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Influenza pandemics: a historical retrospect  

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The recent global outbreak of human cases of swine origin influenza A (H1N1) has spread fear that this virus will be of pandemic proportions causing high morbidity and mortality. While it is too early to determine the pandemic nature of swine origin influenza A (H1N1), it may be useful to look at the history of influenza pandemics described since recorded history.

Tognotti, Eugenia

2009-01-01

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Dynamic variations in the peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups of patients with 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza A virus infection  

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Abstract Background Novel Influenza A (H1N1) is an acute respiratory infectious disease. Animal experiments indicated that when H1N1 virus infected early hosts, it showed strong CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic fluctuations of the peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups in patients infected with H1N1 swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV). Methods The freque...

Wu Wei; Cui Dawei; Ye Bo; Yang Shigui; Kong Haishen; Li Xuefen; Chen Yu; Guo Xichao; Li Lanjuan

2011-01-01

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rapidSTRIPE H1N1 Test for Detection of the Pandemic Swine Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus?  

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The rapidSTRIPE H1N1 test, based on a nucleic acid lateral-flow assay, has been developed for diagnosis of a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. This test is simple and cost-effective and allows specific detection of the S-OIV A (H1N1) virus from swab sampling to final detection on a lateral-flow stripe within 2 to 3 h.

Patel, Pranav; Graser, Elmara; Robst, Stephan; Hillert, Roger; Meye, Axel; Hillebrand, Timo; Niedrig, Matthias

2011-01-01

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Recombinant soluble, multimeric HA and NA exhibit distinctive types of protection against pandemic swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus infection in ferrets  

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The emergence and subsequent swift and global spread of the swine-origin influenza virus A(H1N1) in 2009 once again emphasizes the strong need for effective vaccines that can be developed rapidly and applied safely. With this aim, we produced soluble, multimeric forms of the 2009 A(H1N1) HA (sHA3) and NA (sNA4) surface glycoproteins using a virus-free mammalian expression system and evaluated their efficacy as vaccines in ferrets. Immunization twice with 3.75- g doses of these ant...

Bosch, B. J.; Bodewes, R.; Vries, R. P.; Kreijtz, J. H. C. M.; Bartelink, W.; Amerongen, G.; Rimmelzwaan, G. F.; Haan, C. A. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Rottier, P. J. M.

2010-01-01

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Development of Two Types of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kits To Detect the Hemagglutinin or Nucleoprotein of the Swine-Origin Pandemic Influenza A Virus H1N1?  

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Since its emergence in April 2009, pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 (H1N1 pdm), a new type of influenza A virus with a triple-reassortant genome, has spread throughout the world. Initial attempts to diagnose the infection in patients using immunochromatography (IC) relied on test kits developed for seasonal influenza A and B viruses, many of which proved significantly less sensitive to H1N1 pdm. Here, we prepared monoclonal antibodies that react with H1N1 pdm but not seasonal influenza A (H1N1...

Mizuike, Rika; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Baba, Koichi; Iwamoto, Hisahiko; Shibai, Yusuke; Kosaka, Mieko; Kubota-koketsu, Ritsuko; Yang, Cheng-song; Du, Anariwa; Sakudo, Akikazu; Tsujikawa, Muneo; Yunoki, Mikihiro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

2011-01-01

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Swine-origin influenza-virus-induced acute lung injury: Novel or classical pathogenesis?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza viruses are common respiratory pathogens in humans and can cause serious infection that leads to the development of pneumonia. Due to their host-range diversity, genetic and antigenic diversity, and potential to reassort genetically in vivo, influenza A viruses are continual sources of novel influenza strains that lead to the emergence of periodic epidemics and outbreaks in humans. Thus, newly emerging viral diseases are always major threats to public health. In March 2009, a novel influenza virus suddenly emerged and caused a worldwide pandemic. The novel pandemic influenza virus was genetically and antigenically distinct from previous seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 viruses; it was identified to have originated from pigs, and further genetic analysis revealed it as a subtype of A/H1N1, thus later called a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1. Since the novel virus emerged, epidemiological surveys and research on experimental animal models have been conducted, and characteristics of the novel influenza virus have been determined but the exact mechanisms of pulmonary pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. In this editorial, we summarize and discuss the recent pandemic caused by the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 with a focus on the mechanism of pathogenesis to obtain an insight into potential therapeutic strategies.

Naoyoshi Maeda

2010-05-01

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Dynamic variations in the peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups of patients with 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza A virus infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel Influenza A (H1N1 is an acute respiratory infectious disease. Animal experiments indicated that when H1N1 virus infected early hosts, it showed strong CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic fluctuations of the peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups in patients infected with H1N1 swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV. Methods The frequency of T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK cells, and regulatory T cells (Treg in 36 severe H1N1 and 40 moderate H1N1 patients were detected at different periods by flow cytometry. In parallel, serum cytokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and C-reactive protein (CRP was analyzed through an image-type automatic biochemical analyzer. In addition, 20 healthy volunteers, who were not infected with 2009 H1N1 virus, were selected as controls. Results The frequency of NK cells were decreased in all cases and CD19+ B cells were increased in severe cases than those of the controls. At 1-2d from onset, the frequency of CD4+ and CD4+CD25+ T cells in moderate cases was higher than in the severe cases. Serum cytokines, specifically IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-? exhibited no significant change both in the moderate and the severe cases during the whole monitoring process. In the early stage of the disease, serum CRP levels in the severe and moderate groups were significantly higher than that in the control group. Conclusions Patients showed different lymphocyte subgroup distributions between mild and severe cases, which might affect the incidence and development of 2009 H1N1.

Wu Wei

2011-05-01

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Constrictive Pericarditis Accompanied by Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Infection  

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Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) is caused by a new strain of the influenza virus. The disease has spread rapidly and was declared a pandemic in April, 2009. So far, however, there is a scarcity of information regarding the complications of swine influenza. A report of the disease in the winter of 2009 in the Southern Hemisphere found that the most common manifestations of influenza A virus infection are upper respiratory tract infection and pneumonia. Although there may be an association betw...

Jang, Ji-yong; Chang, Hyuk-jae; Jang, Yangsoo; Han, Sang-hoon; Bang, Woo-dae; Cho, Sung Soo; Oh, Chang-myung; Yu, Hee Tae; Shim, Chi Young; Ha, Jong Won; Chung, Namsik

2010-01-01

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Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans  

Science.gov (United States)

... each case of human infection with a swine influenza virus should be fully investigated to be sure that ... of human infection with a "novel" (non-human) influenza virus.�� For information about 2009 H1N1 influenza ( ...

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Secondary infection and clinical aspects after pandemic swine–origin influenza a (H1N1) admission in an Iranian critical care unite  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: A new flu virus (H1N1) swine origin and cause of human infection with acute lung disease was published in the world and led to many patients were admitted in intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: In a prospective descriptive study, all ICU patients in a pulmonary disease specialist hospital between April 2010 and July 2011 with confirmed infection (H1N1) were evaluated. Information including demographic, clinical and microbiology using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 16 was studied and classified. Results: Of 46 patients hospitalized with confirmed diagnosis of swine flu pneumonia (H1N1), 20 cases (43.7%) admitted in ICU out of which 10 cases were males (50%), the mean age was 36.9 and the range was 21-66 years. Nine patients (45%) had underlying diseases. Most underlying disease was respiratory disease in which four cases (20%) were of asthma and one patient had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). No admission of pregnant patient with swine flu was reported in the ICU. Cough and sputum were the most frequent symptoms (19 patients equal 95%). Four patients (20%) were admitted with decreased level of consciousness and five cases (25%) died during hospitalization. Conclusion: It seems, swine flu with high mortality and transfer rates is a worldwide health problem. Because of limited treatment regimen, the risk of secondary infection and high need to intensive care in H1N1 pneumonia, environmental control, including vaccination of high risk people and public announcement, make determining role in controlling of this disease. PMID:25625063

Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza; Tabarsi, Payam; Nadji, Seyed Alireza; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Shamaee, Massoud; Chitsazan, Mandana; Radmand, Golnar; Maadani, Mohammadreza; Mansouri, Seyed Davoud

2014-01-01

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Pandemic Influenza in Two Newborns  

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Full Text Available The new influenza A (H1N1 virus of swine origin was first described from Mexico in April 2009. Subsequently spreading all over the world, it was considered to be the first pandemic of the 21st century. According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO, the highest disease rates in American and European regions were reported among children and young adults. Despite the highly contagious nature of pandemic influenza, most cases displayed a mild course. WHO declared the risk factors for severe disease in children as ongoing chronic disease, intake of aspirin and age below two-years.The youngest patient reported in the literature is 21 days old. We would like to present two neonatal cases with verified pandemic influenza, who recovered without any complications.

Medine Ay?in Ta?ar

2010-09-01

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From where did the 2009 'swine-origin' influenza A virus (H1N1 emerge?  

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Full Text Available Abstract The swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus that appeared in 2009 and was first found in human beings in Mexico, is a reassortant with at least three parents. Six of the genes are closest in sequence to those of H1N2 'triple-reassortant' influenza viruses isolated from pigs in North America around 1999-2000. Its other two genes are from different Eurasian 'avian-like' viruses of pigs; the NA gene is closest to H1N1 viruses isolated in Europe in 1991-1993, and the MP gene is closest to H3N2 viruses isolated in Asia in 1999-2000. The sequences of these genes do not directly reveal the immediate source of the virus as the closest were from isolates collected more than a decade before the human pandemic started. The three parents of the virus may have been assembled in one place by natural means, such as by migrating birds, however the consistent link with pig viruses suggests that human activity was involved. We discuss a published suggestion that unsampled pig herds, the intercontinental live pig trade, together with porous quarantine barriers, generated the reassortant. We contrast that suggestion with the possibility that laboratory errors involving the sharing of virus isolates and cultured cells, or perhaps vaccine production, may have been involved. Gene sequences from isolates that bridge the time and phylogenetic gap between the new virus and its parents will distinguish between these possibilities, and we suggest where they should be sought. It is important that the source of the new virus be found if we wish to avoid future pandemics rather than just trying to minimize the consequences after they have emerged. Influenza virus is a very significant zoonotic pathogen. Public confidence in influenza research, and the agribusinesses that are based on influenza's many hosts, has been eroded by several recent events involving the virus. Measures that might restore confidence include establishing a unified international administrative framework coordinating surveillance, research and commercial work with this virus, and maintaining a registry of all influenza isolates.

Armstrong John S

2009-11-01

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Pandemic influenza: certain uncertainties  

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For at least five centuries, major epidemics and pandemics of influenza have occurred unexpectedly and at irregular intervals. Despite the modern notion that pandemic influenza is a distinct phenomenon obeying such constant (if incompletely understood) rules such as dramatic genetic change, cyclicity, “wave” patterning, virus replacement, and predictable epidemic behavior, much evidence suggests the opposite. Although there is much that we know about pandemic influenza, there appears to b...

Morens, David M.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

2011-01-01

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Computer-aided assessment of pulmonary disease in novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza on CT  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2009 pandemic is a global outbreak of novel H1N1 influenza. Radiologic images can be used to assess the presence and severity of pulmonary infection. We develop a computer-aided assessment system to analyze the CT images from Swine-Origin Influenza A virus (S-OIV) novel H1N1 cases. The technique is based on the analysis of lung texture patterns and classification using a support vector machine (SVM). Pixel-wise tissue classification is computed from the SVM value. The method was validated on four H1N1 cases and ten normal cases. We demonstrated that the technique can detect regions of pulmonary abnormality in novel H1N1 patients and differentiate these regions from visually normal lung (area under the ROC curve is 0.993). This technique can also be applied to differentiate regions infected by different pulmonary diseases.

Yao, Jianhua; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Summers, Ronald M.; Mollura, Daniel J.

2011-03-01

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From where did the 2009 'swine-origin' influenza A virus (H1N1) emerge?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus that appeared in 2009 and was first found in human beings in Mexico, is a reassortant with at least three parents. Six of the genes are closest in sequence to those of H1N2 'triple-reassortant' influenza viruses isolated from pigs in North America around 1999-2000. Its other two genes are from different Eurasian 'avian-like' viruses of pigs; the NA gene is closest to H1N1 viruses isolated in Europe in 1991-1993, and the MP gene is c...

Armstrong John S; Gibbs Adrian J; Downie Jean C

2009-01-01

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Pandemic Influenza Vaccines – The Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent years’ enzootic spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 virus among poultry and the many lethal zoonoses in its wake has stimulated basic and applied pandemic vaccine research. The quest for an efficacious, affordable and timely accessible pandemic vaccine has been high on the agenda. When a variant H1N1 strain of swine origin emerged as a pandemic virus, it surprised many, as this subtype is well-known to man as a seasonal virus. This review will cover some difficult vaccine questions, such as the immunological challenges, the new production platforms, and the limited supply and global equity issues.

Rebecca Cox

2009-12-01

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Efficacy of Vaccination with Different Combinations of MF59-Adjuvanted and Nonadjuvanted Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Vaccines against Pandemic H1N1 (2009) Influenza Virus Infection in Ferrets?  

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Serum antibodies induced by seasonal influenza or seasonal influenza vaccination exhibit limited or no cross-reactivity against the 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza virus of the H1N1 subtype (pH1N1). Ferrets immunized once or twice with MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine exhibited significantly reduced lung virus titers but no substantial clinical protection against pH1N1-associated disease. However, priming with MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine significantly increased t...

Brand, J. M. A. Den; Kreijtz, J. H. C. M.; Bodewes, R.; Stittelaar, K. J.; Amerongen, G.; Kuiken, T.; Simon, J. H.; Fouchier, R. A. M.; Giudice, G. Del; Rappuoli, R.; Rimmelzwaan, G. F.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.

2011-01-01

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Influenza pandemics and avian flu  

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Douglas Fleming is general practitioner in a large suburban practice in Birmingham. In this article he seeks to clarify clinical issues relating to potential pandemics of influenza, including avian influenza

2005-01-01

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Molecular epidemiology of novel swine origin influenza virus (S-OIV) from Gwalior, India, 2009  

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Abstract Background The H1N1pandemic virus is a newly emergent human influenza A virus that is closely related to a number of currently circulating pig viruses in the 'classic North American' and 'Eurasian' swine influenza virus lineages and thus referred as S-OIV. Since the first reports of the virus in humans in April 2009, H1N1 virus has spread to 168 countries and overseas territories. India also witnessed severe H1N1 pandemic virus epidemic with considerable morbidity an...

