue from a large representative data set, the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). The 2005 wave of the SOEP contains a battery of personality questions as well as detailed information on personal life an...

  12. EDUCATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF MUSLIM WOMEN IN AZAMGARH DISTRICT OF EASTERN UTTAR PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzia Islam; Azimur Rahman; Naseema Khatoon; Mohammad Ali Imam

    2014-01-01

    Education is one of the most significant landmarks in women empowerment as it facilitates them to deal with their traditional responsibilities to bring positive changes in their lives. Education lessens Socio-economic disparities rampant in the society and acts as a way of improving the status of women within the family if the access to education is not denied to women on the pretext of tradition, religion or any other social norm. This research is designed to explore the rela...

  13. Socio-economic modifications of the Universal Soil Loss Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, A.; Ko?kan, Ö.; Ba?aran, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    While social scientists have long focused on socio-economic and demographic factors, physical modelers typically study soil loss using physical factors. In the current environment, it is becoming increasingly important to consider both approaches simultaneously for the conservation of soil and water, and the improvement of land use conditions. This study uses physical and socio-economic factors to find a coefficient that evaluates the combination of these factors. It aims to determine the effect of socio-economic factors on soil loss and, in turn, to modify the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). The methodology employed in this study specifies that soil loss can be calculated and predicted by comparing the degree of soil loss in watersheds, with and without human influence, given the same overall conditions. A coefficient for socio-economic factors, therefore, has been determined based on adjoining watersheds (WS I and II), employing simulation methods. Combinations of C and P factors were used in the USLE to find the impact of their contributions on soil loss. The results revealed that these combinations provided good estimation of soil loss amounts for the second watershed, i.e. WS II, from the adjoining watersheds studied in this work. This study shows that a coefficient of 0.008 modified the USLE to reflect the socio-economic factors as settlement influencing the amount of soil loss in the watersheds studied.

  14. Communicability and Communities in Complex Socio-Economic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The concept of communicability is introduced for complex socio-economic networks. The communicability function expresses how an impact propagates from one place to another in the network. This function is used to define unambiguously the concept of socio-economic community. The concept of temperature in complex socio-economic networks is also introduced as a way of accounting for the external stresses to which such systems are submitted. This external stress can change dramatically the structure of the communities in a network. We analyze here a trade network of countries exporting 'miscellaneous manufactures of metal.' We determine the community structure of this network showing that there are 27 communities with diverse degree of overlapping. When only communities with less than 80% of overlap are considered we found 5 communities which are well characterized in terms of geopolitical relationships. The analysis of external stress on these communities reveals that several countries are very much influenced b...

  15. Positive Parenting for High-Risk Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devall, Esther L.

    2004-01-01

    Teen, single, divorced, foster, abusive, substance affected, and incarcerated parents and their children participated in intensive parenting education classes lasting 9 to 24 weeks. Participants were primarily single (58%), Hispanic (60%), and female (60%). Parents showed significant increases in empathy and knowledge of positive discipline…

  16. Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country's socio-economic status

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gyan P., Sharma; Karen J., Esler; James N., Blignaut.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with v [...] arious socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI), the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP) among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

  17. The Socio-Economic Impact of Tourism and Entrepreneurs in Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongfa Phoummasak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the Socio-Economic Impact of Tourism and Entrepreneurs in LPB province, Lao PDR by conducting the field survey of 100 entrepreneurs who related to tourism. A questionnaire was designed in form of closed-end in order to collect data. Descriptive method of research was used in this study. The results of the study found the most informants addressed that the development of tourism in LPB force them to improve their entrepreneurs’ skills. Most entrepreneurs posited that tourism influence them to improve their skills in managing businesses, in which were increased their income and personal improvement. Therefore, tourism has impact on their businesses and society changes. However, entrepreneurs’ perception extents to which tourism and entrepreneurship have addressed their socio-economic goal have been achieved to high extent. Furthermore, the study also illustrated that the most entrepreneurs are facing with both of positive and negative impacts of tourism. However, some of them do not want to change their own life-styles and society. They have agreed to promote and develop tourism in order to support local economic growth and local resident’s income. On the contrary, they need to maintain their traditional society. In short, entrepreneurs’ perception extents on tourism and entrepreneurship have enhanced their socio-economic condition.

  18. Socio-Economic Transformation and Gender Relations in Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Khouangvichit, Damdouane

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine socio-economic transformation and gender relations in Lao PDR after the adoption of economic liberalization by the Lao government in the late 1980s. Against a background of general socio-economic transformation in Laos the main focus of the study is on the local level, with emphasis on how people in their everyday lives have engaged with and handled the changes. The application of economic liberalization shaped new conditions for people in local communities...

  19. Regional Tourist Destination and its Socio-Economic Development ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-economic development of the region in general and the role of regional tourist destination in this process. It also touches the problem of managing regional tourist destination.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ??????: ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ?????????? ????, ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ? ????, ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????.

  20. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ? Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ? Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ? “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ? A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ? Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Sociantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

  1. A socio-economic assessment of proposed road user charging schemes in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    Road pricing. congestion charging, toll-systems and other road charging instruments are intensively discussed in many countries. Although many partial analyses of the consequences have been published, few overall socio-economic analyses have been carried out. The article presents such a socio-economic analysis of four different proposed road pricing schemes for the Copenhagen area. The purpose was to assess all benefits and costs involved, including impacts on traffic and environment, maintenance and financing costs as well as tax distortion effects. It was concluded that the socio-economic surplus of the projects depends crucially on the congestion level. With the Current traffic level, road pricing will not yet be socially expedient in Copenhagen. However, if the opening year is postponed to 2015, the two most favourable schemes will turn positive. The analyses also showed that the magnitude of demand response by introducing road pricing is likely to have significant impact on the project surplus. This is an important observation because most shore term driven traffic models will then underestimate the projected surplus. Finally, it was found that the degree to which benefits outweigh costs depends considerably on the use of revenue. Although it may contribute to decreasing road congestion, recycling all of the revenue back to the transport sector turned out to be inefficient and costly.

  2. Investigation of Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects of Taleghan Dam Using Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Borimnejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Today water supply issue in large cities seems to be a big problem. This becomes more important with population growth and urbanization extension. To cope with this problem lots of irrigation and drainage projects have been implemented and operated that subsequently many socio- economic and cultural effects have been brought to the areas . The objective of the present study is to survey the socio - economic and environmental effects of Taleghan dam to compare the two periods before and after the dam construction. The needed data have been gathered by use of a questionnaire and by interviewing 400 samples in the irrigation and drainage network’s region of Taleghan Dam, and encoded questions and outcome data have been analyzed in spss and lisrel software. The results showed an economic development in the region, but some factors like, lack of trust, lack of economic advantages and deficiency of facilities, decrease villagers’ willingness to invest. 63.3% of region’s environmental pollution has been increased mainly by the tourists. Not only is there no increase in Water sources but also they have been decreased. 98% of individuals declared that the people were not questioned in construction projects. About the coefficient of dam’s effect on region’s socio- economic and environmental development, the villagers have declared that the dam construction had no positive effect on region’s development.

  3. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio J; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesize that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large datasets: price on online exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in online social media, volume of information search and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observe that spikes in information search, presumably linked to external events, precede drastic price declines. Understanding the interplay between the socio-economic signals we measured can lead to applications beyond cryptocurrencies to other phenomena that leave digital footprints, such as online social network usage. PMID:25100315

  4. Prasad's socio-economic status classification- An update for 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar Reddy Dudala; Ashok Kumar Reddy, K.; Ravi Prabhu, G.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all community- based studies focus on socio-economic stratification, which is the key parameter for proper understanding the affordability of the community of health services, amenities and their purchasing capacity. Prasad’s socioeconomic status scale measures socioeconomic status of both rural and urban community based on per capita monthly income of the family.

  5. Socio-economic data for global environmental change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Ilona M.; Biewald, Anne; Coumou, Dim; Feulner, Georg; Köhler, Claudia; Nocke, Thomas; Blok, Anders; Gröber, Albert; Selchow, Sabine; Tyfield, David; Volkmer, Ingrid; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim; Beck, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing.

  6. Socio-Economic Issues among Felda Settlers in Perlis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahijah Md Hashim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available After almost fifty years of operation, government through a number of announcements declared that FELDA (Federal Land Development schemes need to be revitalized so that it could play its role more effectively as a vehicle that would accelerate the country’s economic growth. Having raised this point, the major aim of this study is to examine the major socio-economic issues and the current socio-economic status of FELDA settlers.Information was gathered through face-to-face interview with the Mata Air FELDA settlers and the Rimba Mas FELDA settlers in Perlis. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and percentages were employed to describe the socio-economic problems and issues studied. The findings of the study indicate the implication of the ageing phenomenon of the FELDA settlers in Perlis to some extent affect the settlers’ ability to work effectively on their plantation. It is also found that the second generation issue has become the most significant factor contributing to the productivity and income increment of the FELDA settlers in Perlis as compared to other selected socio-economic variables. The result also suggested that, the ageing phenomenon, second generation issue and entrepreneurship problem must be seriously taken into consideration in order to accelerate the FELDA’s growth specifically and the country’s growth generally.

  7. Socio-economic data for global environmental change research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ilona; Biewald, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing.

  8. Socio-Economic Development and Gender Inequality in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razvi, Meena; Roth, Gene L.

    2004-01-01

    Gender discrimination in India affects poor women's socio-economic development. This paper describes and interprets recurrent themes indicating that the Indian government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and other international human rights organizations show growing concerns regarding gender inequality in India. As it is not within the…

  9. Socio-economic conditions in selected biosphere reserves.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; T?šitel, Jan; Mat?jka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ro?. 12, ?. 3 (2006), s. 157-169. ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : nature protection * socio-economic conditions * biosphere reserves * sustainable development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development Over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59 years) were assessed on three occasions, with 2-year lags between each assessment. Parent personality and observed positive parenting both predicted 12...

  11. Pubertal timing and health-related behaviours in adolescence - socio- economic outcomes in a follow-up study from Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena K Koivusilta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. Pubertal timing is connected with health-related lifestyle in adulthood. We studied whether early or late pubertal timing is predictive of socio-economic outcomes in early adulthood and whether the associations are mediated by health behaviours.

    Methods. Survey data (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987 from samples of 14-year-old Finns (N=4246, response rate 85% were linked with respondents’ attained educational level, socio-economic and labour market position in 2001 (ages 28-34. Ages of menarche and first ejaculation indicated pubertal timing.

    Results. As compared to adolescents with average age pubertal timing, boys and girls maturing at an early age more often participated in health-compromising behaviours, while those maturing at a later age participated less frequently. Pubertal timing was not associated with attained educational level or socioeconomic position in girls and not with labour market position at the time of follow-up in either sex. In boys, independently of health behaviours, early or late onset of puberty predicted low educational level, while late onset predicted low socio-economic position.

    Conclusion. Timing of puberty has a stronger connection with socio-economic outcomes in boys than in girls. Deviance from the normative pace of physical development, especially late maturation, is among boys slightly depicted in the hierarchy of socio-economic positions of the society. As pubertal timing is connected with health-related behaviours – especially with smoking – the pacing of developmental transitions should be considered in planning programmes preventing unhealthy behavioural patterns often linked with negative attitudes towards schooling.

  12. Socio-economic analysis in the transport sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This compendium is intended to be a tool for students in conducting socio-economic appraisals in the transport sector following the recommendations made by the Danish Manual for Socio-economic Appraisal (DMT, 2003). The appraisal process is in this compendium outlined as a step-by-step process which is adaptable to all types of infrastructure related problems, and which can be used for decision support on both the administrative as well as the political level. In the administrative decision process the socio-economic analysis provides a foundation for a systematic examination of which project types or initiatives that are socio-economically most suitable for handling a specific infrastructure problem. Hence, the socio-economic appraisal can help undertaking a sound selection of the possible solutions that should be examined in further details. The socio-economic analysis is as well an important element in the political decision process. The analysis provides information about how the society’s resources – from an economic viewpoint – are used in the best possible way, and how costs and benefits are distributed between e.g. the state, the users and the environment. The society does not have unlimited economic resources. Thus it is necessary to prioritise between the many projects and initiatives which are being discussed in the public sector. In order to conduct such a comprehensive prioritisation (across different sectors or within the same sector) it is a precondition that a systematic evaluation of the projects/proposals/initiatives’ advantages and disadvantages is carried out. For many years cost-benefit analysis (CBA) has been used as the main tool for the purpose of economic comparison not only in Denmark but also in many other countries around the world. Investment projects that have been prepared thoroughly and evaluated to have a high socio-economic return seem to be able to obtain political acceptance more easily than projects that have not been evaluated through this type of assessment. On the other hand socio-economic assessments can also be used to turn down projects that do not show a satisfactory return. In the political prioritisation process other considerations of a political, environmental or economic character may influence the decision making. Some of these are not traditionally a part of the socioeconomic assessment, but are instead used as a supplement in the final decision phase. The socioeconomic assessment strives towards valuing all advantages and disadvantages of a project. On the background of this the project’s value for the society is calculated. This value can afterwards be compared to the values for other projects. The socio-economic appraisal is one of the most basic and tangible contributions to the planning and decision process within the transport sector when an initiative’s advantages and disadvantages are to be evaluated. The appraisal can be used both for political decision making as well as internally in organisations with planning related tasks.

  13. Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional / Patterns, beliefs and parenting practices related with punishment and the generational transmission of these in four families of low socio-economic level in the city of Bogotá / Padrões, crenças e práticas parentais relacionadas à punição e transmissão geracional em quatro famílias baixo nivel socioeconômico na cidade de Bogotá

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra, Pulido; Juliana, Castro-Osorio; Marlyn, Peña; Diana Paola, Ariza-Ramírez.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever os padrões, as crenças e as práticas parentais relacionadas à punição e sua transmissão intergeracional em quatro famílias baixo nivel socioeconômico na cidade de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semi-estruturadas, histórias de vida, observações de campo e o So [...] ftware Atlas.ti para analisar os resultados. Descobrimos que os padrões de paternidade associada com a punição são enquadrados no papel de avô (ó) como um cuidador durante a semana, no fim de semana o pai / mãe e a educadora, o filho (a) como o ímpio. Crenças são estabelecidas em torno da criança tão forte e frágil, e a punição como um instrutor, ambivalente, abusivo e temido. Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaci [...] ones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuelo o de la abuela como cuidador o cuidadora entre semana, en el del padre o madre como cuidador o cuidadora de fin de semana, y en el del niño o niña como el sujeto travieso. Las creencias se establecen en torno al niño o niña como fuerte y frágil, y al castigo como formador, ambivalente, maltratante y temido. Abstract in english This study is aimed to describe patterns, beliefs and parenting practices related to punishment and the intergenerational transmission of these in four families of low socio-economic level in the city of Bogotá. We used semi-structured interviews, life histories, field observations and Atlas.ti soft [...] ware to analyze the results. We found that parenting patterns associated with punishment are framed in the role of grandparent as the weak caregiver, the father/mother as weekend caregivers and the child as mischievous. Beliefs are established around the child as strong and fragile, and the punishment as a trainer, ambivalent, abusive and feared.

  14. Does childcare influence socio-economic inequalities in unintentional injury? Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Anna; Li, Leah; Abbas, Jake; Ferguson, Brian; Graham, Hilary; Law, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background: In recent decades the proportion of infants and young children being cared for in childcare has increased. Little is known about the impact that non-parental care has on childhood unintentional injury and whether this varies by socio-economic group. Methods: Using data from a contemporary UK cohort of children at age 9 months (N=18,114) and 3 years (N=13,718), we used Poisson regression to explore the association between childcare type (p...

  15. Socio-economic aspects of waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besides technical aspects and those of safety, it is the economic and social environment of a future underground geologic repository which plays a major role. Compared to other large scale technical plants, facilities for radioactive waste management must overcome incomparably greater obstacles. All the more care must be taken in clarifying the issues affecting the public and the economy in the region of a potential site. On behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for Energy (BFE), Ruetter + Partner conducted a basic study which, in a number of case studies, dealt with the socio-economic aspects of experiences with existing and planned facilities in Switzerland and abroad. The study focused on these main points, which are outlined briefly in the article: - Socio-economic issues in the site selection procedure. - Methodological approach. - Findings made in the case studies. - Factors influencing the acceptance of a repository. (orig.)

  16. The Socio-Economic Background Of The Hotel Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atik-ur-rahaman S.M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic background of the hotel workers decides about the different social and economic reasons, for which these workers joined to hotel work. Hence, the present section attempted to know about the socio-economic background of the hotel workers. Urbanization, industrialization, and modernization have brought rtimerous changes in Western societies, after industrial revolution. Industrial Revolution contributed towards establishing colonial regimes in Asia and Africa. The Society experienced structural changes and brought a phenomenal change in human relations. It is for the first time the Western liberal ideas travelled the Asian and African nationalities'. Colonialism brought East and West together and encouraged cultural give and take between them. New occupations and industries emerged in almost all societies in the world. The traditional set up of the society was seriously disturbed. India was one of the important colony of the Britishers.

  17. Constitutional basis for the enforcement of ''executive'' policies that give effect to socio-economic rights in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ON, Fuo.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although "executive" policies remain an important governance tool, there appears to be confusion on the status and possible basis for their judicial enforcement in South Africa. The aim of this article is to critically reflect on the status and possible constitutional basis for the enforceability of [...] "executive" policies that give effect to socio-economic rights in South Africa. Based on the jurisprudence of courts and some examples of "executive" policies, this article demonstrates that the constitutional basis for the enforceability of "executive" policies could be located inter alia in the positive duties imposed on government by sections 24(b), 25(5), 26(2) and 27(2) of the Constitution to "take reasonable legislative and other measures" within the context of available resources to give effect to relevant rights. This article argues that these duties amount to a constitutional delegation of authority to the legislative and executive branches of government to concretise socio-economic rights. In addition, this article demonstrates that where "executive" policies give effect to socio-economic rights pursuant to powers delegated by enabling provisions in original legislation that covers the field of socio-economic rights, such policies may be perceived to have the force of law, thereby providing a legal basis for their judicial enforcement.

  18. Socio-economic inequalities: a statistical physics perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    Socio-economic inequalities are manifested in different aspects of our social life. We discuss various aspects, beginning with the evolutionary and historical origins, and discussing the major issues from the social and economic point of view. The subject has attracted scholars from across various disciplines, including physicists, who bring in a unique perspective to the field. The major attempts to analyze the results, address the causes, and understand the origins using statistical tools and statistical physics concepts are discussed.

  19. Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather everadation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

  20. Socio-economic problems of returning migrants' reintegration in Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Tukhashvili, Mirian

    2013-01-01

    The present work of research reveals that despite an economic revival, the labour market infrastructure in Georgia and the cost of labour force do not contribute to any reduction in labour emigration. Therefore, great emphasis is placed on the facilitation of return migration back to the homeland and the socio-economic efficiency of this process. The results of the sampling survey of return migrants in the capital of Georgia and two large industrial cities – Kutaisi and Rustavi – show tha...

  1. Control of the socio-economic systems using herding interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononovicius, A.; Gontis, V.

    2014-07-01

    Collective behavior of the complex socio-economic systems is heavily influenced by the herding, group, behavior of individuals. The importance of the herding behavior may enable the control of the collective behavior of the individuals. In this contribution we consider a simple agent-based herding model modified to include agents with controlled state. We show that in certain case even the smallest fixed number of the controlled agents might be enough to control the behavior of a very large system.

  2. Control of the socio-economic systems using herding interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kononovicius, Aleksejus; Gontis, Vygintas

    2013-01-01

    Collective behavior of the complex socio-economic systems is heavily influenced by the herding, group, behavior of individuals. The importance of the herding behavior may enable the control of the collective behavior of the individuals. In this contribution we consider a simple agent-based herding model modified to include agents with controlled state. We show that in certain case even the smallest fixed number of the controlled agents might be enough to control the behavior...

  3. Control of the socio-economic systems using herding interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kononovicius, Aleksejus

    2013-01-01

    Collective behavior of the complex socio-economic systems is heavily influenced by the herding, group, behavior of individuals. The importance of the herding behavior may enable the control of the collective behavior of the individuals. In this contribution we consider a simple agent-based herding model modified to include agents with controlled state. We show that in certain case even the smallest fixed number of the controlled agents might be enough to control the behavior of a very large system.

  4. Assessing Socio-economic Values of Protected Forest Areas.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montiel, C.; Domínguez, G.; Cudlín, Pavel; Frank, G.; Hahn, A.; Johann, E.; Latham, J.; Pesonen, E.

    Víde? : BFW, Vienna, Austria, 2007 - (Frank, G.; Parvainen, J.; Vandekerhove, K.; Latham, J.; Schuck, A.; Little, D.), s. 69-88 ISBN 987-3-901347-67-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC E27.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Forest protected areas, socio-economic analyses, limiting, benefits, compensation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  5. From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Helbing, Dirk; Balietti, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Socio-economic data mining has a great potential in terms of gaining a better understanding of problems that our economy and society are facing, such as financial instability, shortages of resources, or conflicts. Without large-scale data mining, progress in these areas seems hard or impossible. Therefore, a suitable, distributed data mining infrastructure and research centers should be built in Europe. It also appears appropriate to build a network of Crisis Observatories. ...

  6. Gautrain: successful implentation of socio economic development objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Merwe, Carel; Merwe, Elzer; Negota, George; Zyl, Olaus

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the South African Government is to use major infrastructure projects as vehicles to enhance economic development, growth and job creation and to address past inequalities and imbalances most notably in socio-economic development (SED). The Gautrain Rapid Rail Link is breaking new ground to ensure that specific SED objectives are met. Gautrain introduced a fourth cornerstone; over and above the normal technical, financial and legal perspectives, and adopted an innovative pr...

  7. Monitoring the socio-economic conditions in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzolitto, Georgina; Giovagnoli, Paula Ine?s; Tri?as, Julieta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the socio-economic situation in Chile based on a large set of distributional, labor and social statistics computed from microdata of the Encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional (CASEN) from 1990 to 2000. The report also draws from other data sources and the existing literature. Chile had an outstanding economic performance during the 1990s, in particular in the first half of the decade, achieving a remarkable reduction in poverty, which contrasts with the e...

  8. Socio-Economic Rights: Legally Enforceable or Just Aspirational?

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias Trispiotis

    2010-01-01

    Although the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 cited social welfare rights without distinguishing them from civil and political rights, the separation has been widely accepted by judges, scholars and politicians. Historically, the classification of human rights into two groups, with the relegation of socio-economic rights into a lower category of human rights, emerged and developed mainly after the 1950s during the Cold War and ultimately led to the adoption of two separate UN Cov...

  9. Socio-economic determinants of eating practices of Ukrainians

    OpenAIRE

    Chagarna, Natalia; Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Healthy eating practices are among important public health goals worldwide. We aimed to investigate socio-economic determinants of the nutrition habits of Ukrainian families. METHODS: Data from the “UKRAINIAN LONGITUDINAL MONITORING SURVEY 2007” were analysed. Factor analysis produced variables characterising eating practices, which were re-coded in binary variables indicating low/high food consumption. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify associat...

  10. Housing improvements for health and associated socio-economic outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Hilary; Thomas, Sian; Sellstrom, Eva; Petticrew, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background The well established links between poor housing and poor health indicate that housing improvement may be an important mechanism through which public investment can lead to health improvement. Intervention studies which have assessed the health impacts of housing improvements are an important data resource to test assumptions about the potential for health improvement. Evaluations may not detect long term health impacts due to limited follow-up periods. Impacts on socio-economic...

  11. SOCIO-ECONOMIC ISSUES CHARACTERISTIC TO THE JIU VALLEY RESIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION PÂRVULESCU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sociological research was conducted in 2008 on a sample of 1 612 adults, aiming at highlighting the socio-economic situation of the population in the Jiu Valley and, therefore, the problems addressing the local people. Failure or even the lack of financial resources is a consequence of lack of jobs in the area and, as a result the low living standard of the population

  12. Socio Economic Study Of Vellapatti Village In Tuticorin District

    OpenAIRE

    D.Amutha; D.Rathi

    2012-01-01

    Fisheries are a sunrise sector of our economy. Its role in increasing food supply, generating job opportunities, raising nutritional level and earning foreign exchange has been important. The traditional fishing technology (artisanal), which accounted for 37 per cent in 2010, is currently contributing only 8 per cent. This paper aims to study the socio economic background of the fishermen in Vellapatti village of Tuticorin district. The study utilised both primary and secondary data. Primary ...

  13. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.

  14. Socio Economic Study Of Vellapatti Village In Tuticorin District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Amutha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries are a sunrise sector of our economy. Its role in increasing food supply, generating job opportunities, raising nutritional level and earning foreign exchange has been important. The traditional fishing technology (artisanal, which accounted for 37 per cent in 2010, is currently contributing only 8 per cent. This paper aims to study the socio economic background of the fishermen in Vellapatti village of Tuticorin district. The study utilised both primary and secondary data. Primary data relating to the socio economic background of the fishermen were collected through pre-designedquestionnaire from 150 fishermen families from the selected Vellapatti village. Present study is empirical in nature and covered only three months period (2012. Percentage analysis, averages, chi square test and probability analysis were used. From the study it is clear that before Tsunami 20% of the fishermen families have income between Rs. 4000-6000 and after Tsunami 78% of the fishermen families have income between Rs. 4000-6000. The average monthly income of the fishermen families was Rs.3750 before Tsunami and after Tsunami it was Rs.5250. The result of chisquare- test revealed that there is significant difference between monthly income of the fishermen before and after tsunami in Vellapatti village of Tuticorin District. The present study concludes that the lack of awareness and viable alternative livelihood programmes are major hindrances to improving their socio-economic status and also threatens the sustainable use of the fishing resources.

  15. Socio-economic Scenarios in Climate Assessments (IC11). Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognised that projections of social and economic futures are circumscribed by irreducible uncertainties and ignorance. A common analytical response is to develop scenarios that map a range of alternative possible outcomes. The application of scenarios in climate assessments in the Netherlands was investigated in this report, focusing on the use of the socio-economic scenarios 'Welvaart en Leefomgeving' (WLO - The Future of the Dutch Built Environment). This research was carried out within the Climate Changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) programme. WLO scenarios have been applied in climate assessment studies. WLO generates figures and data that are useful. Nevertheless we encountered several CcSP projects that did not apply any socio-economic scenarios, whilst this seemed necessary based on their objectives. In general, climate assessments make little sense if socio-economic developments are not taken into account. Interestingly, some of the studies that did apply socio-economic scenarios, picked only one or two of the scenarios generated by WLO. From a theoretical point of view this selective 'shopping' may lead to a tunnel vision, because it is impossible to estimate which scenario is more probable than the others. At the other hand it is often impractical to explore all four scenarios. The time horizon of WLO was in several cases too short for climate assessments. As it is probable that the structure of society has changed significantly by 2040, it is difs changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www.climatescenarios.nl) that provides key scenario data from WLO and other sources. On this site climate researchers have quick access to the most important socio-economic data derived from WLO and other scenarios. After registration they can also add new data.

  16. Socio-economic Scenarios in Climate Assessments (IC11). Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Drunen, M.; Berkhout, F.

    2011-09-15

    It is widely recognised that projections of social and economic futures are circumscribed by irreducible uncertainties and ignorance. A common analytical response is to develop scenarios that map a range of alternative possible outcomes. The application of scenarios in climate assessments in the Netherlands was investigated in this report, focusing on the use of the socio-economic scenarios 'Welvaart en Leefomgeving' (WLO - The Future of the Dutch Built Environment). This research was carried out within the Climate Changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) programme. WLO scenarios have been applied in climate assessment studies. WLO generates figures and data that are useful. Nevertheless we encountered several CcSP projects that did not apply any socio-economic scenarios, whilst this seemed necessary based on their objectives. In general, climate assessments make little sense if socio-economic developments are not taken into account. Interestingly, some of the studies that did apply socio-economic scenarios, picked only one or two of the scenarios generated by WLO. From a theoretical point of view this selective 'shopping' may lead to a tunnel vision, because it is impossible to estimate which scenario is more probable than the others. At the other hand it is often impractical to explore all four scenarios. The time horizon of WLO was in several cases too short for climate assessments. As it is probable that the structure of society has changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www.climatescenarios.nl) that provides key scenario data from WLO and other sources. On this site climate researchers have quick access to the most important socio-economic data derived from WLO and other scenarios. After registration they can also add new data.

  17. The Contribution of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and Socio-Cultural Influence to Turkish Students' Task Value Beliefs in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nurcan; Sungur-Vural, Semra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how well gender, socio-economic status of family, and socio-cultural influences (perceived parents' achievement goals, and perceived teachers' achievement goals) predict middle school students' task value beliefs in science. Background Characteristics Survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning…

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS IN DESIGN OF AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMMING IN RADIO TEOCELO, VERACRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antolin Silvestre Martiñón-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass media, are an important complement in the agricultural extension, however, radio is the most economical mass media, so their potential is huge especially in rural areas. The present study was carried out at a community radio station (Radio Teocelo, with coffee producers, in three municipalities in the area Center of Veracruz, it should be noted that the radio has an audience formed mainly by agricultural producers, also this medium has been used for agricultural extension by the UNCADER (training unit for Rural Development, through an agricultural program called "The Moon in Uncader", with mainly technical information, however, it is necessary to propose relevant socio-economic issues that may be part of an optional agricultural programming, and/or complement the technical programming that is transmitted by the agricultural program. The study found a positive attitude to the proposed socio-economic issues, since most was obtained 80% of positive responses, highlighting the transmission of information on: marketing, government programs, visits to successful producers and transmission of successful cases of successful producers, also adopted a positive attitude for the program is disseminated by mass media mainly Teocelo Radio and are willing to personally spread mainly with friends.

  19. Parent Personality and Positive Parenting as Predictors of Positive Adolescent Personality Development over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Conger, Rand D.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Jochem, Rachel; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the degree to which parent positive personality characteristics in terms of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability predict similar adolescent personality traits over time, as well as the role played by positive parenting in this process. Mothers and fathers of 451 White adolescents (52% female, mean age = 13.59…

  20. Socio-economic status is inversely related to bed net use in Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borchert Lea B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48, running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92, shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73, ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67. In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45. Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.

  1. Socio-economic impact of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development in Alberta : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized the results of a socio-economic benefits analysis of coalbed methane (CBM) and natural gas from coal (NGC) development in the Horseshoe Canyon in Alberta. Economic analysis assumptions for evaluating the economic outcomes of different scenarios of future CBM development in the region were also provided. The data and forecasts were used to evaluate the socio-economic benefits of CBM development through the use of an economic impact assessment model. The study resulted in a revised resource assessment for the Horseshoe Canyon coals of approximately 36 trillion standard cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place. Nine different development scenarios were run which predicted peak Horseshoe Canyon CBM rates of between 1.4 and 1.9 Bdf/day between 2011 and 2017, with sustained rates of approximately 185 MMcf/day as far into the future as 2050. The analysis indicated that CBM development in the region will result in approximately $9 billion of cumulative investment between 2006 and 2026, resulting in total production revenues of $80 to $106 billion. Between 2006 and 2064, CBM development will contribute between $97 and $123 billion to Alberta's gross domestic product (GDP), and another $7 to $12 billion in GDP outside of Alberta. GDP and other socio-economic impacts were distributed over 19 different economic sectors in the report. Results of the report suggested that over 650,000 man-years of employment, and between $15 to $19 billion in tax and royalty revenuesto $19 billion in tax and royalty revenues will be created by CBM development in the region. Tax and royalty revenues include provincial, federal, and municipal governments. It was concluded that the development of CBM in Alberta will have a significant and positive impact on the future economy of Alberta and Canada. It was noted that there are non-economic impacts associated with the development, including environmental and sociological impacts, that were not addressed in the study. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Poverty and Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Africa: The Nigerian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbokwe-Ibeto Chinyeaka Justine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing incidence of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. Poverty is a multidimensional social phenomenon that can be analytically divided into two main perspectives: human poverty which is the lack of human capabilities and income poverty, which is the lack of income necessary to satisfy basic need e.g. poor life expectancy, poor maternal health, illiteracy, poor nutritional levels, poor access to safe drinking water and perceptions of well-being. The paper examines several initiatives focused on poverty eradication that Nigeria have adopted through national actions to fight both human and income poverty. In analysizing the issues raised, we anchored the paper on an eclectic approach of radical, Marxist model of political economy and the social exclusion theories. The study established among others, that a lot of effort has been made in poverty reduction through poverty alleviation programs in Nigeria. However, it is of knowledge that in spite of the previous efforts of various governments to alleviate poverty in Nigeria and the efforts of the current government to effect same, nothing much had changed in the living conditions and standards of the people. Poverty is still growing at an alarming rate. The challenges of poverty alleviation strategies in the Nigerian situation were articulated in the context of sustainable socio-economic development and the paper concludes that poverty alleviation in contemporary Nigeria require both socio-economic policies geared towards sustainable development. However, to enhance the human capital of the poor in particular, priorities for educational reforms should be in the areas of basic education, vocational training, water and sanitation, health care delivery, agriculture and housing for all. It is the position of this paper that until African leaders in general and Nigeria in particular begin to think „We? and not „I?, the fight against poverty that could engender sustainable socio-economic development will for long remain a mirage.

  3. Socio-economic Parameters and Mortality in Turner Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Hjerrild, Britta

    2012-01-01

    Background: Turner syndrome (TS) is characterized by hypogonadism, short adult height, increased morbidity and mortality; contrasted by self-reported normal quality of life and perception of health. Small studies have indicated a similar level of education compared to the background population.Aim: To study the socio-economic profile in TS and the impact of these factors on mortality.Materials and methods: Register study using Danish nationwide registries. 979 TS females and 94,850 controls were included. Information concerning cohabitation, motherhoods, level of education (bachelor degree), income, retirement and death were obtained. 103 TS and 5,989 controls died during the study period. For the socio-economic parameters, median age at first relevant episode was calculated. Income was analyzed using conditional logistic regression, and the other parameters using Cox regression.Results: In comparison with controls TS had significantly fewer partnerships (hazard ratio (HR): 0.45), fewer motherhoods (HR: 0.18)and retired earlier (HR: 1.8). After the diagnosis of Turner syndrome the risk of retiring was increased. Educational attainment (HR: 1.0) as well as risk of unemployment was similar. Before the age of 30, low income was significantly more frequent; hereafter it was similar to controls. Mortality was significantly increased (HR: 2.9) and slightly lower after adjustment for cohabitation and education (HR: 2.7).Conclusions: A divergent socio-economic profile is apparent, with a reduced proportion of Turner syndrome persons finding a partner and becoming mothers. The educational level was similar to controls. The increased mortality in Turner syndrome was not materially affected after adjustment for cohabitation and education.

  4. ANXIETY IN ADOLESCENTS & SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHETANA V.DONGLIKAR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the role of Socio-Economic factors in increasing anxiety level of adolescents, a study was conducted among the adolescents of Nanded district With an Objective – “To study the Role of Socio-Economic Factors of Family in Arousing Anxiety of Adolescents.” Sample was selected by Stratified Random Sampling method among 265 girls and 262 boys from 16 to 18 years age group belonging to three income groups. Assessment of anxiety level in adolescents was carried out with the help I.P.A.T. Anxiety scale, by Samuel.E.Krug. For the convenience of adolescents Hindi version of this test was used revised by Dr.S.D.Kapoor. The obtained data was examined with the help of scoring key and was statistically co-related with socio-economic factors of adolescents. Results indicate that, 1Family income was significantly co-related with 5% level in boys with apprehension (0.249** and tension (0.256** and with 1% level with same norms i.e. apprehension (0511* and tension (0.521* in girls.2 Family income was also significantly co-related with low self control in boys (0274* and girls (0.277* with1% level.3 Specially in boys it was found that father's education was significantly co-related with apprehension (0.255* at 1% level.4 When anxiety norms of both girls and boys were studied through the test of variance i.e. one way ANOVA no significant difference was found. Scores for the norms like emotional instability, apprehension and tension were found with more percent in boys than girls. Whereas scores of indirect factors related to anxiety were found more in girls along with low self control and suspicion.

  5. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AND ADOPTION OF ENERGY CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Gedikoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study analyzes the socio-economic factors that impact farmers’ willingness to grow switchgrass and miscanthus in Missouri and Iowa. The results of the current study show that current level of farmers’ willingness to grow for either crop is low. Hence, there are barriers to accomplishing the goal of producing 21 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuel by 2022. It is also found that currently growing energy crops is more attractive to small farms as a source of crop diversification, rather than an alternative crop production system in the big scale by large farms.

  6. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michael, Dauderstädt.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key [...] of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs) which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  7. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  8. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. PMID:25288814

  9. Partial differential equation models in the socio-economic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Martin; Caffarelli, Luis; Markowich, Peter A

    2014-11-13

    Mathematical models based on partial differential equations (PDEs) have become an integral part of quantitative analysis in most branches of science and engineering, recently expanding also towards biomedicine and socio-economic sciences. The application of PDEs in the latter is a promising field, but widely quite open and leading to a variety of novel mathematical challenges. In this introductory article of the Theme Issue, we will provide an overview of the field and its recent boosting topics. Moreover, we will put the contributions to the Theme Issue in an appropriate perspective. PMID:25288814

  10. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  11. Contemporary Determinants of the Development of Socio-Economic Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czy? Teresa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the effect on the development of socio-economic regions in Poland of contemporary external determinants considered at the European and the world scale. It consists of two parts. The first gives a description of the main general processes that are external determinants of regional development today: modernisation changes, globalisation, metropolitanisation, and European integration. Part two is empirical in character and seeks to find regional manifestations and effects of those determinants in Poland, and to establish how they influence regional income and spatial differences in its value.

  12. Socio-economic applications of finite state mean field games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Diogo; Velho, Roberto M; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

    2014-11-13

    In this paper, we present different applications of finite state mean field games to socio-economic sciences. Examples include paradigm shifts in the scientific community or consumer choice behaviour in the free market. The corresponding finite state mean field game models are hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, for which we present and validate different numerical methods. We illustrate the behaviour of solutions with various numerical experiments, which show interesting phenomena such as shock formation. Hence, we conclude with an investigation of the shock structure in the case of two-state problems. PMID:25288816

  13. Socio-economic determinants of eating practices of Ukrainians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagarna, Natalia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthy eating practices are among important public health goals worldwide. We aimed to investigate socio-economic determinants of the nutrition habits of Ukrainian families. METHODS: Data from the “UKRAINIAN LONGITUDINAL MONITORING SURVEY 2007” were analysed. Factor analysis produced variables characterising eating practices, which were re-coded in binary variables indicating low/high food consumption. The bivariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify associations between socio-economic state and eating modes. RESULTS: Three dimensions of nutrition practices were identified in the factor analysis: “standard diet” variable associated with quantities of most food products consumed, it actually shows how much food in general the household consumes, “fruit-and-vegetable diet” variable was associated with quantities of various fruits and vegetables included in the questionnaire, and “processed-(pre-packed-food diet” variable was created based on its associations with products like sausage. More “processed” food was consumed by members of households which were generally better-off (equipped with dvd-player, computer (laptop, garage, and Russian-speakers. More plant food was consumed by the households with attributes of rural living (equipped with bottled gas, central or individual system of heating, those who possessed a motorcycle or a truck. The owners of a plot adjacent to rural house or land used for gardening were eating more fruits and vegetables. A small group of well-off urban dwellers (like those possessing tumble-dryers, tend to eat more plant food; however, this group is not numerous. CONCLUSION: Plant food eating in Ukraine stays a factor of survival rather than healthy eating for those households which dwell in rural areas and have no means to choose foods they want. Those people who achieve better socio-economic status tend to increase processed food portion of their diets. Only a very small group of affluent Ukrainian citizens tend to eat much fruit and vegetables contributing to U-form relationship between socio-economic status and antioxidant-rich food consumption.

