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Associations with early-life socio-economic position in adult DNA methylation  

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Background Disadvantaged socio-economic position (SEP) in childhood is associated with increased adult mortality and morbidity. We aimed to establish whether childhood SEP was associated with differential methylation of adult DNA.

2012-01-01

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The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems to apply for girls more than for boys and for parental occupation more than family affluence. For future studies it might be important to look at the effects of socio-economic status within the context of other peer, family and school related factors in order to assess to what extent those factors might mediate the effects of social class background.

Leppin Anja

2006-11-01

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Energy density of the Scottish diet estimated from food purchase data: relationship with socio-economic position and dietary targets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Frequent consumption of energy-dense foods has been strongly implicated in the global increase of obesity. The World Cancer Research Fund suggests a population-level energy density (ED) goal for diets of 523 kJ/100 g (125 kcal/100 g) as desirable for reducing weight gain and related co-morbidities. However, there is limited information about the ED of diets of contemporary populations. The aims of the present study were to (1) estimate the mean ED of the Scottish diet, (2) assess differences in ED over time by socio-economic position, by household (HH) composition and for HH meeting dietary targets for fat and fruit and vegetables, and (3) assess the relationship between ED and the consumption of foods and nutrients, which are indicative of diet quality. ED of the diet was estimated from food (including milk) from UK food purchase survey data. The average ED of the Scottish diet was estimated as 718 kJ/100 g with no change between the survey periods 2001 and 2009. Individuals living in the most deprived areas had a higher mean ED than those living in the least deprived areas (737 v. 696 kJ/100 g). Single-parent HH had the highest mean ED (765 kJ/100 g) of all the HH surveyed. The mean ED of HH achieving dietary targets for fat and fruit and vegetables was 576 kJ/100 g compared with 731 kJ/100 g for non-achievers. HH within the lowest quintile of ED were, on average, closest to meeting most dietary guidelines. Food purchase data can be used to monitor the quality of the diet in terms of dietary ED of the population and subgroups defined by an area-based measure of socio-economic status. PMID:24804721

Barton, Karen L; Wrieden, Wendy L; Sherriff, Andrea; Armstrong, Julie; Anderson, Annie S

2014-07-01

4

Low vigorous physical activity at ages 15, 19 and 27 : childhood socio-economic position modifies the tracking pattern  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study examines (i) if the level of vigorous physical activity (VPA) at age 15 predicts low VPA at ages 19 and 27 and (ii) whether the observed prediction pattern differs by childhood socio-economic position (SEP). In this way, prediction analyses are applied to study tracking behaviour.

Suppli, Camilla Hiul; Due, Pernille

2013-01-01

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A STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PARENTAL EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS IN MEDICAL COLLEGE BHAVNGAR  

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Full Text Available Carrier selection is one of the important major question in student life. Various factors affects individual’s carrier selection. Among various factors socioeconomic status and parental educational background is most important, which affects student’s carrier selection. More than student’s interest in particular field for higher education he should be affordable for necessary money required as well he should have proper guidance and inspiration for higher education. Primary guidance of students starts at home so if parents are highly qualified in education, student can get good guidance and motivation at home. In present study we tried to evaluate Socio-economic and Parental educational background of Medical students. Study was conducted in first year medical students of Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar. Students were given objective questionnaire regarding information like their native place whether in urban or rural area, income of their parents and educational level of their parents. Data was compiled and analyzed. It was observed that students from good socio-economical and high parental educational background have good chances to get admission in good professional courses. Schools in rural area should be upgraded and this students should provide necessary help and guidance to meet their needs.

Ghuntla Tejas P.

2012-09-01

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Issues in the construction of wealth indices for the measurement of socio-economic position in low-income countries  

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Abstract Background Epidemiological studies often require measures of socio-economic position (SEP). The application of principal components analysis (PCA) to data on asset-ownership is one popular approach to household SEP measurement. Proponents suggest that the approach provides a rational method for weighting asset data in a single indicator, captures the most important aspect of SEP for health studies, and is based on data that are readily available and/or simple to coll...

Howe Laura D; Hargreaves James R; Ra, Huttly Sharon

2008-01-01

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Low socio-economic position is associated with poor social networks and social support: results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study  

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Abstract Background Social networks and social support are supposed to contribute to the development of unequal health within populations. However, little is known about their socio-economic distribution. In this study, we explore this distribution. Methods This study analyses the association of two indicators of socio-economic position, education and income, with different measures of social networks and support. Cross-sectional data have been derived from the ...

Weyers Simone; Dragano Nico; Möbus Susanne; Beck Eva-Maria; Stang Andreas; Möhlenkamp Stephan; Jöckel Karl; Erbel Raimund; Siegrist Johannes

2008-01-01

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Life course socio-economic position and quality of life in adulthood: a systematic review of life course models  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A relationship between current socio-economic position and subjective quality of life has been demonstrated, using wellbeing, life and needs satisfaction approaches. Less is known regarding the influence of different life course socio-economic trajectories on later quality of life. Several conceptual models have been proposed to help explain potential life course effects on health, including accumulation, latent, pathway and social mobility models. This systematic review aimed to assess whether evidence supported an overall relationship between life course socio-economic position and quality of life during adulthood and if so, whether there was support for one or more life course models. Methods A review protocol was developed detailing explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, search terms, data extraction items and quality appraisal procedures. Literature searches were performed in 12 electronic databases during January 2012 and the references and citations of included articles were checked for additional relevant articles. Narrative synthesis was used to analyze extracted data and studies were categorized based on the life course model analyzed. Results Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria and used data from 10 datasets and five countries. Study quality varied and heterogeneity between studies was high. Seven studies assessed social mobility models, five assessed the latent model, two assessed the pathway model and three tested the accumulation model. Evidence indicated an overall relationship, but mixed results were found for each life course model. Some evidence was found to support the latent model among women, but not men. Social mobility models were supported in some studies, but overall evidence suggested little to no effect. Few studies addressed accumulation and pathway effects and study heterogeneity limited synthesis. Conclusions To improve potential for synthesis in this area, future research should aim to increase study comparability. Recommendations include testing all life course models within individual studies and the use of multiple measures of socio-economic position and quality of life. Comparable cross-national data would be beneficial to enable investigation of between-country differences.

Niedzwiedz Claire L

2012-08-01

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Implications of Parents’ Socio-Economic Status in the Choice of English Language Learning Strategies among Nigeria’s Secondary School Students  

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Full Text Available Studies have indicated that, less affluent families are less likely to have the financial and or time availability to provide their children with academic support compared to affluent families.This study investigated the relationship between Language Learning Strategies used by secondary school students in Nigeria and their Parents Socio-economic Status. The data for this research was provided by 559 respondents who study English as a second language and belonging to three varied socio-economic affiliations. A modified Oxford Study Inventory of Language Learning (SILL questionnaire was used as the measurement instrument. Analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 16.0. This was done to assess the strategies employed and to understand their mean frequencies. A one-way ANOVA was conducted to determine the relationship between language learning strategy choice and socio-economic status of student’s parents. The study found that, respondents highly used Language Learning Strategy (LLS while learning English and within closely related frequency level. The study found significant relationship between socio-economic statuses of parents of the learner in the choice of Cognitive, Metacognitive, Social, situational and religious Strategies and no significance in the learner choice of Memory and compensation strategies to learn English. Conclusively, the findings of the study has pedagogical implications for English Language teachers and curriculum designers that could assist in understanding the English language learning patterns of secondary school students in Nigeria.

Mallam Adamu Babikkoi

2014-07-01

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Secondary School Track Selection of Single - Parent Children Evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel  

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In present day Germany, one in seven children is raised in a single parent household. We investigate the effect of single parenthood on children’s educational attainment, measured by the school track at the age 14, using ordered probit models. We study whether the effect of living in single parenthood during early or late childhood differs. Finally, we ask whether the family effect operates through resources – fewer income and parental time available for the child –, or through adverse ...

Mahler, Philippe; Winkelmann, Rainer

2005-01-01

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Letter knowledge in parent-child conversations: differences between families differing in socio-economic status  

Science.gov (United States)

When formal literacy instruction begins, around the age of 5 or 6, children from families low in socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be less prepared than children from families of higher SES. The goal of our study is to explore one route through which SES may influence children's early literacy skills: informal conversations about letters. The study builds on previous studies (Robins and Treiman, 2009; Robins et al., 2012, 2014) of parent–child conversations that show how U. S. parents and their young children talk about writing and provide preliminary evidence about similarities and differences in parent–child conversations as a function of SES. Focusing on parents and children aged three to five, we conducted five separate analyses of these conversations, asking whether and how family SES influences the previously established patterns. Although we found talk about letters in both upper and lower SES families, there were differences in the nature of these conversations. The proportion of letter talk utterances that were questions was lower in lower SES families and, of all the letter names that lower SES families talked about, more of them were uttered in isolation rather than in sequences. Lower SES families were especially likely to associate letters with the child's name, and they placed more emphasis on sequences in alphabetic order. We found no SES differences in the factors that influenced use of particular letter names (monograms), but there were SES differences in two-letter sequences (digrams). Focusing on the alphabet and on associations between the child's name and the letters within it may help to interest the child in literacy activities, but they many not be very informative about the relationship between letters and words in general. Understanding the patterns in parent–child conversations about letters is an important first step for exploring their contribution to children's early literacy skills and school readiness.

Robins, Sarah; Ghosh, Dina; Rosales, Nicole; Treiman, Rebecca

2014-01-01

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THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROMANIAN PARENTS’ EMIGRATION ON THEIR CHILDREN’S DESTINY  

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Full Text Available “Mother has been gone for six months to work abroad for me, so that I can have a better future. I miss her every day. Sometimes I tell myself it’s just a dream and when I wake up mother will be by my side. Dream or reality? Reality or dream? (A sixteen – years old adolescent. The paper shows that are general factors of emigration after post revolutionary period in Romania and also present few aspects of the migration phenomenon from this country and after that it is presenting the social and economic effects of Romanian parents emigration on their children`s destiny.

FELICIA ANDRIONI

2011-01-01

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Socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality in low- and middle-income countries: A review of the international evidence  

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Introduction: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the probability of dying in childhood is strongly related to the socio-economic position of the parents or household in which the child is born. This article reviews the evidence on the magnitude of socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality within LMICs, discusses possible causes and highlights entry points for intervention. Sources of data: Evidence on socio-economic inequalities in childhood mortality in LMICs is mostly bas...

Houweling, A. J.; Kunst, A. E.

2010-01-01

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The Effects of Parental Socio-Economic Status on Academic Performance of Students in Selected Schools in Edu Lga of Kwara State Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The relationship between home-based environment factors and the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools within a local government area in Kwara State is investigated. Samples were obtained with one hundred and eighty (180 students randomly selected from three secondary schools. The four factors that were examined and statistically analyses were: parental socio-economic background, parental educational background, parental educational qualification and students’ health statuses. Diverse statistical tests were performed on the various data collected to establish statistical significance of the effects on students’ academic performance. Parental socio-economic statuses and parental educational background did not have significance effect on the academic performance of the students. However, the parental educational qualification and health statuses of the students were identified tom have statistical significant effect o the academic performance of the students. The two variables that indicated significant influence do reflect nature of the student’ home environment and played notable role in the academic achievement of the respondents. Government could intervene to raise level of academic achievement among students in rural area.

Femi Ogunshola

2012-07-01

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Duplicating the success. From positive examples to socio-economic marketing strategies for greater energy efficieny in industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper presents the Project `Inter-disciplinary Analysis of Successful Implementation of Energy Efficiency in Industry, Commerce and Service`. Based on empirical case studies in Germany, Denmark, Austria and Switzerland, the interdisciplinary approach combines techno-economical variables from traditional barrier analyses with new socio-economic and socio-psychological aspects. It is the objective to gain a broader understanding of successful implementation processes in industrial enterprises. The positive examples include energy conservation measures within the context of individual success stories as well as efficiency programmes. The project examines the interdependencies between boundary conditions and the features and dynamics of the internal change processes analysed. It identifies main actors inside and outside of the company, the crucial determinants of their energy related behaviour, and influence factors suitable for energy policy use. The project derives first typical patterns of social innovation and organisational development. Generalizing the findings in order to contribute to holistic policy recommendations, the project puts emphasis on instruments of economic and social marketing strategies to promote cooperative energy efficiency initiatives. (au) 18 refs.

Ramesohl, S. [Wuppertal Inst. for Climate Environment Energy (Germany); Clases, C.; Prose, F. [Christian-Albrechts-Univ. Kiel, Inst.for Psychology (Germany)

1997-11-01

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Low socio-economic position is associated with poor social networks and social support: results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Social networks and social support are supposed to contribute to the development of unequal health within populations. However, little is known about their socio-economic distribution. In this study, we explore this distribution. Methods This study analyses the association of two indicators of socio-economic position, education and income, with different measures of social networks and support. Cross-sectional data have been derived from the baseline examination of an epidemiological cohort study of 4.814 middle aged urban inhabitants in Germany (Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were carried out to estimate the risk of having poor social networks and support across socio-economic groups. Results Socially disadvantaged persons more often report poor social networks and social support. In multivariate analyses, based on education, odds ratios range from 1.0 (highest education to 4.9 (lowest education in a graded way. Findings based on income show similar effects, ranging from 1.0 to 2.5. There is one exception: no association of SEP with close ties living nearby and regularly seen was observed. Conclusion Poor social networks and low social support are more frequent among socio-economically disadvantaged people. To some extent, this finding varies according to the indicator chosen to measure these social constructs.

Jöckel Karl

2008-05-01

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Social disparities in BMI trajectories across adulthood by gender, race/ethnicity and lifetime socio-economic position: 1986–2004  

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Background The prevalence of obesity and overweight is rapidly increasing in industrialized countries, with long-term health and social consequences. There is also a strong social patterning of obesity and overweight, with a higher prevalence among women, racial/ethnic minorities and those from a lower socio-economic position (SEP). Most of the existing work in this area, however, is based on cross-sectional data or single cohort studies. No national studies to date have examined how social d...

Clarke, Philippa; O’malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.

2009-01-01

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Issues in the construction of wealth indices for the measurement of socio-economic position in low-income countries  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies often require measures of socio-economic position (SEP. The application of principal components analysis (PCA to data on asset-ownership is one popular approach to household SEP measurement. Proponents suggest that the approach provides a rational method for weighting asset data in a single indicator, captures the most important aspect of SEP for health studies, and is based on data that are readily available and/or simple to collect. However, the use of PCA on asset data may not be the best approach to SEP measurement. There remains concern that this approach can obscure the meaning of the final index and is statistically inappropriate for use with discrete data. In addition, the choice of assets to include and the level of agreement between wealth indices and more conventional measures of SEP such as consumption expenditure remain unclear. We discuss these issues, illustrating our examples with data from the Malawi Integrated Household Survey 2004–5. Methods Wealth indices were constructed using the assets on which data are collected within Demographic and Health Surveys. Indices were constructed using five weighting methods: PCA, PCA using dichotomised versions of categorical variables, equal weights, weights equal to the inverse of the proportion of households owning the item, and Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Agreement between indices was assessed. Indices were compared with per capita consumption expenditure, and the difference in agreement assessed when different methods were used to adjust consumption expenditure for household size and composition. Results All indices demonstrated similarly modest agreement with consumption expenditure. The indices constructed using dichotomised data showed strong agreement with each other, as did the indices constructed using categorical data. Agreement was lower between indices using data coded in different ways. The level of agreement between wealth indices and consumption expenditure did not differ when different consumption equivalence scales were applied. Conclusion This study questions the appropriateness of wealth indices as proxies for consumption expenditure. The choice of data included had a greater influence on the wealth index than the method used to weight the data. Despite the limitations of PCA, alternative methods also all had disadvantages.

Huttly Sharon RA

2008-01-01

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Age-Period-Cohort Projections of Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality by Socio-Economic Position in a Rapidly Transitioning Chinese Population  

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Background:With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong.Methods:Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups) to 2020 in Hong Kong using Po...

2013-01-01

20

Note about socio-economic calculations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This note gives a short introduction of how to make socio-economic evaluations in connection with the teaching at the Centre for Traffic and Transport (CTT). It is not a manual for making socio-economic calculations in transport infrastructure projects â?? in this context we refer to the guidelines for socio-economic calculations within the transportation area (Ministry of Traffic, 2003). The note also explains the theory of socio-economic calculations â?? reference is here made to â?Road Infrastructure Planning â?? a Decision-oriented approachâ? (Leleur, 2000). Socio-economic evaluations of infrastructure projects are common and can be made at different levels of detail depending on the type of project and the decision making phase. A common feature of the different levels of detail of the socio-economic analysis is that the planned project(s) is compared with a basic; the basic alternative or a null alternative. In socio-economic evaluations it is intended to describe the effects in economic terms whenever possible (â?+â? is used when it is positive for the society, and â?â??â? when it is negative for the society). However, not all the effects for the society can be described in economic terms, and instead these effects must be described qualitatively. This note describes the socio-economic evaluation based on market prices and not factor prices which has been the tradition in Denmark till now. This is due to the recommendation from the Ministry of Transport to start using calculations based on market prices (Ministry of Transport, 2003). However, when following courses at CTT, it is recommended to use the factor price method which will be described in further details in a later chapter.

Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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A STUDY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PARENTAL EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS IN MEDICAL COLLEGE BHAVNGAR  

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Carrier selection is one of the important major question in student life. Various factors affects individual’s carrier selection. Among various factors socioeconomic status and parental educational background is most important, which affects student’s carrier selection. More than student’s interest in particular field for higher education he should be affordable for necessary money required as well he should have proper guidance and inspiration for higher education. Primary guidance of ...

2012-01-01

22

Parental Socio-Economic Status, Family Structure and Living Environment as Predictors of Violence against Children in Lagos, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study sets out to find out whether parental socioeconomic status, family structure and living environment are predictors of violence against children. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and the population of the study consisted of all the children in public primary schools and in junior secondary schools within Lagos state of Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was adopted for the study. Random samples of twenty five children were picked from each of the sixteen schools selected. This gives a total 400 participants that were used for the study. Experts in Sociology, measurement and evaluation certified the content validity of the questionnaire, while the co-efficient of the reliability of the four sections of the questionnaire were ascertained to be 0.63; 0.68; 0.66 and 0.73, respectively for sections A,B,C and D. Chi-square statistical tools was used to test the hypotheses formulated. Major findings of the study include the fact that parental socioeconomic status significantly influence violence against children, family structure significantly influence violence against children and that living environment also significantly influence violence against children. This study conclude by recommending among others that the Lagos State government should put machinery in motion to improve the poverty level of individuals living in Lagos State of Nigeria and should also make available social services and amenities that are supportive of family well being in order to avoid any form of violence against children.

A.A. Oni

2014-02-01

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Socio-economic position and adolescents' health in Italy: the role of the quality of social relations  

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BACKGROUND: The quality of social relations in adolescence is possibly one of the major determinants of habits that can influence the health of young people, and it may also be one of the mediators of the effect of social position on health. In this paper we propose to test these hypotheses for Italian adolescents, in order to suggest interventions aimed at improving their health. METHODS: The Italian data of the HBSC (Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children) survey 2001-02 have been analyse...

Cavallo, Franco; Lemma, Patrizia; Dalmasso, Paola; Borraccino, Alberto

2006-01-01

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Explaining the socio-economic gradient in child outcomes: The intergenerational transmission of cognitive skills  

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Papers in this volume and elsewhere consistently find a strong relationship between children's cognitive abilities and their parents' socio-economic position (SEP). Most studies seeking to explain the paths through which SEP affects cognitive skills suffer from a potentially serious omitted variables problem, as they are unable to account for an important determinant of children's cognitive abilities, namely parental cognitive ability. A range of econometric strategies have been employed to o...

2010-01-01

25

Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis in School aged Children of Iran : Role of Personal and Parents Related Socio- Economic and Educational Factors  

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Full Text Available Objective: Nocturnal enuresis is a common psychosocial concern for both parents and children. In the present study we have determined the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Iranian children and associated personal and familial factors with this problem.Methods: A cross sectional epidemiological study for detection of nocturnal enuresis prevalence rate and evaluation of associated familial and personal factors in elementary school children [7-11 years old] from Urmia were investigated. The subjects were selected by cluster sampling method.chi square test and logistic regression were used in univariate and multivariate respectively. Findings: Of the 1600 questionnaires were distributed, 918 [57%] were completed and included in the final analysis and rest of them were excluded which weren’t filled by parents and also out of our study age period range. The gender of the subjects was equally distributed [48.6% males and 51.4% females] approximately. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis was 18.7% [n=172] and prevalence of day time incontinence was 5.5% [n=51]. There was not significant gender difference between these two groups. Enuretics had crowded families, positive family history, low educational level of parents, not working of father, working of mother, single parent, fail school performance, positive history of urinary tract infection[UTI], not breast feeding, low birth weight to compare of non-enuretics. But unwilling pregnancy, neonatal icter, febrile convulsion, and mother smoking didn’t increase prevalence of this problem. 19.8% [n=31] of children with this problem had been seen by physician. Medication was the most preferred treatment option for enuresis [64.5%].Conclusion: Our results with enuresis prevalence and associated factors were comparable to other epidemiological studies from various countries. We found out Iranian families do not pay sufficient attention to their enuretic children.

Hashem Mahmoodzadeh

2013-02-01

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Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

2005-01-01

27

Cyberbullying Knows No Socio-Economic Bounds  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cyberbullying Knows No Socio-economic Bounds Study finds poor ... Preidt Friday, May 23, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Bullying Internet Safety Teen Health FRIDAY, May 23, 2014 ( ...

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Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country’s socio-economic status  

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We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS) on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relations...

Sharma, Gyan P.; Esler, Karen J.; Blignaut, James N.

2010-01-01

29

Socio-Economic and Demographic Determinants of Health Insurance Consumption  

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Full Text Available This study analyzed factors affecting health insurance consumption in Akwa Ibom State. Primary data were collected from a total of 60 national Health Insurance Scheme patrons and non patron. Data were collected on consumer’s education, income, age; religion, sex, marital status, access to health insurance information, occupation and family size. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. The socio-economic and demographic profile of the people revealed that most of the sampled NHIS patrons and non patrons were literate, engaged in meaningful employment, mostly married with average income, and were still in their active ages, and demonstrated meaningful exposure to insurance health information, which enable them to be or not to be active participants of the scheme. From the regression analysis, it was evident that all the variables except religion influenced insurance consumption positively whereas religion affects health insurance consumption negatively. Based on this, we recommended among other things, a re-alignment of health insurance marketing strategies with consumers socio-economic and demographic characteristics, as a measure to boost patronage.Key words: Socio-Economic; Demographic; Health insurance; Consumption

Nkanikpo Ibok Ibok

2012-10-01

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Understanding Suicide : A Socio-Economic Approach  

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This thesis uses a panel of Swedish counties over the years 1976-2007 to investigate the relationship between suicide and a range of socio-economic determinants. Moreover, the thesis is combining sociology and economics in order to understand the part of suicide that can be considered as rational. In addition, suicide is studied separately for total, male and female suicide rates. Contrary to prior research in the field of suicide, this study formally tests for gender differences. Applying a ...

Jasmin, Jusufbegovic; Johan, Ottoson

2011-01-01

31

Grid of Socio-economic Data  

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Full Text Available Evaluating effectively the loss caused by flood disaster has theoretical significance and practical value to flood-fighting, emergency rescues, flood relief and post-disaster compensation. However, the regional socioeconomic data affected by flood is usually collected in administrative region in the current flood loss evaluation method. The flood affected area and administrative area boundary do not necessarily match. The accuracy and practicability of flood loss evaluation based on loss rate are not soundly reliable. As an international IT research hotspot, Spatial Information Grid provides a new approach for flood damage assessment. This paper studies the flood loss assessment based on spatial information grid of socio-economic data. First, we establish a flood zone socio-economic data spatial information grid, including flood inundation zone special character mesh, grid cells use ranks number as the two key fields superimposed grid superimposed and flood damage assessment of spatial information grid. Followed by analysis of flood special character of the network division and attribute selection, considering the computational speed and convenience of other factors, taken rule quadrilateral partition method to divide the flood special character mesh, chose elevation, water depth, water velocity, water pollution degree of flood special Network personality attributes and based on GIS technology to generate a flood special character mesh. Then through the analysis of different disaster bodies submerged under different circumstances the loss difference, the loss rate is established based on flood damage assessment model. Finally, ArcEngine developed using C# and socio-economic data based on the realization of the spatial information grid flood damage assessment systems and use of heavy rainfall Poyang Lake county flood damage assessment data were calculated. The example shows that, based on socio-economic data for spatial information grid flood damage assessment methodology applied not only spatial information grid technology and flooded the area with flood damage to the region’s socio-economic data organically combined, so that it can quickly and accurately ground for inundated areas to assess the economic loss calculation. But how to select the appropriate grid scales and combining hydrological dynamics model enables more accurate flood special character network is the next step needs to continue to improve the research content.

Liu Xiaosheng

2013-01-01

32

Validity of two simple measures for estimating life-course socio-economic position in cross-sectional postal survey data in an older population: results from the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Since few cohorts encompass the whole life-course, many studies that measure socio-economic position (SEP across the life-course rely on participant recall of SEP measures from cross-sectional postal or interview surveys. It is also particularly important that SEP measures should be appropriate for the age of the population studied, as the level of missing data has been shown to increase in older people. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of recall of two SEP measures in older adults, age left school and longest job, by examining their validity in a general population postal survey in North Staffordshire, UK. Methods Sets of questions on education and longest job were included in a questionnaire at different stages of the study. All patients aged 50+ registered with three general practices were sent a baseline Health Questionnaire. 6?years later, 3410 responders were mailed a follow-up Health Questionnaire; a sub-sample of these participants took part in independent qualitative interviews. Validity was assessed by: percentage completion; internal percentage agreement within each set of questions; percentage agreement of qualitative and quantitative data for age left school and longest job; comparing recall of age left school with historical change in legal school leaving age; comparing frequency of pottery job titles with those in 1981 Census data for Stoke-on-Trent. Results The adjusted response to different stages of the study was 71–85%. Completion of questions was 83–98%. Internal agreement was 84–97% (education and 95–100% (longest job. Comparison of survey and interview data showed 86% agreement (± 1?year for age left school and 91% agreement for longest job. The change in age left school data concurred with the historical shift in legal school leaving age. 11% of job titles were pottery in NorStOP data and 15% in Stoke-on-Trent Census data. Conclusions The results from this study provide evidence for the accuracy of recall of two simple measures of SEP (age left school and longest job in a postal survey of older adults. Consistency with evidence from external datasets indicated the potential validity of these measures for studying life-course SEP in population surveys.

Lacey Rosie J

2012-06-01

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Indicators of socio-economic development  

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Full Text Available Work elaborates indicators witch refers to socio - economic development. In the first part of work it is stated indicators which different authors are used. These indicators are used in empirical researches and in some sources there are theoretically treated. In the second part it is with the aid of induction method performed separation of indicators. It is elaborated economics, social, technological and indicators of urbanization. In the part of economical indicators are elaborated: national income per capita, structure of activities, level of expending.

Adamovi? Jelka M.

2002-01-01

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Socio-economic expenditure impacts report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

2004-05-01

35

Inter-state Disparities in Socio-economic Development in North East Region of India  

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Full Text Available The level of development of north east region has been estimated with the help of composite index based on optimum combination of socio-economic indicators. The state-wise data for the year 2006 on forty eight indicators were used for seven states (seven sisters of the north east region of India. Fifteen indicators are directly concerned with agricultural development, nine indicators are directly concerned with livestock development, twelve indicators are concern with socio-economic development and the rest twelve indicators describe the level of development in infrastructural service sector. The level of development has been separately estimated for agricultural, livestock, infrastructure and overall socio-economic field. In case of socio-economic development, the Assam has been ranked first and Meghalaya is ranked last. Wide disparities were obtained in the level of development among different states. Positive Significant association is found between the Agriculture and Infrastructure fields. Literacy rate is also influencing the level of development in the positive direction. But the level of education, provision of health services, banking facilities, transport and communication system did not significantly influence the agricultural development. North eastern states require improvements of various dimensions in some of the indicators for enhancing the level of overall socio-economic development for unified balanced integration of curative, preventive and promotional health services.

Amod Sharma

2012-07-01

36

EDUCATION AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF MUSLIM WOMEN IN AZAMGARH DISTRICT OF EASTERN UTTAR PRADESH  

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Full Text Available Education is one of the most significant landmarks in women empowerment as it facilitates them to deal with their traditional responsibilities to bring positive changes in their lives. Education lessens Socio-economic disparities rampant in the society and acts as a way of improving the status of women within the family if the access to education is not denied to women on the pretext of tradition, religion or any other social norm. This research is designed to explore the relationship between access to education of Muslim women and their socio-economic status in Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh. The study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. With respect to the former, in-depth interviews were used. This Study however shows that Education has had a positive impact on socio economic status of Muslim women in the district.

Fauzia Islam

2014-04-01

37

Socio-economic aspects of commuting  

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Full Text Available This paper contemplates on relevant socio-economic factors which have influence on variability of the scope and directions of commuting flows, with special emphasis on situation in Serbia. Due to the need for balance between work and family life, this specific form of population’s mobility often represents alternative for migration. It also has numerous implications on both commuters and their households, places of residence and work and society in general. Effects of sex, marital status, education, occupation, size and structure of a household, as well as local community onto participation in commuting and time/distance of traveling to work have been discussed. The results revealed that, apart from economic factors, non-economic ones also have important role in commuting.

Luki? Vesna

2013-01-01

38

Reproduction, fertility and socio-economic development  

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Full Text Available The rapid growth of population in the third world countries specially in recent decades has posed an important social problem. There have been some attempts to propose solutions for this problem by scientists from various disciplines. However, it seems that an integrated approach calling for collaboration of various efforts can be more fruitful. In this work, we study the relation of women fertility and socio-economical indices along with government's programmed efforts in the third world countries. Employing a statistical approach, we show that development indices such as gross national product, infant mortality rate, education enrolment, and access to mass media along with government's programmed efforts are effective in reducing the fertility rate, but more important is the interaction between these factors. Thus, an integrated approach emerges as a better solution to population control

Meshkani Z

1997-07-01

39

SOCIO ECONOMIC SITUATION OF DALITS & INCLUSIVE GROWTH  

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Full Text Available Dalits are being punished by God for sins in a previous life. Under the religious codes of Hinduism a Dalit only hope is to be a good servant of the high caste and upon death and rebirth. They will be reincarnated a high caste. The Dalit status has often been historically associated with occupations regarded as ritually impure. Such as any involving leatherwork. Butchering or removal of rubbish animal carcasses and waste. Dalits work as manual labourers cleaning streets. Latrines, and Screws engaging in these activities were considered to be polluting to the individual and this pollution was considered contagious almost 90 percent of Dalits live in rural areas economic exploitation remains their most acute problem they are almost all marginal farmers or landless labourers. Large number of migrate to cities or to labour scarce rural areas in different parts of India. Many are in debt and are obliged to work off their debts as bonded labourers despite the fact that this practice was abolished by the law in 1976. Dalit workers have joined labour unions or made progress in gaining education and economic mobility. Many Dalit families have left rural areas to live in slums and on the pavements; Inclusive growth has become the buzzword in policy-spheres with recent phenomenon of rapid growth with characteristic patterns of exclusion. The social inequalities have raised questions about welfare approaches of Government planning, Employment generation programmes, social development, infrastructure, health-care and rural diversification very much important especially for the Dalits. This paper highlights the origin of Dalits, Need, socio-economic situation, Inclusive growth and the objectives of the paper is to know the socio-economic situation of dalits, employment generation programmes and various elements of inclusive growth.

Vikramsingh

2014-04-01

40

Breast cancer and socio-economic factors  

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Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW; Gross domestic product (GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $; computed tomography (CT for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP ? CT=60.3% (sign.0.00. The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010 on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.

Anees B. Chagpar

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

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Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates of morbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Due to the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health in a low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gain an understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due to their socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory using purposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realised as 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in Soshanguve Extension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semistructured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using open coding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and genetic constitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and working conditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of people living in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approach from registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned and implemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in the community without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D. Ncho

2013-09-01

42

Health maintenance and low socio-economic status: A family perspective  

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Full Text Available The socio-economic status of people has a profound influence on health, as higher rates ofmorbidity and mortality are reported for individuals with lower socio-economic status. Dueto the increased burden of disease, research exploring how families maintain their health ina low socio-economic situation is an urgent priority. The objective of the study was to gainan understanding of the reality families are confronted with in terms of their health due totheir socio-economic status. The study was contextual, qualitative and exploratory usingpurposive sampling methods. The sample size was governed by data saturation and realisedas 17 families (n = 17. The participants for the study were families residing in SoshanguveExtension 12 and 13, South Africa. The data collection method was self-report using a semi-structured interview. Content analysis was done according to Tesch’s approach using opencoding. Five themes based on the theoretical basis of the study, including age, sex and geneticconstitution, individual lifestyle factors, social and community networks, living and workingconditions and general socio-economic status were used. Maintaining the health of peopleliving in a physically and psychosocially disadvantaged position requires a different approachfrom registered professional nurses. No community-specific intervention can be planned andimplemented to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable disease in thecommunity without evidence based on a family perspective.

Claudette D. Ncho

2013-01-01

43

Association of socio-economic status with family history in adult patients with asthma  

Science.gov (United States)

Background & objectives: Socio-economic status is associated with increased morbidity in patients with asthma. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between socio-economic status and family history of asthma in adult asthma patients. Methods: The study included 200 adults with asthma and 400 non-asthmatic controls. Socio-economic status was determined based on income. Regression analysis was used to estimate odd ratios in relation to socio-economic class, using age, gender, family history of asthma and smoking habits. Results: The highest occurrence of having any family history of asthma was observed in the high class group (88.2%), followed by upper middle class (79.5%), lower middle class (60%) and the lowest in the low class group (34%). Having any family history of asthma was an important risk factor in both univariate and multivariate analyses in lower middle class, upper middle class and high class, but not in the low class group. Interpretation and conclusions: The results indicated a positive association between having a family history of asthma and higher socio-economic status. Further studies on a large representative sample need to be conducted to confirm these findings.

Davoodi, Parisa; Mahesh, P.A.; Holla, Amrutha D.; Ramachandra, Nallur B.

2013-01-01

44

Socio-Economic Determinants of Seed Yam Production in Oyi Local Government Area of Anambra State  

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Full Text Available This study assessed the socio-economic determinants of seed yam production in Oyi Local Government Area of Anambra State. Purposive and simple random sampling procedure was used respectively to select four communities and 120 respondents for the study. The data obtained were used to analyse the influence of socio economic factors on seed yam production and also determine the technical efficiency level of the seed yam farmers using descriptive statistics and stochastic production frontier functions. The result indicated that 88 percent of the farmers were below 60 years of age, 86 percent had more than 10 years farming experience and only 16 percent had no formal education. The findings also indicated that the effect of the socio economic variables such as age, experience, education level, household size and farm size were positive and significant. It is recommended among others that credit facilities should be provided especially to small holder farmers to engender their production capacity.

Okeke

2013-03-01

45

Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City  

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Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural, generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.

A. Berezhna

2010-12-01

46

Socio-economic effects of bioenergy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report studies the socio-economic effects and benefits of domestic fuels - peat and wood, and agricultural energy plants also - in power and heat generation. For evaluation of employment and income effects, it compares the costs of domestic as well a imported fuels as regards production, transportation and power stations by looking especially at the direct labour input and inputs in terms of intermediate products and investment. Their indirect employment effects and allocation to domestic factor income and imports are introduced by means of an input-output model. The net changes in the disposable incomes of local households, firms and municipalities, the government and others are derived from factor incomes by means of income redistribution. The economy-wide profitability of the domestic fuels was evaluated using a macroeconomic model, the FMS model system. The particular question posed was how much the domestic fuels could cost at most to be economically profitable. It was shown that macroeconomic profitability is affected essentially by real production costs and the import prices of the imported fuels. Subsidies and differentiated fuel taxes have only little impact on the macroeconomic profitability although they change the private profitability of the fuels considerably. This is why fuel taxes were excluded in the macroeconomic profitability evaluations

1995-01-01

47

Socio-economic status and child behaviour: evidence from a contemporary UK cohort  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines whether and how socio-economic status is associated with children’s behavioural development in today’s children. Using a large cohort of English children born in the early 1990s we find significant social inequalities in several dimensions of child behaviour at age 7. We examine whether these inequalities are associated with characteristics of the child’s early home environment and parental behaviours. These include the material quality of the child’s home, materna...

2007-01-01

48

MARITAL CONFLICTS: EFFECT OF FAMILY ECOLOGY AND SOCIO- ECONOMIC STATUS  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the marital conflicts among 240 couples of Jammu City having high, middle and low socio- economic status. Random sampling technique was used for sample selection and data was collected using interview guide. The results of the study revealed that marital conflicts exist in all the selected families. The main reason for marital conflicts in high socio- economic group was business tours of husbands, while conflicts due to needs of children and job of both the partners were causes of conflict in middle socio- economic group. Husband's alcoholism and low income were reasons in couples having low socio- economic status. In all these families, majority of the wives took first step for compromise as compared to husbands.

SAMRIDHI ARORA AND RASHMI CHADHA

2012-11-01

49

Girls' socio-economic rights in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores girls' socio-economic rights fulfilment in South Africa. After setting out the international law context, the article turns to the lived reality of girls in this country through an examination of their rights to healthcare services, nutrition, social services and security, and shelter. The research indicates that whilst girls are babies and young children they enjoy relatively equal access with their male counterparts to socio-economic services made available to children...