Shukla Jyoti; Parida Manmohan; Sharma Shashi; Pvl, Rao

2011-01-01

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Swine-Origin Influenza A Outbreak 2009 at Shinshu University, Japan  

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Abstract Background A worldwide outbreak of swine flu H1N1 pandemic influenza occurred in April 2009. To determine the mechanism underlying the spread of infection, we prospectively evaluated a survey implemented at a local university. Methods Between August 2009 and March 2010, we surveyed 3 groups of subjects: 2318 children in six schools attached to the Faculty of Education, 11424 university students, and 3344 staff members. Subjects with influenza-like sympt...

Washizuka Shinsuke; Kaneko Minoru; Tsukahara Teruomi; Uchida Mitsuo; Kawa Shigeyuki

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Phylogenesis and Clinical Aspects of Pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection  

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During the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin emerged and spread worldwide causing a pandemic influenza. Here, 329 naso-pharyngeal swabs collected from patients with flu-like symptoms were analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of H1N1 2009 pandemic virus. Twenty-five samples collected from immunocompetent and immunodepressed patients contained the H1N1 pandemic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes showed no obvious differen...

Ciccozzi, Massimo; Babakir-mina, Muhammed; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Marcuccilli, Fabbio; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ciotti, Marco

2011-01-01

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Perceptions of pandemic influenza vaccines  

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Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) was first identified in North America in early 2009. The pandemic flu outbreak during the 2009–2010 influenza season demonstrated how rapidly a new strain of flu can emerge and spread. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza, and vaccination during a pandemic is critical in limiting morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, reports of vaccination rates for pH1N1 vaccines during the 2009–2010 influenza season indicated low rates for v...

Marczinski, Cecile A.

2012-01-01

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Transmission and Pathogenesis of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses in Ferrets and Mice  

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Recent reports of mild to severe influenza-like illness in humans caused by a novel swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus underscore the need to better understand the pathogenesis and transmission of these viruses in mammals. Here, selected 2009 A(H1N1) isolates were assessed for their ability to cause disease in mice and ferrets, and compared with a contemporary seasonal H1N1 virus for their ability to transmit by respiratory droplets to naïve ferrets. In contrast to seasonal influenza ...

Maines, Taronna R.; Jayaraman, Akila; Belser, Jessica A.; Wadford, Debra A.; Pappas, Claudia; Zeng, Hui; Gustin, Kortney M.; Pearce, Melissa B.; Viswanathan, Karthik; Shriver, Zachary H.; Raman, Rahul; Cox, Nancy J.; Sasisekharan, Ram; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2009-01-01

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Integrative study of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza infections: design and methods of the CoPanFlu-France cohort.  

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Abstract Background The risk of influenza infection depends on biological characteristics, individual or collective behaviors and the environmental context. The Cohorts for Pandemic Influenza (CoPanFlu) France study was set up in 2009 after the identification of the novel swine-origin A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. This cohort of 601 households (1450 subjects) representative for the general population aims at using an integrative approach to study the risk and characteristi...

Lapidus Nathanael; de Lamballerie Xavier; Salez Nicolas; Setbon Michel; Ferrari Pascal; Delabre Rosemary M; Gougeon Marie-Lise; Vely Frédéric; Leruez-Ville Marianne; Andreoletti Laurent; Cauchemez Simon; Boëlle Pierre-Yves; Vivier Eric; Abel Laurent; Schwarzinger Michaël

2012-01-01

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Detection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) viruses using a paired surface plasma waves biosensor  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to enhance the sensitivity of conventional rapid test technique for the detection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) viruses (S-OIVs), we used a paired surface plasma waves biosensor (PSPWB) based on SPR in conjunction with an optical heterodyne technique. Experimentally, PSPWB showed a 125-fold improvement at least in the S-OIV detection as compared to conventional enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, the detection limit of the PSPWB for the S-OIV detection was enhanced 250-fold in buffer at least in comparison with that of conventional rapid influenza diagnostic test.

Su, Li-Chen; Chang, Ying-Feng; Li, Ying-Chang; Hsieh, Jo-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Chou, Chien

2010-08-01

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Influenza and cardiovascular disease: does swine-origin, 2009 H1N1 flu virus represent a risk factor, an acute trigger, or both?  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza infection has become an important focus of both public and medical attention because of high-level perceived clinical and public health effects, enormously amplified by the current and ongoing 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic, sustained by the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV). The current transmission of this virus among humans appears much higher than that traditionally observed with seasonal influenza, raising several outbreaks of febrile respiratory infection ranging in severity from self-limited to severe, even life-threatening disease. Reliable biological and clinical evidence support a significant association between influenza infection and cardiovascular disorders, so that S-IOV might also be regarded as a potential multifaceted bioweapon able to affect the function of the cardiovascular system through a kaleidoscope of humoral, biological, and biochemical mechanisms. In acute coronary ischemic episodes, on one hand, it seems reasonable to consider any acute influenza virus infection as a precipitating factor that is the final event propelling predisposed individuals (e.g., those with preexisting coronary artery disease) over a threshold that precipitates the development of infarction in synergy with other well-known triggers. On the other hand, influenza virus-induced endothelial dysfunction, modification of lipoprotein metabolism, atherosclerotic plaque outgrowth, and inflammation additionally support the role of influenza infection as a strong cardiovascular risk factor. Comprehensive information regarding the 2009 H1N1 infection remains limited, so that it seems unreasonable to draw definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, current recorded mortality data would lead us to conclude that this new virus might represent a sinister threat to humankind, with cardiovascular mortality risk highlighting an additional crucial role for increasing further the alert against this threat. It also seems reasonable to support calls for vaccination against these viruses, both the seasonal and the new S-OIV, because this might represent a feasible strategy for short- and long-term prevention of virus-associated cardiovascular disease. PMID:20391296

Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

2010-02-01

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Seasonal Influenza: Waiting for the Next Pandemic  

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With the ongoing cases of H1N1 influenza (aka Swine Flu) occurring around the globe, seasonal influenza has a tendency to be overlooked by the media and general population as a source of illness and death. Yet, these pandemic influenza viruses arise from these seasonal influenza viruses. This article will provide an overview of seasonal influenza, its prevention and treatment, and the global surveillance system in place, used to detect the next influenza pandemic.

Clem, Angela; Galwankar, Sagar

2009-01-01

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Molecular epidemiology of novel swine origin influenza virus (S-OIV from Gwalior, India, 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The H1N1pandemic virus is a newly emergent human influenza A virus that is closely related to a number of currently circulating pig viruses in the 'classic North American' and 'Eurasian' swine influenza virus lineages and thus referred as S-OIV. Since the first reports of the virus in humans in April 2009, H1N1 virus has spread to 168 countries and overseas territories. India also witnessed severe H1N1 pandemic virus epidemic with considerable morbidity and mortality in different parts starting from May 2009. Findings The suspected swine flu outbreak from Gwalior India during October- December 2009 was confirmed through S-OIV HA gene specific RT-LAMP and real time RT-PCR. Positive samples through CDC real time and Lamp assay were further processed for isolation of the virus. Full HA gene sequencing of the H1N1 isolates of Gwalior, India revealed 99% homology with California and other circulating novel swine flu viruses. Three major changes were observed at nucleotide level, while two major amino acid shifts were observed at the position C9W and I30M corresponding to the ORF with prototype strain. The HA gene sequence phylogeny revealed the circulation of two genetically distinct lineages belonging to Clade VII and Clade I of S-OIV. Conclusions Our findings also supported the earlier report about circulation of mixed genogroups of S-OIV in India. Therefore continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of this newly emergent virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country.

Shukla Jyoti

2011-06-01

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Isolation and complete genomic characterization of H1N1 subtype swine influenza viruses in southern China through the 2009 pandemic  

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Abstract Background The swine influenza (SI) is an infectious disease of swine and human. The novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) that emerged from April 2009 in Mexico spread rapidly and caused a human pandemic globally. To determine whether the tremendous virus had existed in or transmitted to pigs in southern China, eight H1N1 influenza strains were identified from pigs of Guangdong province during 2008-2009. Results Based on the homology and phylogenetic a...

Xue Chunyi; Chen Feng; Chen Cuiying; Shang Huiqin; Wang Jing; Xie Qingmei; Ji Jun; Liu Yizhi; Cao Yongchang; Ma Jingyun; Bi Yingzuo

2011-01-01

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Influenza Pandemic Infrastructure Response in Thailand  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Influenza viruses change antigenic properties, or drift, every year and they create seasonal outbreaks. Occasionally, influenza viruses change in a major way, called a â??shift." If an influenza virus shifts, the entire human population is susceptible to the new influenza virus, creating the potential for a pandemic. On this podcast, CDC's Dr. Scott Dowell discusses responding to an influenza pandemic.  Created: 3/5/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/5/2009.

2009-03-05

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Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus (H1N1/2009) from Other Seasonal Influenza A Viruses  

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We previously developed a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle(NP)-based genomic microarray assay for identification of the avian H5N1 virus and its discrimination from other influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2). In this study, we expanded the platform to detect the 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009). Multiple specific capture and intermediate oligonucleotides were designed for the matrix (M), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the H1N1/2009 virus. The H1N1/2009 ...

Indira Hewlett; Maryna Eichelberger; Zhiping Ye; Wei Tang; Panhe Zhang; Viswanath Ragupathy; Xue Wang; Jiangqin Zhao

2012-01-01

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Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

HCTT CHE

2010-01-01

33

Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

2010-03-01

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Mutations at positions 186 and 194 in the HA gene of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus improve replication in cell culture and eggs  

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Abstract Obtaining suitable seed viruses for influenza vaccines poses a challenge for public health authorities and manufacturers. We used reverse genetics to generate vaccine seed-compatible viruses from the 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza virus. Comparison of viruses recovered with variations in residues 186 and 194 (based on the H3 numbering system) of the viral hemagglutinin showed that these viruses differed with respect to their ability to grow in eggs and cultured cells....

Balabanis Kara; Trusheim Heidi; Keiner Bjoern; Tuccino Annunziata B; Crotta Stefania; Palmer Gene; Settembre Ethan; Spencer Terika; Lilja Anders; Hekele Armin; Franti Michael; Suphaphiphat Pirada; Sackal Melissa; Rothfeder Mithra; Mandl Christian W

2010-01-01

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Introduction of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 Virus into Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 17 April 2009, novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV cases appeared within the United States. Most influenza A diagnostic assays currently utilized in local clinical laboratories do not allow definitive subtype determination. Detailed subtype analysis of influenza A positive samples in our laboratory allowed early confirmation of a large outbreak of S-OIV in southeastern Wisconsin (SEW. The initial case of S-OIV in SEW was detected on 28 April 2009. All influenza A samples obtained during the 16 week period prior to 28 April 2009, and the first four weeks of the subsequent epidemic were sub typed. Four different multiplex assays were employed, utilizing real time PCR and end point PCR to fully subtype human and animal influenza viral components. Specific detection of S-OIV was developed within days. Data regarding patient demographics and other concurrently circulating viruses were analyzed. During the first four weeks of the epidemic, 679 of 3726 (18.2% adults and children tested for influenza A were identified with S-OIV infection. Thirteen patients (0.34% tested positive for seasonal human subtypes of influenza A during the first two weeks and none in the subsequent 2 weeks of the epidemic. Parainfluenza viruses were the most prevalent seasonal viral agents circulating during the epidemic (of those tested, with detection rates of 12% followed by influenza B and RSV at 1.9% and 0.9% respectively. S-OIV was confirmed on day 2 of instituting subtype testing and within 4 days of report of national cases of S-OIV. Novel surge capacity diagnostic infrastructure exists in many specialty and research laboratories around the world. The capacity for broader influenza A sub typing at the local laboratory level allows timely and accurate detection of novel strains as they emerge in the community, despite the presence of other circulating viruses producing identical illness. This is likely to become increasingly important given the need for appropriate subtype driven anti-viral therapy and the potential shortage of such medications in a large epidemic.

Swati Kumar

2009-06-01

36

Infecção pelo vírus Influenza A (H1N1 de origem suína: como reconhecer, diagnosticar e prevenir How to prevent, recognize and diagnose infection with the swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1 virus in humans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em março de 2009, houve o início de uma epidemia de gripe no México que, em pouco tempo, levou ao surgimento de casos semelhantes em outros países, alertando as autoridades sanitárias para o risco de uma pandemia. Neste artigo, descrevemos os principais sinais e sintomas da infecção pelo vírus Influenza A (H1N1 de origem suína, as medidas a serem tomadas para os casos suspeitos ou confirmados e como proceder em relação aos contactantes. Comentamos também quais drogas são utilizadas para o tratamento e profilaxia.In March of 2009, a flu epidemic began in Mexico. Shortly thereafter, similar cases appeared in other countries, alerting authorities to the risk of a pandemic. This article details the principal signs and symptoms of infection with the swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1 virus. In addition, the measures to be taken in suspected or confirmed cases are addressed, as are the procedures to follow in relation to contacts. Furthermore, the drugs used in the prophylaxis against and the treatment of infection with the H1N1 virus are described.

Alcyone Artioli Machado

2009-05-01

37

Will the announced influenza pandemic really happen?  

CERN Document Server

We propose two simple probability models to compute the probability of an influenza pandemic. Under a random walk model the probability that all pandemics between times 0 and 300 occur by time 150 is 1/2. Under a Poisson model with mean inter arrival time of 30 years the probability that no pandemic occurs during at least 60 years is 14%. These probabilities are much higher than generally perceived. So yes the next influenza pandemic will happen but maybe much later than generally thought.