  14. Association of socio-economic factors with drug use among college students in an Indian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Z; Unnitham, N P

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the association of various socio-economic factors with the use of drugs by college students in a town in central India. Data were collected from a large sample, using a self-reporting questionnaire. It was found that analgesics, tobacco and alcohol were the most commonly used drugs amongst some 30 per cent of the students. Factors such as age, urbanity, sex, marital status as well as the family's educational and economic status were seen to be relevant. Inter-parental and inter-generational tensions in the family also had a bearing. Drug use by one or more members of the family was seen as a highly significant factor. The data thus suggest that an inclination towards drug taking might be embedded in the social matrix itself. PMID:261577

  15. SUSTAINABILITY IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS: SOCIO-ECONOMICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Daniel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It is wide the discussion involving the importance of production adjustment activities in general, to the concept of sustainable development. Among the agricultural activities, the agroforestry systems have been considered sustainable, coming as alternatives to the intensive systems of agricultural production. To monitor the sustainability of agricultural activities, includings  AF,  the  literature  emphasizes  the  biophysical  indicators,  in  detriment  of  the  socio-economical ones. Seeking to define a list of socio-economical indicators that can be adapted to the several models recommendations of  AF a study was developed, supported by specialists and technicians and wide literature review. The conclusions were: the categories related  to the operation of the systems had the largest number of indicators in the socioeconômic component, with larger concentration in the endogenous operations of the system, followed by the endogenous and exogenous resources; the largest number of indicators suggested in the category operation of the system was in the descriptors health and nutrition, employment, habitation and sanity and economic analysis; in the category operation of exogenous systems, there were certain larger number of indicators for the descriptors commercialization and rural infrastructure; practically there was no difference among the number of indicators obtained for the agroforestry systems with and without the animal component.

  16. Socio-economic aspects of different biofuel development pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several policy drivers for biofuels on a larger scale in the EU transport sector, including increased security of energy supply, reduced emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), and new markets for the agricultural sector. The purpose of this socio-economic cost analysis is to provide an overview of the costs of meeting EU biofuels targets, taking into account several external costs and benefits. Biofuels are generally more expensive than traditional fossil fuels, but the expected increasing value of GHG emission reductions will over time reduce the cost gap. High crude oil prices significantly improve the economic benefit of biofuels, but increased demand for biomass for energy purposes is likely to increase the price of biofuels feedstock and biofuels costs. The key question is to what extent increasing oil prices will be passed on to biofuels costs. Socio-economic least costs for biofuels production require a market with a clear pricing of GHG emissions to ensure that this factor is included in the decision-making of actors in all links of the fuel chain.

  17. Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahjabeen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients� job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

  18. Socio-economic analysis of CCS/EOR in Denmark; Samfundsoekonomisk analyse af CCS/EOR i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The Danish Energy Agency has initiated an analysis of the socio-economic sustainability of a CCS / EOR system based on CO{sub 2} capture from Danish sources and injected into selected Danish North Sea oil fields. The analysis shall assess the socioeconomic consequences of such a project as well as highlight the budgetary economic effects for the parties involved. Taking into account a realistic time frame for conversion of the cogeneration power plants and for the extent of the possible capture of CO{sub 2} in each of these plants, it has been chosen only to presuppose the establishment of CCS in three plants, namely Studstrupvaerket, Fynsvaerket and Nordjyllandsvaerket. Only the oil fields Dan, Halfdan and Gorm were selected for the analysis. The analysis shows that in the selected oil fields it is possible to increase the oil production by approx. 151 million. barrels of oil to the year 2049, which corresponds to approx. 40% of the estimated potential in these fields. The increased oil production requires that approx. 95 million. tonnes of CO{sub 2} is captured in the three power plants, which are subsequently transported and injected in the oil fields in the North Sea. The transport of CO{sub 2} from the CHP plants to the North Sea are assumed to be done by ship, since this solution is economically favorable and also offers logistical advantages and increased flexibility. The analysis shows that both the budget economic and the socio-economic analysis as a whole provide a positive economic net present value over a 30-year period. The socio-economic benefit is expected to be about. 3.5 billion DKK higher. This difference is due to especially the following conditions: a) CO{sub 2} emissions of CO{sub 2} transport are only included in the socio-economic analysis, since shipping is outside the quota system. In the socio-economic analysis, the estimated value of damage impact on the environment is included; b) The value of the oil produced after 2049 is included in the socio-economic analysis as terminal values, while the budget economic analysis does not include effects beyond 30 years; c) The value of district heating losses in the socio-economic analysis are assumed to correspond to the socio-economic costs of district heating, while the value in the budget economic analysis is calculated as the district heating consumers' expected additional price at the transition from cogeneration to district heating.; d) The cost of SO{sub 2} emissions is in the socio-economic analysis set to damaging effects while in the budget economic analysis it is set to the level of charges. (LN)

  19. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, David; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypothesise that these fluctuations are largely driven by the interplay between different social phenomena. We thus quantify four socio-economic signals about Bitcoin from large data sets: price on on-line exchanges, volume of word-of-mouth communication in on-line social media, volume of information search, and user base growth. By using vector autoregression, we identify two positive feedback loops that lead to price bubbles in the absence of exogenous stimuli: one driven by word of mouth, and the other by new Bitcoin adopters. We also observ...

  20. Land Use Change and Its Determinant Factors in Northern Laos: Spatial and Socio-economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Southavilay Boundeth; Teruaki Nanseki; Shigeyoshi Takeuchi; Tetsuo SATHO

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use areoften associated with policy implementation and socio-economic factors. The objective of this study was to interpret the patterns of land use and changes in land cover with a watershed area, especially focusing on the detection of change of agricultural land. The socio-economic factors contributing to land change was also analyzed. This study adopted both spatial and socio-economic analysis with remote sensing and logistic regression model. Land use maps of the study ar...

  1. The assessment of socio-economic efficiency of urban planning in modern conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Shcherbakova, Nadezda

    2010-01-01

    The paper shows the necessity for an assessment of socio-economic efficiency of urban planning in modern conditions. Distinguishing characteristics of the contemporary period of worldwide urban development is described, which is manifested in aggravation of urban socio-economic problems and controversies. Those problems cannot be solved without a system approach, which the author of this paper employed in developing a complex assessment method for the efficiency of socio-economic development ...

  2. Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. ice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)

  3. Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior and parenting in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lachman, J.; Cluver, L.; Boyes, M.; Kuo, C.; Casale, M

    2013-01-01

    Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than non-affected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child wellbeing. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries...

  4. Common Organizing Mechanisms in Ecological and Socio-economic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra, Serguei; Uzzi, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that species interacting in an ecosystem and actors transacting in an economic context may have notable similarities in behavior. However, the specific mechanism that may underlie similarities in nature and human systems has not been analyzed. Building on stochastic food-web models, we propose a parsimonious bipartite-cooperation model that reproduces the key features of mutualistic networks - degree distribution, nestedness and modularity -- for both ecological networks and socio-economic networks. Our analysis uses two diverse networks. Mutually-beneficial interactions between plants and their pollinators, and cooperative economic exchanges between designers and their contractors. We find that these mutualistic networks share a key hierarchical ordering of their members, along with an exponential constraint in the number and type of partners they can cooperate with. We use our model to show that slight changes in the interaction constraints can produce either extremely nested or rand...

  5. Priorities of Socio-Economic Balancing of Public Transportation Interests ?????????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????-???????????? ?????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudkova Viktoriya P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article uses example of the sphere of passenger transportation to mark problems of socio-economic balancing, which are reduced to a necessity to satisfy polar interests and mandatory accounting of quantitatively non-measurable factors. It justifies a necessity to identify priorities in building socio-transportation links with the help of the method of analysis of hierarchies. It establishes levels and characterises structural and functional elements of hierarchy of branch priorities, which are taken into account during formation of conditions of achievement of quasi-service equilibrium. The process of balancing contradictory interests in the system of transport servicing of the population is considered through the prism of interaction forces, subjects, local goals and contrast scenarios, which creates opportunities for determining justified proportions in relation of social and commercial sectors of the branch market.? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????????????, ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????-???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????. ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ??????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????????????? ???, ?????????, ????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????.

  6. Phasing technology transfer projects for sustainable socio-economic development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Beukman; H., Steyn.

    Full Text Available This paper describes appropriate phases and review points (or 'gates') for South African projects aimed at transferring technology for socio-economic development. Data gathering was done through a Delphi survey supplemented by a focus group session. A total of 42 knowledgeable respondents participat [...] ed. The most significant phases of projects under consideration were confirmed, and relevant activities per phase and criteria for reviewing at the 'gates' between phases were identified. A total of 59% of resources should be made available for pre- and post-implementation activities, compared with the 41% of project resources to be made available during implementation. The causes of the failure of technology transfer projects under consideration were also identified. It is concluded that the use of a phased approach would improve the probability of project success.

  7. The need for and use of socio-economic scenarios for climate change analysis: A new approach based on shared socio-economic pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegler, Elmar; O' Neill, Brian; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Lempert, Rob; Moss, Richard H.; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    A new set of socioeconomic scenarios (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways) are described that provide a set of global narratives and socio-economic pathways to pair with climate model scenarios developed using the new Representative Concentration Pathways.

  8. Socio-economic benefits from Hibernia operations in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report identifies and describes the socio-economic effects of oil production from this offshore site, over and above the initial socio-economic effects of construction and fabrication. It documents a wide range of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians who benefit, directly and indirectly, from Hibernia operations. It builds on a series of reports which have examined the effects of Hibernia construction activity on employment, businesses and communities, including those resulting from spending and technology transfer. The report discusses the large scale and long term nature of the social and economic benefits of production activity and a wide range of benefits and beneficiaries. The report documents the ways in which Hibernia and other offshore oil activity are helping to transform the provincial economy. Another section of the report provides an overview of economic benefits. Based on information from Hibernia's production, expenditures and employment during 1998, the provincial government's Newfoundland and Labrador Econometric Model was used to calculate and describe Hibernia's effect on the gross domestic product, employment, unemployment rate, total incomes, retail sales and housing starts. Another section looks at the range of infrastructure that has resulted from Hibernia and other offshore petroleum activity, including industrial, training and research and development infrastructure. A further section on training and technology transfer describes the ways in whchnology transfer describes the ways in which the oil industry has increased local training capabilities and provided opportunties for Newfoundlanders and Labradorians to learn locally and work elsewhere. Another section examines the effects of all this on a range of companies. A last section provides a brief review of the findings related to the activity to date and what can be expected in the future. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  9. The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Madelien, Ferreira.

    Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the so [...] cio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION:The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

  10. Ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, M.Aa.; Rich, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge conducted ten years after the opening in July 2000. The study applies historical micro data to re construct the travel pattern with no bridge in place and compare this to the current situation. To complete the socio-economic assessment, the consumer benefits including all freight and passenger modes, are compared with the cost profile of the bridge. The monetary contributions are extrapolated to a complete 50 year period. It is revealed that the bridge from 2000–2010 generated a consumer surplus of €2 billion in 2000 prices discounted at 3.5% p.a., which should be compared with a total construction cost of approximately €4 billion. Seen over the 50 year period and by assuming a medium growth scenario the bridge is expected to generate an internal rate of return in the magnitude of 9% corresponding to a benefit-cost rate of 2.2.A main advantage of analysing infrastructure ex post is the ability to learn and understand behavioural andmethodological elements not foreseen at the ex ante stages. Following this we offer an extended discussion including two parts. Firstly we compare the ex ante predictions for the bridge to the current transport flows. The importance of having the right assumptions and the ability to model the phasing-in process are underlined. Secondly, we offer a wider discussion on why some projects are more beneficial than others. This is done by comparing the Oresund Bridge, the Channel Tunnel, and the Great Belt Link.

  11. Health inequities: lower socio-economic conditions and higher incidences of intestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limoncu M Emin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections affect child health and development and slow down growth, while reducing adults' productivity and work capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidences of intestinal parasitic infections and the socio-economic status of two near primary school children in Manisa, a western city of Turkey. Methods A total of 352 children were involved a questionnaire study from a private school (Ülkem Primary School – ÜPS, 116 children and a community-based school (?ehzadeler Primary School – ?PS, 236 children. Of these, stool samples could be obtained from a total of 294 students; 97 (83.6% from ÜPS, and 197 (83.5% from ?PS. The wet mount preparations of the stool samples were examined; samples were also fixed in polyvinyl alcohol and examined with modified formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 10.0. The chi-squared test was used for the analytic assessment. Results The percentages of the students found to be infected with intestinal parasites, were 78 (39.6% and 13 (13.4% in ?PS and ÜPS, respectively. Totally 91 (31.0% of the students from both schools were found to be infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite and Blastocystis hominis was prevalent independently from the hygienic conditions. The factors which significantly (p Conclusion Intestinal parasitic infections in school children were found to be a public health problem that increased due to lower socio-economic conditions. We conclude that organization of education seminars including the topics such as prevention of the infectious diseases, improving general hygienic conditions, and application of supportive programs for the parents may be suggested not only to reduce intestinal parasitic infections, but also to elevate the socio-cultural levels.

  12. Judicial enforcement of socio-economic rights in South Africa and the separation of powers objection: The obligation to take 'other measures'

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carol C, Ngang.

    Full Text Available The framework for constitutional democracy in South Africa assigns to the courts a pivotal role in assuring effective protection and translation of the range of entrenched socio-economic rights into material entitlements. This has enabled the courts in some instances to exercise considerable authori [...] ty that has significantly influenced policy to the extent that power relations between the judiciary and the political arms of government have been threatened. Proponents of the doctrine of the separation of powers have expressed concerns, claiming that the meddling of the courts in the domain of policy making is politically incorrect. Consequently, the judicial enforcement of socio-economic rights has increasingly suffered setbacks, which to a large extent have retarded the constitutional vision of social transformation. Thus, in spite of South Africa's acclaimed global leadership in the enforcement of socio-economic rights, little has actually been accomplished in terms of improving the livelihood for victims of socio-economic deprivation. Considering that the enforcement of socioeconomic rights is context-specific, I question the rationale for avoiding a 'jurisprudence of exasperation', which demonstrates greater potential to produce transformative outcomes than the preferred 'jurisprudence of accountability' which has shown little transformative effect. Just as the realisation of socio-economic rights through political strategies amounts to material entitlement, I argue that the result of positive adjudication should equally amount to entitlement to the same material things promised by the rights in question. I conclude with the suggestion that the judicial enforcement of socio-economic rights should be seen as a complementary strategy to the political objective of social transformation, rather than as an oppositional force to the proper functioning of government.

  13. An Updated Prasad’s Socio Economic Status Classification for 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Reddy Dudala

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative to understand the Socio-Economic Status (SES of the community in order to correlate its impact on health and quality of living standards. Almost all community- based studies focus on socio-economic stratification, which is the key parameter for proper understanding the affordability of the community of health services, amenities and their purchasing capacity.

  14. An Updated Prasad’s Socio Economic Status Classification for 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar Reddy Dudala; Arlappa N

    2013-01-01

    It is imperative to understand the Socio-Economic Status (SES) of the community in order to correlate its impact on health and quality of living standards. Almost all community- based studies focus on socio-economic stratification, which is the key parameter for proper understanding the affordability of the community of health services, amenities and their purchasing capacity.

  15. The Socio-Economic Status of Vocational Education and Training Students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This report examines the relationship between socio-economic status and participation in the vocational education and training (VET) sector. Research indicates that students from low socio-economic status areas are over-represented in the VET sector; it also shows that VET students from these areas complete qualifications at a better-than-average…

  16. Estudo comparativo sobre superdotação com famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida / Comparative study on giftedness with socio-economically disadvantaged families

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jane Farias, Chagas; Denise de Souza, Fleith.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e comparar características de famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida relacionadas ao desenvolvimento de comportamentos de superdotação. Participaram da pesquisa 28 famílias residentes no Distrito Federal, sendo 14 com superdotados e 14 sem filhos s [...] uperdotados. Os dados foram coletados por meio do Inventário de Sucesso Parental - PSI, do Teste de Pensamento Criativo - TCP-DT e de questionário sobre características individuais e familiares do superdotado. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizados o teste t, a correlação de Pearson e estatística descritiva. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao nível de comunicação, uso do tempo, práticas de ensino parental e satisfação parental. Os genitores de superdotados e não superdotados avaliaram o nível de comunicação e satisfação parental em relação a comportamento dos filhos de forma mais positiva do que seus filhos. Os resultados também indicaram uma maior participação dos pais de alunos superdotados na vida acadêmica de seus filhos. A maioria dos alunos superdotados, que participou do estudo, era do gênero masculino e ocupava posição especial na família como primogênitos e unigênitos. Além disso, não foi observada relação entre os níveis de criatividade de pais e filhos. Ficou evidenciado, porém, que os alunos superdotados apresentaram desempenho superior no teste de criatividade quando comparados aos alunos não superdotados. Os resultados chamam a atenção para o papel que a família pode desempenhar no estímulo de habilidades, talentos e interesses. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to describe and to compare characteristics of socio-economically disadvantaged families in relation to the development of gifted behavior. Twenty-eight families from the Federal District participated in this study, among whom 14 had gifted children and 14 had non-gifted [...] children. The data was collected through the Parent Success Inventory - PSI, the Test of Creative Thinking - Drawing Production, and a questionnaire about individual and family characteristics of the gifted. Data was analyzed using the t-test, Pearson's correlation and descriptive statistics. Differences were found between the groups with respect to communication, use of time, parental teaching practices and parental satisfaction. Parents of gifted students and non-gifted students evaluated the level of communication and parental satisfaction more positively than their children did. The results also indicated that the parents of gifted students participated more in the academic lives of their children. The majority of gifted students were boys, who occupied a special family position as the eldest or only child. In addition, no relationship was observed between creativity levels of parents and children. Nevertheless, the evidence showed that gifted students obtained higher performance on creativity tests when compared to non-gifted students. The results highlight the role that the family plays in fostering abilities, talents and interests.

  17. Estudo comparativo sobre superdotação com famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida Comparative study on giftedness with socio-economically disadvantaged families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Farias Chagas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever e comparar características de famílias em situação socioeconômica desfavorecida relacionadas ao desenvolvimento de comportamentos de superdotação. Participaram da pesquisa 28 famílias residentes no Distrito Federal, sendo 14 com superdotados e 14 sem filhos superdotados. Os dados foram coletados por meio do Inventário de Sucesso Parental - PSI, do Teste de Pensamento Criativo - TCP-DT e de questionário sobre características individuais e familiares do superdotado. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizados o teste t, a correlação de Pearson e estatística descritiva. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos com relação ao nível de comunicação, uso do tempo, práticas de ensino parental e satisfação parental. Os genitores de superdotados e não superdotados avaliaram o nível de comunicação e satisfação parental em relação a comportamento dos filhos de forma mais positiva do que seus filhos. Os resultados também indicaram uma maior participação dos pais de alunos superdotados na vida acadêmica de seus filhos. A maioria dos alunos superdotados, que participou do estudo, era do gênero masculino e ocupava posição especial na família como primogênitos e unigênitos. Além disso, não foi observada relação entre os níveis de criatividade de pais e filhos. Ficou evidenciado, porém, que os alunos superdotados apresentaram desempenho superior no teste de criatividade quando comparados aos alunos não superdotados. Os resultados chamam a atenção para o papel que a família pode desempenhar no estímulo de habilidades, talentos e interesses.The purpose of this study was to describe and to compare characteristics of socio-economically disadvantaged families in relation to the development of gifted behavior. Twenty-eight families from the Federal District participated in this study, among whom 14 had gifted children and 14 had non-gifted children. The data was collected through the Parent Success Inventory - PSI, the Test of Creative Thinking - Drawing Production, and a questionnaire about individual and family characteristics of the gifted. Data was analyzed using the t-test, Pearson's correlation and descriptive statistics. Differences were found between the groups with respect to communication, use of time, parental teaching practices and parental satisfaction. Parents of gifted students and non-gifted students evaluated the level of communication and parental satisfaction more positively than their children did. The results also indicated that the parents of gifted students participated more in the academic lives of their children. The majority of gifted students were boys, who occupied a special family position as the eldest or only child. In addition, no relationship was observed between creativity levels of parents and children. Nevertheless, the evidence showed that gifted students obtained higher performance on creativity tests when compared to non-gifted students. The results highlight the role that the family plays in fostering abilities, talents and interests.

  18. Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Heather

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach.

  19. Socio-economic status and overall and cause-specific mortality in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundquist Jan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another aim was to investigate possible gender differences. Methods Using the 2006 update of the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we identified over 2 million individuals with socio-economic data recorded in the 1960 national census. The association between mortality and socio-economic status was investigated by Cox's proportional hazards models taking into account the age, time period and residential area in both men and women, and additionally parity and age at first birth in women. Results We observed significant associations between socio-economic status and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, to cancer and to endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The influence of socio-economic status on female breast cancer was markedly specific: women with a higher socio-economic status showed increased mortality due to breast cancer. Conclusion Even in Sweden, a country where health care is universally provided, higher socio-economic status is associated with decreased overall and cause-specific mortalities. Comparison of mortality among female and male socio-economic groups may provide valuable insights into the underlying causes of socio-economic inequalities in length of life.

  20. Socio-Economic Statues and Physical Activity Levels of 3th Grade Students: A Case Study in Istanbul Beykoz Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Salih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The children and adolescent period is critical time to acquire positive lifestyle habits. The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI?s and socio-economic level of their school environments. This study also reviewed the articles about physical activity level of children, its relation to their socio-economic status and some other related tasks. Inactive life style sustained together with bad eating habits brings many healthy problems such as obesity and cardiovascular disease Approach: Technological development brings with it improving life style causing sedentary life for the public in developed and also developing Country. Physical activity can be viewed as a form of healthy life because it predicts functioning and adaptation and offers capabilities that enable people to live healthy. In this purposed three different socio-economic levels of six schools were determined accordance with declaration of National Education Department in Beykoz province. Each couple of school reflected one?s Socio-Economic Status (SES. Totally 250 students from three different SES were participated (low-SES, n = 92; middle-SES, n = 73; high-SES, n = 85. Student?s height and weight were measured and their Body Mass Index (BMI was determined. BMIs were classified according to Cole?s BMI tables which were underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Children Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ, which is proposed by World Health Organization, was used for assessment of their Physical Activity Level (PAL. Data from the questionnaires was collected in a suitable relational database and analyzed with SPSS statistical package. Logit log linear analysis was applied to understand the trend of qualitative variables (SES, BMIs and PALs. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the physical activity level of children aged between 9-10 accordance with their BMI?s and socio-economic level of their school environments. Results and Conclusion: It was observed that the effects of SES, gender and BMI on PAL were not statistically significant (p>0.05. On the other hand, there were a significant interaction between PAL and SES (p<0.01; PAL, SES and BMI (p<0.05; and also PAL, SES and Gender (p<0.05. The results would be more reliable when the study performed in big population and different provinces of the big cities in further studies.

  1. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 2: Water availability and scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Masui, T; Kanamori, Y; Kainuma, M.; Hijioka, Y.; Masaki, Y; Yoshikawa, S.; Yamamoto, T; Fujimori, S.; Hanasaki, N; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2012-01-01

    A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also quali...

  2. North and South of world (world socio-economics)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whereas the 4.2 billion inhabitants of third word countries are now struggling with a per capita income of roughly $1,030 and an energy consumption of about 0.48 tpe per year, the 1.27 billion people living in industrialized nations earn an average of $15,000 and consume 4.70 tpe of energy per person. The author investigates the underlying reasons for this disparity by making reference to numerous tabled statistical world production and energy supply and demand data, e.g., petroleum trade, production, consumption and price figures; per capita production expressed in dollars; distribution and duration of fossil fuel reserves; etc. Emphasis is placed on an examination of the role that will be played by fossil fuels in determining the future outcome for developed and developing countries in the coming century. Based on current trends, forecasts are prepared for energy consumption, resource depletion and pollution levels. Noting that the continued pursuit of current policies is leading towards disastrous word socio-economic imbalances, the author suggests international policies of rational energy use, reforestation on a global scale, and the increased use of coal with pollution abating gasification systems for greater energy price stability, and thus, political stability. He concurs with the United Nations recommendations for curbs on population dynamics and the opting for tenable growth strategies

  3. EU socio-economic research on fusion: Findings and program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 the European Commission launched a Socio-Economic Research program to study under which conditions future fusion power plants may become competitive, compatible with the energy supply system and acceptable for the public. It has been shown, among others, that: 1) local communities are ready to support the construction of an experimental fusion facility, if appropriate communication and awareness campaigns are carried out; 2) since the externalities are much lower than for competitors, fusion power plants may become the major producer of base load electricity at the end of the century in Europe, if climate changes have to be mitigated, if the construction of new nuclear fission power plants continues to be constrained and if nuclear fusion power plants become commercially available in 2050. Cooperating with major international organizations, the program for next year aims to demonstrating, through technical economic programming models and global multi-regional energy environmental scenarios, that the potential global benefits of fusion power plants in the second half of the century largely outdo the RD and D costs borne in the first half to make it available. Making the public aware of such benefits through field experiences will be part of the program. (author)

  4. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents : risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, BjØrn E

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups.

  5. An analysis of socio-economic factors on poverty in Nyakallong (Matjhabeng Municipality) / Sefako Samuel Ramphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ramphoma, Sefako Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to analyse the effect of socio-economic factors on poverty in Nyakallong. Nyakallong is a former Black township in the Free State Province of South Africa. The effect of the socio economic factors on poverty was analysed using an econometric model. The analysis was based on data collected by the researcher and three fieldworkers who conducted a survey of 412 households in Nyakallong in 2009. To calculate poverty rates and the effect of socio-economic factors, ...

  6. South Asian Diasporic Youth in Denmark: Socio-Economic Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Based on two empirical studies, this article investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s. Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of  Indian and Pakistani background (n=5). The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalism and identity construction. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, businessrelated investment and direct remittances, 2) awareness of parents’ strategies, although few or no self-employed strategies and 3) collective strategy through an organisation. There are considerable temporal as well as qualitative differences in the strategies as compared to the parental generation.  

  7. Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social entification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  8. PHASING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROJECTS FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Beukman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper describes appropriate phases and review points (or ‘gates’ for South African projects aimed at transferring technology for socio-economic development. Data gathering was done through a Delphi survey supplemented by a focus group session. A total of 42 knowledgeable respondents participated. The most significant phases of projects under consideration were confirmed, and relevant activities per phase and criteria for reviewing at the ‘gates’ between phases were identified. A total of 59% of resources should be made available for pre- and post-implementation activities, compared with the 41% of project resources to be made available during implementation. The causes of the failure of technology transfer projects under consideration were also identified. It is concluded that the use of a phased approach would improve the probability of project success.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel beskryf die relevante fases en oorsig punte (of ‘hekke’ vir Suid-Afrikaanse projekte wat gemik is op die oordrag van tegnologie vir sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkeling. Die insameling van data is gedoen deur middel van ’n Delphi opname wat aangevul is met ’n fokusgroep. ’n Totaal van 42 kundige respondente het deelgeneem. Die mees beduidende fases van projekte onder bespreking is bevestig, en relevante aktiwiteite per fase asook kriteria vir oorsigpunte by die ‘hekke’ tussen die fases is geïdentifiseer. ’n Totaal van 59% van die hulpbronne behoort aangewend te word tydens die fases voor en na implementering, in vergeleke met 41% tydens implementering. Die oorsake vir mislukking van projekte onder bespreking is ook geïdentifiseer. Die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat die gebruik van ’n gefaseerde benadering die waarskynlikheid van projek sukses behoort te verhoog.

  9. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth: a comparative study of the Nordic countries from 1981 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina B; Mortensen, Laust H

    2009-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (12 years of education, mothers with

  10. Goals and priorities of socio-economic reforms with consideration of the current economic situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykha Mariya V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article defines goals and priorities of reforms in Ukraine with consideration of the current situation in economy and social sphere. It marks the necessity of changing strategic goals and giving realistic orientation to the process of reformation. The author marks the necessity of development of institutional grounds of state management, activation of internal reserves of development of socio-economic processes, development of science intensive technologies and innovation activity, development of the weighted socio-economic policy, refusal from the paternalistic model and consequent establishment of conditions for activation of possibilities of the population to solve their social problems independently. The article provides a strategic contour of participation of the state in achievement of goals of socio-economic development, which includes a strategic analysis and identification of goals, strategic and tactical levels of goal-setting, strategic control and regulation of socio-economic development.

  11. The modern concept of individualized marketing in transforming the socio-economic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Nakaryakova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the transformation of the socio-economic system. The evolution of marketing concepts and the emergence of the modern concept of individualized marketing, which correlates well with the development of handicrafts.

  12. Parents’ Optimism, Positive Parenting, and Child Peer Competence in Mexican-Origin Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Schilo, Laura; Ferrer, Emilio; Taylor, Zoe E.; Robins, Richard W.; Conger, Rand D.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study examined how parents’ optimism influences positive parenting and child peer competence in Mexican-origin families. Design A sample of 521 families (521 mothers, 438 fathers, and 521 11-year-olds) participated in the cross-sectional study. We used structural equation modeling to assess whether effective parenting would mediate the effect of parents’ optimism on child peer competence and whether mothers’ and fathers’ optimism would moderate the relation between positive parenting and child social competence. Results Mothers’ and fathers’ optimism were associated with effective parenting, which in turn was related to children’s peer competence. Mothers’ and fathers’ optimism also moderated the effect of parenting on child peer competence. High levels of parental optimism buffered children against poor parenting; at low levels of parental optimism, positive parenting was more strongly related to child peer competence. Conclusions Results are consistent with the hypothesis that positive parenting is promoted by parents’ optimism and is a proximal driver of child social competence. Parental optimism moderates effects of parenting on child outcomes. PMID:23526877

  13. Socio-economic effects of HIV/AIDS in African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Jan; Songstad, Nils Gunnar; Spissøy, Arild

    2002-01-01

    This desk study was commissioned by NORAD to review recent literature on socio-economic consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa with focus on Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The report gives a general socio-economic overview and identifies some issues of importance for Norway's assistance to the five focus countries. It is hoped that the report will provide useful background material for development assistance officials and other interested parties. Overal...

  14. A social contract for the twenty-first century: socio-economic rights and wealthier democracies

    OpenAIRE

    Bueren, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    With the reluctance by many in the Anglo-American world to countenance an incorporation of socio-economic rights into justiciable Bills of Rights, this policy brief explores the potential of the social contract as a complementary approach to the positivist arguments of international human rights law. Social contract theory has evolved in the twenty-first century into a progressive theory that encompasses socio-economic rights.

  15. Socio-Economic Impact of Social Forestry on Farmers in District Faisalabad

    OpenAIRE

    Ume-Laila; Farkhanda Anjum

    2001-01-01

    Present study deals with the survey which was conducted to study the Socio-economic impact of social forestry on farmers in District Faisalabad. Forest community of plants and animals dominated by woody vegetation. In Pakistan there is not appropriate forestry system and farmers are not aware of social forestry. The main purpose of the study were to measure : to examine Socio-economic characteristics of farmers affecting planting : to examine the motivating factors behind the adoption of soci...

  16. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 1: Water use

    OpenAIRE

    Masui, T; Kanamori, Y; Kainuma, M.; Hijioka, Y.; Masaki, Y; Yoshikawa, S.; Yamamoto, T; Fujimori, S.; Hanasaki, N; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

    2012-01-01

    A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment), and climate...

  17. Inter-state Disparities in Socio-economic Development in North East Region of India

    OpenAIRE

    Amod Sharma

    2012-01-01

    The level of development of north east region has been estimated with the help of composite index based on optimum combination of socio-economic indicators. The state-wise data for the year 2006 on forty eight indicators were used for seven states (seven sisters) of the north east region of India. Fifteen indicators are directly concerned with agricultural development, nine indicators are directly concerned with livestock development, twelve indicators are concern with socio-economic developm...

  18. Agent-based and macroscopic modeling of the complex socio-economic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Valentas Dani?nas; Aleksejus Kononovi?ius

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeli...

  19. Gender and socio-economic patterning of self-reported sleep problems in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Arber, S.; Bote, M.; Meadows, R.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is fundamental to health and well-being, yet relatively little research attention has been paid to sleep quality. This paper addresses how socio-economic circumstances and gender are associated with sleep problems. We examine (i) socio-economic status (SES) patterning of reported sleep problems, (ii) whether SES differences in sleep problems can be explained by socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, worries, health and depression, and (iii) gender differences in sleep problems, add...

  20. Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham Heather; MacKay Fiona; Morrison Caroline; Scoular Anne; MacIntyre Kate; Sloan Heather; Gillies Michelle; Shaw Rebecca; Harkins Christopher; Docherty Paul; MacIntyre Paul; Findlay Iain N

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED) population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The primary prevention element of Hav...

  1. Socio-economic reforms of the 1920s as a preparation for the forthcoming «agrarian radicalism»

    OpenAIRE

    Roza Kadisova

    2009-01-01

    The article considers socio-economic reforms of the 1920s in Kazakhstan as a preparation for the forthcoming «agrarian radicalism». Historiography still does not give any distinct conclusions on the question, whether the socio-economical reforms of the 1920s years allayed the problem of inequality in the aul. The author calls for a wider perception spectrum of the so-called Soviet experience of modernization the agrarian sphere of Kazakhstan.

  2. Environmental and Socio-economic Determinants of Malaria Prevalence in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Niringiye Aggrey; Douglason, O. G.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to establish the relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. An understanding of the factors that are associated w ith malaria prevalence is critical for the design of policies aimed at reducing malaria prevalence. Regression results using OLS indicate no relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. There is need for further study using disaggregated data, panel data, an...

  3. Socio-Economic Heterogeneity and Electoral Turnout: An Aggregate Analysis with Precinct-Level Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bellettini, Giorgio; Ceroni, Carlotta Berti; Monfardini, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we perform an empirical analysis to investigate the impact of socio-economic heterogeneity on electoral turnout. We exploit a unique dataset on local elections in an Italian municipality, which merges information on socio-economic characteristics of about 370.000 individuals with turnout data at the precinct level in 2004 and 2009. Controlling for unobserved precinct-specific fixed effects, we find that electoral turnout is not affected by income inequality. We also document a n...

  4. Behavioral economics and socio-economics journals: A citation-based ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Ofer H.

    2006-01-01

    Journal quality is a major consideration for authors, readers, and promotion and tenure committees, among others. Unfortunately, most behavioral economics and socio-economics journals are not included in published rankings or in Journal Citation Reports. Consequently, no objective ranking of these journals exists. To address this need, a list of journals in behavioral economics and socio-economics was compiled, and the number of articles that cited each journal was recorded for the periods 20...

  5. Socio-economics and wildlife conservation of a peri-urban national park in central Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Owino, A. O.; Jillo, A. H.; Kenana, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The support, perceptions, values and aspiration of the local people, especially those who neighbour protected areas is increasingly recognised as critical for long-term biodiversity conservation in many countries. As such, conservation agencies are keen to understand the linkages and interactions between wildlife conservation and socio-economics of local communities. We assessed the socio-economic, demographic factors and livelihood status of the households of communities bordering Oldoinyo S...

  6. Judicial deference and democracy in socio-economic rights cases in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Danie

    2011-01-01

    In this article I evaluate the manner in which South African courts have chosen to deal with the range of institutional problems (problems with institutional capacity, legitimacy, integrity and security, as well as pure separation of powers problems) they face in the adjudication of constitutional socio-economic rights claims. I investigate, that is, judicial deference in socio-economic rights cases – the strategy of courts, when faced with difficult technical or contested...

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS IN INTERCOLLEGIATE PARTICIPATION OF KABADDI AND FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    PUSHPALATA M. DESHMUKH

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the socio-economic status between Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition. The objective of the study was to find out whether there is any significant difference in the socio-economic status of Kabaddi and Football Players participation in Intercollegiate Competition For the purpose of this study 30 Kabaddi players and 30 Football players were selected as a sample who participated in Intercollegiate Competition ...

  8. Socio-economic status and overall and cause-specific mortality in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Sundquist Jan; Sundquist Kristina; Bermejo Justo; Weires Marianne; Hemminki Kari

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have reported discrepancies in cause-specific mortality among groups of individuals with different socio-economic status. However, most of the studies were limited by the specificity of the investigated populations and the broad definitions of the causes of death. The aim of the present population-based study was to explore the dependence of disease specific mortalities on the socio-economic status in Sweden, a country with universal health care. Another a...

  9. Socio-Economic Inequality, Human Trafficking, and the Global Slave Trade

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Barner; David Okech; Meghan A. Camp

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss human trafficking within the broader framework of socio-economic inequality. The presence of socio-economic inequality in the world creates a system where those in power very easily dominate and take advantage of those people without power. One of the most serious contemporary effects of inequalities between and within nations is the phenomenon of global sex trade or human trafficking for the purposes of sex. Deriving from unequal power relations, human...

  10. Prevalence of Violence against Children in Families in Tripura and Its Relationship with Socio-economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhasis Modak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study after obtaining their informed consent from eight randomly selected English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala, Tripura (India. Data were collected by using a specially designed ‘Semi-structured Questionnaire’. Results: Findings revealed that about 20.9% (67/320, 21.9% (70/230 and 18.1% (58/230 of the children experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence respectively. Male children were more likely to be victims of psychological and physical violence while female children experienced more sexual violence (p=sign. Further analysis of data revealed some relationship between violence against children and nuclear family (p=sign, uncongenial and/or disturbed family environment (p=sign and dominating, short-tempered and/or aggressive parent personality (p=sign, irrespective of the nature of the violence. Physical violence was found to be more prevalent in high income families (p=sign while children from the lower income group of families experienced more psychological violence (p=sign. Sexual violence was found to be equally prevalent in all socio-economic groups. The study also clearly indicated that academic performance of violence-experienced children, irrespective of nature of violence and socio-economic groups was poor compared to academic performance of non-violence-experienced children (p=sign. Conclusions: About one-fifth of the children under study did experience violence in Tripura. Findings speak in favor of an intervention program for creating awareness among parents and teachers about the issue of violence against children, targeted at parents when they meet for periodic parent-teachers meetings in the educational institutions.

  11. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvigneaud Nathalie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ? 94 cm (men or ? 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are positively associated with overweight, while educational level and health related sports are negatively related to overweight in both genders. In men, alcohol consumption and smoking in the past are also among the lifestyle factors associated with overweight. This study also indicates that BMI and WC do not have the same discriminative function regarding different lifestyle factors.