Skelton, Ann

2010-01-01

50

Socio-economic inequalities in injury incidence in the Netherlands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Interventions to reduce socio-economic inequalities in injury incidence should be tailored to specific priority areas that may be identified by descriptive studies. We aimed to provide an overview of existing socio-economic inequalities in injury incidence in the Netherlands and to assess the potential influence of methodological choices on the relationships found.

Methods: Self-reported medically...

Eduard van Beeck; Frank van Lenthe; Paul Den Hertog; Margriet van Baar

2006-01-01

51

Climate Change: Socio-Economic impacts and violent conflict  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report contains a literature study on the socio economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect. The socio economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors in chapter 2 of the study. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are the topic of chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to ...

Ec, Ierland; Mg, Klaassen; Nierop T; van der Wusten H

2012-01-01

52

Socio-economic impact analysis in the NEPA process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) regulations require environmental impact statements to assess direct and indirect effects on a number of different environmental resource categories, including economic and social effects. However, NEPA regulations do not dictate the scope of the socio-economic analyses or specify which analytical procedures must be employed. As a result, socio-economic impact analyses vary considerably across NEPA documents in both the methodology of analysis and in the models used to quantify impacts. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of socio-economic analyses in NEPA documents and present strategies for ensuring that the socio-economic analyses are focused on the most relevant socio-economic indicators, while still conforming to the full intent of NEPA. This paper will provide guidance on what factors should be considered when identifying the economic indicators to be assessed. The paper will also describe and discuss various types of models currently used to quantify economic impacts in NEPA documents, and the comparative advantages and disadvantages of these models. In addition, the definition of the appropriate Return On Investment in relation to the model used and the analysis performed will be discussed. The offices of the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense, and the Food and Drug Administration present real world examples of innovative approaches to socio-economic impact analysis.

Karnovitz, A.; McQueen, S. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States)

1997-08-01

53

Courts and the enforcement of socio-economic rights in Malawi: Jurisprudential trends, challenges and opportunities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Socio-economic rights are of special significance in a developing country such as Malawi. The framers of the Malawian Constitution included the right to development in the country's Bill of Rights. The right to development is not only included as a self-standing right, but is also a conduit for the [...] guarantee of equal access to a range of other socio-economic rights. Regrettably, the record of judicial enforcement of these rights subsequent to 1994 is disappointing. Only in a few cases, largely focusing on a narrow range of rights such as property, work, economic activity and, to a lesser extent, education, have courts directly and significantly dealt with socio-economic rights. Such consideration has also been deficient as courts have failed to develop the content of the rights and to define the nature of the obligations of both the state as well as non-state actors in relation to socio-economic rights. There has been little or no attempt to apply norms of international human rights law and comparable foreign case law. Worse still, in some related cases, courts have stated that they will not deal with any issues that raise policy considerations as such matters are outside the province of judicial competence. This is a problematic approach that could stultify the development of socio-economic rights jurisprudence. The Masangano case, however, offers some hope as it represents the first real attempt to address key socio-economic rights issues such as access to food, clothing, adequate housing and healthcare, albeit in relation to prisoners. While the final decision ultimately turned on cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment, the High Court of Malawi made some definitive affirmations of the guarantee of a number of these key rights and presented a first real attempt to fashion a time-bound remedy, that also required the state to take positive steps in allocating sufficient resources for the realisation of socio-economic rights for prisoners. The Masangano case represents a good stepping stone upon which courts can stand in developing more systematic and sophisticated jurisprudence on socioeconomic rights in Malawi.

Redson E, Kapindu.

54

Associação entre prevalência de inatividade física e indicadores de condição socioeconômica em adolescentes Association between prevalence of physical inactivity and indicators of socio-economic status in adolescents  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A redução nos níveis de atividade física na população jovem tem sido amplamente descrita em vários países, sobretudo em alguns subgrupos dessa população. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de inatividade física em adolescentes escolares do ensino médio do município de João Pessoa - PB, e analisar sua associação com indicadores de condição socioeconômica. METODOLOGIA: Participaram do estudo 2.566 adolescentes (1.132 rapazes e 1.434 moças, de 14 a 18 anos de idade (16,5±1,17. Foram levantadas informações demográficas (sexo e idade, socioeconômicas (trabalho, tipo de escola, classe econômica, escolaridade dos pais, e mediu-se o nível de atividade física (kcal/kg/dia, mediante utilização de um diário de atividade física. Foram classificados como fisicamente inativos os adolescentes com demanda energética diária OBJECTIVE: The decrease in the levels of physical activity in the young population has been described thoroughly in several countries, above all in some subgroups of that population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity in high school adolescents from the João Pessoa city - PB and to analyze its association with indicators of socio-economic status. METHODOLOGY: 2,566 adolescents (1,132 boys and 1,434 girls, ages between 14-18 years (16.5±1.17 participated in this study. Demographic (sex and age and socio-economic data (work, school type, economic class, and parents' educational background were raised. Besides that, the level of physical activity (kcal/kg/day was measured through a diary of physical activity. The adolescents were classified as physically inactive when had daily energy demand <37kcal/kg/day. The ratio prevalence (RP, with respective reliability intervals of 95% (RI95%, was used as association measure. RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity positively associated with the socio-economic status, showing higher prevalence in the adolescents who did not work (boys RP=2.22; RI95%=1.62-3.04 and girls RP=1.52; RI95%=1.19-1.93, and in the girls whose parents presented higher educational background (girls RP=1.20; RI95%=1.05-1.35, compared with the adolescents who worked and the ones whose parents had lower educational background, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of physical inactivity was high, mainly in the girls. Adolescents who belonged to more priviledged socio-economic strata were more exposed to physical inactivity.

José Cazuza de Farias Júnior

2008-04-01

55

Communicability and Communities in Complex Socio-Economic Networks  

CERN Multimedia

The concept of communicability is introduced for complex socio-economic networks. The communicability function expresses how an impact propagates from one place to another in the network. This function is used to define unambiguously the concept of socio-economic community. The concept of temperature in complex socio-economic networks is also introduced as a way of accounting for the external stresses to which such systems are submitted. This external stress can change dramatically the structure of the communities in a network. We analyze here a trade network of countries exporting 'miscellaneous manufactures of metal.' We determine the community structure of this network showing that there are 27 communities with diverse degree of overlapping. When only communities with less than 80% of overlap are considered we found 5 communities which are well characterized in terms of geopolitical relationships. The analysis of external stress on these communities reveals that several countries are very much influenced b...

Estrada, Ernesto

2009-01-01

56

Personality, work, and satisfaction: evidence from the German Socio-Economic Panel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies in positive psychology have indicated that work satisfaction is an important determinant of individual well-being. Research has suggested that people are most satisfied with their work when they are doing what they are drawn to naturally. We provide further evidence on this issue from a large representative data set, the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). The 2005 wave of the SOEP contains a battery of personality questions as well as detailed information on personal life an...

2008-01-01

57

The Relationship Between Energy and Socio-Economic Development in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report aims to identify, explain and detail the links and interactions in Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries (SEMCs) between energy supply and demand and socio-economic development, as well as the potential role of energy supply and demand policies on both. Another related aim is to identify and analyse, in a quantitative and qualitative way, the changing role of energy (both demand and supply) in southern Mediterranean economies, focusing on its positive and negative impact on...

Bergasse, Emmanuel; Paczynski, Wojciech; Dabrowski, Marek; Wulf, Luc

2013-01-01

58

Socio-economic inequalities in injury incidence in the Netherlands  

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Full Text Available

Background: Interventions to reduce socio-economic inequalities in injury incidence should be tailored to specific priority areas that may be identified by descriptive studies. We aimed to provide an overview of existing socio-economic inequalities in injury incidence in the Netherlands and to assess the potential influence of methodological choices on the relationships found.

Methods: Self-reported medically treated injuries (all injuries versus fractures were derived from a survey among a random sample of 59 063 persons. Injuries resulting in hospital admissions (all injuries versus fractures were derived from a prospective cohort study of 18 810 participants, linked to the National Hospital Discharge Register for a follow-up period of 7 years. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios of self-reported medically treated injuries and fractures by level of education, occupation and income, and of hospital-admitted injuries by level of education and occupation.

Results: Socio-economic inequalities in injury incidence in the Netherlands were dependent on the indicator of non-fatal injury incidence, indicator of socio-economic status (SES and studied cause of injury. In the majority of specific relations analyzed, injury risks were not or only moderately elevated in lower SES-classes.

Analyses focusing on injury with higher severity levels (admitted injuries and/or admitted fractures revealed the steepest SES gradient with odds ratios of injury of 1.5 or more of the lowest socio-economic (educational groups compared to persons with higher SES (education. In hospital admitted traffic injuries, we found the most striking difference with a threefold higher risk in the lowest educational groups.

Conclusion: Future descriptive research into socio-economic differences in injury incidence should include all three core indicators of SES and separate analyses on the more severe injuries should be conducted.

Eduard van Beeck

2006-06-01

59

Socio-Economic Transformation and Gender Relations in Lao PDR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to examine socio-economic transformation and gender relations in Lao PDR after the adoption of economic liberalization by the Lao government in the late 1980s. Against a background of general socio-economic transformation in Laos the main focus of the study is on the local level, with emphasis on how people in their everyday lives have engaged with and handled the changes. The application of economic liberalization shaped new conditions for people in local communities...

Khouangvichit, Damdouane

2010-01-01

60

Regional Tourist Destination and its Socio-Economic Development ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-economic development of the region in general and the role of regional tourist destination in this process. It also touches the problem of managing regional tourist destination.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ??????: ???? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ????????? ?? ???? ????????, ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????????????? ? ??????????? ????????????. ?????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ??????????? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???????? ??????? ???????. ?????????? ????, ?????? ? ?????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ??????? ? ????? ? ????, ??????? ?????? ? ???? ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????, ? ?????????. ????????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????????.

Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Kar...

2009-01-01

62

Dialectics of Socio-Economic Cycle's Development of Social Reproduction ?????????? ???????? ?????????-????????????? ?????? ????????????? ???????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From the standpoint of materialistic dialectics in the article the spiral cyclic evolution process of production methods is analyzed. Also, based on fundamental laws of dialectics, peculiarities of the socio-economic cycles of social reproduction are investigated; special attention is paid to dialectical contradictions of capitalist reproduction.? ??????? ?????????????????? ?????????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ???????????...

Podlesna Vasylyna G.

2012-01-01

63

Tax Reforms in the Context of Socio-Economic Development ????????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????  

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Full Text Available The article deals with the existing approaches to the study and the justification of tax reforms in the context of their impact on socio-economic development. The needs of the tax reform study on the basis of evolutionary economics are shown.? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ??????? ? ???????????? ? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?????????.

Gurnak Olexandr V.

2012-05-01

64

Socio-economic drivers in implementing bioenergy projects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the international community there is considerable interest in the socio-economic implications of moving society towards the more widespread use of renewable energy resources. Such change is seen to be very necessary but is often poorly communicated to people and communities who need to accept such changes. There are pockets of activity across the world looking at various approaches to understand this fundamental matter. Typically, socio-economic implications are measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment and monetary gains, but in effect the analysis relates to a number of aspects which include social, cultural, institutional, and environmental issues. The extremely complex nature of bioenergy, many different technologies involved and a number of different, associated aspects (socio-economics, greenhouse gas mitigation potential, environment, ?) make this whole topic a complex subject. This paper is primarily a descriptive research and review of literature on employment and other socio-economic aspects of bioenergy systems as drivers for implementing bioenergy projects. Due to the limited information, this paper does not provide absolute quantification on the multiplier effects of local and or national incomes of any particular country or region. The paper intends to trigger a more in-depth discussion of data gaps, potentials, opportunities and challenges. An encouraging trend is that in many countries policy makers are beginning to perceive the potential economic benefits of commercial biomass e.g. employment/earnings, regional economic gain, contribution to security of energy supply and all others

2005-02-01

65

Socio-Economic Rights: Legally Enforceable or Just Aspirational?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 cited social welfare rights without distinguishing them from civil and political rights, the separation has been widely accepted by judges, scholars and politicians. Historically, the classification of human rights into two groups, with the relegation of socio-economic rights into a lower category of human rights, emerged and developed mainly after the 1950s during the Cold War and ultimately led to the adoption of two separate UN Covenants, with different formulation and enforcement mechanisms for each set of rights; the causes and purposes of that classification are well-documented (Cranston 1973; Alston 1990; Sadurski 2005 and profoundly political. Scholars and judges have taken significant steps in the last thirty years to cast light on the legal nature of socio-economic rights. Nonetheless, there is still incredulity concerning not only their normative constitutional role, but also their judicial enforceability. Although much ink has been spilt, socio-economic rights are a hot topic again today, due to the current global economic recession and the – often controversial – state actions (or non-actions that affect the social welfare of millions. Is there any role for the judiciary within this conquered-by-state-policy realm? The goal of this paper is to defend the justiciability of socio-economic rights. To this end, I will present the arguments against their justiciability, after which I will comparatively examine the socio-economic rights jurisprudence, being careful not to get lost in the jurisprudential labyrinth.

Ilias Trispiotis

2010-04-01

66

A socio-economic assessment of proposed road user charging schemes in Copenhagen  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Road pricing. congestion charging, toll-systems and other road charging instruments are intensively discussed in many countries. Although many partial analyses of the consequences have been published, few overall socio-economic analyses have been carried out. The article presents such a socio-economic analysis of four different proposed road pricing schemes for the Copenhagen area. The purpose was to assess all benefits and costs involved, including impacts on traffic and environment, maintenance and financing costs as well as tax distortion effects. It was concluded that the socio-economic surplus of the projects depends crucially on the congestion level. With the Current traffic level, road pricing will not yet be socially expedient in Copenhagen. However, if the opening year is postponed to 2015, the two most favourable schemes will turn positive. The analyses also showed that the magnitude of demand response by introducing road pricing is likely to have significant impact on the project surplus. This is an important observation because most shore term driven traffic models will then underestimate the projected surplus. Finally, it was found that the degree to which benefits outweigh costs depends considerably on the use of revenue. Although it may contribute to decreasing road congestion, recycling all of the revenue back to the transport sector turned out to be inefficient and costly.

Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

2007-01-01

67

The Evaluation of The Impact of Socio-Economic Level on The Physical Fitness in Boys by Using AAHPERD Test Battery  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of socio-economic level on the physical fitness in boys from 8 to 10 years-olds by using AAHPERD (American Alliance For Health, Physical Education, Recreation And Dance test battery.The number of the participants in the study was 566 students; 295 students from state schools of The Ministry of National Education and 271 students from private schools.In the identification of socio-economic level of the participants in the study, level of education of parents, the number of the children in the family, the living environment, whether the children have their own rooms in at home, and the level of income of the family, which are socio-economic criteria, were taken into consideration.The order of testing and measurement was as follows: the measurement of weight, the measurement of height, sit-and-reach test, skin-fold measurement, sit-up test, pull-up test and 1 mile run-and-walk test.At the statistical analyses of the data the mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values of AAHPERD tests applied to the subjects were obtained and Correlation Analyses (Pearson tests were used for the evaluation of the relationship among the AAHPERD tests and socio-economic level of the participants,.As a result, it was found that the socio-economic level had an impact on physical fitness of the student; and that in boys from 8 to 10 years-olds who had a higher socio-economic level, the sum of skinfold values and the strength of sit-up were higher compared to those obtained from the boys who had a lower socio-economic level; and that the boys who had a lower socio-economic level yielded higher values of flexibility, strength in pull-up and cardiovascular endurance.

Dursun GÜLER

2004-06-01

68

Socio-economic disparities of childhood body mass index in a newly developed population: Evidence from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Childhood adiposity in developed countries is often associated with lower socio-economic position (SEP) of the family and neighbourhood. However, the association of adiposity with SEP varies with national income. The authors examined whether childhood BMI was associated with family or neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics in a recently and rapidly developed Chinese population. Methods: The authors used multilevel modelling in Hong Kong's population-representative 'Children ...

2010-01-01

69

Pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional / Patterns, beliefs and parenting practices related with punishment and the generational transmission of these in four families of low socio-economic level in the city of Bogotá / Padrões, crenças e práticas parentais relacionadas à punição e transmissão geracional em quatro famílias baixo nivel socioeconômico na cidade de Bogotá  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever os padrões, as crenças e as práticas parentais relacionadas à punição e sua transmissão intergeracional em quatro famílias baixo nivel socioeconômico na cidade de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semi-estruturadas, histórias de vida, observações de campo e o So [...] ftware Atlas.ti para analisar os resultados. Descobrimos que os padrões de paternidade associada com a punição são enquadrados no papel de avô (ó) como um cuidador durante a semana, no fim de semana o pai / mãe e a educadora, o filho (a) como o ímpio. Crenças são estabelecidas em torno da criança tão forte e frágil, e a punição como um instrutor, ambivalente, abusivo e temido. Abstract in spanish La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo describir las pautas, creencias y prácticas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo y su transmisión generacional en cuatro familias de nivel socioeconómico bajo de la ciudad de Bogotá. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas, historias de vida, observaci [...] ones de campo, y el Software Atlas.ti para analizar los resultados. Encontramos que las pautas de crianza relacionadas con el castigo están enmarcadas en el rol del abuelo o de la abuela como cuidador o cuidadora entre semana, en el del padre o madre como cuidador o cuidadora de fin de semana, y en el del niño o niña como el sujeto travieso. Las creencias se establecen en torno al niño o niña como fuerte y frágil, y al castigo como formador, ambivalente, maltratante y temido. Abstract in english This study is aimed to describe patterns, beliefs and parenting practices related to punishment and the intergenerational transmission of these in four families of low socio-economic level in the city of Bogotá. We used semi-structured interviews, life histories, field observations and Atlas.ti soft [...] ware to analyze the results. We found that parenting patterns associated with punishment are framed in the role of grandparent as the weak caregiver, the father/mother as weekend caregivers and the child as mischievous. Beliefs are established around the child as strong and fragile, and the punishment as a trainer, ambivalent, abusive and feared.

Pulido, Sandra; Castro-Osorio, Juliana; Peña, Marlyn; Ariza-Ramírez, Diana Paola.

70

Danube - the Common Way between Great Socio-Economic Disparities  

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Full Text Available The paper deals with the idea that a common river-Danube- can cover a lot of disparities connected to socio-economic, cultural, historical and religious approaches. As a result, the analysis in the paper is focused on economic disparities in all Danube countries, even that they are members or not of the EU27. The analysis is based on the latest official statistical data and is followed by a forecast for 2013-2014 in order to observe if the disparities will decrease or not. The main conclusion of the paper is that Danube can be a way and an instrument to solve regional disparities. The same Danube River can support a better socio-economic integration of the Danube countries, as well.

Romeo Ionescu

2013-08-01

71

Regional Tourist Destination and its Socio-Economic Development ???????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ?? ?????????-????????????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article considers theoretical problems of socio-economic development of regional tourist destination, namely: it gives a modern notion of tourist destination with the use of achievements available in scientific and practical literature on this subject and identifies its essence, characteristics and specific features of formation. It considers a historic approach to identification of destination as the main element of the system of tourism. It marks goals, tasks and direction of socio-econ...

Leontyeva Yuliya Yu.; Timoshchenkova Olga A.

2013-01-01

72

Priorities of Socio-Economic Balancing of Public Transportation Interests ?????????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????-???????????? ?????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article uses example of the sphere of passenger transportation to mark problems of socio-economic balancing, which are reduced to a necessity to satisfy polar interests and mandatory accounting of quantitatively non-measurable factors. It justifies a necessity to identify priorities in building socio-transportation links with the help of the method of analysis of hierarchies. It establishes levels and characterises structural and functional elements of hierarchy of branch priorities, whic...

Gudkova Viktoriya P.

2013-01-01

73

Socio-Economic Rights: Legally Enforceable or Just Aspirational?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 cited social welfare rights without distinguishing them from civil and political rights, the separation has been widely accepted by judges, scholars and politicians. Historically, the classification of human rights into two groups, with the relegation of socio-economic rights into a lower category of human rights, emerged and developed mainly after the 1950s during the Cold War and ultimately led to the adoption of two separate UN ...

2010-01-01

74

Wage Determination, Socio-Economic Regulation and the State  

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This article examines changes in socio-economic regulation and the role of the state in the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, Sweden and Germany, against the background of the theoretical debate on transition from Fordist to post-Fordist growth strategies. The first focus is on reforms in the labour market and the welfare state, and their effect on the political and social processes through which wage nor...

Koch, Max

2005-01-01

75

SOCIO-ECONOMIC ISSUES CHARACTERISTIC TO THE JIU VALLEY RESIDENTS  

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Full Text Available The sociological research was conducted in 2008 on a sample of 1 612 adults, aiming at highlighting the socio-economic situation of the population in the Jiu Valley and, therefore, the problems addressing the local people. Failure or even the lack of financial resources is a consequence of lack of jobs in the area and, as a result the low living standard of the population

ION PÂRVULESCU

2010-01-01

76

Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminant breeding in Kenya  

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In order to design an effective small ruminant (i.e., goats and sheep) breeding program in Kenya and other areas with similar production circumstances, it is important to understand the socio-economic factors applying to the relevant production system. Information on these was obtained from a questionnaire carried out on both smallholders and pastoral/ extensive farmers in seven selected districts. From the 458 responding households, 18% kept only goats, 34% kept only sheep, and 48% kept bot...

2006-01-01

77

Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminant breeding in Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to design an effective small ruminant (i.e., goats and sheep) breeding program in Kenya and other areas with similar production circumstances, it is important to understand the socio-economic factors applying to the relevant production system. Information on these was obtained from a questionnaire carried out on both smallholders and pastoral/ extensive farmers in seven selected districts. From the 458 responding households, 18% kept only goats, 34% kept only sheep, and 48% kept bo...

2007-01-01

78

Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

1996-01-01

79

Socio-economic Scenario Development for Climate Change Analysis  

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Socio-economic scenarios constitute an important tool for exploring the long-term consequences of anthropogenic climate change and available response options. They have been applied for different purposes and to a different degree in various areas of climate change analysis, typically in combination with projections of future climate change. Integrated assessment modeling (IAM) has used them to develop greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios for the 21st century and to investigate strategies...

Kriegler, Elmar; O Neill, Brian-c; Hallegatte, Ste?phane; Kram, Tom; Moss, Richard-h; Lempert, Robert; Wilbanks, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

80

Control of the socio-economic systems using herding interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Collective behavior of the complex socio-economic systems is heavily influenced by the herding, group, behavior of individuals. The importance of the herding behavior may enable the control of the collective behavior of the individuals. In this contribution we consider a simple agent-based herding model modified to include agents with controlled state. We show that in certain case even the smallest fixed number of the controlled agents might be enough to control the behavior of a very large system.

Kononovicius, A.; Gontis, V.

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4% of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region.

Conservation implication: The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

How to cite this article: Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Ferreira, M., 2009, ‘The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park’, Koedoe 51(1, Art. #158, 10 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v51i1.158

Madelien Ferreira

2009-01-01

82

Pluriactivity, entrepreneurship and socio-economic success of rural households  

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Pluriactivity has been identified in literature as a capital accumulation strategy. However, it has also been recognized as a survival strategy particularly in a resource constrained environment. Accordingly, it is questionable as to what extent pluriactivitity leads households to be socio-economically better off. This leads to the question 'in a given context, whether certain other factors such as motive and entrepreneurial qualities also play a role in determining the success besides being ...

Silva, Ranmuthumalie; Kodithuwakku, Sarath S.

2010-01-01

83

Pubertal timing and health-related behaviours in adolescence - socio- economic outcomes in a follow-up study from Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background. Pubertal timing is connected with health-related lifestyle in adulthood. We studied whether early or late pubertal timing is predictive of socio-economic outcomes in early adulthood and whether the associations are mediated by health behaviours.

Methods. Survey data (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987 from samples of 14-year-old Finns (N=4246, response rate 85% were linked with respondents’ attained educational level, socio-economic and labour market position in 2001 (ages 28-34. Ages of menarche and first ejaculation indicated pubertal timing.

Results. As compared to adolescents with average age pubertal timing, boys and girls maturing at an early age more often participated in health-compromising behaviours, while those maturing at a later age participated less frequently. Pubertal timing was not associated with attained educational level or socioeconomic position in girls and not with labour market position at the time of follow-up in either sex. In boys, independently of health behaviours, early or late onset of puberty predicted low educational level, while late onset predicted low socio-economic position.

Conclusion. Timing of puberty has a stronger connection with socio-economic outcomes in boys than in girls. Deviance from the normative pace of physical development, especially late maturation, is among boys slightly depicted in the hierarchy of socio-economic positions of the society. As pubertal timing is connected with health-related behaviours – especially with smoking – the pacing of developmental transitions should be considered in planning programmes preventing unhealthy behavioural patterns often linked with negative attitudes towards schooling.

Leena K Koivusilta

2006-03-01

84

Socio Economic Study Of Vellapatti Village In Tuticorin District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fisheries are a sunrise sector of our economy. Its role in increasing food supply, generating job opportunities, raising nutritional level and earning foreign exchange has been important. The traditional fishing technology (artisanal, which accounted for 37 per cent in 2010, is currently contributing only 8 per cent. This paper aims to study the socio economic background of the fishermen in Vellapatti village of Tuticorin district. The study utilised both primary and secondary data. Primary data relating to the socio economic background of the fishermen were collected through pre-designedquestionnaire from 150 fishermen families from the selected Vellapatti village. Present study is empirical in nature and covered only three months period (2012. Percentage analysis, averages, chi square test and probability analysis were used. From the study it is clear that before Tsunami 20% of the fishermen families have income between Rs. 4000-6000 and after Tsunami 78% of the fishermen families have income between Rs. 4000-6000. The average monthly income of the fishermen families was Rs.3750 before Tsunami and after Tsunami it was Rs.5250. The result of chisquare- test revealed that there is significant difference between monthly income of the fishermen before and after tsunami in Vellapatti village of Tuticorin District. The present study concludes that the lack of awareness and viable alternative livelihood programmes are major hindrances to improving their socio-economic status and also threatens the sustainable use of the fishing resources.

D.Amutha

2012-10-01

85

Socio-economic Scenarios in Climate Assessments (IC11). Synthesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is widely recognised that projections of social and economic futures are circumscribed by irreducible uncertainties and ignorance. A common analytical response is to develop scenarios that map a range of alternative possible outcomes. The application of scenarios in climate assessments in the Netherlands was investigated in this report, focusing on the use of the socio-economic scenarios 'Welvaart en Leefomgeving' (WLO - The Future of the Dutch Built Environment). This research was carried out within the Climate Changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) programme. WLO scenarios have been applied in climate assessment studies. WLO generates figures and data that are useful. Nevertheless we encountered several CcSP projects that did not apply any socio-economic scenarios, whilst this seemed necessary based on their objectives. In general, climate assessments make little sense if socio-economic developments are not taken into account. Interestingly, some of the studies that did apply socio-economic scenarios, picked only one or two of the scenarios generated by WLO. From a theoretical point of view this selective 'shopping' may lead to a tunnel vision, because it is impossible to estimate which scenario is more probable than the others. At the other hand it is often impractical to explore all four scenarios. The time horizon of WLO was in several cases too short for climate assessments. As it is probable that the structure of society has changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www.climatescenarios.nl) that provides key scenario data from WLO and other sources. On this site climate researchers have quick access to the most important socio-economic data derived from WLO and other scenarios. After registration they can also add new data.

Van Drunen, M.; Berkhout, F.

2011-09-15

86

Socio-economic Scenarios in Climate Assessments (IC11). Synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is widely recognised that projections of social and economic futures are circumscribed by irreducible uncertainties and ignorance. A common analytical response is to develop scenarios that map a range of alternative possible outcomes. The application of scenarios in climate assessments in the Netherlands was investigated in this report, focusing on the use of the socio-economic scenarios 'Welvaart en Leefomgeving' (WLO - The Future of the Dutch Built Environment). This research was carried out within the Climate Changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) programme. WLO scenarios have been applied in climate assessment studies. WLO generates figures and data that are useful. Nevertheless we encountered several CcSP projects that did not apply any socio-economic scenarios, whilst this seemed necessary based on their objectives. In general, climate assessments make little sense if socio-economic developments are not taken into account. Interestingly, some of the studies that did apply socio-economic scenarios, picked only one or two of the scenarios generated by WLO. From a theoretical point of view this selective 'shopping' may lead to a tunnel vision, because it is impossible to estimate which scenario is more probable than the others. At the other hand it is often impractical to explore all four scenarios. The time horizon of WLO was in several cases too short for climate assessments. As it is probable that the structure of society has changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www.climatescenarios.nl) that provides key scenario data from WLO and other sources. On this site climate researchers have quick access to the most important socio-economic data derived from WLO and other scenarios. After registration they can also add new data.

2011-01-01

87

Socio-Economic Burden of Influenza among Children Younger than 5 Years in the Outpatient Setting in Suzhou, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The disease burden of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza in China has not been well described. The aim of this study was to understand the epidemiology and socio-economic burden of influenza in children younger than 5 years in outpatient and emergency department settings. Methods A prospective study of laboratory-confirmed influenza among children presenting to the outpatient settings in Soochow University Affiliated Children's Hospital with symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) was performed from March 2011 to February 2012. Throat swabs were collected for detection of influenza virus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Data were collected using a researcher administered questionnaire, concerning demographics, clinical characteristics, direct and indirect costs, day care absence, parental work loss and similar respiratory illness development in the family. Results Among a total of 6,901 children who sought care at internal outpatient settings, 1,726 (25%) fulfilled the criteria of ILI and 1,537 were enrolled. Influenza was documented in 365 (24%) of enrolled 1,537 ILI cases. Among positive patients, 52 (14%) were type A and 313 (86%) were type B. About 52% of influenza outpatients had over-the-counter medications before physician visit and 41% visited hospitals two or more times. Children who attended daycare missed an average of 1.9 days. For each child with influenza-confirmed disease, the parents missed a mean of 1.8 work days. Similar respiratory symptoms were reported in 43% of family contacts of influenza positive children after onset of the child's illness. The mean direct and indirect costs per episode of influenza were $123.4 for outpatient clinics and $134.6 for emergency departments, and $125.9 for influenza A and $127.5 for influenza B. Conclusions Influenza is a common cause of influenza-like illness among children and has substantial socio-economic impact on children and their families regarding healthcare seeking and day care/work absence. The direct and indirect costs of childhood influenza impose a heavy financial burden on families. Prevention measures such as influenza vaccine could reduce the occurrence of influenza in children and the economic burden on families.

Wang, Dan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Jing; Jiang, Yanwei; Ding, Yunfang; Hua, Jun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Liling; Feng, Zijian; Iuliano, Danielle; McFarland, Jeffrey; Zhao, Genming

2013-01-01

88

Socio-economic inequalities in physical functioning: a comparative study of English and Greek elderly men  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The associations between socio-economic position (SEP) and physical functioning have frequently been investigated but little is known about which measures of SEP are the best to use for older people. This study examined how different SEP indicators related to the physical functioning of men aged 50 or more years in England and Greece. The data derived from Wave 1 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Self-rep...

Tabassum, F.; Verropoulou, G.; Tsimbos, C.; Gjonca, E.; Breeze, E.

2009-01-01

89

The socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park  

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Full Text Available South African National Parks (SANParks plays a major role in the tourism industry and has three primary functions, namely to conserve biodiversity, to create tourism and recreational opportunities and to build strong community relations. These parks, therefore, have a definite socio-economic impact on adjacent communities, although little is known about this impact. The main aim of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park, namely Tsitsikamma National Park, which forms part of the newly created Garden Route National Park. This was done by conducting three surveys during April 2008: a visitor’s survey (156 respondents, a community survey (132 respondents and a business survey (11 respondents. We found that the park has a positive economic impact on the surrounding area and that the community exhibits a favourable attitude towards Tsitsikamma National Park. The results also differed when compared to similar studies conducted at other national parks in South Arica and one of the main reasons for this was that the park is located in a touristic area. For a greater impact however, the park should expand its marine activities, while communication with the local community could also be improved.

Conservation implications: Good community relations and ecotourism activities are important components of good conservation practices. This research indicates that tourism activities not only generated funds for conservation, but also benefited the local communities of Tsitsikamma National Park. The positive attitude of local communities makes conservation of biodiversity more sustainable.

How to cite this article:How to cite this article: Oberholzer, S., Saayman, M., Saayman, A. & Slabbert, E., 2010, ‘The socio-economic impact of Africa’s oldest marine park’, Koedoe 52(1, Art. #879, 9 pages. DOI: 10.4102/koedoe.v52i1.879

Elmarie Slabbert

2010-03-01

90

Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Migrants in East China  

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Full Text Available Objective: To determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socio-economically disadvantaged recent migrants living in East China and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey of 1,426 migrant mothers with a child aged ?24 months, who were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire. Various vaccines, migration history and some other social-demographic and income details were collected. Single-level logistic regression analyses were applied to identify the determinants of full immunization status. Results: Immunization coverage rates are lower among migrants and even lower among recent migrants. The likelihood of a child receiving full immunization rise with parents’ educational level and the frequency of mother’s utilization of health care. Higher household income also significantly increase the likelihood of full immunization, as dose post-natal visits by a health worker. Conclusions: Recent migrant status favours low immunization uptake, particularly in the vulnerability context of alienation and livelihood insecurity. Services must be delivered with a focus on recent migrants. Investments are needed in education, socio-economic development and secure livelihoods to improve and sustain equitable health care services.

Yaping Chen

2013-07-01

91

The new socio-economic scenarios for climate change research  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scientific community is developing a new generation of scenarios to inform the choices we have to make when it comes to responding to climate change. This new generation of scenarios integrates more fully the mechanisms that regulate climate and provides insights to spatial and temporal resolutions unexplored in previous exercises. In addition, it gives a framework for integrating explicit climate policies for mitigation and adaptation, which allows assessing the benefits and costs of climate policies in different socio-economic scenarios. Finally, it introduces a new way of working that strengthens the collaboration between different research communities on climate change. (authors)

2013-06-01

92

Subclinical psychopathology and socio-economic status in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The most potent risk factor for affective disorders is a family history of affective disorder but the specific factors that are transmitted in families are unknown. It is possible to investigate the relation between risk factors and affective disorder by using a high-risk design e.g.: a study of the healthy relatives of patients with affective disorders. AIM: To compare psychopathology and socio-economic status between twins with a co-twin history of affective disorder and twins without. METHODS: In a cross-sectional high-risk case-control study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (High-Risk twins) and without (Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nation-wide registers. Participants were assessed using semi-structured psychiatric interviews and self-rating of psychopathology. RESULTS: High-Risk twins had a lower education level, a lower work position and tendency towards being more often unemployed and early retired than the Low-Risk twins. Furthermore, they presented higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and were more likely to experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Healthy twins with a high genetic liability to affective disorder seem to present lower socio-economic status, higher rates of subclinical affective symptoms and more often experience a minor psychiatric diagnosis than twins with no familial history of affective disorder. It is not possible from the present cross-sectional data to determine the causality of these findings, thus genetic liability to affective disorder, socio-economic status and minor psychopathology seem to have a complex interrelation.

Vinberg Christensen, Maj; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

2006-01-01

93

Socio-economic status is inversely related to bed net use in Gabon  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48, running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92, shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73, ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67. In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19 and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45. Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.

Borchert Lea B

2008-04-01

94

Socio-economic status is inversely related to bed net use in Gabon  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with 397 mothers or guardians of young children. Respondents were grouped according to their socio-economic situation, using scores. The condition of the bed nets was evaluated during a home visit. Results Socio-economic factors of wellbeing were negatively associated with bed net use, such as living in a stone house (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.48), running water in the house (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21–0.92), shower/flush toilet in the house (OR 0.39/0.34, 95% CI 0.21–0.75/0.16–0.73), ownership of a freezer (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.96) and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.15–0.67). In contrast, similar factors were positively associated with a good maintenance condition of the bed nets: higher monthly income (OR 5.64, 95% CI 2.41–13.19) and belonging to the highest group in the economic score (OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.19 – 5.45). Conclusion Among the poorest families in Lambaréné the coverage with untreated nets (UTNs) is the highest, but the condition of these UTNs is the worst. To achieve a broad implementation of ITNs in Lambaréné, there is an urgent need for educational programmes as well as need-tailored marketing strategies for ITNs.

Goesch, Julia N; Schwarz, Norbert G; Decker, Marie-Luise; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Borchert, Lea B; Kombila, Ulrich D; Poetschke, Marc; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P

2008-01-01

95

Is the "Glasgow effect" of cigarette smoking explained by socio-economic status?: A multilevel analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Glasgow area has elevated levels of deprivation and is known for its poor health and associated negative health-related behaviours, which are socially patterned. Of interest is whether high smoking rates are explained by the area's socio-economic profile. Methods Data on age, sex, current/previous smoking status, area deprivation, social class, education, economic activity, postcode sector, and health board region were available from Scottish Health Surveys conducted in 1995, 1998 and 2003. Multilevel logistic regression models were applied by sex, unadjusted and adjusted for age, survey year, and socio-economic factors, accounting for geographical hierarchy and missing data. Results Compared with the rest of Scotland, men living in Greater Glasgow were 30% and women 43% more likely to smoke [odds ratio (OR = 1.30, (95% CI = 1.08–1.56 and (OR = 1.43, CI = 1.22–1.68, respectively] before adjustment. In adjusted results, the association between living in Greater Glasgow and current smoking was attenuated [OR = 0.92, CI = 0.78–1.09 for men, and OR = 1.08, CI = 0.94–1.23 for women; results based on multiply imputed data to account for missing values remained borderline significant for women]. Accounting for individuals who had been told to give up smoking by a medical person/excluding ex-smokers did not alter results. Conclusion High levels of smoking in Greater Glasgow were attributable to its poorer socio-economic position and the strong social patterning of smoking. Tackling Glasgow's, and indeed Scotland's, poor health must involve policies to alleviate problems associated with poverty.