Schinazi, Rinaldo B

2008-01-01

38

Pneumonia induced by swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) infection. Chest computed tomography findings in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the features of chest computed tomography (CT) in children with swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV). The study population consisted of 16 children with laboratory-confirmed S-OIV infection (12 boys, 4 girls), with an age range of 5-10 years (mean 6.3 years). Pneumonia was suspected in these patients based on clinical features or confirmed by radiography. All subjects underwent CT for close evaluation of pneumonia, including characteristics, distribution, extent, and other findings such as pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. The predominant CT finding was consolidation plus ground-grass opacity (GGO) (11/16, 69%). The consolidation-dominant pattern was found in 10 of 16 (66%) patients, and 1 (6%) was GGO-dominant. One (6%) had only GGO. In all, 7 of the 16 patients had segmental or lobar consolidation. Abnormal opacities were primarily distributed in the central lung zone (8/16, 50%) and were multifocal (15/16, 94%). Four showed atelectasis (4/16, 25%). Pneumomediastinum was observed in 4 of 16 (25%). One patient had negative radiographic findings but was positive on CT. Multifocal consolidation with central distribution is a common CT finding in children with S-OIV, but there are few GGO-dominant cases. Widespread consolidation (segmental or lobar) is also common. (author)

39

Swine-origin influenza A viral (H1N1) infection in children. Chest computed tomography findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study was to review the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in children with swine-origin influenza (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. The radiologists retrospectively reviewed chest CT findings in 12 children with S-OIV infection and recorded the following findings: ground-glass opacities (GGO), consolidation, nodules, reticular opacities, peribronchial cuffing, and air trapping; distribution; affected lobes. The presence of pleural effusions, pneumomediastinum, pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE), and lymphadenopathy was also recorded. Chest CT revealed GGO (67%), consolidation (67%), nodules (25%), peribronchial cuffing (42%), and air trapping (33%). The distribution of the lesions was random (75%), peribronchial (17%), or subpleural (8%). The lobes affected were the lower (92%), upper (58%), and middle (17%) lobes. There were associated pleural effusions (42%), PIE (42%), pneumomediastinum (33%), and lymphadenopathy (75%). Among five patients with air-leak complications, three had a history of allergies and three required the intensive care unit. Chest CT findings in children with S-OIV infection were peribronchial thickening and a mixture of airspace consolidation and GGO with random distribution and lower lobe predominance. Pleural effusion, lymphadenopathy, PIE, and pneumomediastinum may be associated findings. (author)

40

Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

Bae, So Young; Hong, Eun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Seong Jin; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-06-15

 
 
 
 
41

Health systems planning for an influenza pandemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

District planning, in general, and influenza pandemic planning, in particular, are necessary to sustain health care organizations and systems. An extensive stakeholder process used by Capital District Health Authority (CDHA) and the Izaak Walton Killam (IWK) Health Centre involved more than 25 teams. This work resulted in a joint CDHA/IWK pandemic influenza contingency plan for public health, primary care, acute care and tertiary care services. In addition, district and business continuity planning has been enhanced. PMID:17521070

Graham, Kathleen; Connolly, Maureen

2007-01-01

42

Infecção pelo vírus Influenza A (H1N1) de origem suína: como reconhecer, diagnosticar e prevenir / How to prevent, recognize and diagnose infection with the swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em março de 2009, houve o início de uma epidemia de gripe no México que, em pouco tempo, levou ao surgimento de casos semelhantes em outros países, alertando as autoridades sanitárias para o risco de uma pandemia. Neste artigo, descrevemos os principais sinais e sintomas da infecção pelo vírus Influ [...] enza A (H1N1) de origem suína, as medidas a serem tomadas para os casos suspeitos ou confirmados e como proceder em relação aos contactantes. Comentamos também quais drogas são utilizadas para o tratamento e profilaxia. Abstract in english In March of 2009, a flu epidemic began in Mexico. Shortly thereafter, similar cases appeared in other countries, alerting authorities to the risk of a pandemic. This article details the principal signs and symptoms of infection with the swine-origin Influenza A (H1N1) virus. In addition, the measure [...] s to be taken in suspected or confirmed cases are addressed, as are the procedures to follow in relation to contacts. Furthermore, the drugs used in the prophylaxis against and the treatment of infection with the H1N1 virus are described.

Alcyone Artioli, Machado.

2009-05-01

43

Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus (H1N1/2009 from Other Seasonal Influenza A Viruses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We previously developed a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle(NP-based genomic microarray assay for identification of the avian H5N1 virus and its discrimination from other influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2. In this study, we expanded the platform to detect the 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009. Multiple specific capture and intermediate oligonucleotides were designed for the matrix (M, hemagglutinin (HA, and neuraminidase (NA genes of the H1N1/2009 virus. The H1N1/2009 microarrays were printed in the same format as those of the seasonal influenza H1N1 and H3N2 for the HA, NA, and M genes. Viral RNA was tested using capture-target-intermediate oligonucleotide hybridization and gold NP-mediated silver staining. The signal from the 4 capture-target-intermediates of the HA and NA genes was specific for H1N1/2009 virus and showed no cross hybridization with viral RNA from other influenza strains H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1. All of the 3 M gene captures showed strong affinity with H1N1/2009 viral RNA, with 2 out of the 3 M gene captures showing cross hybridization with the H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 samples tested. The current assay was able to detect H1N1/2009 and distinguish it from other influenza A viruses. This new method may be useful for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza A viruses and can be rapidly modified to detect other emerging influenza strains in public health settings.

Indira Hewlett

2012-11-01

44

Rapid detection and differentiation of swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009) from other seasonal influenza A viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously developed a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle(NP)-based genomic microarray assay for identification of the avian H5N1 virus and its discrimination from other influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2). In this study, we expanded the platform to detect the 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009). Multiple specific capture and intermediate oligonucleotides were designed for the matrix (M), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the H1N1/2009 virus. The H1N1/2009 microarrays were printed in the same format as those of the seasonal influenza H1N1 and H3N2 for the HA, NA, and M genes. Viral RNA was tested using capture-target-intermediate oligonucleotide hybridization and gold NP-mediated silver staining. The signal from the 4 capture-target-intermediates of the HA and NA genes was specific for H1N1/2009 virus and showed no cross hybridization with viral RNA from other influenza strains H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1. All of the 3 M gene captures showed strong affinity with H1N1/2009 viral RNA, with 2 out of the 3 M gene captures showing cross hybridization with the H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 samples tested. The current assay was able to detect H1N1/2009 and distinguish it from other influenza A viruses. This new method may be useful for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza A viruses and can be rapidly modified to detect other emerging influenza strains in public health settings. PMID:23202513

Zhao, Jiangqin; Wang, Xue; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Zhang, Panhe; Tang, Wei; Ye, Zhiping; Eichelberger, Maryna; Hewlett, Indira

2012-11-01

45

Reassortment Patterns in Swine Influenza Viruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, iso...

Khiabanian, Hossein; Trifonov, Vladimir; Rabadan, Raul

2009-01-01

46

Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflncluded peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

47

Workplace health and safety during pandemic influenza : CAGC guideline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pandemic influenza is a possible biological hazard that employers must take into account during hazard assessment and emergency planning. This report presented a guideline to all workplaces in Alberta and provided information on legislated requirements, best practices, guidelines and strategies in workplace health and safety and employment standards in the event of a pandemic influenza. The report explained the difference between a pandemic and a pandemic influenza, and why scientists expect another pandemic influenza. Pandemic influenza was described as being different from seasonal influenza. This document also explained how pandemic influenza relates to the worker and the workplace, and how the workplace can prepare for and respond to pandemic influenza. Pandemic influenza hazard categories were also listed along with steps in the hazard assessment and control of pandemic influenza. The steps involve listing the types of work and work-related activities; identifying the hazard; assessing the hazards; implementing controls; communicating the information to workers and providing training; and evaluating the effectiveness of controls. The guide also addressed emergency response plan development for pandemic influenza; first aid; and employment standards during pandemic influenza. refs., tabs.

NONE

2009-11-15

48

Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S-OIV (H1N1).

Li Ping, E-mail: pinglee_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Su Dongju, E-mail: hyd_sdj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Respiratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhang Jifeng, E-mail: zjf2005520@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Xia Xudong, E-mail: xiaxd888@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Sui Hong, E-mail: suisuihong@126.com [Department of Statistics, Harbin Medical University, 240 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhao Donghui, E-mail: yhwoooooo@yahoo.com.cn [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Heilongjiang, 187 Xiang An Street, Harbin 150036 (China)

2011-11-15

49

Antiviral Strategies for Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While vaccines are the primary public health response to seasonal and pandemic flu, short of a universal vaccine there are inherent limitations to this approach. Antiviral drugs provide valuable alternative options for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. Here, we will review drugs and drug candidates against influenza with an emphasis on the recent progress of a host-targeting entry-blocker drug candidate, DAS181, a sialidase fusion protein.

Fang Fang; Maria Hedlund; Larson, Jeffrey L.

2010-01-01

50

Toward a method for tracking virus evolutionary trajectory applied to the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2009 a novel pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (H1N1pdm09) emerged as the first official influenza pandemic of the 21st century. Early genomic sequence analysis pointed to the swine origin of the virus. Here we report a novel computational approach to determine the evolutionary trajectory of viral sequences that uses data-driven estimations of nucleotide substitution rates to track the gradual accumulation of observed sequence alterations over time. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments show that sequences belonging to the resulting evolutionary trajectory of the H1N1pdm09 lineage exhibit a gradual accumulation of sequence variations and tight temporal correlations in the topological structure of the phylogenetic trees. These results suggest that our evolutionary trajectory analysis (ETA) can more effectively pinpoint the evolutionary history of viruses, including the host and geographical location traversed by each segment, when compared against either BLAST or traditional phylogenetic analysis alone. PMID:25064525

Squires, R Burke; Pickett, Brett E; Das, Sajal; Scheuermann, Richard H

2014-12-01

51

Developing Vaccines to Combat Pandemic Influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza vaccine manufacturers require antigenically relevant vaccine viruses that have good manufacturing properties and are safe to use. In developing pandemic vaccine viruses, reverse genetics has been employed as a rational approach that can also be used effectively to attenuate the highly virulent H5N1 virus and at the same time place the H5 HA and N1 NA on a background of PR8, a virus that has been used over many decades to provide high yielding vaccine viruses. Reverse genetics has also been used successfully alongside classical reassorting techniques in the development of (swine flu pandemic A(H1N1v vaccine viruses.

Othmar G. Engelhardt

2010-02-01

52

Mutations at positions 186 and 194 in the HA gene of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus improve replication in cell culture and eggs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Obtaining suitable seed viruses for influenza vaccines poses a challenge for public health authorities and manufacturers. We used reverse genetics to generate vaccine seed-compatible viruses from the 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza virus. Comparison of viruses recovered with variations in residues 186 and 194 (based on the H3 numbering system of the viral hemagglutinin showed that these viruses differed with respect to their ability to grow in eggs and cultured cells. Thus, we have demonstrated that molecular cloning of members of a quasispecies can help in selection of seed viruses for vaccine manufacture.

Balabanis Kara

2010-07-01

53

Co-infection of adenovirus with swine origin influenza A (H1N1 and report of adenovirus with respiratory syncytial virus: report of two cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Respiratory virus infections represent a major public health problem because of their worldwide occurrence, ease of spread in the community and considerable morbidity and mortality. They are one of the most common reasons for hospitalization of children under the age of six. In some cases, infection with two different viruses increase the severity of disease which lead to the hospitalization."n"nCase presentation: Among 202 samples related to children under the age of six with respiratory infections, two dual infections of Adenovirus with other respiratory viruses with PCR test were detected."n"nConclusion: Mixed respiratory viral infections are sometimes associated with severe disease and recognition of coinfection is important. Dual infections of Adenovirus with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and Swine origin influenza A (H1N1 virus were demonstrated. The evidence showed that the co-infection of Adenovirus with swine origin influenza A (H1N1, has increased the severity of disease which lead to the hospitalization.

Shatizadeh Malekshahi S

2010-12-01

54

Pandemic H1N1 influenza infections in 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In early spring 2009 an outbreak of H1N1 influenza A virus infection was detected in Mexico, spreaded quickly, and on June 11 2009, World Health Organization raised its pandemic level to phase 6. This novel H1N1 pandemic influenza A virus represented a quadruple reassortment of swine, human and avian influenza virus strains. This pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses in different regions of the world were found to be antigenically homogenous. Transmission features, incubation period and clinical findings wee similar with the seasonal influenza viruses, although the gastrointestinal manifestations were more common. Young children (<5years and some special risk groups are at increased risk for infection complications and mortality. The recommended test for diagnosis is real-time PCR. Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A strains are sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir and resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. Oseltamivir and zanamivir are used for prophlaxis and therapy of infection. However, vaccination against pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A should be the main target for individual and population based prevention. Monovalent pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A vaccines are available in this (recent influenza season. According to CDC, the next (2010-2011 influenza season trivalent vaccines will coverage the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A vaccine. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45: 80th Year: 31-6

Mustafa Hac?mustafao?lu

2010-05-01

55

The Australian response: pandemic influenza preparedness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Australia's preparedness for a potential influenza pandemic involves many players, from individual health carers to interdepartmental government committees. It embraces a wide number of strategies from the management of the disease to facilitating business continuity. The key strategy underlying Australia's planned response is an intensive effort to reduce transmission of the virus. This includes actions to reduce the likelihood of entry of the virus into the country and to contain outbreaks when they occur. Containment will provide time to allow production of a matched vaccine. The health strategies are outlined in the Australian health management plan for pandemic influenza. The plan is accompanied by technical annexes setting out key considerations and guidelines in the areas of clinical management and infection control. National plans present overall strategies and guidance, but the operational details can only be determined by individual states and territories, regions, and the services themselves. Primary health care practices will be on the frontline of an influenza pandemic. Every practice needs a plan that defines the roles of staff, incorporates infection control and staff protection measures, and considers business continuity. Most importantly, a practice needs to know how to implement that plan. PMID:17115949

Horvath, John S; McKinnon, Moira; Roberts, Leslee

2006-11-20

56

Influenza pandemics: past, present and future challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza epidemics occur regularly and prediction of their conversion to pandemics and their impact is difficult. Coordination of efforts on a global scale to control or reduce the impact is fraught with potential for under and overreaction. In light of the 1956 pandemic and more recently the SARS and H1N1 pandemics, the public health community took steps toward strengthening global surveillance and a coordinated response in keeping with the continuing memory of the tragedy seen in 1918. The scientific, professional, and technical resources of the 21st century are now advanced far beyond those then available. The H1N1 pandemic which commenced in 2009 progressed differently than predicted; its course was difficult to predict with any degree of certainty. Public responses to national immunization programs against the H1N1 virus have been weak. International movement of diseases can lead to creation of new endemic areas and continuous spread such as that which happened with West Nile Fever and Chikungunya. The lessons learned and the public and political responses to each actual or threatened pandemic will serve public health well in dealing with future challenges.