  12. Socio economic determinants of health insurance in India: the case of Hyderabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yellaiah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Health has been declared as a fundamental human right in India and several other countries. Theoretical works as well as empirical evidences clearly show the positive linkage between good health and economic development. The policy concern in developing countries including India is not only to reach the entire population with adequate healthcare services, but also to secure an acceptable level of health for all the people through the application of primary healthcare programs. Health insurance is one of the most important aspects of health care management system. This paper identifies the socio economic determinants of demand for health insurance in India taking Hyderabad as the case. For this purpose, a sample survey has been conducted taking 200 sample units in Hyderabad city. The logistic model has been used to identify the determinants of health insurance. We conclude that the main determinants of demand for health insurance in Hyderabad are the occupation, income, health expenditure and awareness. The other variables such as the age and education are positively associated with demand for health insurance but are not statistically significant. In view of these findings, some policy suggestions are made.

  13. Trajectories of health-related quality of life by socio-economic status in a nationally representative Canadian cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nancy A; Garner, Rochelle; Bernier, Julie; Feeny, David H; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson; Orpana, Heather M; Oderkirk, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Background Mortality and morbidity have been shown to follow a ‘social gradient’ in Canada and many other countries around the world. Comparatively little, however, is known about whether ageing amplifies, diminishes or sustains socio-economic inequalities in health. Methods Growth curve analysis of seven cycles of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (n=13 682) for adults aged 20 and older at baseline (1994/95). The outcome of interest is the Health Utilities Index Mark 3, a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Models include the deceased so as not to present overly optimistic HRQL values. Socio-economic position is measured separately by household-size-adjusted income and highest level of education attained. Results HRQL is consistently highest for the most affluent and the most highly educated men and women, and is lower, in turn, for middle and lower income and education groups. HRQL declines with age for both men and women. The rate of the decline in HRQL, however, was related neither to income nor to education for men, suggesting stability in the social gradient in HRQL over time for men. There was a sharper decline in HRQL for upper-middle and highest-income groups for women than for the poorest women. Conclusion HRQL is graded by both income and education in Canadian men and women. The grading of HRQL by social position appears to be ‘set’ in early adulthood and is stable through mid- and later life. PMID:21441176

  14. Spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mmbando, Bruno P; Kamugisha, Mathias L

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to health statistics, malaria accounts for about 30% and 15% of hospital admissions and deaths, respectively. The risk of P. falciparum infection varies across the country. This study describes the spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of P. falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania. METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 villages located in highland, lowland and urban areas of Korogwe district. Four cross-sectional malaria surveys involving individuals aged 0-19 years were conducted during short (Nov-Dec) and long (May-Jun) rainy seasons from November 2005 to June 2007. Household socio-economic status (SES) data were collected between Jan-April 2006 and household's geographical positions were collected using hand-held geographical positioning system (GPS) unit. The effects of risk factors were determined using generalized estimating equation and spatial risk of P. falciparum infection was modelled using a kernel (non-parametric) method. RESULTS: There was a significant spatial variation of P. falciparum infection, and urban areas were at lower risk. Adjusting for covariates, high risk of P. falciparum infection was identified in rural areas of lowland and highland. Bed net coverage levels were independently associated with reduced risk of P. falciparum by 19.1% (95%CI: 8.9-28.2, p

  15. Physical-Socio-Economic Modeling of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Vatan, F.

    2008-12-01

    Because of the global nature of climate change, any assessment of the effects of plans, policies, and response to climate change demands a model that encompasses the entire Earth System, including socio- economic factors. Physics-based climate models of the factors that drive global temperatures, rainfall patterns, and sea level are necessary but not sufficient to guide decision making. Actions taken by farmers, industrialists, environmentalists, politicians, and other policy makers may result in large changes to economic factors, international relations, food production, disease vectors, and beyond. These consequences will not be felt uniformly around the globe or even across a given region. Policy models must comprehend all of these considerations. Combining physics-based models of the Earth's climate and biosphere with societal models of population dynamics, economics, and politics is a grand challenge with high stakes. We propose to leverage our recent advances in modeling and simulation of military stability and reconstruction operations to models that address all these areas of concern. Following over twenty years' experience of successful combat simulation, JPL has started developing Minerva, which will add demographic, economic, political, and media/information models to capabilities that already exist. With these new models, for which we have design concepts, it will be possible to address a very wide range of potential national and international problems that were previously inaccessible. Our climate change model builds on Minerva and expands the geographical horizon from playboxes containing regions and neighborhoods to the entire globe. This system consists of a collection of interacting simulation models that specialize in different aspects of the global situation. They will each contribute to and draw from a pool of shared data. The basic models are: the physical model; the demographic model; the political model; the economic model; and the media/information operations model. Each of these models focuses on part of the overall picture while; each contributes information about its area of expertise to a common pool and draws from that pool and the feedbacks from the other models as needed. Existing high-quality physical models are based on analysis of the dynamic interactions of atmospheric, land, and ocean processes. The demographic model tracks the civilian demographics needed by the other models. The populations of neighborhood group age-gender cohorts are affected by births, deaths, aging, and migration. This model provides labor supply and product demand curves to the economic model. The political model focuses on political actors and describes how they use their clout to seek their goals. Clout is derived from civilian support, the formal and informal alliances that actors make with each other, military strength, wealth, and control of information. It considers how they are constrained by their cultural heritage. It deals with shifting alliances. The economic model determines local and international prices and production quantities for a small number of products, including imports and exports and black markets; wages, jobs, and unemployment for a small number of labor categories; capital, growth, and inflation; resource usage and pollution. The media/information operations model addresses the effects of the control and content of inter- group and intra-group communications-and the side effects of these on other groups. This model will consist of rules (probably a large number of them) detailing the effects of media/information operations of various kinds on civilian parameters used in the other models, such as political goals, concern saliencies, and shapes of supply and demand curves.

  16. Does the FTO Gene Interact with the Socio?Economic Status on the Obesity Development Among Young European Children? : Results from the IDEFICS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foraita, Ronja; Günther, Frauke

    Various twin studies revealed that the influence of genetic factors on psychological diseases or behavior is more expressed in socio?economically advantaged environments. Other studies predominantly show an inverse relation between socio?economic status (SES) and childhood obesity in western developed countries. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the FTO gene interacts with the socio?economic status (SES) on childhood obesity in a subsample of the IDEFICS cohort (N=4406). A structural equation model (SEM) is applied with the latent constructs obesity, dietary habits, physical activity and fitness habits, and parental SES to estimate the main effects of the latter three variables and a FTO polymorphism on obesity. Further, a multiple group SEM is used to explore whether an interaction effect between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs9939609 within the FTO gene and SES exists. Overall model fit was inconsistent (RMSEA=0.05; CFI=0.79). Significant main effects are shown for SES (standardized ?s=?0.057), the FTO homozygous risk genotype AA (?s=0.177) and physical activity and fitness habits (?s=?0.113). The explained variance of obesity is about 9%. The multiple group SEM shows that SES and FTO interact in their effect on childhood obesity (??2=7.3, df=2, p=0.03) insofar as children carrying the protective TT genotype are more susceptible to a favorable social environment.

  17. Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Sean G.; Merriwether, Ann M.; GARCIA, JUSTIN R.

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or neg...

  18. Expectant fathers' intuitive parenting: associations with parent characteristics and postpartum positive engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Altenburger, Lauren E; Settle, Theresa A; Kamp Dush, Claire M; Sullivan, Jason M; Bower, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    This study examined expectant fathers' intuitive parenting behavior and its correlates and associations with fathers' postpartum positive engagement. One hundred eighty-two expectant couples completed the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play in the third trimester of pregnancy. Coders rated expectant fathers' and mothers' intuitive parenting behavior during this procedure. Expectant parents also completed surveys regarding their psychological and demographic characteristics. At 3 months postpartum, fathers completed time diaries that assessed the time that they spent in developmentally appropriate, positive engagement activities with their infants. Examination of correlates of expectant fathers' intuitive parenting behavior revealed that expectant fathers showed lower levels of these behaviors than did expectant mothers, that intuitive parenting behavior was moderately positively associated for mothers and fathers, and that individual differences in expectant fathers' intuitive parenting behavior were associated with parent demographic and psychological characteristics. In particular, expectant fathers showed greater intuitive parenting behavior when they had greater human capital and more progressive beliefs about parent roles, and when their partners had lower parenting self-efficacy. Findings also indicated that expectant fathers' greater intuitive parenting behavior was predictive of fathers' greater subsequent engagement in developmentally appropriate activities at 3 months postpartum, but only when expectant mothers demonstrated low levels of intuitive parenting behavior. PMID:25798492

  19. The influence of financial incentives and other socio-economic factors on electric vehicle adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric vehicles represent an innovation with the potential to lower greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate the causes of climate change. However, externalities including the appropriability of knowledge and pollution abatement result in societal/economic benefits that are not incorporated in electric vehicle prices. In order to address resulting market failures, governments have employed a number of policies. We seek to determine the relationship of one such policy instrument (consumer financial incentives) to electric vehicle adoption. Based on existing literature, we identified several additional socio-economic factors that are expected to be influential in determining electric vehicle adoption rates. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between those variables and 30 national electric vehicle market shares for the year 2012. The model found financial incentives, charging infrastructure, and local presence of production facilities to be significant and positively correlated to a country's electric vehicle market share. Results suggest that of those factors, charging infrastructure was most strongly related to electric vehicle adoption. However, descriptive analysis suggests that neither financial incentives nor charging infrastructure ensure high electric vehicle adoption rates. - Highlights: • This research analyzes electric vehicle adoption of 30 countries in 2012. • Financial incentives and charging infrastructure were statistically significant factors. • Country-specific factors help to explain diversity in national adoption rates. • Socio-demographic variables e.g., income and education level were not significant

  20. The theological responses to the socio-economic activities that undermine water as a resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Resane

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses, from a theological perspective, on both the ecological crisis and the politico-economic dealings in relation to water – especially with regard to the unsound ways in which governments deal with this resource. Texts are read from an anthropogenic perspective, as opposed to an anthropocentric one. Such a reading scenario calls for responses from theology with regard to the human position in creation. Humans are not a grand master plan of creation, but the completion and fulfilment of it, given an enormous sense of responsibility for the earth. The article argues that the human–earth relation should be understood from the point of responsibility based on solidarity, interdependency and stewardship. Theologians are challenged to embrace eco-ethics.

    How to cite this article: Resane, T., 2010, ‘The theological responses to the socio-economic activities that undermine water as a resource’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 66(1, Art. #328, 7 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v66i1.328

  1. Policies and Socio-economics influencing on Agricultural Production: A Case Study on Maize Production in Bokeo Province, Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    boundeth southavilay

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005s, agricultural land in northern Laos has become to be dominated by maize mono-cropping. The rapid expansion of this commercial crop has the resulted of policy implementations and demand of maize from the neighboring countries. The purpose of this study was aim to analyze the impact of commercial agricultural policy and socio-economic factors influencing on maize production in Houyxai Distirct, Bokeo Province of Laos. A survey of 98 maize farmers by face to face interviews was conducted in September 2010. Ordinary Least Square regression model was applied in order to explain how these policies and socio-economic factors effect to farmers and contribute to maize production. The results revealed that 94% of the variation in maize production (ton is explained by the selected explanatory variables. Seven variables have a positive significant and one variable has a negative effect on maize production volume. The results also demonstrated that the most important effect to maize production is a “policy push” mainly variables of farmland, farmer organization, support market and credit access and a “market pull” by private sectors with providing input factors namely seeds, land preparation and techniques. Therefore, the government should look at the way of credit providing system that may effect in high production cost, at the same time the expansion of farm size is needed to take into account.

  2. Constructing public worlds : Culture and socio-economic context in the development of children's representations of the public sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Priego-Hernandez, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    : This paper explores how children in different cultures and socio-economic contexts develop representations about the public sphere. It addresses how contexts of representation shape the form and content of children’s thinking while expressing the two-way transactions between the child and their social world. Drawings by children from two age groups (seven- and 10-year-olds) and two socio-economic milieus (affluent and deprived), in four cultures (Germany, Mexico, Brazil and Romania), supported by observations and interviews, were used to investigate children’s representations of their public world and their position within it. Findings show that public spheres characterised by collectivism, poverty and/or marginalisation: a) accelerate decentration bringing the public world and its complexity to the foreground of children’s depictions, and b) show a strong link between self and the public world. In affluent or individualistic public spheres we recognise the classical developmental pathway proposed by Piaget, with a clear increase in the separation between self and society as children grow. Children’s representations are flexible semiotic systems whose form and content interact productively with the context in which they develop. These results reject conceptions of children’s knowledge as a prototype of adult knowledge, suggesting that children’s societal knowledge evolves through adaptive strategies to specific socio-cultural environments.

  3. Socio-economic characteristics of patients with generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine socio-economic characteristics of patients with generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based study with analysis of socio-economic characteristics including income, education, employment status and civil status in 2285 patients from the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry and 228 500 control subjects matched by age and gender. Demographic and socio-economic data were retrieved from Statistics Denmark. Differences between cases and controls were estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: On 1 January 2012, 2285 patients with a Danish civil registration number were registered as having a generalized retinal dystrophy. At the age of 40 years, less patients than controls had a high education (odds ratio (OR), 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI95 ), 0.41-0.62), a high income (OR, 0.21; CI95, 0.17-0.26) and were married (OR, 0.39; CI95 , 0.33-0.45). More patients than controls were pensioners (OR, 6.04; CI95 , 5.23-6.97). CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients with generalized retinal dystrophy differed significantly from a matched control group on several socio-economic characteristics. The differences were more pronounced in patients with systemic involvement and patients with an early age at disease presentation. The socio-economic inequalities of this group of blinding diseases emphasize the importance of rehabilitation and need for a substantial and multidisciplinary support from the healthcare, educational and social systems.

  4. Evaluation of socio-economic effects of R and D results at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. 2. Socio-economic evaluation of the basic research at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), as a core organization devoted to comprehensive nuclear energy research, has steadily promoted various types of research and development (R and D) studies since its establishment in June 1956. Research activities are aimed at performing (1) R and D for nuclear energy, (2) the utilization and application of radiation-based technologies, and (3) the establishment of basic and fundamental research in the nuclear field. Last year, the socio-economic effects on items (1) and (2) were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated. The quantitative evaluation of item (3) from the viewpoint of a socio-economic effect, however, calls for a different concept and methodology than previously used cost-benefit approach. Achievements obtained from the activities conducted over the last 10 years implied that socio-economics in basic research funded by the public could contribute to the (1) increase in useful intellectual stocks, (2) upbringing of highly skilled college graduates, (3) construction of new scientific facilities and creation of methodologies, (4) stimulation and promotion of social interrelations by networking, (5) increase of one's ability to solve scientific problems, and (6) establishment of venture companies. In this study, we focused on item (4) for the analysis because it assumed that the external economic effect has a link with the socio-economic effects accompanying the networking formation. For the criteria of socio-economic effects we assume that the external effect becomes significant in proportion to the width of networking and/or the magnitude of cooperation measured by numbers of co-writing studies between JAERI and the research bodies, namely private and governmental sectors and universities. Taking these criteria into consideration, the subsequent four items are prepared for quantitative study. They are (1) to clarify the basic research fields where JAERI has been established a significant effort to date, (2) to ascertain a significant difference in the emphasized basic research fields (hereinafter abbreviated as EBRF) that exist among JAERI and other major research bodies, (3) to notify the actual width of networking in EBRF and quantity of socio-economic effect, and (4) to reveal the networking predominance from the viewpoint of the socio-economic effect during EBRF overlapping among JAERI and the other research bodies. Because the Department of Materials Science has the largest scale factors compared with the other departments in JAERI, it was selected. The obtained results are: (1) EBRF in the department are represented by the following keywords: ion irradiation, actinides, tandem accelerator, molten salt, EXAFS, neutron irradiation, synchrotron radiation, lanthanide, transmutation, ECR ion source, etc. They are all related to nuclear energy. (2) Between JAERI and 5 other (KEK, Tokyo University, etc.) research organizations, some keywords in EBRF overlap. They include synchrotron radiation, irradiation, electron microscope, neutron, cross section, fabrication and accelerators. Those did not show a significant difference in EBRF. Generally, the two organizations tended to compensate and uplift the national standard level for each other rather than compete. (3) Actinides, neutron irradiation and transmutation are representative keywords from EBRF. Additionally, neutron, nuclear reactions and actinides showed that their networking was well developed and strongly linked between JAERI and the external research bodies. They resulted in producing large socio-economic effects. (4) Actual networking on actinides showed that the volume of papers shared during the past 25 years was 25% by JAERI, 52% by the public (universities and governmental sectors), and 17% by private sectors. The growth rate of networking found by co-papers between JAERI and the public was 3-4% per 25 years and 8% during the last 5 years. Furthermore, authors networking studied here implied that JAERI independently participated in the basic research fields and gradually enlarged the external ef

  5. Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland's social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs

  6. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980 - 2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sede, Peter I; Ohemeng, Williams

    2015-01-01

    Attainment of 70 years life expectancy by 2020 is one of the millennium development goals in Nigeria. This study examined the socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria using data from 1980-2011. Judging from the endogeneity feature of the variables, A VAR and VECM frameworks were employed. Socio-economic features were proxy by secondary school enrolment, government expenditure on health, per capita income, unemployment rate and the Naira foreign exchange rate. It was found that, the conventional socio-economic variables such as per capita income, education and government expenditure on health considered to be highly effective in determining life expectancy of developing countries are not significant in the case of Nigeria. The study however suggests that, life expectancy in Nigeria could be improved if attention is given to quality of government health expenditure, unemployment and measures to halt the depreciation of the Nigerian Naira against major foreign currency. PMID:25853000

  7. SOCIO - ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OFWOMEN ENTREPRENEURS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO COOCH BEHAR DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindom Biswas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of women worldwide is undergoing a histrionic change. Women have been successful in breaking their confinement within the limits of their homes by entering into different kinds of professionals and services women entrepreneurs have proved to be on par with their men complements in business acumen and developing as smart and dynamic entrepreneurs. For sustained economic development and social justice, socio-economic status of women should be upgraded along with that of the men folk. Socio-economic liberty gives women the right to control the development of their lives. Entrepreneurship enhances the social standing of women. Entrepreneurial activity is dependent on several multifarious social, economic and psychological aspects. Thus, for any attempt made to understand the entrepreneurial activity among women, an analysis of their socio-economic conditions is necessary.

  8. Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008. The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences.

  9. Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

  10. Positive Parenting among African American Mothers with a Serious Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol T.; MacFarlane, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Using a sample of African American mothers (N=202) diagnosed with mental illness, the effects of poverty; maternal education; social support; maternal and social stress; current mental health; and psychiatric history were examined for effects on positive parenting. Strongest predictors of parenting attitudes were stress and current mental health.…

  11. Socio Economic Status of Women Vendors in Towns of Kokrajhar District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselin Basumatary

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to examine the personal profile, family profile, migratory status, living, working and economic conditions of the women vendors of the towns of Kokrajhar district. It also aims to access their health condition. To study the socio-economic status of the women vendors, data was collected from the sampled women vendors with the help of a questionnaire. Data collected from the sample was entered in SPSS (V.13 and analysis was done. The finding of the study will help the people especially the policy makers to know the socio-economic condition of the women vendors. It will help in planning for the welfare of such workers.

  12. Impact Assessment of Water Crisis on Socio Economic Life of Agrarian Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Irfan Sabir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study will be to explore the effects of scarcity of water on farmers’ socio economic values & standard of living while taking adoption of water saving technologies or better water resource management plan by farmers as moderating variable. A sample of 150 household farmers in district Okara was selected through multistage sampling techniques. A well structured questionnaire was designed on five point licker scale covering various dimensions of water crises and their impact on socio economic dimension of farmer’s lives. For data analysis quantitative techniques of multiple regression & regression for moderation were applied by using SPSS 16.

  13. The Effect of Corruption on Socio-Economic Development of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Goddy Osa Lgbaekemen; Abbah, Mary T.; Maryam Malah Geidam

    2014-01-01

    This study springs up because socio- economic development is very pertinent to all, hence it would be regarded as the apex of our social existence. It will help to identify how deeply corruption has really affected socio- economic development of Nigeria. However, this study aims to enable us know the causes of corruption, and to find out how deep corruption has eaten into the fabric of Nigeria’s society, etc. It also tends to examine the effect of corruption on Nigeria’s various socio- ec...

  14. Perinatal complications and socio-economic differences in cerebral palsy in Sweden – a national cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hjern Anders; Thorngren-Jerneck Kristina

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a controversy regarding the existence of a socio-economic gradient for cerebral palsy. Perinatal emergencies and preterm birth increase the risk for the offspring to develop cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of socio-economic indicators with cerebral palsy (CP) and the role of perinatal health as mediator of this association. Methods Register study of a national cohort of 805,543 children born 1987–93, including 1,437 child...

  15. Family Size and its Socio-economic Implications on the Inhabitants of Delta State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okogu, J.

    2011-01-01

    The size of the family is a matter of great concern not only to the state alone, but also to the welfare and health of the individual, family and the community. This study assessed the basic factors responsible for choice of family size and the socio-economic implications of such choices. The specific objective is to access the relationships that exist between family sizes and socio-economic life of the inhabitants of Delta State of Nigeria. The review indicated that family size depends on: f...

  16. Socio-economic Status of Women Influences of Domestic Violence: A Sociological Analysis at Urban Area in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rabi Ullah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available From the early stages women are confined at some definite work, position and role which generally differ to men in society. Their status is seen as below than men in patriarchal social structure like Bangladesh. Today the situation is more or less remaining same to some extent in their family roles and responsibilities that causes to domestic violence. The article mainly focuses on the socio-economic status of women and different forms of domestic violence at urban area in Dhaka city. The study shows the lower position of women at different levels and also high rate of verbal and psychological violence to women in their married life. Still dependency on men was found high in the urban area and most women were found not engaged in productive economic activities. The total respondent’s 150 married women living with their husband were interviewed to collect primary data in Dhaka city.

  17. How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass produs of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems

  18. How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilisation: Case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood biomass is an important renewable source of energy, especially in countries with traditional dependency on forestry resources. In these countries, wood biomass can have numerous positive socio-economical and environmental effects. This paper presents a new model (SCORE model) for estimation of 15 socio-economic and environmental aspects of increased use of biomass from the forests. The presented model enables selected estimation of different aspects in the whole chain of biomass production, preparation and use. Namely, the model enables the estimation of net labour income, net profit, regional public finance income, net direct jobs, net indirect jobs, net induced jobs, total net jobs, contribution to forest management, impact on wood waste utilisation, impact on other woody biomass utilisation, avoided costs of landfill, saving CO2 emissions, possible impact on regional unemployment, avoided costs of unemployment, additional jobs for farmers, additional activities on farms (from indirect and induced jobs) and self-sufficiency in electricity production. The SCORE model was tested in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia and apart from a good understanding of the socio-economic and environmental aspects, it also enables an overview of the economy of wood biomass production, given that it includes the economic analysis of wood biomass production and use. The model is not intended for a detailed economic analysis of separate phases of wood biomass produs of separate phases of wood biomass production, processing and use, but particularly to show advantages or disadvantages that can result from planned and existing biomass systems. (author)

  19. Fiscal Adjustment Socio-Economic Development of Country During Post Crisis Recovery ????????? ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasechnyy Nikolay D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the approaches to defining the essence of the budget adjustment, highlighted features of the mechanism of fiscal adjustment socio-economic development of country during post-crisis recovery and identified possible implementation of measures to improve the effectiveness of budget regulation in Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????.

  20. Nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; T?šitel, Jan; Mat?jka, K.; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 24, ?. 1 (2005), s. 109-123. ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : protected landscape areas * nature protection * biosphere reserves * socio-economic development Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  1. Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Australian Mining Towns: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonts, Matthew; Plummer, Paul; Lawrie, Misty

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the links between resource dependence and socio-economic wellbeing has long been a subject of interest amongst social scientists in North America. By contrast, relatively few Australian studies exist on this topic. This is despite the significant role of resource industries in shaping Australia's economic and social geography. Where…

  2. Investigating Home and School Computer-Mediated Communication Practices in Low Socio-Economic Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Ilana; Angus, Lawrie

    A study in Australia is examining home and school computer-mediated communication (CMC) practices in low socio-economic communities. Using qualitative methods, the study aims to enhance the understanding of emerging communication practices associated with the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The research has already begun…

  3. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  4. Expectations of JAERI on INIS from a viewpoint of socio-economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the taxpayers funded basic scientific researches in JAERI, a feedback of the results to the public is strongly requested by the Japanese government. By using the concept of socio-economic effect, that is, the stimulation and promotion of social interrelations through a formation of networking in basic research, the authors tried to show a kind of feedback. For this purpose, JAERI developed computer code SOCIOECO combined with INIS was used as a main tool and database. The case study was addressed to the Material Science (MS) field in JAERI. It is revealed from the study that a significant formation and development of socio-economic networking is occurring at the emphasized basic research fields (EBRF) of ion irradiation and actinides having a strong relation to nuclear. For actinides a total of 7,237 papers were written in basic research fields, where the share of JAERI over 25 years was 25%, while 52% by public sectors (PS, namely university (U) and governmental sectors (GS)) and 17% by private organizations (PO). Numbers of co-written papers defined as an index of socio-economic networking were increased with time. The growth rate, for example, between JAERI and PS was of order of 3-4% per 25 years, while 8% per recent 5 years. The socio-economic networking described here seems to be useful for showing the feedback occurring from basic research to the public. (author)

  5. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  6. Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

    2009-01-01

    A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

  7. Socio-economic Condition of Child Worker of Bangladesh in Their Adulthood: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Imran Ali Meerza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has mainly focused on the current socio-economic condition of those people who were child labor in their childhood. In this study, economic indicators are income and employment status. On the other hand, level of education, health status and role in case of decision making in the society are studied as social indicators. According to this study, socio-economic condition of child workers in their adulthood is not very satisfactory. In this research work, we have used Linear Probability Model (LPM and Weighted Least Square (WLS regression analysis to make comparison of current socio-economic status between people who were child labor in their childhood and those who were not child worker in past. We have found that person who was not child worker in early stage of his/her life have higher probability to enjoy better socio-economic condition than that of person who worked as child worker in past. In fact, we have identified that a children who is working as a child worker has 0.61 or 61% probability to have low standard of living in his/her future life.

  8. Attitudes towards the Euro: An Empirical Study Based on the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isengard, Bettina; Schneider, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates changing attitudes towards the euro over time in Germany using longitudinal micro-data from the German Socio Economic Panel Study. We observe that a large part of the German population was worried about the new currency both before and after its introduction. Social psychological theories provide insight into these…

  9. Cost-Sharing in Higher Education: Differences between Countries and between Distinct Socio-Economic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberger, Astrid; Opheim, Vibeke

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the relation between different national cost-sharing models and how students from different socio-economic backgrounds finance their higher education in six different European countries: the Czech Republic, England, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Spain. The findings reveal considerable differences both between the…

  10. Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

  11. KUPPUSWAMY’S SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS SCALE – A REVISION OF ECONOMIC PARAMETER FOR 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.B.P.Ravi Kumar; Dr.Shankar Reddy Dudala; Dr.A.R.Rao

    2013-01-01

    All community based studies focus on socio-economic stratification as this is the key to understanding affordability of health services, amenities and purchasability. When it is taken as a summation of education, occupation and income it reflects the value system expected for that level of education and occupation. Income is parallel to standard of living.

  12. The relationship between socio-economic status and cancer detection at screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Phillips, Sian; Ogboye, Toyin; Hamborg, Tom; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that socio-economic status is a strong predictor of screening attendance, with women of higher socioeconomic status more likely to attend breast cancer screening. We investigated whether socio-economic status was related to the detection of cancer at breast screening centres. In two separate projects we combined UK data from the population census, the screening information systems, and the cancer registry. Five years of data from all 81 screening centres in the UK was collected. Only women who had previously attended screening were included. The study was given ethical approval by the University of Warwick Biomedical Research Ethics committee reference SDR-232-07- 2012. Generalised linear models with a log-normal link function were fitted to investigate the relationship between predictors and the age corrected cancer detection rate at each centre. We found that screening centres serving areas with lower average socio-economic status had lower cancer detection rates, even after correcting for the age distribution of the population. This may be because there may be a correlation between higher socio-economic status and some risk factors for breast cancer such as nullparity (never bearing children). When applying adjustment for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status of the population screened (rather than simply age) we found that SDR can change by up to 0.11.

  13. Perceived Socio-Economic Status and Social Inclusion in School: Interactions of Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veland, Jarmund; Midthassel, Unni Vere; Idsoe, Thormod

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on a study of 7,372 students in grades 5-10 (aged 11-16) in a representative sample of Norwegian compulsory schools. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between students' reported socio-economic status (SES) and their perceived social inclusion (SI) in school in the whole sample. We also considered separately a…

  14. The Socio-Economic Gradient in Children's Reading Skills and the Role of Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna; Lingam, Raghu; Friend, Angela

    2015-01-01

    By the time children leave primary school there is a large socio-economic gap in their reading proficiency. There are a number of potential explanations for this socio-economic gap and in this paper we investigate the role of three particular genes and gene-environment interactions in determining children's reading skills, using the Avon…

  15. Lifecourse SEP and tobacco and cannabis use. : Lifecourse socioeconomic position and substance use

    OpenAIRE

    Bowes, Lucy; Chollet, Aude; Fombonne, Eric; Galéra, Cédric; Melchior, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background: Social inequalities in substance use have been well-documented; however, the impact of changes in socio-economic position from childhood to adulthood is unclear. We examined the relationship between intergenerational trajectories of social position and tobacco and cannabis use among young adults. Methods: Data come from 1103 participants (mean age: 28.9 years) of the Trajectoires Epidémiologiques en Population (TEMPO) study and their parents, participants of the GAZEL study, Franc...

  16. Integrating socio-economic and infrastructural dimension to reveal hazard vulnerability of coastal districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Jublee; Paul, Saikat

    2015-04-01

    Losses of life and property due to natural hazards have intensified in the past decade, motivating an alteration of disaster management away from simple post event resettlement and rehabilitation. The degree of exposure to hazard for a homogeneous population is not entirely reliant upon nearness to the source of hazard event. Socio-economic factors and infrastructural capability play an important role in determining the vulnerability of a place. This study investigates the vulnerability of eastern coastal states of India from tropical cyclones. The record of past hundred years shows that the physical vulnerability of eastern coastal states is four times as compared to the western coastal states in terms of frequency and intensity of tropical cyclones. Nevertheless, these physical factors played an imperative role in determining the vulnerability of eastern coast. However, the socio-economic and infrastructural factors influence the risk of exposure exponentially. Inclusion of these indicators would provide better insight regarding the preparedness and resilience of settlements to hazard events. In this regard, the present study is an effort to develop an Integrated Vulnerability Model (IVM) based on socio-economic and infrastructural factors for the districts of eastern coastal states of India. A method is proposed for quantifying the socio-economic and infrastructural vulnerability to tropical cyclone in these districts. The variables included in the study are extracted from Census of India, 2011 at district level administrative unit. In the analysis, a large number of variables are reduced to a smaller number of factors by using principal component analysis that represents the socio-economic and infrastructure vulnerability to tropical cyclone. Subsequently, the factor scores in socio-economic Vulnerability Index (SeVI) and Infrastructure Vulnerability Index (InVI) are standardized from 0 to 1, indicating the range from low to high vulnerability. The factor scores are then mapped for spatial analysis. Utilizing SeVI and InVI, the highly vulnerable districts are demonstrated that are likely to face significant challenges in coping with tropical cyclone and require strategies to address the various aspects of socio-economic and infrastructural vulnerability. Moreover, this model can be incorporated not only for multi-level governance but also to integrate it with the real-time weather forecasts to identify the predictive areas of vulnerability.

  17. Socio-economic Vulnerability Assessment of Natural Disaster Considering Urban Characteristics in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonkyung; Jun, Hwandon; Kim, Sangdan

    2015-04-01

    In this presentation, an indicator-based model is proposed to quantify socio-economic damage under natural disaster in Seoul, Korea. Seoul is the highest population density in Korea. Scales of the model are divided into two classes. First scale is "borough", which is town, or a district with a large town, and has its own council. In the case of Seoul, average size of boroughs is 24.28 square kilometers. Second one is "census output area", which is the finest level of statistical information. Average size of census output area in Seoul is 0.0374 kilometers. The Census output area has high resolution than boroughs. For the purpose of considering various aspects on socio-economic vulnerability under natural disaster, the proposed socio-economic vulnerability assessment model is composed of demographic/social indicator, economic indicator, and prepare/response/recovery indicator. Each of them is consist of 5, 3, and 6 proxy variables, respectively. Using the suggested model, the socio-economic vulnerability for 25 boroughs and 16,230 census output areas of Seoul is assessed. As a result, it is shown that southeastern boroughs in Seoul (Gangnam and Seocho) have lower vulnerability scores than other boroughs. According to this results, these places are much safer than other regions under natural disaster. Additionally, the socio-economic vulnerability was assessed in scale of census output data. Socio-economic vulnerability scores are shown similar results comparing with results of borough scale. However, socio-economic vulnerability scores are calculated in higher resolution. These results are caused by different demographic and social factors in each census output area even census output areas are located same borough. The additional importance of vulnerability assessment in the scale of census output areas will be presented. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant(13SCIPS04) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport(MOLIT) of Korea government and Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement(KAIA).

  18. Logit analysis of socio-economic factors influencing people to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana

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    Acquah Henry D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the socio-economic factors that influence people’s decision to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana. Using a well structured interview schedule, a random sample of 98 people from Elmina in the central region of Ghana was selected for the study. Results from the descriptive statistics analysis of respondents identified fishing as a family business, minimum skills requirement and ready market for fish demand as factors that motivated majority of the people into fishing. Lack of storage facilities, access to credit, lack of government assistance and unpredictable changes in weather conditions on sea were the main constraints to fishing activities. Results from the logistic regression model indicated that household size and access to credit were significant factors that positively influenced people’s decision to become fishermen. The regression analysis further revealed that engaging in other income generating activity and being educated significantly reduces the probability to start fishing business.

  19. A STUDY OF AGGRESSION AMONG ADOLESCENTS OF JAMMU DISTRICT IN RELATION TO SEX, SOCIO ECONOMIC STATUS AND TYPES OF INSTITUTION

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    MOHAN GALGOTRA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The most difficult and challenging area in the sphere of aggression among individuals is that of aggression among adolescents. The research was designed as an initial attempt to assess aggression of adolescent and its relation to sex, socioeconomic and socioeconomic status. A sample of 250 students of 10th class was randomly taken from government and private schools of Jammu district of J&K State. The students ranged in age from 15 to 17 years. All subjects completed Aggression inventory. Socio economic scale was used to assess the socioeconomic status of the subjects. Three way ANOVA was employed to assess the correlation between aggression, sex and socioeconomic status. Results provide evidence that aggression has a positive correlation with Sex, type of institution and socioeconomic status. Further findings indicate that low socioeconomic students are significantly more aggressive than high socioeconomic status adolescents. Finally results show that boys are more aggressive in comparison to girls.

  20. Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

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    Laporte Ronald E

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%, oral tobacco(13.5%, hukka (12% and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%. Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01 and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001. Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens. Conclusion There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed.

  1. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

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    PETER A. EKUNWE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. Analytical techniques used were percentages, frequency counts, gross margin,profitability and multiple regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that majority (93% of the broiler marketers werefemale. The average age of the respondents was 42 years and the mean number of schooling years of the respondents was 8 years. The mean marketing margin per week was N350 ($2.17 while the mean gross margin per week was N5, 150 ($32. However, the average net returns per week for the entire markets were N4, 600 ($28.6. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that the semi-log model gave the best fit with an adjusted R2 of 0.857 (85.7% and a F-ratio of 70.245. The age of broiler marketers, level of education and marketers income had positive coefficients. Thus, increase in these variables will increase the number of broilers handled per purchase. Major problems faced were loss of weight of broilers and mortality of broilers. Finance and processing were minor constraints faced by the marketer. The study recommended adequate feeding of broilers to maintain market weight, proper weighing of broiler chicken during sales, increase awareness about the need to purchase live broilers instead of frozen chicken and encouraging marketers into backward integration to increase profitability of the business. These recommendations would help to develop the poultry industry and increase marketing efficiency.

  2. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

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    Monica Dumitrascu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  3. Tropical cyclone-related socio-economic losses in the western North Pacific region

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    C. Welker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The western North Pacific (WNP is the area of the world most frequently affected by tropical cyclones (TCs. However, little is known about the socio-economic impacts of TCs in this region, probably because of the limited relevant loss data. Here, loss data from Munich RE's NatCatSERVICE database is used, a high-quality and widely consulted database of natural disasters. In the country-level loss normalisation technique we apply, the original loss data are normalised to present-day exposure levels by using the respective country's nominal gross domestic product at purchasing power parity as a proxy for wealth. The main focus of our study is on the question of whether the decadal-scale TC variability observed in the Northwest Pacific region in recent decades can be shown to manifest itself economically in an associated variability in losses. It is shown that since 1980 the frequency of TC-related loss events in the WNP exhibited, apart from seasonal and interannual variations, interdecadal variability with a period of about 22 yr – driven primarily by corresponding variations of Northwest Pacific TCs. Compared to the long-term mean, the number of loss events was found to be higher (lower by 14% (9% in the positive (negative phase of the decadal-scale WNP TC frequency variability. This was identified for the period 1980–2008 by applying a wavelet analysis technique. It was also possible to demonstrate the same low-frequency variability in normalised direct economic losses from TCs in the WNP region. The identification of possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed decadal-scale Northwest Pacific TC variability will be the subject of future research, even if suggestions have already been made in earlier studies.

  4. Women's relative immunity to the socio-economic health gradient: artifact or real?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan P. Phillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individual and area socio-economic status (SES are significant predictors of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. However, the span in health from poorest to richest, that is, the socio-economic gradient, appears steeper for men than women. Objective: Our aim is to understand women's apparent immunity to the health harms of the SES gradient. Design: Findings from a non-systematic search of Medline for population-based, SES gradient studies reporting results for both men and women and with health outcomes of morbidity, mortality or self-rated health (SRH were reflectively analyzed. Results: The 36 papers reviewed generally showed women to be relatively immune to the SES gradient for all but cardiovascular health outcomes. However, addressing the interconnected nature of socio-economic circumstances, exploring whether some measures of SES had ambiguous meanings for either women or men, including modifiers of SES such as household circumstances, social capital or area gender equity, or using indicators of area SES that were contextual rather than aggregates of individual, compositional measures increased the SES gradient for women. Outcome measures that combined mental and physical health, accounted for gender differences in SRH and adjusted for sex-specific differences in causes of mortality also explained some of the observed amelioration of the SES gradient among women. Conclusions: Socio-economic circumstances have a real and sustained impact on individual health. The SES gradient appears stronger for men than for women for all health outcomes other than heart disease. However, some of the observed variability between men and women may be an artifact of biased methodology. Considering webs of causation rather than individual markers of SES along with other sources of gender bias can explain much of women's blunted socio-economic gradient and deepen understanding of the pathways from SES to morbidity and mortality overall.