Leyland Alastair H

2009-07-01

96

Poverty and Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Africa: The Nigerian Experience  

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Full Text Available There has been a growing incidence of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. Poverty is a multidimensional social phenomenon that can be analytically divided into two main perspectives: human poverty which is the lack of human capabilities and income poverty, which is the lack of income necessary to satisfy basic need e.g. poor life expectancy, poor maternal health, illiteracy, poor nutritional levels, poor access to safe drinking water and perceptions of well-being. The paper examines several initiatives focused on poverty eradication that Nigeria have adopted through national actions to fight both human and income poverty. In analysizing the issues raised, we anchored the paper on an eclectic approach of radical, Marxist model of political economy and the social exclusion theories. The study established among others, that a lot of effort has been made in poverty reduction through poverty alleviation programs in Nigeria. However, it is of knowledge that in spite of the previous efforts of various governments to alleviate poverty in Nigeria and the efforts of the current government to effect same, nothing much had changed in the living conditions and standards of the people. Poverty is still growing at an alarming rate. The challenges of poverty alleviation strategies in the Nigerian situation were articulated in the context of sustainable socio-economic development and the paper concludes that poverty alleviation in contemporary Nigeria require both socio-economic policies geared towards sustainable development. However, to enhance the human capital of the poor in particular, priorities for educational reforms should be in the areas of basic education, vocational training, water and sanitation, health care delivery, agriculture and housing for all. It is the position of this paper that until African leaders in general and Nigeria in particular begin to think „We? and not „I?, the fight against poverty that could engender sustainable socio-economic development will for long remain a mirage.

Igbokwe-Ibeto Chinyeaka Justine

2012-06-01

97

Socio-economic Determinants of Turkey Production among Nigerian Soldiers  

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Full Text Available The socio-economic situation of the country has given rise to increased agricultural activities not only among the civilian population but also among the members of the Nigerian Army. According to World Bank, Poverty in Nigeria has increased dramatically with 66% of the population living below National Poverty line, compared with 43% in 1992. This has socio-economic implications to the Nigerian army as well. As a result, many soldiers have resorted to selected agricultural enterprises especially Turkey production as a way of alleviating the economic situation. A total of 60 soldiers covering all the ranks and file of the Nigerian Army were randomly selected from the 82 Division of the Nigerian Army. Four barracks were purposely selected due to their interests in Turkey Production. The barracks include Eburutu Barracks Calabar, Abakpa- Enugu, Zamani lekwot cantonment PH and 82-Division Records, Abakaliki. Data generated were analyzed using regression analysis, benefit-cost ratio, and descriptive statistic. The major factor that enhanced turkey production among soldiers were income and previous farming experience. The enterprise was not only profitable but also viable. Efforts should be made to encourage more soldiers to embrace this enterprise.

J.A. Mbanasor

2004-01-01

98

Socio-economic aspects of different biofuel development pathways  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are several policy drivers for biofuels on a larger scale in the EU transport sector, including increased security of energy supply, reduced emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), and new markets for the agricultural sector. The purpose of this socio-economic cost analysis is to provide an overview of the costs of meeting EU biofuels targets, taking into account several external costs and benefits. Biofuels are generally more expensive than traditional fossil fuels, but the expected increasing value of GHG emission reductions will over time reduce the cost gap. High crude oil prices significantly improve the economic benefit of biofuels, but increased demand for biomass for energy purposes is likely to increase the price of biofuels feedstock and biofuels costs. The key question is to what extent increasing oil prices will be passed on to biofuels costs. Socio-economic least costs for biofuels production require a market with a clear pricing of GHG emissions to ensure that this factor is included in the decision-making of actors in all links of the fuel chain.

2010-02-01

99

Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy  

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Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients� job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

Alam Mahjabeen

1998-01-01

100

Decomposing Kenyan socio-economic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and measles immunization  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Skilled birth attendance (SBA and measles immunization reflect two aspects of a health system. In Kenya, their national coverage gaps are substantial but could be largely improved if the total population had the same coverage as the wealthiest quintile. A decomposition analysis allows identifying the factors that influence these wealth-related inequalities in order to develop appropriate policy responses. The main objective of the study was to decompose wealth-related inequalities in SBA and measles immunization into their contributing factors. Methods Data from the Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey 2008/09 were used. The study investigated the effects of socio-economic determinants on [1] coverage and [2] wealth-related inequalities of SBA utilization and measles immunization. Techniques used were multivariate logistic regression and decomposition of the concentration index (C. Results SBA utilization and measles immunization coverage differed according to household wealth, parent’s education, skilled antenatal care visits, birth order and father’s occupation. SBA utilization further differed across provinces and ethnic groups. The overall C for SBA was 0.14 and was mostly explained by wealth (40%, parent’s education (28%, antenatal care (9%, and province (6%. The overall C for measles immunization was 0.08 and was mostly explained by wealth (60%, birth order (33%, and parent’s education (28%. Rural residence (?19% reduced this inequality. Conclusion Both health care indicators require a broad strengthening of health systems with a special focus on disadvantaged sub-groups.

Van Malderen Carine

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evolving local climate adaptation strategies: incorporating influences of socio–economic stress  

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Socio-economic and climatic stresses affect local communities’ vulnerability toflooding. Better incorporation of socio-economic stress in local vulnerability assessments isimportant when planning for climate adaptation. This is rarely done due to insufficientunderstanding of their interaction, in both theory and practice. The omission leads to criticalweaknesses in local adaptation strategies. This study analyses how socio-economic stressinteract with climatic stress and shape local vulnera...

Hjerpe, Mattias; Glaas, Erik

2012-01-01

102

Socio-economic variation in CT scanning in Northern England, 1990-2002  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Socio-economic status is known to influence health throughout life. In childhood, studies have shown increased injury rates in more deprived settings. Socio-economic status may therefore be related to rates of certain medical procedures, such as computed tomography (CT) scans. This study aimed to assess socio-economic variation among young people having CT scans in Northern England between 1990 and 2002 inclusive. Methods Electronic data were...

2012-01-01

103

Spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Recently, it has been recognized that various aspects of the time evolution of modern socio-economic systems show strong analogies to complex systems extensively studied by physical sciences. During the last decade the application of methods and models of statistical physics provided a novel insight into social and economical problems and led to the emergence of new branches of physical research. In the framework of the present project we proposed a simple cellular automata model of the spreading of new technological developments in socio-economic systems. In our model the socio-economic system is defined in a general sense: the elements/members of the system are called agents, which may be firms or simply individuals. Depending on the meaning of agents, the system under consideration can be a macro-economic system where firms compete with each other, or it can be a society where individuals purchase products of di rent technological level. Technological development occurs such that agents adopt more advanced technologies of their social environment in order to minimize their costs. Technological development due to innovation can be captured in the model as a random external driving. As a first step, we analyzed the basic setup of the model where agents have random technological levels uniformly distributed between 0 and 1 and interact solely with their near- est neighbors in a square lattice without considering external driving. Computer simulations revealed that even under these simplifying assumptions a rather complex behavior of the system emerges: when the most advanced technologies do not provide enough improvement (enough cost reduction) in the system, the agents tend to form clusters of di rent technological levels where even low level technologies may survive for a long time. At intermediate values of the advantage provided by the new technologies, the global technological level of the society improves, however, it does not reach the optimum. That implies that there are agents in the system which had to reduce their technological level to improve the efficiency of their communication. The optimal (maximum) technological development is achieved by the society if advances o red surpass a well-defined threshold value. The threshold value depends on the extension of the social environment of agents. (author)

2005-01-01

104

Socio-economic analysis of CCS/EOR in Denmark; Samfundsoekonomisk analyse af CCS/EOR i Danmark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Danish Energy Agency has initiated an analysis of the socio-economic sustainability of a CCS / EOR system based on CO{sub 2} capture from Danish sources and injected into selected Danish North Sea oil fields. The analysis shall assess the socioeconomic consequences of such a project as well as highlight the budgetary economic effects for the parties involved. Taking into account a realistic time frame for conversion of the cogeneration power plants and for the extent of the possible capture of CO{sub 2} in each of these plants, it has been chosen only to presuppose the establishment of CCS in three plants, namely Studstrupvaerket, Fynsvaerket and Nordjyllandsvaerket. Only the oil fields Dan, Halfdan and Gorm were selected for the analysis. The analysis shows that in the selected oil fields it is possible to increase the oil production by approx. 151 million. barrels of oil to the year 2049, which corresponds to approx. 40% of the estimated potential in these fields. The increased oil production requires that approx. 95 million. tonnes of CO{sub 2} is captured in the three power plants, which are subsequently transported and injected in the oil fields in the North Sea. The transport of CO{sub 2} from the CHP plants to the North Sea are assumed to be done by ship, since this solution is economically favorable and also offers logistical advantages and increased flexibility. The analysis shows that both the budget economic and the socio-economic analysis as a whole provide a positive economic net present value over a 30-year period. The socio-economic benefit is expected to be about. 3.5 billion DKK higher. This difference is due to especially the following conditions: a) CO{sub 2} emissions of CO{sub 2} transport are only included in the socio-economic analysis, since shipping is outside the quota system. In the socio-economic analysis, the estimated value of damage impact on the environment is included; b) The value of the oil produced after 2049 is included in the socio-economic analysis as terminal values, while the budget economic analysis does not include effects beyond 30 years; c) The value of district heating losses in the socio-economic analysis are assumed to correspond to the socio-economic costs of district heating, while the value in the budget economic analysis is calculated as the district heating consumers' expected additional price at the transition from cogeneration to district heating.; d) The cost of SO{sub 2} emissions is in the socio-economic analysis set to damaging effects while in the budget economic analysis it is set to the level of charges. (LN)

NONE

2012-12-15

105

Rural Tourism as a Prospective Direction of Entrepreneurship in the Socio-Economic Mechanism of Rural Development ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ? ?????????-????????????? ????????? ???????? ????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article is devoted to the study of rural tourism as a prospective direction of activity of entrepreneurship in rural districts of Ukraine, since it positively influences restoration, preservation and development of local traditions, trades, monuments of historical and cultural heritage and also expands channels of realisation of products of private farms of rural population. It analyses the essence of the rural tourism and its place in the complex socio-economic rural development. It iden...

Dovgal Yelena V.

2013-01-01

106

Building the Structure of the Mechanism of Socio-economic Security of an Enterprise ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????????? ???????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article describes a comparatively new vision of the structure of the socio-economic security of an enterprise. It considers a complex approach to formation of the structure of the mechanism of socio-economic security of an enterprise. In the result of the study the article offers an improved structure of the mechanism of socio-economic security of an enterprise from the point of view of the system approach that allows increase of the level of socio-economic security of an enterprise not o...

Venglyuk Inna V.

2013-01-01

107

Priorities of Socio-Economic Balancing of Public Transportation Interests ?????????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????????????? ???????????-???????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article uses example of the sphere of passenger transportation to mark problems of socio-economic balancing, which are reduced to a necessity to satisfy polar interests and mandatory accounting of quantitatively non-measurable factors. It justifies a necessity to identify priorities in building socio-transportation links with the help of the method of analysis of hierarchies. It establishes levels and characterises structural and functional elements of hierarchy of branch priorities, which are taken into account during formation of conditions of achievement of quasi-service equilibrium. The process of balancing contradictory interests in the system of transport servicing of the population is considered through the prism of interaction forces, subjects, local goals and contrast scenarios, which creates opportunities for determining justified proportions in relation of social and commercial sectors of the branch market.? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????????????, ??????? ???????? ? ????????????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ????????. ?????????? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ?????????? ???????????-???????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????. ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????????? ??????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????? ?????????? ???????????, ??????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????????????? ??????????. ??????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ??????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ????????????????? ???, ?????????, ????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????, ??? ??????? ??????????? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ? ??????????? ??????????? ? ????????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????.

Gudkova Viktoriya P.

2013-04-01

108

Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010) were introduced which many consider as the key [...] of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs) which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

Michael, Dauderstädt.

109

Common Organizing Mechanisms in Ecological and Socio-economic Networks  

CERN Document Server

Previous work has shown that species interacting in an ecosystem and actors transacting in an economic context may have notable similarities in behavior. However, the specific mechanism that may underlie similarities in nature and human systems has not been analyzed. Building on stochastic food-web models, we propose a parsimonious bipartite-cooperation model that reproduces the key features of mutualistic networks - degree distribution, nestedness and modularity -- for both ecological networks and socio-economic networks. Our analysis uses two diverse networks. Mutually-beneficial interactions between plants and their pollinators, and cooperative economic exchanges between designers and their contractors. We find that these mutualistic networks share a key hierarchical ordering of their members, along with an exponential constraint in the number and type of partners they can cooperate with. We use our model to show that slight changes in the interaction constraints can produce either extremely nested or rand...

Saavedra, Serguei; Uzzi, Brian

2011-01-01

110

Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

Govender, K.

2008-06-01

111

Socio-economic research for innovative energy technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 21st century global environment and energy issues become very important, and this is characterized by the long-term (in the scale of a few tens years) and world-wide issue. In addition, future prospect of these issues might be quite uncertain, and scientific prediction could be very difficult. For these issues vigorous researches and various efforts have been carried out from various aspects; e.g., world-wide discussion such as COP3 in Kyoto, promotion of the energy-saving technology and so on. Development of environment-friendly energy has been promoted, and new innovative technologies are explored. Nuclear fusion is, of course, a promising candidate. While, there might be some criticism for nuclear fusion from the socio-economic aspect; e.g., it would take long time and huge cost for the fusion reactor development. In addition, other innovative energy technologies might have their own criticism, as well. Therefore, socio-economic research might be indispensable for future energy resources. At first we have selected six items as for the characteristics, which might be important for future energy resources; i.e., energy resource, environmental load, economics, reliability/stability, flexibility on operation and safety/security. Concerning to innovative energy technologies, we have nominated seven candidates; i.e., advanced coal technology with CO2 recovery system, SOFC top combined cycle, solar power, wind power, space solar power station, advanced fission and fusion. Based on questionnaires for ordinary people and fusion scientists, we have tried to assess the fusion energy development, comparing with other innovative energy technologies. (author)

2006-01-01

112

The socio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english National parks in South Africa are seen as major tourism assets due to the wildlife and various activities for international and local visitors. Little is known of the socio-economic contribution of these parks to their respective local economies. The purpose of this research was to determine the so [...] cio-economic impact of the Karoo National Park (Karoo NP) in South Africa, especially the economic impact of the Karoo NP on the local economy, the impact of tourism business development in the Karoo district, and how the park affects the community. Three surveys were used to determine the socio-economic impact: a community survey, a business survey and a tourist survey. The results show that the park has an impact in terms of production, income generation and employment in the area, but this impact is not as significant as that of other national parks in South Africa. A small percentage (4%) of businesses in Beaufort West owe their existence to the Karoo NP, but most rely on tourist spending. For the park to have a greater impact, it is imperative to increase accommodation capacity, offer more activities and promote activities and attractions in the region. CONSERVATION IMPLICATION:The importance of this article lies in the economic value that conservation management generates as well as identifying the benefits that communities derive from the existence of a national park. It also supports the notion that conservation entails more than just conserving fauna and flora and highlights the interdependence of conservation, tourism and community participation.

Melville, Saayman; Andrea, Saayman; Madelien, Ferreira.

113

Ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper presents an ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge conducted ten years after the opening in July 2000. The study applies historical micro data to re construct the travel pattern with no bridge in place and compare this to the current situation. To complete the socio-economic assessment, the consumer benefits including all freight and passenger modes, are compared with the cost profile of the bridge. The monetary contributions are extrapolated to a complete 50 year period. It is revealed that the bridge from 2000â??2010 generated a consumer surplus of â?¬2 billion in 2000 prices discounted at 3.5% p.a., which should be compared with a total construction cost of approximately â?¬4 billion. Seen over the 50 year period and by assuming a medium growth scenario the bridge is expected to generate an internal rate of return in the magnitude of 9% corresponding to a benefit-cost rate of 2.2.A main advantage of analysing infrastructure ex post is the ability to learn and understand behavioural andmethodological elements not foreseen at the ex ante stages. Following this we offer an extended discussion including two parts. Firstly we compare the ex ante predictions for the bridge to the current transport flows. The importance of having the right assumptions and the ability to model the phasing-in process are underlined. Secondly, we offer a wider discussion on why some projects are more beneficial than others. This is done by comparing the Oresund Bridge, the Channel Tunnel, and the Great Belt Link.

Knudsen, M.Aa.; Rich, Jeppe

2013-01-01

114

Socio-economic benefits from Hibernia operations in 1998  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report identifies and describes the socio-economic effects of oil production from this offshore site, over and above the initial socio-economic effects of construction and fabrication. It documents a wide range of Newfoundlanders and Labradorians who benefit, directly and indirectly, from Hibernia operations. It builds on a series of reports which have examined the effects of Hibernia construction activity on employment, businesses and communities, including those resulting from spending and technology transfer. The report discusses the large scale and long term nature of the social and economic benefits of production activity and a wide range of benefits and beneficiaries. The report documents the ways in which Hibernia and other offshore oil activity are helping to transform the provincial economy. Another section of the report provides an overview of economic benefits. Based on information from Hibernia's production, expenditures and employment during 1998, the provincial government's Newfoundland and Labrador Econometric Model was used to calculate and describe Hibernia's effect on the gross domestic product, employment, unemployment rate, total incomes, retail sales and housing starts. Another section looks at the range of infrastructure that has resulted from Hibernia and other offshore petroleum activity, including industrial, training and research and development infrastructure. A further section on training and technology transfer describes the ways in which the oil industry has increased local training capabilities and provided opportunties for Newfoundlanders and Labradorians to learn locally and work elsewhere. Another section examines the effects of all this on a range of companies. A last section provides a brief review of the findings related to the activity to date and what can be expected in the future. 8 refs., 2 tabs

1999-01-01

115

Determining the relationship between invasive alien species density and a country’s socio-economic status  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We explored the relationships between various socio-economic variables and the prevalence and density of invasive alien species (IAS on a global scale using country-level data sets. We did this by testing the hypothesis that the abundance and distribution of populations of IAS are correlated with various socio-economic indicators, with the direction of causality being that the state of IAS is determined by socio-economic conditions. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between the prevalence and density of IAS and the human development index (HDI, the satisfaction with life index and the gross domestic product (GDP among all the countries tested. Additionally, the density of IAS increased significantly with human-population density, total geographic area, GDP and HDI. We also found a positive relationship between the density of IAS and the top 10 road networks of the world. This provides some insight into the development of renewed policies and management strategies for invasive species across both continents and countries. We do caution, however, that the results are likely to be influenced by the sampling factor, whereby affluent countries have more resources to measure and monitor IAS than poorer countries and hence have better records of such, which then indicates a stronger relationship with the level of development.

James N. Blignaut

2010-04-01

116

Psychological well-being and socio-economic hardship among AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children in Guinea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decade, the effects of AIDS-related parental death on children's socio-economic, educational and psychological well-being have become apparent. Most studies, however, have compared the plight of so-called AIDS orphans with non-orphaned children only. Consequently, such study designs are unable to establish if the AIDS-related cause of death of the parents confers effects additional to those of parent-bereavement. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the psychological well-being and socio-economic hardship among 140 non-orphaned children, 133 children orphaned by causes other than AIDS (O) and 124 children orphaned by AIDS (O-A) in Conakry, N'Zerekore and the villages around N'Zerekore, Guinea. Multi-way analysis of variance and multiple (ordinal) logistic regression models were applied to measure the association between the orphan status and psychological well-being, school attendance, economic activities, frequency of going to bed hungry and sleeping commodity. After adjustment for confounding factors, the psychological well-being score (PWS) was significantly lower among AIDS-orphaned children than among O (P<0.001). Additionally, AIDS-orphaned children were more likely to be engaged in economic activities (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.04; 95% CI: 1.45-6.36) and to go to bed hungry on a daily basis (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.24-6.02) than other orphans. The differences in school attendance and the proportion of children with a bed or couch to sleep between AIDS-orphaned children and O were not statistically significant. This situation calls for sustainable and holistic approaches to ensure the psychological and socio-economic stability of AIDS orphans and other vulnerable children. PMID:20024728

Delva, Wim; Vercoutere, An; Loua, Catherine; Lamah, Jonas; Vansteelandt, Stijn; De Koker, Petra; Claeys, Patricia; Temmerman, Marleen; Annemans, Lieven

2009-12-01

117

Socio-Economic Status and Language Acquisition: Children's Performance on the New Reynell Developmental Language Scales  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Several studies in recent years have indicated a link between socio-economic status (SES) of families and children's language development, including studies that have measured children's language through formal standardized test procedures. High numbers of children with low performance have been found in lower socio-economic groups in…

Letts, Carolyn; Edwards, Susan; Sinka, Indra; Schaefer, Blanca; Gibbons, Wendy

2013-01-01

118

Analysis of survival in HIV-infected subjects according to socio-economic resources in the HAART era.  

Science.gov (United States)

Availability of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) has modified the natural history of HIV infection, resulting in increase of seropositive subjects survival. The aim of the study was to assess patients' survival in relation to socio-economic status in HAART era using Functional Multidimensional Evaluation questionnaire. A three-level Socio-Economic Index (SEI) combining results from self-perception of unmet needs and objective data from the assessment of the two dimensions has been set up by the authors. Of the 382 subjects interviewed, 102 had been lost to follow-up. SEI showed that 66.4% of the sample faced unmet social or economic needs and 17.1% had unmet needs in both areas. There was a significant relationship between the self-sufficiency in performing Activities of Daily Living (ADL), Clinical Staging, CD4 cell count, SEI and risk of death. The lowest level of SEI was associated with a doubled risk of death compared to SEI upper level. Availability of social and economics support have a positive effect upon survival in patients with HIV infection, also in case of availability of HAART. The combination of subjective and objective assessment of socio-economic resources allows a better understanding of their impact on survival. PMID:18590041

Liotta, G; Caleo, G M; Mancinelli, S

2008-01-01

119

Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventative medicine has become increasingly important in efforts to reduce the burden of chronic disease in industrialised countries. However, interventions that fail to recruit socio-economically representative samples may widen existing health inequalities. This paper explores the barriers and facilitators to engaging a socio-economically disadvantaged (SED population in primary prevention for coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a a social marketing campaign and b a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches. Results Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1 processes of engagement; (2 issues of understanding; (3 design of the screening service and (4 the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention. Conclusion Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide approach.

Cunningham Heather

2010-07-01

120

Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children  

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Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.

Inge Huybrechts

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to health statistics, malaria accounts for about 30% and 15% of hospital admissions and deaths, respectively. The risk of P. falciparum infection varies across the country. This study describes the spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of P. falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania. Methods The study was conducted in 14 villages located in highland, lowland and urban areas of Korogwe district. Four cross-sectional malaria surveys involving individuals aged 0-19 years were conducted during short (Nov-Dec and long (May-Jun rainy seasons from November 2005 to June 2007. Household socio-economic status (SES data were collected between Jan-April 2006 and household's geographical positions were collected using hand-held geographical positioning system (GPS unit. The effects of risk factors were determined using generalized estimating equation and spatial risk of P. falciparum infection was modelled using a kernel (non-parametric method. Results There was a significant spatial variation of P. falciparum infection, and urban areas were at lower risk. Adjusting for covariates, high risk of P. falciparum infection was identified in rural areas of lowland and highland. Bed net coverage levels were independently associated with reduced risk of P. falciparum by 19.1% (95%CI: 8.9-28.2, p Conclusions There was high spatial variation of risk of P. falciparum infection and urban area was at the lowest risk. High bed net coverage, better SES and good housing were among the important risk factors associated with low risk of P. falciparum infection.

Theander Thor G

2011-05-01

122

Reliability based socio economic optimal renewable energy model for India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and biomass have to play a vital role in the developing countries like India in order to meet the growing energy demand. In the last five years, some renewable energy sources had emerged as technically and economically viable alternatives in the energy sector, as a result, more ambitious plans for their dissemination were being launched. In this situation, development of an energy model exclusively for renewables will help in the allocation of appropriate renewable energy systems for different end-uses in the future. An attempt has been made to develop a reliability based socio economic optimal renewable energy model for India in the year 2020-2021. The effect of social acceptance variation in OREM model was analysed. The lighting end-use would be met by solar PV and biogas system to an extent of 0.5198 x 10{sup 15} kJ and 0.75 x 10{sup 15} kJ, respectively. Similarly, the renewable energy utilisation is found for other end-uses. (author)

Iniyan, S.; Suganthi, L.; Jagadeesan, T.R.; Samuel, A.A. [Anna University, Chennai (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2000-02-01

123

Socio-economic effects of bioenergy; Bioenergian yhteiskuntataloudelliset vaikutukset  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report studies the socio-economic effects and benefits of domestic fuels - peat and wood, and agricultural energy plants also - in power and heat generation. For evaluation of employment and income effects, it compares the costs of domestic as well a imported fuels as regards production, transportation and power stations by looking especially at the direct labour input and inputs in terms of intermediate products and investment. Their indirect employment effects and allocation to domestic factor income and imports are introduced by means of an input-output model. The net changes in the disposable incomes of local households, firms and municipalities, the government and others are derived from factor incomes by means of income redistribution. The economy-wide profitability of the domestic fuels was evaluated using a macroeconomic model, the FMS model system. The particular question posed was how much the domestic fuels could cost at most to be economically profitable. It was shown that macroeconomic profitability is affected essentially by real production costs and the import prices of the imported fuels. Subsidies and differentiated fuel taxes have only little impact on the macroeconomic profitability although they change the private profitability of the fuels considerably. This is why fuel taxes were excluded in the macroeconomic profitability evaluations

Maeenpaeae, I.; Maennistoe, J.

1995-12-31

124

The socio-economic distribution of health-related occupational stressors among wage-earners in a Post-Fordist labour market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unequal exposure to occupational stressors is a central pathway towards socio-economic health inequalities in working populations. This paper assesses the differential exposure of such stressors within the population of Flemish wage-earners. Our focus is on differences in gender, age, skill levels, occupational and social class positions.

Vanroelen, C.; Levecque, K.; Louckx, F.

2010-01-01

125

Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior and parenting in South Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than non-affected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child wellbeing. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and non-affected caregiver-child dyads (n = 2,477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS’s association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty.

Lachman, J.; Cluver, L.; Boyes, M.; Kuo, C.; Casale, M.

2014-01-01

126

Strategic considerations in Indian space programme—Towards maximising socio-economic benefits  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategic thinking and planning have been the hallmarks of Indian space programme, whose objectives are sharply focused on deriving socio-economic benefits of space technology. The purpose of this paper is to identify various strategies, which played a role in different phases of the programme, contributing to social and economic outcomes and effectiveness. While self-reliant development of technological capacity and evaluation of applications with involvement of users formed the backbone of strategy in the initial phase of the programme, subsequent strategies were centred on development of organisational culture and systems, industry role and promotion of spin offs. Other strategies dealt with the response to challenges inherent in space endeavours in terms of risk management, sustainability, investments and long-term commitments, judicious make or buy decisions, safeguard of sensitive technologies, space commerce and finally harmonising international cooperation with national objectives. The strategies in the programme were consistently driven by a clear-cut vision and objectives to develop and use space technology in diverse areas where space systems become relevant for socio-economic development such as telecommunications and broadcasting, meteorology, disaster management support, remote sensing of natural and anthropogenic phenomena, and positioning and navigation services. This paper synthesises various studies and experiences in India in order to analyse strategies in the face of changes in technology, application needs and international policies. It also examines the effectiveness of these strategies in terms of economic and social costs and benefits. Based on the above analysis, a typical conceptual model for use of space for development is suggested.

Sridhara Murthi, K. R.; Madhusudan, H. N.

2008-07-01

127

A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 2: Water availability and scarcity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century was conducted under the latest socio-economic scenario for global change studies, namely Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). SSPs depict five global situations with substantially different socio-economic conditions. In the accompanying paper, a water use scenario compatible with the SSPs was developed. This scenario considers not only quantitative socio-economic factors such as population and electricity production but also quali...

Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

2012-01-01

128

PHASING TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROJECTS FOR SUSTAINABLE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper describes appropriate phases and review points (or ‘gates’ for South African projects aimed at transferring technology for socio-economic development. Data gathering was done through a Delphi survey supplemented by a focus group session. A total of 42 knowledgeable respondents participated. The most significant phases of projects under consideration were confirmed, and relevant activities per phase and criteria for reviewing at the ‘gates’ between phases were identified. A total of 59% of resources should be made available for pre- and post-implementation activities, compared with the 41% of project resources to be made available during implementation. The causes of the failure of technology transfer projects under consideration were also identified. It is concluded that the use of a phased approach would improve the probability of project success.

AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING Hierdie artikel beskryf die relevante fases en oorsig punte (of ‘hekke’ vir Suid-Afrikaanse projekte wat gemik is op die oordrag van tegnologie vir sosio-ekonomiese ontwikkeling. Die insameling van data is gedoen deur middel van ’n Delphi opname wat aangevul is met ’n fokusgroep. ’n Totaal van 42 kundige respondente het deelgeneem. Die mees beduidende fases van projekte onder bespreking is bevestig, en relevante aktiwiteite per fase asook kriteria vir oorsigpunte by die ‘hekke’ tussen die fases is geïdentifiseer. ’n Totaal van 59% van die hulpbronne behoort aangewend te word tydens die fases voor en na implementering, in vergeleke met 41% tydens implementering. Die oorsake vir mislukking van projekte onder bespreking is ook geïdentifiseer. Die gevolgtrekking word gemaak dat die gebruik van ’n gefaseerde benadering die waarskynlikheid van projek sukses behoort te verhoog.

E. Beukman

2012-01-01

129

School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents : risk factors differ between socio-economic groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups.

Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E

2007-01-01

130

Building the Structure of the Mechanism of Socio-economic Security of an Enterprise ?????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????????? ???????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes a comparatively new vision of the structure of the socio-economic security of an enterprise. It considers a complex approach to formation of the structure of the mechanism of socio-economic security of an enterprise. In the result of the study the article offers an improved structure of the mechanism of socio-economic security of an enterprise from the point of view of the system approach that allows increase of the level of socio-economic security of an enterprise not only due to individual functional sub-systems, but also due to a complex approach to security problems at an enterprise, not ignoring individual components of the security mechanism.?????? ?????????? ???????????? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????????? ???????????. ? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????????? ????????? ????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???????, ???????????? ???????? ??????? ??????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ????????? ????????? ?????????????? ???????????, ? ??????? ? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ?? ??????????? ??????????, ?? ??????????? ?????????? ????????????? ????????? ????????????.

Venglyuk Inna V.

2013-10-01

131

Socio-Economic Reforms in 1965 with the Industry as a Problem ?????????-????????????? ???????? ??????? 1965 ?. ?? ?????????????? ??? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to highlight the analytical approach E. G. Lieberman to develop key areas of reform in 1965 in industry related to socio-economic incentives production.???? ???? ?????? ??????????? ? ????????? ?????????????? ??????? ?. ?. ????????? ? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ??????? 1965 ???? ? ??????????????, ????????? ? ?????????-?...

Rudenko Rostislav G.; Zima Aleksandr G.

2012-01-01

132

Socio-economic impact of Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux nuclear plant A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plant A at Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux has been on-stream since 1969. The author considers the socio-economic consequences of the operation of the plant on the demography, finance and local activities of the region

1980-01-01

133

The Systematic Approach Measurements to Socio-Economic Development of the Regions of Ukraine ???????????? ?????? ? ????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the article considers the measurement of socio-economic status of the regions of Ukraine on the stage of economic growth and the formation of a national system of territorial administration.? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????-?????????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????????????? ????? ? ???????????? ???????????? ??????? ???...

Novikova Marina N.; Mazhnik Lidiya Oleksandrivna

2012-01-01

134

Socio-Economic Impact of Social Forestry on Farmers in District Faisalabad  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present study deals with the survey which was conducted to study the Socio-economic impact of social forestry on farmers in District Faisalabad. Forest community of plants and animals dominated by woody vegetation. In Pakistan there is not appropriate forestry system and farmers are not aware of social forestry. The main purpose of the study were to measure : to examine Socio-economic characteristics of farmers affecting planting : to examine the motivating factors behind the adoption of soci...

2001-01-01

135

Socio-economic effects of HIV/AIDS in African countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This desk study was commissioned by NORAD to review recent literature on socio-economic consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa with focus on Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. The report gives a general socio-economic overview and identifies some issues of importance for Norway's assistance to the five focus countries. It is hoped that the report will provide useful background material for development assistance officials and other interested parties. Overal...

2002-01-01

136

Socio-economics and wildlife conservation of a peri-urban national park in central Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The support, perceptions, values and aspiration of the local people, especially those who neighbour protected areas is increasingly recognised as critical for long-term biodiversity conservation in many countries. As such, conservation agencies are keen to understand the linkages and interactions between wildlife conservation and socio-economics of local communities. We assessed the socio-economic, demographic factors and livelihood status of the households of communities bordering Oldoinyo S...

2012-01-01

137

A Study on Obesity in Relation to Socio -Economic Status in Men and Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Obesity now a day’s considered an epidemic earlier was considered a disease of western world, and highly affluent society. But now days it is seen more in low socio economic group also. Objective: To investigate obesity in relation to socio economic status inmen & women in Indians. Methods: We reviewed data from a health check up program of workers at Municipal Corporationworking as sweeperswhich was done at SAIMS Medical CollegeIndore and executives coming for routin...

Vinod Porwal, Anand Verma

2013-01-01

138

Inter-state Disparities in Socio-economic Development in North East Region of India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The level of development of north east region has been estimated with the help of composite index based on optimum combination of socio-economic indicators. The state-wise data for the year 2006 on forty eight indicators were used for seven states (seven sisters) of the north east region of India. Fifteen indicators are directly concerned with agricultural development, nine indicators are directly concerned with livestock development, twelve indicators are concern with socio-economic...

2012-01-01

139

Constructing place specific measures of health and socio-economic inequality for metropolitan Vancouver  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent decades researchers have used Census-based socio-economic models to explain why some people are healthier than others. Little attention has been directed to survey-based methods for quantifying socio-economic inequality due to the inherent subjectivity of individual responses in characterizing data. This thesis argues that this very subjectivity allows us to better understand and evaluate social gradients in health status. A survey instrument was developed and distributed to British...

Bell, Nathaniel Joseph

2006-01-01

140

South Asian Diasporic Youth in Denmark: Socio-Economic Strategies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on two empirical studies, this article investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adultsâ?? economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s. Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of  Indian and Pakistani background (n=5). The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature of transnational activities among second generation Pakistani has been investigated within a theoretical framework of transnationalism and identity construction. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, businessrelated investment and direct remittances, 2) awareness of parentsâ?? strategies, although few or no self-employed strategies and 3) collective strategy through an organisation. There are considerable temporal as well as qualitative differences in the strategies as compared to the parental generation.  

Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Reducing flood vulnerability and risk under changing socio-economic conditions - A qualitative case study in Upper Austria  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the last decades severe flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe. Especially in 2002, Upper Austria was seriously affected. Beside the natural variability of precipitation events the increase of losses is strongly connected with socio-economic developments. Especially the increase of settlement areas and the specific values of such modern settlement areas in flood prone areas induced this increase of losses. The presented case study was initiated to analyse different consequences of the currently observed socio-economic trend and further socio-economic projections within the watershed of the so-called Ottnanger Redl in Upper Austria, a watershed which was affected by the event in 2002. The temporal dimension of this change in damage potential is analysed for the 1990s, current conditions and future scenarios (Statistics Austria). Beside the socio-economic development the common structural vulnerability but also the positive effect of legislation and standards concerning flood-adapted constructions are considered. The hydrological-hydraulic is realized based on a scaled scenario approach. Therefore, documented precipitation events at rain gauges are considered for precipitation run-off simulations. To include further events the gauged events are scalled in their intensity. The hydrological loads of these scenarios are considered within different 2D hydraulic simulations; representation of past, current and future settlement structure. Based on the current settlement structure and its transfer in an asset value database, the past structure of the 1990s is reconstructed with remote sensing methods. The future structure (different pragmatic scenarios) in contrast is estimated on the basis of the current situation, socio-economic projections of Statistics Austria, land-use planes and local development concepts of the individual communities and in cooperation with the Regional Government of Upper Austria. The monetary evaluation is conducted with visualized verified building footprints, high resolved building characteristics on address level, building cross cubature analyses based on LiDAR data and monetary evaluation guidelines for different sectors and building functionalities of the Oberösterreichische Versicherung (regional insurance companies). Furthermore, this monetary evaluation approach is crosschecked with further approaches. First, to analyse the flood risk situation under past, current and future socio-economic situations for the different hydraulic loads without any measures to reduce current vulnerability, common flood vulnerability approaches (loss ratio) are considered. In a next step, the introduced legislation and standards in Upper Austria concerning flood adapted constructions is implemented within the applied vulnerability approaches. Thus, the effect of flood adapted construction measures as well as different settlement scenarios on the risk situation can be analysed. The stochastic nature of flood events is furthermore considered within a Monte-Carlo based evaluation routine. The results of the study show exemplarily the positive effect of object-based measures to reduce the susceptibility of the elements at risk and, furthermore, demonstrate the consequences of different settlement scenarios on the flood risk situation within the study area. As the project is still in progress, the contribution will introduce the general framework and highlight some first results.