Zylberman Patrick

2010-07-01

57

Are we ready for pandemic influenza?  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past year, the public has become keenly aware of the threat of emerging infectious diseases with the global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the continuing threat of bioterrorism, the proliferation of West Nile virus, and the discovery of human cases of monkeypox in the United States. At the same time, an old foe has again raised its head, reminding us that our worst nightmare may not be a new one. In 2003, highly pathogenic strains of avian influenza virus, including the H5N1 and H7N7 subtypes, again crossed from birds to humans and caused fatal disease. Direct avian-to-human influenza transmission was unknown before 1997. Have we responded to these threats by better preparing for emerging disease agents, or are we continuing to act only as crises arise? Here we consider progress to date in preparedness for an influenza pandemic and review what remains to be done. We conclude by prioritizing the remaining needs and exploring the reasons for our current lack of preparedness for an influenza pandemic. PMID:14645836

Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

2003-11-28

58

Pandemic influenza preparedness: Africa at the crossroads  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At least two distinct approaches to pandemic preparedness have arisen in response to the threats posed by pandemic influenza: a traditional public health approach and an increasingly securitised one. Traditional public health focuses on the population and their living conditions. In contrast, public health strategies informed by concerns with security focus on the resilience of critical infrastructure, such as electricity and communication, and on the ensuring good connections between different layers of government and any private bodies likely to be central to the response. Pandemic plans can be informed by one or a mix of both approaches. The securitised approach is more prevalent in the World Health Organization (WHO’s plans and Western countries’ plans. In contrast, the WHO-AFRO Regional Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plan 2009 utilises the existing Integrated Diseases Surveillance and Response framework as its starting point. It is informed by both rationales. Will African preparedness efforts develop in the direction of those already more informed by concerns about security? This paper examines how a securitised approach glosses over the differences between existing and threatened diseases. This is a particular problem in the African context with a high burden of infectious disease and underfunded health systems. Rather than a diversion of resources into a securitised approach, we suggest that the preparedness needs of the African continent are best served by focussing political will, international aid, financial and technical resources on the development of the health sector, including the integrated diseases surveillance and response framework. By tracing the distinct rationales at work in preparedness plans, it becomes apparent that an emphasis on the population will better position the continent for the future pandemics.

Oluyemisi C. Ijamakinwa

2012-10-01

59

Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7 and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza virus (IV infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®, EF in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Results Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1, were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu®, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu®-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. Conclusion As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options for IV replication and dissemination.

Schoop Roland

2009-11-01

60

76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

...Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness...including implementation of the World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness...light of the approval of the World Health Organization (WHO) Pandemic...

2011-09-21

 
 
 
 
61

Avian Influenza Virus: The Threat of A Pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 1918 influenza A virus pandemic caused a death toll of 40~50 million. Currently,because of the widespread dissemination of the avian influenza virus (H5N1, there is a highrisk of another pandemic. Avian species are the natural hosts for numerous subtypes ofinfluenza A viruses; however, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI is not onlyextremely lethal to domestic avian species but also can infect humans and cause death. Thisreview discusses why the avian influenza virus is considered the most likely candidate forthe first flu pandemic of the 21st century

Shih-Cheng Chang

2006-04-01

62

Updated preparedness and response framework for influenza pandemics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complexities of planning for and responding to the emergence of novel influenza viruses emphasize the need for systematic frameworks to describe the progression of the event; weigh the risk of emergence and potential public health impact; evaluate transmissibility, antiviral resistance, and severity; and make decisions about interventions. On the basis of experience from recent influenza responses, CDC has updated its framework to describe influenza pandemic progression using six intervals (two prepandemic and four pandemic intervals) and eight domains. This updated framework can be used for influenza pandemic planning and serves as recommendations for risk assessment, decision-making, and action in the United States. The updated framework replaces the U.S. federal government stages from the 2006 implementation plan for the National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza (US Homeland Security Council. National strategy for pandemic influenza: implementation plan. Washington, DC: US Homeland Security Council; 2006. Available at http://www.flu.gov/planning-preparedness/federal/pandemic-influenza-implementation.pdf). The six intervals of the updated framework are as follows: 1) investigation of cases of novel influenza, 2) recognition of increased potential for ongoing transmission, 3) initiation of a pandemic wave, 4) acceleration of a pandemic wave, 5) deceleration of a pandemic wave, and 6) preparation for future pandemic waves. The following eight domains are used to organize response efforts within each interval: incident management, surveillance and epidemiology, laboratory, community mitigation, medical care and countermeasures, vaccine, risk communications, and state/local coordination. Compared with the previous U.S. government stages, this updated framework provides greater detail and clarity regarding the potential timing of key decisions and actions aimed at slowing the spread and mitigating the impact of an emerging pandemic. Use of this updated framework is anticipated to improve pandemic preparedness and response in the United States. Activities and decisions during a response are event-specific. These intervals serve as a reference for public health decision-making by federal, state, and local health authorities in the United States during an influenza pandemic and are not meant to be prescriptive or comprehensive. This framework incorporates information from newly developed tools for pandemic planning and response, including the Influenza Risk Assessment Tool and the Pandemic Severity Assessment Framework, and has been aligned with the pandemic phases restructured in 2013 by the World Health Organization. PMID:25254666

Holloway, Rachel; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Zaza, Stephanie; Cox, Nancy J; Jernigan, Daniel B

2014-09-26

63

Pre-pandemic vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses for pandemic preparedness  

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Reports of human infection with both low and highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of H5, H7, and H9 subtypes with varying case fatalities highlight the public health threat posed by these viruses. Although human-to-human transmission has been limited and infrequent, it is widely believed that these avian influenza viruses could acquire pandemic potential either by genetic reassortment with a human influenza virus or by mutations in the genome. Vaccines currently stockpiled for pandemic...

Vemula, Sai Vikram

2013-01-01

64

Developing Vaccines to Combat Pandemic Influenza  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Influenza vaccine manufacturers require antigenically relevant vaccine viruses that have good manufacturing properties and are safe to use. In developing pandemic vaccine viruses, reverse genetics has been employed as a rational approach that can also be used effectively to attenuate the highly virulent H5N1 virus and at the same time place the H5 HA and N1 NA on a background of PR8, a virus that has been used over many decades to provide high yielding vaccine viruses. Reverse genetics has al...

Engelhardt, Othmar G.; Robertson, James S.

2010-01-01

65

Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A virus of avian and swine origin in experimentally infected pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SA-alpha-2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources.

Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik

2011-01-01

66

Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods: This study investigated ...

Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, Birgitte M.

2011-01-01

67

Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A virus of avian and swine origin in experimentally infected pigs  

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Abstract Background Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SA-alpha-2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods T...

Viuff Birgitte M; Larsen Lars E; Trebbien Ramona

2011-01-01

68

Genetic and Pathobiologic Characterization of Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza Viruses from a Naturally Infected Swine Herd?  

Science.gov (United States)

Since its initial identification in Mexico and the United States, concerns have been raised that the novel H1N1 influenza virus might cause a pandemic of severity comparable to that of the 1918 pandemic. In late April 2009, viruses phylogenetically related to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus were isolated from an outbreak on a Canadian pig farm. This outbreak also had epidemiological links to a suspected human case. Experimental infections carried out in pigs using one of the swine isolates from this outbreak and the human isolate A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009 showed differences in virus recovery from the lower respiratory tract. Virus was consistently isolated from the lungs of pigs infected with A/Mexico/InDRE4487/2009, while only one pig infected with A/swine/Alberta/OTH-33-8/2008 yielded live virus from the lung, despite comparable amounts of viral RNA and antigen in both groups of pigs. Clinical disease resembled other influenza virus infections in swine, albeit with somewhat prolonged virus antigen detection and delayed viral-RNA clearance from the lungs. There was also a noteworthy amount of genotypic variability among the viruses isolated from the pigs on the farm. This, along with the somewhat irregular pathobiological characteristics observed in experimentally infected animals, suggests that although the virus may be of swine origin, significant viral evolution may still be ongoing. PMID:20015998

Weingartl, Hana M.; Berhane, Yohannes; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Neufeld, James; Kehler, Helen; Emburry-Hyatt, Carissa; Hooper-McGreevy, Kathleen; Kasloff, Samantha; Dalman, Brett; Bystrom, Jan; Alexandersen, Soren; Li, Yan; Pasick, John

2010-01-01

69

Lessons learned from the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic  

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The 1918 influenza pandemic was one of the most virulent strains of influenza in history. Phylogenic evidence of the novel H1N1 strain of influenza discovered in Mexico last spring (2009) links it to the 1918 influenza strain. With information gained from analyzing viral genetics, public health records and advances in medical science we can confront the 2009 H1N1 influenza on a global scale. The paper analyses the causes and characteristics of a pandemic, and major issues in controlling the s...

Hollenbeck, James E.

2009-01-01

70

Genome Sequence of a Circulating Human-Like Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus H3N2 Strain  

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The full-genome sequence of A/swine/Henan/1/2010, a strain of influenza A virus isolated in central China, was determined. Phylogenetic analyses show that its eight genomic segments are human-like, and some of its segments have appeared in swine H1N2, swine H1N1, and human H1N2 influenza viruses.

Li, Xinsheng; Wang, Junya; Chen, Hong-ying; Yan, Ruoqian; Du, Xiangdang

2013-01-01

71

Novel Antiviral Characteristics of Nanosized Copper(I) Iodide Particles Showing Inactivation Activity against 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus  

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We investigated the antiviral activity of nanosized copper(I) iodide (CuI) particles having an average size of 160 nm. CuI particles showed aqueous stability and generated hydroxyl radicals, which were probably derived from monovalent copper (Cu+). We confirmed that CuI particles showed antiviral activity against an influenza A virus of swine origin (pandemic [H1N1] 2009) by plaque titration assay. The virus titer decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon incubation with CuI particles, with t...

Fujimori, Yoshie; Sato, Tetsuya; Hayata, Taishi; Nagao, Tomokazu; Nakayama, Mikio; Nakayama, Tsuruo; Sugamata, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Kazuo

2012-01-01

72

Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Planning Template for Primary Care Offices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Abbreviated Pandemic Influenza Plan Template for Primary Care Provider Offices is intended to assist primary care providers and office managers with preparing their offices for quickly putting a plan in place to handle an increase in patient calls and visits, whether during the 2009-2010 influenza season or future influenza seasons.

HCTT CHE

2010-01-01

73

75 FR 10268 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment  

Science.gov (United States)

...pandemic of human influenza because these...have little or no immunity to these viruses...clause, delete ``avian influenza viruses and resulting...highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1, H2...humans do not have immunity, except...

2010-03-05

74

Optimizing distribution of pandemic influenza antiviral drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

We provide a data-driven method for optimizing pharmacy-based distribution of antiviral drugs during an influenza pandemic in terms of overall access for a target population and apply it to the state of Texas, USA. We found that during the 2009 influenza pandemic, the Texas Department of State Health Services achieved an estimated statewide access of 88% (proportion of population willing to travel to the nearest dispensing point). However, access reached only 34.5% of US postal code (ZIP code) areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. Optimized distribution networks increased expected access to 91% overall and 60% in hard-to-reach regions, and 2 or 3 major pharmacy chains achieved near maximal coverage in well-populated areas. Independent pharmacies were essential for reaching ZIP code areas containing <1,000 underinsured persons. This model was developed during a collaboration between academic researchers and public health officials and is available as a decision support tool for Texas Department of State Health Services at a Web-based interface. PMID:25625858

Singh, Bismark; Huang, Hsin-Chan; Morton, David P; Johnson, Gregory P; Gutfraind, Alexander; Galvani, Alison P; Clements, Bruce; Meyers, Lauren A

2015-02-01

75

Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A virus of avian and swine origin in experimentally infected pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SA-alpha-2,3 and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6 influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA I, and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA. Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. Results SIV antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally in bronchiolar epithelial cells. SA-alpha-2,6 was the predominant receptor in all areas of the respiratory tract with an average of 80-100% lining at the epithelial cells. On the contrary, the SA-alpha-2,3 was not present (0% at epithelial cells of nose, trachea, and most bronchi, but was found in small amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions A difference in predilection sites between SIV and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig acts as a mixing vessel between human and avian influenza viruses. Furthermore, it was shown that AIV prefers to infect alveolar type II epithelial cells in pigs. This corresponds with findings in humans emphasising the resemblance between the two species.

Viuff Birgitte M

2011-09-01

76

Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods: This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA) I, and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA). Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV) subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. Results: SIV antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally in bronchiolar epithelial cells. SA-alpha- 2,6 was the predominant receptor in all areas of the respiratory tract with an average of 80-100% lining at the epithelial cells. On the contrary, the SA-alpha-2,3 was not present (0%) at epithelial cells of nose, trachea, and most bronchi, but was found in small amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions: A difference in predilection sites between SIV and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig acts as a mixing vessel between human and avian influenza viruses. Furthermore, it was shown that AIV prefers to infect alveolar type II epithelial cells in pigs. This corresponds with findings in humans emphasising the resemblance between the two species.

Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik

2011-01-01

77

Transmissibility and geographic spread of the 1889 influenza pandemic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Until now, mortality and spreading mechanisms of influenza pandemics have been studied only for the 1918, 1957, and 1968 pandemics; none have concerned the 19th century. Herein, we examined the 1889 “Russian” pandemic. Clinical attack rates were retrieved for 408 geographic entities in 14 European countries and in the United States. Case fatality ratios were estimated from datasets in the French, British and German armies, and morbidity and mortality records of Swiss cities. Weekly all-ca...