  5. Self-reported depression is increasing among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents – repeated cross-sectional surveys from Finland from 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression is more common in lower socio-economic groups. Whether this pattern has changed over time, is not known. We examined the prevalence of self-reported depression and its changes in socio-economic groups from 2000 to 2011 among Finnish adolescents. Methods Data were based on classroom surveys every second year from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 using nationwide samples of 14–16-year old Finns (n?=?618,084). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including questions on health, health behaviours, and school experiences. Depression was measured with a Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, and divided into no, mild, moderate and severe depression. The association between depression and the social background (parents’ education and employment) over time was studied using a multinomial regression analysis. Results The prevalence of self-reported severe depression slightly increased from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 in girls. In boys a slight increase was observed when adjusting for background variables. The differences in the prevalence of depression between the social background groups persisted over the entire study period. In both sexes, severe depression nearly doubled among those adolescents whose parents were unemployed and had a low education level; among boys, the prevalence was 6.5% in 2000–2001 and 12.8% in 2010–2011, and among girls 6.4% and 11.4% respectively. Conclusion The largest increases in prevalence of severe depression are seen among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents. This suggests that inequalities in mental health may become an increasing concern. PMID:24775269

  6. A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidt. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age-adjusted odds ratio in male subjects was 1.9 (0.9, 3.9) but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, a lower socio-economic class, categorised either by occupational or educational level, was an additional risk factor for diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese who had known risk factors for glucose intolerance. These subjects should have increased priority for health education and regular diabetes screening. Our findings further emphasise the complex relationships between societal affluence, personal income and educational level

  7. Positional cranial deformity--the parents' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluba, S; Lypke, J; Kraut, W; Peters, J P; Calgeer, B; Haas-Lude, K; Krimmel, M; Reinert, S

    2015-01-01

    The parents' point of view regarding positional cranial deformities and helmet therapy has not been the subject of scientific interest yet. However, carer acceptance is a key factor for therapeutic success. We therefore investigated parental perception. The parents of 218 infants were included in a telephone survey; 122 children had undergone helmet therapy and 96 had not. Satisfaction with the outcome, treatment-associated problems, and parental stress were investigated using a structured questionnaire. The great majority (90.8%) of caregivers were satisfied with the outcome, regardless of whether or not helmet therapy was used. Retrospectively, 76% of the parents of infants who had not undergone helmet therapy would decide against helmet therapy again. Therapy was either temporarily stopped (27.0%) or terminated (4.9%) in 31.9% of infants treated with a helmet. Major problems were sweating (51.1%) and skin lacerations (30.9%). The parents indicated minor (54.9%) or even great (25.4%) personal strain. Conflict with others (38.5%), stress for the child (30.3%), and a financial burden (36.9%) were mentioned most frequently. There appear to be more parental problems than expected associated with helmet therapy. Medical experts should take this into consideration. The indication for a helmet should be evaluated critically and the potential parental burdens should be addressed during counselling. PMID:25457830

  8. Socio-economic Determinants of Output of Groundnut Production in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.

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    PETER A. EKUNWE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the economics of groundnut production in Estako West Local Government Area of Edo State. The objectives of the study were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of groundnut producers, determine the costs and returns of groundnut production, identify the constraints faced by groundnut farmers and analyze the socio-economic factors determining groundnut production in the study area. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire administered to 60 groundnut farmers using a simple random sampling technique. The result of the data analysis showed that majority of the farmers were male (78% with an average family size of nine persons per family. Also 50% of the respondents acquired formal education. Results obtained also showed that the gross farm income per hectare was ?(Naira84,000 (€403.8 and the net farm income was ?(Naira 41,550 (€199.8 per annum respectively. The return per naira invested was 0.98, indicating that the farm business realized a return of 98 kobo for every ? (Naira1.00 invested in groundnut production. Result obtained from the multiple regression analyses indicated that the Double log functional form provided the best fit. The coefficients of farm size, farmer’s experience, labour and ages were positive while family size was negative. The regression model is significant at 1% level as shown by F - statistic. The R2 value of 0.965 indicated that 96.5% of the variability in groundnut production was accounted for by the various independent variables used. Finally, the major constraints faced by the farmers were inadequate finance, unavailability of labour, high incidence of pests and diseases, unfavourable climatic conditions and high cost of transportation. It is therefore recommended that effort should be channelled towards ameliorating these constraints.

  9. Relación entre perímetro abdominal, nivel socioeconómico y presión arterial Relation of abdominal circumference and socio-economic status to blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fasce H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Relacionar perímetro abdominal y condición socioeconómica con presión arterial (PA en comunidad urbana de Concepción. Métodos: Se midió el perímetro abdominal (PeA de 8472 residentes mayores de 15 años de edad, proporcionados por edad, género y nivel socioeconómico. La PA fue medida con normas estandarizadas, realizando dos visitas en diferentes días, la segunda si la PA era mayor de 140/90 mm Hg. Los Pe A se distribuyeron en cuartiles, relacionando cada cuartil con los respectivos promedios de presión sistólica y diastólica y se establecieron coeficientes de correlación lineal mediante "r" de Pearson entre PeA y PA. Además, se estableció la frecuencia de cada cuartil de Pe A por nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: Los Pea tuvieron la siguiente distribución (cm: 1er cuartil, 96. La prevalencia de hipertensión para niveles socioeconómicos alto, medio y bajo fue 17,9%, 19,5% y 24,5%, respectivamente. La PA promedio (mmHg en hombres y en mujeres del 1er cuartil de PeA fue 112 y 109; en el 2º cuartil 118 y 118; en el 3er cuartil 123 y 122 y en el 4º cuartil 129 y 129, respectivamente. Los coeficientes de correlación entre PeA y presión sistólica y presión diastólica resultaron significativos en ambos géneros: r = 0,343, pAim: To correlate abdominal circumference (AC and socio-economic status with blood pressure( BP in an urban community of Concepción, Chile Methods: AC was measured in 8472 subjects above 15years of age, stratified by age, gender and socio-economic status. BP was measured by standard procedures, with a repeat recording when the initial valué was > 140/90mmHg. BP was compared in quartiles of abdominal circumference and according to socio-economic status. Pearson "r" was used to correlate BP and AC Results: Cut points for quartiles of AC were 78, 87, and 96 cm. Prevalence of hypertension in high, médium and low socio-economic status was 17.9%, 19.5% and 24.5%, respectively Mean systolic BP was 112 - 109 mmHg (males - females in the first AC quartile, 118 - 118, 123-122 and 129-129 in the second, third and fourth quartiles, respectively. A significant correlation between AC and BP (systolic and diastolic was observed in both genders (r 0.345 and 0.281 for males and females, respectively, p<0.00001. 22% of low socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile compared to 28.8% in the 4th quartile. In contrast 38.9% of high socio-economic subjects belonged in the first AC quartile while 15.5% did so in the 4th quartile (p<0001. Conclusion: A positive correlation ofAC and blood pressure was shown in both genders. A greater AC in low socio-economic subjects maybe related to a higher prevalence of hypertension in this group.

  10. Agent-Based and Macroscopic Modeling of the Complex Socio-Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksejus Kononovi?ius

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeling of complex socio-economic systems. Design/methodology/approach – The collective behavior is often modeled using stochastic and ordinary calculus, while the inter-individual interactions are modeled using agent-based models. In order to obtain the ideal model, one should start from these frameworks and build a bridge to reach another. This is a formidable task, if we consider the top-down approach, namely starting from the collective behavior and moving towards inter-individual interactions. The bottom-up approach also fails, if complex inter-individual interaction models are considered, yet in this case we can start with simple models and increase the complexity as needed. Findings – The bottom-up approach, considering simple agent-based herding model as a model for the inter-individual interactions, allows us to derive certain macroscopic models of the complex socio-economic systems from the agent-based perspective. This provides interesting insights into the collective behavior patterns observed in the complex socio-economic systems. Research limitations/implications –The simplicity of the agent-based herding model might be considered to be somewhat limiting. Yet this simplicity implies that the model is highly universal. It reproduces universal features of social behavior and also can be further extended to fit different socio-economic scenarios. Practical implications – Insights provided in this contribution might be used to modify existing policy making tools in order to cope with the social transformations in the contemporary society. Originality/Value – The relationship between the inter-individual and the collective behavior is an interesting topic considered to be coming from rather different fields by many scientists. Yet the topic has received due attention only in the recent years. Consequently, the truly systematic approaches directly bridging between these two concepts are somewhat rare. These approaches also differ among themselves – some of the research groups consider questionnaires to understand the individual incentives of the humans, some suggest varying applications of the known physical models and some have roots in the behavioral economics and utility optimization. Our approach in this sense is unique as we start from a simple agentbased herding model and use the ideas from the statistical physics to obtain its macroscopic treatments for the different socio-economic scenarios. In this contribution we present our previous approaches, namely considering new product diffusion in the market and also a financial market model, and also our most recent results, related to the leadership in the social communities and predator-prey type competition in the socio-economic systems. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the correspondence between the considered simple agent-based herding model and the considered macroscopic models was not previously discussed by the other research groups. Research type: research paper.

  11. Behavioural, physical and socio-economic factors in household cooling energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As global warming continues, the current trend implies that the uptake of air conditioning in the residential sector will go up, thus potentially increasing domestic cooling energy consumption. In this context, this paper investigates the significance of behavioural, physical and socio-economic parameters on cooling energy in order to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. It demonstrates that such factors exert a significant indirect as well as direct influence on energy use, showing that it is particularly important to understand indirect relationships. An initial study of direct factors affecting cooling energy reveals that occupant behaviour is the most significant issue (related to choices about how often and where air conditioning is used). This is broadly confirmed by path analysis, although climate is seen to be the single most significant parameter, followed by behavioural issues, key physical parameters (e.g. air conditioning type), and finally socio-economic aspects (e.g. household income).

  12. Agent-based and macroscopic modeling of the complex socio-economic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kononovicius, Aleksejus

    2013-01-01

    The current economic crisis has provoked an active response from the interdisciplinary scientific community. As a result many papers suggesting what can be improved in understanding of the complex socio-economics systems were published. Some of the most prominent papers on the topic include (Bouchaud, 2009; Farmer and Foley, 2009; Farmer et al, 2012; Helbing, 2010; Pietronero, 2008). These papers share the idea that agent-based modeling is essential for the better understanding of the complex socio-economic systems and consequently better policy making. Yet in order for an agent-based model to be useful it should also be analytically tractable, possess a macroscopic treatment (Cristelli et al, 2012). In this work we shed a new light on our research group's contributions towards understanding of the correspondence between the inter-individual interactions and collective behavior. We also provide some new insights into the implications of the global and local interactions, the leadership and the predator-prey i...

  13. Community-based ecotourism: Its socio-economic impacts at Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshun Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lacuna in literature from Western Africa on how issue of participation influence socio-economic impacts at ecotourism destinations. This paper investigates the socio-economic impacts of ecotourism based on Boabeng- Fiema Monkey Sanctuary in Ghana. The paper is based on primary data generated from Boabeng and Fiema communities. Seventy mainly opened-ended questionnaires were administered face-to-face to purposively selected residents from the two communities, alongside, in-depth interviews with the management of the Sanctuary and focus group with purposively selected individuals from Boabeng and Fiema. The study reveals that the residents of the communities face burgeoning challenges such as shrinking livelihood options, inadequate involvement of community in the ecotourism, poor state of the visitor centre, inadequate government support and poor roads.

  14. Socio-Economic Inequality, Human Trafficking, and the Global Slave Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Barner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss human trafficking within the broader framework of socio-economic inequality. The presence of socio-economic inequality in the world creates a system where those in power very easily dominate and take advantage of those people without power. One of the most serious contemporary effects of inequalities between and within nations is the phenomenon of global sex trade or human trafficking for the purposes of sex. Deriving from unequal power relations, human trafficking is a serious global crime that involves the exploitation of many, but mostly females and children. This paper provides an extensive discussion of inequality and its links with human trafficking as contemporary slavery. In conclusion, the paper provides a list of selected intra-national and multi-national service organizations that are adopting strategies for combating trafficking through the reduction of social and economic inequality. Implications for social welfare advocates and international collaborative efforts are highlighted.

  15. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION OF NEPALESE AND INDIAN MUSLIMS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASANG SHERPA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic condition is an important indicator to measure the development level of any community and a nation as well. This paper compares the socio-economic condition of Nepalese and Indian Muslims. Muslims are one of the highly disadvantaged, marginalized and excluded minority groups with distinct religious and cultural identities both in Nepal and India. They have been excluded in terms of social, economic, educational and political institutions as well as other decision-making levels of the state. Historically, they have been ignored by the state and excluded from the mainstream development processes due to their origin, religious minority status and territorial/regional identities in both countries of Nepal and India.

  16. SOCIO - ECONOMIC STATUS OF DALIT WOMEN-A STUDY IN ANDHRA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    D. Swarupa Rani; Sadu Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines issues related to the Dalit women vis-à-vis socio-economic problems of Andhra Pradesh. The disadvantages of caste, class gender and the exclusionary mechanism entrenched hierarchical social relations have had differential outcomes for Dalit women in our society. The constitution of India is enriched with several provisions for schedule castes to safeguard and promote their cultural, social, educational, and economic status in order to bring them in ...

  17. Investigating Male Tobacco Use and Expenditure Patterns across Socio-Economic Groups in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguru, Nkoli P; Mbachu, Chinyere; Ibe, Ogochukwu P; Uguru, Chibuzo C; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of variation in economic costs of tobacco consumption among socio-economic status (SES) groups in Nigeria is unclear. Understanding the factors that influence tobacco use and expenditure among different socio-economic groups would inform decisions on interventions for tobacco control in Nigeria. Secondary data was obtained from the 2008 National demographic and health survey. Information on tobacco use and expenditure in households and individual males were extracted from the database. A total of 34,070 households and 15,846 individual males were sampled. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis. Information on wealth index obtained were categorized into socio-economic quintile groups (Q1 to Q5), representing poorest to richest socio-economic groups. To estimate expenditure on cigarettes, the average cost of a stick of cigarette was obtained and multiplied with the number of sticks smoked per day. The proportion of households that use tobacco in Nigeria is 5.25% with a greater percentage (89.6%) residing in the rural areas. Prevalence of cigarette smoking in individual males is 8.59%, and the poorer SES group smoked more cigarettes (20.9%) and spent more (0.60-1.19USD) than the richest SES group. Low education level, traditional beliefs, literacy levels, SES and employment status all influence cigarette smoking in adult males. Although poor people smoked more and spent more of their income on cigarettes, other factors like educational level and traditional beliefs were found to influence practice of cigarette smoking in men. This implies that tobacco control legislation through increased taxes alone may not effectively reduce the use of tobacco and its products in Nigeria. A consolidated approach that includes behavioral change procedures, enforcing bans on tobacco advertisement and the use of strong graphic anti-tobacco messages targeted at both the poor and rich as well as the educated and uneducated need to be effected to reduce tobacco use. PMID:25856074

  18. Impact of Household Socio-Economic Factors on Food Security: Case of Adana

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Esturk; M. Necat Oren

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is the situation where people do not have access to sufficient, stable and safe food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The objective of this study was to determine the status of food security in the Adana metropolitan area by using, for the first time in Turkey, Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSS). Household’s food security levels and socio-economic factors affecting the food security were analyzed using the...

  19. Demographic Research On the Socio Economic Background of Students of the Ecological University of Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Mihaela Mih?il?

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a socio demographic and economic research performed on the first year students at the Ecological University of Bucharest, where we are focusing on understanding and investigating the conditions inside the families and the social environment in the home towns of these students. This research is a key in understanding the correlations between the socio-economic conditions inside the family geographical area and the actual career options and decisions of the newly admitted students to our faculties.

  20. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways – Part 1: Water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr?1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr?1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  1. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-yi, J.; Lapikanonth, T.; Vionita, H.; Vu, H.; Yang, S.; Zhong, Y.; Li, Y.; Nagelschneider, V.; Schlindwein, B.; Wesseler, J. H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have generated a great deal of controversy. Since commercially introduced to farmers in 1996, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 94-fold. The rapid adoption of GM technology has had substantial socio-economic impacts which a vast amount of technical and non-technical literature has addressed in the last two decades. However, contradictory results between individual studies abound. Extensive and transparent reviews concerning this contentious...

  2. Brackish Shrimp Farming in Northeastern Brazil: The Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts and Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeu Dote Sá; Rommel Rocha de Sousa; Ítalo Régis Castelo Branco Rocha; Gutemberg Costa de Lima; Francisco Hiran Farias Costa

    2013-01-01

    Despite the economic importance of farmed shrimp, a number of technical, environmental, economic and social problems have been widely reported in the international literature. This paper focuses on the environmental and socio-economic impacts of semi-intensive and intensive shrimp farming in the coastal region of Northeastern Brazil and the identification of options for sustainable production. In this Region, the total area dedicated to shrimp farming is approximately 18,500 ha, of which...

  3. Effects of Socio-Economic and Demographic Variables on Age at First Marriage in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mosharaf Hossain; Rafiqul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Age at first marriage is a most important factor in population dynamics as it affects fertility tremendously and mortality and migration to a lesser extent. Marriage is nearly universal everywhere in Bangladesh. Age at first marriage has a strong influence on a variety of demographic, social and economic factors. Early marriage is more common matter among the poorest women in Bangladesh than women from wealthy families. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of socio-economic an...

  4. The transformation of earth-system observations into information of socio-economic value in GEOSS

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingsworth, Anthony; Uppala, Sakari; Klinker, Ernst; Burridge, David; Vitart, Frederic; Onvlee, Jeanette; Vries, J. W.; Roo, Ad; Pfrang, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The Group on Earth Observations System of Systems, GEOSS, is a co-ordinated initiative by many nations to address the needs for earth-system information expressed by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. We discuss the role of earth-system modelling and data assimilation in transforming earth-system observations into the predictive and status-assessment products required by GEOSS, across many areas of socio-economic interest. First we review recent gains in the predictive skill of...

  5. Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Asogwa, Benjamin C.; Ezihe, J. A. C.; Ater, P. I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

  6. Marketing of Public and Business Affairs Subsystems of Socio-Economic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian society is crossing one of the most important stages of its transition toward the integration in the European Union started with January 1st, 2007; this will define the final processes bound for the socio-economic reconstruction. Based on the previous experiences, an assumption rose up that, at this moment in the Romanian society there are two systems ñ business and public administration, placed on opposite, antagonistic, unfriendly sides. At the same time, there is the opinion ...

  7. Socio-Economic Trends in the Swedish Taxi Sector -Deregulation, Recommodification, Ethnification

    OpenAIRE

    Slavnic, Zoran; Urban, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the socio-economic consequences of the rapid deregulation of the Swedish taxi sector in the early 1990s. The deregulated taxi sector is illustrative of the ethnic labour market segmentation brought about by the evolution of the Swedish model from the universal welfare state, relying on -decommodifying- social policies, towards flexible solutions and related recommodifying labour market policies. We analyse the income, education and ethnic background of those workers for w...

  8. Application of Electronic Data Collection in Research of Socio-Economic Importance of Forest Functions

    OpenAIRE

    J. Pospíšil; J. Hu?ko; V. Pospíšilová

    2011-01-01

    The main topic of the project is the application of electronic data collection using the web interface to the research of the socio-economic importance of forest functions. A unique system for data collection, the provision of evidence and processing was designed. The system leads to the simplification of the research, to the possibility of extending the investigation in the field and to the survey of forest visit trends in the long term. The approach will enable the formation of an extended...

  9. Study of knowledge and contraception practices in low socio-economic women of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Pandey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective of current study was to assess the knowledge and practice of contraception among the low socio-economic women of reproductive age group in Delhi. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 272 low socio-economic women attending a family planning clinic at a Delhi municipal corporation hospital, of which 106 came for Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP and 166 came for family planning advice. They were interrogated through a pre-designed structured questionnaire, to evaluate their knowledge and practices towards regular contraceptive methods, Emergency Contraception (EC and medical abortion. They were counselled about the available contraceptive methods and allowed to make choices according to their suitability. Results: All women belonged to low socio-economic group according to the modified Kuppuswamy scale. 22.1% were illiterate. 47.8% were ignorant of contraception. 38.3% women were aware of EC. Only 24.2% knew about medical abortion. The main reasons cited for not using contraception was desire for male child (24.6%, fear of side effects (20%, desire for another child (20%, opposition from family members (15.4%, inaccessibility (4.6% and inconvenience and lack of privacy (5.4%. Conclusions: This study highlights that lack of education, knowledge and awareness led to inadequate usage of regular methods of contraception in reproductive age group women belonging to low socio-economic status. Thus only availability is not sufficient to reach optimum female health. Accessibility need to be increased by educating females and motivating couples to make adequate use of existing family planning methods and resources. In contrast the awareness for emergency contraception is more than regular methods. It mandates need to educate women that emergency contraception should not replace regular methods. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1022-1026

  10. Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Laporte Ronald E; Mohamud Khalif; Iqbal Azhar; Alam Ali; Ahmed Ashfaq; Nishtar Sania

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based) with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban) was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women) used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of to...

  11. Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2015-04-14

    Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= - 1·79, 95 % CI - 2·31, - 1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= - 1·57, 95 % CI - 2·09, - 1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help. PMID:25784199

  12. Crises and collective socio-economic phenomena: simple models and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Financial and economic history is strewn with bubbles and crashes, booms and busts, crises and upheavals of all sorts. Understanding the origin of these events is arguably one of the most important problems in economic theory. In this paper, we review recent efforts to include heterogeneities and interactions in models of decision. We argue that the Random Field Ising model (RFIM) indeed provides a unifying framework to account for many collective socio-economic phenomena th...

  13. Time in discrete agent-based models of socio-economic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Botta, Nicola; Mandel, Antoine; Ionescu, Cezar

    2010-01-01

    We formulate the problem of computing time in discrete dynamical agent-based models in the context of socio-economic modeling. For such formulation, we outline a simple solution. This requires minimal extensions of the original untimed model. The proposed solution relies on the notion of agent-specific schedules of action and on two modeling assumptions. These are fulfilled by most models of pratical interest. For models for which stronger assumptions can be made, we discuss alternative formu...

  14. The digital traces of bubbles: feedback cycles between socio-economic signals in the Bitcoin economy

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David; Tessone, Claudio Juan; Mavrodiev, Pavlin; Perony, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    What is the role of social interactions in the creation of price bubbles? Answering this question requires obtaining collective behavioural traces generated by the activity of a large number of actors. Digital currencies offer a unique possibility to measure socio-economic signals from such digital traces. Here, we focus on Bitcoin, the most popular cryptocurrency. Bitcoin has experienced periods of rapid increase in exchange rates (price) followed by sharp decline; we hypot...

  15. Cellular automata for the spreading of technologies in socio-economic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kun, Ferenc; Kocsis, Gergely; Farkas, Janos

    2008-01-01

    We introduce an agent-based model for the spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems where the technology is mainly used for the collaboration/interaction of agents. Agents use products of different technologies to collaborate with each other which induce costs proportional to the difference of technological levels. Additional costs arise when technologies of different providers are used. Agents can adopt technologies and providers of their interacting...

  16. Socio-economic analysis : a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    OpenAIRE

    Brignon, Jean-marc

    2011-01-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation ...

  17. The Effect of Corruption on Socio-Economic Development of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goddy Osa Lgbaekemen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study springs up because socio- economic development is very pertinent to all, hence it would be regarded as the apex of our social existence. It will help to identify how deeply corruption has really affected socio- economic development of Nigeria. However, this study aims to enable us know the causes of corruption, and to find out how deep corruption has eaten into the fabric of Nigeria’s society, etc. It also tends to examine the effect of corruption on Nigeria’s various socio- economic developments and tries to explore on the damage which this disease has caused to the image of the nation since 1985 up till the year 2010. By then, the effort of the anti- graft agencies EFCC and ICPC would also be examined to see if they have been efficient in discharging their duties, and to suggest the better way in more holistic and independent manner which would help as an encouragement for them to face the fight or war against corruption without fear or favour of the power that be. The result of this evaluation here is to show that this issue of corruption in Nigeria is an important national issue and has to be treated with all carefulness. There is great need for people to be shakier over the damage which corruption would cause if neglected. Based on the analysis of this work, government would know how best to fight corruption and alleviate the heat of it so as to build stronger and healthier economy. A lot of work would have been done on this subject; some might have done it with less seriousness. To allow for socio- economic development, this subject has to be treated objectively with utmost care. And it is that objectives I would say, this work have  appeared to achieve it.

  18. Association between the Socio-Economic Indicators and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sh, Salarilak; Hr, Khalkhali; Entezarmahdi, R.; Fg, Pakdel; Hr, Faroukheslamloo

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Infant mortality is one of the main indexes in the assessment of a society's access to the primary health care ser­vices. Many factors are involved in this regard. The present study aimed at determining the structural association be­tween socio-economic variables and the rate of infant mortality rate."nMethods: The required data and information were collected from the multiple indicator cluster surveys (MICS,1998), reports of the Statistical Centre...

  19. Some socio-economic determinants of fertility in Pakistan: an empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chani, Muhammad Irfan; Shahid, Muhammad; Hassan, Mahboob Ul

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at empirical investigation of the role that various socio-economic factors like female education, urbanization and female labour force participation play in determining fertility of women in Pakistan. ARDL bound testing approach to co-integration is used to analyze the long run relationship of the variables by using the data for the period of 1980 to 2009. Empirical results show that there exists a long run as well as short run relationship between fertility and urbanizat...

  20. Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    HA Qazi; J Ahmed Soomro; Hashmi, A.; M Hafeez Qadri; Rasheed, F.; M Tariq Karim

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling wa...

  1. 'Risky places?': mapping gambling machine density and socio-economic deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Wardle, Heather; Keily, Ruth; Astbury, Gaynor; Reith, Gerda

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this project were to map the location and density of gambling machines in Britain; to explore whether geographic areas with higher densities of machines exist and to examine the socio-economic characteristics of these areas relative to others. Using geospatial analysis of premises records, we identified 8861 Machine Zones which were areas with a 400 meter radius around gambling machine venue and 384 High Density Machine Zones (HDMZ) with 1 or more gambling machine per hectare. The...

  2. Investigating socio-economic variations in access to chlamydia testing in young people in England

    OpenAIRE

    Sheringham, J. R.

    2012-01-01

    In England over 2 million young people were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) in 2010/2011 to control infection and prevent reproductive health problems. Since 2008, the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) has delivered a significant proportion of this testing. The main part of my thesis focused on delivery, specifically on socio-economic variations in access to chlamydia testing amongst young people. It is not known whether testing reaches people in disadvantaged soci...

  3. Socio-economic Aspects of Gum Arabic Production in Dalanj Area, South Korodofan, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. Mohammed; E.M. Sanjak; A.M. Eltayeb; A.O. Koli

    2013-01-01

    Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree) is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers) on random sample basis...

  4. Jatropha Assessment. Agronomy, socio-economic issues, and ecology. Facts from literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Eijck, J. A. J.; Smeets, E.; Romijn, H. A.; Balkema, A. J.; Jongschaap, R. E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) has been promoted as a potential renewable energy source for many of its advantageous properties in comparison to other biomass feedstock. This report summarises the agronomy, socio-economic issues, and ecology facts from literature on Jatropha. Such an overview is essential to formulate recommendations and policy guidelines to stimulate best project practices and also help to avoid the promotion of unviable or unsustainable practices.

  5. Croatia's EU accession: socio-economic assessment of farm households and policy recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Mo?llers, Judith; Zier, Patrick; Frohberg, Klaus; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Bojnec, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Croatia is very close to meeting the requirements necessary for becoming a member of the European Union (EU). On February 6, 2008, the European Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn said that accession negotiations with Croatia are moving ahead well. As in all new member states (NMS), the agricultural sector and food processing chain are core issues within the negotiation process. Successful negotiation requires intimate knowledge of the issue at hand, including the socio-economic situation and ...

  6. Diet composition, socio-economic status and food outlets development in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Paola

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between nutrition and socio-economic status among the British population. It describes the dynamics of consumption over age and time using data from the British National Food Survey (NFS) covering the period 1975-2000. Daily intakes-age relationships for men and women are estimated by solving a non-linear least square model with a roughness penalty function approach. Focusing on young age groups, trends of consumption over the 25-year period of study a...

  7. Socio-economics of biosecurity four essays on bioinvasions and genetically modified agriculture/

    OpenAIRE

    Binimelis Adell, Rosa

    2009-01-01

    La tesis doctoral "Socio-economics of biosecurity: Four essays on bioinvasions and genetically modified agriculture" (Socio-economia de la bioseguretat: Quatre assaigs sobre bioinvasions i l'agricultura modificada genèticament) analitza dos processos altament controvertits -la introducció d'espècies invasores i d'organismes modificats genèticament (OMG)-, sota el concepte paraigua de la bioseguretat. Bioseguretat far referència a un enfocament estratègic i integrat que reuneix els marcs...

  8. SOCIO-ECONOMICS FACTORS INFLUENCING LITERACY IN THE WESTERN SATPURA REGION: A GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY”

    OpenAIRE

    Ahire, R. C.; Badgujar, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Literacy is a dynamic process. The distribution of literacy is uneven in different parts of a region. The various geographical factors like the nature of relief, amount of rainfall, agricultural productivity, availability of water, accessibility etc. influence the distribution of population. The influence of these factors is clearly seen in the socioeconomic development of the region. This socio-economic development directly and indirectly accelerates the rate of literacy. As the Western Satp...

  9. Interdisciplinarity in Socio-economics, mathematical analysis and predictability of complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sornette, D.

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, I attempt to provide supporting evidence as well as some balance for the thesis on `Transforming socio-economics with a new epistemology' presented by Hollingworth and Mueller (2008). First, I review a personal highlight of my own scientific path that illustrates the power of interdisciplinarity as well as unity of the mathematical description of natural and social processes. I also argue against the claim that complex systems are in general `not susceptible t...

  10. Socio economic analysis of wind and diesel driven water pumping system in the sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive cost analysis of wind pumping system both imported and locally made versus diesel pumping systems was made.Result of the practical experience made by Energy Research Institute during the last several years and some private efforts are used in this evaluation. Economic evaluation was emphasized on the socio - economic aspects. Many problems of assumptions and adjustments of factors were also discussed and assessed. ( Author )

  11. Socio - Economic Implication of Use of Gsm among Abeokuta Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Akinola George Dosunmu

    2011-01-01

    The euphoria that greeted the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) has reached its peak with grave implication for socio-economic conditions of many Nigerians same of who have been complaining about exploitation and unsatisfactory services provided by Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) operation in the country. However, many Nigerians even with high cost of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) phone will not stop at anything as holding a Global System...

  12. Socio-economic aspects of the Byzantine mosaic pavements of Phoenicia and northern Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Merrony, Mark W.; Dr Claudine Dauphin, Dr Julian Raby

    2002-01-01

    ?The present thesis analyzes the Byzantine mosaic pavements of Phoenicia and Northern Palcatine from a socio-economic perspective, primarily by examining the laying of pavements including technical aspects and bedding, the quality of decoration, the distribution of pavements in time and space, as well as inscriptions which provide names of donors and artists as well as dates. The approach adopted represents a novel alternative and complement to typical interpretations of mosaic floor decora...

  13. Histological subtype of lung cancer in relation to socio-economic deprivation in South East England

    OpenAIRE

    Mak Vivian; Jack Ruth H; Davies Elizabeth A; Bennett Victoria A; Møller Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have found differences in the histological subtypes of lung cancers affecting males and females. Our objective was to investigate trends in the incidence of histological subtypes of lung cancer in males and females in relation to socio-economic deprivation in South East England. Methods Data on 48,031 males and 30,454 females diagnosed with lung cancer between 1995 and 2004 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age-standardised incidence...

  14. Female Foeticide in Delhi/NCR: Exploring the Socio-Economic and Cultural Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Deb Roumi, Bhatnagar P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The social and psychological fibres of India are predominantly patriarchal and contributing extensively to the secondary status of women. It is yet to be seen if the difference in attitudes towards the practice of female foeticide varies in different socio-economic strata, and in among the different communities of India. Methodology: The present study is based on a door-to-door survey comprising 100 families, conducted in slum areas of Delhi/NCR. Most of the families living in the...

  15. Socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality in low and middle income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Houweling, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide more than 10 million children die each year before their fifth birthday (Black et al. 2003). Not only are these deaths concentrated in low and middle income countries; children of the poor and less educated within these countries too exhibit systematically higher mortality levels. Policy makers are learning that improving average population health is not enough. Monitoring and tackling inequalities in health between socio-economic groups within countries has become an...

  16. Informal waste harvesting in Victoria Falls town, Zimbabwe: Socio-economic benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Masocha, M.

    2006-01-01

    Waste harvesting, which occurs mostly but not exclusively at open waste dumps in Zimbabwe, constitutes one of the most important survival options for the urban poor. This paper analyses and discusses socio-economic benefits of informal waste harvesters in Victoria Falls town. Victoria Falls town has an estimated population of 31,000 and is presently the fastest growing urban centre in Zimbabwe. An estimated 8000 tonnes of solid wastes are generated in the town every month. Questionnaires were...

  17. Socio-economic status and types of childhood injury in Alberta: a population based study

    OpenAIRE

    Svenson Lawrence W; Wilson Douglas R; Wild Cameron; Gilbride Susan J; Spady Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood injury is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and permanent disability in children in the developed world. This research examines relationships between socio-economic status (SES), demographics, and types of childhood injury in the province of Alberta, Canada. Methods Secondary analysis was performed using administrative health care data provided by Alberta Health and Wellness on all children, aged 0 to 17 years, who had injuries treated by a physician, eit...

  18. A methodology to assess some socio-economic effects of marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Weigel, Jean-yves

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of socio-economic effects of marine protected areas on fishing activity points out some methodological difficulties. As a methodology we propose a selection of two components : the fishing unit profitability and the fishery household income distribution and a comparison between a marine protected area versus an “unprotected zone”. The methodology has been applied on a case study: the Chumphon National Park versus the Chumphon Province (Gulf of Thailand). Three phases have b...

  19. Mixing specialised farming systems in Flevoland (The Netherlands) : agronomic, environmental and socio-economic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, J. F. F. P.; Ven, G. W. J.

    1999-01-01

    Mixed farming systems have potential agronomic, environmental and socio-economic advantages over specialized farming systems. This paper attempts to quantify these advantages for the Dutch province Flevoland. A mixed farming system at regional level is characterized by intensive cooperation between two or more specialized farms, each producing crop or animal products. To test the hypothesis that such a mixed farming system might improve sustainability of agriculture in Flevoland, nutrient bal...

  20. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Duvigneaud Nathalie; Wijndaele Katrien; Matton Lynn; Deriemaeker Peter; Philippaerts Renaat; Lefevre Johan; Thomis Martine; Duquet William

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ? 94 cm (men) or ? 80 cm (women) and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Met...

  1. Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Hoeck; Johan Van der Heyden; Joanna Geerts; Guido Van Hal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (?65 years) and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES). Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine t...

  2. Investigating Male Tobacco Use and Expenditure Patterns across Socio-Economic Groups in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uguru, Nkoli P.; Mbachu, Chinyere; Ibe, Ogochukwu P.; Uguru, Chibuzo C.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of variation in economic costs of tobacco consumption among socio-economic status (SES) groups in Nigeria is unclear. Understanding the factors that influence tobacco use and expenditure among different socio-economic groups would inform decisions on interventions for tobacco control in Nigeria. Secondary data was obtained from the 2008 National demographic and health survey. Information on tobacco use and expenditure in households and individual males were extracted from the database. A total of 34,070 households and 15,846 individual males were sampled. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression analysis. Information on wealth index obtained were categorized into socio-economic quintile groups (Q1 to Q5), representing poorest to richest socio-economic groups. To estimate expenditure on cigarettes, the average cost of a stick of cigarette was obtained and multiplied with the number of sticks smoked per day. The proportion of households that use tobacco in Nigeria is 5.25% with a greater percentage (89.6%) residing in the rural areas. Prevalence of cigarette smoking in individual males is 8.59%, and the poorer SES group smoked more cigarettes (20.9%) and spent more (0.60–1.19USD) than the richest SES group. Low education level, traditional beliefs, literacy levels, SES and employment status all influence cigarette smoking in adult males. Although poor people smoked more and spent more of their income on cigarettes, other factors like educational level and traditional beliefs were found to influence practice of cigarette smoking in men. This implies that tobacco control legislation through increased taxes alone may not effectively reduce the use of tobacco and its products in Nigeria. A consolidated approach that includes behavioral change procedures, enforcing bans on tobacco advertisement and the use of strong graphic anti-tobacco messages targeted at both the poor and rich as well as the educated and uneducated need to be effected to reduce tobacco use. PMID:25856074

  3. Climate Change and Shrimp Farming in Andhra Pradesh, India: Socio-economics and Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Sekhar Nagothu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 70% of shrimp consumed globally is farmed. India is ranked among the top five shrimp farming countries globally, and occurs mainly in the eastern coastal state of Andhra Pradesh (AP. More than 90% of the farms are less than 2 ha and are farmer owned, operated and managed. The objective of this study was to increase our understanding of climatic and socio-economic factors influencing this sector, through a survey of 300 shrimp farmers in AP in 2009/10. The farming communities were divisible into two groups: members of a society/cooperative and those operating individually. The latter were large scale adopting more intensive practices. The average production cost was Indian Rupees (IRS 80,186 ha-1 and net income in summer and winter was IRS 221,901 and IRS 141,715, respectively. The mean technical efficiency estimated using Stochastic frontier function was 7% and 54%. The present study attempts to explain the difference in efficiencies using socio-economic and climatic variables, the latter being a novel approach. Among socio-economic variables, farming experience and membership in society were found to have a significant influence to improve technical and economic efficiencies. Further improvements in identifiable facets of the practices and a consequent increase in technical efficiency will make the sector less vulnerable to climatic change impacts.

  4. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Crystal River Unit 3 case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  5. Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA Qazi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

  6. Socio-Economic Implications of Retirement on Retired Public Servants in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji OLATUNDE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study examined the socio-economic implications of retirement on retried public servants in Ekiti State, Nigeria.  Economic difficult might be a principal factor for maladjustment among retirees in Ekiti State.  Data for this study were collected from Primary source.  Four hundred (400 questionnaires were administered in this study.  Data for this study were analyzed with the aid of frequency count, percentage,  mean and statistical methods.  Results for this study showed that retirees in the study area had socio-economic problems resulting from poor pay, delay in payment of gratuity and pension, and hyper inflation on their meagre income.  This study, therefore, recommended that, the management of pension fund should be given to private pension administrators with credible records in order to forestall mismanagement of pension funds.  This study will be of immeasurable value to Government, Public Servants, Retirees, planners and researchers.