Huttenlau, Matthias; Reiss, Julia; Achleitner, Stefan; Plörer, Manuel; Hofer, Michael; Weingraber, Felix

2013-04-01

142

Physical-Socio-Economic Modeling of Climate Change  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the global nature of climate change, any assessment of the effects of plans, policies, and response to climate change demands a model that encompasses the entire Earth System, including socio- economic factors. Physics-based climate models of the factors that drive global temperatures, rainfall patterns, and sea level are necessary but not sufficient to guide decision making. Actions taken by farmers, industrialists, environmentalists, politicians, and other policy makers may result in large changes to economic factors, international relations, food production, disease vectors, and beyond. These consequences will not be felt uniformly around the globe or even across a given region. Policy models must comprehend all of these considerations. Combining physics-based models of the Earth's climate and biosphere with societal models of population dynamics, economics, and politics is a grand challenge with high stakes. We propose to leverage our recent advances in modeling and simulation of military stability and reconstruction operations to models that address all these areas of concern. Following over twenty years' experience of successful combat simulation, JPL has started developing Minerva, which will add demographic, economic, political, and media/information models to capabilities that already exist. With these new models, for which we have design concepts, it will be possible to address a very wide range of potential national and international problems that were previously inaccessible. Our climate change model builds on Minerva and expands the geographical horizon from playboxes containing regions and neighborhoods to the entire globe. This system consists of a collection of interacting simulation models that specialize in different aspects of the global situation. They will each contribute to and draw from a pool of shared data. The basic models are: the physical model; the demographic model; the political model; the economic model; and the media/information operations model. Each of these models focuses on part of the overall picture while; each contributes information about its area of expertise to a common pool and draws from that pool and the feedbacks from the other models as needed. Existing high-quality physical models are based on analysis of the dynamic interactions of atmospheric, land, and ocean processes. The demographic model tracks the civilian demographics needed by the other models. The populations of neighborhood group age-gender cohorts are affected by births, deaths, aging, and migration. This model provides labor supply and product demand curves to the economic model. The political model focuses on political actors and describes how they use their clout to seek their goals. Clout is derived from civilian support, the formal and informal alliances that actors make with each other, military strength, wealth, and control of information. It considers how they are constrained by their cultural heritage. It deals with shifting alliances. The economic model determines local and international prices and production quantities for a small number of products, including imports and exports and black markets; wages, jobs, and unemployment for a small number of labor categories; capital, growth, and inflation; resource usage and pollution. The media/information operations model addresses the effects of the control and content of inter- group and intra-group communications-and the side effects of these on other groups. This model will consist of rules (probably a large number of them) detailing the effects of media/information operations of various kinds on civilian parameters used in the other models, such as political goals, concern saliencies, and shapes of supply and demand curves.

Chamberlain, R. G.; Vatan, F.

2008-12-01

143

Predisposed to participate? The influence of family socio-economic background on children's sports participation and daily amount of physical activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From a Bourdieu-inspired understanding of how personal resources (‘capitals’) enable certain practices in certain contexts, the links between families' cultural, social and economic capitals, and children's daily physical activity were investigated in 500 suburban Danish schoolchildren using questionnaire data and accelerometer measures. Family socio-economic position (SEP) was found to be positively associated with children's participation in organized sport, which could be explained by ...

Nielsen, Glen; Grønfeldt, Vivian; Toftegaard-støckel, Jan; Andersen, Lars Bo

2011-01-01

144

Socio economic determinants of health insurance in India: the case of Hyderabad city  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health has been declared as a fundamental human right in India and several other countries. Theoretical works as well as empirical evidences clearly show the positive linkage between good health and economic development. The policy concern in developing countries including India is not only to reach the entire population with adequate healthcare services, but also to secure an acceptable level of health for all the people through the application of primary healthcare programs. Health insurance is one of the most important aspects of health care management system. This paper identifies the socio economic determinants of demand for health insurance in India taking Hyderabad as the case. For this purpose, a sample survey has been conducted taking 200 sample units in Hyderabad city. The logistic model has been used to identify the determinants of health insurance. We conclude that the main determinants of demand for health insurance in Hyderabad are the occupation, income, health expenditure and awareness. The other variables such as the age and education are positively associated with demand for health insurance but are not statistically significant. In view of these findings, some policy suggestions are made.

J. Yellaiah

2012-09-01

145

Importance of bio-medical and socio-economic factors for increase of life expectancy  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes the connection between life expectancy according to sex and numerous factors on which its level depends on. Statistical analysis understood application of correlation and regression analysis for determining the connection strength of life expectancy and researched factors separately and then all factors together, as well as separately groups of health-medical and socio-economic factors. The analysis was carried out for a group of developed countries, medium developed, mixed group and Yugoslavia (now SCG on available data for the second half of the 20th century. Analysis results for Yugoslavia showed that the greatest influence on life expectancy of all factors together were setting aside funds for social security (p<0.05. If only health-medical factors are observed, then child mortality up to 5 years and tumor mortality are in question. With women, the greatest influence is with child mortality up to five years old among all factors (socio-economic factors on life expectancy was very strong in present conditions of mortality, not only in positive, but in negative direction as well, and that their influence in that second half of the 20th century was greater than the influence of health-medical factors. Also, it seems that the males are more sensitive to these factors than women.

Radivojevi? Biljana M.

2004-01-01

146

Spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of Plasmodium falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Tanzania. According to health statistics, malaria accounts for about 30% and 15% of hospital admissions and deaths, respectively. The risk of P. falciparum infection varies across the country. This study describes the spatial variation and socio-economic determinants of P. falciparum infection in northeastern Tanzania. METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 villages located in highland, lowland and urban areas of Korogwe district. Four cross-sectional malaria surveys involving individuals aged 0-19 years were conducted during short (Nov-Dec) and long (May-Jun) rainy seasons from November 2005 to June 2007. Household socio-economic status (SES) data were collected between Jan-April 2006 and household's geographical positions were collected using hand-held geographical positioning system (GPS) unit. The effects of risk factors were determined using generalized estimating equation and spatial risk of P. falciparum infection was modelled using a kernel (non-parametric) method. RESULTS: There was a significant spatial variation of P. falciparum infection, and urban areas were at lower risk. Adjusting for covariates, high risk of P. falciparum infection was identified in rural areas of lowland and highland. Bed net coverage levels were independently associated with reduced risk of P. falciparum by 19.1% (95%CI: 8.9-28.2, p

Mmbando, Bruno P; Kamugisha, Mathias L

2011-01-01

147

Perinatal complications and socio-economic differences in cerebral palsy in Sweden – a national cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a controversy regarding the existence of a socio-economic gradient for cerebral palsy. Perinatal emergencies and preterm birth increase the risk for the offspring to develop cerebral palsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of socio-economic indicators with cerebral palsy (CP and the role of perinatal health as mediator of this association. Methods Register study of a national cohort of 805,543 children born 1987–93, including 1,437 children with cerebral palsy that were identified in hospital discharge data from national registers. Socio-economic indicators of the household were taken from the Census of 1985. Logistic regression and chi-square analyses of linearity were used to test hypotheses. Results There was a linear association between the incidence of CP (excluding cases caused by registered injuries or malformations as well as of major perinatal indicators and the socio-economic status (SES of the household of the mother (p Conclusion This study suggests that there is a continuous socio-economic gradient for CP in Sweden. Further studies in more complete populations of children with cerebral palsy are needed to confirm this. Perinatal complications seem to mediate some of this gradient.

Hjern Anders

2008-10-01

148

Effect of socio-economic status on the prevalence of dermatophytosis in Madras  

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Full Text Available A total of 462 patients living in varying socio-economic conditions were screened for tinea infection. 372/462 (70.7% were found to be culture positive for dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequently isolated dermatophyte. 35% of the infected cases were from the very low income group (group-I, 34.2% from low income group (group-II, 23.3% from middle income group (group-III and 1.8% from moderately rich group (group-IV. Recurrent, chronic and extensive dermatophytosis were found to be most common in group-I (20.3% and group-II (17.8%, whereas localized infections were common in group-IV (66.6% and group-III (65.7%. Recurrence chronicity were more frequent in tinea cruris and tinea corporis. The present study suggests that group-I and group-II may be the likely reservoirs of human ringworm infections in Madras

Ranganathan S

1995-01-01

149

Traditional Knowledge and Institutions in Socio-Economic Development of Aboriginal Community  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the perspectives of use of traditional knowledge in national socio-economic development in general and in the development of local communities of aboriginal nations of Siberia in particular. This study aims to analyze the traditional economic activity with the help of the questionnaire of 1500 respondents (from different ethnic groups in different parts of the Siberian region - Khakasia. The results of empirical research have shown that in Khakas communities traditional kinds of activity are extended and they are of great importance for people as earlier. Comparative analysis of labor productivity in animal husbandry and wildlife management allows to draw a conclusion of positive influence of traditional knowledge on these fields of activity. Some clusters of traditional economic institutions of the indigenous people of Southern Siberia have been identified. The results of evolution of traditional institutions and their current state are presented. Even the transformed institutions are accepted by members of national communities as earlier. The research demonstrates the traditional institutions and knowledgemay be the factor of economic increase and social development for local society. Moreover, it is a national heritage and it needs to be managed.

Svetlana Panikaroca

2013-08-01

150

Analysis of the energy access improvement and its socio-economic impacts in rural areas of developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Access to modern energy is one of the most basic requirements for development. In rural areas of developing countries, there are a large number of people who do not have access to LPG and depend on traditional biomass such as wood, crop, and dung for cooking. In addition, energy has numerous and complex links with poverty reduction. Therefore, it is important to estimate the impacts of energy access improvement on socio-economic situation in the rural areas of developing countries quantitatively. This study focuses on socio-economic impacts of cooking demand through changes in stoves adopted by the rural households. We have developed an energy-economic model of rural areas in India to analyze the links between energy, income, and health hazard, applying both opportunity cost for using fuelwood and exposure to Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM). As a result of the analysis, there is a positive relation between the opportunity cost and the average RSPM exposure of women in the rural areas. Following to increase in the opportunity cost, that is, income, the cost of an improved wood stove becomes relatively lower first than that of a traditional wood stove, and then a gas stove attains price competitiveness. It is achieved that the average RSPM exposure is below the WHO and Japanese criteria for Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM), 190 and 100 [{mu}g/m{sup 3}], at the opportunity cost of US$9 and 15/GJ, respectively. (author)

Kanagawa, Makoto; Nakata, Toshihiko [Management of Science and Technology Department, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-Yama 6-6-11-815, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

2007-04-20

151

Local knowledge and socio-economic determinants of traditional medicines' utilization in livestock health management in Southwest Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria utilize traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants (PMs for the maintenance of their animals' health. This study was designed to determine the PMs used in the study area and their level of utilization by livestock farmers, compare the level of utilization of PMs across the three states surveyed and identify the socio-economic factors influencing farmer's utilization of PMs. Thirty-five PMs were identified. Farmers had considerable knowledge about the identified PMs but about 80.0% of them used the PMs to poor/moderate extent. There were statistical differences in the utilization level of PMs among the three states. Six socio-economic variables were found to be statistically significant in influencing PMs' utilization. Farmer's age, household size, distance to the nearest veterinary hospital/clinic and extent of travels, had positive effects while negative effects were exhibited by farm income and number of heads of livestock. It was concluded that there was considerable knowledge about PMs and that utilization of PMs varied between the three states. It was recommended that local knowledge of PMs be preserved in the study area through screening and documentation.

Mafimisebi Taiwo E

2012-01-01

152

Constructing public worlds : Culture and socio-economic context in the development of children's representations of the public sphere  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

: This paper explores how children in different cultures and socio-economic contexts develop representations about the public sphere. It addresses how contexts of representation shape the form and content of childrenâ??s thinking while expressing the two-way transactions between the child and their social world. Drawings by children from two age groups (seven- and 10-year-olds) and two socio-economic milieus (affluent and deprived), in four cultures (Germany, Mexico, Brazil and Romania), supported by observations and interviews, were used to investigate childrenâ??s representations of their public world and their position within it. Findings show that public spheres characterised by collectivism, poverty and/or marginalisation: a) accelerate decentration bringing the public world and its complexity to the foreground of childrenâ??s depictions, and b) show a strong link between self and the public world. In affluent or individualistic public spheres we recognise the classical developmental pathway proposed by Piaget, with a clear increase in the separation between self and society as children grow. Childrenâ??s representations are flexible semiotic systems whose form and content interact productively with the context in which they develop. These results reject conceptions of childrenâ??s knowledge as a prototype of adult knowledge, suggesting that childrenâ??s societal knowledge evolves through adaptive strategies to specific socio-cultural environments.

Jovchelovitch, Sandra; Priego-Hernandez, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

153

Policies and Socio-economics influencing on Agricultural Production: A Case Study on Maize Production in Bokeo Province, Laos.  

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Full Text Available Since 2005s, agricultural land in northern Laos has become to be dominated by maize mono-cropping. The rapid expansion of this commercial crop has the resulted of policy implementations and demand of maize from the neighboring countries. The purpose of this study was aim to analyze the impact of commercial agricultural policy and socio-economic factors influencing on maize production in Houyxai Distirct, Bokeo Province of Laos. A survey of 98 maize farmers by face to face interviews was conducted in September 2010. Ordinary Least Square regression model was applied in order to explain how these policies and socio-economic factors effect to farmers and contribute to maize production. The results revealed that 94% of the variation in maize production (ton is explained by the selected explanatory variables. Seven variables have a positive significant and one variable has a negative effect on maize production volume. The results also demonstrated that the most important effect to maize production is a “policy push” mainly variables of farmland, farmer organization, support market and credit access and a “market pull” by private sectors with providing input factors namely seeds, land preparation and techniques. Therefore, the government should look at the way of credit providing system that may effect in high production cost, at the same time the expansion of farm size is needed to take into account.

boundeth southavilay

2012-08-01

154

Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational) inequalities in women's television viewing. <...

Teychenne Megan; Ball Kylie; Salmon Jo

2012-01-01

155

Health-seeking behaviour of Port Harcourt city residents: a comparison between the upper and lower socio-economic classes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at establishing the determinants and distribution of the health-seeking behaviours of Port Harcourt residents, and comparing them between the upper and lower socio-economic classes. A descriptive crosssectional study using 204 respondents was carried out. The socio-economic classification used occupation and average monthly income. Multi-staged sampling technique was used; stage one being by stratified sampling using socio-economic classes for stratification; stage two involv...

Promise Tamunoipiriala Jaja

2013-01-01

156

Socio-economic analysis of energy projects. Samhaellsekonomisk analys av energiprojekt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study is to develop methods for systematic consideration of the factors which are not included in the business-economic calculations of energy projects. The principles of judging the investments are analysed. Recommendations and thumb rules are discussed. The principles are applied to a current project in Uppsala where the actual socio-economic value is calculated for peat as fuel and compared with an alternative which utilizes coal as fuel. The value of this project is approximately 540 MSEK when taxes are included. The interpretation would be possible only if one knew the socio-economic considerations when calculating taxes, charges and subsidies. This means that governmental control should reflect socio-economic costs. (G.B.).

Hjalmarsson, L.; Walfridsson, B.

1986-11-01

157

Relation Between Development of Shape Concept and Socio- Economic Status, Sex and Area of Residence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present research undertaken to find out the relation between development of shape concept and Socio- Economic status, sex and Area of residence. The total sample consisted 400 subjects. 200 subject were from urban area and 200 subjects were from rural area. Male- Female ratio was 1:1. The age range of subjects was 6 to 7 years . The main variables of present research study relate to concepts. High socio- Economic status subjects and low socio- Economic status subject both rural and urban areas of a Aurangabad district in Maharashtra were incorporated in the study. Hanfmann- Kassanin concept formation test was used for data collection. Results were analyzed by applying three- way ANOVA.

Dr. Sambhaji B. Waghmare

2012-03-01

158

Chapter 5 : socio-economic assessment auditing: a Hibernia case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The potential socio-economic impacts of the Hibernia project were discussed. An audit was conducted to study the socio-economic predictions made during the Hibernia Environmental Impact Study conducted in the early stages of the project regarding the offshore platform construction site at Bull Arm. The audit methods were reviewed and optimization strategies were suggested. Several predictions were made regarding housing, employment, demography, the fishery, and the effects on Newfoundland's social fabric. The audit revealed that most impact predictions were inaccurate. In this instance the adverse impacts of the project proved to be much less significant than had been originally considered before and during the Hibernia public review. It was suggested that the simple accounting framework which calculates and examines the difference between predicted and actual outcomes is not an adequate approach for auditing environmental impact assessment procedures, given the dynamic nature of the projects and the socio-economic context in which they operate. 35 refs., 5 tabs

1997-01-01

159

Positive Parenting: Key Concepts and Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Parenting is one of the most important tasks an adult will tackle. It is also one of the most difficult, and one for which few individuals receive education. Increasing concerns about child abuse and neglect reflect the desire to reduce the worst outcomes of parenting and improve the chances for children to flourish. Considering that context,…

Myers-Walls, Judith A.

2004-01-01

160

Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Socio Economic Status of Women Vendors in Towns of Kokrajhar District  

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Full Text Available The study aims to examine the personal profile, family profile, migratory status, living, working and economic conditions of the women vendors of the towns of Kokrajhar district. It also aims to access their health condition. To study the socio-economic status of the women vendors, data was collected from the sampled women vendors with the help of a questionnaire. Data collected from the sample was entered in SPSS (V.13 and analysis was done. The finding of the study will help the people especially the policy makers to know the socio-economic condition of the women vendors. It will help in planning for the welfare of such workers.

Roselin Basumatary

2013-04-01

162

Socio-Economic and Cultural Impacts of Resettlement on Bakassi People of Cross River State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The socio-economic and cultural impact of resettlement on Bakassi people of Cross River State, Nigeria was examined. The study elicited data from 516 respondents who were purposively selected from the Bakassi resettlement site at Ekpiri Ikang in Cross River State. Data were generated with the aid of structured questionnaire and statistically analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was observed that, the resettlement of Bakassi people significantly influenced their occupations, culture and accommodation pattern. It was recommended among others, that the Affected Persons (APs should be properly compensated and adequate accommodation provided.Key words: Socio-economic; Resettlement and Cultural Impacts

J. J. Akpanudoedehe

2010-12-01

163

CONSTITUTIONAL SOCIO-ECONOMIC RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: "YOU ARE NOT ALONE"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The second oratio was a keynote speech delivered by Torsten Stein, the Director of the Institute of European Studies and holder of the chair for European law and European Public Law at Saarland University, Germany. He delivered his speech during November 2012 at the 3rd Human Rights Indaba on The Role of International Law in Understanding and Applying the Socio-economic Rights in South Africa's Bill of Rights, which was held by the Faculty of Law (NWU, Potchefstroom Campus in collaboration with the Konrad-Adenauer Foundation. He shared some thoughts about the nature, development and implementation of socio-economic rights within an international and European setting.

Torsten Stein

2013-04-01

164

Environmental and Socio-economic Determinants of Malaria Prevalence in Uganda  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to establish the relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. An understanding of the factors that are associated w ith malaria prevalence is critical for the design of policies aimed at reducing malaria prevalence. Regression results using OLS indicate no relationship between malaria prevalence and environmental and socio-economic variables. There is need for further study using disaggregated data, panel data, and adding more control variables to the health production model to identify the factors that are associated with malaria prevalence in Uganda.

Niringiye Aggrey

2010-10-01

165

Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES independent of body mass index. Methods Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females. The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary behavior. Differences in PA and sedentary behavior by SES were initially tested using ANOVA. Further analyses used ANCOVA controlling for BMI, as well as leg length in the pedometer cohort. Results In study 1, mean daily steps differed significantly among SES groups with lower SES groups approximating 10,500 steps/day compared to about 12,000 steps/day in the higher SES groups. These differences remained significant (p Conclusions Children from a low SES show a trend of lower PA levels and spend more time in sedentary behavior than high SES children; however, differences in PA were influenced by BMI. The higher BMI in these children might be another factor contributing to increased health risks among low SES children compared to children from with a higher SES.

Heelan Kate

2010-04-01

166

Estimating the Incidental Socio-economic Benefits of Environmental ...  

with contributions from: Mike Clarke ... economic benefits of Entry Level \\Stewardship (ELS), Higher Level ... evidence for the social and human capital \\benefits of AES. .... positive impact in terms of skills and knowledge development \\on arable.

167

Elementary Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs in Relation to Socio-Economic Status and Gender  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated students' scientific epistemological beliefs in relation to socio-economic status (SES) and gender. Data were obtained from 1,152 eight grade Turkish elementary school students using Scientific Epistemological Beliefs instrument. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that students with a working mother and educated…

Ozkal, Kudret; Tekkaya, Ceren; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Cakiroglu, Erdinc

2010-01-01

168

Fiscal Adjustment Socio-Economic Development of Country During Post Crisis Recovery ????????? ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article considers the approaches to defining the essence of the budget adjustment, highlighted features of the mechanism of fiscal adjustment socio-economic development of country during post-crisis recovery and identified possible implementation of measures to improve the effectiveness of budget regulation in Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????, ???????? ???...

Pasechnyy Nikolay D.

2012-01-01

169

Fiscal Adjustment Socio-Economic Development of Country During Post Crisis Recovery ????????? ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article considers the approaches to defining the essence of the budget adjustment, highlighted features of the mechanism of fiscal adjustment socio-economic development of country during post-crisis recovery and identified possible implementation of measures to improve the effectiveness of budget regulation in Ukraine.? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????, ???????? ??????????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????????? ?? ????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????????????? ? ???????.

Pasechnyy Nikolay D.

2012-05-01

170

Review of existing studies and unresolved problems associated with socio-economic impact of nuclear powerplants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preparation of socio-economic impact statements for nuclear powerplants began only a few years ago. The number of these statements is increasing, and some states, such as Washington, now require them as a condition to state approval for thermal powerplants. The major purpose of this paper was to review existing socio-economic impact statements to identify where additional research to improve the impact analysis process would be useful and appropriate. A second purpose was to summarize the type of information included in existing statements. Toward this end a number of socio-economic impact statements were reviewed. Most of the statements are for nuclear power plants; however, some are for other large construction projects. The statements reviewed are largely predictive in nature; i.e., they attempt to predict socio-economic impacts based on the existing knowledge. A few of the reports contain retroactive case studies of plants already completed. One describes an ongoing monitoring analysis of plants under construction. As a result of this preliminary study, a need was identified for a better-defined impact statement methodology and for guidelines identifying appropriate areas for analysis and analytical techniques

1975-01-01

171

Socio-Economic Predictors of Health Insurance Claims: Evidence from Ghana  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between socio-economic variables and health insurance claims and if other variables mediate between these relationships. In this work, data was collected from the insured of the Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme with the help of the National Health Insurance database and the patients’ attendance register of the Koforidua Regional Hospital, from 1st January to 31st December 2011. The generalized linear regression (GLR models and the SPSS version 17.0 were used for the analysis. The result shows that socio-economic variables have a statistically significant independent association with health insurance claims, demonstrating in each case that the more socially disadvantaged the greater the health insurance claims. Alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking are mediators of the relationship between each socio-economic measure and health insurance claims. Low income has a significant effect on health insurance claims independent of the other socio-economic variables, but this becomes non-significant after adjusting for alcohol and smoking. It is suggested that the government should consider building more health centers, clinics and cheap-compounds in at least every community, to help reduce the travel time in accessing health care. The ministry of health and the Ghana health service should engage older citizens by encouraging them to use hospitals when they are sick instead of other alternative care providers.

Samuel Antwi

2014-02-01

172

SUITABILITY OF A SOCIO-ECONOMIC SCALE FOR HOSPITAL PSYCHIATRIC POPULATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Socio-economic scale devised by Gupta and Sethi (1978) was applied to 737 urban cases registered in the psychiatric out-patient department of a general hospital during the period of one year. Correlation and regression co-efficients were calculated for education, income, occupation and total scores. The scale seemed to be suitable for hospital psychiatric population.

1983-01-01

173

Relationship between Socio-Economic Values and Wellbeing: An Overview Research in Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates ten Asian nations to consider how socio-economic values affect happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, it considers whether economic factors can strongly affect wellbeing under certain conditions. Males in Asia are said they have more opportunities to obtain higher happiness and satisfaction but it does not happen in the…

Trung, Nguyen Ngoc; Cheong, Kimoon; Nghi, Pham Thanh; Kim, Won Joong

2013-01-01

174

Socio-economic aspects of fusion: research in the European context  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In conjunction with the EURATOM fusion programme, a research effort, socio-economic research on fusion, was initiated in 1996. Five areas are covered: long-term scenarios, economic (production) costs, external costs and benefits, fusion as a large technical system and public opinion. The paper summarizes the state of the programme by August 1998. The programme will be reported by spring 1999. (orig.)

Ingelstam, L. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Technology and Social Change

1999-11-01

175

The Socio-Economic Background of Erasmus Students: A Trend Towards Wider Inclusion?  

Science.gov (United States)

The article focuses on the financial issues and family background of Erasmus students. It examines the costs of Erasmus study periods in the academic year 2004/05 and the socio-economic background of Erasmus students that year, based on over 15000 survey responses. Results are compared with those of a similar survey undertaken in 1998 to track…

Otero, Manuel Souto

2008-01-01

176

The "Collateral Impact" of Pupil Behaviour and Geographically Concentrated Socio-Economic Disadvantage  

Science.gov (United States)

Schools in areas of concentrated disadvantage tend to have below-average attainment, but there is no consensus on why. Mental and behavioural disorders in children are correlated with socio-economic disadvantage. This paper puts forward the hypothesis that the first phenomenon can at least partly be accounted for by the second phenomenon through…

David, Alex Hugh

2010-01-01

177

Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China  

Science.gov (United States)

With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

2014-03-01

178

Some Socio-economic Factors affecting Solid Wastes Generation and Disposal in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified. Data for this study were obtained through the administration of questionnaire and review of existing literature. The information obtained from the field was analyzed using frequency and correlation matrix. The finding showed that the composition of waste generated in Ibadan Metropolis was a reflection of variation of socio-economic factors of the people. Also, socio-economic factors such as income, age, education, occupation and building types had greater influence on the choice of method of disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. It was recommended therefore that effective solid waste management can be achieved through the adoption of urban renewal strategy on the chaotic areas, provision of sizable fund by the government and proper education to the people among others.

Kayode, A. M.

2011-04-01

179

Socio- Economic Analysis of Fadama Farmers in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria  

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This study examined the socio economic analysis of Fadama farmers in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State. The data were collected through structured questionnaire from a sample of 100 respondents drawn from ten (10) purposively selected communities from the local Government area. The data collected was analyzed by use of percentage, frequency, desc...

Folayan, J. A.

2013-01-01

180

Socio-economic Condition of Child Worker of Bangladesh in Their Adulthood: An Econometric Analysis  

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Full Text Available This study has mainly focused on the current socio-economic condition of those people who were child labor in their childhood. In this study, economic indicators are income and employment status. On the other hand, level of education, health status and role in case of decision making in the society are studied as social indicators. According to this study, socio-economic condition of child workers in their adulthood is not very satisfactory. In this research work, we have used Linear Probability Model (LPM and Weighted Least Square (WLS regression analysis to make comparison of current socio-economic status between people who were child labor in their childhood and those who were not child worker in past. We have found that person who was not child worker in early stage of his/her life have higher probability to enjoy better socio-economic condition than that of person who worked as child worker in past. In fact, we have identified that a children who is working as a child worker has 0.61 or 61% probability to have low standard of living in his/her future life.

Syed Imran Ali Meerza

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

2007-01-01

182

Is the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Acceptable to Parents from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds?  

Science.gov (United States)

Behavioural parenting programs are an effective intervention for behavioural and emotional problems in children, however these programs have low utilisation rates by culturally diverse parents. We examined the cultural acceptability of program materials, preferences for delivery methods, and barriers to use of the Triple P-Positive Parenting…

Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew; Goadby, Elizabeth; Headley, Clea; Hodge, Lauren; McAuliffe, Christine; Pope, Sue; Anderson, Emily

2011-01-01

183

Mobile Technologies & Socio-Economic Opportunities for Disadvantaged Women: A Study of Information Behavior in a Developing Nation Context  

Science.gov (United States)

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been championed by the United Nations and others as one of the key media to open up socio-economic opportunities for disadvantaged populations. Studies lead us to believe that after being introduced to ICTs, users' information behavior changes, enabling them to benefit from socio-economic…

Potnis, Devendra Dilip

2010-01-01

184

Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case-control study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. Method A population-based case–control study of young adults (18–34 years) compared cases of suicide (n?=?84) with randomly selected controls (n?=?250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Results Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Conclusion Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for intervention.

2014-01-01

185

an introduction to socio-economic assessment within a marine ...  

ecosystem and its dynamics, in order to identify and take action on influences \\which are ... The EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) 2008/56/EC \\presents a ..... Valuation in economics theory and practice has often been \\approached in .... must be aligned with a position somewhere on the spectrum \\towards weak.

186

Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% women used tobacco on a daily basis. Modes of tobacco use included cigarette smoking (68.5%, oral tobacco(13.5%, hukka (12% and cigarette smoking plus oral tobacco (6%. Among those not using tobacco products, 56% were exposed to Environmental tobacco smoke. The adjusted odds ratio of tobacco use for rural residence compared to urban residence was 1.49 (95% CI 1.1 2.0, p value 0.01 and being male as compared to female 12.6 (8.8 18.0, p value 0.001. Illiteracy was significantly associated with tobacco use. Population attributable percentage of tobacco use increases steadily as the gap between no formal Education and level of education widens. Conclusion There was a positive association between tobacco use and rural area of residence, male gender and low education levels. Low education could be a proxy for low awareness and consumer information on tobacco products. As Public health practitioners we should inform the general public especially the illiterate about the adverse health consequences of tobacco use. Counter advertisement for tobacco use, through mass media particularly radio and television, emphasizing the harmful effects of tobacco on human health is very much needed.

Laporte Ronald E

2008-02-01

187

Socio-economic determinants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Northeast India. As there is limited information available on the potential influence of socio-economic variables on malaria risk, the present study was conducted to assess the influence of demographic factors, the socio-economic status, and knowledge, awareness and education on malaria occurrence. Methods Demographics, malaria knowledge and socio-economic variables were collected in four randomly selected health sub-centres of the Orang primary health centre in the Udalguri district, Assam and the association of malaria occurrence with different variables were analysed. The trend of malaria occurrence for different income groups, proximity to health centres and number of mosquito bites per day was also determined using the chi-square test. Relative risk (RR) for gender, house type, knowledge and use of bed nets was determined using Katz approximation. Results Out of the 71 household heads interviewed, 70.4% (50/71) were males. About half (54.9%, 39/71) of the participants had a history of malaria in the last two years, of which 64.1% (25/39) were males, while 35.9% (14/39) were females (?2 = 5.13; p = 0.02; RR = 1.79). Of the total population surveyed, 49.3% lived in bamboo houses and 35.2% lived at a distance of >3 km from the nearest health centre. The number of participants who had a history of malaria decreased with an increasing monthly income (p bamboo houses (69.2%), as compared to Kucha houses (20.5%) and Pucca houses (10.3%). No significant association was observed between education level and malaria occurrence (p = 0.93). The participants who did not use bed nets regularly reported a high occurrence of malaria infection as compared to those who used bed nets everyday (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Lower income, house type, distance to health sub-centre, knowledge and awareness about malaria, number of mosquito bites per day and use of bed nets were positively associated with malaria occurrence. Increasing the number of health sub-centres close to rural areas, improving the economic status and increasing awareness about malaria prevention measures will thus help to reduce malaria-associated morbidities.

2014-01-01

188

Solar power satellites: Commercialization and socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Commercialization prospects for solar power satellites are assessed with reference to their possible impacts on the viability of the fossil fuel market and on international energy and environmental policies. The technical aspects which are examined include: solar panel sizing in relation to solar cell efficiency; the development of point-contact solar cell technology; the feasibility of the use of lunar materials; microwave transmission from the moon; optimum satellite positioning; the use of robots for in-space satellite assembly; satellite transmitted power for hydrogen production and storage; marketable product estimated development time

1993-01-01

189

Self-reported depression is increasing among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents - repeated cross-sectional surveys from Finland from 2000 to 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Adolescent depression is more common in lower socio-economic groups. Whether this pattern has changed over time, is not known. We examined the prevalence of self-reported depression and its changes in socio-economic groups from 2000 to 2011 among Finnish adolescents. Methods Data were based on classroom surveys every second year from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 using nationwide samples of 14–16-year old Finns (n?=?618,084). Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including questions on health, health behaviours, and school experiences. Depression was measured with a Finnish modification of the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, and divided into no, mild, moderate and severe depression. The association between depression and the social background (parents’ education and employment) over time was studied using a multinomial regression analysis. Results The prevalence of self-reported severe depression slightly increased from 2000–2001 to 2010–2011 in girls. In boys a slight increase was observed when adjusting for background variables. The differences in the prevalence of depression between the social background groups persisted over the entire study period. In both sexes, severe depression nearly doubled among those adolescents whose parents were unemployed and had a low education level; among boys, the prevalence was 6.5% in 2000–2001 and 12.8% in 2010–2011, and among girls 6.4% and 11.4% respectively. Conclusion The largest increases in prevalence of severe depression are seen among socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents. This suggests that inequalities in mental health may become an increasing concern.

2014-01-01

190

Socio-economic Determinants of Output of Groundnut Production in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.  

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Full Text Available The study examined the economics of groundnut production in Estako West Local Government Area of Edo State. The objectives of the study were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of groundnut producers, determine the costs and returns of groundnut production, identify the constraints faced by groundnut farmers and analyze the socio-economic factors determining groundnut production in the study area. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire administered to 60 groundnut farmers using a simple random sampling technique. The result of the data analysis showed that majority of the farmers were male (78% with an average family size of nine persons per family. Also 50% of the respondents acquired formal education. Results obtained also showed that the gross farm income per hectare was ?(Naira84,000 (€403.8 and the net farm income was ?(Naira 41,550 (€199.8 per annum respectively. The return per naira invested was 0.98, indicating that the farm business realized a return of 98 kobo for every ? (Naira1.00 invested in groundnut production. Result obtained from the multiple regression analyses indicated that the Double log functional form provided the best fit. The coefficients of farm size, farmer’s experience, labour and ages were positive while family size was negative. The regression model is significant at 1% level as shown by F - statistic. The R2 value of 0.965 indicated that 96.5% of the variability in groundnut production was accounted for by the various independent variables used. Finally, the major constraints faced by the farmers were inadequate finance, unavailability of labour, high incidence of pests and diseases, unfavourable climatic conditions and high cost of transportation. It is therefore recommended that effort should be channelled towards ameliorating these constraints.

PETER A. EKUNWE

2013-02-01

191

Ethnic differences in maternal dietary patterns are largely explained by socio-economic score and integration score: a population-based study  

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Full Text Available Background: The impact of socio-economic position and integration level on the observed ethnic differences in dietary habits has received little attention. Objectives: To identify and describe dietary patterns in a multi-ethnic population of pregnant women, to explore ethnic differences in odds ratio (OR for belonging to a dietary pattern, when adjusted for socio-economic status and integration level and to examine whether the dietary patterns were reflected in levels of biomarkers related to obesity and hyperglycaemia. Design: This cross-sectional study was a part of the STORK Groruddalen study. In total, 757 pregnant women, of whom 59% were of a non-Western origin, completed a food frequency questionnaire in gestational week 28±2. Dietary patterns were extracted through cluster analysis using Ward's method. Results: Four robust clusters were identified where cluster 4 was considered the healthier dietary pattern and cluster 1 the least healthy. All non-European women as compared to Europeans had higher OR for belonging to the unhealthier dietary patterns 1–3 vs. cluster 4. Women from the Middle East and Africa had the highest OR, 21.5 (95% CI 10.6–43.7, of falling into cluster 1 vs. 4 as compared to Europeans. The ORs decreased substantially after adjusting for socio-economic score and integration score. A non-European ethnic origin, low socio-economic and integration scores, conduced higher OR for belonging to clusters 1, 2, and 3 as compared to cluster 4. Significant differences in fasting and 2-h glucose, fasting insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and total cholesterol were observed across the dietary patterns. After adjusting for ethnicity, differences in fasting insulin (p=0.015 and HOMA-IR (p=0.040 across clusters remained significant, despite low power. Conclusion: The results indicate that socio-economic and integration level may explain a large proportion of the ethnic differences in dietary patterns.

Christine Sommer

2013-07-01

192

SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION OF NEPALESE AND INDIAN MUSLIMS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY  

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Full Text Available Socio-economic condition is an important indicator to measure the development level of any community and a nation as well. This paper compares the socio-economic condition of Nepalese and Indian Muslims. Muslims are one of the highly disadvantaged, marginalized and excluded minority groups with distinct religious and cultural identities both in Nepal and India. They have been excluded in terms of social, economic, educational and political institutions as well as other decision-making levels of the state. Historically, they have been ignored by the state and excluded from the mainstream development processes due to their origin, religious minority status and territorial/regional identities in both countries of Nepal and India.

PASANG SHERPA

2012-11-01

193

Socio-Economic Inequality, Human Trafficking, and the Global Slave Trade  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss human trafficking within the broader framework of socio-economic inequality. The presence of socio-economic inequality in the world creates a system where those in power very easily dominate and take advantage of those people without power. One of the most serious contemporary effects of inequalities between and within nations is the phenomenon of global sex trade or human trafficking for the purposes of sex. Deriving from unequal power relations, human trafficking is a serious global crime that involves the exploitation of many, but mostly females and children. This paper provides an extensive discussion of inequality and its links with human trafficking as contemporary slavery. In conclusion, the paper provides a list of selected intra-national and multi-national service organizations that are adopting strategies for combating trafficking through the reduction of social and economic inequality. Implications for social welfare advocates and international collaborative efforts are highlighted.