Valleron, Alain-jacques; Cori, Anne; Valtat, Sophie; Meurisse, Sofia; Carrat, Fabrice; Boe?lle, Pierre-yves

2010-01-01

78

Pandemic Influenza Virus Surveillance, Izu-Oshima Island, Japan  

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A population-based influenza surveillance study (using PCR virus subtyping) on Izu-Oshima Island, Japan, found that the cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections 2 seasons after the pandemic was highest for those 10–14 years of age (43.1%). No postpandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 case-patients had been infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the pandemic season.

Inamasu, Tomoko; Sudo, Kouji; Kato, Shingo; Deguchi, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Manabu; Shimizu, Tadanori; Maeda, Tadami; Fujimoto, Shuhei; Takebayashi, Toru; Saito, Tomoya

2012-01-01

79

A Single Amino Acid in the HA of pH1N1 2009 Influenza Virus Affects Cell Tropism in Human Airway Epithelium, but Not Transmission in Ferrets  

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The first pandemic of the 21st century, pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1 2009), emerged from a swine-origin source. Although human infections with swine-origin influenza have been reported previously, none went on to cause a pandemic or indeed any sustained human transmission. In previous pandemics, specific residues in the receptor binding site of the haemagglutinin (HA) protein of influenza have been associated with the ability of the virus to transmit between humans. In the present study we inves...

Doremalen, N.; Shelton, H.; Roberts, Kl; Jones, Im; Pickles, Rj; Thompson, Ci; Barclay, Ws

2011-01-01

80

The Possible Impact of Vaccination for Seasonal Influenza on Emergence of Pandemic Influenza via Reassortment  

Science.gov (United States)

Background One pathway through which pandemic influenza strains might emerge is reassortment from coinfection of different influenza A viruses. Seasonal influenza vaccines are designed to target the circulating strains, which intuitively decreases the prevalence of coinfection and the chance of pandemic emergence due to reassortment. However, individual-based analyses on 2009 pandemic influenza show that the previous seasonal vaccination may increase the risk of pandemic A(H1N1) pdm09 infection. In view of pandemic influenza preparedness, it is essential to understand the overall effect of seasonal vaccination on pandemic emergence via reassortment. Methods and Findings In a previous study we applied a population dynamics approach to investigate the effect of infection-induced cross-immunity on reducing such a pandemic risk. Here the model was extended by incorporating vaccination for seasonal influenza to assess its potential role on the pandemic emergence via reassortment and its effect in protecting humans if a pandemic does emerge. The vaccination is assumed to protect against the target strains but only partially against other strains. We find that a universal seasonal vaccine that provides full-spectrum cross-immunity substantially reduces the opportunity of pandemic emergence. However, our results show that such effectiveness depends on the strength of infection-induced cross-immunity against any novel reassortant strain. If it is weak, the vaccine that induces cross-immunity strongly against non-target resident strains but weakly against novel reassortant strains, can further depress the pandemic emergence; if it is very strong, the same kind of vaccine increases the probability of pandemic emergence. Conclusions Two types of vaccines are available: inactivated and live attenuated, only live attenuated vaccines can induce heterosubtypic immunity. Current vaccines are effective in controlling circulating strains; they cannot always help restrain pandemic emergence because of the uncertainty of the oncoming reassortant strains, however. This urges the development of universal vaccines for prevention of pandemic influenza. PMID:25494180

Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Pebody, Richard; De Angelis, Daniela; White, Peter J.; Charlett, Andre; McCauley, John W.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Swine influenza test results from animal health laboratories in Canada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to its infrastructure and partnerships the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network was able to rapidly collect test results from 9 Canadian laboratories that were conducting primary testing for influenza on swine-origin samples, in response to the threat posed by the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in 2009.

Kloeze, Harold; Mukhi, Shamir N.; Alexandersen, Soren

2013-01-01

82

Knowledge about pandemic influenza preparedness among vulnerable migrants in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to assess factors associated with a high level of knowledge about influenza among displaced persons and labor migrants in Thailand. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 797 documented and undocumented migrants thought to be vulnerable to influenza during the early stages of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Data were collected on socio-demographic factors, migration status, health information sources, barriers to accessing public healthcare services and influenza-related knowledge using a 201-item interviewer-assisted questionnaire. Among the different types of influenza, participants' awareness of avian influenza was greatest (81%), followed by H1N1 (78%), human influenza (61%) and pandemic influenza (35%). Logistic regression analyses identified 11 factors that significantly predicted a high level of knowledge about influenza. Six or more years of education completed [odds ratio (OR) 6.89 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.58-13.24)] and recent participation in an influenza prevention activity [OR 5.27 (95% CI 2.78-9.98)] were the strongest predictors. Recommendations to aid public health efforts toward pandemic mitigation and prevention include increasing accessibility of education options for migrants and increasing frequency and accessibility of influenza prevention activities, such as community outreach and meetings. Future research should seek to identify which influenza prevention activities and education materials are most effective. PMID:25204452

Hickey, Jason E; Gagnon, Anita J; Jitthai, Nigoon

2014-09-01

83

Pandemic influenza: A global challenge for social marketing marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent years have seen increased attention and concern regarding the potential for pandemic influenza, following large-scale outbreaks of swine flu and bird flu. Governments and health agencies have time to develop social marketing strategies and specific messages that have the potential to minimize fear, refute or inoculate against misinformation that the public may encounter, and enhance the likelihood of the public taking the recommended preventive and remedial actions should these become necessary. This paper presents an overview of how social marketing can be used to tackle the global challenge of pandemic influenza. The potential pandemic influenza poses a major challenge for social marketers (along with governments, health services, and businesses. There are a number of critical factors about a potential pandemic influenza that make it fundamentally different to the majority of issues to which social marketing has previously been applied. The underlying principles of social marketing are equally applicable to a global infectious disease outbreak (such as pandemic influenza. Even if the current strains do not become pandemic, social marketers should use this impetus to develop the skills and resources to address future communicable disease outbreaks. This paper applies the concepts of social marketing to a unique health issue which has the potential to become one of the largest global public health crises in history, but which can be tackled with effective global social marketing.

Sandra C. Jones

2012-10-01

84

Pandemic planning in the shipping industry--lessons learnt from the 2009 Influenza Pandemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The events around the 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza Pandemic highlighted the need for better planning to ensure protection of those on vessels, protection for ports of call, and protection of business assets (business continuity). The variety of stakeholders involved in the management of a pandemic made it difficult to achieve a cohesive plan during the event itself. By considering the actions during the last pandemic, and the literature available for the shipping industry on pandemic planning, a pathway to better preparation is suggested. PMID:22258847

Bunyan, Kate

2011-01-01

85

Conserved amino acid markers from past influenza pandemic strains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Finding the amino acid mutations that affect the severity of influenza infections remains an open and challenging problem. Of special interest is better understanding how current circulating influenza strains could evolve into a new pandemic strain. Influenza proteomes from distinct viral phenotype classes were searched for class specific amino acid mutations conserved in past pandemics, using reverse engineered linear classifiers. Results Thirty-four amino acid markers associated with host specificity and high mortality rate were found. Some markers had little impact on distinguishing the functional classes by themselves, however in combination with other mutations they improved class prediction. Pairwise combinations of influenza genomes were checked for reassortment and mutation events needed to acquire the pandemic conserved markers. Evolutionary pathways involving H1N1 human and swine strains mixed with avian strains show the potential to acquire the pandemic markers with a double reassortment and one or two amino acid mutations. Conclusion The small mutation combinations found at multiple protein positions associated with viral phenotype indicate that surveillance tools could monitor genetic variation beyond single point mutations to track influenza strains. Finding that certain strain combinations have the potential to acquire pandemic conserved markers through a limited number of reassortment and mutation events illustrates the potential for reassortment and mutation events to lead to new circulating influenza strains.

Vitalis Elizabeth A

2009-04-01

86

Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza A Virus Induces Weak Cytokine Response in Human Macrophages and Dendritic Cells and Is Highly Sensitive to Antiviral Actions of Interferons  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In less than three months after the first cases of swine-origin 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infections were reported from Mexico, WHO declared a pandemic. The pandemic virus is antigenically distinct from seasonal influenza viruses and the majority of human population lacks immunity against this virus. We have studied the activation of innate immune responses in pandemic virus-infected human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. Pandemic A/Finland/553/2009 virus, representing a typical North American/European lineage virus, replicated very well in these cells. The pandemic virus, as well as the seasonal A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) and A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) viruses, induced type I (IFN-alpha/beta) and type III (IFN-lambda1-3) IFN, CXCL10 and TNF-alpha gene expression weakly in DCs. Mouse adapted A/WSN/33 (H1N1) and human A/Udorn/72 (H3N2) viruses, instead, induced efficiently the expression of antiviral and proinflammatory genes. Both IFN-alpha and IFN-beta inhibited the replication of the pandemic (H1N1) virus. The potential of IFN-lambda3 to inhibit the viral replication was lower than that of type I IFNs. However, the pandemic virus was more sensitive to the antiviral IFN-lambda3 than the seasonal A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) virus. The present study demonstrates that the novel pandemic (H1N1) influenza A virus can readily replicate in human primary DCs and macrophages and efficiently avoid the activation of innate antiviral responses. It is, however, highly sensitive to the antiviral actions of IFNs, which may provide us an additional means to treat severe cases of infection especially if a significant drug resistance will emerge.

Osterlund, Pamela; Pirhonen, Jaana

2010-01-01

87

Modelling the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination on the risk of pandemic influenza infection  

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Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that vaccination with seasonal influenza vaccine resulted in an apparent higher risk of infection with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009. A simple mathematical model incorporating strain competition and a hypothesised temporary strain-transcending immunity is constructed to investigate this observation. The model assumes that seasonal vaccine has no effect on the risk of infection with pandemic influenza. Results Resu...

Barry Steven I; Mercer Geoffry N; Kelly Heath

2011-01-01

88

New class of monoclonal antibodies against severe influenza: Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in ferrets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The urgent medical need for innovative approaches to control influenza is emphasized by the widespread resistance of circulating subtype H1N1 viruses to the leading antiviral drug oseltamivir, the pandemic threat posed by the occurrences of human infections with highly pathogenic avian H5N1 viruses, and indeed the evolving swine-origin H1N1 influenza pandemic. A recently discovered class of human monoclonal antibodies with the ability to neutralize a broad spectrum of influenza vi...

Friesen, R. H. E.; Koudstaal, W.; Koldijk, M. H.; Weverling, G. J.; Brakenhoff, J. P.; Lenting, P. J.; Stittelaar, K. J.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kompier, R.; Goudsmit, J.

2010-01-01

89

Contribución del Laboratorio Nacional de Influenza al enfrentamiento de la influenza pandémica 2009 en Cuba Contribution of the National Influenza Laboratory to confront the 2009 pandemic influenza in Cuba  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones respiratorias agudas son consideradas la causa más importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en todo el mundo. Estas infecciones adquieren mayor significación asociadas a eventos epidémicos y pandémicos ocasionados por los virus influenza. La necesidad de una vigilancia mundial para los virus influenza fue reconocida en 1947 y condujo a la creación de la Red Global de Vigilancia de los virus influenza por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El Centro Nacional de Influenza de Cuba pertenece a esta red desde 1975. En el mes de abril de 2009 fue reconocido un nuevo virus influenza A (H1N1 de origen porcino que circulaban en humanos, identificado como el agente causal de la primera pandemia del siglo xxi por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. OBJETIVO: llevar a cabo la vigilancia nacional del nuevo virus pandémico. MÉTODOS: el Centro Nacional de Influenza de Cuba desarrolló y organizó un diagrama de diagnóstico para la confirmación en casos sospechosos de infección por este virus. Se emplearon diferentes ensayos de trancripción reversa-reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para el tipado y subtipado de los virus influenza A. RESULTADOS: entre abril y diciembre de 2009, un total de 6 900 muestras clínicas respiratorias fueron procesadas mediante el diagrama diagnóstico nacional y 980 casos fueron confirmados y notificados a las autoridades nacionales de salud y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Los rinovirus humanos resultaron otro de los agentes etiológicos de infecciones respiratorias agudas detectados con frecuencia. CONCLUSIÓN: mediante la estrategia nacional de vigilancia de laboratorio fue posible llevar a cabo un monitoreo efectivo de la circulación de los virus influenza y otros virus respiratorios para alertar a las autoridades nacionales de salud, con vistas a enfrentar la influenza pandémica 2009.INTRODUCTION: acute respiratory infections are considered the most important causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. These infections became more significant when associated to epidemics and pandemic events caused by influenza virus. The need for global surveillance of influenza viruses was recognized as early as 1947 and led to the establishment of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN. The Cuban National Influenza Centre (NIC belongs to this network since 1975. On April 2009, the recognition of a new influenza A (H1N1 of swine origin circulating in humans was identified as the causative agent of the first pandemic in the 21st century declared by the WHO. OBJECTIVE: to carry out surveillance of the new pandemic virus nationwide. METHODS: the Cuban National Influenza Center developed a diagnostic diagram to confirm infection with the pandemic virus in suspected cases. Different PCR assays for typing and subtyping of influenza A virus were used. RESULTS: from April to December 2009, 6 900 clinical respiratory samples were processed by using this diagram, 980 cases were confirmed and notified to the national health authorities and to the Pan American Health Organization. Human rhinoviruses were other important etiologic agents of the frequently detected acute respiratory infections. CONCLUSION: with the national strategy for surveillance at lab, it was possible to effectively monitor the circulation of the influenza viruses and of other respiratory viruses in our country and to alert the national health authorities, with a view to facing up to the pandemic influenza (2009