    Key words: Implication; Recommendations; Retirement socio-economic and public servants

  7. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  8. Impact of mining projects on the socio-economics of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining of mineral deposits, if exploited economically, would generate prospects of significant employment of non-inflationary nature, in developing countries. Exploitation of remotely located mineral deposits contributes in developing inaccessible regions thereby improving socio-economics of the region benefiting the local inhabitants and supplementing the efforts towards national integration. However, an indifferent attitude of the project management towards environment and welfare of local population will result in clash of interests and perpetual litigations which not only impede progress of the project but also lead to law and order problems. A precondition for successful implementation of any project is to understand the possible impact it has, on the socio-economics of the region and educate the local inhabitants to derive optimum advantage from the project. In this paper, two cases of mining projects, one located remotely and the other close to a well developed city are studied and their impact on the socio-economics of the respective regions is presented. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  9. British Columbia offshore oil and gas socio-economic issue papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) biblrategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Introducing Modern Energy Services into Developing Countries: The Role of Local Community Socio-Economic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willington Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy technologies are widely sought-after as essential elements in facing global challenges such as energy security, global warming and poverty reduction. However, in spite of their promising advantages, sustainable energy technologies make only a marginal contribution to meeting energy related needs in both industrialised and developing countries, in comparison to the widespread use of unsustainable technologies. One of the most significant constraints to their adoption and broad diffusion is the socio-economic context in which sustainable energy technologies are supposed to operate. The same holds true for community-based energy projects in developing countries supported by the WISIONS initiative. Practical strategies dealing with these socio-economic challenges are crucial elements for project design and, particularly, for the implementation of project activities. In this paper experiences from implementing community-based projects are reviewed in order to identify the practical elements that are relevant to overcome socio-economic challenges. In order to systematise the findings, an analytical framework is proposed, which combines analytical tools from the socio-technical transition framework and insights from participative approaches to development.

  11. Oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary countries development; O impacto do pagamento de royalties do petroleo no desenvolvimento socio-economico dos municipios beneficiarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchesi, Cesar Augusto M.; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade

    2004-07-01

    This research proposes to evaluate oil royalties payment impact on socio-economic beneficiary counties indicators. In the first step, it has been made royalties payments distribution among beneficiary counties (942), what showed a meaningful paid resources concentration between 1993 and 1999, when 20% of the beneficiaries apportioned of 98,5% from this period paid royalties. For these 188 greatest exaction counties the royalties impact analyses on County Human Development Index (IDH-M) evolution showed the received royalties amount positively influenced the 2000 IDH-M additional comparing to 1991. It indicates the petroleum industry contribution to municipal development of those counties which receive these resources. (author)

  12. Book Review: Shrestha, Omkar Lal, and Aekapol Chongvilaivan (eds), Greater Mekong Subregion: From Geographical to Socio-economic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Timotheus J Krahl School Of Arts Social Sciences, Monash University

    2015-01-01

    Book Review of the edited volume: Omkar Lal Shrestha and Aekapol Chongvilaivan (eds) (2013), Greater Mekong Subregion: From Geographical to Socio-economic Integration. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS), ISBN: 978-981-4379-68-7, 270 pages

  13. The development of socio-economic health differences in childhood: results of the Dutch longitudinal PIAMA birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Henriette A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with higher socio-economic status (SES are generally in better health. Less is known about when these socio-economic health differences set in during childhood and how they develop over time. The goal of this study was to prospectively study the development of socio-economic health differences in the Netherlands, and to investigate possible explanations for socio-economic variation in childhood health. Methods Data from the Dutch Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA birth cohort study were used for the analyses. The PIAMA study followed 3,963 Dutch children during their first eight years of life. Common childhood health problems (i.e. eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and obesity were assessed annually using questionnaires. Maternal educational level was used to indicate SES. Possible explanatory lifestyle determinants (breastfeeding, smoking during pregnancy, smoking during the first three months, and day-care centre attendance and biological determinants (maternal age at birth, birthweight, and older siblings were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results This study shows that socio-economic differences in a broad range of health problems are already present early in life, and persist during childhood. Children from families with low socio-economic backgrounds experience more asthma symptoms (odds ratio (OR 1.27; 95% Confidence Interval (CI 1.08-1.49, poorer general health (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.60, more frequent respiratory infections (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.35-1.83, more overweight (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.16-1.73, and more obesity (OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.80-4.41. The most important contributors to the observed childhood socio-economic health disparities are socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding, and day-care centre attendance. Conclusions Socio-economic health disparities already occur very early in life. Socio-economic disadvantage takes its toll on child health before birth, and continues to do so during childhood. Therefore, action to reduce health disparities needs to start very early in life, and should also address socio-economic differences in maternal age at birth, breastfeeding habits, and day-care centre attendance.

  14. Modifying the rebound: It depends! Explaining mobility behavior on the basis of the German socio-economic panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel and the way this behavioral aspect is modified by additional variables. The data set used to estimate a theoretical model of the rebound effect covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). To take full advantage of the information in the data available, and to avoid problems due to possible selection effects, we estimated an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. Our results suggest that in line with the rebound hypothesis, car efficiency has a negative effect on the kilometers driven. That is, the lower the fuel consumption, the greater the distance driven. However, contrasting recent empirical literature about the rebound effect in the transportation sector, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km. In addition, we find a positive diesel effect, which implies that owning a diesel engine car is positively correlated with the distance driven. Both effects can be interpreted as support for the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way. Moreover, it can be shown that some “soft” variables such as certain attitudes towards the environment tend to amplify this non-linear rebound effect. - Research Highlights: ? We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel. ? The data sts additional travel. ? The data set covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). We estimate an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. ? Contrasting recent empirical literature, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km.? In addition, we find a positive diesel effect: Owning a diesel engine car has a positive effect on the distance driven. Both effects support the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way.? It can be shown that some “soft” variables such as certain attitudes towards the environment tend to amplify this non-linear rebound effect.

  15. Socio-economic and ethical issues in pollution : individual or social responsability? Analysis of textbooks from 16 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Tracana, Rosa Branca; Ferreira, Maria Eduarda; Carvalho, Grac?a Simo?es

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyse the progression of the Socio-economic and ethical dimensions within the topic pollution, in the textbooks of 16 countries, since the 1st level until the last one before university. Results showed that: i) this dimensions are completely absent in 6 of the analysed countries; ii) among the countries where both dimension are present (predominantly in the Western European countries), the Socio-economic dimension is consistently more present than the Et...

  16. The Forgotten Rights - the Case for the Legal Enforcement of Socio-Economic Rights in the UK National Law

    OpenAIRE

    James, Asha P.

    2007-01-01

    Socio-economic rights relate to an individual’s social, economic and cultural entitlements. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966 enumerates the following socio-economic rights: Right to work; Right to Social Security and social insurance; Right to an adequate standard of living including adequate food, clothing, housing and to continuous improvement of the standard of living; Right to health; and Right to education. In contrast, The International Covenant ...

  17. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economs illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  18. Socio-economic Determinants of Output of Groundnut Production in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. EKUNWE; CHRISTOPHER. O. EMOKARO; GRACE A. AIGBA

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the economics of groundnut production in Estako West Local Government Area of Edo State. The objectives of the study were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of groundnut producers, determine the costs and returns of groundnut production, identify the constraints faced by groundnut farmers and analyze the socio-economic factors determining groundnut production in the study area. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire administered...

  19. Elitism and Equality in Chinese Higher Education : Studies of Student Socio-economic Background, Investment in Education, and Career Aspirations

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lihong

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present an empirical pattern of social equity in Chinese higher education by investigating university students. Student socio-economic background influences access to, and socio-economic conditions in, higher education, and this, in turn, influences student career aspirations. The theoretical background of the study is interdisciplinary and a conceptual framework built on theories and previous research is used to analyse Chinese higher education in a historical...

  20. A STUDY ON RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENT LEVELAND THEIR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SECONDARY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOUTAM CHAKRABORTY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Environment is a global concept today. Environmental Education is an approach to learning. Environmental Education means the educational process dealing with man's relationship of population, pollution resource, conservation, technology, energy, urban and rural planning to the total biosphere.A self-made questionnaire was made in order to find the relationship between the Environmental Education aptitude and socioeconomic status among class IX Children of rural, urban and semi urban. The question paper contents fifty (50 questions and it divided into two sector. In sector-I content (10 questions by which the socioeconomic status of the children can be known and Sector-II consists of four type questions by which Environmental Education aptitude can be understood.Socioeconomic status is evaluated from the response of sector-I questions by analyzing the educational status of the family, occupation of the parents & the monthly income of the family of a particular student or sample. After classifying the samples into 3 classes of status (upper, middle & lower according to their socioeconomic condition, the mean of the marks was computed. The mean score of every status group is then analyzed to know the relationship between Environmental Education achievement level and socioeconomic status. Although there are many factor are responsible for the academic achievements in Environmental Education. But from this observation it may conclude that there is a strong relationship between Environmental Education achievement and socio-economic status.

  1. The impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajchanovska Domnika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Speech development in preschool children should be consistent with a child’s overall development. However, disorders of speech in childhood are not uncommon. Objective. The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of demographic and socio-economic conditions on the prevalence of speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola. Methods. The study is observational and prospective with two years duration. During the period from May 2009 to June 2011, 1607 children aged 3 and 5 years, who came for regular examinations, were observed. The following research methods were applied: pediatric examination, psychological testing (Test of Chuturik, interviews with parents and a questionnaire for behavior of children (Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Results. 1,607 children were analyzed, 772 aged three years, 835 aged five years, 51.65% male and 49.35% female. The prevalence of speech disorders was 37.65%. Statistical analysis showed that these disorders were more frequent in three years old children, males living in rural areas and in larger families. They did not have their own rooms at home, they were using mobile phones and were spending many hours per day watching television, (p<0.01. Also, children whose parents had lower levels of education and were engaged in agriculture, often had significant speech disorders, (p<0.01. Conclusion. Speech disorders in preschool children in Bitola have a high prevalence. Because of their influence on later cognitive development of children, the process requires cooperation among parents, children, speech and the audiologist with the significant role in prevention, early detection and treatment.

  2. The socio-economic distribution of health-related occupational stressors among wage-earners in a Post-Fordist labour market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Unequal exposure to occupational stressors is a central pathway towards socio-economic health inequalities in working populations. This paper assesses the differential exposure of such stressors within the population of Flemish wage-earners. Our focus is on differences in gender, age, skill levels, occupational and social class positions. Method The analyses are based on the "Flemish Quality of Labour Monitor 2004" (Vlaamse Werkbaarheidsmonitor 2004), a cross-sectional representative sample (N = 11,099) of 16- to 65-year-old wage-earners, living in Flanders. The investigated health-related working conditions are: high quantitative, emotional and physical demands, frequent repetitive movements, atypical work schedules, frequent overtime work and schedule changes, low job autonomy, task variation and superior-support, high job insecurity and exposure to bullying. The distribution of the working conditions is assessed by means of standard logistic regression analyses. Also gender specific analyses are performed. Results At least two clusters of health-related occupational stressors can be identified. On the one hand, high physical demands, atypical schedules, low control over the work environment and high job insecurity are more common in manual, unskilled and subordinate workers. On the other hand, high quantitative and emotional demands, as well as schedule unpredictability are characteristic of higher skilled, professional and managerial employees. Conclusion Since little empirical information on the socio-economic distribution of various health-related occupational stressors is available for Flanders, our results are important for obtaining more insight into the pathways linking occupational health risks to socio-economic health inequalities in the Flemish wage-earning population.

  3. Identifying Moderators of the Link Between Parent and Child Anxiety Sensitivity: The Roles of Gender, Positive Parenting, and Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rebecca A; Weems, Carl F

    2014-10-10

    A substantial body of literature suggests that anxiety sensitivity is a risk factor for the development of anxiety problems and research has now begun to examine the links between parenting, parent anxiety sensitivity and their child's anxiety sensitivity. However, the extant literature has provided mixed findings as to whether parent anxiety sensitivity is associated with child anxiety sensitivity, with some evidence suggesting that other factors may influence the association. Theoretically, specific parenting behaviors may be important to the development of child anxiety sensitivity and also in understanding the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. In this study, 191 families (n?=?255 children and adolescents aged 6-17 and their parents) completed measures of child anxiety sensitivity (CASI) and parenting (APQ-C), and parents completed measures of their own anxiety sensitivity (ASI) and their parenting (APQ-P). Corporal punishment was associated with child anxiety sensitivity and the child's report of their parent's positive parenting behaviors moderated the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity. The child's gender was also found to moderate the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity, such that there was a positive association between girls' and their parents anxiety sensitivity and a negative association in boys. The findings advance the understanding of child anxiety sensitivity by establishing a link with corporal punishment and by showing that the association between parent and child anxiety sensitivity may depend upon the parenting context and child's gender. PMID:25301177

  4. Ottoman forestry: socio-economic aspect and its influence today / Otomano florestal: aspecto socioeconômico e sua influência hoje

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sezgin, Özden; Üstüner, Birben.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A silvicultura é um assunto importante, pois o suprimento de madeira em geral e madeira para consumo humano direto, além de seus efeitos positivos sobre o aquecimento global e sobre a diversidade biológica, trata de uma história que remonta à antiguidade. Como um setor de trabalho intensivo nos país [...] es em desenvolvimento, mantém interações com a gestão dos recursos naturais, relações públicas e estrutura socioeconômica. Ela pode afetar a prosperidade dos países, seja positiva ou negativamente. Assim, uma análise da história da silvicultura tem importância, porque não só lança luz sobre a sua condição passada e presente, mas também explica as melhorias para a proteção das florestas. Assim, na primeira parte deste estudo, serão dadas informações gerais sobre o Sistema de Terras e Florestas e Organização Otomano. Na segunda seção, serão tratados movimentos da ocidentalização do século 19, bem como alterações socioculturais e econômicas. A terceira seção irá incluir regulamentos significativos na silvicultura, manejo florestal e administração no Império Otomano, bem como a influência da silvicultura Otomano na atual estrutura socioeconômica. Na seção final, no âmbito da discussão do título e conclusão, a silvicultura Otomano será analisada em relação as suas consequências em termos de economia, política e direito. Abstract in english Forestry is an important subject because it supplies wood and timber for direct human consumption, in addition to its positive effects on global warming and on bio-diversity, with a history dating back to antiquity. As a labor-intensive sector in developing countries, it maintains interactions with [...] natural resources management, public relations and socio-economic structure. It can affect the prosperity of countries either positively or negatively. Hence, an analysis of the history of forestry bears importance because it not only sheds light on its past and present condition, but also explains the improvements for the protection of forests. Accordingly, in the first section of this study, general information on the Ottoman Land System and Ottoman Forestry Organization will be given. In the second section, we will treat 19th century westernization movements, as well as socio-cultural and economic changes. The third section will include significant regulations on forestry, forest management, and administration in the Ottoman Empire; as well as the influence of Ottoman forestry on the actual socio-economic structure. In the final section, under the title discussion and conclusion, Ottoman forestry will be examined regarding its consequences in terms of policy, economy and law.

  5. Ottoman forestry: socio-economic aspect and its influence today Otomano florestal: aspecto socioeconômico e sua influência hoje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Özden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forestry is an important subject because it supplies wood and timber for direct human consumption, in addition to its positive effects on global warming and on bio-diversity, with a history dating back to antiquity. As a labor-intensive sector in developing countries, it maintains interactions with natural resources management, public relations and socio-economic structure. It can affect the prosperity of countries either positively or negatively. Hence, an analysis of the history of forestry bears importance because it not only sheds light on its past and present condition, but also explains the improvements for the protection of forests. Accordingly, in the first section of this study, general information on the Ottoman Land System and Ottoman Forestry Organization will be given. In the second section, we will treat 19th century westernization movements, as well as socio-cultural and economic changes. The third section will include significant regulations on forestry, forest management, and administration in the Ottoman Empire; as well as the influence of Ottoman forestry on the actual socio-economic structure. In the final section, under the title discussion and conclusion, Ottoman forestry will be examined regarding its consequences in terms of policy, economy and law.A silvicultura é um assunto importante, pois o suprimento de madeira em geral e madeira para consumo humano direto, além de seus efeitos positivos sobre o aquecimento global e sobre a diversidade biológica, trata de uma história que remonta à antiguidade. Como um setor de trabalho intensivo nos países em desenvolvimento, mantém interações com a gestão dos recursos naturais, relações públicas e estrutura socioeconômica. Ela pode afetar a prosperidade dos países, seja positiva ou negativamente. Assim, uma análise da história da silvicultura tem importância, porque não só lança luz sobre a sua condição passada e presente, mas também explica as melhorias para a proteção das florestas. Assim, na primeira parte deste estudo, serão dadas informações gerais sobre o Sistema de Terras e Florestas e Organização Otomano. Na segunda seção, serão tratados movimentos da ocidentalização do século 19, bem como alterações socioculturais e econômicas. A terceira seção irá incluir regulamentos significativos na silvicultura, manejo florestal e administração no Império Otomano, bem como a influência da silvicultura Otomano na atual estrutura socioeconômica. Na seção final, no âmbito da discussão do título e conclusão, a silvicultura Otomano será analisada em relação as suas consequências em termos de economia, política e direito.

  6. Socio-Economic Status and Parental Savings for Higher Education among Malaysian Bumiputera Families

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Rashidah Zainal; Rohana Kamaruddin; Siti Badariah Saiful Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Socioeconomic status of a family is a benchmark for a student in Malaysia to get financial aid in education, on top of their academic performance. As the number of students obtaining good grades in their Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia examination increases, entry to public universities become more competitive and the chances to get a full education financing become smaller. Most students resort to loans provided by PTPTN as many still do not have any form of saving to finance their higher education...

  7. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations: Differences between Families Differing in Socio-Economic Status

    OpenAIRE

    SarahRobins; DinaGhosh

    2014-01-01

    When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children’s early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins, Treiman, & Rosales, 2014; Robins, Treiman, Rosales, & Otake, 2012; Robins & Treiman, 2009) that show how U....

  8. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROMANIAN PARENTS’ EMIGRATION ON THEIR CHILDREN’S DESTINY

    OpenAIRE

    FELICIA ANDRIONI

    2011-01-01

    “Mother has been gone for six months to work abroad for me, so that I can have a better future. I miss her every day. Sometimes I tell myself it’s just a dream and when I wake up mother will be by my side. Dream or reality? Reality or dream? (A sixteen – years old adolescent). The paper shows that are general factors of emigration after post revolutionary period in Romania and also present few aspects of the migration phenomenon from this country and after that it is presenting the social and...

  9. Spatial analysis of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases during summer months in Berlin taking bioclimatic and socio-economic aspects into account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherber, Katharina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available International environmental health studies of the past years have discussed the impacts of heat stress on human health. In particular, respiratory morbidity has shown significant heat effects in European cities. Metropolitan areas such as Berlin are characterised by an intra-urban spatial variability in socio-economic and bioclimatic conditions that is assumed to result in spatial differences in respiratory health risks. In essence, the elderly, children and people with chronic diseases suffer most from heat stress. A spatial epidemiological approach was chosen to map elevated risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with respiratory diseases (RD during the summer months (June–September from 2000 to 2009 and to link respiratory health risks to bioclimatic and socio-economic conditions in Berlin. The study aims to detect significant clusters with elevated relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD in due consideration of socio-economic conditions as a covariate for health outcomes. The findings from the purely spatial analysis show significant intra-urban disparities in the relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD. The highest relative risks within significant clusters were basically detected in the north-western and south-eastern city centre based on the study period 2000–2009 and also during the hot months of July and August in 2003 and 2006. The correlation analysis depicted significantly positive relationships between relative risks for hospital admissions among > 64-year-olds with RD and population density, socio-economic conditions and the annual mean number of days with heat loads on the basis of the period 1971–2000 and the average of the periods 1971–2000 and 2021–2050 at the zip code level in Berlin. To specifically implement health care intervention and prevention strategies into urban planning and to apply a directed practice of telemedicine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, spatial epidemiological analyses are an important approach to identifying heat-vulnerable urban areas.

  10. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial 'socially' performs in comparison with its alternatives. 'Industrial economics' methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a 'pragmatic regulatory impact analysis', that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines tha but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is 'pragmatic' in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess 'what happens' with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of economic and social effects expected from nanotechnology.

  11. A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 1: Water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Masui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect the key concepts underpinning each situation. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigation area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, industrial water withdrawal, and municipal water withdrawal. The first three factors are used to estimate agricultural water withdrawal. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century at 5-yr intervals. Each factor displays a wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigation area in 2085 varies between 270 and 450 km2, industrial water between 246 and 1714 km3 yr?1, and domestic water withdrawal between 573 and 1280 km3 yr?1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments by identifying the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyzing the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  12. Collapse of Socio-economic Base of Bangladesh by Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.I. Chowdhury

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Untreated groundwater, often enriched in arsenic-one of the most important pollutants and trace elements of the aquatic system recently regarded as the major threat to drinking water-was and is being extensively used as a source of drinking for the decades in rural and semi-urban areas of the developing countries which results in a high incidence of arsenic with deleterious effects on humans and food chain. In Bangladesh, India, Vietnam and other developed countries, arsenic contamination in groundwater is considered to be the key environmental health problem of the twenty first century. In Bangladesh arsenic was first detected in the district of Chapai Nawabgonj bordering the West-Bengal district of India in 1993; since then higher levels of arsenic (exceeding the WHO standard of 0.01 mg L-1 and Bangladesh standard of 0.05 mg L-1 have been detected in many regions of the country including 61 districts out of 64. It is estimated that of the 140 million inhabitants of Bangladesh more than 100 million are at the risk of arsenic hazard, such arsenic hazards collapses the societal structure and socio-economic backbone of poor people of rural Bangladesh. The study tries to discuss the chronological extent and severity of the biggest global arsenic calamity prevailed in Bangladesh, socio-economic impact of arsenic hazard on the poor people of rural society living more than seventy percent under poverty limit in Bangladesh. Specially due consideration was given on the socio-economic impact on arsenic victims particularly earning male family member, young male, married female and young female going to be married as well as arsenic affected family and their interaction with non-arsenic-victim of the society.

  13. 'Risky places?': mapping gambling machine density and socio-economic deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Heather; Keily, Ruth; Astbury, Gaynor; Reith, Gerda

    2014-03-01

    The aims of this project were to map the location and density of gambling machines in Britain; to explore whether geographic areas with higher densities of machines exist and to examine the socio-economic characteristics of these areas relative to others. Using geospatial analysis of premises records, we identified 8861 Machine Zones which were areas with a 400 meter radius around gambling machine venue and 384 High Density Machine Zones (HDMZ) with 1 or more gambling machine per hectare. There was a significant correlation between machine density and socio-economic deprivation. HDMZs had greater levels of income deprivation, more economically inactive people and a younger age profile than other areas; 37 % of those living in HDMZs were economically inactive compared with 33 % of those in non-machine areas. HDMZs were in seaside locations but also New Towns or satellite towns to major urban areas. Area affluence explains some of this pattern; of the New Towns with HDMZs, 78 % were in New Towns with a high proportion of low income areas. We therefore concluded that the distribution of gambling machines in Great Britain, in line with other international jurisdictions, displays a significant association with areas of socio-economic deprivation. The profile of the resident population living in HDMZs mirrors the profile of those most at-risk of experiencing harm from gambling. This spatial pattern has important implications for assessing the relationship between gambling availability and gambling-related harm, and for the future development of policy, harm-prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:23242474

  14. Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2014-07-01

    Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

  15. Understanding, creating, and managing complex techno-socio-economic systems: Challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, D.; Balietti, S.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.

    2011-05-01

    This contribution reflects on the comments of Peter Allen [1], Bikas K. Chakrabarti [2], Péter Érdi [3], Juval Portugali [4], Sorin Solomon [5], and Stefan Thurner [6] on three White Papers (WP) of the EU Support Action Visioneer (www.visioneer.ethz.ch). These White Papers are entitled "From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises" (WP 1) [7], "From Social Simulation to Integrative System Design" (WP 2) [8], and "How to Create an Innovation Accelerator" (WP 3) [9]. In our reflections, the need and feasibility of a "Knowledge Accelerator" is further substantiated by fundamental considerations and recent events around the globe. newpara The Visioneer White Papers propose research to be carried out that will improve our understanding of complex techno-socio-economic systems and their interaction with the environment. Thereby, they aim to stimulate multi-disciplinary collaborations between ICT, the social sciences, and complexity science. Moreover, they suggest combining the potential of massive real-time data, theoretical models, large-scale computer simulations and participatory online platforms. By doing so, it would become possible to explore various futures and to expand the limits of human imagination when it comes to the assessment of the often counter-intuitive behavior of these complex techno-socio-economic-environmental systems. In this contribution, we also highlight the importance of a pluralistic modeling approach and, in particular, the need for a fruitful interaction between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. newpara In an appendix we briefly summarize the concept of the FuturICT flagship project, which will build on and go beyond the proposals made by the Visioneer White Papers. EU flagships are ambitious multi-disciplinary high-risk projects with a duration of at least 10 years amounting to an envisaged overall budget of 1 billion EUR [10]. The goal of the FuturICT flagship initiative is to understand and manage complex, global, socially interactive systems, with a focus on sustainability and resilience.

  16. Histological subtype of lung cancer in relation to socio-economic deprivation in South East England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mak Vivian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found differences in the histological subtypes of lung cancers affecting males and females. Our objective was to investigate trends in the incidence of histological subtypes of lung cancer in males and females in relation to socio-economic deprivation in South East England. Methods Data on 48,031 males and 30,454 females diagnosed with lung cancer between 1995 and 2004 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age-standardised incidence rates for histological subtypes were calculated for each year, using the European standard population. Using the Income Domain of the Multiple Index of Deprivation 2004, patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 were classified into quintiles of socio-economic deprivation based on their postcode of residence. Age-standardised rates for each histological subtype were then calculated for each deprivation quintile. A Poisson regression model was fitted to the data for males and females separately to test the hypothesis that the relationship between socio-economic deprivation and adenocarcinoma was less strong than for other subtypes. Results In males all specific histological subtypes except adenocarcinoma declined in incidence. Squamous cell carcinoma remained the most common specific subtype and large cell carcinoma the least common. In females squamous cell carcinoma was initially most common, but its incidence declined slightly and that for adenocarcinoma increased. In both sexes the overall age-standardised incidence rate of lung cancer increased with increasing deprivation. However, these trends were less strong for adenocarcinoma than for the other subtypes in both males (p Conclusion The temporal trends and distribution of histological subtypes of lung cancer in males and females are similar to that reported from other western populations. In both males and females, adenocarcinoma was less strongly related to deprivation than other subtypes. This may be because its development is less strongly linked to individual smoking history.

  17. Optimization of timetable supplement from a passenger based socio-economic point of view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    This article discusses how to optimize the timetable supplement in timetables. The focus of this article will be on railways, but the principle will in theory apply to all transportation modes within the area of public transportation. When constructing timetables it is important to plan the right amount of timetable supplement. Too little timetable supplement will result in many delays, while too high timetable supplement will result in a (too) high planned travel time which will affect every departure whether or not the train is delayed. At present timetable supplement is chosen based on experience or estimates. Through a mathematical optimization it is possible to find the optimal timetable supplement. A way to do so is by using the passenger delay model in a socio-economic analysis as done by (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010). A case study of an upgrade of Sydbanen between Ringsted and Rødby has been conducted using the passenger delay model and the methods are described in this article. The case study has shownthat the optimum timetable supplement is between 6-9 % depending on the scenario. By optimizing the timetable supplement it is possible to achieve a surplus of 250-500 mio. DKK during the evaluation period compared to the proposed timetable by the Danish Transport Authority (Trafikstyrelsen, 2008). Note however that none of the investigated scenarios are socio-economic viable even though the timetable and timetable supplement is optimized. Note that this paper is regarded as a sequel to the article “The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis” (Thorhauge, 2010). This article is based on the results of (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010).

  18. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX - An unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Juul, Svend

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX personsretired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated.

  19. Induced abortion in Denmark: effect of socio-economic situation and country of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Equal access to health care is considered a key in Scandinavian healthcare policy. However, problematic differences between the socio-economic situation of immigrants and that of native Scandinavians are increasingly challenging this aspect of the Scandinavian welfare model. The present study focuses on how socio-economic characteristics and country of birth are associated with induced abortion. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information among 1351 women requesting abortion and a control group of 1306 women intending birth. RESULTS: The strongest factor associated with the decision to have an abortion was being single (OR 39.1; 23.8-64.2), followed by being aged 19 years or below (OR 29.6; 13.4-65.5), having two children or more (OR 7.05; 5.29-9.39) and being unskilled (OR 2.48; 1.49-4.10), student (OR 2.29; 1.52-3.43) or unemployed (OR 1.65; 1.11-2.46). When evaluating the effect of social exposure on abortion among Danish-born and foreign-born women, the higher rate of abortion among non-Westerners was found to be caused by the composition of non-Westerners more often being unemployed, having a low income and having two or more children rather than the fact that they are coming from a non-Western country. CONCLUSION: Immigrant women comprise a vulnerable group, with a poor socio-economic status. This situation exposes immigrant women to increased risk of induced abortion. In a society with an increasing heterogeneous population, the vulnerable situation of immigrant women has to be addressed, if equal access to health care is to be maintained.

  20. Socio-economic outcome after blunt orthopaedic trauma: Implications on injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilkens Anna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several large studies have identified factors associated with long-term outcome after orthopaedic injuries. However, long-term social and economic implications have not been published so far. The aim of this investigation is to study the long-term socio-economic consequences of patients sustaining severe trauma. Methods Patients treated at a level one trauma center were invited for a follow-up (at least 10 years examination. There were 637 patients who responded and were examined. Inclusion criteria included injury severity score (ISS ? 16 points, presence of lower and upper extremity fractures, and age between 3 and 60 years. Exclusion criteria included the presence of amputations and paraplegia. The socio-economic outcome was evaluated in three age groups: group I ( 50 years. The following parameters were analyzed using a standardized questionnaire: financial losses, net income losses, pension precaution losses, need for a bank loan, and the decrease in number of friends. Results 510 patients matched all study criteria, and breakdown of groups were as follows: 140 patients in group I, 341 patients in group II, and 29 patients in group III. Financial losses were reported in all age groups (20%-44%. Younger patients (group I were associated with less income losses when compared with other groups (p Conclusions Economic consequences are reported by polytraumatized patients even ten or more years after injury. Financial losses appear to be common in patients between 19 and 50 years. In contrast, social deprivation appears to be most pronounced in the younger age groups. Early socio-economic support and measures of injury prevention should focus on these specific age groups.

  1. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Allison; Kitchen Peter; Chowhan James

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. T...

  2. The prevalence of myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome in a lower socio-economic group in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A

    1990-06-01

    The prevalence of myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) was investigated in Zimbabwe. The study was carried out at Government dental centres, where most of the patients seen were local indigenous Zimbabweans belonging to the lower and lower middle socio-economic group which forms more than 80 per cent of the population of the country. There was a very low prevalence in this group unlike the results of similar studies in more developed countries. Nervous tensions, stress and strains associated with a faster pace of life and often cited in the aetiology of MPDS could be the attributing factor. PMID:2379094

  3. Integrating socio-economical dimensions in the ICRP cost-benefit model (a theoretical approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at analysing, from a methodological point of view, the main problems associated with the integration of socio-economical dimensions in the cost-benefit model recommended by the ICRP in its publication no. 26. After recalling the basic principles of cost-benefit analysis, the elements to be retained in the objective function characterizing the analysis, and the question of the social benefit definitions are discussed. The theory of social surplus with an illustration taken from the radiological protection field is presented

  4. STUDY REGARDING SOCIO-ECONOMICAL DIMENSION OF BUCHAREST- ILFOV DEVELOPMENT REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Cristian Popescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  This research paper aims to study the actual level of development of Bucharest-Ilfov Region of Development, from the social and economical point of view. This region can be considered the engine of national economy, with the highest regional GDP, and the most important dynamic growth, the place where start-up business have the best chance of success but also the region where the quality of life of population is dramatically affected, especially in Bucharest, which is situated one bottom of the European Union capitals at this chapter. The paper analyzes the dynamic of significant socio-economic indicators, and drag conclusions based on recent evolutions.

  5. Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP

  6. CONSTITUTIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: "YOU ARE NOT ALONE"

    OpenAIRE

    Torsten Stein

    2013-01-01

    The second oratio was a keynote speech delivered by Torsten Stein, the Director of the Institute of European Studies and holder of the chair for European law and European Public Law at Saarland University, Germany. He delivered his speech during November 2012 at the 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights, which was held by the Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus) in collaboration w...

  7. Evaluating socio-economic state of a country analyzing airtime credit and mobile phone datasets

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, Thoralf; Blondel, Vincent D

    2013-01-01

    Reliable statistical information is important to make political decisions on a sound basis and to help measure the impact of policies. Unfortunately, statistics offices in developing countries have scarce resources and statistical censuses are therefore conducted sporadically. Based on mobile phone communications and history of airtime credit purchases, we estimate the relative income of individuals, the diversity and inequality of income, and an indicator for socioeconomic segregation for fine-grained regions of an African country. Our study shows how to use mobile phone datasets as a starting point to understand the socio-economic state of a country, which can be especially useful in countries with few resources to conduct large surveys.

  8. Socio-Economic Development and Primary Energy Sources Substitution Towards Decarbonization

    OpenAIRE

    Tessaleno Campos Devezas; João Carlos de Oliveira Matias

    2011-01-01

    Scanning the last 250 years, we can observe five great technological transformations that happened in the socio-eco-nomic development. On the other hand, there is a relationship between the socio-economic development and the substi-tution process of primary energy sources. Since the industrial revolution, there has been a smooth but growing substitu-tion among primary energy sources. First the switch from wood to coal, then this last one by oil and natural gas. These are non-solid fossils, wh...

  9. Environmental Database and Geographic Information System for Socio-Economic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidiora, O.; Adesina, A. M.; Onaolapo, B. R.

    2003-04-01

    Geographic information system has helped in taking integrated land resource inventory with other Geo-coded statistics. These environmental database are used in predicting some disaster such as flood, erosion and drought. Also it is used to estimate the wind speed frequency distribution at OSU, Nigeria. A GIS is designed to accept large volume of spatial data derieved from a variety of sources including remote sensing sensor and to effectively Store, Retrieve, Manipulate, Analysed and Display these data according to user defined specification. Planning organisation need vast amount of accurate and timely information on physical Resources and related socio-economic factors to help guide their management and Planning Decision.

  10. Crowd Avoidance and Diversity in Socio-Economic Systems and Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Gualdi, Stanislao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems recommend objects regardless of potential adverse effects of their overcrowding. We address this shortcoming by introducing crowd-avoiding recommendation where each object can be shared by only a limited number of users or where object utility diminishes with the number of users sharing it. We use real data to show that contrary to expectations, the introduction of these constraints enhances recommendation accuracy and diversity even in systems where overcrowding is not detrimental. The observed accuracy improvements are explained in terms of removing potential bias of the recommendation method. We finally propose a way to model artificial socio-economic systems with crowd avoidance and obtain first analytical results.

  11. Crowd avoidance and diversity in socio-economic systems and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, S.; Medo, M.; Zhang, Y.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Recommender systems recommend objects regardless of potential adverse effects of their overcrowding. We address this shortcoming by introducing crowd-avoiding recommendation where each object can be shared by only a limited number of users or where object utility diminishes with the number of users sharing it. We use real data to show that contrary to expectations, the introduction of these constraints enhances recommendation accuracy and diversity even in systems where overcrowding is not detrimental. The observed accuracy improvements are explained in terms of removing potential bias of the recommendation method. We finally propose a way to model artificial socio-economic systems with crowd avoidance and obtain first analytical results.

  12. SOCIO-ECONOMICS FACTORS INFLUENCING LITERACY IN THE WESTERN SATPURA REGION: A GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. AHIRE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Literacy is a dynamic process. The distribution of literacy is uneven in different parts of a region. The various geographical factors like the nature of relief, amount of rainfall, agricultural productivity, availability of water, accessibility etc. influence the distribution of population. The influence of these factors is clearly seen in the socioeconomic development of the region. This socio-economic development directly and indirectly accelerates the rate of literacy. As the Western Satpura region is socioeconomically less developed, therefore, the proportion of literate population is less and the rate of acceleration is also rather slow.

  13. The SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS): Technical description: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socioeconomic impacts must be assessed both for the near term and for the future. One means of addressing the need for the assessment of such impacts has been through the development of the computerized socioeconomic assessment model called the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) model. The SEARS model was developed for the Battelle Project Management Division. It was refined and adapted from state-of-the-art computerized projection models and thoroughly validated and is now available for use in projecting the likely socioeconomic impacts of a repository facility. This Technical Description is one of six major products that describe the SEARS modeling system. 61 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs

  14. The SocioEconomic analysis of repository siting (SEARS): Guide to data base preparation: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide describes the data bases in the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system. This model is a user-interactive, computerized model for projecting the economic, demographic, public service, and fiscal impacts of repository siting. This guide provides a description of the data bases, sources of data, data formats, and preprocessing programs for adapting and implementing the SEARS system and is seen as an essential reference for technical users of the model. It should be used in conjunction with reports describing the model's features and characteristics. 95 refs., 3 tabs

  15. EMPLOYMENT STATUS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF BEGGARS: A STUDY IN ALIGARH DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    JABIR HASAN KHAN; MENKA; FALAK BUTOOL

    2013-01-01

    Beggars in India are the victim of an imbalanced socio-economic system. Theyare the most vulnerable people in our society. They are the example of humandegradation to the lowest extent, and they are a menace to the healthy society. Most ofthem are the product of economic deprivation, destitution and neglect (Cama, 1945).Begging is commonly defined as the act of stopping people on the street to ask forassistance, for example in the form of food or money (Bose & Hwang, 2002 and Collins& Blomley...

  16. The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost-benefit analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far. The main problem when including passenger delays is to determine the value of time for passenger delays and how to include the delays in a socio-economic analysis. This is due to the fact that passenger delays are not defined unambiguously. In general, delays can occur on different parts of a journey; while the passengers are waiting for the train (waiting time, first waiting time or even hidden waiting time) or while the passenger are sitting in the train (or bus). Furthermore a delay can also be negative, meaning that a passenger will arrive before planned (a so-called negative delay). It is necessary to consider how to define the value of time for the different types of delays as well as how to include these elements in a cost-benefit analysis. This article proposes that a delay is defined solely by the difference between the scheduled and realized arrival time. The recommendations are listed as follows: • The value of time for a delay is defined as done by the Danish Ministry of Transport (Trafikministeriet, 2003) no matter how or when the delay has occurred. The size of the delay is calculated solely by the difference between the planned and realized arrival time. • A negative delay is defined as the value of time of hidden waiting time. A negative delay is calculated as the difference between the planned and realized arrival time and is considered a surplus in the cost benefit analysis • A delay will not be included if the passenger arrives at his or her final destination on time even though the passenger may have experienced a delay (or travelled along a different route than planned) during the journey. Note that this paper is regarded as a prequel to the article “Optimization of timetable supplement from a passenger based socio-economic point of view” (Thorhauge, 2010). This article is based on the results of (Thorhauge & Piester, 2010).