John R. Barner

2014-04-01

194

Environmental and Socio-Economic Determinants of Malaria Rate in Sudan  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among malaria, climate variables and socio-economic factors in Sudan. The health production modification model was applied to examine the relations between climate variability (average temperature and average rainfall and socio-economic factors, with the malaria rate per State in Sudan. The results of the model found that there are significant relations between the malaria rate, rainfall and water bodies, while there are no significant relations between malaria rate and temperature, percentages of the cultivated area to uncultivated, human development index and population density. Therefore, an in-depth study using monthly data and adding more control variables is needed.

Mohammed I. Musa

2012-11-01

195

Behavioural, physical and socio-economic factors in household cooling energy consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As global warming continues, the current trend implies that the uptake of air conditioning in the residential sector will go up, thus potentially increasing domestic cooling energy consumption. In this context, this paper investigates the significance of behavioural, physical and socio-economic parameters on cooling energy in order to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. It demonstrates that such factors exert a significant indirect as well as direct influence on energy use, showing that it is particularly important to understand indirect relationships. An initial study of direct factors affecting cooling energy reveals that occupant behaviour is the most significant issue (related to choices about how often and where air conditioning is used). This is broadly confirmed by path analysis, although climate is seen to be the single most significant parameter, followed by behavioural issues, key physical parameters (e.g. air conditioning type), and finally socio-economic aspects (e.g. household income).

2011-06-01

196

Multi Commercial Economy: The Development of Socio-Economic Network Complexity of Batik Industry in Surakarta  

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Full Text Available This study analyzes that why the socio economic networking development in batik business become more complex along with the contact of commercially economic culture for fulfillment of the consumption and the commercially economic culture for the production improvement. The method of this study is naturalistic inquiry, to describe the interrelation of culture and economy which is stimultaneously forming a dual commercially economic and the development of socio economic networking complexity of batik business. The two of commercially economic model of  batik business are separatedly grow, but there is a connection among them. This interconnection is complementary or interfilling in the production relation and trading relation. The vertical interconnection is among the big and small industries, while interspace connection is among the batik industrial center in village and in urban. Those complexity of social economic networking trend to use the coorporation relation pattern of mutualism and domination which is cost saving.

Mahendra Wijaya

2009-07-01

197

Agent-Based and Macroscopic Modeling of the Complex Socio-Economic Systems  

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Full Text Available Purpose – The focus of this contribution is the correspondence between collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Currently there is a wide selection of papers proposing various models for the both collective behavior and inter-individual interactions in the complex socio-economic systems. Yet the papers directly relating these two concepts are still quite rare. By studying this correspondence we discuss a cutting edge approach to the modeling of complex socio-economic systems.Design/methodology/approach – The collective behavior is often modeled using stochastic and ordinary calculus, while the inter-individual interactions are modeled using agent-based models. In order to obtain the ideal model, one should start from these frameworks and build a bridge to reach another. This is a formidable task, if we consider the top-down approach, namely starting from the collective behavior and moving towards inter-individual interactions. The bottom-up approach also fails, if complex inter-individual interaction models are considered, yet in this case we can start with simple models and increase the complexity as needed.Findings – The bottom-up approach, considering simple agent-based herding model as a model for the inter-individual interactions, allows us to derive certain macroscopic models of the complex socio-economic systems from the agent-based perspective. This provides interesting insights into the collective behavior patterns observed in the complex socio-economic systems.Research limitations/implications –The simplicity of the agent-based herding model might be considered to be somewhat limiting. Yet this simplicity implies that the model is highly universal. It reproduces universal features of social behavior and also can be further extended to fit different socio-economic scenarios.Practical implications – Insights provided in this contribution might be used to modify existing policy making tools in order to cope with the social transformations in the contemporary society.Originality/Value – The relationship between the inter-individual and the collective behavior is an interesting topic considered to be coming from rather different fields by many scientists. Yet the topic has received due attention only in the recent years. Consequently, the truly systematic approaches directly bridging between these two concepts are somewhat rare. These approaches also differ among themselves – some of the research groups consider questionnaires to understand the individual incentives of the humans, some suggest varying applications of the known physical models and some have roots in the behavioral economics and utility optimization. Our approach in this sense is unique as we start from a simple agentbased herding model and use the ideas from the statistical physics to obtain its macroscopic treatments for the different socio-economic scenarios. In this contribution we present our previous approaches, namely considering new product diffusion in the market and also a financial market model, and also our most recent results, related to the leadership in the social communities and predator-prey type competition in the socio-economic systems. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the correspondence between the considered simple agent-based herding model and the considered macroscopic models was not previously discussed by the other research groups.Research type: research paper.

Valentas Dani?nas

2013-08-01

198

Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with the risk of prostate cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

International and interethnic differences in prostate cancer incidence suggest an environmental aetiology, and lifestyle and socio-economic factors have been studied, but with divergent results. Information on a cohort of 22 895 Norwegian men aged 40 years and more was obtained from a health examination and two self-administered questionnaires. Information on incident cases of prostate cancer was made available from the Cancer Registry. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to calculate ...

Nilsen, T. I. Lund; Johnsen, R.; Vatten, L. J.

2000-01-01

199

Socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on patient employment after ten years  

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Birmingham hip resurfacing is an attractive option for treatment of arthritis in young and active patients. The aim of this study was to assess the socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on their employment and work intensity at ten years. A cohort of 90 consecutive patients with 100 Birmingham hip resurfacing, performed by single surgeon, were reviewed prospectively. The mean age was 51 years at surgery. Prospective review was undertaken from surgery until the tenth post-operat...

Malek, Ibrahim A.; Hashmi, Munawar; Holland, James P.

2011-01-01

200

Book review: Children’s socio-economic rights, democracy and the courts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite increased academic interest in both children’s rights and socio-economic rights over the last two decades, children’s social and economic rights remain a comparatively neglected area. This is particularly true with regard to the role of the courts in the enforcement of such social rights. Aoife Nolan attempts to remedy this omission, focussing on the circumstances in which the courts can and should give effect to the social and economic rights of children. Anashri Pillay thinks th...

Pillay, Anashri

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

The Three Faces of the Coin: A Socio-economic Approach to the Institution of Money  

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This paper develops a broad, multi-faceted approach to the socio-economics of money. The aim is to elaborate models with which to describe and analyze money and money systems in modern societies. No single theory is conceivable but a complex of interlinked theories can help us understand and explain many aspects of money: (1) money as a means to represent and communicate value; (2) money as technology (money, like other technologies such as keys, carpenter tools, automobiles, factories, and n...

Ville?, Philippe

2003-01-01

202

Marketing of Public and Business Affairs Subsystems of Socio-Economic Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Romanian society is crossing one of the most important stages of its transition toward the integration in the European Union started with January 1st, 2007; this will define the final processes bound for the socio-economic reconstruction. Based on the previous experiences, an assumption rose up that, at this moment in the Romanian society there are two systems - business and public administration, placed on opposite, antagonistic, unfriendly sides. At the same time, there is the opinion t...

Adriana Grigorescu

2008-01-01

203

Socio-economic Analysis of Cassava Marketing in Benue State, Nigeria  

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the socio-economics of cassava marketing in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from randomly sampled 107 cassava marketers in Benue State, using a structured questionnaire. The study revealed that most of the cassava marketers had secondary education (72.9%). The study also revealed that marketing of cassava is mostly undertaken by females (57%). The result showed that married people (59.8%) were mostly involved in the marketing of cassava. The s...

Asogwa, Benjamin C.; Ezihe, J. A. C.; Ater, P. I.

2013-01-01

204

A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways - Part 1: Water use  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment), and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr-1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr-1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshikawa, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.; Kainuma, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Masui, T.; Takahashi, K.; Kanae, S.

2013-07-01

205

A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways – Part 1: Water use  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr?1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr?1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

N. Hanasaki

2013-07-01

206

Jatropha assessment : agronomy, socio-economic issues, and ecology : facts from literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) has been promoted as a potential renewable energy source for many of its advantageous properties in comparison to other biomass feedstock. This report summarises the agronomy, socio-economic issues, and ecology facts from literature on Jatropha. Such an overview is essential to formulate recommendations and policy guidelines to stimulate best project practices and also help to avoid the promotion of unviable or unsustainable practices

Eijck, J. A. J.; Smeets, E. M. W.; Jongschaap, R. E. E.; Romijn, H.; Balkema, A.

2010-01-01

207

Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ? 94 cm (men) or ? 80 cm (women) and the combination of BMI and WC for...

2007-01-01

208

Croatia's EU Accession: Socio-economic Assessment of Farm Households and Policy Recommendations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Croatia is very close to meeting the requirements necessary for becoming a member of the European Union (EU). On February 6, 2008, the European Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn said that accession negotiations with Croatia are moving ahead well. As in all new member states (NMS), the agricultural sector and food processing chain are core issues within the negotiation process. Successful negotiation requires intimate knowledge of the issue at hand, including the socio-economic situation and ...

2009-01-01

209

Socio-Economic and Cultural Impacts of Resettlement on Bakassi People of Cross River State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The socio-economic and cultural impact of resettlement on Bakassi people of Cross River State, Nigeria was examined. The study elicited data from 516 respondents who were purposively selected from the Bakassi resettlement site at Ekpiri Ikang in Cross River State. Data were generated with the aid of structured questionnaire and statistically analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was observed that, the resettlement of Bakassi people significantly influenced their occupations, c...

2010-01-01

210

Global environmental change, local land use impacts and socio-economic response strategies in coastal regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the issue of possible land use strategies and responses in coastal zones as a consequence of global environmental change. It willfirst set out some key elements in global change that are of critical importance for the water and land management in such areas. Next, it will map outin more detail the various environmental and socio-economic repercussions of such megatrends. This will then be followed by a discussion of thenecessity to develop proper coastal zone management p...

1997-01-01

211

Socio-economic status is inversely related to bed net use in Gabon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) range among the most effective measures of malaria prophylaxis, yet their implementation level in sub-Saharan Africa is still low. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of socio-economic factors on the use of bed nets by mothers in Gabon. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted completing pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaires exploring socioeconomic proxy measures with ...

Goesch Julia N; Schwarz Norbert G; Decker Marie-Luise; Oyakhirome Sunny; Borchert Lea B; Kombila Ulrich D; Poetschke Marc; Lell Bertrand; Issifou Saadou; Kremsner Peter G; Grobusch Martin P

2008-01-01

212

Agent-based and macroscopic modeling of the complex socio-economic systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current economic crisis has provoked an active response from the interdisciplinary scientific community. As a result many papers suggesting what can be improved in understanding of the complex socio-economics systems were published. Some of the most prominent papers on the topic include (Bouchaud, 2009; Farmer and Foley, 2009; Farmer et al, 2012; Helbing, 2010; Pietronero, 2008). These papers share the idea that agent-based modeling is essential for the better understand...

Kononovicius, Aleksejus; Daniunas, Valentas

2013-01-01

213

Socio-economic effects of migration after 1989. Study case: Feldru, Transylvania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to analyze the socio-economic effects of migration in a Transylvanian village after 1989. Some relevant issues are: migration impact beyond official statistics and how migration affects social groups or gender relations in the village. It is an anthropological research using qualitative methods that highlights the specificity of migration in the village proved by: women’s empowerment, changing of social status for returning migrants, youth and social pressure generated by mi...

2011-01-01

214

Effects of Socio-Economic and Demographic Variables on Age at First Marriage in Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Age at first marriage is a most important factor in population dynamics as it affects fertility tremendously and mortality and migration to a lesser extent. Marriage is nearly universal everywhere in Bangladesh. Age at first marriage has a strong influence on a variety of demographic, social and economic factors. Early marriage is more common matter among the poorest women in Bangladesh than women from wealthy families. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of socio-economic an...

2013-01-01

215

Socio-economics of biosecurity: four essays on bioinvasions and genetically modified agriculture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La tesis doctoral "Socio-economics of biosecurity: Four essays on bioinvasions and genetically modified agriculture" (Socio-economia de la bioseguretat: Quatre assaigs sobre bioinvasions i l'agricultura modificada genèticament) analitza dos processos altament controvertits -la introducció d'espècies invasores i d'organismes modificats genèticament (OMG)-, sota el concepte paraigua de la bioseguretat. Bioseguretat far referència a un enfocament estratègic i integrat que reuneix els marcs...

Binimelis I Adell, Rosa

2008-01-01

216

Socio-Economic Trends in the Swedish Taxi Sector -Deregulation, Recommodification, Ethnification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the socio-economic consequences of the rapid deregulation of the Swedish taxi sector in the early 1990s. The deregulated taxi sector is illustrative of the ethnic labour market segmentation brought about by the evolution of the Swedish model from the universal welfare state, relying on -decommodifying- social policies, towards flexible solutions and related recommodifying labour market policies. We analyse the income, education and ethnic background of those workers for w...

Slavnic, Zoran; Urban, Susanne

2008-01-01

217

Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community ...

2011-01-01

218

Changes in the influence of socio-economic status on obesity among aging Canadian baby boomers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A trend analysis was conducted on the influence of socio-economic (SES) status on obesity levels in Canadian baby boomers over time. Two, large scale national studies conducted 10 years apart were analyzed. Riley’s Social Change Model was used to frame how the influence of SES on obesity will converge over time due to social changes to food production and eating habits coupled with reliance on modern technology. Partial support was found for convergence of SES and obesity associations over ...

Cummings, Linda Martha Dawn

2009-01-01

219

Rural Population Density Effect on Socio-economic Characteristics: A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Rural population density has a very significant independent influence over important demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the world rural communities. Thus, the understanding of rural population density becomes an important issue to be studied. Approach: Using the rural settled areas of Shaqlawa District as a case study, this study seeks to reveal the specific importance of rural population density as an important variable in understanding the soc...

Ismael, Ayoob K.; Ibrahim Ngah

2011-01-01

220

A socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity on the Ghanaian market: implications for breeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the development of tailor-made varieties. Forty-seven cowpea accessions were collected from traders interviewed for morphological characterization to ascertain the degree of diversity. Data was subjected to H...

Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E. S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J. P.; Ruivenkamp, G. T. P.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Policy-relevant assessment method of socio-economic impacts of floods: An Italian case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper estimates the direct and indirect socio-economic impacts of the 2000 flood that took place in the Po river basin (Italy) using a combination of Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model and Spatial and Multi-Criteria Analysis. A risk map for the whole basin is generated as a function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The indirect economic losses are assessed using the CGE model, whereas the direct social and economic impacts are estimated with spatial analysis tools combined ...

Farinosi, Fabio; Carrera, Lorenzo; Maziotis, Alexandros; Mysiak, Jaroslav; Eboli, Fabio; Standardi, Gabriele

2012-01-01

222

Investigating socio-economic-demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To investigate the socio-economic and demographic determinants of tobacco use in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods Cross sectional survey of households (population based) with 2018 respondent (1038 Rural; 980 Urban) was carried out in Rawalpindi (Pakistan) and included males and females 18–65 years of age. Main outcome measure was self reported daily tobacco use. Results Overall 16.5% of the study population (33% men and 4.7% wome...

2008-01-01

223

The Dinokeng Big 5 Game Reserve : envisaging a socio-economic development partnership  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Gauteng Province has directed its socio-economic development focus towards pursuing a number of innovative projects that should transform its urban-rural infrastructure significantly. One such project is the envisaged Dinokeng Big 5 Game Reserve in the north-eastern part of the Province. An important founding principle of the project is that a unique mutually beneficial partnership agreement should be negotiated in which local communities (historically disadvantaged), land owners...

Rooyen, Enslin

2005-01-01

224

Socio - Economic Implication of Use of Gsm among Abeokuta Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The euphoria that greeted the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) has reached its peak with grave implication for socio-economic conditions of many Nigerians same of who have been complaining about exploitation and unsatisfactory services provided by Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) operation in the country. However, many Nigerians even with high cost of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) phone will not stop at anything as holding a Global System...

Akinola George Dosunmu

2011-01-01

225

Sustenance of Tourism Industry for the Socio-economic Development of Ekiti State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the sustenance of tourism sector for the socio-economic development of Ekiti State, Nigeria.Tourism is playing an increasingly important role in the economy of many nations in the world today, especiallyin the area of job creation. Data for this study were collected from primary sources through the administration oftwo (2) sets of a well structured interview questionnaire. One hundred and fifty (150) were administered onworkers/management of the ran...

Simon-oke, Olayemi O.; Jegede, Amen O.

2012-01-01

226

Effect of socio-economic status on quality of life in people affected with respiratory allergy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study we investigated the impact of respiratory allergy on quality of life in young people, and examined whether socio-economic status modifies the above dependence. The study was conducted in 458 female and 363 male university students, aged 18-25. Information on socio-economic status (SES) was collected using a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and specific allergens were medically diagnosed. Quality of life (QoL) was based on the Polish version of the SF-36 test. Respiratory allergy or respiratory and food allergy were declared by 19.2 % of women and 19.0 % of men. The prevalence of allergy was higher in students with high SES. The students suffering from allergy obtained lower scores in all domains of QoL, but the differences were statistically insignificant. However, the overall test result in allergic students was significantly lower than that in non-allergic students. Differences QoL were significantly associated with socio-economic variables. In persons with low SES, the differences in QoL between those suffering from allergy and those who did not have allergy were larger than in persons with high SES. The results indicate that the course of allergic diseases is highly dependent on socio-economic status. The prevalence of allergy among students of low status is lower than among those of high status. However, allergy to a greater extent impairs the quality of life of students with low than high SES. PMID:23836002

Pawlinska-Chmara, Romana; Wronka, Iwona; Marchewka, Justyna

2013-01-01

227

Report on environmental and socio-economic analysis (WP 2 Task 3)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential damage costs assessment indicates substantial economic benefits can be gained by controlling Dvv. The economic benefits of the Wageningen workshop scenario are about 472 million Euro per year. The economic benefits of control justify eradication and containment strategies of the EU. The environmental and socio-economic analysis of Diabrotica control programs undertaken in this report gives a global idea of what are the benefits and the inconvenient of each possible control strat...

Fall, E. H.; Wesseler, J. H. H.

2008-01-01

228

Female Foeticide in Delhi/NCR: Exploring the Socio-Economic and Cultural Dimensions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The social and psychological fibres of India are predominantly patriarchal and contributing extensively to the secondary status of women. It is yet to be seen if the difference in attitudes towards the practice of female foeticide varies in different socio-economic strata, and in among the different communities of India. Methodology: The present study is based on a door-to-door survey comprising 100 families, conducted in slum areas of Delhi/NCR. Most of the families living in the...

Deb Roumi, Bhatnagar P.

2012-01-01

229

Socio economic analysis of wind and diesel driven water pumping system in the sudan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive cost analysis of wind pumping system both imported and locally made versus diesel pumping systems was made.Result of the practical experience made by Energy Research Institute during the last several years and some private efforts are used in this evaluation. Economic evaluation was emphasized on the socio - economic aspects. Many problems of assumptions and adjustments of factors were also discussed and assessed. ( Author )

1994-03-01

230

Applications of Small-World Networks to some Socio-economic Systems  

CERN Document Server

Small-world networks (SWN) are found to be closer to the real social systems than both regular and random lattices. Then, a model for the evolution of economic systems is generalized to SWN. The Sznajd model for the two-state opinion formation problem is applied to SWN. Then a simple definition of leaders is included. These models explain some socio-economic aspects.

Elgazzar, A S

2002-01-01

231

Socio-economic analysis : a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation ...

Brignon, Jean-marc

2011-01-01

232

How to make Natura 2000 work properly? : Socio-economic, legal & ecological management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Belgium, the delineation of Special Protection Areas (SPA) and Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) has been done. At present many questions arise concerning the management of these areas. The multiple use of the space generates conflicts of interest. The SELNAT-project aims to answer the question “How to make Natura 2000 work properly?”, taking into account socio-economic, legal and ecological management aspects. This project aims to achieve more insight in a sustainable management of ...

Grogna, Vale?rie; Mahy, Marie; Meuris, Steve; Taymans, Julien; Weyns, Stan

2008-01-01

233

Efficacy of Positive Parenting on Improving Children’s Behavior Problems and Parenting Styles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AbstractObjectives: Parenting style has a significant impact on the natural development of children. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the efficacy of Positive Parenting Program also known as Triple-P, on the improvement of parenting methods, children’s behavioral problems, mothers’ psychological problems and marital issues. Method: In an interactive semi-experimental study (pretest, post-test), 120 mothers working at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, who had at least one child,...

2009-01-01

234

Climate Change and Shrimp Farming in Andhra Pradesh, India: Socio-economics and Vulnerability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Approximately 70% of shrimp consumed globally is farmed. India is ranked among the top five shrimp farming countries globally, and occurs mainly in the eastern coastal state of Andhra Pradesh (AP. More than 90% of the farms are less than 2 ha and are farmer owned, operated and managed. The objective of this study was to increase our understanding of climatic and socio-economic factors influencing this sector, through a survey of 300 shrimp farmers in AP in 2009/10. The farming communities were divisible into two groups: members of a society/cooperative and those operating individually. The latter were large scale adopting more intensive practices. The average production cost was Indian Rupees (IRS 80,186 ha-1 and net income in summer and winter was IRS 221,901 and IRS 141,715, respectively. The mean technical efficiency estimated using Stochastic frontier function was 7% and 54%. The present study attempts to explain the difference in efficiencies using socio-economic and climatic variables, the latter being a novel approach. Among socio-economic variables, farming experience and membership in society were found to have a significant influence to improve technical and economic efficiencies. Further improvements in identifiable facets of the practices and a consequent increase in technical efficiency will make the sector less vulnerable to climatic change impacts.

Udaya Sekhar Nagothu

2012-06-01

235

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Nine Mile Point and Fitzpatrick nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

236

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Oconee case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Oconee nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

237

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Three Mile Island case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Three Mile Island nuclear power stations. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

238

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: D. C. Cook case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the D. C. Cook nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

239

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Surry case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Surry nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

240

Public Health Problems in Low and High Socio Economic Areas of Karachi, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Despite many media campaigns by government and private sectors highlighting, water and sanitation treat­ment plans and policies, the public health problems are still common in different socioeconomic areas. The objective of our study was to explore the major public health problems prevailing in two different socio economic areas in Karachi, Pakistan."nMethods: A cross sectional survey was conducted from January 1, 2008, to June 15, 2008. Convenience sampling was used to select the EVACUE housing situated and model village. From each house selected, interviews were conducted based on one participant per house. The main outcome variables were measure of different qualities of drinking water safety, taste, etc. Problems of waste and sanitation included disposal of solid waste and leakage of drainage system in the area."nResults: The results found water quality to be good with safe drinking water and less residents complained in EVACUEE as compared to Model. The results also found better sanitary services with proper drainage system and less open dumping of garbage in EVACUEE as compared to Model."nConclusion: Health problems of drinking water and sanitation were more prevalent in low socio economic areas as com­pared to higher socio economic area.

HA Qazi

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

British Columbia offshore oil and gas socio-economic issue papers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs

2004-01-01

242

British Columbia offshore oil and gas socio-economic issue papers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some of the key social and economic issues regarding offshore oil and gas exploration and development in British Columbia's coastal waters were examined by the Science, Technology and Environment Division of Royal Roads University in conjunction with Glenn Bridges and Associates. In 1972, the federal government imposed a moratorium to prevent crude oil tankers from travelling the west coast due to concerns over environmental impacts. A provincial moratorium on exploration followed shortly thereafter. The government of British Columbia recently suggested lifting the moratorium, and conducted public hearings and scientific reviews of issues related to offshore oil and exploration. In the Spring of 2002, the provincial government asked the federal government to consider lifting its moratorium. In response, a Federal Interdepartmental Offshore Oil and Gas Socio-Economic Issues Working Group conducted a series of study plans in the areas of science, legal, aboriginal, socio-economic, oceans and management regimes. This report provides the outcomes of the studies. It is organized in tabular form to facilitate presentation. All 8 tabs were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. They include: (1) an introduction and overview, (2) illustrative development scenarios, (3) resource revenues report, (4) socio-economic expenditure report, (5) human resources report, (6) due diligence issues report, (7) knowledge management strategy for policy formation, and, (8) bibliography. refs., tabs., figs.

Boydell, T.; Brar, C.; Dodd, M.; Kwong, N.; Seeley [Royal Roads Univ., Victoria, BC (Canada). Science Technology and Environment Division; Bridges, G.; Shrimpton, M.; Burke, H.; Johnson, J. [GE Bridges and Associates, Victoria, BC (Canada)

2004-05-01

243

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

244

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Calvert Cliffs case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Calvert Cliffs nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined.

Flynn, J.

1982-07-01

245

Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Rancho Seco case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Rancho Seco nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of the construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

1982-01-01

246

The socio-economic costs of the planned development of wind power energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The socio-economic consequences of the Danish government's planned further development of wind power energy are discussed in detail. It is claimed that, currently, electricity produced by wind turbines is more expensive than that produced by power stations, if the relative environmental effects are not taken into consideration. It is expected that technological development will contribute to cost reduction by the year 2010 so that electricity produced by wind turbines will be competitive, but until then costs of wind power energy will be high and it is reckoned that losses will be in the range of 5-6 billion Danish crowns, minus 2.5 billion saved by lack of CO_2 emission. The socio-economic factors regarding windmills of various sizes (150 kW and 225 kW) are calculated and the planned development of wind power until 2010 is explained. The socio-economic costs of the development programme under various conditions, including the calculation of the saved emissions of carbon dioxide, are discussed. The author states that, in the light of these arguments, he is not in agreement with the governmental plan for the development of wind-turbine produced electricity. It is suggested that this plan could be postponed until such time as wind-power produced electricity should be more competitive in price, and that it should not be pursued during a period of economic recession. (AB)

1992-09-01

247

Health-related knowledge and preferences in low socio-economic kindergarteners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present study was to determine physical activity (PA and nutrition knowledge and preferences in low socio-economic status kindergarten children. Methods Following height and weight measurement, 795 low socio-economic status kindergarten children (age 3.8-6.8 y.o completed a photo-pair knowledge and preferences food and exercise questionnaire. Results No difference was found between nutrition and PA knowledge scores (52.3 ± 0.9 versus 52.6 ± 0.8%, respectively. There was no difference between the nutrition knowledge and preference score (52.3 ± 0.9 versus 50.9 ± 0.9%, respectively. PA preference was significantly higher than knowledge (56.9 ± 1.5 versus 52.6 ± 0.8%, respectively; p Conclusion Our data demonstrate diversities in physical activity and nutrition knowledge and preferences among low socio-economic status kindergarten children. These findings may be important for the development of health promotion programs in low socioeconomic kindergarten children.

Nemet Dan

2012-01-01

248

Socio-economic variation in CT scanning in Northern England, 1990-2002  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Socio-economic status is known to influence health throughout life. In childhood, studies have shown increased injury rates in more deprived settings. Socio-economic status may therefore be related to rates of certain medical procedures, such as computed tomography (CT scans. This study aimed to assess socio-economic variation among young people having CT scans in Northern England between 1990 and 2002 inclusive. Methods Electronic data were obtained from Radiology Information Systems of all nine National Health Service hospital Trusts in the region. CT scan data, including sex, date of scan, age at scan, number and type of scans were assessed in relation to quintiles of Townsend deprivation scores, obtained from linkage of postcodes with census data, using ?2 tests and Spearman rank correlations. Results During the study period, 39,676 scans were recorded on 21,089 patients, with 38,007 scans and 19,485 patients (11344 male and 8132 female linkable to Townsend scores. The overall distributions of both scans and patients by quintile of Townsend deprivation scores were significantly different to the distributions of Townsend scores from the census wards included in the study (p Conclusions Social inequalities exist in the numbers of young people undergoing CT scans with those from deprived areas more likely to do so. This may reflect the rates of injuries in these individuals and implies that certain groups within the population may receive higher radiation doses than others due to medical procedures.

Pearce Mark S

2012-01-01

249

Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed.

Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo

2014-01-01

250

The Forgotten Rights - the Case for the Legal Enforcement of Socio-Economic Rights in the UK National Law  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Socio-economic rights relate to an individual’s social, economic and cultural entitlements. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966 enumerates the following socio-economic rights: Right to work; Right to Social Security and social insurance; Right to an adequate standard of living including adequate food, clothing, housing and to continuous improvement of the standard of living; Right to health; and Right to education. In contrast, The Interna...

James, Asha P.

2007-01-01

251

Methods and models of analysis of spatial clusterisation of rates of socio-economic development of regions ?????? ? ?????? ??????? ???????????????? ????????????? ?????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article offers a scheme of analysis of spatial clusterisation of the rates of socio-economic development of regions, which includes grouping of regions by the level of development, assessment of regional inclination to migration from cluster to cluster, and forecasting the level of socio-economic development of regions. Methods of cluster analysis, spatial econometrics, discriminant and logit-analysis are used as the instruments of the study. The obtained results could be used when assess...

Guryanova Lidiya S.; Kholodnyi Gennadyi O.; Lukyanchikova Anna S.

2013-01-01

252

Socio-Economic Status, Health Shocks, Life Satisfaction and Mortality : Evidence from an Increasing Mixed Proportional Hazard Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The socio-economic gradient in health remains a controversial topic in economics and other social sciences. In this paper we develop a new duration model that allows for unobserved persistent individual-specific health shocks and provides new evidence on the roles of socioeconomic characteristics in determining length of life using 19-years of high-quality panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel. We also contribute to the rapidly growing literature on life satisfaction by testing if m...

Frijters, Paul; Haisken-denew, John P.; Shields, Michael A.

2005-01-01

253

Socio-economic status and health care utilization in rural Zimbabwe: findings from Project Accept (HPTN 043)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zimbabwe’s HIV epidemic is amongst the worst in the world, and disproportionately effects poorer rural areas. Access to almost all health services in Zimbabwe includes some form of cost to the client. In recent years, the socio-economic and employment status of many Zimbabweans has suffered a serious decline, creating additional barriers to HIV treatment and care. We aimed to assess the impact of i) socio-economic status (SES) and ii) employment status on the utilization of health services ...

Kevany, Sebastian; Murima, Oliver; Singh, Basant; Hlubinka, Daniel; Kulich, Michal; Morin, Stephen F.; Sweat, Michael

2012-01-01

254

Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children  

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Abstract Background While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES) independent of body mass index. Methods Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females) in s...

2010-01-01

255

Socio-economic Determinants of Output of Groundnut Production in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study examined the economics of groundnut production in Estako West Local Government Area of Edo State. The objectives of the study were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of groundnut producers, determine the costs and returns of groundnut production, identify the constraints faced by groundnut farmers and analyze the socio-economic factors determining groundnut production in the study area. Primary data were collected with the aid of well-structured questionnaire administered...

Ekunwe, Peter A.; Emokaro, Christopher O.; Aigba, Grace A.

2013-01-01

256

The Joint Influence of Parental Modeling and Positive Parental Concern on Cigarette Smoking in Middle and High School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to examine the interaction between parental smoking status and parental attitudes, as measured by positive parental concern, on the risk of adolescent cigarette smoking. Parental smoking and parental concern about smoking were measured in a cross-sectional study of 37,244 students, a random sample of Maryland middle…

Kalesan, Bindu; Stine, Joan; Alberg, Anthony J.

2006-01-01

257

A STUDY ON RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACHIEVEMENT LEVELAND THEIR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SECONDARY CHILDREN  

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Full Text Available Environment is a global concept today. Environmental Education is an approach to learning. Environmental Education means the educational process dealing with man's relationship of population, pollution resource, conservation, technology, energy, urban and rural planning to the total biosphere.A self-made questionnaire was made in order to find the relationship between the Environmental Education aptitude and socioeconomic status among class IX Children of rural, urban and semi urban. The question paper contents fifty (50 questions and it divided into two sector. In sector-I content (10 questions by which the socioeconomic status of the children can be known and Sector-II consists of four type questions by which Environmental Education aptitude can be understood.Socioeconomic status is evaluated from the response of sector-I questions by analyzing the educational status of the family, occupation of the parents & the monthly income of the family of a particular student or sample. After classifying the samples into 3 classes of status (upper, middle & lower according to their socioeconomic condition, the mean of the marks was computed. The mean score of every status group is then analyzed to know the relationship between Environmental Education achievement level and socioeconomic status. Although there are many factor are responsible for the academic achievements in Environmental Education. But from this observation it may conclude that there is a strong relationship between Environmental Education achievement and socio-economic status.

GOUTAM CHAKRABORTY

2012-12-01

258

Child Care, Socio-economic Status and Problem Behavior: A Study of Gene-Environment Interaction in Young Dutch Twins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influences of formal child care before age 4 on behavioral problems at 3, 5, and 7 years of age were assessed in 18,932 Dutch twins (3,878 attended formal child care). The effect of formal child care was studied on the average level of problem behavior and as moderator of genetic and non-genetic influences, while taking into account effects of sex and parental socio-economic status (SES). There was a small association between attending formal child care and higher externalizing problems, especially when SES was low. Heritability was lower for formal child care and in lower SES conditions. These effects were largest at age 7 and for externalizing problems. In 7 year-old boys and girls, the difference in heritability between the formal child care group of low SES and the home care group of high SES was 30 % for externalizing and ~20 % for internalizing problems. The decrease in heritability was explained by a larger influence of the environment, rather than by a decrease in genetic variance. These results support a bioecological model in which heritability is lower in circumstances associated with more problem behavior. PMID:24878694

Middeldorp, Christel M; Lamb, Diane J; Vink, Jacqueline M; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I

2014-07-01

259

Modifying the rebound: It depends! Explaining mobility behavior on the basis of the German socio-economic panel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel and the way this behavioral aspect is modified by additional variables. The data set used to estimate a theoretical model of the rebound effect covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). To take full advantage of the information in the data available, and to avoid problems due to possible selection effects, we estimated an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. Our results suggest that in line with the rebound hypothesis, car efficiency has a negative effect on the kilometers driven. That is, the lower the fuel consumption, the greater the distance driven. However, contrasting recent empirical literature about the rebound effect in the transportation sector, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km. In addition, we find a positive diesel effect, which implies that owning a diesel engine car is positively correlated with the distance driven. Both effects can be interpreted as support for the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way. Moreover, it can be shown that some “soft” variables such as certain attitudes towards the environment tend to amplify this non-linear rebound effect. - Research Highlights: ? We address the empirical question of the extent to which higher fuel efficiency of cars affects additional travel. ? The data set covers two panel waves, 1998 and 2003, taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). We estimate an unbalanced two-wave random effects panel model. ? Contrasting recent empirical literature, this seems to be true only for cars with a consumption of more than roughly 8 l per 100 km.? In addition, we find a positive diesel effect: Owning a diesel engine car has a positive effect on the distance driven. Both effects support the rebound hypothesis, although not in a simple linear way.? It can be shown that some “soft” variables such as certain attitudes towards the environment tend to amplify this non-linear rebound effect.

2012-02-01

260

Comparison of environmental and socio-economic domains of vulnerability to flood hazards  

Science.gov (United States)

Socio-economic and environmental based vulnerability models have been developed within the research context of the FP6 project BRAHMATWINN. The conceptualisation of vulnerability has been defined in the project and is characterised as a function of sensitivity and adaptive capacity, where sensitivity is used to refer to systems that are susceptible to the impacts of environmental stress. Adaptive capacity is used to refer to systems or resources available to communities that could help them adapt or cope with the adverse consequences of environmental stresses in the recovery phase. In a wider context the approach reflects the wider objective and conceptualizations of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) framework, where vulnerability is characterized as a component of overall risk. A methodology has been developed which delineates spatial units of vulnerability (VULNUS). These units share a specific common characteristic and allow the independent spatial modelling of a complex phenomena independent from administrative units and raster based approaches. An increasing detail of spatial data and complex decision problems require flexible means for scaled spatial representations, for mapping the dynamics and constant changes, and delivering the crucial information. Automated techniques of object-based image analysis (OBIA, Lang & Blaschke, 2006), capable of integrating a virtually unlimited set of spatial data sets, try to match the information extraction with our world view. To account for that, a flexible concept of manageable units is required. The term geon was proposed by Lang (2008) to describe generic spatial objects that are homogenous in terms of a varying spatial phenomena under the influence of, and partly controlled by, policy actions. The geon concept acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. It is flexible in terms of a certain perception of a problem (specific policy realm, specific hazard domain, etc.). In this study, vulnerability units have been derived as a specific instance of a geon set within an area exposed to flood risk. Using geons, we are capable of transforming singular domains of information on specific systemic components to policy-relevant, conditioned information (Kienberger et al., 2008; Tiede & Lang, 2007). According to the work programme socio-economic vulnerabilities have been modelled for the Salzach catchment. A specific set of indicators has been developed with a strong stakeholder orientation. Next to that, and to allow an easier integration within the aimed development of Water Resource Response Units (WRRUs) the environmental domain of vulnerability has additionally been modelled. We present the results of the socio-economic and environmental based approach to model vulnerability. The research methodology utilises census as well as land use/land cover data to derive and assess vulnerability. As a result, spatial units have been identified which represent common characteristics of socio-economic environmental vulnerability. The results show the spatially explicit vulnerability and its underlying components sensitivity and adaptive capacity for socio-economic and environmental domains and discuss differences. Within the test area, the Salzach River catchment in Austria, primarily urban areas adjacent to water courses are highly vulnerable. It can be stated that the delineation of vulnerability units that integrates all dimensions of sustainability are a prerequisite for a holistic and thus adaptive integrated water management approach. Indeed, such units constitute the basis for future dynamic vulnerability assessments, and thus for the assessment of uncertainties due to climate change. Kienberger, S., S. Lang & D. Tiede (2008): Socio-economic vulnerability units - modelling meaningful spatial units. In: Proceedings of the GIS Research UK 16th Annual conference GISRUK 2008, Manchester. Lang, S. (2008): Object-based image analysis for remote sensing applications: modeling reali

Leidel, M.; Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.