Belsy Acosta Herrera

2011-04-01

90

Contribución del Laboratorio Nacional de Influenza al enfrentamiento de la influenza pandémica 2009 en Cuba / Contribution of the National Influenza Laboratory to confront the 2009 pandemic influenza in Cuba  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones respiratorias agudas son consideradas la causa más importante de morbilidad y mortalidad en todo el mundo. Estas infecciones adquieren mayor significación asociadas a eventos epidémicos y pandémicos ocasionados por los virus influenza. La necesidad de una vigilancia mun [...] dial para los virus influenza fue reconocida en 1947 y condujo a la creación de la Red Global de Vigilancia de los virus influenza por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El Centro Nacional de Influenza de Cuba pertenece a esta red desde 1975. En el mes de abril de 2009 fue reconocido un nuevo virus influenza A (H1N1) de origen porcino que circulaban en humanos, identificado como el agente causal de la primera pandemia del siglo xxi por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. OBJETIVO: llevar a cabo la vigilancia nacional del nuevo virus pandémico. MÉTODOS: el Centro Nacional de Influenza de Cuba desarrolló y organizó un diagrama de diagnóstico para la confirmación en casos sospechosos de infección por este virus. Se emplearon diferentes ensayos de trancripción reversa-reacción en cadena de la polimerasa para el tipado y subtipado de los virus influenza A. RESULTADOS: entre abril y diciembre de 2009, un total de 6 900 muestras clínicas respiratorias fueron procesadas mediante el diagrama diagnóstico nacional y 980 casos fueron confirmados y notificados a las autoridades nacionales de salud y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Los rinovirus humanos resultaron otro de los agentes etiológicos de infecciones respiratorias agudas detectados con frecuencia. CONCLUSIÓN: mediante la estrategia nacional de vigilancia de laboratorio fue posible llevar a cabo un monitoreo efectivo de la circulación de los virus influenza y otros virus respiratorios para alertar a las autoridades nacionales de salud, con vistas a enfrentar la influenza pandémica 2009. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: acute respiratory infections are considered the most important causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. These infections became more significant when associated to epidemics and pandemic events caused by influenza virus. The need for global surveillance of influenza viruses [...] was recognized as early as 1947 and led to the establishment of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN). The Cuban National Influenza Centre (NIC) belongs to this network since 1975. On April 2009, the recognition of a new influenza A (H1N1) of swine origin circulating in humans was identified as the causative agent of the first pandemic in the 21st century declared by the WHO. OBJECTIVE: to carry out surveillance of the new pandemic virus nationwide. METHODS: the Cuban National Influenza Center developed a diagnostic diagram to confirm infection with the pandemic virus in suspected cases. Different PCR assays for typing and subtyping of influenza A virus were used. RESULTS: from April to December 2009, 6 900 clinical respiratory samples were processed by using this diagram, 980 cases were confirmed and notified to the national health authorities and to the Pan American Health Organization. Human rhinoviruses were other important etiologic agents of the frequently detected acute respiratory infections. CONCLUSION: with the national strategy for surveillance at lab, it was possible to effectively monitor the circulation of the influenza viruses and of other respiratory viruses in our country and to alert the national health authorities, with a view to facing up to the pandemic influenza (2009)

Belsy, Acosta Herrera; Alexander, Piñón Ramos; Odalys, Valdés Ramírez; Clara, Savón Valdés; María Guadalupe, Guzmán Tirado; Alina, Llop Hernández; Amely, Arencibia García; Elias, Guilarte García; Grehete, González Muñoz; Guelsys, González Báez; Suset, Oropesa Fernández; Bárbara, Hernández Espinosa; Ángel, Goyenechea Hernández; Vivian, Kourí Cardellá; Luis, Morier Díaz; María Josefa, Llanes Cordero; Nilvia, Herrada Rodríguez.

2011-04-01

91

Science into policy: preparing for pandemic influenza  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Authoratative government pandemic preparedness requires an evidence-based approach. The scientific advisory process that has informed the current UK pandemic preparedness plans is described. The final endorsed scientific papers are now publicly available.

Harper, D. R.; Davies, L. M.; Gadd, E. M.; Costigan, S. C.

2008-01-01

92

An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt  

CERN Document Server

Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and patterns of agents' interactions. Analysis of modeling results leads to understanding the characteristics of the modeled pandemic, transmission patterns, and the conditions under which an outbreak might occur. In addition, the proposed model is used to measure the effectiveness of different control strategies to intervene the pandemic spread.

Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

2010-01-01

93

Schizophrenia and 1957 Pandemic of Influenza: Meta-analysis  

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Maternal influenza during pregnancy is a controversial risk factor for schizophrenia in the child. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine whether birth during the 9-month period after the pandemic of 1957 was a risk factor for schizophrenia. Studies that compared the risk of schizophrenia among subjects born after the pandemic with that among those born in corresponding time periods in surrounding years were divided into those conducted in the United States, Europe, or Australia (type A stud...

Selten, Jean-paul; Frissen, Aleida; Lensvelt-mulders, Gerty; Morgan, Vera A.

2009-01-01

94

High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could be helpful for differential diagnosis between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus.

Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ijlee2003@medimail.co.kr; Im, Hyoung June [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-15

95

High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0ular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could be helpful for differential diagnosis between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus

96

Low adherence to influenza vaccination campaigns: is the H1N1 virus pandemic to be blamed?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last few months, debates about the handling of the influenza virus A (H1N1 pandemic took place, in particular regarding the change of the WHO pandemic definition, economic interests, the dramatic communication style of mass media. The activation of plans to reduce the virus diffusion resulted in an important investment of resources. Were those investments proportionate to the risk? Was the pandemic overrated? The workload of the Pediatric Emergency Room (P.E.R. at a teaching hospital in Varese (Northern Italy was investigated in order to evaluate the local diffusion and severity of the new H1N1 influenza epidemic. Discussion A 100% increase of the number of P.E.R. visits, particularly for influenza-like illness, was recorded during weeks 42-46 of 2009 (October, 17 to November, 2; the low rate of hospitalization and the mild presentation of the infection gave rise to the conclusion that the pandemic risk was overrated. Mass media communications concerning the new virus created a disproportionate fear in the population that significantly enhanced the burden of cares at the hospital. In the absence of generally implemented measures for etiological diagnosis, the actual incidence of the H1N1 infection could not be estimated. Virus identification, in fact, was limited to children showing severe symptoms after consultancy with an infectious disease specialist. The alarming nature of the communication campaign and the choice to limit etiologic diagnosis to severe cases created a climate of uncertainty which significantly contributed to the massive admissions to the P.E.R.. Summary The communication strategy adopted by the mass media was an important element during the pandemic: the absence of clarity contributed to the spread of a pandemic phobia that appeared to result more from the sensationalism of the campaign than from infection with the novel influenza A variant of human, avian, swine origin virus. One relevant effect of the media coverage was the extremely low adherence rate to the vaccination campaign for the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, especially among the high- risk population and health care workers. One positive consequence was, however, the spread of preventive hygiene measures, such as hand washing.

Trivellin Valeria

2011-11-01

97

Pandemic influenza virus surveillance, Izu-Oshima Island, Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

A population-based influenza surveillance study (using PCR virus subtyping) on Izu-Oshima Island, Japan, found that the cumulative incidence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections 2 seasons after the pandemic was highest for those 10-14 years of age (43.1%). No postpandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 case-patients had been infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus during the pandemic season. PMID:23092603

Inamasu, Tomoko; Sudo, Kouji; Kato, Shingo; Deguchi, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Manabu; Shimizu, Tadanori; Maeda, Tadami; Fujimoto, Shuhei; Takebayashi, Toru; Saito, Tomoya

2012-11-01

98

A neighborhood susceptibility index for planning of local physical interventions in response to pandemic influenza outbreaks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global spread of a novel A (H1N1) influenza virus in 2009 has highlighted the possibility of a devastating pandemic similar to the ‘Spanish flu’ of 1917–1918. Responding to such pandemics requires careful planning for the early phases where there is no availability of pandemic vaccine. We set out to compute a Neighborhood Influenza Susceptibility Index (NISI) describing the vulnerability of local communities of different geo-socio-physical structure to a pandemic influenza outbreak....

Timpka, Toomas; Eriksson, Henrik; Stro?mgren, Magnus; Eriksson, Olle; Ekberg, Joakim; Grimvall, Anders; Nyce, James; Gursky, Elin; Holm, Einar

2010-01-01

99

Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza  

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Abstract Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance) for influenza-like illness (ILI) in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based ...

Robertson Chris; Ferguson Neil M; Savill Nicholas J; Singh Brajendra K; Ej, Woolhouse Mark

2010-01-01

100

Multiple Control Strategies for Prevention of Avian Influenza Pandemic  

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We present the prevention of avian influenza pandemic by adjusting multiple control functions in the human-to-human transmittable avian influenza model. First we show the existence of the optimal control problem; then by using both analytical and numerical techniques, we investigate the cost-effective control effects for the prevention of transmission of disease. To do this, we use three control functions, the effort to reduce the number of contacts with human infected with mutant avian in...

Roman Ullah; Gul Zaman; Saeed Islam

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Experimental vaccines against potentially pandemic and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Influenza A viruses continue to emerge and re-emerge, causing outbreaks, epidemics and occasionally pandemics. While the influenza vaccines licensed for public use are generally effective against seasonal influenza, issues arise with production, immunogenicity, and efficacy in the case of vaccines against pandemic and emerging influenza viruses, and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in particular. Thus, there is need of improved influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies. This review...

Mooney, Alaina J.; Tompkins, S. Mark

2013-01-01

102

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

HCTT-CHE

2011-04-14

103

Barriers to pandemic influenza vaccination and uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine in the post-pandemic season in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In Germany, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for certain target groups (e.g. persons aged ?60 years, chronically ill persons, healthcare workers (HCW)). In season 2009/10, vaccination against pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, which was controversially discussed in the public, was recommended for the whole population. The objectives of this study were to assess vaccination coverage for seasonal (seasons 2008/09-2010/11) and pand...

Böhmer Merle M; Walter Dietmar; Falkenhorst Gerhard; Müters Stephan; Krause Gérard; Wichmann Ole

2012-01-01

104

Integrative study of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza infections: design and methods of the CoPanFlu-France cohort  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of influenza infection depends on biological characteristics, individual or collective behaviors and the environmental context. The Cohorts for Pandemic Influenza (CoPanFlu France study was set up in 2009 after the identification of the novel swine-origin A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. This cohort of 601 households (1450 subjects representative for the general population aims at using an integrative approach to study the risk and characteristics of influenza infection as a complex combination of data collected from questionnaires regarding sociodemographic, medical, behavioral characteristics of subjects and indoor environment, using biological samples or environmental databases. Methods/Design Households were included between December 2009 and July 2010. The design of this study relies on systematic follow-up visits between influenza seasons and additional visits during influenza seasons, when an influenza-like illness is detected in a household via an active surveillance system. During systematic visits, a nurse collects individual and environmental data on questionnaires and obtains blood samples from all members of the household. When an influenza-like-illness is detected, a nurse visits the household three times during the 12 following days, and collects data on questionnaires regarding exposure and symptoms, and biological samples (including nasal swabs from all subjects in the household. The end of the follow-up period is expected in fall 2012. Discussion The large amount of data collected throughout the follow-up will permit a multidisciplinary study of influenza infections. Additional data is being collected and analyzed in this ongoing cohort. The longitudinal analysis of these households will permit integrative analyses of complex phenomena such as individual, collective and environmental risk factors of infection, routes of transmission, or determinants of the immune response to infection or vaccination.

Lapidus Nathanael

2012-06-01

105

A novel strategy for exploring the reassortment origins of newly emerging influenza virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In early 2009, new swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus emerged in Mexico and the United States. The emerging influenza virus had made global influenza pandemic for nearly one year. To every emerging pathogen, exploring the origin sources is vital for viral control and clearance. Influenza virus is different from other virus in that it has 8 segments, making the segment reassortment a main drive in virus evolution. In exploring reassortment evolution origins of a newly emerging infl...

Tian, Deqiao; Wang, Yumin; Zheng, Tao

2011-01-01

106

Genetic diversity among pandemic 2009 influenza viruses isolated from a transmission chain  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Influenza viruses such as swine-origin influenza A(H1N1) virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) generate genetic diversity due to the high error rate of their RNA polymerase, often resulting in mixed genotype populations (intra-host variants) within a single infection. This variation helps influenza to rapidly respond to selection pressures, such as those imposed by the immunological host response and antiviral therapy. We have applied deep sequencing to characterize influenza intra-host variation in a transmission chain consisting of three cases due to oseltamivir-sensitive viruses, and one derived oseltamivir-resistant case.

Fordyce, Sarah L; Bragstad, Karoline

2013-01-01

107

Pandemic Influenza H1N1 2009, Innate Immunity, and the Impact of Immunosenescence on Influenza Vaccine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seasonal and pandemic strains of influenza have widespread implications for the global economy and global health. This has been highlighted recently as the epidemiologic characteristics for hospitalization and mortality for pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 are now emerging. While treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors are effective for seasonal and pandemic influenza, prevention of morbidity and mortality through effective vaccines requires a rigorous process of research and development. Vulnera...

Joshi, Samit R.; Shaw, Albert C.; Quagliarello, Vincent J.

2009-01-01

108

Clinical outcomes of seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in pediatric inpatients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In April 2009, a novel influenza A H1N1 (nH1N1) virus emerged and spread rapidly worldwide. News of the pandemic led to a heightened awareness of the consequences of influenza and generally resulted in enhanced infection control practices and strengthened vaccination efforts for both healthcare workers and the general population. Seasonal influenza (SI) illness in the pediatric population has been previously shown to result in significant morbidity, mortal...

Budd Alicia; Valsamakis Alexandra; Cosgrove Sara E; Milstone Aaron M; Turnbull Alison E; Tamma Pranita D; Perl Trish M

2010-01-01

109

Effectiveness of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine against Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Australia, 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To estimate effectiveness of seasonal trivalent and monovalent influenza vaccines against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus, we conducted a test-negative case–control study in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. Patients seen for influenza-like illness by general practitioners in a sentinel surveillance network during 2010 were tested for influenza; vaccination status was recorded. Case-patients had positive PCRs for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, and controls had negative influenza test result...

Fielding, James E.; Grant, Kristina A.; Garcia, Katherine; Kelly, Heath A.

2011-01-01

110

Isolation and complete genomic characterization of H1N1 subtype swine influenza viruses in southern China through the 2009 pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The swine influenza (SI is an infectious disease of swine and human. The novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 that emerged from April 2009 in Mexico spread rapidly and caused a human pandemic globally. To determine whether the tremendous virus had existed in or transmitted to pigs in southern China, eight H1N1 influenza strains were identified from pigs of Guangdong province during 2008-2009. Results Based on the homology and phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences of each gene segments, the isolates were confirmed to belong to the classical SI group, with HA, NP and NS most similar to 2009 human-like H1N1 influenza virus lineages. All of the eight strains were low pathogenic influenza viruses, had the same host range, and not sensitive to class of antiviral drugs. Conclusions This study provides the evidence that there is no 2009 H1N1-like virus emerged in southern China, but the importance of swine influenza virus surveillance in China should be given a high priority.