  17. Socio-economic impacts between the nuclear industry and Aboriginal people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper explores several aspects of the socio-economic impact of the nuclear industry on Aboriginal people in northern Canada. The issues discussed include decision-making by consensus, community-based development, the role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Management Systems (TEKMS), relationships with land and nature, and social and health issues. The issues are discussed with respect to the divergence between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal cultures, which affect the timelines for project viability as well as the continued harmony between industry and community. It is concluded that economic gains can be achieved through continuous community dialogue from the moment of project inception. (author)

  18. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF HILL COMMUNITY– A FIELD STUDY ON RISHOP VILLAGE OF DARJEELING DISTRICT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIJIT GHOSH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic status of plain and hill area differ to a large degree from each other. Such type of study is very much common for both the areas. Rishop village of Darjeeling is very much interesting from social as well as economic point of view. On one hand tourism is a part of their economic life, on the other hand they are exceptional in West Bengal in terms of language, religion, way of life style etc. All these are due to the especial category of physical, and atmospheric set up

  19. Predictors of Positive Outcomes in Offspring of Depressed Parents and Non-depressed Parents Across 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, R. Eric; Verdeli, Helen; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Mancini, Anthony; Weissman, Myrna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding differences in factors leading to positive outcomes in high-risk and low-risk offspring has important implications for preventive interventions. We identified variables predicting positive outcomes in a cohort of 235 offspring from 76 families in which one, both, or neither parent had major depressive disorder. Positive outcomes were termed resilient in offspring of depressed parents, and competent in offspring of non-depressed parents, and defined by two separate criteria: abse...

  20. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances : The collapse of the SovietUnion versus Chernobyl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Inequalities in health : the interaction between socio-economic and personal circumstances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This longitudinal study utilizes a data set from the Survey of Living Conditions conducted by Statistics Sweden (SCB) during the years 1980-1981 and 1988-1989. It comprises a representative sample of the employed Swedish population (2,861 individuals) between the ages of 20 and 65. The objective of the study is to analyse the interaction between socio-economic and personal circumstances in explaining inequalities in health. It is based on a theoretical framework which presupposes that inequalities in health are likely to be explained by a complicated process involving a multitude of factors. At the same time, differential exposures and differential responses to risk factors between socio-economic classes for certain health outcomes are determined. The joint effect on general health status, seven years later, of being a manual worker and having reported psychosomatic symptoms is 113% greater than would have been expected on the assumption of additivity of the singular effects of these variables. It is suggested that it is necessary to highlight in further research the complex interactions and pathways between factors associated with health outcomes to improve our understanding of the causal processes involved and determine appropriate preventive measures.

  2. Cultural Impediments to Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria: Lessons from the Chinese Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olufemi Fadeyi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe how human environment is an important determinant of socio-economic development. Over the past three decades, Nigeria has been confronted with deep-seated socio-economic crisis evident in high level of poverty, inflation, foreign debt overhang, closure of industries, epileptic power supply, budget deficit, absolute lack of good governance at the grass root, environmental degradation and high unemployment. In the early part of the 21st century, there was high hope among Nigerians that the emergence of democracy and the increasing global capitalist markets feasible in the oil and telecommunication sectors will result in high level of accelerated development. Elsewhere in Asia, globalization and world capitalist market have changed the faces of fundamental problems of underdevelopment. Studies have even confirmed that the successes recorded by China in the global markets confirm that a country’s economy does not grow in vacuum; it exists within the environment and thrives therein. The failure and crises experienced in Nigeria today have been linked with cultural factors such as corruption, leadership failure, lack of entrepreneurial skills, over dependence on western values and culture, insincerity and weak bureaucracies. Using quantitative data and content analysis, the paper concludes that Nigerian government at all levels must rise up to the challenges posed by the problems of underdevelopment in the 21st century.

  3. Domestic dog health worsens with socio-economic deprivation of their home communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N

    2014-07-01

    Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-? and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife. PMID:24681221

  4. Socio-economic indicators influencing the adoption of hybrid Sorghum: The Sekhukhune District perspective

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N. R., Diale.

    Full Text Available The study observed the poor use of hybrid sorghum cultivars by subsistence farmers. The project sought to establish which, if any, socio-economic factors influence the adoption of hybrid sorghum cultivars by this sector of the farming community. The focus was on Makhuduthamaga Municipality in Sekhuk [...] hune District of Limpopo Province in South Africa, and was confined to the sorghum belt situated around Lepellane catchments in Schoonoord area. The population of the study consisted of farmers that planted sorghum using either hybrid or non-hybrid sorghum cultivars. Non-probability quota sampling method was used with field interviews through structured questionnaire, to collect quantitative sets of data. The study found that there were socio-economic differences between the hybrid user and non-hybrid users. These factors included farmers' gender, level of literacy, access to extension service, membership to agricultural co-operatives, access to credit and inputs, sorghum output, farm income, access to farm land, and cultural influences.

  5. Sensitivity analysis of socio-economic values of time for public transport projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The socio-economic time benefits of two light rail projects in Copenhagen are investigated using three different sets of values of time. The first set is the one the Ministry of Transport recommends for use in socio-economic analysis in Denmark; this is used as basis for comparison with the two other sets of values of time. The second set is the expected new recommended values of time that has the same time values for non-business travel. The third set is estimated from traffic modelling parameters and operates with different in-vehicle time values; the reason for this is thoroughly described supported by examples. Traffic modelling of the two light rail projects has been performed and the results are used to generate the time benefits. The time benefits for the two light rail projects using the expected new values of time will increase around 20% compared to the result when using the values recommended by the Ministry of Transport. Differentiated in-vehicle values prove to generate an even higher increase intime benefits, but vary depending on the projects.

  6. Household energy consumption in the UK: A highly geographically and socio-economically disaggregated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devising policies for a low carbon society requires a careful understanding of energy consumption in different types of households. In this paper, we explore patterns of UK household energy use and associated carbon emissions at national level and also at high levels of socio-economic and geographical disaggregation. In particular, we examine specific neighbourhoods with contrasting levels of deprivation, and typical 'types' (segments) of UK households based on socio-economic characteristics. Results support the hypothesis that different segments have widely differing patterns of consumption. We show that household energy use and associated carbon emissions are both strongly, but not solely, related to income levels. Other factors, such as the type of dwelling, tenure, household composition and rural/urban location are also extremely important. The methodology described in this paper can be used in various ways to inform policy-making. For example, results can help in targeting energy efficiency measures; trends from time series results will form a useful basis for scenario building; and the methodology may be used to model expected outcomes of possible policy options, such as personal carbon trading or a progressive tax regime on household energy consumption

  7. Evolutionary quantum game theory in the context of socio-economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of socio-economic systems depend on the interdependent decision processes of its underlying system components. The mathematical model to describe the strategic decision of players within a socio-economic game is ''game theory''. ''Quantum game theory'' is a mathematical and conceptual amplification of classical game theory. The space of all conceivable decision paths is extended from the purely rational, measurable space in the Hilbert-space of complex numbers - which is the mathematical space where quantum theory is formulated. By the concept of a potential entanglement of the imaginary quantum strategy parts, it is possible to include cooperate decision path, caused by cultural or moral standards. If this strategy entanglement is large enough, then additional Nash equilibria can occur, previously present dominant strategies could become nonexistent and new evolutionary stable strategies do appear for some game classes. Within this PhD thesis the main results of classical and quantum games are summarized and all of the possible game classes of evolutionary (2 player)-(2 strategy) games are extended to quantum games. It is shown that the quantum extension of classical games with an underlying dilemma-like structure give different results, if the strength of strategic entanglement is above a certain barrier. After the German summary and the introduction paper, five different applications of the theory are discussed within the thesis. (orig.)

  8. A socio-economic approach to One Health policy research in southern Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kim A., Kayunze; Angwara D., Kiwara; Eligius, Lyamuya; Dominic M., Kambarage; Jonathan, Rushton; Richard, Coker; Richard, Kock; Mark M., Rweyemamu.

    Full Text Available One-health approaches have started being applied to health systems in some countries in controlling infectious diseases in order to reduce the burden of disease in humans, livestock and wild animals collaboratively. However, one wonders whether the problem of lingering and emerging zoonoses is more [...] affected by health policies, low application of one-health approaches, or other factors. As part of efforts to answer this question, the Southern African Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance (SACIDS) smart partnership of human health, animal health and socio-economic experts published, in April 2011, a conceptual framework to support One Health research for policy on emerging zoonoses. The main objective of this paper was to identify which factors really affect the burden of disease and how the burden could affect socio-economic well-being. Amongst other issues, the review of literature shows that the occurrence of infectious diseases in humans and animals is driven by many factors, the most important ones being the causative agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc.) and the mediator conditions (social, cultural, economic or climatic) which facilitate the infection to occur and hold. Literature also shows that in many countries there is little collaboration between medical and veterinary services despite the shared underlying science and the increasing infectious disease threat. In view of these findings, a research to inform health policy must walk on two legs: a natural sciences leg and a social sciences one.

  9. Capital Flight to Savings Gap in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Socio-Economic Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuma Dim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Capital Flight has long been recognized as a problem for developing nations. Savings gap in some of these nations has widened over the years due to rising Capital Flight. This has limped domestic investment growth, employment creation and poverty alleviation. With these in view, this study seeks to underscore the socio-economic determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Approaching the study, two measures of Capital Flight (hot money method and residual method are modeled against a number of socio-economic factors identified in the literature. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Error Correction Mechanism are employed to sieve out the significant determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Amongst the host, only lagged Capital Flight, fiscal balance and exchange rate are found to be the significant determinants of Capital Flight in the country. The study concludes that unless sound macroeconomic measures are taken to address these factors, Capital Flight will remain high in Nigeria. Domestic investment will remain very low. Poverty levels will remain high, and the quest for economic development will remain elusive. The key out of Nigeria’s colossal savings gap is keeping domestic capital at home. This is achievable using the strategies discussed in the study.

  10. Marketing of Public and Business Affairs Subsystems of Socio-Economic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Grigorescu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian society is crossing one of the most important stages of its transition toward the integration in the European Union started with January 1st, 2007; this will define the final processes bound for the socio-economic reconstruction. Based on the previous experiences, an assumption rose up that, at this moment in the Romanian society there are two systems business and public administration, placed on opposite, antagonistic, unfriendly sides. At the same time, there is the opinion that a proper public and private marketing could be the link between them. The link between these systems should make the relation useful to create and handle the cooperation and cooperation climate in these two environments. The paper aims to present the systems, their characteristics, the opinion about the other, the identified link components, and to propose a solution for the link improvement. A small survey of the members opinions, in both systems, will be the base of the analysis. The first stage is to analyze each environment as an independent system: business system (BSy and public administration system (PASy. We will present the structure, characteristics, interactions with other socio-economic components, etc. The second stage will focus on the role of public and private marketing as tools of feedback reaction of the systems to the general environment dynamics. The marketing behavior is typical for the BSy and its level of marketing knowledge is higher than the poor level of marketing knowledge in PASy lacking the marketing attitude about public services.

  11. ACCESS TO PUBLIC OPEN SPACE: IS DISTRIBUTION EQUITABLE ACROSS DIFFERENT SOCIO-ECONOMIC AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Koohsari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the role of the built environment on physical activity has been well investigated by public health, transportation and urban design scholars and it has been shown that different aspects of the built environment can influence physical activity Public open spaces (POS like parks have many health benefits and they can be important settings and destinations for having physical activity. Inequality in access to POS which may influence the amount of physical activity can be a reason for lower physical activity among deprived neighbourhoods. This paper aims to examine whether objective access to public open spaces (POS like parks is equally across the different socio-economic status (SES areas in the City of Melbourne. Objective access to POS was measured in network distance using geographic information systems (GIS and area SES was obtained using the SEIFA (Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas index. The results showed there was a significant difference in access to POS according to the SES areas. There was a significant negative correlation between the access to POS and the SES areas in which lower SES areas had poorer access to POS in comparison with the higher ones.

  12. Socio-economic Aspects of Gum Arabic Production in Dalanj Area, South Korodofan, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal (locally: Hashab tree is one of the most important tree species in Sudan as it considers the main Gum Arabic producing tree. The objective of this study is to investigate the socio-economic aspects of gum Arabic production and to assess contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people in Dalanj Locality, South Kordofan State-Sudan. Social survey was carried out by using structured questionnaire for 80 respondents (gum producers on random sample basis in eight villages, 10 respondents from each village. Issues pertaining to socio-economic factors affecting gum Arabic production and contribution of gum Arabic to sustainable livelihood of local people, in Dalanj Locality, were assessed. Results of the study revealed that expansion of agriculture lands at the expense of hashab trees, fires and illegal felling are the most important factors constraining gum production in the area. The results also indicated that agriculture is the main source of income and gum Arabic is a supplementary source of income. The importance of gum Arabic becomes apparent during (off farm season the period between crops harvest and the preparation of the next agricultural season. Establishment of producers’ associations and provision of loans to producers are highly recommended to ensure sustainability of gum production.

  13. A bridge between liquids and socio-economic systems: the key role of interaction strengths

    CERN Document Server

    Röhner, B M

    2004-01-01

    One distinctive and pervasive aspect of social systems is the fact that they comprise several kinds of agents. Thus, in order to draw parallels with physical systems one is lead to consider binary (or multi-component) compounds. Recent views about the mixing of liquids in solutions gained from neutron and X-ray scattering show these systems to have a number of similarities with socio-economic systems. It appears that such phenomena as rearrangement of bonds in a solution, gas condensation, selective evaporation of molecules can be transposed in a natural way to socio-economic phenomena. These connections provide a novel perspective for looking at social systems which we illustrate through some examples. For instance, we interpret suicide as an escape phenomenon and in order to test that interpretation we consider social systems characterized by very low levels of social interaction. For those systems suicide rates are found to be 10 to 100 times higher than in the general population. Another interesting paral...

  14. The Christian ethics of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony E. Persico

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the relationship between economic scienceand Christian moral in order to analyze the idea of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching (CST. In the first period leading up to the Second Vatican Council (1891-1962, from Pope Leo XIII to Pope John XXIII, the idea of development was connected both to technical and industrial progress, and to the universal values of justice, charity, and truth,which national communities were asked to follow. During the Conciliar period (1962-1979, the concept of development assumes a social and economic dimension, and so it becomes one of the main pillars of Catholic Social Teaching, which introduces the earliest definition of integral human development. Ultimately, in the post-Conciliar phase (1979-2009 including Benedict XVI’s pontificate, the idea of integral human development reaches its maturity by incorporating the complexity of real-world economic interactions. Finally, this paper shows how the ethics bolstered by the Catholic Social Teaching is characterized by two distinct but complementary lines of thought: moral rules for both political action, and for socio-economic issues.

  15. Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socio-Economic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C.; Vadali, Monika L.; Kvale, Dorian L.; Ellickson, Kristie M.

    2015-01-01

    Higher levels of nearby traffic increase exposure to air pollution and adversely affect health outcomes. Populations with lower socio-economic status (SES) are particularly vulnerable to stressors like air pollution. We investigated cumulative exposures and risks from traffic and from MNRiskS-modeled air pollution in multiple source categories across demographic groups. Exposures and risks, especially from on-road sources, were higher than the mean for minorities and low SES populations and lower than the mean for white and high SES populations. Owning multiple vehicles and driving alone were linked to lower household exposures and risks. Those not owning a vehicle and walking or using transit had higher household exposures and risks. These results confirm for our study location that populations on the lower end of the socio-economic spectrum and minorities are disproportionately exposed to traffic and air pollution and at higher risk for adverse health outcomes. A major source of disparities appears to be the transportation infrastructure. Those outside the urban core had lower risks but drove more, while those living nearer the urban core tended to drive less but had higher exposures and risks from on-road sources. We suggest policy considerations for addressing these inequities. PMID:25996888

  16. The socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlights the socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France. It outlines that France is among the first three world leader on each link of the supply chain, and that the electronuclear sector has therefore a significant role in the French economy: 125.000 direct jobs and 410.000 generated jobs, a direct contribution of 0,71% to the GDP, each link of the supply chain (upstream, building, exploitation and maintenance, downstream) is present in the French economy, the electronuclear sector is part of the economic activity of local communities, the expertise of specialised companies contributes to their competitiveness in other domains, and the sector now invests to prepare its future. The socio-economic impacts of an EPR are analysed in terms of activity during nearly 90 years, with respect to its location, and according to technical and economic criteria. The last part outlines that the weight of this sector in the French economy could significantly increase

  17. Mobile Phone Call Data as a Regional Socio-Economic Proxy Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Š?epanovi?, Sanja; Mishkovski, Igor; Hui, Pan; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Ylä-Jääski, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures) in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's. PMID:25897957

  18. Socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage : results from the World Health Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinpoor, A R; Itani, L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess socio-economic inequality in oral healthcare coverage among adults with expressed need living in 52 countries. Data on 60,332 adults aged 18 years or older were analyzed from 52 countries participating in the 2002-2004 World Health Survey. Oral healthcare coverage was defined as the proportion of individuals who received any medical care from a dentist or other oral health specialist during a period of 12 months prior to the survey, among those who expressed any mouth and/or teeth problems during that period. In addition to assessment of the coverage across wealth quintiles in each country, a wealth-based relative index of inequality was used to measure socio-economic inequality. The index was adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, employment, overall health status, and urban/rural residence. Pro-rich inequality in oral healthcare coverage was observed within most of the countries, although lower income countries showed greater levels of relative inequalitythan higher income countries. Overall, lowest coverage and highest relative inequality were found in the low-income countries. The findings of this study may inform policies for oral health at global and national levels. To achieve universal coverage in oral healthcare, relevant interventions should reach the poorest population groups.

  19. Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authoritystent with policy making authority

  20. Female Foeticide in Delhi/NCR: Exploring the Socio-Economic and Cultural Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Roumi, Bhatnagar P, Avasthy D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The social and psychological fibres of India are predominantly patriarchal and contributing extensively to the secondary status of women. It is yet to be seen if the difference in attitudes towards the practice of female foeticide varies in different socio-economic strata, and in among the different communities of India. Methodology: The present study is based on a door-to-door survey comprising 100 families, conducted in slum areas of Delhi/NCR. Most of the families living in these areas were immigrants from different states of India with different cultural practices and beliefs. Results: Though the studied participants differed in their cultural perceptions on role and status of women in society, majority of them testified that the practice is more prevalent in the middle and upper class society, and escalating demands of dowry was cited as the main reason behind it. Conclusion: The extent of practice of female foeticide is seen to vary among different socio-economic strata and communities. Taking this diversity into consideration, customized social-awareness campaigns must be organized in accordance with different cultural and socioeconomic circumstances existing in the diverse range of communities in India.

  1. Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individuological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed

  2. Sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Brazil considering land use change, GHG emissions and socio-economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sustainability aspects of bioethanol production in Brazil were considered in this paper. Results show that the recent expansion of sugarcane has mostly occurred at the expense of pasturelands and other temporary crops, and that the hypothesis of induced deforestation is not confirmed. Avoided greenhouse gas emissions due to the use of anhydrous ethanol blended with gasoline in Brazil (E25) were estimated as 78%, while this figure would be 70% in case of its use in Europe (E10). Conversely, considering the direct impacts of land use change, the avoided emissions (e.g., ethanol consumed in Europe) would vary from -2.2% (i.e., emissions slightly higher than gasoline) to 164.8% (a remarkable carbon capture effect) depending on the management practices employed previous to land use change and also along sugarcane cropping. In addition, it was shown that where the bulk of sugarcane production takes place, in state of Sao Paulo, positive socio-economic aspects are observed. The general conclusion is that a significant share of ethanol production in Brazil can be considered sustainable, in particular regarding the three aspects assessed. However, as production conditions are extremely heterogeneous, a generalization of results is not possible.

  3. Impact of music therapy to promote positive parenting and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Jan M; Berthelsen, Donna; Abad, Vicky; Williams, Kate; Bradley, Julie

    2008-03-01

    The effectiveness of a 10-week group music therapy program for marginalized parents and their children aged 0-5 years was examined. Musical activities were used to promote positive parent-child relationships and children's behavioral, communicative and social development. Participants were 358 parents and children from families facing social disadvantage, young parents or parents of a child with a disability. Significant improvements were found for therapist-observed parent and child behaviors, and parent-reported irritable parenting, educational activities in the home, parent mental health and child communication and social play skills. This study provides evidence of the potential effectiveness of music therapy for early intervention. PMID:18375628

  4. Socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress in Finland from 1979 to 2002: a population-based repeated cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Talala Kirsi M; Martelin Tuija P; Haukkala Ari H; Härkänen Tommi T; Prättälä Ritva S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the decades, global public health efforts have sought to reduce socio-economic health differences, including differences in mental health. Only a few studies have examined changes in socio-economic differences in psychological symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to assess trends in socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress over a 24-year time period in Finland. Methods The data source is a repeated cross-sectional survey “Health Behav...

  5. IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-azeez ibraheem adegoke

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of socio-economic characteristics on the performance of small-scale enterprises in the study area. It also identified the salient impacts of socio-economic traits on the development and expansion of small-scale enterprises in the country; established the productive prospects of progressive small-scale enterprises in the study area. The study was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria where copies of structured questionnaire were purposively administered on selected respondents. Evidence from the study shows that socio-economic characteristics of small scale entrepreneurs tend to influence the performance and productivity of Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria.Further analysis shows that gender, age and educational qualification had significant influence on the performance of the selected small-scale enterprises in the study area . The paper suggests integrated approach to the development of individual entrepreneurial capacity and promotion of sustainable small-scale enterprises.

  6. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (? = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure, wealth status, and child-death experience by mothers. All of these were strong predictors for CEB. It can be concluded that programs should aim to reduce fertility rates by focusing on these identified factors so that fertility as well as infant and maternal mortality and morbidity will be decreased and the overall well-being of the family maintained and enhanced.

  7. "Familias: Preparando La Nueva Generación": A Randomized Control Trial Testing the Effects on Positive Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Williams, Lela Rankin; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Booth, Jaime M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports the effects of a culturally grounded parenting intervention to strengthen positive parenting practices. Method: The intervention was designed and tested with primarily Mexican origin parents in a large urban setting of the southwestern United States using an ecodevelopmental approach. Parents (N = 393) were…

  8. Parental involvement in schools. A study of resources, mobilization, and inherent inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Mihai Radu

    2011-01-01

    In this article I explore issues of parental involvement in school activities in former communist countries of South Eastern Europe. Although parents with higher socio-economic status feel more efficacious and thus get involved more, I argue that successful mobilization by schools may result in more representative parental involvement, extending beyond mere socio-economic inequalities. I my analysis I employ multi-national survey data collected through a project entitled Advancing Educational...

  9. Predisposed to participate? The influence of family socio-economic background on children's sports participation and daily amount of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; GrØnfeldt, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    From a Bourdieu-inspired understanding of how personal resources (‘capitals’) enable certain practices in certain contexts, the links between families’ cultural, social and economic capitals, and children’s daily physical activity were investigated in 500 suburban Danish schoolchildren using questionnaire data and accelerometer measures. Family socio-economic position (SEP) was found to be positively associated with children’s participation in organized sport, which could be explained by differences in family capitals. By contrast, this study found no relationship between families’ SEP and the amounts of general physical activity in children. This reflected the tendencies for club-organized sport to contribute a relatively small amount to the overall amount of physical activity in children, and for children of low SEP to be equally active in other settings such as school-breaks, day care and neighbourhood playgrounds.

  10. Modeling of Socio-Economic Development of the Country on the Basis of Pulse Processes ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyakova Olga Yu.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the nature and characteristics of simulation for analyzing and forecasting the socio-economic development of the country. It is shown that the basis of such simulations are diagrams causality - cognitive map and study the problem on the basis of a cognitive map is through the distribution of the pulsed process. It was reviewed and analyzed a number of modern simulation (cognitive models of regional development proposed in the scientific literature that demonstrate the use of this tool as the modeling of the dynamics of macroeconomic indicators and indicators of local economic and social development of the region. The basic advantages and disadvantages of the use of cognitive models in the modeling of macroeconomic and regional dynamics were defined.? ?????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????????? ??? ??????? ? ??????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????. ????????, ??? ? ?????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ????????? ????????-???????????? ?????? – ??????????? ?????, ? ???????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ????? ?????????? ????? ??????????????? ??????????? ????????. ?????????? ? ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? (??????????? ??????? ????????????? ????????, ???????????? ? ??????? ??????????, ??????? ????????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ??? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ?????????????????? ????????, ??? ? ????????? ??????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ? ????????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ? ???????????? ????????.

  11. Socio-Economic Conditions of Collectors of Post- Consumer Clothing Waste in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman D. Mundkur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discarded clothing from households are collected in exchange for utensils by men and women called bhandivale in Mumbai. This unique door-to-door recycling service earns them a livelihood. With the objective to understand the background of the bhandivale in Mumbai, the percentage of bhandivale in various age groups, the male to female ratio among the sample of respondents, caste-wise and sub-castes distribution, their migratory status, State of origin, original occupation, domicile, possession of ration card and income are studied. A field survey was undertaken; data was gathered through personal interviews. Literature reviewed showed the presence of Waghri tribes involved in the trade of used clothes. In this study the presence of two more tribal communities were found, namely Gondhali and Kunchikorve.A comparative study between the three sub-caste revealed that Gondhali and Kunchikorvehave better educational and socio-economic conditions than the Waghri.

  12. Socio Economic Changes Among The Tsunami Affected Families In Tamil Nadu – An Empirical Study

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    A. Arun Prakash

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the socio economic changes among the tsunami affected families in Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu. The participants were adult tsunami affected families (141 male and 47 female; N =188 in Palayar village of Sirkali block in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu. A self prepared interview schedule was used for data collection. The mean age of the respondents was 37.6 years. About half of them had studied up to middle school level. The mean score of the education of the family members after tsunami is little higher than the mean score of the education of family members before tsunami. There is no change in the occupation among the selected families after tsunami but there is a statistically significant difference in the average monthly family income of the households and size of the families before and after tsunami.

  13. Efficiency in Public Education - The role of socio-economic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Chakraborty

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study measures the efficiency of public education using an inefficiency effects function that controls the socio-economic and environmental factors simultaneously.  The model developed by Battese and Coelli (1995 is applied to a panel dataset. The study found that although the mean efficiency scores obtained from the model are lower than the efficiency scores from a conventional stochastic frontier model, the estimates are robust and consistent.   The empirical application used three-year panel data from Kansas school districts and found Kansas schools are generally efficient and the most of the educational inputs under the control of the school administration were either had a low or no influence on students’ achievement scores.  However, students’ socioeconomic factors were found to have a significant influence on their achievement scores.  

  14. Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

  15. A Statistical Study of Socio-economic and Physical Risk Factors of Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alamgir

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 506 patients from various hospitals in Peshawar was examined to determine significant socio-economic and physical risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (heart attack. The factors examined were smoking (S, hypertension (H, cholesterol (C, diabetes (D, family history (F, residence (R, own a house (OH, number of dependents (ND, household income (I, obesity and lack of exercise (E. The response variable MI was binary. Therefore, logistic regression was applied (using GLIM and SPSS packages to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. Logistic regression models have been obtained indicating significant risk factors for both sexes, for males and for females separately. The best-selected model for both sexes is of factors S, F, D, H and C. The best-selected model for males is of factors CIFH, S, H, D, C and F, while the best-selected model for females is of factors D, H, C and F.

  16. Some ecological and socio-economic considerations for biomass energy crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a regional approach to ensure that energy crop production will proceed in an ecologically and economically sustainable way. At this juncture, we have the opportunity to build into the system some ecological and socio-economic values which have not traditionally been considered. If crop species are chosen and sited properly, incorporation of energy crops into our agricultural system could provide extensive wildlife habitat and address soil and water quality concerns, in addition to generating renewable power. We recommend that three types of agricultural land be targeted for perennial biomass energy crops: (1) highly erodible land; (2) wetlands presently converted to agricultural uses; and (3) marginal agricultural land in selected regions. Fitting appropriate species to these lands, biomass crops can be successfully grown on lands not ecologically suited for conventional farming practices, thus providing an environmental benefit in addition to producing an economic return to the land owner. (author)

  17. Towards international E-stat for monitoring the socio-economic activities across the globe

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2012-01-01

    We investigate relationship between annual electric power consumption per capita and gross domestic production (GDP) per capita for 131 countries. We found that the relationship can be fitted with a power-law function. We examine the relationship for 47 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we investigate values of annual electric power production reported by four international organizations. We collected the data from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Statistics by International Energy Agency (IEA), OECD Factbook (Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics), and United Nations (UN) Energy Statistics Yearbook. We found that the data structure, values, and unit depend on the organizations. This implies that it is further necessary to establish data standards and an organization to collect, store, and distribute the data on socio-economic systems.

  18. Socio-Economic Consequences of Improved Indoor Air Quality in Danish Primary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Foldbjerg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt to estimate the socio-economic effects of upgrading the indoor air quality in Danish schools to the level of Swedish schools. The OECD “PISA” score is used to quantify the effects together with the Danish Rational Economic Agent Model (DREAM). The following effects are taken into consideration: a) increased PISA score increases productivity; b) increased PISA score reduces the duration of primary education; c) improved indoor air quality reduces absenteeism in teachers. The results show that improved air quality in Danish schools could result in an increase in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of €173 million per annum, and in the public finances of €37 million per annum

  19. Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2013-01-01

    Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced changes in economic conditions, educational levels, and labor markets at the same time as cultural changes have taken place in relation to processes of individualization and reflexivity. Based on empirical data the aim of this paper is to investigate whether and to what extent changes in the structural preconditions for volunteering have had an effect on factors that are commonly associated with volunteering. We use survey data from Denmark collected over a period from 1990 to 2008.

  20. Socio-Economic Variables and Nutrient Adequacy of Women in the Vaal Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H; Kruger, Rozanne; Egal, Abdulkadir A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional, observational baseline survey was to examine the association between nutrient intakes and selected socio-economic variables in 722 women, aged 19 to 90 years living in peri-urban settlements. Measurements included socio-demographic data and 24-hour recall dietary intake data. The results showed poor nutrient intakes with the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) not met for the mean intakes of all nutrients except carbohydrates, phosphorus, and vitamin B12. The inadequate energy intakes were significantly higher among the women who had lower education (p = .015), lower income (p = .028), and were unemployed (p = .015). The epidemiological value of the study findings is in the contribution to the rationale of appropriate interventions such as income-generating projects as well as household agricultural projects to improve food and nutrient intakes. PMID:25105862

  1. Socio-economic study of fusion energy at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The socio-economic studies of fusion from various aspects are performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and its collaborators in Japan, where steady-state tokamaks have been designed as a promising candidate. Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will successfully developed and introduced into the market. Application to fuel production process such as hydrogen by utilizing heat is designed to increase possible contribution for energy supply further. Operation without initial tritium loading liberates fusion from fuel supply constraints, and has an effect to rapidly increase fusion share. Externality of fusion energy is analyzed by CO2 emission, impact pathway of tritium, rad-waste, and some social impacts. These results are expected to answer the questions on significance of fusion development, and improve the plant design and development strategy to maximize the benefit of fusion research

  2. GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

    2010-01-01

    The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

  3. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  4. Applications Civil Engineering for Socio Economic Amelioration of Below Poverty Line Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs Suvidha Patil,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available the application of Civil Engineering For Socio Economic Amelioration of Below Poverty Line Families In Maharashtra State at Amboli village in Kolhapur district near Pethvadgaon during the period of 2010-2012 with main objective is reducing the poverty and socioeconomic development of community. For this purpose Civil Engineering based income generating activity is given to the people. This paper represents the appropriate use of available natural resources and improving the economical status of the people by using the civil engineering application. It is based renewable or non conventional energy source. For this implementation and training programme of compact mini biogas project is given to the people in this village. It reduce the cost of fuel consumption used in domestic appliances and it will be the income generating source by the installation of compact biogas plant.

  5. Socio-economic and cultural aspecrs of changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MoshØj, Charlotte Margaret

    2009-01-01

    ! is chapter evaluates the possibility for projecting socio-economic and cultural impacts on Greenland’s society caused directly or indirectly by changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet. ! ere are, as yet, no well-documented direct causative links between the conditions for a society dictated by nature, and the way a given society develops. ! is chapter describes the development of the modern Greenland society from a historical perspective and introduces a number of speci" c cases that illustrate the propensity for change in a society that is derived from the Inuit culture. ! e Inuit culture has survived at the margin of human existence over a millennium of climate change and external cultural in# uences

  6. Influence of regional investment activity on socio-economic differentiation development level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernova Tatyana Vasilyevna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The strategic goal of national competitiveness requires efficient organization of a single economic space within the existing administrative-territorial entities. The influence of the regional investment activity on production output and population living standards is estimated by the analytical group of statistical indicators, the analysis of which confirmed the existence of the direct link between regional investment activity and indicators of living standards differentiation. The gross fixed capital formation is considered as a determinant of regional socio-economic differentiation level, and the most important integral indicator is a balanced financial result, which determines the formation of resources for investment activity. The optimization of the structure of these sources is mainly conditioned by the priorities of the regional investment policy.

  7. Rural Households : Socio-Economic Characteristics, Community Organzing and Adaptation Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations of informal organization and community adaptive capacities, and finally, it discusses the issues of vulnerability and adaptation to climatic and environmental change from a household perspective.

  8. Influence of socio-economic changes on students' health of Siberian Federal University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temnykh A.S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of statistical researches of morbidity of students of university are presented in times of socio-economic reforms from 1990 to 2011. 1775 students took part in an experiment. The tendency of decline of health of young people level is marked. It is set that principal reason of increase of morbidity is an unhealthy way of life of young people and low level of motive activity. The annual medical inspection of all of students, engaged in a physical culture and sport is recommended. The necessity of maintainance is marked for an educational process on a physical culture volume of employments in an amount 408 hours on 1, 2 and 3 courses. An increase of activity of students and efficiency of employments is possibly at the permanent improvement of financial base. It is recommended to organize in student dormitories sporting rooms with the proper equipment.

  9. How Socio-Economic Conditions Influence Forest Policy Development in Central and South-East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuleti?, Dijana; Poto?i?, Nenad; Krajter, Silvija; Seletkovi?, Ivan; Fürst, Christine; Makeschin, Franz; Gali?, Zoran; Lorz, Carsten; Matijaši?, Dragan; Zupani?, Matjaž; Simon?i?, Primož; Vacik, Harald

    2010-12-01

    In this article, several findings on socio-economic conditions derived from national reports and a web-based questionnaire are discussed and related to the changing role of forestry and the future forest policy development. A number of Central and South-eastern European countries taking part in a SEE-ERA-NET project ReForMan project ( www.reforman.de ) participated in data acquisition: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Serbia and Slovenia. The aim of the research was to illustrate the present structure of forestry sector, as well as investigate newly emerging topics in forestry of Central and South-eastern Europe. The results indicated certain patterns in attitudes and perceptions among stakeholders that can be related to socio-economic conditions defined for each country. Clear differences between member and non-member countries exist only in level of implementation of EU legislation. Results showed consensus on main threats to the forests among all countries, but also some country specifics in perceptions of factors influencing forestry, their importance and professional competencies. These results could be additionally explained by influence of historical conditions which shaped development of forest sector in SEE region especially in its organizational dimension as well as in perceived role of forestry expressed through recognition of main forest functions. The influence of European forest policy processes in the region is evident through adaptation of EU legislation and perceived implications of international processes on national levels. Based on this observation, two possible options for future development of the forestry sector can be foreseen: (i) focusing on the productive function of forests and fostering its' sustainable use; or (ii) putting an emphasis on environmental and social issues. In both cases supporting public participation in decision-making processes is recommendable. Another conclusion based on perceived medium to low professional competencies to cope with new topics, that there is lack of confidence and need for professional support in decisionmaking processes.

  10. Migrant mortality from diabetes mellitus across Europe : the importance of socio-economic change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR) is more affluent than the country of birth (COB). We obtained mortality data from 7 European countries. To assess migrant diabetes mortality, we used direct standardization and Poisson regression. First, migrant mortality was estimated for each country separately. Then, we merged the data from all mortality registers. Subsequently, to examine the second hypothesis, we introduced gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of COB in the models, as an indicator of socio-economic circumstances. The overall pattern shows higher diabetes mortality in migrant populations compared to local-born populations. Mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were highest in migrants originating from either the Caribbean or South Asia. MRRs for the migrant population as a whole were 1.9 (95% CI 1.8-2.0) and 2.2 (95% CI 2.1-2.3) for men and women respectively. We furthermore found a consistently inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality. Most migrant groups have higher diabetes mortality rates than the local-born populations. Mortality rates are particularly high in migrants from North Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia or low-GDP countries. The inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality suggests that socio-economic change may be one of the key aetiological factors.

  11. A fuzzy stochastic framework for managing hydro-environmental and socio-economic interactions under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagadis, Yohannes Hagos; Schütze, Niels; Grundmann, Jens

    2014-05-01

    An amplified interconnectedness between a hydro-environmental and socio-economic system brings about profound challenges of water management decision making. In this contribution, we present a fuzzy stochastic approach to solve a set of decision making problems, which involve hydrologically, environmentally, and socio-economically motivated criteria subjected to uncertainty and ambiguity. The proposed methodological framework combines objective and subjective criteria in a decision making procedure for obtaining an acceptable ranking in water resources management alternatives under different type of uncertainty (subjective/objective) and heterogeneous information (quantitative/qualitative) simultaneously. The first step of the proposed approach involves evaluating the performance of alternatives with respect to different types of criteria. The ratings of alternatives with respect to objective and subjective criteria are evaluated by simulation-based optimization and fuzzy linguistic quantifiers, respectively. Subjective and objective uncertainties related to the input information are handled through linking fuzziness and randomness together. Fuzzy decision making helps entail the linguistic uncertainty and a Monte Carlo simulation process is used to map stochastic uncertainty. With this framework, the overall performance of each alternative is calculated using an Order Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator accounting for decision makers' experience and opinions. Finally, ranking is achieved by conducting pair-wise comparison of management alternatives. This has been done on the basis of the risk defined by the probability of obtaining an acceptable ranking and mean difference in total performance for the pair of management alternatives. The proposed methodology is tested in a real-world hydrosystem, to find effective and robust intervention strategies for the management of a coastal aquifer system affected by saltwater intrusion due to excessive groundwater extraction for irrigated agriculture and municipal use. The results show that the approach gives useful support for robust decision-making and is sensitive to the decision makers' degree of optimism.

  12. Decomposing socio-economic inequality in colorectal cancer screening uptake in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmi, Francesca; Von Wagner, Christian; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Raine, Rosalind; Wardle, Jane; Morris, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer death in the UK. Since 2010, CRC screening based on Faecal Occult Blood testing has been offered by the NHS in England biennially to all persons age 60-69 years. Several studies have demonstrated a gradient in uptake using area-level markers of socio-economic status (SES), but few have examined the individual-level contributors to the gradient. We aimed to quantify the extent of SES inequality in CRC screening uptake in England using individual-level data, and to identify individual factors associated with this inequality. We used data from 1833 participants (aged 61-69) in Wave 5 (collected in years 2010/11) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) eligible for having been sent at least one CRC screening invitation. Uptake was defined by self-report of ever having been screened as part of the National Screening Programme. We assessed socio-economic inequality using the corrected concentration index of uptake against SES rank, which was derived by regressing a range of SES markers against net non-pension household wealth. Other demographic and health-related variables were included in the analysis. Factors associated with inequality were measured using concentration index decomposition. There was a significant pro-rich gradient in screening uptake (concentration index: 0.16, 95% CI:0.11-0.22), mostly explained within our model by differences in non-pension wealth (38.7%), partner screening status (15.9%), sickness/disability (13.5%), and health literacy (8.5%). Interventions aimed at reducing inequalities in CRC screening uptake should focus on improving acceptability of screening in populations with low levels of education and literacy barriers. PMID:25917138

  13. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Archer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

    The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  14. Sustainability of water resources management in the Indus Basin under changing climatic and socio economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Archer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is highly dependent on water resources originating in the mountain sources of the upper Indus for irrigated agriculture which is the mainstay of its economy. Hence any change in available resources through climate change or socio-economic factors could have a serious impact on food security and the environment. In terms of both ratio of withdrawals to runoff and per-capita water availability, Pakistan's water resources are already highly stressed and will become increasingly so with projected population changes. Potential changes to supply through declining reservoir storage, the impact of waterlogging and salinity or over-abstraction of groundwater, or reallocations for environmental remediation of the Indus Delta or to meet domestic demands, will reduce water availability for irrigation.