2009-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

A global water scarcity assessment under shared socio-economic pathways – Part 1: Water use  

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Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect the key concepts underpinning each situation. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigation area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, industrial water withdrawal, and municipal water withdrawal. The first three factors are used to estimate agricultural water withdrawal. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century at 5-yr intervals. Each factor displays a wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigation area in 2085 varies between 270 and 450 km2, industrial water between 246 and 1714 km3 yr?1, and domestic water withdrawal between 573 and 1280 km3 yr?1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments by identifying the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyzing the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

T. Masui

2012-12-01

262

Longitudinal predictors of frequent vegetable and fruit consumption among socio-economically disadvantaged Australian adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adequate vegetable and fruit consumption is necessary for preventing nutrition-related diseases. Socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents tend to consume relatively few vegetables and fruits. However, despite nutritional challenges associated with socio-economic disadvantage, a minority of adolescents manage to eat vegetables and fruit in quantities that are more in line with dietary recommendations. This investigation aimed to identify predictors of more frequent intakes of fruits and vegetables among adolescents over a 2-year follow-up period. Data were drawn from 521 socio-economically disadvantaged (maternal education ?Year 10 of secondary school) Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. Participants were recruited from 37 secondary schools and were asked to complete online surveys in 2004/2005 (baseline) and 2006/2007 (follow-up). Surveys comprised a 38-item FFQ and questions based on Social Ecological models examining intrapersonal, social and environmental influences on diet. At baseline and follow-up, respectively, 29% and 24% of adolescents frequently consumed vegetables (?2 times/day); 33% and 36% frequently consumed fruit (?1 time/day). In multivariable logistic regressions, baseline consumption strongly predicted consumption at follow-up. Frequently being served vegetables at dinner predicted frequent vegetable consumption. Female sex, rarely purchasing food or drink from school vending machines, and usually being expected to eat all foods served predicted frequent fruit consumption. Findings suggest nutrition promotion initiatives aimed at improving eating behaviours among this at-risk population and should focus on younger adolescents, particularly boys; improving adolescent eating behaviours at school; and encouraging families to increase home availability of healthy foods and to implement meal time rules. PMID:24685764

Stephens, Lena D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

263

Understanding, creating, and managing complex techno-socio-economic systems: Challenges and perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This contribution reflects on the comments of Peter Allen [1], Bikas K. Chakrabarti [2], Péter Érdi [3], Juval Portugali [4], Sorin Solomon [5], and Stefan Thurner [6] on three White Papers (WP) of the EU Support Action Visioneer (www.visioneer.ethz.ch). These White Papers are entitled "From Social Data Mining to Forecasting Socio-Economic Crises" (WP 1) [7], "From Social Simulation to Integrative System Design" (WP 2) [8], and "How to Create an Innovation Accelerator" (WP 3) [9]. In our reflections, the need and feasibility of a "Knowledge Accelerator" is further substantiated by fundamental considerations and recent events around the globe. newpara The Visioneer White Papers propose research to be carried out that will improve our understanding of complex techno-socio-economic systems and their interaction with the environment. Thereby, they aim to stimulate multi-disciplinary collaborations between ICT, the social sciences, and complexity science. Moreover, they suggest combining the potential of massive real-time data, theoretical models, large-scale computer simulations and participatory online platforms. By doing so, it would become possible to explore various futures and to expand the limits of human imagination when it comes to the assessment of the often counter-intuitive behavior of these complex techno-socio-economic-environmental systems. In this contribution, we also highlight the importance of a pluralistic modeling approach and, in particular, the need for a fruitful interaction between quantitative and qualitative research approaches. newpara In an appendix we briefly summarize the concept of the FuturICT flagship project, which will build on and go beyond the proposals made by the Visioneer White Papers. EU flagships are ambitious multi-disciplinary high-risk projects with a duration of at least 10 years amounting to an envisaged overall budget of 1 billion EUR [10]. The goal of the FuturICT flagship initiative is to understand and manage complex, global, socially interactive systems, with a focus on sustainability and resilience.

Helbing, D.; Balietti, S.; Bishop, S.; Lukowicz, P.

2011-05-01

264

Histological subtype of lung cancer in relation to socio-economic deprivation in South East England  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found differences in the histological subtypes of lung cancers affecting males and females. Our objective was to investigate trends in the incidence of histological subtypes of lung cancer in males and females in relation to socio-economic deprivation in South East England. Methods Data on 48,031 males and 30,454 females diagnosed with lung cancer between 1995 and 2004 were extracted from the Thames Cancer Registry database. Age-standardised incidence rates for histological subtypes were calculated for each year, using the European standard population. Using the Income Domain of the Multiple Index of Deprivation 2004, patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 were classified into quintiles of socio-economic deprivation based on their postcode of residence. Age-standardised rates for each histological subtype were then calculated for each deprivation quintile. A Poisson regression model was fitted to the data for males and females separately to test the hypothesis that the relationship between socio-economic deprivation and adenocarcinoma was less strong than for other subtypes. Results In males all specific histological subtypes except adenocarcinoma declined in incidence. Squamous cell carcinoma remained the most common specific subtype and large cell carcinoma the least common. In females squamous cell carcinoma was initially most common, but its incidence declined slightly and that for adenocarcinoma increased. In both sexes the overall age-standardised incidence rate of lung cancer increased with increasing deprivation. However, these trends were less strong for adenocarcinoma than for the other subtypes in both males (p Conclusion The temporal trends and distribution of histological subtypes of lung cancer in males and females are similar to that reported from other western populations. In both males and females, adenocarcinoma was less strongly related to deprivation than other subtypes. This may be because its development is less strongly linked to individual smoking history.

Mak Vivian

2008-05-01

265

Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial 'socially' performs in comparison with its alternatives. 'Industrial economics' methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a 'pragmatic regulatory impact analysis', that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is 'pragmatic' in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess 'what happens' with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of economic and social effects expected from nanotechnology.

2011-07-06

266

Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial 'socially' performs in comparison with its alternatives. 'Industrial economics' methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a 'pragmatic regulatory impact analysis', that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is 'pragmatic' in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess 'what happens' with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of economic and social effects expected from nanotechnology.

Brignon, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.brignon@ineris.fr [INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata BP2 - 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

2011-07-06

267

Evaluating socio-economic state of a country analyzing airtime credit and mobile phone datasets  

CERN Multimedia

Reliable statistical information is important to make political decisions on a sound basis and to help measure the impact of policies. Unfortunately, statistics offices in developing countries have scarce resources and statistical censuses are therefore conducted sporadically. Based on mobile phone communications and history of airtime credit purchases, we estimate the relative income of individuals, the diversity and inequality of income, and an indicator for socioeconomic segregation for fine-grained regions of an African country. Our study shows how to use mobile phone datasets as a starting point to understand the socio-economic state of a country, which can be especially useful in countries with few resources to conduct large surveys.

Gutierrez, Thoralf; Blondel, Vincent D

2013-01-01

268

SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY WOMEN IN GULBARGA CITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of elderly is a major social problem across the world. Many of the studies were already made onthe elderly, but only a few such studies throws light on the problems of the elderly women. Hence, the present study ismade on the elderly women in Gulbarga city. About 150 elderly women were surveyed in Gulbarga city throughInterview Schedule to collect the information on socio-economic and health conditions of the elderly women. Thestudy revealed that majority of the respondents are satisfied with the basic needs, but are not satisfied with their life,as they are not getting adequate care and respect from the younger.

K.S Malipatil

2012-06-01

269

COMPARISON OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIO-ECONOMIC RESEARCH PERFORMANCES IN EASTERN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Scientific research performance measurement and its analysis creates the context where universities are forced to develop strategies to increase the values obtained from indicators such as number of scientific articles, the number of citations of these articles, h-index, g-index, etc. The purpose of this article is to analyze the performance differences arising in the socio-economic science between major universities in South-Eastern Europe, many of them EU Members. In addition, to see where they stand compared to Western Europe, will include a brief review of the results of a major university as LondonSchool of Economics and Political Science.

Carmen Anton

2012-12-01

270

Body weight and socio-economic determinants: Quantile estimations from the British Household Panel Survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work examines the socio-economic determinants of body weight in UK by means of two recent waves from the British Household Panel Survey. Our results support some findings in the literature, but also point to new conclusions and show that quantile regression estimates are quite different from OLS ones. Among obese people, our results reveal that they are less so as male that do not spend extra-time at work or female increasing physical activity. Furthermore, smoking cessation may lead to ...

Pieroni, Luca; Salmasi, Luca

2010-01-01

271

An Overview Of Socio Economic Status Of Padmapuram Village Of Andhra Pradesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Socio economic development of an area is the best reflection of the quality of life of its people. The distribution of social and economic services is crucial not only for promoting economic growth but also for assuring the social justice and improving the quality of life. Growing disparities and social tensions in this area is associated with unequal and unplanned developmental programmes. Padmapuram is a village in Araku valley in Visakhapatanam district of Andhra Pradesh. It has been found in the study that there is a substantial gap between demand and supply of health care infrastructure, both physical and manpower.

Arindam Chattopadhyay

2012-09-01

272

Patterns of migration and socio-economic change in Lao PDR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the thesis is to investigate patterns and consequences of internal and international migration in Laos during the period 1985-2005 on both a macro-and a micro-level. The thesis focuses on the influences of socio-economic change and government policies on inter-regional and rural-urban migration as well as on crossborder migration from Laos to Thailand. The study also examines the effects of migration and industrial factory work on gender relations during economic transition and con...

2010-01-01

273

Role-Based Panel Discussions to Teach Socio-Economic Consequences of Wastewater Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is getting more and more complex. From a biotechnological point of view, numerous new treatment techniques have been established in the past two decades to meet the increasing need to remove harmful substances. In addition, wastewater treatment is governed by socio-economic and geopolitical interests. As discussions outside the scientific community often include irrational reasoning, students need to be trained to react to invalid arguments. By use of a role-based panel discussion, this goal could be reached.

Pamela Vrabl

2012-05-01

274

Socio-economic status influences blood pressure control despite equal access to care  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Denmark has a health care system with free and equal access to care irrespective of age and socio-economic status (SES). We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate a possible association between SES and blood pressure (BP) control of hypertensive patients treated in general practice. METHODS: We enrolled 184 general practices and 5260 hypertensive patients. The general practitioners reported information about BP and diagnosis of diabetes. Information about education, income, antihypertensive drug treatment and other co-morbidity was retrieved from relevant registers from Statistics Denmark. The outcome measure was BP control defined as BP

Paulsen, M S; Andersen, M

2012-01-01

275

Crowd Avoidance and Diversity in Socio-Economic Systems and Recommendation  

CERN Document Server

Recommender systems recommend objects regardless of potential adverse effects of their overcrowding. We address this shortcoming by introducing crowd-avoiding recommendation where each object can be shared by only a limited number of users or where object utility diminishes with the number of users sharing it. We use real data to show that contrary to expectations, the introduction of these constraints enhances recommendation accuracy and diversity even in systems where overcrowding is not detrimental. The observed accuracy improvements are explained in terms of removing potential bias of the recommendation method. We finally propose a way to model artificial socio-economic systems with crowd avoidance and obtain first analytical results.

Gualdi, Stanislao; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

2013-01-01

276

The SocioEconomic analysis of repository siting (SEARS): Guide to data base preparation: Final draft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This guide describes the data bases in the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system. This model is a user-interactive, computerized model for projecting the economic, demographic, public service, and fiscal impacts of repository siting. This guide provides a description of the data bases, sources of data, data formats, and preprocessing programs for adapting and implementing the SEARS system and is seen as an essential reference for technical users of the model. It should be used in conjunction with reports describing the model's features and characteristics. 95 refs., 3 tabs

1984-01-01

277

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF HILL COMMUNITY– A FIELD STUDY ON RISHOP VILLAGE OF DARJEELING DISTRICT.  

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Full Text Available Socio-economic status of plain and hill area differ to a large degree from each other. Such type of study is very much common for both the areas. Rishop village of Darjeeling is very much interesting from social as well as economic point of view. On one hand tourism is a part of their economic life, on the other hand they are exceptional in West Bengal in terms of language, religion, way of life style etc. All these are due to the especial category of physical, and atmospheric set up

ARIJIT GHOSH

2013-04-01

278

Budget Architectonics as Tools on Socio-economic Development of Society ????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ????????  

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Full Text Available The article explores the role and the economic substance of the budget architectonics that is dynamic institutional processes of fiscal policy in the specific socio-economic conditions of the state, which is the formation of a hierarchical system of fiscal space components of which are the best value for the budget, social, fiscal, monetary and public debt indicators that determine the budget process aimed at ensuring the effective and efficient management of public funds to improve the living standards and welfare of citizens, the major directions of budget management in view of the appropriate balance of fiscal policy.? ?????? ???????? ???? ? ????????????? ???? ????????? ?????????????, ??????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????? ???????????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????? ?????????? ????????????, ? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????????, ??????????, ?????????, ?????????? ? ??????????????? ???????? ???????????, ???????????? ????????? ???????, ???????????? ?? ??????????? ???????????? ? ??????????????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????????? ???????.

Makogon Valentina D.

2012-04-01

279

Socio-Economic Development and Primary Energy Sources Substitution Towards Decarbonization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scanning the last 250 years, we can observe five great technological transformations that happened in the socio-eco-nomic development. On the other hand, there is a relationship between the socio-economic development and the substi-tution process of primary energy sources. Since the industrial revolution, there has been a smooth but growing substitu-tion among primary energy sources. First the switch from wood to coal, then this last one by oil and natural gas. These are non-solid fossils, wh...

2011-01-01

280

Climate Change and Shrimp Farming in Andhra Pradesh, India: Socio-economics and Vulnerability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Approximately 70% of shrimp consumed globally is farmed. India is ranked among the top five shrimp farming countries globally, and occurs mainly in the eastern coastal state of Andhra Pradesh (AP). More than 90% of the farms are less than 2 ha and are farmer owned, operated and managed. The objective of this study was to increase our understanding of climatic and socio-economic factors influencing this sector, through a survey of 300 shrimp farmers in AP in 2009/10. The farming commu...

Udaya Sekhar Nagothu; Muralidhar, M.; Kumaran, M.; Muniyandi, B.; Umesh, N. R.; Krishna Prasad, K. S.; Sena De Silva

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Parent-Completed Developmental Screening in Premature Children: A Valid Tool for Follow-Up Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

Our goals were to (1) validate the parental Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) as a screening tool for psychomotor development among a cohort of ex-premature infants reaching 2 years, and (2) analyse the influence of parental socio-economic status and maternal education on the efficacy of the questionnaire. A regional population of 703 very preterm infants (<35 weeks gestational age) born between 2003 and 2006 were evaluated at 2 years by their parents who completed the ASQ, by a pediatric clinical examination, and by the revised Brunet Lezine psychometric test with establishment of a DQ score. Detailed information regarding parental socio-economic status was available for 419 infants. At 2 years corrected age, 630 infants (89.6%) had an optimal neuromotor examination. Overall ASQ scores for predicting a DQ score ?85 produced an area under the receiver operator curve value of 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval:0.82–0.87). An ASQ cut-off score of ?220 had optimal discriminatory power for identifying a DQ score ?85 with a sensitivity of 0.85 (95%CI:0.75–0.91), a specificity of 0.72 (95%CI:0.69–0.75), a positive likelihood ratio of 3, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.21. The median value for ASQ was not significantly associated with socio-economic level or maternal education. ASQ is an easy and reliable tool regardless of the socio-economic status of the family to predict normal neurologic outcome in ex-premature infants at 2 years of age. ASQ may be beneficial with a low-cost impact to some follow-up programs, and helps to establish a genuine sense of parental involvement.

Flamant, Cyril; Branger, Bernard; Nguyen The Tich, Sylvie; de La Rochebrochard, Elise; Savagner, Christophe; Berlie, Isabelle; Roze, Jean-Christophe

2011-01-01

282

Parent-completed developmental screening in premature children: a valid tool for follow-up programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our goals were to (1) validate the parental Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) as a screening tool for psychomotor development among a cohort of ex-premature infants reaching 2 years, and (2) analyse the influence of parental socio-economic status and maternal education on the efficacy of the questionnaire. A regional population of 703 very preterm infants (<35 weeks gestational age) born between 2003 and 2006 were evaluated at 2 years by their parents who completed the ASQ, by a pediatric clinical examination, and by the revised Brunet Lezine psychometric test with establishment of a DQ score. Detailed information regarding parental socio-economic status was available for 419 infants. At 2 years corrected age, 630 infants (89.6%) had an optimal neuromotor examination. Overall ASQ scores for predicting a DQ score ?85 produced an area under the receiver operator curve value of 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval:0.82-0.87). An ASQ cut-off score of ?220 had optimal discriminatory power for identifying a DQ score ?85 with a sensitivity of 0.85 (95%CI:0.75-0.91), a specificity of 0.72 (95%CI:0.69-0.75), a positive likelihood ratio of 3, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.21. The median value for ASQ was not significantly associated with socio-economic level or maternal education. ASQ is an easy and reliable tool regardless of the socio-economic status of the family to predict normal neurologic outcome in ex-premature infants at 2 years of age. ASQ may be beneficial with a low-cost impact to some follow-up programs, and helps to establish a genuine sense of parental involvement. PMID:21637833

Flamant, Cyril; Branger, Bernard; Nguyen The Tich, Sylvie; de la Rochebrochard, Elise; Savagner, Christophe; Berlie, Isabelle; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

2011-01-01

283

Multi-dimensional Assessment of the Level of Enterprise Socio-economic Development  

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Full Text Available The goal of the article is generalisation and development of methodical technique within the taxonomic method and distance and similarity method for convolution on the basis of the system of measured features-symptoms into a single joint characteristic of the latent notion “level of enterprise socio-economic development”. Algorithms of taxonomic analysis and distance and similarity method are systemised, generalised, itemised and presented as technological schemes with consideration of innovations in the format of their practical use. The article develops recommendations on increase of accuracy and justification of joint assessments, which take into account results of the classical and modified algorithms of building multi-dimensional assessments within the framework of each method. The article gives recommendations on a comparative analysis of results of assessment of latent properties on the basis of features-symptoms of their manifestation at simultaneous application of several variations of the considered methods of multi-dimensional analysis, by criteria of co-ordination of variants of assessment and selection of the preferred variant. Using example of a real enterprise, the article justifies a possibility of trustworthy assessment of the level of its socio-economic development on the basis of accounting indicators, which reflect manifestation of internal factors only.

Nadtoka Tatyana B.

2014-01-01

284

The Christian ethics of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching  

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Full Text Available This paper highlights the relationship between economic scienceand Christian moral in order to analyze the idea of socio-economic development promoted by the Catholic Social Teaching (CST. In the first period leading up to the Second Vatican Council (1891-1962, from Pope Leo XIII to Pope John XXIII, the idea of development was connected both to technical and industrial progress, and to the universal values of justice, charity, and truth,which national communities were asked to follow. During the Conciliar period (1962-1979, the concept of development assumes a social and economic dimension, and so it becomes one of the main pillars of Catholic Social Teaching, which introduces the earliest definition of integral human development. Ultimately, in the post-Conciliar phase (1979-2009 including Benedict XVI’s pontificate, the idea of integral human development reaches its maturity by incorporating the complexity of real-world economic interactions. Finally, this paper shows how the ethics bolstered by the Catholic Social Teaching is characterized by two distinct but complementary lines of thought: moral rules for both political action, and for socio-economic issues.

Tony E. Persico

2011-11-01

285

A bridge between liquids and socio-economic systems: the key role of interaction strengths  

CERN Document Server

One distinctive and pervasive aspect of social systems is the fact that they comprise several kinds of agents. Thus, in order to draw parallels with physical systems one is lead to consider binary (or multi-component) compounds. Recent views about the mixing of liquids in solutions gained from neutron and X-ray scattering show these systems to have a number of similarities with socio-economic systems. It appears that such phenomena as rearrangement of bonds in a solution, gas condensation, selective evaporation of molecules can be transposed in a natural way to socio-economic phenomena. These connections provide a novel perspective for looking at social systems which we illustrate through some examples. For instance, we interpret suicide as an escape phenomenon and in order to test that interpretation we consider social systems characterized by very low levels of social interaction. For those systems suicide rates are found to be 10 to 100 times higher than in the general population. Another interesting paral...

Röhner, B M

2004-01-01

286

The socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report highlights the socio-economic weight of the electronuclear sector in France. It outlines that France is among the first three world leader on each link of the supply chain, and that the electronuclear sector has therefore a significant role in the French economy: 125.000 direct jobs and 410.000 generated jobs, a direct contribution of 0,71% to the GDP, each link of the supply chain (upstream, building, exploitation and maintenance, downstream) is present in the French economy, the electronuclear sector is part of the economic activity of local communities, the expertise of specialised companies contributes to their competitiveness in other domains, and the sector now invests to prepare its future. The socio-economic impacts of an EPR are analysed in terms of activity during nearly 90 years, with respect to its location, and according to technical and economic criteria. The last part outlines that the weight of this sector in the French economy could significantly increase

2011-01-01

287

Education in health: the influence from socio-economic-cultural of pregnant woman  

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Full Text Available Objective: to describe the socio-economic-cultural pregnant women who use outpatient prenatal care and identify the themes of education for the pregnancy and puerperal period elected by women. Methods: it’s a cross-sectional, exploratory and descriptive study. In a prenatal care from healthcare center located in Rio de Janeiro were carried out 90 semi-structured interviews with pregnant women. This study was approved by Research Ethics Committee in Health Municipal Secretariat-RJ, number of register 231/08. Results: the predominant age group (48% was that of pregnant women 18 to 25 years, most (62% did not complete high school and are employed in the service sector. The absolute majority (94% have family income less than three minimum wages. The most women (76% did not plan the current pregnancy and 33% had previous abortion. Some women were drinking alcohol (13.3% and smoking (7.7%. Signs and symptoms of labor was the theme of education elected by the majority (56%. Conclusion: to understand the socio-economic and cultural allowed be identified vulnerabilities to the health of women. This research has great relevance to support the planning of health care. Through health education we can contribute to a good outcome of pregnancy and future pregnancies and to reduce the rates of maternal and neonatal mortality.

Alana Stéphanie Esteves Villar

2010-01-01

288

Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people  

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Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

2010-12-01

289

Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed

1998-07-01

290

Dietary and socio-economic factors in relation to Helicobacter pylori re-infection  

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Full Text Available AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori re-infection.METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H pylori infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups:?I-examined group (111 persons with H pylori re-infection and II-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected. The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic factors.RESULTS: A statistically significant lower frequency of fermented dairy products (P < 0.0001, vegetables (P = 0.02, and fruit (P = 0.008 consumption was noted among patients with H pylori re-infection as compared to those who had not been re-infected.CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of probiotic bacteria, mainly Lactobacillus, and antioxidants, mainly vitamin C (contained in fruit and vegetables, might decrease the risk of H pylori re-infection.

Miros?aw Jarosz, Ewa Rychlik, Magdalena Siuba, Wioleta Respondek, Ma?gorzata Ry?ko-Skiba, Iwona Sajór, Sylwia Guga?a, Tomasz B?a?ejczyk, Janusz Ciok

2009-03-01

291

Sensitivity analysis of socio-economic values of time for public transport projects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The socio-economic time benefits of two light rail projects in Copenhagen are investigated using three different sets of values of time. The first set is the one the Ministry of Transport recommends for use in socio-economic analysis in Denmark; this is used as basis for comparison with the two other sets of values of time. The second set is the expected new recommended values of time that has the same time values for non-business travel. The third set is estimated from traffic modelling parameters and operates with different in-vehicle time values; the reason for this is thoroughly described supported by examples. Traffic modelling of the two light rail projects has been performed and the results are used to generate the time benefits. The time benefits for the two light rail projects using the expected new values of time will increase around 20% compared to the result when using the values recommended by the Ministry of Transport. Differentiated in-vehicle values prove to generate an even higher increase intime benefits, but vary depending on the projects.

Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

2007-01-01

292

Capital Flight to Savings Gap in Nigeria: An Assessment of the Socio-Economic Determinants  

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Full Text Available Capital Flight has long been recognized as a problem for developing nations. Savings gap in some of these nations has widened over the years due to rising Capital Flight. This has limped domestic investment growth, employment creation and poverty alleviation. With these in view, this study seeks to underscore the socio-economic determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Approaching the study, two measures of Capital Flight (hot money method and residual method are modeled against a number of socio-economic factors identified in the literature. Fully Modified Ordinary Least Square, Seemingly Unrelated Regression and Error Correction Mechanism are employed to sieve out the significant determinants of Capital Flight in Nigeria. Amongst the host, only lagged Capital Flight, fiscal balance and exchange rate are found to be the significant determinants of Capital Flight in the country. The study concludes that unless sound macroeconomic measures are taken to address these factors, Capital Flight will remain high in Nigeria. Domestic investment will remain very low. Poverty levels will remain high, and the quest for economic development will remain elusive. The key out of Nigeria’s colossal savings gap is keeping domestic capital at home. This is achievable using the strategies discussed in the study.

Chukwuma Dim

2014-01-01

293

Domestic dog health worsens with socio-economic deprivation of their home communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dogs play an important role in infectious disease transmission as reservoir hosts of many zoonotic and wildlife pathogens. Nevertheless, unlike wildlife species involved in the life cycle of pathogens, whose health status might be a direct reflection of their fitness and competitive abilities, dog health condition could be sensitive to socio-economic factors impacting the well-being of their owners. Here, we compare several dog health indicators in three rural communities of Panama with different degrees of socio-economic deprivation. From a total of 78 individuals, we collected blood and fecal samples, and assessed their body condition. With the blood samples, we performed routine hematologic evaluation (complete blood counts) and measured cytokine levels (Interferon-? and Interleukin-10) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. With the fecal samples we diagnosed helminthiases. Dogs were also serologically tested for exposure to Trypanosoma cruzi and canine distemper virus, and molecular tests were done to assess T. cruzi infection status. We found significant differences between dog health measurements, pathogen prevalence, parasite richness, and economic status of the human communities where the dogs lived. We found dogs that were less healthy, more likely to be infected with zoonotic pathogens, and more likely to be seropositive to canine distemper virus in the communities with lower economic status. This study concludes that isolated communities of lower economic status in Panama may have less healthy dogs that could become major reservoirs in the transmission of diseases to humans and sympatric wildlife. PMID:24681221

Fung, H L; Calzada, J; Saldaña, A; Santamaria, A M; Pineda, V; Gonzalez, K; Chaves, L F; Garner, B; Gottdenker, N

2014-07-01

294

Female Foeticide in Delhi/NCR: Exploring the Socio-Economic and Cultural Dimensions  

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Full Text Available Background: The social and psychological fibres of India are predominantly patriarchal and contributing extensively to the secondary status of women. It is yet to be seen if the difference in attitudes towards the practice of female foeticide varies in different socio-economic strata, and in among the different communities of India. Methodology: The present study is based on a door-to-door survey comprising 100 families, conducted in slum areas of Delhi/NCR. Most of the families living in these areas were immigrants from different states of India with different cultural practices and beliefs. Results: Though the studied participants differed in their cultural perceptions on role and status of women in society, majority of them testified that the practice is more prevalent in the middle and upper class society, and escalating demands of dowry was cited as the main reason behind it. Conclusion: The extent of practice of female foeticide is seen to vary among different socio-economic strata and communities. Taking this diversity into consideration, customized social-awareness campaigns must be organized in accordance with different cultural and socioeconomic circumstances existing in the diverse range of communities in India.

Deb Roumi, Bhatnagar P, Avasthy D

2012-09-01

295

Cultural Impediments to Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria: Lessons from the Chinese Economy  

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Full Text Available This paper attempts to describe how human environment is an important determinant of socio-economic development. Over the past three decades, Nigeria has been confronted with deep-seated socio-economic crisis evident in high level of poverty, inflation, foreign debt overhang, closure of industries, epileptic power supply, budget deficit, absolute lack of good governance at the grass root, environmental degradation and high unemployment. In the early part of the 21st century, there was high hope among Nigerians that the emergence of democracy and the increasing global capitalist markets feasible in the oil and telecommunication sectors will result in high level of accelerated development. Elsewhere in Asia, globalization and world capitalist market have changed the faces of fundamental problems of underdevelopment. Studies have even confirmed that the successes recorded by China in the global markets confirm that a country’s economy does not grow in vacuum; it exists within the environment and thrives therein. The failure and crises experienced in Nigeria today have been linked with cultural factors such as corruption, leadership failure, lack of entrepreneurial skills, over dependence on western values and culture, insincerity and weak bureaucracies. Using quantitative data and content analysis, the paper concludes that Nigerian government at all levels must rise up to the challenges posed by the problems of underdevelopment in the 21st century.

Adebayo Olufemi Fadeyi

2012-06-01

296

A Study on Socio-Economic Status of Maid-Servant in Purulia Town  

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Full Text Available Over last few decades, there have been rapid growths in the number of women employee in India and majority of them being engaged in informal sector of the economy where jobs are often low paid and repetitive. An attempt has been made in this study to trace out the socio-economic status of maid-servant as well as the manner in which they lives in the informal sector in Purulia Municipal area of the same district of West Bengal. The study has been carried out through personal interview and observation. Results indicate that most of the maid-servants (78% are satisfied in their profession and most of the respondents (82.35% do not engaged with other work except maid-servant for earning. However, economic compulsion is the main hardship for taking the job as maid-servants. The general educational status of the maid-servants is not satisfactory and wages of the maid-servants are very low. The maid-servants are subject to variety of exploitations starting from low wages to maltreatment and sexual harassment by the employer. In view of this exploitation it is necessary to improve their socio-economic status and working conditions.

SHYAMAL KUMAR BISWAS

2012-12-01

297

Socio-economic features of commercial fishery in the bordering upper Danube River area of Serbia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The multidisciplinary socio-economic study of fisheries in the bordering part of the Danube River between Serbia and Croatia (at the following sites: Apatin, Ba?ka Palanka, Ba?ko Novo Selo, Bezdan, and Sombor) that was performed in order to investigate various aspects of fish resource utilization (management, policy of protection and exploitation of freshwater fishery resources, present fisheries legislation, catch statistics), was realized during 2004 and 2005. Data were collected via survey with a structured interview. Socio-economic circumstances, together with ecological factors, have had an influence on the fish stock and number of commercial fishermen. Awareness of the occurring problems, both economic and ecological ones, is apparent, regardless of whether it is assessed in the field of commercial or recreational fishing. Fishery sector in Serbia is in a prolonged process of transition, with the enforcement of fishing regulations, but also the lack of control that leaves space for illegal commercial fishing. The statements, consciousness, experience and behavior of commercial fishermen represent a good basis for planning the sustainable development of fishing in this section of the Danube River. PMID:21674225

Smederevac-Lali?, Marija; Peši?, Radmilo; Cveji?, Slobodan; Simonovi?, Predrag

2012-05-01

298

Socio-economic and demographic profile of the West Valley, New York area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis is focused on the target area population and economic indicators. It is concluded that the area surrounding the plant is economically poor, if not in fact depressed. It is typical of older agricultural areas in much of the eastern U.S. The area is rural in character with little commercial and industrial development. The area is sparsely populated with little prospect for significant increases in population. During the period of construction and operation of the reprocessing plant there appeared to be no consistent areawide patterns of socio-economic development. The only socio-economic impact which may be inferred from the presence of the plant occurred in the immediate vicinity of the plant (i.e. the town of Ashford). This is not surprising considering the small scale of the employment (150-250 persons) at the facility. Growth projections made in the early 1960's (at the time of plant development) were not met. Future county planning does not consider the plant a significant factor. In fact this is because the fate of the plant is out of local hands. More importantly, however, planning into the 1980's and 1990's shows that the plant is not expected to have future impact. (i.e. substantial new growth is not projected in the immediate vicinity of the facility.)

Danziger, R.

1978-06-01

299

Rural Tourism as a Prospective Direction of Entrepreneurship in the Socio-Economic Mechanism of Rural Development ???????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ? ?????????-????????????? ????????? ???????? ????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of rural tourism as a prospective direction of activity of entrepreneurship in rural districts of Ukraine, since it positively influences restoration, preservation and development of local traditions, trades, monuments of historical and cultural heritage and also expands channels of realisation of products of private farms of rural population. It analyses the essence of the rural tourism and its place in the complex socio-economic rural development. It identifies main problems of development of this sphere of activity. It focuses main attention on the fact that practical realisation of the state policy in the sphere of support of rural tourism bears today, as well as during numerous years in the past, mainly a declaratory character, and the state target financing of development of rural tourism is practically absent both at the state and regional levels. The article uses the analysis to present prospects of further development of rural tourism taking into account experience of EU country-members, in which adoption of state and local programmes, directed at development of entrepreneurship in the sphere of rural tourism, their proper performance and sufficient financing, realisation of measures of these programmes through funds of support of entrepreneurship is one of prospective directions of development of rural territories.?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????, ????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???????????, ?????????? ? ???????? ??????? ???????? ???????, ?????????, ?????????? ????????-??????????? ????????, ? ????? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????? ????????? ??????. ???????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ??? ????? ? ??????????? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ????. ?????????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???? ????? ????????????. ???????? ???????? ???????? ?? ??, ??? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ????? ???????, ??? ? ?? ?????????? ?????? ?????????? ???, ??????????????? ????????????? ????????, ? ??????????????? ??????? ?????????????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ?? ???????????????????, ??? ? ?? ???????????? ??????? ??????????? ???????????. ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????? ????????? ???????, ???????? ???? ????? - ?????? ??, ? ??????? ???????? ??????????????? ? ??????? ????????, ???????????? ?? ???????? ??????????????????? ? ????? ????????? ???????, ?? ?????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????????????, ?????????? ??????????? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ????????? ??????????????????? ???????? ????? ?? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ??????????.

Dovgal Yelena V.

2013-04-01

300

Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Adoption of Soya Bean Production Technologies in Takum Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined socio-economic factors affecting the adoption of soya bean production technologies in Takum Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. Interview schedules were administered to 180 respondents which were analyzed by the use of descriptive (frequencies and percentages and inferential (multiple regression analysis statistics. The study revealed that majority of the respondents adopted the recommended technologies with respect to improved seeds, planting time and harvesting time representing 52.20%, 50.70% and 68.90% respectively. While on the other hand, majority of the respondents did not adopt the recommended technologies with regards to fertilizer application, spacing, weeding frequency and the use of chemicals with 52.20%, 53.30%, 61.10% and 67.80% respectively. The regression analysis revealed that educational level, farming experience and sources of information had significantly and positively influenced the adoption of improved soya bean production technologies by respondents. The major constraints to adoption of soya bean production technologies by respondents were poor extension services (75.60% and lack of credit facilities (72.20%. The study recommends that agricultural extension services should adequately be provided with input support services in the form of credit facilities among others.

Mustapha, S. B.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress in Finland from 1979 to 2002: a population-based repeated cross-sectional survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Over the decades, global public health efforts have sought to reduce socio-economic health differences, including differences in mental health. Only a few studies have examined changes in socio-economic differences in psychological symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to assess trends in socio-economic differences in self-reported insomnia and stress over a 24-year time period in Finland. Methods The data source is a repeated cross-s...

Talala Kirsi M; Martelin Tuija P; Haukkala Ari H; Härkänen Tommi T; Prättälä Ritva S

2012-01-01

302

Effects of nutritional stress and socio-economic status on maternal mortality in six German villages, 1766-1863.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effects of nutritional stress on maternal mortality arising from short-term economic crises in eighteenth-century and nineteenth-century Germany, and how these effects might have been mitigated by socio-economic status. Historical data from six German villages were used to assess how socio-economic conditions and short-term economic crises following poor harvests may have affected maternal mortality. The results show that 1 year after an increase in grain prices the risk of maternal death increased significantly amongst the wives of those working outside the agricultural sector, and more so than for the wives of those working on farms. Nutritional crises seem to have had a significantly stronger impact on maternal mortality in the period 2-6 weeks after childbirth, when mothers were most prone to infections and indirect, obstetrical causes of maternal death. The findings indicate that both nutritional stress and socio-economic factors contributed to maternal mortality. PMID:24134511

Scalone, Francesco

2014-07-01

303

IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN OSUN STATE, NIGERIA  

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Full Text Available This study examined the impact of socio-economic characteristics on the performance of small-scale enterprises in the study area. It also identified the salient impacts of socio-economic traits on the development and expansion of small-scale enterprises in the country; established the productive prospects of progressive small-scale enterprises in the study area. The study was carried out in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria where copies of structured questionnaire were purposively administered on selected respondents. Evidence from the study shows that socio-economic characteristics of small scale entrepreneurs tend to influence the performance and productivity of Small Scale Enterprises in Nigeria.Further analysis shows that gender, age and educational qualification had significant influence on the performance of the selected small-scale enterprises in the study area . The paper suggests integrated approach to the development of individual entrepreneurial capacity and promotion of sustainable small-scale enterprises.

Abdul-azeez ibraheem adegoke

2010-03-01

304

Socio-economic predictors of stunting in preschool children: a population-based study from Johannesburg and Soweto  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Stunting continues to be a child public health concern in many African countries, including South Africa. This study uses data from the Birth to Twenty study, held in Johannesburg, to investigate a range of household-level socio-economic and social support predictors of stunting in child [...] ren aged less than 30 months. DESIGN: Logistical regression models were constructed using a conceptual framework to investigate the association between early life measures of socio-economic status and stunting (

Barbara A, Willey; Noel, Cameron; Shane A, Norris; John M, Pettifor; Paula L, Griffiths.

305

Socio-economic Value Analysis in Geospatial and Earth Observation: A methodology review (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Many industries have long since realised that applying macro-economic analysis methodologies to assess the socio-economic value of a programme is a critical step to convincing decision makers to authorise investment. The geospatial and earth observation industry has however been slow to embrace economic analysis. There are however a growing number of studies, published in the last few years, that have applied economic principles to this domain. They have adopted a variety of different approaches, including: - Computable General Equilibrium Modelling (CGE) - Revealed preference, stated preference (Willingness to Pay surveys) - Partial Analysis - Simulations - Cost-benefit analysis (with and without risk analysis) This paper will critically review these approaches and assess their applicability to different situations and to meet multiple objectives.