Xue Chunyi

2011-03-01

111

Preparing for pandemic influenza: the need for enhanced surveillance.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the US, planning for the next influenza pandemic is occurring in parallel at the national, state and local levels. Certain issues, such as conducting surveillance and purchasing pandemic vaccine, require co-ordination at the national level. However, most prevention and control actions will be implemented at the state and local levels, which vary widely in terms of population demographics, culture (e.g. rural versus urban) and available resources. In 1995, a survey by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) found that only 29 (59%) states perceived a need to develop a specific influenza pandemic plan for their jurisdiction. Since then, the process of developing state and local plans has gained considerable momentum. Integration of these efforts with the national planning process has been facilitated by: (1) the mutual involvement of state and federal staff in both processes; (2) the sharing of draft documents; (3) the ongoing occurrence of local and national co-ordinating meetings; (4) the provision of financial resources by the federal government. So far, approximately 12 states either have drafted or begun drafting a state and local influenza pandemic plan. One of the benefits of the collaborative planning process has been the development of new working relationships and partnerships among several agencies at the state, local and national levels. Such efforts will improve our collective ability to rapidly investigate and control other emerging or re-emerging public health threats in the 21st century, be it a bioterrorist event, pandemic influenza, or any other catastrophic health event. PMID:12110262

Gensheimer, Kathleen F; Fukuda, Keiji; Brammer, Lynette; Cox, Nancy; Patriarca, Peter A; Strikes, Raymond A

2002-05-15

112

Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza causes substantial illness and loss of work days among young adults, and outbreaks can affect the preparedness of military units. In an influenza pandemic, people who live in confined settings have greater risk of infection. Military trainees are at particularly high risk. Because of likely unavailability of vaccines and antiviral drugs at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter, nonpharmaceutical interventions may be very important. During a pandemic, it seems prudent that military public health officials employ at least several nonpharmaceutical interventions. For example frequent handwashing and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be strongly encouraged among soldiers. Head-to-toe sleeping, a ?no-cost? intervention should be for crowded berthing areas. Isolation of patients with influenza and quarantine of their close contacts should be employed. Masks and alcohol-based hand rubs may be employed among those at highest risk. Finally, whenever possible military planners should, reduce crowding and limit the interaction of training cohorts to reduce risk of influenza virus transmission. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 285-290

Selim Kilic

2007-08-01

113

Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza causes substantial illness and loss of work days among young adults, and outbreaks can affect the preparedness of military units. In an influenza pandemic, people who live in confined settings have greater risk of infection. Military trainees are at particularly high risk. Because of likely unavailability of vaccines and antiviral drugs at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter, nonpharmaceutical interventions may be very important. During a pandemic, it seems prudent that military public health officials employ at least several nonpharmaceutical interventions. For example frequent handwashing and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be strongly encouraged among soldiers. Head-to-toe sleeping, a ?no-cost? intervention should be for crowded berthing areas. Isolation of patients with influenza and quarantine of their close contacts should be employed. Masks and alcohol-based hand rubs may be employed among those at highest risk. Finally, whenever possible military planners should, reduce crowding and limit the interaction of training cohorts to reduce risk of influenza virus transmission. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 285-290

Selim Kilic

2007-08-01

114

Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines for pandemic influenza: Performance of a VLP vaccine during the 2009 influenza pandemic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influenza pandemic of 2009 demonstrated the inability of the established global capacity for egg-based vaccine production technology to provide sufficient vaccine for the population in a timely fashion. Several alternative technologies for developing influenza vaccines have been proposed, among which non-replicating virus-like particles (VLPs) represent an attractive option because of their safety and immunogenic characteristics. VLP vaccines against pandemic influenza have been developed...

Lo?pez-maci?as, Constantino

2012-01-01

115

INFLUENZA A H1N1 DE ORIGEN PORCINO: Métodos diagnósticos / Influenza A H1N1 swine origin: diagnostic methods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El diagnóstico de la infección por virus influenza reposa sobre técnicas virológicas directas e indirectas. Las diferentes pruebas diagnósticas poseen niveles de sensibilidad y especificidad variables que dependen en gran parte de las características genéticas y antigénicas del virus circulante. En [...] el caso de la aparición de una nueva variante viral las pruebas disponibles en el mercado deben ser validadas para comprobar su eficiencia de detección para el nuevo virus. En caso de baja sensibilidad y especificidad, las pruebas deben ajustarse con el fin de mejorar su poder de detección del nuevo agente. Existen múltiples pruebas diagnósticas que presentan cada una sus ventajas y limitaciones y su selección dependerá de las condiciones específicas de cada laboratorio diagnóstico. Abstract in english The diagnosis of infection by influenza viruses relays on direct and indirect virologic techniques. Different diagnostic tests have variable sensitivities and specificities depending to a large extent on the genetic and antigenic features of the circulating virus. When a new viral variant appears, c [...] ommercially available tests must be validated in order to verify their performance at detecting the new virus. If a low sensitivity or specificity is found, tests must be adjusted in order to improve their detection power for the new agent. There are multiple diagnostic tests, each one with its own advantages and limitations; so the selection of a test will depend on the specific conditions of a particular diagnostic laboratory.

Manuel Antonio, Vargas-Córdoba.

2010-01-01

116

INFLUENZA A H1N1 DE ORIGEN PORCINO: Métodos diagnósticos Influenza A H1N1 swine origin: diagnostic methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El diagnóstico de la infección por virus influenza reposa sobre técnicas virológicas directas e indirectas. Las diferentes pruebas diagnósticas poseen niveles de sensibilidad y especificidad variables que dependen en gran parte de las características genéticas y antigénicas del virus circulante. En el caso de la aparición de una nueva variante viral las pruebas disponibles en el mercado deben ser validadas para comprobar su eficiencia de detección para el nuevo virus. En caso de baja sensibilidad y especificidad, las pruebas deben ajustarse con el fin de mejorar su poder de detección del nuevo agente. Existen múltiples pruebas diagnósticas que presentan cada una sus ventajas y limitaciones y su selección dependerá de las condiciones específicas de cada laboratorio diagnóstico.The diagnosis of infection by influenza viruses relays on direct and indirect virologic techniques. Different diagnostic tests have variable sensitivities and specificities depending to a large extent on the genetic and antigenic features of the circulating virus. When a new viral variant appears, commercially available tests must be validated in order to verify their performance at detecting the new virus. If a low sensitivity or specificity is found, tests must be adjusted in order to improve their detection power for the new agent. There are multiple diagnostic tests, each one with its own advantages and limitations; so the selection of a test will depend on the specific conditions of a particular diagnostic laboratory.

Manuel Antonio Vargas-Córdoba

2010-01-01

117

Phylogenetic analysis of H1N1 sequences from pandemic infections during 2009 in India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since April 2009, a serious pandemic infection has been rapidly spread across the world. These infections are caused due to the novel swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus and hence these are commonly called as “Swine Flu”. This new virus is the reassortment of avian, human and swine influenza viruses and thus it has a unique genome composition. There are 16 different types of hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 different types of neuraminidase (NA) that can be genetically and antigeneti...

Flavia, Guntupally Balaswamy Arti; Natarajaseenivasan, Kalimuthusamy

2011-01-01

118

New Approaches to Confronting an Imminent Influenza Pandemic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scientists and health officials are concerned that an H5N1 influenza pandemic could be both imminent and catastrophic. Managing it will be difficult. Supplies of antiviral agents will be limited and expensive. Clinical development of adjuvant-combined, antigen-sparing, inactivated vaccines has been slow; the vaccines will take several months to produce and the global capacity to produce them will remain limited for several years. People who live in countries without vaccine companies — more...

Fedson, David S.; Dunnill, Peter

2007-01-01

119

Creating an Online “Promising Practices” Clearinghouse for Pandemic Influenza  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article describes efforts to create, share, and sustain an online clearinghouse of expert-reviewed “promising practices” in pandemic influenza preparedness from September 2006 to December 2008. This project involved six activities: (1) determining focus areas, (2) defining a promising practice, (3) collecting practices, (4) establishing an expert-review process for accepting practices, (5) disseminating the practices, and (6) evaluating the project. By December 31, 2008, materials an...

Lafrance, Amy Becker; Vestin, Natalie; Moore, Kristine; Collison, Elaine; Mcclure, Elizabeth; Deboer, Jill

2010-01-01

120

Antiviral Prophylaxis and Isolation for the Control of Pandemic Influenza  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Before effective vaccines become available, antiviral drugs are considered as the major control strategies for a pandemic influenza. However, perhaps such control strategies can be severely hindered by the low-efficacy of antiviral drugs. For this reason, using antiviral drugs and an isolation strategy is included in our study. A compartmental model that allows for imported exposed individuals and asymptomatic cases is used to evaluate the effectiveness of control strategies via antiviral pro...

Qingxia Zhang; Dingcheng Wang

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Pediatric Healthcare Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Stakeholder Meeting - Summary of Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the meeting was to bring together subject matter experts to develop tools and resources for use by the pediatric healthcare community in response to 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza activity during the 2009 influenza season.

HCTT CHE

2010-01-01

122

Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based on the weekly case ratio (WCR of reported ILI cases to generate an alarm for pandemic influenza. From the seasonal influenza data from 13 Scottish health boards, we estimate the joint probability distribution of the country-level WCR and the number of health boards showing synchronous increases in reported influenza cases over the previous week. Pandemic cases are sampled with various case reporting rates from simulated pandemic influenza infections and overlaid with seasonal SERVIS data from 2001 to 2007. Using this combined time series we test our method for speed of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Also, the 2008-09 SERVIS ILI cases are used for testing detection performances of the three methods with a real pandemic data. Results We compare our method, based on our simulation study, to the moving-average Cumulative Sums (Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods and find it to be more sensitive and rapid. For 1% case reporting and detection specificity of 95%, our method is 100% sensitive and has median detection time (MDT of 4 weeks while the Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods are, respectively, 97% and 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. At 99% specificity, our method remains 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. Although the threshold method maintains its sensitivity of 100% with MDT of 5 weeks, sensitivity of Mov-Avg Cusum declines to 92% with increased MDT of 6 weeks. For a two-fold decrease in the case reporting rate (0.5% and 99% specificity, the WCR and threshold methods, respectively, have MDT of 5 and 6 weeks with both having sensitivity close to 100% while the Mov-Avg Cusum method can only manage sensitivity of 77% with MDT of 6 weeks. However, the WCR and Mov-Avg Cusum methods outperform the ILI threshold method by 1 week in retrospective detection of the 2009 pandemic in Scotland. Conclusions While computationally and statistically simple to implement, the WCR algorithm is capable of raising alarms, rapidly and sensitively, for influenza pandemics against a background of seasonal influenza. Although the algorithm was developed using the SERVIS data, it has the capacity to be used at other geographic scales and for different disease systems where buying some early extra time is critical.

Robertson Chris

2010-11-01

123

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

2011-04-14

124

Comparison of characteristics of outpatients with 2009 H1N1 pandemic and seasonal influenza  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The latest influenza pandemic intensified the interest in this infection. Objective We aimed to compare the characteristics of outpatients with seasonal and pandemic influenza. Methods We retrospectively reviewed data regarding outpatients that sought medical advice from a network of physicians performing house-call visits at the area of Attica, Greece, that underwent a direct influenza test during the period of seasonal influenza (1/1/2009-1/5/2009), and ...

Theocharis, George; Vouloumanou, Evridiki; Barbas, Spyridon; Spiropoulos, Theodore; Rafailidis, Petros; Falagas, Matthew E.

2011-01-01

125

The association of seasonal influenza vaccination with pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2010 Skowronski and colleagues reported that seasonal influenza vaccine appeared to increase the risk of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 (pH1N1) infection during the first pandemic wave in Canada [1]. They suggested a number of possible explanations for their unexpected finding: firstly, that the results were an artefact of selection bias or confounding; secondly, that the results were due to partial mediation through a biological mechanism; and thirdly, that the results were due to a direct ...

Kelly, H.; Mercer, G.; Cowling, Bj

2012-01-01

126

The ENSO-pandemic influenza connection: coincident or causal?  

Science.gov (United States)

The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a coupled ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific, which affects weather conditions, including temperatures, precipitation, winds and storm activity, across the planet. ENSO has two extreme phases marked by either warmer (El Niño) or cooler (La Niña) than average sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific. We find that the 4 most recent human influenza pandemics (1918, 1957, 1968, 2009), all of which were first identified in boreal spring or summer, were preceded by La Niña conditions in the equatorial Pacific. Changes in ENSO have been shown to alter the migration, stopover time, fitness and interspecies mixing of migratory birds, and consequently likely affect their mixing with domestic animals. We hypothesize that La Niña conditions bring divergent influenza subtypes together in some parts of the world and favor the reassortment of influenza through simultaneous multiple infection of individual hosts and the generation of novel pandemic strains. We propose approaches to test this hypothesis using influenza population genetics, virus prevalence in various host species, and avian migration patterns.

Shaman, J. L.; Lipsitch, M.

2011-12-01

127

Cases of Swine Influenza in Humans: A Review of the Literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As the threat of a pandemic looms, improvement in our understanding of interspecies transmission of influenza is necessary. Using the search terms “swine,” “influenza,” and “human,” we searched the PubMed database in April 2006 to identify publications describing symptomatic infections of humans with influenza viruses of swine origin. From these reports, we extracted data regarding demographic characteristics, epidemiological investigations, and laboratory results. We found 50 cas...

Myers, Kendall P.; Olsen, Christopher W.; Gray, Gregory C.

2007-01-01

128

Spatial Dynamics of Human-Origin H1 Influenza A Virus in North American Swine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emergence and rapid global spread of the swine-origin H1N1/09 pandemic influenza A virus in humans underscores the importance of swine populations as reservoirs for genetically diverse influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. However, despite their significance for animal and human health, relatively little is known about the phylogeography of swine influenza viruses in the United States. This study utilizes an expansive data set of hemagglutinin (HA1) sequences (n?=?151...