    The impact of climate change on resources in the Upper Indus is considered in terms of three hydrological regimes – a nival regime dependent on melting of winter snow, a glacial regime, and a rainfall regime dependent on concurrent rainfall. On the basis of historic trends in climate, most notably the decline in summer temperatures, there is no strong evidence in favour of marked reductions in water resources from any of the three regimes. Evidence for changes in trans-Himalayan glacier mass balance is mixed. Sustainability of water resources appears more threatened by socio-economic changes than by climatic trends. Nevertheless, analysis and the understanding of the linkage of climate, glaciology and runoff is still far from complete; recent past climate experience may not provide a reliable guide to the future.

  15. Dietary sources of animal and plant protein intake among Flemish preschool children and the association with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Henauw Stefaan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the intake of animal, plant and food group-specific protein, and to investigate their associations with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors in Flemish preschoolers. Methods Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from 661 preschoolers aged 2.5-6.5 y (338 boys and 323 girls. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between animal, plant, and food group-specific protein intake and socio-economic and lifestyle factors. Results Animal proteins (mean 38 g/d were the main source of total protein (mean 56 g/d, while mean plant protein intake amounted to 18 g/d. The group of meat, poultry, fish and eggs was the main contributor (51% to animal protein intake, followed by milk and milk products (35%. Bread and cereals (41% contributed most to the plant protein intake, followed by low-nutritious, energy-dense foods (21%. With higher educated fathers and mothers as reference, respectively, preschoolers with lower secondary and secondary paternal education had lower animal, dairy-, and meat-derived protein intakes, and those with lower secondary and secondary maternal education consumed less plant, and bread and cereal-derived proteins. Compared to children with high physical activity levels, preschoolers with low and moderate physical activity had lower animal and plant protein intakes. Significantly higher potatoes and grains-, and fish- derived proteins were reported for children of smoking mothers and fathers, respectively, compared to those of non-smoking mothers and fathers. Conclusions The total protein intake of Flemish preschoolers was sufficient according to the recommendations of the Belgian Superior Health Council. Parental level of education and smoking status might play a role in the sources of children's dietary proteins.

  16. Ethnicity, educational level and attitudes contribute to parental intentions about genetic testing for child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L; Theunissen, Meinou H C; Schönbeck, Yvonne; Henneman, Lidewij; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Detmar, Symone B

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess parental beliefs and intentions about genetic testing for their children in a multi-ethnic population with the aim of acquiring information to guide interventions for obesity prevention and management. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in parents of native Dutch children and children from a large minority population (Turks) selected from Youth Health Care registries. The age range of the children was 5-11 years. Parents with lower levels of education and parents of non-native children were more convinced that overweight has a genetic cause and their intentions to test the genetic predisposition of their child to overweight were firmer. A firmer intention to test the child was associated with the parents' perceptions of their child's susceptibility to being overweight, a positive attitude towards genetic testing, and anticipated regret at not having the child tested while at risk for overweight. Interaction effects were found in ethnic and socio-economic groups. Ethnicity and educational level play a role in parental beliefs about child overweight and genetic testing. Education programmes about obesity risk, genetic testing and the importance of behaviour change should be tailored to the cultural and behavioural factors relevant to ethnic and socio-economic target groups. PMID:23389423

  17. Influence of household demographic and socio-economic factors on household expenditure on tobacco in six New Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotsadze George

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of adult males, share of members with high education in determining household expenditure on tobacco (defined as tobacco expenditure share out of total monthly HH consumption was assessed by using multiple regression analysis. Results Significant differences were found between mean expenditure on tobacco between rich and poor – in absolute terms the rich spend significantly more compared with the poor. Poor households devote significantly higher shares of their monthly HH consumption for tobacco products. Shares of adult males were significantly associated with the share of household consumption devoted for tobacco. There was a significant negative association between shares of persons with tertiary education within the HH and shares of monthly household consumption devoted for tobacco products. The correlation between household expenditures on tobacco and alcohol was found to be positive, rather weak, but statistically significant. Conclusion Given the high levels of poverty and high rates of smoking in the New Independent States, these findings have important policy implications. They indicate that the impact and opportunity costs of smoking on household finances are more significant for the poor than for the rich. Any reductions in smoking prevalence within poor households could have a positive economic impact.

  18. Limitation of Socio-Economic Rights in the 2010 Kenyan Constitution: A Proposal for the Adoption of a Proportionality Approach in the Judicial Adjudication of Socio-Economic Rights Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Wasonga Orago

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On 27 August 2010 Kenya adopted a transformative Constitution with the objective of fighting poverty and inequality as well as improving the standards of living of all people in Kenya. One of the mechanisms in the 2010 Constitution aimed at achieving this egalitarian transformation is the entrenchment of justiciable socio-economic rights (SERs, an integral part of the Bill of Rights. The entrenched SERs require the State to put in place a legislative, policy and programmatic framework to enhance the realisation of its constitutional obligations to respect, protect and fulfill these rights for all Kenyans. These SER obligations, just like any other fundamental human rights obligations, are, however, not absolute and are subject to legitimate limitation by the State. Two approaches have been used in international and comparative national law jurisprudence to limit SERs: the proportionality approach, using a general limitation clause that has found application in international and regional jurisprudence on the one hand; and the reasonableness approach, using internal limitations contained in the standard of progressive realisation, an approach that has found application in the SER jurisprudence of the South African Courts, on the other hand. This article proposes that if the entrenched SERs are to achieve their transformative objectives, Kenyan courts must adopt a proportionality approach in the judicial adjudication of SER disputes. This proposal is based on the reasoning that for the entrenched SERs to have a substantive positive impact on the lives of the Kenyan people, any measure by the government aimed at their limitation must be subjected to strict scrutiny by the courts, a form of scrutiny that can be achieved only by using the proportionality standard entrenched in the article 24 general limitation clause.

  19. Limitation of socio-economic rights in the 2010 Kenyan Constitution: a proposal for the adoption of a proportionality approach in the judicial adjudication of socio-economic rights disputes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NW, Orago.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On 27 August 2010 Kenya adopted a transformative Constitution with the objective of fighting poverty and inequality as well as improving the standards of living of all people in Kenya. One of the mechanisms in the 2010 Constitution aimed at achieving this egalitarian transformation is the entrenchme [...] nt of justiciable socio-economic rights (SERs), an integral part of the Bill of Rights. The entrenched SERs require the State to put in place a legislative, policy and programmatic framework to enhance the realisation of its constitutional obligations to respect, protect and fulfill these rights for all Kenyans. These SER obligations, just like any other fundamental human rights obligations, are, however, not absolute and are subject to legitimate limitation by the State. Two approaches have been used in international and comparative national law jurisprudence to limit SERs: the proportionality approach, using a general limitation clause that has found application in international and regional jurisprudence on the one hand; and the reasonableness approach, using internal limitations contained in the standard of progressive realisation, an approach that has found application in the SER jurisprudence of the South African Courts, on the other hand. This article proposes that if the entrenched SERs are to achieve their transformative objectives, Kenyan courts must adopt a proportionality approach in the judicial adjudication of SER disputes. This proposal is based on the reasoning that for the entrenched SERs to have a substantive positive impact on the lives of the Kenyan people, any measure by the government aimed at their limitation must be subjected to strict scrutiny by the courts, a form of scrutiny that can be achieved

  20. Predicting trends of invasive plants richness using local socio-economic data: An application in North Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the potential of an integrated methodology for predicting local trends in invasive exotic plant species (invasive richness) using indirect, regional information on human disturbance. The distribution of invasive plants was assessed in North Portugal using herbarium collections and local environmental, geophysical and socio-economic characteristics. Invasive richness response to anthropogenic disturbance was predicted using a dynamic model based on a sequential modeling process (stochastic dynamic methodology-StDM). Derived scenarios showed that invasive richness trends were clearly associated with ongoing socio-economic change. Simulations including scenarios of growing urbanization showed an increase in invasive richness while simulations in municipalities with decreasing populations showed stable or decreasing levels of invasive richness. The model simulations demonstrate the interest and feasibility of using this methodology in disturbance ecology. - Highlights: ? Socio-economic data indicate human induced disturbances. ? Socio-economic development increase disturbance in ecosystems. ? Disturbance promotes opportunities for invasive plants.? Increased opportunities promote richness of invasive plants.? Increase in richness of invasive plants change natural ecosystems.

  1. Solar power and the possibility of socio-economic development in the remote and mountainous areas of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of socio-economic development in remote and mountainous areas of Uzbekistan in the context of using solar energy on the grounds of the past experience of different countries is discussed in this article. The obstacles to using solar energy in remote areas and the approaches to overcoming them are described. (authors)

  2. Elementary Students' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Science: Role of Grade Level, Gender, and Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This study examined grade level and gender difference with respect to elementary students' science and technology self-efficacy. Additionally, relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and self-efficacy was examined. A total of 145 elementary students participated in the study. Self efficacy towards Science and Technology Scale was used to…

  3. The media image of the relationship between nature protection and socio-economic development in selected protected landscape areas.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kušová, Drahomíra; T?šitel, Jan; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 11, 2-3 (2005), s. 123-133. ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : nature protection * socio-economic development * content analysis Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  4. Impacts of socio-economic and climate change scenarios on wetlands: linking water resource and biodiversity meta-models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, P.A.; Berry, M. [Oxford University Centre for the Environment (United Kingdom); Henriques, C.; Holman, I.P. [Cranfield University (United Kingdom). Natural Resources Department

    2008-09-15

    A meta-modelling approach has been adopted to link simulations of low and high water flows with simulations of suitable climate space for a selection of fen and bog species with differing drought and flood tolerance. The linked metamodels were used to examine the impacts of socio-economic and climate change scenarios on wetlands in two contrasting regions of the UK. The hydrological model shows that low and high flows are sensitive to climate change and to the regional distribution of abstractions and discharges. Where there are large changes in urbanisation, flows are more sensitive to socio-economic change. The changes in high flows have little impact on the species selected, but changes in low flows result in a number of areas becoming marginal or unsuitable due to dryness. At the regional scale, adaptation options appear to be limited and mostly involve, for surface water-influenced wetlands, increased water imports (either directly through increased non-consumptive water demand or indirectly through river augmentation), which may not be consistent with the socio-economic scenario or be feasible. This paper shows, therefore, that changes in hydrological regime are important for the future of wetlands and that these may depend as much on the future socio-economic situation as the projected changes in climate.

  5. Desk-study on the impact Chinese Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has in Angola’s socio-economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Murgui, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) from China has on Angola’s socio-economic development, and whether this development is long-term sustainable. Based on the United Nations’ definition of Sustainable Development, the indicators used to scrutinise the impact of FDI are: GDP, infrastructure development, corruption, unemployment, poverty and inequality rates, among others

  6. An AHP decision making model for optimal allocation of energy subsidy among socio-economic subsectors in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) decision model for sectoral allocation of energy subsidy based on several criteria. With determination of priorities for these criteria through questionnaire and AHP method, the overall rank of these criteria that have the most influence on distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic sub-sectors, are as the following: inflation, economic growth, labor intensity, distribution of energy subsidy among socio-economic levels, energy intensity and social cost of air pollution. According to the model, the first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector and the last priority is related to transportation sector. Investigating the impact of changing priority of the criteria on overall results indicates that the socio-economic sub sectors’ ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria. - Highlights: ? Commerce subsector is the best sub sector with an overall priority score of 0.331. ? The first priority for allocation of energy subsidy is commercial sector. ? When we increase the priority of each criterion first time, then overall rank of the outcome has little changing. ? The socio-economic sub sectors' ranking in receiving subsidy have little sensitivity for changing priority of the subsidy criteria.

  7. Life Satisfaction Shows Terminal Decline in Old Age: Longitudinal Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Estabrook, Ryne; Schupp, Jurgen; Wagner, Gert G.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal data spanning 22 years, obtained from deceased participants of the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; N = 1,637; 70- to 100-year-olds), were used to examine if and how life satisfaction exhibits terminal decline at the end of life. Changes in life satisfaction were more strongly associated with distance to death than with…

  8. Examination of Science Learning Equity through Argumentation and Traditional Instruction Noting Differences in Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, O.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared student scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge in argumentation-based and traditional instruction, taught in school regions with low and high socio-economic status (SES) respectively. Furthermore, concrete and formal reasoning students' scientific reasoning and conceptual knowledge were compared during both instructions…

  9. Climate change and socio-economic scenarios, land use modelling implications on water resources in an inner alpine area, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Emmanuel; Schneider, Flurina; Liniger, Hanspeter; Weingartner, Rolf; Herweg, Karl

    2014-05-01

    The MontanAqua project aims to study the water resources management in the region Sierre-Montana (Valais, Switzerland). Land use is known to have an influence on the water resources (soil moisture dynamic, soil sealing, surface runoff and deep percolation). Thus land use modelling is of importance for the water resources management. An actual land use map was produced using infrared imagery (Niklaus 2012, Fig.1). Land use changes are known to be mainly drived by socio-economic factors as well as climatic factors (Dolman et al. 2003). Potential future Land uses was separatly predicted according to 1-. socio-economic and 2-. climatic/abiotic drivers : 1. 4 socio-economic scenarios were developped with stakeholders (Schneider et al. 2013) between 2010 and 2012. We modeled those socio-economic scenarios into a GIS application using Python programming (ModelBuilder in ArcGIS 10) to get a cartographic transcription of the wishes of the stakeholders for their region in 2050. 2. Uncorrelated climatic and abiotic drivers were used in a BIOMOD2 (Georges et al. 2013) framework. 4 models were used: Maximum Entropy (MAXENT), Multiple Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA) and the Flexible Discriminant Analysis (FDA) to predict grassland, alpine pasture, vineyards and forest in our study region. Climatic scenarios were then introduced into the models to predict potential land use in 2050 driven only by climatic and abiotic factors The comparison of all the outputs demonstrates that the socio-economic drivers will have a more important impact in the region than the climatic drivers (e.g. -70% grassland surface for the worst socio-economic scenario vs. -40% of grassland surface for the worst climatic models). Further analysis also brings out the sensitivity of the grassland/alpine pasture system to the climate change and to socio-economic changes. Future work will be to cross the different land use maps obtained by the two model types and to use them to implement soil moisture and evaporation data for the near-future in the region Sierre-Montana. REFERENCES Niklaus M. 2012. An Object-oriented Approach for Mapping Current Land Use/Land Cover in the Study Area Crans-Montana-Sierre, Valais. MSc, Geography Institute, University of Bern Dolman A.J., Verhagen A. & Rovers C.A. 2003. Global environmental change and land use. Kluwer Academic Publisher. Dordrecht. Schneider F. & Rist S. 2013. Envisioning sustainable water futures in a transdisciplinary learning process: combining normative, explorative, and participatory scenario approaches. Sustainability Science, in press. Georges D. & Thuiller W. 2012. An example of species distribution modelling with biomod2. biomod2 version : 2.0.17

  10. Morality in Parents' Stories of Preschool Choice: Narrating Identity Positions of Good Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie; Lofdahl, Annica; Prieto, Hector Perez

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to our understanding of how moral aspects of parents' choices of preschool play a part in the processes of marketisation and privatisation of childcare in Sweden. The paper explores parents' narratives of preschool choice as moral claims of parental identities. The analysed data are based on a study of how parents

  11. Assessing groundwater pollution hazard changes under different socio-economic and environmental scenarios in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M Lourdes; Romanelli, Asunción; Massone, Héctor E

    2015-10-15

    This paper proposes a modeling approach for assessing changes in groundwater pollution hazard under two different socio-economic and environmental scenarios: The first one considers an exponential growth of agriculture land-use (Relegated Sustainability), while the other deals with regional economic growth, taking into account, the restrictions put on natural resources use (Sustainability Reforms). The recent (2011) and forecasted (2030) groundwater pollution hazard is evaluated based on hydrogeological parameters and, the impact of land-use changes in the groundwater system, coupling together a land-use change model (Dyna-CLUE) with a groundwater flow model (MODFLOW), as inputs to a decision system support (EMDS). The Dulce Stream Watershed (Pampa Plain, Argentina) was chosen to test the usefulness and utility of this proposed method. It includes a high level of agricultural activities, significant local extraction of groundwater resources for drinking water and irrigation and extensive available data regarding aquifer features. The Relegated Sustainability Scenario showed a negative change in the aquifer system, increasing (+20%; high-very high classes) the contribution to groundwater pollution hazard throughout the watershed. On the other hand, the Sustainability Reforms Scenario displayed more balanced land-use changes with a trend towards sustainability, therefore proposing a more acceptable change in the aquifer system for 2030 with a possible 2% increase (high-very high classes) in groundwater pollution hazard. Results in the recent scenario (2011) showed that 54% of Dulce Stream Watershed still shows a moderate to a very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard (mainly in the lower area). Therefore, from the point of view of natural resource management, this is a positive aspect, offering possibilities for intervention in order to prevent deterioration and protect this aquifer system. However, since it is quite possible that this aquifer status (i.e. groundwater quality) changes in the near future, the implementation of planning measures and natural resource management is recommended. PMID:26050959

  12. Socio Economic Determinants of the Adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management Technologies by Small Scale Farmers: Evidence from Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah K. Okuthe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to examine the influence of socio economic factors on the adoption of Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM technologies that could restore soil fertility. INRM bridges the gap between high external input agriculture and extreme forms of traditional low external input agriculture. The main components of INRM in Ndhiwa division are chemical fertilizer, animal manure, green manure, stover lines and agro forestry. However the adoption of these technologies appears to be low resulting to probably the low production. It is not understood well why farmers who rely on agriculture for their livelihoods, either do not adopt or adopt the technologies and then abandon. An ex-post-facto survey design which utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection was used in the study. For quantitative data collection, a sample of 220 small scale farmers selected using systematic random sampling from the small scale farmers in the Division were engaged. For qualitative data, 40 small scale farmers and 37 Key Informants selected using purposive sampling from the division were used. Results of the study indicated that households education status, gender, access to credit and membership in social groups were important variables which had positively and significantly influenced adoption of INRM technologies. The overall finding of the study underlined the high importance of institutional support in the areas of extension, strengthening social groups and improving market and credit condition to enhance adoption of INRM technologies. The study will be significant to planners, policy makers, researchers, extension and farmers to build the case for interventions on INRM within the development sector for improved and sustainable agriculture and rural development.

  13. A Systematic Scoping Study of the Socio-Economic Impact of Rift Valley Fever: Research Gaps and Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, M; Chevalier, V; Abdo-Salem, S; Velthuis, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Thiry, E; Roger, F

    2014-09-24

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. RVF virus has been reported in most African countries, as well as in the Arabic Peninsula. This paper reviews the different types of socio-economic impact induced by RVF disease and the attempts to evaluate them. Of the 52 papers selected for this review, 13 types of socio-economic impact were identified according to the sector impacted, the level and temporal scale of the impact. RVF has a dramatic impact on producers and livestock industries, affecting public and animal health, food security and the livelihood of the pastoralist communities. RVF also has an impact on international trade and other agro-industries. The risk of introducing RVF into disease-free countries via the importation of an infected animal or mosquito is real, and the consequent restriction of access to export markets may induce dramatic economic consequences for national and local economies. Despite the important threat of RVF, few studies have been conducted to assess the socio-economic impact of the disease. The 17 studies identified for quantitative analysis in this review relied only on partial cost analysis, with limited reference to mid- and long-term impact, public health or risk mitigation measures. However, the estimated impacts were high (ranging from $5 to $470 million USD losses). To reduce the impact of RVF, early detection and rapid response should be implemented. Comprehensive disease impact studies are required to provide decision-makers with science-based information on the best intervention measure to implement ensuring efficient resource allocation. Through the analysis of RVF socio-economic impact, this scoping study proposes insights into the mechanisms underpinning its often-underestimated importance. This study highlights the need for comparative socio-economic studies to help decision-makers with their choices related to RVF disease management. PMID:25256804

  14. The foodscape: classification and field validation of secondary data sources across urban/rural and socio-economic classifications in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years, alongside the exponential increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, there has been a change in the food environment (foodscape). This research focuses on methods used to measure and classify the foodscape. This paper describes the foodscape across urban/rural and socio-economic divides. It examines the validity of a database of food outlets obtained from Local Authority sources (secondary level & desk based), across urban/rural and socio-economic divides by conducting fieldwork (ground-truthing). Additionally this paper tests the efficacy of using a desk based classification system to describe food outlets, compared with ground-truthing. Methods Six geographically defined study areas were purposively selected within North East England consisting of two Lower Super Output Areas (LSOAs; a small administrative geography) each. Lists of food outlets were obtained from relevant Local Authorities (secondary level & desk based) and fieldwork (ground-truthing) was conducted. Food outlets were classified using an existing tool. Positive predictive values (PPVs) and sensitivity analysis was conducted to explore validation of secondary data sources. Agreement between 'desk' and 'field' based classifications of food outlets were assessed. Results There were 438 food outlets within all study areas; the urban low socio-economic status (SES) area had the highest number of total outlets (n = 210) and the rural high SES area had the least (n = 19). Differences in the types of outlets across areas were observed. Comparing the Local Authority list to fieldwork across the geographical areas resulted in a range of PPV values obtained; with the highest in urban low SES areas (87%) and the lowest in Rural mixed SES (79%). While sensitivity ranged from 95% in the rural mixed SES area to 60% in the rural low SES area. There were no significant associations between field/desk percentage agreements across any of the divides. Conclusion Despite the relatively small number of areas, this work furthers our understanding of the validity of using secondary data sources to identify and classify the foodscape in a variety of geographical settings. While classification of the foodscape using secondary Local Authority food outlet data with information obtained from the internet, is not without its difficulties, desk based classification would be an acceptable alternative to fieldwork, although it should be used with caution. PMID:22472206

  15. The foodscape: classification and field validation of secondary data sources across urban/rural and socio-economic classifications in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lake Amelia A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, alongside the exponential increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, there has been a change in the food environment (foodscape. This research focuses on methods used to measure and classify the foodscape. This paper describes the foodscape across urban/rural and socio-economic divides. It examines the validity of a database of food outlets obtained from Local Authority sources (secondary level & desk based, across urban/rural and socio-economic divides by conducting fieldwork (ground-truthing. Additionally this paper tests the efficacy of using a desk based classification system to describe food outlets, compared with ground-truthing. Methods Six geographically defined study areas were purposively selected within North East England consisting of two Lower Super Output Areas (LSOAs; a small administrative geography each. Lists of food outlets were obtained from relevant Local Authorities (secondary level & desk based and fieldwork (ground-truthing was conducted. Food outlets were classified using an existing tool. Positive predictive values (PPVs and sensitivity analysis was conducted to explore validation of secondary data sources. Agreement between 'desk' and 'field' based classifications of food outlets were assessed. Results There were 438 food outlets within all study areas; the urban low socio-economic status (SES area had the highest number of total outlets (n = 210 and the rural high SES area had the least (n = 19. Differences in the types of outlets across areas were observed. Comparing the Local Authority list to fieldwork across the geographical areas resulted in a range of PPV values obtained; with the highest in urban low SES areas (87% and the lowest in Rural mixed SES (79%. While sensitivity ranged from 95% in the rural mixed SES area to 60% in the rural low SES area. There were no significant associations between field/desk percentage agreements across any of the divides. Conclusion Despite the relatively small number of areas, this work furthers our understanding of the validity of using secondary data sources to identify and classify the foodscape in a variety of geographical settings. While classification of the foodscape using secondary Local Authority food outlet data with information obtained from the internet, is not without its difficulties, desk based classification would be an acceptable alternative to fieldwork, although it should be used with caution.

  16. Prevalence of obstructive lung diseases and respiratory symptoms in relation to living environment and socio-economic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montnémery, P; Bengtsson, P; Elliot, A; Lindholm, L H; Nyberg, P; Löfdahl, C G

    2001-09-01

    We wanted to test whether living environment, occupation and social position are risk factors for asthma and chronic bronchitis/emphysema (CBE). The prevalence of bronchial asthma, CBE, respiratory symptoms and smoking habits in a random sample of 12,071 adults aged 20-59 years was assessed in a postal survey with a slightly modified questionnaire previously used in central and northern Sweden (The OLIN studies). Occupation was coded according to a socio-economic classification system. Six different living environment areas were defined; city-countryside, seaside-not seaside and living close to heavy traffic-not living close to heavy traffic. Multiple logistic regression analysis (forward conditional) was applied to estimate the association between the proposed set of risk factors and self-reported obstructive lung diseases and lower respiratory symptoms controlling for age, gender and smoking. After two reminders, the response rate was 70.1% (n=8469); 33.8% of the responders were smokers. In all, 469 subjects (5.5%) stated that they had asthma and 4.6% reported CBE. Besides smoking, which was a risk for both asthma and CBE, there were different risk patterns for self-reported asthma and CBE. In the economically active population there was a tendency that CBE was more common among 'unskilled and semi-skilled workers'. This fact was further emphasized when the population was merged into the two groups 'low social position' and 'middle/high social position', with 'low social position' as a risk for CBE (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.06-1.72). No social risk factors were identified for asthma. Living close to heavy traffic was a risk factor for asthma (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.02-1.62) but not for CBE. Apart from this no living environmental risk factors for obstructive pulmonary diseases were identified. Asthma symptoms and long-standing cough were more common among those subjects living close to heavy traffic compared to those not living close to heavy traffic. To conclude, low social position was a risk factor for CBE and living close to heavy traffic was a risk factor for asthma. PMID:11575896

  17. Expectations of JAERI on INIS from a viewpoint of socio-economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand a socio-economic effect of basic research in JAERI, the stimulation and promotion of social interrelations through a formation of networking was studied quantitatively. As an analytical tool, top {100} keywords selected from the research papers written by the Material Science (MS) in JAERI were used as inputs of INIS. Reasons for selection of INIS instead of INSPEC in the present study areas follows: (a) The density of nuclear data in INIS was rather high than that in INSPEC; the former is more suitable for the present analysis due to having more nuclear data, (b) INSPEC may rather be suitable for study of international networking because of a worldwide large database. Our study is, however, focused to rather domestic or Japanese networking matters, therefore the high rate logging of Japanese data in INIS is more preferable. With respect to one-to-one correspondence between author's affiliation and his belonging, INSPEC had the top author's affiliation alone but INIS had all author's affiliation. This is very significantly helpful for studying the formation of networking. Obtained typical results are: (1) Worldwide trend of MS was studied by INIS by means of top {100} keywords as input. Research activity of MS in JAERI represented by top {100} keywords is not much different from that of other nuclear advanced countries participated to INIS. (2) Emphasized basic research fields (EBRF) of MS in JAERI can be clarified by selected keywords of 'ion irradiatioed by selected keywords of 'ion irradiation' and 'actinides', those have a strong relation to nuclear. 'Actinides' was included in 7,237 papers in INIS, where the share of JAERI over 25 years was 25%, while 52% by public sectors (PS) and 17% by private organizations (PO) in Japan. The growth rate of networking between JAERI and PS was of order of 3-4% per 25 years and 8% per recent 5 years. The rate of networking formation is markedly increased recently. (3) Between JAERI and the other 5 selected research bodies, only 7 out of over 110 keywords such as 'neutron' and 'accelerators' were overlapped. In the overlapped region the two compensated and uplifted the national standard level each other. For 'neutron' (2,988 papers), the networking between JAERI and PS was grown to the magnitude of 16% per recent 5 years; meaning that the socio-economic effect becomes large under the influence of research activity made by JAERI

  18. Clasificación socioeconómica de los municipios de Bolivia / Socio-economic classification of the municipalities of Bolivia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nina, Dante Ayaviri.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aplica técnicas multivariantes de Análisis Cluster para conformar conglomerados homogéneos de municipios de Bolivia. La finalidad de esta clasificación es identificar aspectos demográficos y socioeconómicos comunes de los municipios como punto de partida en el diseño e implementación d [...] e políticas de desarrollo en el ámbito municipal. Otra utilidad es la evaluación o medición de la eficiencia municipal pues es un requisito contar con grupos homogéneos. Se considera el conjunto de municipios de Bolivia que reportan información financiera respecto al presupuesto de la Iniciativa para los Países Pobres Altamente Endeudados (HIPCII), presupuestos destinados a la ejecución de proyectos sociales y de desarrollo. El estudio se realiza desde el punto de vista de la gestión y la Ley de Descentralización Administrativa que establece como norma, la búsqueda de una buena administración y uso de los recursos financieros. Las variables usadas son número de habitantes, proporción de población urbana e índice de necesidades básicas insatisfechas. Los resultados identifican seis cluster con aspectos socioeconómicas diferentes. Tres de ellos presentan un marcado carácter rural con elevados índices de pobreza. Abstract in english This article applies multivariate Cluster analysis techniques to create homogeneous clusters of municipalities in Bolivia. The purpose of this classification is to identify common demographic and socio-economic aspects of the municipalities as a starting point in the design and implementation of dev [...] elopment policies in the municipal area. Another tool is the evaluation or measurement of municipal efficiency is a requirement to have homogeneous groups. He is the set of municipalities of Bolivia reporte dinancial information with respect to the budget ofthe initiative highly indebted poor countries (HIPCII), budgets for the implementation of social projects and development. The study is carried out from the point of view of the management and the law on administrative decentralization, establishing as a rule, the search for a good administration and use of financial resources. The variables used are number of inhabitants, proportion of urban population and index of unsatisfied basic needs. The results identified six cluster with different socio-economic aspects. Three of them have a strong rural character with high rates of poverty.

  19. Sellafield's Role in the Socio-Economic Development of West Cumbria - 12459

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It would be hard to imagine what West Cumbria, a remote area in the North West of England, would look like without the huge Sellafield nuclear complex. The site is owned by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) and managed by Nuclear Management Partners (NMP), an international private partnership consisting of URS from the United States of America, AMEC from the UK and AREVA from France. Today some 10,000 people work at Sellafield with many more employed through the site's supply chain, a large percentage of which is located directly in West Cumbria. The Government, through the NDA, has committed around pounds 1.5 billion a year for the next three years as we at NMP bring our vast global expertise and experience to deliver substantial improvements to the clean-up mission there. Of this total budget, more than Pounds 800 million a year is spent in that supply chain and around 30 percent of that goes directly to firms in West Cumbria. But the dependency on the nuclear industry is immense and, with the site now entering an extensive decommissioning programme, the threats to jobs, and therefore the local economy, is severe. While Sellafield provides wealth, there are areas of deep deprivation and worklessness. Consequently, Sellafield Ltd, NMP and NDA have partnered with the local community leaders and politicians to form Britain's Energy Coast, a strategic regeneration body driving economic improvements and projects to deliver a vibrant economy for West Cumbria, long into the future. While the threats to our economy are real, the opportunities are potentially transformational. The UK is on the brink of a nuclear renaissance and, if we are successful through the Energy Coast programme, West Cumbria will become the hub, not only of the nuclear industry, but also of green energy production in the UK, with obvious benefits to our local economy. But to achieve this, Sellafield and its new owners are having to change the opportunistic ways of the past to provide a new strategic mode of socio-economic contribution to deliver a sustainable future for the local community. The results so far have been impressive, with over pounds 56 m being committed to socio-economic projects, but the long term aim is to achieve pounds 116 m investment through public/ private partnership. Sellafield is fundamental to this goal. (authors)

  20. Socio-Economic Impacts of Mutant Rice Varieties in Southern Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice production plays an important role in the socio-economic development of Vietnam, especially in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) region, which is responsible for more than half of the total and 90% of the national rice export. Before 1995, no mutant rice varieties (MRVs) were cultivated in the MRD. At present, rice variety improvement is the main focus of the national breeding programme and 8 rice mutants have been developed, occupying 10.3% of the total modern varieties in Southern Vietnam. The mutant varieties developed so far have better resistance to lodging, disease and insect damages, higher tolerance to soil stresses such as acid sulphate soil, drought etc., and also exhibit earliness and higher yield potential. Some of the best mutant varieties, namely VND95-19, VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB-100 have already been released for large-scale production in the MRD. VND95-20 has become one of the top 5 exported varieties and is grown annually on more than 300,000 ha in Southern Vietnam. Some of these mutants have given promising recombinants through hybridization and in particular the varieties VN121, VN124, OM2717 and OM2718 have been released into production. A successful combination of aromatic characteristics, short duration, high yield, tolerance to new diseases (GSV and RSV) and insects (BPH), and consequent reduction of spraying times of pesticide per crop, have greatly benefitted health and environmental protection. During the past 8 years under the IAEA Technical the past 8 years under the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) project, the total cultivated area of MRVs in Southern Vietnam has been more than 2.54 millions ha. Until 2008, the 8 rice mutant varieties produced an added return of 374 million USD over the previous years and continue to produce added return for farmers. More specifically, VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB100, VND95-19, OM2717, OM2718, VN121 and VN124 returned 300.00, 9.0, 37.5, 6.0, 12.0, 8.4, 0.8 and 0.7 million USD, respectively. The application of MRVs reduced spraying times per crop two- to three-fold due to their tolerance to diseases and insects. MRVs are used in the strategy programme 'Eradicate hunger and alleviate poverty' of different national projects, particularly for the ethnic minorities in mountainous and remote regions of Southern Vietnam. Due to the significant contribution of MRVs to socio-economic development, their development has received many prizes by the national and local Government. (author)

  1. Socio-economic impacts of mutant rice varieties in southern Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice plays an important role of socio-economic development in Vietnam, especially in Mekong River Delta (MRD) where is more than half of the total and 90% of national export rice. Rice variety improvement is main project in national breeding program. However, no mutant rice variety (MRV) was cultivated in MRD before 1995. Recently, 8 rice mutants occupy 10.3% of total modern varieties in Southern Vietnam. The mutated characters developed so far consist of better resistance to lodging, disease and insect damages, higher tolerance to soil stresses such as acid sulphate soil, drought etc, and also earliness and higher yield potential. Some best mutant varieties: VND95-19, VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB-100 have been released for large-scale production in MRD. Among them, VND95-20 has become one of the top 5 varieties for export and grown annually more than 300,000ha in Southern Vietnam. In combination with hybridization method, some mutants gave promising recombinants. Selected varieties as VN121, VN24-4, OM2717, OM2718 have been released into production. Successful combination of aromatic character with short duration, high yield, tolerant to new diseases (GSV and RSV) and insects (BPH), consequently reduction of 2-3 spraying times of pesticide / crop, supported for health and environmental protection. For 8 past years under IAEA TC project, total cultivated area of MRV was more than 2.54 millions ha in Southern Vietnam. Until 2008, 8 mutant varieties produced the added returnmutant varieties produced the added return of 374 millions USD for past years and continue producing added return for farmers. Eight MRV of VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB100, VND95-19, OM2717, OM 2718, VN 121 and VN24-4 occupied the added return values as 300.00; 9.0; 37.5; 6.0; 12.0; 8.4; 0.8 and 0.7 millions USD, respectively. Application of MRV is reduced 2-3 spraying times / crop due to their tolerance to diseases and insects. MRV are used in strategy program of 'Eradicate hunger and alleviate poverty' of different national projects, particularly for the ethnic minorities in mountainous and remote areas in Southern Vietnam. Due to significant contribution for socio-economic development, achievement of mutant rice varieties have been received many prizes of national and local Government. (author)

  2. Socio - Economic Implication of Use of Gsm among Abeokuta Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinola George Dosunmu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The euphoria that greeted the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM has reached its peak with grave implication for socio-economic conditions of many Nigerians same of who have been complaining about exploitation and unsatisfactory services provided by Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM operation in the country. However, many Nigerians even with high cost of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM phone will not stop at anything as holding a Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM phone has become a status symbol. Thus, the paper examines the socio-economic implications of the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM among residents in Abeokuta, Nigeria. The result reveal that despite the problems associated with the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM no one can do without it because it is highly useful for economic motives. Consequently unpas the findings it is recommended that government should checkmate exorbitant changes of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM operators.
    Key words: Telecommunication; Economic; Mobile; Technology

    Résumé: L'euphorie qui a salué l'utilisation du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM a atteint son apogée avec les implications en profondeur pour les conditions socio-économiques de nombreux Nigériens, les même que ceux qui se plaignaient de l'exploitation et des services insatisfaisants fournis par le Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM dans le pays. Toutefois, beaucoup de Nigérians, même avec un coût élevé de téléphone du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM, n'abandonneront pas les services du Système global des télécommunications mobiles (SGM, car celui-ci est devenu un symbole de statut social. Ainsi, le document examine les implications socio-économiques de l'utilisation du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM chez les résidents d'Abeokuta, au Nigéria. Le résultat révèle que, malgré les problèmes liés à l'utilisation du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM, personne ne peut s'en passer parce qu'il est très utile pour des motifs économiques. Par conséquence, il est recommandé que le gouvernement devrait éviter des changements exorbitants du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM.
    Mots-clés: Telecommunications; Économique; Mobile; Technologie

  3. Socio-Economic Principles of the Development of the Area Urban Housing Renewal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kosiak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The city is determined as a "clot" of many elements: people, infrastructure, real estate, jobs and others. These components require the scientific basis for new approaches in providing housing organizational and economic recovery, designed to use organizational, managerial, financial, legal and even administrative resources in the housing and communal services of cities and regions of Ukraine that will allow their inhabitants to provide further use of housing nowadays.Moreover, people who live in modern cities occupy rather small, but economically active area, generating a number of phenomena of social and economic nature: the housing market with its laws, problems of the role and limits of government responsibility and problems of local governments in meeting housing problems of citizens, and models of maintenance andrenewal of urban housing, etc., that foregrounds issues highlighted in the article.At the same time socio-economic factors as prerequisites for the development of housing sector of city and region economy in special scientific literature are remained out of sufficient attention, hampering the process of monitoring and forecasting regional trends and defining the prospects of creating conditions for public-private partnership in the housing sector. Therefore the purpose of the article is to study social and economic foundations of the development of housing sector at the regional level and the scientific substantiation of their impact on the processes of regeneration of urban housing in the context of sustained development of the region. Therefore, comprehensive research on the socio-economic changes and scientific substantiation of their impact on the processes of housing development are of great theoretical and practical importance.The mechanism of housing renewal should be developed not only by finding the new sources of financial support, but also by improving the economic-and-organizational and legal support, usage the strategies of development and monitoring.It is substantiated, that the change in financing of the housing system that is accompanied by increasing of the rates and tariffs for housing services for the population and by the decreasing and even to canceling the level of budgetary subsidies, increases the interest of housing businesses in the timely receipt of payments from the population, and at the same time creates the problem of laying investment component in the tariffs for the population to pay housing services.