Coote, A. M.; Bernknopf, R.; Smart, A.

2013-12-01

306

Ageing of power plants socio-economical, sanitary and environmental impact  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Association of the local Commissions of Information (A.N.C.L.I.) presents a colloquium about the ageing of nuclear power plants. The different following points are presented. The life cycle of nuclear power plants and the new types of reactors. The ageing of power plants: stakes and perspectives for the French and world nuclear park. A power plant of 30 years is it sure? The role of the studies of ageing and the follow-up according to the age. Stop or continue to exploit a nuclear power plant: who decides, when and how. The socio-economic consequences of a stop of power plant: the Spanish experience. Ten-year visits of a power plant: the associative experience. 58 reactors today: how to assume their end of life and welcome equipments to come. (N.C.)

2005-09-14

307

Socio-Economic Conditions of Collectors of Post- Consumer Clothing Waste in Mumbai, India  

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Full Text Available Discarded clothing from households are collected in exchange for utensils by men and women called bhandivale in Mumbai. This unique door-to-door recycling service earns them a livelihood. With the objective to understand the background of the bhandivale in Mumbai, the percentage of bhandivale in various age groups, the male to female ratio among the sample of respondents, caste-wise and sub-castes distribution, their migratory status, State of origin, original occupation, domicile, possession of ration card and income are studied. A field survey was undertaken; data was gathered through personal interviews. Literature reviewed showed the presence of Waghri tribes involved in the trade of used clothes. In this study the presence of two more tribal communities were found, namely Gondhali and Kunchikorve.A comparative study between the three sub-caste revealed that Gondhali and Kunchikorvehave better educational and socio-economic conditions than the Waghri.

Suman D. Mundkur

2014-01-01

308

Socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on patient employment after ten years.  

Science.gov (United States)

Birmingham hip resurfacing is an attractive option for treatment of arthritis in young and active patients. The aim of this study was to assess the socio-economic impact of Birmingham hip resurfacing on their employment and work intensity at ten years. A cohort of 90 consecutive patients with 100 Birmingham hip resurfacing, performed by single surgeon, were reviewed prospectively. The mean age was 51 years at surgery. Prospective review was undertaken from surgery until the tenth post-operative year. Overall, 90% of patients were in the same employment following surgery. Two patients who were employed before surgery were unemployed. Three patients had to decrease their work intensity but were still employed. Three out of five disabled patients regained employment following surgery. Seventy-eight patients were able to continue their employment with no or minimal restriction. Birmingham hip resurfacing allows the majority of patients to continue their same employment at similar intensity ten years following surgery. PMID:21113593

Malek, Ibrahim A; Hashmi, Munawar; Holland, James P

2011-10-01

309

Towards international E-stat for monitoring the socio-economic activities across the globe  

CERN Document Server

We investigate relationship between annual electric power consumption per capita and gross domestic production (GDP) per capita for 131 countries. We found that the relationship can be fitted with a power-law function. We examine the relationship for 47 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we investigate values of annual electric power production reported by four international organizations. We collected the data from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Statistics by International Energy Agency (IEA), OECD Factbook (Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics), and United Nations (UN) Energy Statistics Yearbook. We found that the data structure, values, and unit depend on the organizations. This implies that it is further necessary to establish data standards and an organization to collect, store, and distribute the data on socio-economic systems.

Sato, Aki-Hiro

2012-01-01

310

Spousal Abuse in Zimbabwe: Nature and Extent across Socio-Economic Class, Gender and Religiosity  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the nature and extent of spousal abuse among the different sexes, social classes, religious and non-religious families in Zimbabwe. Five types of spousal abuse were considered: physical, emotional, economical, sexual and psychological. The relationships between these types of spousal abuse by gender, social class and religious affiliation were tested. A total of 130 informants (mean age=33.8 years; s.d= 6.8 years who knew families with abuse took part in this study. Participants provided quantitative and qualitative data on the types and prevalence of spousal abuse they perceived in families they knew. The prevalence of spousal abuse did not differ by gender. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of spousal abuse between working class and middle class families. The prevalence of spousal abuse was lower among religious families. The study contradicted the view that spousal abuse was higher among the low socio-economic groups and females.

Magen Mhaka-Mutepfa

2009-06-01

311

Scenarios of socio-economic and energy development of the country up to 2010  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The scenarios description is given as the first stage of a procedure of an energy-economy interrelations dynamics study, the other two stages being the formulation and the analysis of the development variants. The scenarios reflect quantitatively the policies and the international conditions for the socio-economic, energy demand and energy supply developments of the country. Two economic development scenarios ('high' - official macroeconomic views and 'low' - economic restructuring and decrease of energy intensity) hierarchically preside over the two corresponding energy demand scenarios of different technological evolutions ('traditional' and 'energy efficiency' oriented one) in the industry, the transport and the domestic and services sectors. Four energy supply system scenarios follow, corresponding to different approaches in the development of the energy conversion technologies and energy carriers, thus constituting a scenario tree of the studies. 16 refs., 2 figs., 7 tab., 1 ann. (R.Ts.)

1990-01-01

312

Rural Households : Socio-Economic Characteristics, Community Organzing and Adaptation Abilities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations of informal organization and community adaptive capacities, and finally, it discusses the issues of vulnerability and adaptation to climatic and environmental change from a household perspective.

Bruun, Ole

2013-01-01

313

The political mobilization of corporate directors: socio-economic correlates of affiliation to European pressure groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Business has played a central role in the debate over Britain's place in the European Union. This paper examines the socio-economic characteristics of directors of Britain's largest corporations who affiliated either to Business for Sterling or Britain in Europe. It reports associations between directors' social backgrounds and their probabilities of affiliation. Elite university education, club membership, wealth and multiple directorships were all associated with higher propensities to affiliate. The associations are consistent with the idea that directors' social resources allow them to overcome collective action problems as well as supplying them with the motivations to affiliate. They also indicated that directors form a privileged group in that they have a number of very powerful actors who can take unilateral political actions. PMID:20579056

Bond, Matthew; Glouharova, Siana; Harrigan, Nicholas

2010-06-01

314

Influence of regional investment activity on socio-economic differentiation development level  

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Full Text Available The strategic goal of national competitiveness requires efficient organization of a single economic space within the existing administrative-territorial entities. The influence of the regional investment activity on production output and population living standards is estimated by the analytical group of statistical indicators, the analysis of which confirmed the existence of the direct link between regional investment activity and indicators of living standards differentiation. The gross fixed capital formation is considered as a determinant of regional socio-economic differentiation level, and the most important integral indicator is a balanced financial result, which determines the formation of resources for investment activity. The optimization of the structure of these sources is mainly conditioned by the priorities of the regional investment policy.

Chernova Tatyana Vasilyevna

2012-06-01

315

Socio Economic Changes Among The Tsunami Affected Families In Tamil Nadu – An Empirical Study  

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Full Text Available This study aims to assess the socio economic changes among the tsunami affected families in Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu. The participants were adult tsunami affected families (141 male and 47 female; N =188 in Palayar village of Sirkali block in Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu. A self prepared interview schedule was used for data collection. The mean age of the respondents was 37.6 years. About half of them had studied up to middle school level. The mean score of the education of the family members after tsunami is little higher than the mean score of the education of family members before tsunami. There is no change in the occupation among the selected families after tsunami but there is a statistically significant difference in the average monthly family income of the households and size of the families before and after tsunami.

A. Arun Prakash

2012-10-01

316

Exploring Socio-Economic Factors Behind Domestic Violence Against Women in Sargodha District  

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Full Text Available Violence against Women has become a global concern because this specific issue affects the life of women adversely. Domestic violence is most persistent form of Violence against Women. It is a severe violation of human rights. Many demographic, economic, psychological factors may be responsible for the domestic violence but social factors contain prime importance in this regard. Pakistani society is facing the trouble of increase in domestic violence because this issue is still under acknowledged and underreported. An exploratory study was conducted to probe the socio-economic factors behind domestic violence. Interview schedule was utilized as a tool to accumulate concerning data. A representative sample of (N=100 was collected through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. 56% of women indicated that they have faced physical violence and a huge majority i.e., 71% has faced psychological violence. The results suggest that women are more prone to bear and face domestic violence due to economic dependence.

Zarqa Azhar

2012-09-01

317

Cellular automata for the spreading of technologies in socio-economic systems  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce an agent-based model for the spreading of technological developments in socio-economic systems where the technology is mainly used for the collaboration/interaction of agents. Agents use products of different technologies to collaborate with each other which induce costs proportional to the difference of technological levels. Additional costs arise when technologies of different providers are used. Agents can adopt technologies and providers of their interacting partners in order to reduce their costs leading to microscopic rearrangements of the system. Analytical calculations and computer simulations revealed that starting from a random configuration of different technological levels a complex time evolution emerges where the spreading of advanced technologies and the overall technological progress of the system are determined by the amount of advantages more advanced technologies provide, and by the structure of the social environment of agents. We show that agents tend to form clusters of iden...

Kun, Ferenc; Farkas, Janos

2008-01-01

318

Quantitative stability, qualitative change? Changing socio-economic status and value perceptions of Danish volunteers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Changes in both socio-economic and cultural structures of societies are often assumed to have an impact on volunteering. Changing living conditions and changing values can affect both the level and the nature of volunteering. Most Western societies have over the last 30 years or more experienced changes in economic conditions, educational levels, and labor markets at the same time as cultural changes have taken place in relation to processes of individualization and reflexivity. Based on empirical data the aim of this paper is to investigate whether and to what extent changes in the structural preconditions for volunteering have had an effect on factors that are commonly associated with volunteering. We use survey data from Denmark collected over a period from 1990 to 2008.

Frederiksen, Morten; Henriksen, Lars Skov

2013-01-01

319

SOCIO - ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF HIV/AIDS PATIENTS IN KOHIMA DISTRICT OF NAGALAND  

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Full Text Available It is important to study the socio-economic background of the HIV/AIDS patients to understand and analyze how and why the virus/disease is spreading rapidly in Nagaland, as Nagaland is the 6th highest prevalent state in India, in terms of HIV/AIDs patients, though in recent years the numbers of newly affected HIV victims has fallen. It is essential to know what type/section of the society is mostly affected and also to know and understand the social environment they live in, their family background, educational status, economic lifestyle, indulgence of alcohol, involvement in the society activities, especially the church, which plays an important role among the Naga society

Ruguono Tepa

2014-06-01

320

Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas. Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.

Williams Allison

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

How Socio-Economic Conditions Influence Forest Policy Development in Central and South-East Europe  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, several findings on socio-economic conditions derived from national reports and a web-based questionnaire are discussed and related to the changing role of forestry and the future forest policy development. A number of Central and South-eastern European countries taking part in a SEE-ERA-NET project ReForMan project ( www.reforman.de ) participated in data acquisition: Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Germany, Serbia and Slovenia. The aim of the research was to illustrate the present structure of forestry sector, as well as investigate newly emerging topics in forestry of Central and South-eastern Europe. The results indicated certain patterns in attitudes and perceptions among stakeholders that can be related to socio-economic conditions defined for each country. Clear differences between member and non-member countries exist only in level of implementation of EU legislation. Results showed consensus on main threats to the forests among all countries, but also some country specifics in perceptions of factors influencing forestry, their importance and professional competencies. These results could be additionally explained by influence of historical conditions which shaped development of forest sector in SEE region especially in its organizational dimension as well as in perceived role of forestry expressed through recognition of main forest functions. The influence of European forest policy processes in the region is evident through adaptation of EU legislation and perceived implications of international processes on national levels. Based on this observation, two possible options for future development of the forestry sector can be foreseen: (i) focusing on the productive function of forests and fostering its' sustainable use; or (ii) putting an emphasis on environmental and social issues. In both cases supporting public participation in decision-making processes is recommendable. Another conclusion based on perceived medium to low professional competencies to cope with new topics, that there is lack of confidence and need for professional support in decisionmaking processes.

Vuleti?, Dijana; Poto?i?, Nenad; Krajter, Silvija; Seletkovi?, Ivan; Fürst, Christine; Makeschin, Franz; Gali?, Zoran; Lorz, Carsten; Matijaši?, Dragan; Zupani?, Matjaž; Simon?i?, Primož; Vacik, Harald

2010-12-01

322

Migrant mortality from diabetes mellitus across Europe : the importance of socio-economic change  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR) is more affluent than the country of birth (COB). We obtained mortality data from 7 European countries. To assess migrant diabetes mortality, we used direct standardization and Poisson regression. First, migrant mortality was estimated for each country separately. Then, we merged the data from all mortality registers. Subsequently, to examine the second hypothesis, we introduced gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of COB in the models, as an indicator of socio-economic circumstances. The overall pattern shows higher diabetes mortality in migrant populations compared to local-born populations. Mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were highest in migrants originating from either the Caribbean or South Asia. MRRs for the migrant population as a whole were 1.9 (95% CI 1.8-2.0) and 2.2 (95% CI 2.1-2.3) for men and women respectively. We furthermore found a consistently inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality. Most migrant groups have higher diabetes mortality rates than the local-born populations. Mortality rates are particularly high in migrants from North Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia or low-GDP countries. The inverse association between GDP of COB and diabetes mortality suggests that socio-economic change may be one of the key aetiological factors.

Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick

2012-01-01

323

Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors. PMID:24282537

Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

2013-01-01

324

Dietary sources of animal and plant protein intake among Flemish preschool children and the association with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to assess the intake of animal, plant and food group-specific protein, and to investigate their associations with socio-economic and lifestyle-related factors in Flemish preschoolers. Methods Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from 661 preschoolers aged 2.5-6.5 y (338 boys and 323 girls. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to investigate the association between animal, plant, and food group-specific protein intake and socio-economic and lifestyle factors. Results Animal proteins (mean 38 g/d were the main source of total protein (mean 56 g/d, while mean plant protein intake amounted to 18 g/d. The group of meat, poultry, fish and eggs was the main contributor (51% to animal protein intake, followed by milk and milk products (35%. Bread and cereals (41% contributed most to the plant protein intake, followed by low-nutritious, energy-dense foods (21%. With higher educated fathers and mothers as reference, respectively, preschoolers with lower secondary and secondary paternal education had lower animal, dairy-, and meat-derived protein intakes, and those with lower secondary and secondary maternal education consumed less plant, and bread and cereal-derived proteins. Compared to children with high physical activity levels, preschoolers with low and moderate physical activity had lower animal and plant protein intakes. Significantly higher potatoes and grains-, and fish- derived proteins were reported for children of smoking mothers and fathers, respectively, compared to those of non-smoking mothers and fathers. Conclusions The total protein intake of Flemish preschoolers was sufficient according to the recommendations of the Belgian Superior Health Council. Parental level of education and smoking status might play a role in the sources of children's dietary proteins.

De Henauw Stefaan

2011-09-01

325

Limitation of socio-economic rights in the 2010 Kenyan Constitution: a proposal for the adoption of a proportionality approach in the judicial adjudication of socio-economic rights disputes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english On 27 August 2010 Kenya adopted a transformative Constitution with the objective of fighting poverty and inequality as well as improving the standards of living of all people in Kenya. One of the mechanisms in the 2010 Constitution aimed at achieving this egalitarian transformation is the entrenchme [...] nt of justiciable socio-economic rights (SERs), an integral part of the Bill of Rights. The entrenched SERs require the State to put in place a legislative, policy and programmatic framework to enhance the realisation of its constitutional obligations to respect, protect and fulfill these rights for all Kenyans. These SER obligations, just like any other fundamental human rights obligations, are, however, not absolute and are subject to legitimate limitation by the State. Two approaches have been used in international and comparative national law jurisprudence to limit SERs: the proportionality approach, using a general limitation clause that has found application in international and regional jurisprudence on the one hand; and the reasonableness approach, using internal limitations contained in the standard of progressive realisation, an approach that has found application in the SER jurisprudence of the South African Courts, on the other hand. This article proposes that if the entrenched SERs are to achieve their transformative objectives, Kenyan courts must adopt a proportionality approach in the judicial adjudication of SER disputes. This proposal is based on the reasoning that for the entrenched SERs to have a substantive positive impact on the lives of the Kenyan people, any measure by the government aimed at their limitation must be subjected to strict scrutiny by the courts, a form of scrutiny that can be achieved

NW, Orago.

326

Causal relationship between indicators of human health, the environment and socio-economic variables for the OECD countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There has been a lot of debate regarding the impact of emissions of pollutants on human health and the environment. Epidemiological studies tend to show the impact of increased ambient concentrations of pollutants on increased hospital admissions, mortality, morbidity, respiratory problems, etc. Without controlled experiments that compare people who are exposed to contaminants to those who are not, it is impossible to predict the causes and effects with certainty. Nevertheless, estimates of human and environmental health benefits from improved air quality indicate that there are associations between ambient concentrations of contaminants, human health and environmental impacts. The present study examines the linkages between human health, environmental quality, and emission of pollutants and selected socio-economic variables for selected OECD regions. Path or causal models will be constructed using health, socio-economic and environmental parameters to determine the direction of causal relationships, their magnitude and possible implication for public policy making. This analysis will be performed for the OECD countries, and selected regions of the OECD (North America, the Pacific Rim, and Europe). Comparative analysis of the relationships between human health, socio-economic and environmental variables among the OECD countries will indicate, among other things: (1) whether or not environmental quality is an important determinant of human health; (2) whether or not spending on health care system is significantly influenced by indicators of health status that are included by environmental variables; and (3) which socio-economic variables are significantly associated with indicators of human and the environment health.

Mariam, Y.K.G.

1999-07-01

327

System Crisis of Capitalism and its Influence on Socio-Economic Development of Ukraine, Countries of EU and USA ????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??? ??????? ?? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????, ????? ?? ? ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article analyses some consequences of the system world financial and economic crisis for socio-economic development of Ukraine, countries of EU and USA; it substantiates some directions of the way out of the crisis and strengthening of social orientation of the economy of Ukraine at micro-and macrolevels.???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????? ?? ?...

Orlov Pyotr A.

2012-01-01

328

System Crisis of Capitalism and its Influence on Socio-Economic Development of Ukraine, Countries of EU and USA ????????? ?????? ??????????? ? ??? ??????? ?? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????, ????? ?? ? ???  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyses some consequences of the system world financial and economic crisis for socio-economic development of Ukraine, countries of EU and USA; it substantiates some directions of the way out of the crisis and strengthening of social orientation of the economy of Ukraine at micro-and macrolevels.???????????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????-?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????-????????????? ???????? ???????, ????? ?? ? ???; ?????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????- ? ???????????.

Orlov Pyotr A.

2012-06-01

329

Integrated system contract as object indicative of socio-economic development of the region (The Republic of Bashkortostan ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ????????? ???????? (?? ??????? ?????????? ????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article covers the basics of indicative of socio-economic development of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the formation in the region of effective contractual relationships in the procurement of goods, works and services for state needs, as well as concepts of information technology integrated layout of the contract system of the country.?????? ????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????-????????????? ????????? ?????????? ????????????, ???????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ????? ??????? ???????, ?????, ????? ??? ??????????? ??????????????? ????, ? ????? ????????? ?????????????-???????????????? ?????? ??????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????.

?. ?. ???????

2013-07-01

330

School Governing Bodies in England under Pressure: The Effects of Socio-Economic Context and School Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports research into the nature and functioning of school governing bodies in different socio-economic and performance contexts. The research analysed 5000 responses from a national questionnaire-based survey and undertook 30 case studies of school governing. The research confirmed that school governing in England is a complex and…

James, Chris; Brammer, Steve; Connolly, Michael; Fertig, Mike; James, Jane; Jones, Jeff

2011-01-01

331

The Effect of Gender, Socio-Economic Status and School Location on Students Performance in Nigerian Integrated Science  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined the effects of gender, socio-economic status and school location, on Nigerian students performance in Integrated Science. The method used for the study was a three variable analysis of variance experimental design consisting of three independent variables at two levels each and one dependent variable. Six hundred junior…

Okoye, N. S.

2009-01-01

332

Socio-economic and ethnic group inequities in antenatal care quality in the public and private sector in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Socio-economic inequalities in maternal and child health are ubiquitous, but limited information is available on how much the quality of care varies according to wealth or ethnicity in low- and middle-income countries. Also, little information exists on quality differences between public and private providers.

Victora, Cg; Matijasevich, A.; Silveira, Mf; Santos, Is; Barros, Ajd; Barros, Fc

2010-01-01

333

Analysing the Types of TV Programmes Viewed by Children from Different Socio-Economic Strata Based on Their Self-Report in the Turkish Context  

Science.gov (United States)

This research investigated the amount of time that children from different socio-economic strata spend watching television per week and whether there was a difference among children from low, middle and upper socio-economic strata with regard to viewing programme types, including action adventure, news and information, competitions, sports,…

Kabadayi, Abdulkadir

2006-01-01

334

Prácticas educativas y creencias de profesores de secundaria pertenecientes a escuelas de diferentes contextos socioeconómicos / Educational practices and beliefs of secondary education teachers who belong to schools with different socio-economic contexts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se analizan las diferencias en las prácticas educativas de profesores de secundaria que trabajan en escuelas que se sitúan en distintos contextos socioeconómicos y se identifican sus creencias sobre el aprendizaje y la influencia que ejerce el nivel socioeconómico bajo en este proce [...] so. Para la obtención de los datos se realizaron observaciones de las clases y se aplicó una entrevista a los profesores. Los resultados indican diferencias en algunos aspectos de las prácticas educativas, según el contexto socioeconómico de las escuelas: los profesores que enseñan a alumnos de niveles socioeconómicos bajos dedicaron menos tiempo de sus clases a actividades de reestructuración de conocimientos y habilidades, expresaron en menos ocasiones una valoración positiva del trabajo académico de sus alumnos y en sus grupos se observó una frecuencia menor de estructuras comunicativas simétricas. La mayoría de los maestros sostuvo la idea de que las condiciones que entraña la pobreza influyen en la presencia de problemas de aprendizaje. Abstract in english This article deals with the differences in the educational practices of secondary education teachers who work in schools that are located in different socio-economic contexts and identifies their beliefs about learning and the influence that the lower socio-economic level has on this process. The da [...] ta gathering was made by means of classrooms observations and an interview to the teachers. The results show that there are differences in some aspects of the educational practice according to the socio-economic contexts in which the schools are inscribed: the teachers who teach to students who belong to lower socio-economic contexts spent less time to knowledge and ability restructuring, expressed less frequently a positive appraisal of their students' academic work and within their classrooms a lower frequency of symmetric communicational structures could be observed. Most of the teachers believe that the conditions created by poverty have an impact on learning problems.

María Teresa, Fernández Nistal; Ana María, Tuset Bertran; Ricardo Ernesto, Pérez Ibarra; Claudia, García Hernández.

335

Socio-Economic Impacts of Mutant Rice Varieties in Southern Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice production plays an important role in the socio-economic development of Vietnam, especially in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) region, which is responsible for more than half of the total and 90% of the national rice export. Before 1995, no mutant rice varieties (MRVs) were cultivated in the MRD. At present, rice variety improvement is the main focus of the national breeding programme and 8 rice mutants have been developed, occupying 10.3% of the total modern varieties in Southern Vietnam. The mutant varieties developed so far have better resistance to lodging, disease and insect damages, higher tolerance to soil stresses such as acid sulphate soil, drought etc., and also exhibit earliness and higher yield potential. Some of the best mutant varieties, namely VND95-19, VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB-100 have already been released for large-scale production in the MRD. VND95-20 has become one of the top 5 exported varieties and is grown annually on more than 300,000 ha in Southern Vietnam. Some of these mutants have given promising recombinants through hybridization and in particular the varieties VN121, VN124, OM2717 and OM2718 have been released into production. A successful combination of aromatic characteristics, short duration, high yield, tolerance to new diseases (GSV and RSV) and insects (BPH), and consequent reduction of spraying times of pesticide per crop, have greatly benefitted health and environmental protection. During the past 8 years under the IAEA Technical Co-operation (TC) project, the total cultivated area of MRVs in Southern Vietnam has been more than 2.54 millions ha. Until 2008, the 8 rice mutant varieties produced an added return of 374 million USD over the previous years and continue to produce added return for farmers. More specifically, VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB100, VND95-19, OM2717, OM2718, VN121 and VN124 returned 300.00, 9.0, 37.5, 6.0, 12.0, 8.4, 0.8 and 0.7 million USD, respectively. The application of MRVs reduced spraying times per crop two- to three-fold due to their tolerance to diseases and insects. MRVs are used in the strategy programme 'Eradicate hunger and alleviate poverty' of different national projects, particularly for the ethnic minorities in mountainous and remote regions of Southern Vietnam. Due to the significant contribution of MRVs to socio-economic development, their development has received many prizes by the national and local Government. (author)

2008-08-12

336

Socio - Economic Implication of Use of Gsm among Abeokuta Metropolis, Ogun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The euphoria that greeted the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM has reached its peak with grave implication for socio-economic conditions of many Nigerians same of who have been complaining about exploitation and unsatisfactory services provided by Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM operation in the country. However, many Nigerians even with high cost of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM phone will not stop at anything as holding a Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM phone has become a status symbol. Thus, the paper examines the socio-economic implications of the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM among residents in Abeokuta, Nigeria. The result reveal that despite the problems associated with the use of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM no one can do without it because it is highly useful for economic motives. Consequently unpas the findings it is recommended that government should checkmate exorbitant changes of Global System of Mobile Telecommunication (GSM operators.
Key words: Telecommunication; Economic; Mobile; Technology

Résumé: L'euphorie qui a salué l'utilisation du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM a atteint son apogée avec les implications en profondeur pour les conditions socio-économiques de nombreux Nigériens, les même que ceux qui se plaignaient de l'exploitation et des services insatisfaisants fournis par le Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM dans le pays. Toutefois, beaucoup de Nigérians, même avec un coût élevé de téléphone du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM, n'abandonneront pas les services du Système global des télécommunications mobiles (SGM, car celui-ci est devenu un symbole de statut social. Ainsi, le document examine les implications socio-économiques de l'utilisation du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM chez les résidents d'Abeokuta, au Nigéria. Le résultat révèle que, malgré les problèmes liés à l'utilisation du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM, personne ne peut s'en passer parce qu'il est très utile pour des motifs économiques. Par conséquence, il est recommandé que le gouvernement devrait éviter des changements exorbitants du Système global de télécommunications mobiles (SGM.
Mots-clés: Telecommunications; Économique; Mobile; Technologie

Akinola George Dosunmu

2011-07-01

337

Socio-economic impacts of mutant rice varieties in southern Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice plays an important role of socio-economic development in Vietnam, especially in Mekong River Delta (MRD) where is more than half of the total and 90% of national export rice. Rice variety improvement is main project in national breeding program. However, no mutant rice variety (MRV) was cultivated in MRD before 1995. Recently, 8 rice mutants occupy 10.3% of total modern varieties in Southern Vietnam. The mutated characters developed so far consist of better resistance to lodging, disease and insect damages, higher tolerance to soil stresses such as acid sulphate soil, drought etc, and also earliness and higher yield potential. Some best mutant varieties: VND95-19, VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB-100 have been released for large-scale production in MRD. Among them, VND95-20 has become one of the top 5 varieties for export and grown annually more than 300,000ha in Southern Vietnam. In combination with hybridization method, some mutants gave promising recombinants. Selected varieties as VN121, VN24-4, OM2717, OM2718 have been released into production. Successful combination of aromatic character with short duration, high yield, tolerant to new diseases (GSV and RSV) and insects (BPH), consequently reduction of 2-3 spraying times of pesticide / crop, supported for health and environmental protection. For 8 past years under IAEA TC project, total cultivated area of MRV was more than 2.54 millions ha in Southern Vietnam. Until 2008, 8 mutant varieties produced the added return of 374 millions USD for past years and continue producing added return for farmers. Eight MRV of VND95-20, VND99-3, TNDB100, VND95-19, OM2717, OM 2718, VN 121 and VN24-4 occupied the added return values as 300.00; 9.0; 37.5; 6.0; 12.0; 8.4; 0.8 and 0.7 millions USD, respectively. Application of MRV is reduced 2-3 spraying times / crop due to their tolerance to diseases and insects. MRV are used in strategy program of 'Eradicate hunger and alleviate poverty' of different national projects, particularly for the ethnic minorities in mountainous and remote areas in Southern Vietnam. Due to significant contribution for socio-economic development, achievement of mutant rice varieties have been received many prizes of national and local Government. (author)

2008-08-12

338

Virtual land use and agricultural trade. Estimating environmental and socio-economic impacts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liberalization has caused an increase in the global trade of goods and services. In particular, the value and physical volume of agricultural goods traded have largely increased. As the environmental and social consequences of trade are complex, they are rarely included in the national and international agricultural policies. One reason is that there is a lack of concepts and methods for assessing the environmental and social impacts of trade policies. In this paper we develop a method for quantifying and assessing the land use hidden in the export and import of agricultural goods for the case of Switzerland. For our analysis we focus on arable crops. The first methodological step of our research illustrates the spatial relationship of Switzerland with countries all over the world through the import and export of land use for arable crops. The second step links this spatial dimension with a qualitative assessment of the environmental and socio-economic impacts of agricultural land use. We applied the method to the case of wheat cultivation within Switzerland and import to Switzerland. The major problem we were confronted with was the availability of data, which had both to be reliable and available for the countries wheat is imported from. The results show that the calculation of land use is credible. In spite of the problems related with data availability, the assessment results for each indicator are in agreement with the current situation in the respective countries. In addition, the aggregation seems to accurately reflect the countries' agricultural polices. The developed method is used to estimate the overall environmental and socio-economic impacts of an increase in wheat imports to Switzerland. We argue that this method could be applied for anticipating potential impacts of trade agreements. Still, further research is required for fine-tuning of the utility functions, including a weighting procedure in the aggregation procedure. For practical applications important aspects like water shortage should enlarge our limited set of indicators. In addition the average impact on a country level was assessed. To refine that, different agricultural systems ranging from intensive to extensive to organic should be considered. Beyond our scope was to analyze impacts due to other life cycle stages than the agricultural production. For informed decision, however, information on the whole life cycle of agricultural products is required. (author)

2006-06-01

339

Influence of socio-economic status and environmental factors on serologically diagnosed Japanese encephalitis cases in the state of West Bengal, India during 2005-2010  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of the current study is to examine the influence of socio-economic status and environmental factors on serologically diagnosed Japanese encephalitis cases in the state of West Bengal, India during 2005-2010. Materials and methods: A total of 648 blood/CSF specimens were collected and/or referred from the suspected AES cases, admitted in the different medical colleges and hospitals of the state during the year of 2005-2010. These specimens were subjected to JE Mac ELISA to determine the actual JE case amongst these AES. The association of the socio-economic status and environmental factors with the serologically diagnosed JE positive cases was studied by a statistical analysis through Normal Deviate test or Z test. Result: Out of 648 specimens, only 175 (27.0% specimens were reactive to JE IgM antibody, of which 60.0% were from the male individuals and 40.0% from the female population. Major cases were observed in the age group of 0 - 10 years; followed by 11 - 20 years. Regarding literacy, only 58.3% cases had no education and 41.7% were from the literate with varying level of education, i.e., from primary level to post gra- duate level. A total of 65.7% cases were from low income group where as only 34.3% cases were from high income group. Regarding house type, 62.3% cases lived in mud house and 37.7% cases lived in the brick house. In most of the cases (74.3%, persons were living in close proximity to rice fields/lakes/ponds. 69.7% cases were found to occur in the monsoon and post-monsoon period whereas 30.3% cases were reported in the pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: Our study concludes that socio-economic status and environmental conditions were statistically significant contextual risk factors for serologically diagnosed JE incidences in West Bengal where JE is proved to be endemic in nature and such study constitutes a new report of this kind in the region.

Subhra K. Mukhopadhyay

2012-01-01

340

Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Crises and Collective Socio-Economic Phenomena: Simple Models and Challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Financial and economic history is strewn with bubbles and crashes, booms and busts, crises and upheavals of all sorts. Understanding the origin of these events is arguably one of the most important problems in economic theory. In this paper, we review recent efforts to include heterogeneities and interactions in models of decision. We argue that the so-called Random Field Ising model ( rfim) provides a unifying framework to account for many collective socio-economic phenomena that lead to sudden ruptures and crises. We discuss different models that can capture potentially destabilizing self-referential feedback loops, induced either by herding, i.e. reference to peers, or trending, i.e. reference to the past, and that account for some of the phenomenology missing in the standard models. We discuss some empirically testable predictions of these models, for example robust signatures of rfim-like herding effects, or the logarithmic decay of spatial correlations of voting patterns. One of the most striking result, inspired by statistical physics methods, is that Adam Smith's invisible hand can fail badly at solving simple coordination problems. We also insist on the issue of time-scales, that can be extremely long in some cases, and prevent socially optimal equilibria from being reached. As a theoretical challenge, the study of so-called "detailed-balance" violating decision rules is needed to decide whether conclusions based on current models (that all assume detailed-balance) are indeed robust and generic.

Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

2013-05-01

342

Socio-economic Conditions of Tribal Female Workers of the Beauty Parlors in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available The study highlights the socio-economic conditions of tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh. The study consists of 240 sample tribal female workers of the different beauty parlors situated in six divisional towns of Bangladesh and judgment sampling technique was used to select this sample. The study reveals that tribal women working at beauty parlor draw competitively higher salary than other tribal people; they live at a comparatively healthy physical environment provided by their owners. Majority of the respondents mentioned that their earnings have improved their economic condition significantly and more than half of them have past work experience of the same job. The tribal female workers of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh are not only generating income from the beauty parlors they are providing a valuable service to the new consumer society. The main stream society is not yet ready to provide this type of services. So, we should not treat this migrant community as temporary visitors rather we should treat them as indispensable and contributing factor of the social and economic development in Bangladesh. There should be initiative from the government of Bangladesh to inspect health; safety; welfare and other related issues of the beauty parlors in Bangladesh and take necessary actions in this regard. Finally, the future research directions are presented.

Nargis Akhter

2011-05-01

343

Effects of Socio-Economic and Demographic Variables on Age at First Marriage in Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Age at first marriage is a most important factor in population dynamics as it affects fertility tremendously and mortality and migration to a lesser extent. Marriage is nearly universal everywhere in Bangladesh. Age at first marriage has a strong influence on a variety of demographic, social and economic factors. Early marriage is more common matter among the poorest women in Bangladesh than women from wealthy families. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of socio-economic and demographic variables on age at first marriage in Bangladesh. For this, Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2007 data is used in this study. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis has been used to utilize the data. In logistics analysis, these results suggest that education, division, religion, occupation and partner occupation have highly significant effects on age at first marriage in Bangladesh. It is pointed out that education is one of the most viable means for enhancing the status of women as well as for rising age at first marriage in Bangladesh.

Mosharaf Hossain

2013-06-01

344

Socio-economic and psychological predictors of domestic greywater and rainwater collection: Evidence from Australia  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThe importance of securing water supply necessitates that all options be explored. Research has indicated that demand on water catchments can be substantially decreased when a large proportion of households reuse greywater and/or install rainwater tanks. This paper reports on an internet survey completed by 354 households residing in the Australian Capital Territory and surrounding regions. Statistical analyses examined the relationship between socio-economic and psychological variables and the likelihood of the garden being irrigated with greywater and/or rainwater. The results show income, gender, age and education could not differentiate residents who were irrigating their garden with water from a tank from residents who were not. Residents who used tank water on their gardens had a higher self-reported understanding of a range of water supply options. Female participants and lower income residents were more likely to use greywater on their garden. Participants who irrigated the garden with greywater were more likely to judge various other water collection and recycling proposals as being appropriate. General concerns about water collection and reuse risks were not found to predict which households used tank water and/or greywater on their garden.

Ryan, Anthony M.; Spash, Clive L.; Measham, Thomas G.

2009-12-01

345

The socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polish cities after 1989  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the socio-economic and spatial transformation of Polishcities after 1989. The Polish changes reached the structures of the three basic subsystems ofthe state: political (power, social (society, and economic (the economy. The systemictransformation that has taken place in Poland after 1989 is most readily visible in towns,although it was introduced in the country as a whole. For the development and transformationof towns, the most important were the introduction of local government structures andthe market model of the economy. The restitution of local government has ensured townsan authentic manager authorised to perform his function by the local community. The introductionof the market model to the economy has resulted in its privatisation and the appearanceof enterprise and competition. Towns, especially the biggest cities, have becomeattractive locations for investment. Cities with a balanced economic structure and well-developedinfrastructure had much better chances for growth to start with. Unfortunately, thetransformation period has also had some detrimental effects, the most important being unemploymentand all kinds of social deviance. However, Polish cities are certainly differenttoday and resemble Western cities to a greater extent than did the so-called socialist townsbuilt along theoretically beautiful but practically ineffectual ideological lines.

Jerzy J. Parysek

2004-01-01

346

The implications of federalism and decentralisation on socio-economic conditions in Ethiopia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we wil [...] l show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data. In both cases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits. The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.

Zimmermann-Steinhart, P; Bekele, Y.

347

THE IMPLICATIONS OF FEDERALISM AND DECENTRALISATION ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN ETHIOPIA  

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Full Text Available This paper analyses impacts of the federal system and the decentralisation of functions to the district level on Ethiopia's socio-economic development. Firstly we will highlight the principles of the Ethiopian federal system as well as those of the 2001/2002 decentralisation process. Secondly we will show how the decentralisation has impacted on two of the decentralised sectors, health and education, by comparing pre-federal, pre- and post-decentralisation data.In both cases an overall increase in allocated budgets and an increase in the scale of the services offered since decentralisation started in 2001 has been found. Studies also show that the increase in services is not homogenous across regional states. Within the four larger regions, strongly disadvantaged woredas at the outset of the decentralisation process have profited most, which shows that the constitutional imperative of equal access to services is being implemented. Some of the regions where decentralisation was started later have still not caught up with the other regions, a phenomenon which is mostly due to capacity deficits.The article concludes that decentralisation in combination with consistent development policies has led to an overall improvement in service delivery, while some challenges regarding quality and equity still need to be addressed.

Petra Zimmermann-Steinhart

2012-08-01

348

Financial Policy as an Instrument of Socio-economic Development of a Country  

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Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in showing the economic essence and identification of directions of increase of efficiency of the financial policy as an instrument of socio-economic development of the country. The article describes theoretical aspects, methodological principles and forms of ordering and improving financial relations. It identifies specific features of formation and realisation of financial policy of foreign countries. It shows that development of the strategy of efficient financial policy in the system of state regulation of economy under conditions of financial globalisation lies in formation of the model of financial relations, which would facilitate realisation of a complex of goals and tasks in the strategy of the society development; priorities of the financial policy should be determined on the basis of a complex approach in the context of formation of the financial policy concept with consideration of detection and analysis of exogenous and endogenous factors, which identify processes of the society development, and consideration of hierarchical components of the state system of priorities.

Adamenko Iryna P.

2014-03-01

349

Socio-economic and land cover changes analysis in a landscape with agricultural matrix  

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Full Text Available The research involved the application of CORINE Land Cover categories in order to analyse changes in land cover and in the socio-economic system over the last 50 years in Molise (Southern Italy. The boundaries of the study area corresponded to those of six local councils: Guglionesi, Montecilfone, Montenero di Bisaccia, Petacciato, San Giacomo degli Schiavoni and Termoli. It is an area which has undergone a great anthropic agricultural impact after the II World War, but, however, still has natural settings worth preserving, as can be seen by the presence of seven Sites of Community Interest (sensu “Habitat Directive” 92/43/EC. For the analyses of the land cover changes, geo-databases were consulted or specially constructed. The aerial photographs from GAI 1954-55 flight, appropriately georectified, and the aerial photograph ITA2000 and AGEA 2004 flights were adopted to draw up the land use/cover maps at a scale of 1.10.000.The study of vegetation was performed using the phytosociological method. In brief, the results show that the landscape of the study area has become more fragmented due mostly to effects of continuous human disturbances and agricultural improvement during the study period. Overall, the landscape is today characterised by the predominance of agricultural use and the sparse colonization of the natural vegetation, mainly by linear vegetational formations (mainly riparian woods.

Piera Di Marzio

350

Socio-economic and land cover changes analysis in a landscape with agricultural matrix  

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Full Text Available The research involved the application of CORINE Land Cover categories in order to analyse changes in land cover and in the socio-economic system over the last 50 years in Molise (Southern Italy. The boundaries of the study area corresponded to those of six local councils: Guglionesi, Montecilfone, Montenero di Bisaccia, Petacciato, San Giacomo degli Schiavoni and Termoli. It is an area which has undergone a great anthropic agricultural impact after the II World War, but, however, still has natural settings worth preserving, as can be seen by the presence of seven Sites of Community Interest (sensu “Habitat Directive” 92/43/EC. For the analyses of the land cover changes, geo-databases were consulted or specially constructed. The aerial photographs from GAI 1954-55 flight, appropriately georectified, and the aerial photograph ITA2000 and AGEA 2004 flights were adopted to draw up the land use/cover maps at a scale of 1.10.000.The study of vegetation was performed using the phytosociological method. In brief, the results show that the landscape of the study area has become more fragmented due mostly to effects of continuous human disturbances and agricultural improvement during the study period. Overall, the landscape is today characterised by the predominance of agricultural use and the sparse colonization of the natural vegetation, mainly by linear vegetational formations (mainly riparian woods.

Vincenzo Viscosi

2011-02-01

351

Socio-Economic Welfare Policies For The Rehabilitation Of Devadasis In Belgaum District  

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Full Text Available Devadasi practice is an ancient practice which offers girls to the deities in Hindu temples. The girls should not marry and hence become prey for social evils such as forced prostitution. Realizing the disadvantages of Devadasi practice, the Government of Karnataka passed legislation the Karnataka Devadasi Act in 1982 to prohibit Devadasi practice. Still due to social beliefs, the practice still prevailed in Karnataka, especially in the temples of Renuka Yellamma Temples of Saundatti and Chandragutti. The Government of Karnataka also formulated rehabilitation and welfare schemes for the overall socio-economic development of Devadasis. The present study is a survey of 400 devadasis in Saundatti taluka of Belgaum district and the information was collected from interview schedule. It is suggested from the study that there is need for more social welfare and rehabilitation schemes for devadasis and there is also need to increase awareness of the Devadasis on the rehabilitation and social welfare schemes, so as to get the benefits from the same.

Deveraj. A

2012-10-01

352

SOCIO-ECONOMIC WELFARE POLICIES FOR THE REHABILITATION OF DEVADASIS IN BELGAUM DISTRICT  

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Full Text Available Devadasi practice is an ancient practice which offers girls to the deities in Hindu temples. The girls should not marry and hence become prey for social evils such as forced prostitution. Realizing the disadvantages of Devadasi practice, the Government of Karnataka passed legislation the Karnataka Devadasi Act in 1982 to prohibit Devadasi practice. Still due to social beliefs, the practice still prevailed in Karnataka, especially in the temples of Renuka Yellamma Temples of Saundatti and Chandragutti. The Government of Karnataka also formulated rehabilitation and welfare schemes for the overall socio-economic development of Devadasis. The present study is a survey of 400 devadasis in Saundatti taluka of Belgaum district and the information was collected from interview schedule. It is suggested from the study that there is need for more social welfare and rehabilitation schemes for devadasis and there is also need to increase awareness of the Devadasis on the rehabilitation and social welfare schemes, so as to get the benefits from the same.

DEVERAJ. A AND M.F DODDAMANI

2012-11-01

353

A European comparative study of marital status and socio-economic inequalities in suicide.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assess (i) whether being married is a protective factor against socio-economic inequalities in suicide, and (ii) whether any such buffering effect varies between countries. We used the data from a European cross-national comparison project, a prospective follow-up of several European population censuses matched with vital statistics. The data encompass 99.5 million person-years aged 30 and above and 25,476 suicides in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Turin, Madrid, Norway and Switzerland. Standardised rates were computed and logistic regressions were used to assess educational inequalities. Among the non-married, the lower educational group had an increased risk of dying of suicide compared to the higher group (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.45). Inequalities among the married were lower (OR = 1.29). In all countries or regions except Austria, the lower educational group had a higher risk of suicide mortality among the non-married than among the married. The buffering effect of being married was not observed for elderly individuals (65 and over). Among younger individuals, the buffering effect of being married on relative inequalities in suicide was stronger in Madrid, Denmark, Norway and Switzerland (but significant only for Denmark and Norway). There was no indication that countries with stronger welfare policies or lower divorce rate had a lower buffering effect. We conclude that being married protects against inequalities in suicide and that this protective effect is not affected by the level of social capital at the country level. PMID:15814169

Lorant, V; Kunst, Anton E; Huisman, Martijn; Bopp, Matthias; Mackenbach, Johan

2005-06-01

354

THE SOCIO- ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OFWOMEN WORKFORCE IN PRIVATE FINANCIAL SERVICES INDUSTRY IN MAJOR CITIES OF ASSAM  

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Full Text Available Under the process of liberalization and globalization, there are extreme and sensational change in the traditional socio-economic institutions and the people in multiple ways. These processes have well marked changes in all urban and rural areas of India, especially in cities. It enhances several kinds of organized private concern or financial services industry notably private insurance sector, private banking sector etc. These private concerns employ a large chunk of women population. The scenario of Assam is no different than the picture of India. This paper focused on how these rising private financial services industry raised hopes for women for a better and elevated status arising out of increased chances to work, but at the same time it has put them in a highly contradictory situation- where they have the label of economically independent paid workers but are not able to enjoy their economic and social liberty in real sense. The paper is based on both primary and secondary data sources.

LAKHEEMI DEVEE

2012-11-01

355

Pneumococcal bacteraemia in adults in a low socio-economic urban population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between January 1984 and December 1985, 183 adult patients, subsequently shown to have pneumococcal bacteraemia, were admitted. Of these infections, nine were caused by penicillin-resistant strains, and three of these were resistant to other antibiotics. The organisms from 150 patients were serotyped/grouped. The primary site of infection was lung in 90 per cent of patients. Among the patients with pneumonia, those with serovar 3 strains accounted for most intensive care unit admissions, most cases requiring inotropic drugs, and mechanical ventilation and had the highest complication rate and mortality. Findings which predicted the need for intensive care included higher age, elevated concentrations of serum urea, creatinine, and phosphate and lower levels of total serum protein, albumin and calcium. Twenty-four patients died of whom 23 had pneumonia. The case fatality rate among all of the patients admitted to the intensive care unit was 60 per cent and among those not admitted to the unit, 9.2 per cent. Of the patients who died, 41.7 per cent did so within the first five days of admission. The prophylactic use of polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine in industrial workers from low socio-economic groups should be carefully considered. PMID:3270083

Feldman, C; Sacho, H; Levy, H; Kallenbach, J M; Koornhof, H J

1988-12-01

356

Preventive Care Use among the Belgian Elderly Population: Does Socio-Economic Status Matter?  

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Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the association between influenza and pneumococcus vaccination and blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement by Belgian elderly respondents (?65 years and socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and socio-economic status (SES. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on 4,544 non-institutionalized elderly participants of the Belgian Health Interview Surveys 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the independent effect of socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors, health status and SES on the four preventive services. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, region, survey year, living situation, risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, physical activity and health status (self-assessed health and longstanding illness lower educated elderly were significantly less likely to report a blood cholesterol and blood sugar measurement. For instance, elderly participants with no degree or only primary education were less likely to have had a cholesterol and blood sugar measurement compared with those with higher education. Pneumococcus vaccination was not related to educational level, but lower income groups were more likely to have had a pneumococcus immunization. Influenza vaccination was not significantly related to SES. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to promote cholesterol and blood sugar measurement for lower SE groups, and pneumococcus immunization for the entire elderly population. Influenza immunization seems to be equally spread among different SE groups.

Sarah Hoeck

2013-12-01

357

Sustenance of Tourism Industry for the Socio-economic Development of Ekiti State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study examined the sustenance of tourism sector for the socio-economic development of Ekiti State, Nigeria.Tourism is playing an increasingly important role in the economy of many nations in the world today, especiallyin the area of job creation. Data for this study were collected from primary sources through the administration oftwo (2 sets of a well structured interview questionnaire. One hundred and fifty (150 were administered onworkers/management of the randomly selected (50 each in the study area. Another 150 questionnaires (50 eachwere also randomly administered on visitors/patronizers of the hotels in the study area. Results from this studyshowed that management practices as well as management information system (MIS in most of the hotels fromthe study area varies and not encouraging. This study therefore recommends that modern management practicesand information system should be a priority in the study area. This study will be useful to government, planners,researchers, investors, policy makers and individuals in ensuring the sustenance of tourism for thesocio-economic development of Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Olayemi O. Simon-oke

2012-08-01

358

Are good ideas enough?: The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors [...] on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.

Vàzquez-Salat, Núria.

359

Socio-economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of private schools in tehsil headquarters Jampur. There were sixty two registered and non-registered private schools in the city in which five hundreds and seventy nine female teachers were working. Eight schools were selected as cluster to collect the data. Totally sample was comprised fifty eight female teachers. Semi structure interview and focus group discussion techniques were used to gather the data. Collected data were analyzed use thematic analysis approach. Findings indicated that female school teachers working in private school of city Jampur were badly affected in floods 2010. They had to face several social and financial problems. There was much space to improve relief and aid activities in the affected areas. Separate health facilities for women were also needed. The paper recommends better planning and its transparent and fair implementations in next rainy season.

Muhammad Ayub Buzdar

2011-10-01

360

"Familias: Preparando La Nueva Generación": A Randomized Control Trial Testing the Effects on Positive Parenting Practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: This article reports the effects of a culturally grounded parenting intervention to strengthen positive parenting practices. Method: The intervention was designed and tested with primarily Mexican origin parents in a large urban setting of the southwestern United States using an ecodevelopmental approach. Parents (N = 393) were…

Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Williams, Lela Rankin; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Booth, Jaime M.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children’s Depressive Symptoms  

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This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors on children’s depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children’s depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors. Structural equation modeling indicated that supportive–positive and ha...

2006-01-01

362

Socio-economic inequity in demand for insecticide-treated nets, in-door residual house spraying, larviciding and fogging in Sudan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimally prioritize and use public and private budgets for equitable malaria vector control, there is a need to determine the level and determinants of consumer demand for different vector control tools. Objectives To determine the demand from people of different socio-economic groups for indoor residual house-spraying (IRHS, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, larviciding with chemicals (LWC, and space spraying/fogging (SS and the disease control implications of the result. Methods Ratings and levels of willingness-to-pay (WTP for the vector control tools were determined using a random cross-sectional sample of 720 householdes drawn from two states. WTP was elicited using the bidding game. An asset-based socio-economic status (SES index was used to explore whether WTP was related to SES of the respondents. Results IRHS received the highest proportion of highest preferred rating (41.0% followed by ITNs (23.1%. However, ITNs had the highest mean WTP followed by IRHS, while LWC had the least. The regression analysis showed that SES was positively and statistically significantly related to WTP across the four vector control tools and that the respondents' rating of IRHS and ITNs significantly explained their levels of WTP for the two tools. Conclusion People were willing to pay for all the vector-control tools, but the demand for the vector control tools was related to the SES of the respondents. Hence, it is vital that there are public policies and financing mechanisms to ensure equitable provision and utilisation of vector control tools, as well as protecting the poor from cost-sharing arrangements.

Mustafa Sara

2005-12-01

363

Three-year change in diet quality and associated changes in BMI among schoolchildren living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings from research that has assessed the influence of dietary factors on child obesity have been equivocal. In the present study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that a positive change in diet quality is associated with favourable changes in BMI z-scores (zBMI) in schoolchildren from low socio-economic backgrounds and to examine whether this effect is modified by BMI category at baseline. The present study utilised data from a subsample (n 216) of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, a longitudinal cohort study with data collected in 2007-8 (T1) and 2010-11 (T2) in socio-economically disadvantaged women and children (5-12 years at T1). Dietary data were collected using a FFQ and diet quality index (DQI) scores derived at both time points. The objective measures of weight, height and physical activity (accelerometers) were included. The other variables were reported in the questionnaires. We examined the association between change in DQI and change in zBMI, using linear regression analyses adjusted for physical activity, screen sedentary behaviour and maternal education level both in the whole sample and in the sample stratified by overweight status at baseline. After accounting for potential covariates, change in diet quality was found to be inversely associated with change in zBMI only in children who were overweight at baseline (P= 0·035), thus supporting the hypothesis that improvement in diet quality is associated with a concurrent improvement in zBMI among already overweight children, but not among those with a normal BMI status. The identification of modifiable behaviours such as diet quality that affect zBMI longitudinally is valuable to inform future weight gain prevention interventions in vulnerable groups. PMID:24775601

Lioret, Sandrine; McNaughton, Sarah A; Cameron, Adrian J; Crawford, David; Campbell, Karen J; Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie

2014-07-01

364

Influência de fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos no padrão de respiração: um estudo piloto / Influence of socio-economic and demographic factors in determining breathing patterns: a pilot study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A respiração representa uma das funções vitais do organismo cujo desequilíbrio causa uma série de alterações em vários órgãos e sistemas. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência de fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos na determinação do padrão de respiração. Forma de Estudo: transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTOD [...] O: Amostra de 143 crianças de 9 a 10 anos, de duas escolas da cidade do Recife-PE, uma particular e a outra pública. O diagnóstico da respiração foi feito pelos testes placa de Glatzel e tempo de água na boca. Avaliaram-se os fatores socioeconômicos mediante entrevista com formulário contendo 9 perguntas. A análise estatística envolveu os testes Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fischer; o nível de significância foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de respiração oral foi de 55.2%, mais elevada no sexo feminino (57,7%) e na escola pública (67,2%). A falta de assistência médica (62%), o menor uso de medicamentos (56,6%), pais com escolaridade até 1º grau incompleto, pais separados (66%), escolares que não moravam com os pais (68,7%) e nas residências de um quarto (72%), o percentual da respiração oral foi mais elevado. Apenas o tipo de escola apresentou associação significativa com o padrão de respiração. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de respiração oral foi elevada, sem diferenças entre os sexos e faixa etária. Com exceção do tipo de escola, não houve associação significativa entre as variáveis socioeconômicas e o padrão de respiração. Abstract in english Breathing represents one of the vital functions of the organism, and its unbalance causes some series of alterations in several organs and systems. AIM: Verify the influence of socio-economic and demographic factors in determining breathing patterns. Study design: cross-sectional. MATERIALS AND METH [...] ODS: there were 143 students in the sample, with ages ranging from 9 and 10 years, from two schools, public and private, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Breathing patterns were established through two tests: Glatzel Plate (Steam) and water time in the mouth. Socio-economic factors were evaluated through questionnaires with nine questions each. Statistics were carried out by means of the Chi-Squared test or Fisher?s Exact test and the significance level used was of 5%. RESULTS: Oral breathing prevalence was of 55.2%, higher among females (57.7%) and in public schools (67.2%).Lack of medical care (62%), less use of medications (56.6%), parents with educational levels lower than high school, divorced parents (66%), students that do not live with their parents (68.7%) and homes with only one room (72%), in all of those situations, oral breathing signs were more prevalent. Only school type had significant association with the breathing pattern. CONCLUSION: High levels of oral breathing without differences concerning gender and age. With the exception of school type, there was no association between breathing pattern and socio-economic factors.

Menezes, Valdenice Aparecida de; Leal, Rossana Barbosa; Moura, Marcela Motta; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia.

365

Influência de fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos no padrão de respiração: um estudo piloto Influence of socio-economic and demographic factors in determining breathing patterns: a pilot study  

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Full Text Available A respiração representa uma das funções vitais do organismo cujo desequilíbrio causa uma série de alterações em vários órgãos e sistemas. OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência de fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos na determinação do padrão de respiração. Forma de Estudo: transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Amostra de 143 crianças de 9 a 10 anos, de duas escolas da cidade do Recife-PE, uma particular e a outra pública. O diagnóstico da respiração foi feito pelos testes placa de Glatzel e tempo de água na boca. Avaliaram-se os fatores socioeconômicos mediante entrevista com formulário contendo 9 perguntas. A análise estatística envolveu os testes Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fischer; o nível de significância foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de respiração oral foi de 55.2%, mais elevada no sexo feminino (57,7% e na escola pública (67,2%. A falta de assistência médica (62%, o menor uso de medicamentos (56,6%, pais com escolaridade até 1º grau incompleto, pais separados (66%, escolares que não moravam com os pais (68,7% e nas residências de um quarto (72%, o percentual da respiração oral foi mais elevado. Apenas o tipo de escola apresentou associação significativa com o padrão de respiração. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de respiração oral foi elevada, sem diferenças entre os sexos e faixa etária. Com exceção do tipo de escola, não houve associação significativa entre as variáveis socioeconômicas e o padrão de respiração.Breathing represents one of the vital functions of the organism, and its unbalance causes some series of alterations in several organs and systems. AIM: Verify the influence of socio-economic and demographic factors in determining breathing patterns. Study design: cross-sectional. MATERIALS AND METHODS: there were 143 students in the sample, with ages ranging from 9 and 10 years, from two schools, public and private, in the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Breathing patterns were established through two tests: Glatzel Plate (Steam and water time in the mouth. Socio-economic factors were evaluated through questionnaires with nine questions each. Statistics were carried out by means of the Chi-Squared test or Fisher’s Exact test and the significance level used was of 5%. RESULTS: Oral breathing prevalence was of 55.2%, higher among females (57.7% and in public schools (67.2%.Lack of medical care (62%, less use of medications (56.6%, parents with educational levels lower than high school, divorced parents (66%, students that do not live with their parents (68.7% and homes with only one room (72%, in all of those situations, oral breathing signs were more prevalent. Only school type had significant association with the breathing pattern. CONCLUSION: High levels of oral breathing without differences concerning gender and age. With the exception of school type, there was no association between breathing pattern and socio-economic factors.

Valdenice Aparecida de Menezes

2007-12-01

366

The Forgotten Rights - the Case for the Legal Enforcement of Socio-Economic Rights in the UK National Law  

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Full Text Available Socio-economic rights relate to an individual’s social, economic and cultural entitlements. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966 enumerates the following socio-economic rights: Right to work; Right to Social Security and social insurance; Right to an adequate standard of living including adequate food, clothing, housing and to continuous improvement of the standard of living; Right to health; and Right to education. In contrast, The International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights enumerates the individual entitlements in the political and civil sphere of life – entitlement to respect for life; fair trial; private and family life; freedom of thought, conscience and religion; freedom of expression among others; many of which have been incorporated in the Human Rights Act in the United Kingdom.

Asha P. James

2007-04-01

367

Tobacco use prevalence – disentangling associations between Alaska Native race, low socio-economic status and rural disparities  

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Background . Tobacco use rates are exceptionally high among indigenous people in North America. Alaska Native, low socio-economic status (SES) and rural communities are high-priority populations for Alaska's Tobacco Control program. Design . For the purpose of better informing tobacco control interventions, we conducted a descriptive study to describe high-priority groups using prevalence-based and proportion-based approaches. Methods . With data from 22,311 adults interviewed for Alas...

2013-01-01

368

Socio-economic Selective Migration and Counter-Urbanisation : A case-study of the Stockholm area  

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This study investigates the relocation behaviours of out-movers of deprived areas in the region of Stockholm, Sweden. The research is motivated by the concerns raised by deprived and segregated neighbourhoods in relation to a social fragmentation and an unsuccessful socio-economic inclusion of all citizens. Some researches affirm that the out-movers of deprived neighbourhoods tend to be more integrated than the stayers or the individual moving in such neighbourhoods. And if some studies are c...

2013-01-01

369

Local knowledge and socio-economic determinants of traditional medicines' utilization in livestock health management in Southwest Nigeria  

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Smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria utilize traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants (PMs) for the maintenance of their animals' health. This study was designed to determine the PMs used in the study area and their level of utilization by livestock farmers, compare the level of utilization of PMs across the three states surveyed and identify the socio-economic factors influencing farmer's utilization of PMs. Thirty-five PMs were identified. Farmers had considerable knowledge a...

2012-01-01

370

Local knowledge and socio-economic determinants of traditional medicines' utilization in livestock health management in Southwest Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Smallholder livestock farmers in Nigeria utilize traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants (PMs) for the maintenance of their animals' health. This study was designed to determine the PMs used in the study area and their level of utilization by livestock farmers, compare the level of utilization of PMs across the three states surveyed and identify the socio-economic factors influencing farmer's utilization of PMs. Thirty-five PMs were identified. Farmers had consi...

2012-01-01

371

An Assessment of the Regional and National Socio-Economic Impacts of the 2007 Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Kenya  

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Although Rift Valley fever (RVF) has significant impacts on human health and livestock production, it can also induce significant (and often overlooked) economic losses among various stakeholders in the marketing chain. This work assesses and quantifies the multi-dimensional socio-economic impacts of the 2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya based on a rapid assessment of livestock value chains in the northeast part of the country and a national macroeconomic analysis. Although study results show negati...

Rich, Karl M.; Wanyoike, Francis

2010-01-01

372

Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic factors among the Municipal employees of Mysore city.  

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Objective: To assess the Prosthetic status and prosthetic needs in relation to socio-economic among the Municipal employees of Mysore city. Settings and Design: The study was cross sectional and conducted on the employees of Reader1 Mysore City Corporation. Materials and methods: All the available employees (1187) of Mysore city Corporation during the study period were considered for the study. WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) and a preformed questionnaire were used to collect the requi...

2010-01-01

373

Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women  

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Background: Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation amo...

2013-01-01

374

Socio-economic determinants in selecting childhood diarrhoea treatment options in Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel model  

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ackground: Diarrhoea disease which has been attributed to poverty constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged five and below in most low-and-middle income countries. This study sought to examine the contribution of individual and neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics to caregivers treatment choices for managing childhood diarrhoea at household level in sub-Saharan Africa. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Multilevel multinomial logistic r...

Aremu, Olatunde; Lawoko, Stephen; Moradi, Tahereh; Dalal, Koustuv

2011-01-01

375

Czech Women's Civic Organising under the State Socialist Regime, Socio-economic Transformation and the EU Accession Period  

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The article describes Czech women's civic organising focused on gender equality & women's rights since the Second World War & explains its character & development in the context of (a) the state socialist regime, (b) the impact of foreign & international donors on Czech women's civic organising during the socio-economic & political transformation of the first part of the 1990s, & (c) the current process of the formalisation of Czech women's civic groups brought about by the Czech Republic's p...

Haskova, Hana

2005-01-01

376

A Study on Nutritional and Socio-Economic Level of the Rural Household in a Village Jugitola under Gazipur District  

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The present study was assigned to asses the nutritional status of individuals and household level, to measure food intake and to find out the socio-economic condition of rural household relating to nutritional status. The study was a cross sectional field survey, where samples were enrolled conveniently and random and which was conducted in a village Jugitola a less agri-based community of Gazipur District. With this view, the empirical data were collected by using pre-tested questionnaires. ...

Azim, M. A.; Rashid, M. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Alam, M. M.; Jharna Begum

2007-01-01

377

Prediction of household and commercial BMW generation according to socio-economic and other factors for the Dublin region  

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Both planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of waste generation. This research predicted the quantity and distribution of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) generation within a diverse 'landscape' of residential areas, as well as from a variety of commercial establishments (restaurants, hotels, hospitals, etc.) in the Dublin (Ireland) region. Socio-economic variables, housing types, and the sizes and main activities of commercia...

Purcell, M.; Magette, W. L.

2009-01-01

378

Innovation Component of the Budget and Economic Mechanism of Regulation of Socio-Economic Processes of the Development of Ukraine ????????????? ???????????? ????????-?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????-????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????  

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Full Text Available The article considers the innovation component of the budget and economic mechanism of regulation of socio-economic development of Ukraine and the efficiency of the use of such state mechanism as budget expenditures. It makes the assessment of the structural changes in the economy of the country. It was found that the innovation stage of development is inseparably connected with the search of sources of financial resources and the rise of efficiency of the financial factors use.? ?????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????????? ????????-?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????-?????????????? ???????? ???????, ? ????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????????, ??? ??????? ???????. ????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ?????????? ??????. ??????????, ??? ????????????? ???? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????????? ???????? ? ??????????? ????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????.

Voronkina Nataliya V.

2012-05-01

379

Innovation Component of the Budget and Economic Mechanism of Regulation of Socio-Economic Processes of the Development of Ukraine ????????????? ???????????? ????????-?????????????? ????????? ????????????? ?????????-????????????? ????????? ???????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article considers the innovation component of the budget and economic mechanism of regulation of socio-economic development of Ukraine and the efficiency of the use of such state mechanism as budget expenditures. It makes the assessment of the structural changes in the economy of the country. It was found that the innovation stage of development is inseparably connected with the search of sources of financial resources and the rise of efficiency of the financial factors use.? ????...

Voronkina Nataliya V.

2012-01-01

380

On environmental equity : Exploring the distribution of environmental quality among socio-economic categories in the Netherlands  

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The high spatial pressure and the historically egalitarian character make the Netherlands an interesting country for investigating environmental equity (the distribution of environmental burdens and amenities across socio-economic categories). This study developed an approach for analysing environmental equity and assessed the environmental equity situation. The driving forces underlying this situation were explored and the situation was interpreted in terms of justice. The distribution of en...

Kruize, H.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Socio-Economic Variation in Price Minimizing Behaviors: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey  

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This paper examines how socio-economic status (SES) modifies how smokers adjust to changes in the price of tobacco products through utilization of multiple price minimizing techniques. Data come from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Four Country Survey, nationally representative samples of adult smokers and includes respondents from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Cross-sectional analyses were completed among 8,243 respondents (7,038 curre...

Licht, Andrea S.; Hyland, Andrew J.; O’connor, Richard J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Ron Borland; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Nigar Nargis; Michael Cummings, K.

2011-01-01

382

Healthy travel and the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK: A mixed-methods analysis  

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Car use is associated with substantial health and environmental costs but research in deprived populations indicates that car access may also promote psychosocial well-being within car-oriented environments. This mixed-method (quantitative and qualitative) study examined this issue in a more affluent setting, investigating the socio-economic structure of car commuting in Cambridge, UK. Our analyses involved integrating self-reported questionnaire data from 1142 participants in the Commuting a...

Goodman, Anna; Guell, Cornelia; Panter, Jenna; Jones, Natalia R.; Ogilvie, David

2012-01-01

383

The role of attitudes and behaviours in explaining socio-economic differences in attainment at age 16  

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It is well known that children growing up in poor families leave school with considerably lower qualifications than children from better off backgrounds. Using a simple decomposition analysis, we show that around two thirds of the socio-economic gap in attainment at age 16 can be accounted for by long-run family background characteristics and prior ability, suggesting that circumstances and investments made considerably earlier in the child's life explain the majority of the gap in test score...

2010-01-01

384

Socio-economic Impacts of Home Stay Accommodations in Malaysia: A Study on Home Stay Operators in Terengganu State  

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Home stay accommodation gives focus on traditional life style, local culture and customs to attract the tourists. The present study examines the economic potentialities of home stay for operators. The study also analyzes socio-economic impact of this accommodation from the perception of operator’s. Both primary and secondary data have been used in the study. A total of 10 home stay operators are selected from Terengganu for collecting primary data. The sample size has been determined based ...

Md. Anowar Hossain Bhuiyan; Chamhuri Siwar; Shaharuddin Mohamad Ismail

2013-01-01

385

Socio-economic Factors Associated with the Adoption of Groundnut Varieties in the Barani Areas of the Punjab  

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This study was undertaken to determine the impact and influence of socio-economic status of the farmers upon the adoption of new groundnut varieties. The study was conducted in two villages of Tehsil Chakwal. The data was collected with the help of an interviewing schedule and analysed statistically. A non significant relationship was found between groundnut varieties, landholding and adoption process. The relationship between the adoption process, age and education of the farmers was signifi...

2004-01-01

386

The social costs of health-related early retirement in Germany: Evidence from the German Socio-economic panel  

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This study investigates the role of stratification of health and income in the social cost of healthrelated early retirement, as evidenced in the German Socio-economic Panel (GSOEP). We interpret early retirement as a mechanism to limit work-related declines in health that allows poorer and less healthy workers to maximize the total discounted value of annuities received from Germany?s pay-as-you-go pension system. Investments in new medical technology and better access to existing health ser...

Hostenkamp, Gisela; Stolpe, Michael

2008-01-01

387

Undermining the principle of concentration? EU development policies and the socio-economic disadvantage of European regions  

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The distribution of the EU structural funds to assisted regions might have been à priori distorted by either political equilibriums or inaccurate assumptions over their most cost-effective allocation. A little correlation between expenditure and socio-economic disadvantage, by undermining the principle of concentration, might have reduced the impact of the EU structural funds on economic and social cohesion. The empirical analysis shows that the sources of disadvantage are more spatially con...

Crescenzi, Riccardo

2009-01-01

388

Supermarket and fast-food outlet exposure in Copenhagen : Associations with socio-economic and demographic characteristics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To investigate whether exposure to fast-food outlets and supermarkets is socio-economically patterned in the city of Copenhagen. Design: The study was based on a cross-sectional multivariate approach to examine the association between the number of fast-food outlets and supermarkets and neighbourhood-level socio-economic indicators. Food business addresses were obtained from commercial and public business locators and geocoded using a geographic information system for all neighbourhoods in the city of Copenhagen (n 400). The regression of counts of fast-food outlets and supermarkets v. indicators of socio-economic status (percentage of recent immigrants, percentage without a high-school diploma, percentage of the population under 35 years of age and average household income in Euros) was performed using negative binomial analysis. Setting: Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects: The unit of analysis was neighbourhood (n 400). Results: In the fully adjusted models, income was not a significant predictorfor supermarket exposure. However, neighbourhoods with low and mid-low income were associated with significantly fewer fast-food outlets. Using backwise deletion from the fully adjusted models, low income remained significantly associated with fast-food outlet exposure (rate ratio 0.66â??0.80) in the final model. Conclusions: In the city of Copenhagen, there was no evidence of spatial patterning of supermarkets by income. However, we detected a trend in the exposure to fast-food outlets, such that neighbourhoods in the lowest income quartile had fewer fast-food outlets than higher-income neighbourhoods. These findings have similarities with studies conducted in the UK, but not in the USA. The results suggest there may be socio-economic factors other than income associated with food exposure in Europe.

Svastisalee, Chalida Mae; Jensen, Helene Nordahl

2011-01-01

389

The effects of the recent economic crisis on social protection and labour market arrangements across socio-economic groups  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Great Recession did not only affect European countries to a varying extent, its impact on national labour markets and on specific socio-economic groups in those markets also varied greatly. Institutional arrangements such as employment protection, unemployment insurance benefits and minimum income support, working time flexibility and wage setting played a crucial role in determining to what extent the economic crisis led to higher unemployment, wage cuts or income losses and rising pover...

Basso, Gaetano; Dolls, Matthias; Eichhorst, Werner; Leoni, Thomas; Peichl, Andreas

2011-01-01

390

Global scale map of the impact of changes in climate and socio-economic conditions on river flood losses  

Science.gov (United States)

Floods pose one of the largest risks to natural hazards globally. In 2012, the global damage from floods was estimated to be about € 22 billion. For the first half of 2013, the global damage was estimated to be already € 35 billion, being about 47% of the overall losses due to natural hazards. Almost half of this amount was due to river flooding such as the devastating floods in East Germany in May-June 2013. Besides possible increases in frequency and severity of flood events, floods are becoming more damaging due to increases in population and increases in economic utilization of flood prone areas. It is therefore crucial to understand the nature and causes of flood risks and possible changes therein due to climate and socio-economic change. Improved understanding will support adaptation plans and investments, either in new economic activities or in flood protection. On this poster, we show a global scale map of current river flood risk and flood risk changes in the future. The map shows how economic damages and the number of flood-affected people due to river floods will change under several scenarios of combined climate and socio-economic change. Across a number of large river basins, we distinguish the contribution to change in risk by climate change (resulting in an increase in flood hazard) and by socio-economic change (resulting in more impacts of flooding). We compute these risks using a validated model cascade consisting of hydrological flood models and impact models forced by long time series of current and future climate (CMIP5) and socio-economic scenarios in periods around 2030 and 2080. We discuss per basin what the possible implications of the scenarios are.

Winsemius, Hessel; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Jongman, Brenden; Van Beek, Rens; Lucas, Paul; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Bierkens, Marc; Ligtvoet, Willem; Kwadijk, Jaap

2014-05-01

391

Socio-Economic Profile and Quality of Life of Selected Oraon Tribal Living in and Around Sambalpur Town, Orissa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research study elucidates some aspects of Quality of Life of Oraon, Sambalpur town of Orissa. Oraon is one of the most primitive tribals of Eastern India. A sum of 120 households comprising 552 individuals (60 native families of Charbhati and 60 migrant families living in and around Sambalpur town) of Sambalpur District, Orissa was selected purposely and interviewed through the help of a pretested structured scheduled for collecting relevant information on socio-economic and on va...

2010-01-01

392

The Impact of Socio-Economic Characteristics on Coffee Farmers’ Marketing Channel Choice: Evidence from Villa Rica, Peru  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Villa Rica is one of the most important coffee-producing districts in Peru. In Villa Rica there are several marketing channels: intermediaries, private companies, cooperatives and associations. The intermediaries focus solely on higher prices while marketing organizations offer benefits to their members. The main aim of this paper is to analyze the socio-economic characteristics that influence coffee farmers to join a formal organization vs. those who distribute their product through intermed...

Angie Higuchi; Masahiro Moritaka; Susumu Fukuda

2012-01-01

393

Undermining the principle of concentration? EU development policies and the socio-economic disadvantage of European regions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The distribution of the EU structural funds to assisted regions might have been à priori distorted by either political equilibriums or inaccurate assumptions over their most cost-effective allocation. A little correlation between expenditure and socio-economic disadvantage, by undermining the principle of concentration, might have reduced the impact of the EU structural funds on economic and social cohesion. The empirical analysis shows that the sources of disadvantage a...

2009-01-01

394

Socio-economic status of horse owners vis-a-vis horse feeding and management in Rajasthan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: To study the socio-economic status, horse feeding and management adopted by horse owners of Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Primary data was collected through specially structured proforma by personal interview method from the horse owners of Hanumangarh (50), Churu (42), Jhunjhunu (30) and Jalore (40) districts of Rajasthan, India. Results: The district (Churu and Jhunjhunu) is mostly rain fed, Hanumangarh is canal-irrigated whereas Jalore is tube well irrigated. Majority of responden...

Yash Pal; Legha, R. A.; Dedar, R. K.; Bala, P. A.

2013-01-01

395

The role of rural women in livestock management : socio-economic evidences from diverse geographical locations of Punjab (Pakistan)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In rural Punjab of Pakistan, women from small farm families have a huge role to play in realizing the potential that the country has in livestock sector to flourish. The study presents the current socio-economic condition of women livestock raisers, the extent and nature of their participation in livestock management activities, the impact of women's participation on their families' welfare, and the factors affecting their participation in livestock management activities. The type and size of...

2013-01-01