  4. Relationship between household socio-economic status and under-five mortality in Rufiji DSS, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disparities in health outcomes between the poor and the better off are increasingly attracting attention from researchers and policy makers. However, policies aimed at reducing inequity need to be based on evidence of their nature, magnitude, and determinants. Objectives: The study aims to investigate the relationship between household socio-economic status (SES and under-five mortality, and to measure health inequality by comparing poorest/least poor quintile mortality rate ratio and the use of a mortality concentration index. It also aims to describe the risk factors associated with under-five mortality at Rufiji Demographic Surveillance Site (RDSS, Tanzania. Methods: This analytical cross sectional study included 11,189 children under-five residing in 7,298 households in RDSS in 2005. Principal component analysis was used to construct household SES. Kaplan–Meier survival incidence estimates were used for mortality rates. Health inequality was measured by calculating and comparing mortality rates between the poorest and least poor wealth quintile. We also computed a mortality concentration index. Risk factors of child mortality were assessed using Poisson regression taking into account potential confounders. Results: Under-five mortality was 26.9 per 1,000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI (23.7–30.4]. The poorest were 2.4 times more likely to die compared to the least poor. Our mortality concentration index [?0.16; 95% CI (?0.24, ?0.08] indicated considerable health inequality. Least poor households had a 52% reduced mortality risk [incidence rate ratio (IRR = 0.48; 95% CI 0.30–0.80]. Furthermore, children with mothers who had attained secondary education had a 70% reduced risk of dying compared to mothers with no education [IRR = 0.30; 95% CI (0.22–0.88]. Conclusion: Household socio-economic inequality and maternal education were associated with under-five mortality in the RDSS. Targeted interventions to address these factors may contribute towards accelerating the reduction of child mortality in rural Tanzania.

  5. Does Parental Attributional Retraining and Anger Management Enhance the Effects of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program with Parents at Risk of Child Maltreatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Pidgeon, Aileen M.; Gravestock, Fred; Connors, Mark D.; Brown, Samantha; Young, Ross W.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-eight parents experiencing significant difficulties in managing their own anger in their interactions with their preschool-aged children were randomly assigned either to an enhanced group-administered behavioral family intervention program based on the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program that incorporated attributional retraining and anger…

  6. A socio-economic impact assessment of a project to identify and implement best management practices at the Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme at farm level

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MC, Tshuma; N, Monde.

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Best Management Practices (BMP) project on social and economic wellbeing at the Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme (ZIS) in central Eastern Cape Province. The BMP project is a knowledge-based initiative aimed at introducing management practices in o [...] rder to improve production and livelihoods in the study area. The study employed a survey to collect socio-economic data amongst farming households. The 2005 (pre-BMP project) baseline study based on the same respondents allowed for the tracking of changes after the implementation of the project. A socio-economic impact assessment (SEIA) framework was used to assess the impacts. The results showed the BMP project to have impacted on social and economic wellbeing of households. Skills introduced were in the areas of water management, agronomic practices, marketing and institutional arrangements. In 2007 more than half of farmers worked on their farms daily, an improvement on 2005, when none of the farmers reported working over weekends. The average time spent on the farms per day also increased from 4 (in 2005) to 7 h (in 2007). Agriculture's contribution to household income improved from 71% in 2005 to 81% in 2007 and reduced household poverty and food insecurity levels. The number of households earning incomes below the poverty line dropped from 61°% in 2005 to 38% in 2007. A marked increase was noted in winter land use, which was almost non-existent in 2005. The on-farm trials introduced by the BMP team improved the farmers': maize planting time, plant population density, fertiliser management, crop yield and participation in community activities. Seedling transplanting was preferred to direct maize seeding. Positive impacts on institutions were seen in the restructuring of the management system; improved marketing systems; institutional arrangements for managing water; and institutions for maintaining irrigation infrastructure.

  7. Socio-economic inequity in demand for insecticide-treated nets, in-door residual house spraying, larviciding and fogging in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimally prioritize and use public and private budgets for equitable malaria vector control, there is a need to determine the level and determinants of consumer demand for different vector control tools. Objectives To determine the demand from people of different socio-economic groups for indoor residual house-spraying (IRHS, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, larviciding with chemicals (LWC, and space spraying/fogging (SS and the disease control implications of the result. Methods Ratings and levels of willingness-to-pay (WTP for the vector control tools were determined using a random cross-sectional sample of 720 householdes drawn from two states. WTP was elicited using the bidding game. An asset-based socio-economic status (SES index was used to explore whether WTP was related to SES of the respondents. Results IRHS received the highest proportion of highest preferred rating (41.0% followed by ITNs (23.1%. However, ITNs had the highest mean WTP followed by IRHS, while LWC had the least. The regression analysis showed that SES was positively and statistically significantly related to WTP across the four vector control tools and that the respondents' rating of IRHS and ITNs significantly explained their levels of WTP for the two tools. Conclusion People were willing to pay for all the vector-control tools, but the demand for the vector control tools was related to the SES of the respondents. Hence, it is vital that there are public policies and financing mechanisms to ensure equitable provision and utilisation of vector control tools, as well as protecting the poor from cost-sharing arrangements.

  8. Influência de fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos no padrão de respiração: um estudo piloto / Influence of socio-economic and demographic factors in determining breathing patterns: a pilot study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valdenice Aparecida de, Menezes; Rossana Barbosa, Leal; Marcela Motta, Moura; Ana Flávia, Granville-Garcia.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A respiração representa uma das funções vitais do organismo cujo desequilíbrio causa uma série de alterações em vários órgãos e sistemas. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência de fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos na determinação do padrão de respiração. Forma de Estudo: transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTOD [...] O: Amostra de 143 crianças de 9 a 10 anos, de duas escolas da cidade do Recife-PE, uma particular e a outra pública. O diagnóstico da respiração foi feito pelos testes placa de Glatzel e tempo de água na boca. Avaliaram-se os fatores socioeconômicos mediante entrevista com formulário contendo 9 perguntas. A análise estatística envolveu os testes Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fischer; o nível de significância foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de respiração oral foi de 55.2%, mais elevada no sexo feminino (57,7%) e na escola pública (67,2%). A falta de assistência médica (62%), o menor uso de medicamentos (56,6%), pais com escolaridade até 1º grau incompleto, pais separados (66%), escolares que não moravam com os pais (68,7%) e nas residências de um quarto (72%), o percentual da respiração oral foi mais elevado. Apenas o tipo de escola apresentou associação significativa com o padrão de respiração. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de respiração oral foi elevada, sem diferenças entre os sexos e faixa etária. Com exceção do tipo de escola, não houve associação significativa entre as variáveis socioeconômicas e o padrão de respiração. Abstract in english Breathing represents one of the vital functions of the organism, and its unbalance causes some series of alterations in several organs and systems. AIM: Verify the influence of socio-economic and demographic factors in determining breathing patterns. Study design: cross-sectional. MATERIALS AND METH [...] ODS: there were 143 students in the sample, with ages ranging from 9 and 10 years, from two schools, public and private, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Breathing patterns were established through two tests: Glatzel Plate (Steam) and water time in the mouth. Socio-economic factors were evaluated through questionnaires with nine questions each. Statistics were carried out by means of the Chi-Squared test or Fisher’s Exact test and the significance level used was of 5%. RESULTS: Oral breathing prevalence was of 55.2%, higher among females (57.7%) and in public schools (67.2%).Lack of medical care (62%), less use of medications (56.6%), parents with educational levels lower than high school, divorced parents (66%), students that do not live with their parents (68.7%) and homes with only one room (72%), in all of those situations, oral breathing signs were more prevalent. Only school type had significant association with the breathing pattern. CONCLUSION: High levels of oral breathing without differences concerning gender and age. With the exception of school type, there was no association between breathing pattern and socio-economic factors.

  9. Influência de fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos no padrão de respiração: um estudo piloto Influence of socio-economic and demographic factors in determining breathing patterns: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenice Aparecida de Menezes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A respiração representa uma das funções vitais do organismo cujo desequilíbrio causa uma série de alterações em vários órgãos e sistemas. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência de fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos na determinação do padrão de respiração. Forma de Estudo: transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Amostra de 143 crianças de 9 a 10 anos, de duas escolas da cidade do Recife-PE, uma particular e a outra pública. O diagnóstico da respiração foi feito pelos testes placa de Glatzel e tempo de água na boca. Avaliaram-se os fatores socioeconômicos mediante entrevista com formulário contendo 9 perguntas. A análise estatística envolveu os testes Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fischer; o nível de significância foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de respiração oral foi de 55.2%, mais elevada no sexo feminino (57,7% e na escola pública (67,2%. A falta de assistência médica (62%, o menor uso de medicamentos (56,6%, pais com escolaridade até 1º grau incompleto, pais separados (66%, escolares que não moravam com os pais (68,7% e nas residências de um quarto (72%, o percentual da respiração oral foi mais elevado. Apenas o tipo de escola apresentou associação significativa com o padrão de respiração. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de respiração oral foi elevada, sem diferenças entre os sexos e faixa etária. Com exceção do tipo de escola, não houve associação significativa entre as variáveis socioeconômicas e o padrão de respiração.Breathing represents one of the vital functions of the organism, and its unbalance causes some series of alterations in several organs and systems. AIM: Verify the influence of socio-economic and demographic factors in determining breathing patterns. Study design: cross-sectional. MATERIALS AND METHODS: there were 143 students in the sample, with ages ranging from 9 and 10 years, from two schools, public and private, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Breathing patterns were established through two tests: Glatzel Plate (Steam and water time in the mouth. Socio-economic factors were evaluated through questionnaires with nine questions each. Statistics were carried out by means of the Chi-Squared test or Fisher’s Exact test and the significance level used was of 5%. RESULTS: Oral breathing prevalence was of 55.2%, higher among females (57.7% and in public schools (67.2%.Lack of medical care (62%, less use of medications (56.6%, parents with educational levels lower than high school, divorced parents (66%, students that do not live with their parents (68.7% and homes with only one room (72%, in all of those situations, oral breathing signs were more prevalent. Only school type had significant association with the breathing pattern. CONCLUSION: High levels of oral breathing without differences concerning gender and age. With the exception of school type, there was no association between breathing pattern and socio-economic factors.

  10. Effect of Socio-economic Conditions on Lipid Composition of Breast Milk of Bangladeshi Urban Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yearul Kabir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between socio-economic status and lipid composition in breast milk of 97 Bangladeshi urban mothers was investigated. Study subjects were aged 18-35 years and were selected randomly from three clinics of Dhaka (capital city of Bangladesh. An appropriate questionnaire was developed to obtain information on health condition of mothers and infants, age, height and weight of both the mothers and their infants, educational qualification of both mother and the father, family income, family size, housing condition, source of drinking water, sanitation and monthly expenditure for food. Mothers from the higher family income group showed significantly higher value of total lipid, triacylglycerol, cholesterol and phospholipid in their breast milk. Mothers belonging to the upper age group (30-35 years, had significantly lower lipid values. Mother`s as well as father`s education also affects the lipid composition of breast milk, because educated mothers and educated fathers are more concerned about proper care during pregnancy and lactation. Also educational level is related with family income. These findings suggest that family income and family education makes a significant contribution to higher lipid content in breast milk of urban mothers in Bangladesh.

  11. How uncertainty in socio-economic variables affects large-scale transport model forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2015-01-01

    A strategic task assigned to large-scale transport models is to forecast the demand for transport over long periods of time to assess transport projects. However, by modelling complex systems transport models have an inherent uncertainty which increases over time. As a consequence, the longer the period forecasted the less reliable is the forecasted model output. Describing uncertainty propagation patterns over time is therefore important in order to provide complete information to the decision makers. Among the existing literature only few studies analyze uncertainty propagation patterns over time, especially with respect to large-scale transport models. The study described in this paper contributes to fill the gap by investigating the effects of uncertainty in socio-economic variables growth rate projections on large-scale transport model forecasts, using the Danish National Transport Model as a case study. Population, gross domestic product, employment, and fuel prices were analyzed to quantify their uncertainty for 5 year intervals over a period of 15 years. The output of this procedure was then used to implement model sensitivity tests. The results from the model sensitivity tests showed how the model output uncertainty grows over time, reflecting the increase in the uncertainty of the model variables. Furthermore, the resulting uncertainty temporal pattern was neither linear nor similar for the different model outputs investigated. This highlights the importance of investigating uncertainty for different model outputs, and also that a dynamic approach is required whenever the model has to provide mid-long time period forecasts.

  12. Socio-Economic Welfare Policies For The Rehabilitation Of Devadasis In Belgaum District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deveraj. A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Devadasi practice is an ancient practice which offers girls to the deities in Hindu temples. The girls should not marry and hence become prey for social evils such as forced prostitution. Realizing the disadvantages of Devadasi practice, the Government of Karnataka passed legislation the Karnataka Devadasi Act in 1982 to prohibit Devadasi practice. Still due to social beliefs, the practice still prevailed in Karnataka, especially in the temples of Renuka Yellamma Temples of Saundatti and Chandragutti. The Government of Karnataka also formulated rehabilitation and welfare schemes for the overall socio-economic development of Devadasis. The present study is a survey of 400 devadasis in Saundatti taluka of Belgaum district and the information was collected from interview schedule. It is suggested from the study that there is need for more social welfare and rehabilitation schemes for devadasis and there is also need to increase awareness of the Devadasis on the rehabilitation and social welfare schemes, so as to get the benefits from the same.

  13. Socio-economic perspectives on shifting cultivation landscapes in Northern Laos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinimann, Andreas; Hett, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    Despite the rapid agricultural transition that has occurred in the past decade, shifting cultivation remains a widespread agricultural practice in the northern uplands of Lao PDR. Little information is available on the basic socio-economic situation and respective possible patterns in shifting cultivation landscapes on a regional level. On the basis of a recent approximation of the extent of shifting cultivation landscapes for two time periods and disaggregated village level census data, this paper characterizes these landscapes in terms of key socioeconomic parameters for the whole of northern Laos. Results showed that over 550,000 people live in shifting cultivation regions. The poverty rate of this population of 46.5 % is considerably higher than the national rural rate. Most shifting cultivation landscapes are located in remote locations and a high share of the population comprises ethnic minorities, pointing to multi-dimensional marginality of these areas. We discuss whether economic growth and increasedmarket accessibility are sufficient to lift these landscapes out of poverty.

  14. The implications of federalism and decentralisation on socio-economic conditions in Ethiopia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P, Zimmermann-Steinhart; Y, Bekele.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we wil [...] l show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data. In both cases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits. The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.

  15. Alternative futures for societal change: The Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    Deciding how best to respond to the challenge of climate change requires anticipating not only how climate might change in the future, but how society might change as well. Changes in population and economic growth, innovation, technological development, governance, culture, and lifestyle all will affect the energy use and land use that drive climate change, as well as society's capacity to reduce emissions or adapt to climate change impacts. Developing a set of alternative scenarios for societal development is one way to capture and explore the uncertainty in future conditions. The climate change research community has produced a new set of five such scenarios, called Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs), that is intended to underpin scientific studies, assessments, and policy dialogues for the next decade or more. The SSPs include both qualitative narratives and quantitative projections of key elements such as population, economic growth, urbanization, and educational attainment. They are designed to span a wide range of future conditions in terms of the challenges they present to both adaptation and mitigation. The SSPs are one component of a larger scenario framework which also includes a set of radiative forcing pathways and climate model simulations based on them. Alternative climate futures will be integrated with the alternative societal futures represented by the SSPs to investigate climate change impacts as well as mitigation and adaptation response options.

  16. Socio-Economic Determinants of Health in Croatia: Insights from Four Cross-Sectional Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šime Smoli?

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO sees health as a resource for everyday life, a fundamental human right and, especially important for economists and social scientists, an essential component of the economic and social development of every modern society. Health determinants which could lead to better health outcomes can arise from both the social and economic side. The main goal of this paper is to exploit several cross-sectional socio-economic data sets available in Croatia to examine the extent to which individual health is related to certain demographic and economic determinants. In explaining health determinants, self-assessed health (SAH was used as a measure of health on the individual level, and the proportional odds model was applied for the ordinal outcome variable. Controlling for age and other socio-demographic characteristics, education was seen as the single most important determinant of better health. Poor health on the individual level is probably highly correlated with low education and lowest income levels. Public policy-makers should be aware that measures targeted at vulnerable population subgroups might be effective at improving health in the population. However, the identification of a causal relationship between health outcome and its determinants is of crucial importance in the design of future policies.

  17. Mapping the Socio-Economic and Ecological Resilience of Japanese Coral Reefscapes across a Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Collin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shallow coral reefs threatened by climate change must be spatio-temporally analyzed in terms of their protection of coastal human populations. This study combines Japanese spatio-temporal gradients of population/asset and coral buffering exposure to stress-inducing and stress-mitigating factors so that the socio-economic and ecological (SEE resilience tied to coral reefscapes can be regionally mapped (1200 km at a fine resolution (1 arcsec over a decade (11 years. Fuzzy logic was employed to associated environmental factors based on the related population/asset/coral buffering responses, as found in the literature. Once the factors were weighted according to their resilience contributions, temporally static patterns were evident: (1 a negative correlation occurs between coral buffering resilience and latitude; (2 the least resilient islands are low-lying, deprived of wide reef barriers, and located on the eastern and southern boundaries of the Nansei archipelago; (3 the southwestern-most, middle and northeastern-most islands have the same SEE resilience; and (4 Sekisei Lagoon islands have a very high coral buffering resilience. To overcome uncertainty, future studies should focus on the socio-ecological adaptive capacity, fine-scale ecological processes (such as coral and fish functional groups and the prediction of the flood risks in the coming decades.

  18. Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Singh Parihar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

  19. The socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polish cities after 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy J. Parysek

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polish cities after 1989. The Polish changes reached the structures of the three basic subsystems of the state: political (power, social (society, and economic (the economy. The systemic transformation that has taken place in Poland after 1989 is most readily visible in towns, although it was introduced in the country as a whole. For the development and transforma-tion of towns, the most important were the introduction of local government structures and the market model of the economy. The restitution of local government has ensured towns an authentic manager authorised to perform his function by the local community. The in-troduction of the market model to the economy has resulted in its privatisation and the ap-pearance of enterprise and competition. Towns, especially the biggest cities, have become attractive locations for investment. Cities with a balanced economic structure and well-de-veloped infrastructure had much better chances for growth to start with. Unfortunately, the transformation period has also had some detrimental effects, the most important being un-employment and all kinds of social deviance. However, Polish cities are certainly different today and resemble Western cities to a greater extent than did the so-called socialist towns built along theoretically beautiful but practically ineffectual ideological lines.

  20. Crises and Collective Socio-Economic Phenomena: Simple Models and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Financial and economic history is strewn with bubbles and crashes, booms and busts, crises and upheavals of all sorts. Understanding the origin of these events is arguably one of the most important problems in economic theory. In this paper, we review recent efforts to include heterogeneities and interactions in models of decision. We argue that the so-called Random Field Ising model ( rfim) provides a unifying framework to account for many collective socio-economic phenomena that lead to sudden ruptures and crises. We discuss different models that can capture potentially destabilizing self-referential feedback loops, induced either by herding, i.e. reference to peers, or trending, i.e. reference to the past, and that account for some of the phenomenology missing in the standard models. We discuss some empirically testable predictions of these models, for example robust signatures of rfim-like herding effects, or the logarithmic decay of spatial correlations of voting patterns. One of the most striking result, inspired by statistical physics methods, is that Adam Smith's invisible hand can fail badly at solving simple coordination problems. We also insist on the issue of time-scales, that can be extremely long in some cases, and prevent socially optimal equilibria from being reached. As a theoretical challenge, the study of so-called "detailed-balance" violating decision rules is needed to decide whether conclusions based on current models (that all assume detailed-balance) are indeed robust and generic.

  1. Crises and collective socio-economic phenomena: cartoon models and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Financial and economic history is strewn with bubbles and crashes, booms and busts, crises and upheavals of all sorts. Understanding the origin of these events is arguably one of the most important problems in economic theory. In this paper, we review recent efforts to include heterogeneities and interactions in models of decision. We argue that the Random Field Ising model (RFIM) indeed provides a unifying framework to account for many collective socio-economic phenomena that lead to sudden ruptures and crises. We discuss different models that can capture potentially destabilising self-referential feedback loops, induced either by herding, i.e. reference to the peers, or trending, i.e. reference to the past, and account for some of the phenomenology missing in the standard models. We discuss some empirically testable predictions of these models, for example robust signatures of RFIM-like herding effects, or the logarithmic decay of spatial correlations of voting patterns. One of the most striking result, ins...

  2. Unaccompanied minor refugees and the protection of their socio-economic rights under human rights law

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sarah, Swart.

    Full Text Available This paper reflects the results of a study, the main objective of which was to investigate the practical treatment of unaccompanied minor refugees in Ghana and South Africa, and to explore whether such treatment is in accordance with existing international norms and standards for the protection of r [...] efugee children. The study focused on the realisation of children's socio-economic rights in order to measure treatment. The paper seeks to address the obstacles which prevent the proper treatment of unaccompanied minor refugees, and to make recommendations as to how the international community can better regulate the treatment of unaccompanied minor refugees. In essence, this paper aims to investigate whether there is a discrepancy between the rights of child refugees acknowledged in international law, and the situation of unaccompanied minor refugees in practice and, if so, how this can be remedied. The paper seeks to show, through the case studies of Ghana and South Africa, that unaccompanied minor refugees are, to a certain extent, lost in the system.

  3. Development of geothermal energy in the Gulf Coast: socio-economic, demographic, and political considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Williamson, J.K.; Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The institutional aspect of the study attempts to identify possible effects of geothermal research, development, and utilization on the area and its inhabitants in three chapters. Chapters I and II address key socio-economic and demographic variables. The initial chapter provides an overview of the area where the resource is located. Major data are presented that can be used to establish a baseline description of the region for comparison over time and to delineate crucial area for future study with regard to geothermal development. The chapter highlights some of the variables that reflect the cultural nature of the Gulf Coast, its social characteristics, labor force, and service in an attempt to delineate possible problems with and barriers to the development of geothermal energy in the region. The following chapter focuses on the local impacts of geothermal wells and power-generating facilities using data on such variables as size and nature of construction and operating crews. Data are summarized for the areas studied. A flow chart is utilized to describe research that is needed in order to exploit the resource as quickly and effectively as possible. Areas of interface among various parts of the research that will include exchange of data between the social-cultural group and the institutional, legal, environmental, and resource utilization groups are identified. (MCW)

  4. Socio-economic aspects of water conservation with reference to Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve optimum water conservation and improved water use efficiency, a water conservation enabling environment is needed that includes: 1. Education and training, improvement of management systems and public incentives: these measures allow increase from 20 to 30 % water resources .2. irrigation management transfer to users, management of supply infrastructure and an optimised resource policy to arrive at 60 to 80 % of the potential; 3. further research of the public and the private sector to utilise fully the whole available potential. Pakistan's water-resources have been diminishing at an alarming rate, due to further increase of population, per capita water availability in Pakistan goes down below 1,000 m/sup 3/, that means Pakistan is nearing conditions of chronic water-stress. The quality of water is also deteriorating with time. To improve the situation, potential of socio economic factors can be mobilized like population stabilization, community involvement, fair water distribution, application of water harvesting and water conservation at the community level, application of non- structural solutions, for example pricing of water, to develop water management institutions, public education and awareness are essential. Selection of appropriate low cost technology is a pre-requisite for widespread project implementation, planner should consider both traditional and modern technologies. The price of water determines largely the investments justified to avoid wagely the investments justified to avoid water losses. (author)

  5. Socio-economic and land cover changes analysis in a landscape with agricultural matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Viscosi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The research involved the application of CORINE Land Cover categories in order to analyse changes in land cover and in the socio-economic system over the last 50 years in Molise (Southern Italy. The boundaries of the study area corresponded to those of six local councils: Guglionesi, Montecilfone, Montenero di Bisaccia, Petacciato, San Giacomo degli Schiavoni and Termoli. It is an area which has undergone a great anthropic agricultural impact after the II World War, but, however, still has natural settings worth preserving, as can be seen by the presence of seven Sites of Community Interest (sensu “Habitat Directive” 92/43/EC. For the analyses of the land cover changes, geo-databases were consulted or specially constructed. The aerial photographs from GAI 1954-55 flight, appropriately georectified, and the aerial photograph ITA2000 and AGEA 2004 flights were adopted to draw up the land use/cover maps at a scale of 1.10.000.The study of vegetation was performed using the phytosociological method. In brief, the results show that the landscape of the study area has become more fragmented due mostly to effects of continuous human disturbances and agricultural improvement during the study period. Overall, the landscape is today characterised by the predominance of agricultural use and the sparse colonization of the natural vegetation, mainly by linear vegetational formations (mainly riparian woods.

  6. A Framework for Developing Indicators Linking Socio-Economic and Ecological Impacts of Water Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, L.; Game, E.; Calvache, A.; Moreno, P.; Morales, A.; Rivera, B.; Rodriguez, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Growing interest in the equity and sustainability of water funds and other investment in watershed services programs has spurred interest in evaluation of program impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being. Yet, programs often lack a systematic framework to select indicators that are both important to stakeholders and relevant to hypothesized program impact. To fill this gap, we developed a participatory indicator selection methodology and piloted it in Fondo Agua por La Vida y la Sostenibilidad in the East Cauca Valley Colombia. We started by linking program activities to anticipated ecological and socio-economic impacts through stakeholder developed results chains. Using results chains as the framework, we constructed fuzzy cognitive models to explore the relative impact of program activities on social and ecological attributes. To prioritize indicators to monitor, we combined our fuzzy modelling results with an assessment of the perceived importance of different attributes for stakeholders in the water fund. We used the selected indicators to design a monitoring program that will allow the water fund to track and communicate its impact over the long-term.

  7. Socio-Economic Development and Primary Energy Sources Substitution Towards Decarbonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessaleno Campos Devezas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Scanning the last 250 years, we can observe five great technological transformations that happened in the socio-eco-nomic development. On the other hand, there is a relationship between the socio-economic development and the substi-tution process of primary energy sources. Since the industrial revolution, there has been a smooth but growing substitu-tion among primary energy sources. First the switch from wood to coal, then this last one by oil and natural gas. These are non-solid fossils, which leads to a decrease of the carbonic intensity. These substitutions implied some important technological transformations. Bearing in mind a sustainable development of energy systems and using technological forecasting tolls, this study points out to the leadership of the alternative energies among the primary energy sources until 2050 - 2070. In this sense, even with the predictable overall increase of energy consumption, this study also shows that through the substitution dynamic it is possible not only to reduce the carbonic intensity, but also to reduce the car-bonic emission in absolute terms from 2040 - 2060 on.

  8. Organisational culture as a socio-economic phenomenon in the context of the modern management paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubin Aleksandr A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies cognitive component of the “organisational culture” category and marks our three groups of approaches to the aspect description of the studied category: aspects of the organisational culture formed by the control system; aspects of the organisational culture inherent in the controlled system; and universal aspects inherent in both control and controlled systems. The article provides the authors’ definition of the organisational culture as a complex element of the internal environment of the organisation that has certain phenomenological properties (synergy, dynamics, uniqueness, adaptability, mentality, hierarchy, aggregation, communicativeness and sociality; integrating spiritual, material, static and procedural elements with the aim of formation of a single management philosophy for ensuring external adaptation and efficient functioning of an enterprise. The article establishes the role and place of the organisational culture as a socio-economic phenomenon in the context of the modern management paradigm through specification of prerequisites of formation and development of the neo-classical concept of the organisational culture; features of the modern management paradigm; phenomenological properties of the culture; factors of influence upon the organisational culture and tendencies of development of the phenomenon of the national organisational culture.

  9. Socio-economic implications of climate change: Canadian climate impacts program study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of results of the Canadian Climate Impacts Program series of studies examining the socio-economic impacts of climate change. In the Great Lakes basin, climate change may impact on numerous economic sectors. Lower lake levels could result in increased dredging of ports and channels or reduced cargo loads. Lower lake levels added to increased use of water could result in a loss of 4,165 GWh of power generation for the Canadian hydro-electric generating stations on the Great Lakes. A warmer climate may lead to crop failures in the agricultural heartlands of Ontario, as the advantages of higher temperature may be offset by moisture stress. The downhill ski industry may be decimated in southern Ontario. Rising sea levels may cause increased risk of storm surges and river flooding in the coastal areas of Canada. A warmer climate would probably be beneficial to aquaculture and allow longer inshore fishing seasons. Costs to oil and gas exploration due to sea ice and icebergs would be practically eliminated. Results for the Praire provinces were mixed: one study concluded that impacts would be minimal while another predicted a moderate reduction in spring wheat potential. 24 refs., 1 fig

  10. Socio-Economic Status and the Structural Change of Dietary Intake in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakucs Zoltán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Typically, big changes in the economic system lead to alterations on families’ disposable income and thus on their spending for different types of products, including food. These may imply in the long run a structural modification of the population’s diet quality. After the fall of the socialist system, in the past two decades, Central and Eastern European countries, including Hungary, went through a profound and sometimes difficult transition of their political and economic systems, shifting from a centralized plan to an open-market economy, and, perhaps more importantly, the European Union integration. Economic change in lower-income and transitional economies of the world appears to coincide with increasing rapid social change. With respect to nutrition, there is evidence that these countries are changing their diets and that changes seem to happen at a faster pace than ever before (e.g. Ivanova et al., 2006. In this paper, we analyse the evolution of Hungarian dietary patterns based on socio-economic status (SES data between 1993 and 2007. Data allows defining and profiling several clusters based on aggregated consumption data, and then inspecting the influence of SES variables using OLS and multinomial logit estimations

  11. Socio-economic and psychological predictors of domestic greywater and rainwater collection: Evidence from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Anthony M.; Spash, Clive L.; Measham, Thomas G.

    2009-12-01

    SummaryThe importance of securing water supply necessitates that all options be explored. Research has indicated that demand on water catchments can be substantially decreased when a large proportion of households reuse greywater and/or install rainwater tanks. This paper reports on an internet survey completed by 354 households residing in the Australian Capital Territory and surrounding regions. Statistical analyses examined the relationship between socio-economic and psychological variables and the likelihood of the garden being irrigated with greywater and/or rainwater. The results show income, gender, age and education could not differentiate residents who were irrigating their garden with water from a tank from residents who were not. Residents who used tank water on their gardens had a higher self-reported understanding of a range of water supply options. Female participants and lower income residents were more likely to use greywater on their garden. Participants who irrigated the garden with greywater were more likely to judge various other water collection and recycling proposals as being appropriate. General concerns about water collection and reuse risks were not found to predict which households used tank water and/or greywater on their garden.

  12. Introduction and Assessment of a Socio-Economic Mine Closure Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Moura Xavier

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and assesses the Socio-Economic Mine Closure Framework. The Framework assessment included an online survey distributed to 151 experts, and a field investigation, conducted in Mongolia, in which the local community was invited to participate. A key objective of the case-study was to identify and assess the community investment initiatives implemented by a mining company. The fieldwork also aimed to assess the perceptions of local residents about the success of these initiatives. The study indicates that it would be relevant, timely and appropriate for the mining industry to adopt the proposed Framework. The case-study analysis found that several initiatives were implemented and supported by the company, but that the company’s relationship to local governments was deemed to be too close and as such, was found to overshadow many of its initiatives. This situation resulted in a lack of awareness on the part of local residents regarding the community investments made by the company. Some of the programs available to the community, such as the microcredit program, would need to be reviewed because of a lack of transparency and limited accessibility. Furthermore, local residents expect a greater focus on the development of small businesses and job creation. The engagement and participation of local residents is limited, andlocal residents want to have a say in the decisions that affect the community.

  13. Canine parvovirus in Australia: the role of socio-economic factors in disease clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, S; Norris, J M; Kelman, M; Ward, M P

    2012-08-01

    To identify clusters of canine parvoviral related disease occurring in Australia during 2010 and investigate the role of socio-economic factors contributing to these clusters, reported cases of canine parvovirus were extracted from an on-line disease surveillance system. Reported residential postcode was used to locate cases, and clusters were identified using a scan statistic. Cases included in clusters were compared to those not included in such clusters with respect to human socioeconomic factors (postcode area relative socioeconomic disadvantage, economic resources, education and occupation) and dog factors (neuter status, breed, age, gender, vaccination status). During 2010, there were 1187 cases of canine parvovirus reported. Nineteen significant (P0.05) was found between cases reported from cluster postcodes and those not within clusters for dog age, gender, breed or vaccination status (although the latter needs to be interpreted with caution, since vaccination was absent in most of the cases). Further research is required to investigate the apparent association between indicators of poor socioeconomic status and clusters of reported canine parvovirus diseases; however these initial findings may be useful for developing geographically- and temporally-targeted prevention and disease control programs. PMID:22398131

  14. Are good ideas enough?: The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Núria, Vàzquez-Salat.

    Full Text Available In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors [...] on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.

  15. Socio-economic impacts of energy crops for heat generation in Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy is considered to be an attractive option mainly due to driving forces of an environmental nature (e.g. climate change and sustainability issues). This is particularly the case for energy crops, which show higher productivity per land unit than their conventional counterparts. In addition, by comparison, such crops are more homogeneous in terms of their physical and chemical characteristics than residual resources that are often described as the biomass resource of the future. However, despite the long-term research and the considerable efforts to promote them, implementation is still rather slow across Europe. In this paper, two perennial energy crops, cardoon and giant reed, are evaluated in Rodopi, northern Greece, as alternative land use, through comparative financial appraisal with the main conventional crops. Based on the output of this analysis, the breakeven for the two energy crops is defined and an economic and socio-economic evaluation of a biomass district heating system is conducted. Results prove that energy crops can be attractive alternatives if they are properly integrated into existing agricultural activities and complement the current cropping options. As such, they provide raw material for local heat applications, thus resulting in increased income for the region and an increase in the number of jobs

  16. Socio-economic impacts of energy crops for heat generation in Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy is considered to be an attractive option mainly due to driving forces of an environmental nature (e.g. climate change and sustainability issues). This is particularly the case for energy crops, which show higher productivity per land unit than their conventional counterparts. In addition, by comparison, such crops are more homogeneous in terms of their physical and chemical characteristics than residual resources that are often described as the biomass resource of the future. However, despite the long-term research and the considerable efforts to promote them, implementation is still rather slow across Europe. In this paper, two perennial energy crops, cardoon and giant reed, are evaluated in Rodopi, northern Greece, as alternative land use, through comparative financial appraisal with the main conventional crops. Based on the output of this analysis, the breakeven for the two energy crops is defined and an economic and socio-economic evaluation of a biomass district heating system is conducted. Results prove that energy crops can be attractive alternatives if they are properly integrated into existing agricultural activities and complement the current cropping options. As such, they provide raw material for local heat applications, thus resulting in increased income for the region and an increase in the number of jobs. (author)

  17. Bushfires in the Krachi District: the Socio-Economic and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusimi, J. M.; Appati, J. W.

    2012-07-01

    Bushfires are becoming one of the environmental challenges confronting Ghana and increasingly it has become difficult for the Government to control it because this activity is deeply rooted in the socio-cultural and economic systems of the people. The effects of bushfire on rural livelihoods and on the ecosystem in Ghana are extensive and damaging. Bushfires have accelerated environmental degradation especially in the fragile savannah ecosystem, yet there is very little in the form of public education, published data and information concerning the frequency, intensity, duration and effects of bushfire on the environment and human welfare in Ghana. The study did a change detection of biomass cover using pre and post fire normalized burnt ratio of Landsat TM+ imageries of 2002 and 2003 to determine fire severity on vegetative cover. The socio-economic impact of this disaster was collected using social survey approaches such as interviews and focus group meetings. Some of the consequences of the bushfire include the burning of food stuffs, houses as well as domestic animals. The environmental impacts of these bushfires have been very devastating and these involve the lost of biodiversity (plants and animals) and the depletion of organic matter of the soil thus impoverishing the soils. The research found out that, the continuous prevalence of this activity was due to the laxity in the implementation of bye-laws regulating bushfire burning due to the lack of personnel and logistics to state agencies in the District to combat the problem.

  18. The socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polish cities after 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy J. Parysek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polishcities after 1989. The Polish changes reached the structures of the three basic subsystems ofthe state: political (power, social (society, and economic (the economy. The systemictransformation that has taken place in Poland after 1989 is most readily visible in towns,although it was introduced in the country as a whole. For the development and transformationof towns, the most important were the introduction of local government structures andthe market model of the economy. The restitution of local government has ensured townsan authentic manager authorised to perform his function by the local community. The introductionof the market model to the economy has resulted in its privatisation and the appearanceof enterprise and competition. Towns, especially the biggest cities, have becomeattractive locations for investment. Cities with a balanced economic structure and well-developedinfrastructure had much better chances for growth to start with. Unfortunately, thetransformation period has also had some detrimental effects, the most important being unemploymentand all kinds of social deviance. However, Polish cities are certainly differenttoday and resemble Western cities to a greater extent than did the so-called socialist townsbuilt along theoretically beautiful but practically ineffectual ideological lines.

  19. Socio-cultural and socio-economic features of second homes in Rosendal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Anette

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Second homes have seen increased research interest over the last decade. On the whole, these investigations have mainly been understood in the spatial context of the developed North. Second homes have only recently been seen as a role player in the changing economic spatialities of small town geographies in South Africa. This growing scholarship on second homes has, however, been less concerned with the social impacts of the phenomenon. The investigation is set against the argument that second homes have social impacts on the immediate and surrounding areas in which they are situated. This investigation also demonstrates that second homes are phenomena with which not only the elite engage but a range of different socio-economic cohorts, including the poor. The social impacts of second homes in this investigation are shown to vary along race and class lines. Against the backdrop that second homes are relevant to very large parts of South African society, the social impacts associated with second homes need to be taken into account in future development planning in South Africa.

  20. Socio-economic drivers of large urban biomass cogeneration: Sustainable energy supply for Austria's capital Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a detailed case study on Austria's by far largest biomass cogeneration plant. The plant is located in the city of Vienna and scheduled to be put into operation by mid-2006. Given the urban location of the plant and its significant biomass fuel input requirements, fuel delivery logistics play an important role-not only from an economic point of view, but also in relation to supply security and environmental impact. We describe and analyse the history of the project, putting particular emphasis on the main driving forces and actors behind the entire project development process. From this analysis we deduce the following main socio-economic drivers and success factors for the realisation of large bioenergy projects in urban settings: (1) a critical mass of actors; (2) a priori political consensus; (3) the existence of a problem (and problem awareness) that calls for decisive steps to be taken; (4) institutional innovation and changes in the mindset of the main decision makers; (5) favourable economic conditions; (6) change agents that are actively engaged from an early stage of development; (7) intra-firm supporters at different hierarchical levels and from different departments; and (8) targeted study tours that help to reduce uncertainty, to enable leapfrogging in project planning and design, and to build up confidence in the project's feasibility and chance of success