Nelson, Martha I.; Lemey, Philippe; Tan, Yi; Vincent, Amy; Lam, Tommy Tsan-yuk; Detmer, Susan; Viboud, Ce?cile; Suchard, Marc A.; Rambaut, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C.; Gramer, Marie

2011-01-01

129

Circulating avian influenza viruses closely related to the 1918 virus have pandemic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild birds harbor a large gene pool of influenza A viruses that have the potential to cause influenza pandemics. Foreseeing and understanding this potential is important for effective surveillance. Our phylogenetic and geographic analyses revealed the global prevalence of avian influenza virus genes whose proteins differ only a few amino acids from the 1918 pandemic influenza virus, suggesting that 1918-like pandemic viruses may emerge in the future. To assess this risk, we generated and characterized a virus composed of avian influenza viral segments with high homology to the 1918 virus. This virus exhibited pathogenicity in mice and ferrets higher than that in an authentic avian influenza virus. Further, acquisition of seven amino acid substitutions in the viral polymerases and the hemagglutinin surface glycoprotein conferred respiratory droplet transmission to the 1918-like avian virus in ferrets, demonstrating that contemporary avian influenza viruses with 1918 virus-like proteins may have pandemic potential. PMID:24922572

Watanabe, Tokiko; Zhong, Gongxun; Russell, Colin A; Nakajima, Noriko; Hatta, Masato; Hanson, Anthony; McBride, Ryan; Burke, David F; Takahashi, Kenta; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tomita, Yuriko; Maher, Eileen A; Watanabe, Shinji; Imai, Masaki; Neumann, Gabriele; Hasegawa, Hideki; Paulson, James C; Smith, Derek J; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2014-06-11

130

Rapid Influenza Antigen Test for Diagnosis of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We compared the QuickVue Influenza test with PCR for diagnosing pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in 404 persons with influenza-like illness. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 66%, 84%, 84%, and 64%, respectively. Rapid test results should be interpreted cautiously when pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus is suspected.

Louie, Janice K.; Guevara, Hugo; Boston, Erica; Dahlke, Melissa; Nevarez, Maria; Kong, Tong; Schechter, Robert; Glaser, Carol A.; Schnurr, David P.

2010-01-01

131

Comparison of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and Seasonal Influenza Viral Loads, Singapore  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mean viral loads for patients with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were ?1 log10 times lower than those for patients with seasonal influenza within the first week after symptom onset. Neither pandemic nor seasonal influenza viral loads correlated with clinical severity of illness. No correlation was found between viral loads and concurrent illness.

Lee, Chun K.; Lee, Hong K.; Loh, Tze P.; Lai, Florence Y. L.; Tambyah, Paul A.; Chiu, Lily; Koay, Evelyn S. C.; Tang, Julian W.

2011-01-01

132

Characterizing transmission dynamics and severity of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza in Hong Kong  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?Background: The first influenza pandemic in the 21st century, the past 2009 influenza pandemic (pdmH1N1), was caused by a novel H1N1 influenza virus. The virus was first described in April 2009 and is now believed to emerge from re-assortment of bird, pig and human flu viruses. Although this pandemic was relatively mild compared to the past pandemics, better knowledge about its characteristics in transmission dynamics and severity is still of public health interest in order to better prepa...

Leung, Sze-man; ???.

2012-01-01

133

An H5N1 M2e-based multiple antigenic peptide vaccine confers heterosubtypic protection from lethal infection with pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A 2009 global influenza pandemic caused by a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus has posted an increasing threat of a potential pandemic by the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus, driving us to develop an influenza vaccine which confers cross-protection against both H5N1 and H1N1 viruses. Previously, we have shown that a tetra-branched multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) vaccine based on the extracellular domain of M2 protein (M2e) from...

Yu Hong; Guo Yan; Kou Zhihua; Ru Zhitao; Xiao Wenjun; Du Lanying; Sun Shihui; Zhao Guangyu; Jiang Shibo; Lone Yuchun; Zheng Bo-Jian; Zhou Yusen

2010-01-01

134

Mortality from the influenza pandemic of 1918–19 in Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influenza pandemic of 1918–19 was the single most lethal short-term epidemic of the twentieth century. For Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous country, the most widely used estimate of mortality from that pandemic is 1.5 million. We estimated mortality from the influenza pandemic in Java and Madura, home to the majority of Indonesia's population, using panel data methods and data from multiple quinquennial population counts and two decennial censuses. The new estimates suggest t...

Chandra, Siddharth

2013-01-01

135

Pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus in Swine, Cameroon, 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although swine origin A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus (hereafter “pH1N1”) has been detected in swine in 20 countries, there has been no published surveillance of the virus in African livestock. The objective of this study was to assess the circulation of influenza A viruses, including pH1N1 in swine in Cameroon, Central Africa. We collected 108 nasal swabs and 98 sera samples from domestic pigs randomly sampled at 11 herds in villages and farms in Cameroon. pH1N1 was isolated from two swine s...

Njabo, Kevin Y.; Fuller, Trevon L.; Chasar, Anthony; Pollinger, John P.; Cattoli, Giovanni; Terregino, Calogero; Monne, Isabella; Reynes, Jean-marc; Njouom, Richard; Smith, Thomas B.

2011-01-01

136

The first influenza pandemic of the 21st century  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus (formerly known as swine flu first appeared in Mexico and the United States in March and April 2009 and has swept the globe with unprecedented speed as a result of airline travel. On June 11, 2009, the World Health Organization raised its pandemic level to the highest level, Phase 6, indicating widespread community transmission on at least two continents. The 2009 H1N1 virus contains a unique combination of gene segments from human, swine and avian influenza A viruses. Children and young adults appear to be the most affected, perhaps reflecting protection in the elderly owing to exposure to H1N1 strains before 1957. Most clinical disease is relatively mild but complications leading to hospitalization, with the need for intensive care, can occur, especially in very young children, during pregnancy, in morbid obesity, and in those with underlying medical conditions such as chronic lung and cardiac diseases, diabetes, and immunosuppression. Bacterial co-infection has played a significant role in fatal cases. The case of fatality has been estimated at around 0.4%. Mathematical modeling suggests that the effect of novel influenza virus can be reduced by immunization, but the question remains: can we produce enough H1N1 vaccine to beat the pandemic?

Al Hajjar Sami

2010-01-01

137

CLINICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF H1N1 INFLUENZA TAQMAN REAL TIME PCR POSITIVE CASES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: A novel swine origin influenza virus (H1N1) is spreading worldwide and become the first pandemic of the 21st century. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. H1N1 critical illness mostly affects young patients and it is often fatal. Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical characteristic of H1N1 infection in a tertiary care ...

Sangita Revdiwala; Summaiya Mulla; Tanvi Panwala; Latika Shah; Arpita Shah

2012-01-01

138

Rol de la Nefrología en la pandemia por Influenza A (H1N1): Puesta al día / The role of nephrology in the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic update  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En junio de 2009, la OMS declaró la pandemia por virus de la influenza A de origen porcino (H1N1). Desde entonces, los nefrólogos fuimos afectados en varias de nuestras actividades. Disminuyó la asistencia al trabajo del personal de salud al cuidado de pacientes renales crónicos. Aparecieron nuevos [...] casos de fallo renal agudo asociados a la infección viral, la mayoría en adultos jóvenes, con alta tasa de mortalidad. Hubo contagios en pacientes trasplantados renales y se retrajo transitoriamente la procuración de órganos en la semanas de mayor contagio. Entidades científicas se movilizaron para consensuar protocolos de evaluación y tratamiento con el fin de disminuir el impacto de la pandemia en pacientes renales. Abstract in english In June 2009, WHO declared pandemic swine origin influenza A virus (H1N1). Since then, nephrologists were involved in several of our activities. Decreased work attendance of healthcare for chronic renal patients. Appeared new cases of acute renal failure associated with viral infection, mostly in yo [...] ung adults, with high mortality rate. There were infections in renal transplant patients and temporarily decreased the organs procurement in the weeks of further spread. Scientific institutions were mobilized to agree on protocols for assessment and treatment in order to lessen the impact of the pandemic in renal patients.

A., Vallejos.

139

Clinical outcomes of seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza A (H1N1 in pediatric inpatients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2009, a novel influenza A H1N1 (nH1N1 virus emerged and spread rapidly worldwide. News of the pandemic led to a heightened awareness of the consequences of influenza and generally resulted in enhanced infection control practices and strengthened vaccination efforts for both healthcare workers and the general population. Seasonal influenza (SI illness in the pediatric population has been previously shown to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and substantial hospital resource utilization. Although influenza pandemics have the possibility of resulting in considerable illness, we must not ignore the impact that we can experience annually with SI. Methods We compared the outcomes of pediatric patients ?18 years of age at a large urban hospital with laboratory confirmed influenza and an influenza-like illness (ILI during the 2009 pandemic and two prior influenza seasons. The primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS. All variables potentially associated with LOS based on univariable analysis, previous studies, or hypothesized relationships were included in the regression models to ensure adjustment for their effects. Results There were 133 pediatric cases of nH1N1 admitted during 2009 and 133 cases of SI admitted during the prior 2 influenza seasons (2007-8 and 2008-9. Thirty-six percent of children with SI and 18% of children with nH1N1 had no preexisting medical conditions (p = 0.14. Children admitted with SI had 1.73 times longer adjusted LOS than children admitted for nH1N1 (95% CI 1.35 - 2.13. There was a trend towards more children with SI requiring mechanical ventilation compared with nH1N1 (16 vs.7, p = 0.08. Conclusions This study strengthens the growing body of evidence demonstrating that SI results in significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Pandemic H1N1 received considerable attention with strong media messages urging people to undergo vaccination and encouraging improved infection control efforts. We believe that this attention should become an annual effort for SI. Strong unified messages from health care providers and the media encouraging influenza vaccination will likely prove very useful in averting some of the morbidity related to influenza for future epidemics.

Budd Alicia

2010-10-01

140

Statistical estimates of respiratory admissions attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza for Canada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background The number of admissions to hospital for which influenza is laboratory confirmed is considered to be a substantial underestimate of the true number of admissions due to an influenza infection. During the 2009 pandemic, testing for influenza in hospitalized patients was a priority, but the ascertainment rate remains uncertain.

Schanzer, Dena L.; Mcgeer, Allison; Morris, Kathleen

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine: An update  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The world witnessed a the first influenza pandemic in this century and fourth overall since first flu pandemic was reported during the World War I. The past experiences with influenza viruses and this pandemic of H1N1 place a consider-able strain on health services and resulted in serious illnesses and a large number of deaths. Develop-ing countries were declared more likely to be at risk from the pandemic effects, as they faced the dual problem of highly vulnerable populations and limited re...

Goel M; Khanna P; Mittal K

2011-01-01

142

Protective efficacy against pandemic influenza of seasonal influenza vaccination in children in Hong Kong: a randomized controlled trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination against 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) remains unclear. METHODS: One child aged 6-17 years in each of 796 households was randomized to receive 2009-2010 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or saline placebo between August 2009 and February 2010. Households were followed up with serology, symptom diaries, and collection of respiratory specimens during illnesses. The primary outcomes were influenza infection confirme...

Ng, S.; Ma, Esk; Fang, Vj; So, Hc; Wai, W.; Cheng, Cky; Wong, Jy; Cowling, Bj; Ip, Dkm; Chiu, Ss; Peiris, Jsm; Leung, Gm; Chan, Kh

2012-01-01

143

Diversity of Influenza Viruses in Swine and the Emergence of a Novel Human Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The novel H1N1 influenza virus that emerged in humans in Mexico in early 2009 and transmitted efficiently in the human population with global spread has been declared a pandemic strain. Here we review influenza infections in swine since 1918 and the introduction of different avian and human influenza virus genes into swine influenza viruses of North America and Eurasia. These introductions often result in viruses of increased fitness for pigs that occasionally transmit to humans. The novel vi...

Brockwell-staats, Christy; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard J.

2009-01-01

144

Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009 activity during summer 2009: Effectiveness of the 2008-9 trivalent vaccine against pandemic influenza in Spain Actividad de la gripe pandémica (H1N1) 2009 durante el verano de 2009: Efectividad de la vacuna trivalente 2008-9 frente a la gripe pandémica en España  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: The Spanish influenza surveillance system (SISS) maintained its activity during the summer of 2009 to monitor the influenza pandemic. Objectives: To describe pandemic influenza activity from May to September 2009 and to estimate the effectiveness of the 2008-9 seasonal influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza. Methods: Data from the SISS were used to identify the trend of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza outside the influenza season. For the ef...

Amparo Larrauri; Camelia Savulescu; Silvia Jiménez-Jorge; Pilar Pérez-Breña; Francisco Pozo; Inmaculada Casas; Juan Ledesma; Salvador de Mateo

2011-01-01

145

Influenza vaccination coverage against seasonal and pandemic influenza and their determinants in France: a cross-sectional survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Following the emergence of the influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus, the French ministry of health decided to offer free vaccination against pandemic influenza to the entire French population. Groups of people were defined and prioritised for vaccination. Methods We took a random sample of the population of mainland France and conducted a retrospective cross-sectional telephone survey to estimate vaccination coverage against seasonal and pandemic infl...

de Valk Henriette; Vaillant Véronique; Le Strat Yann; Guthmann Jean-Paul; Van Cauteren Dieter; Vaux Sophie; Lévy-Bruhl Daniel

2011-01-01

146

Experimental infection of pigs with the 1918 pandemic influenza resembles infection with the classical H1N1 swine influenza  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease entity during the 1918 pandemic (1). It was proposed, based on phylogenetic analysis, that the virus causing the disease in pigs was the same as the virus causing the pandemic (2). The aim of this work was to determine whether the 1918...

147

Pandemia de influenza: la respuesta de México / Influenza pandemic: Mexico's response  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En 1992 apareció en el sureste asiático un nuevo tipo de virus de la influenza, el cual ha ocasionado hasta la fecha más de 120 casos y un poco más de 60 defunciones en humanos en Camboya, Vietnam, Indonesia y Tailandia. Esta situación es considerada por los expertos como la probable génesis de una [...] nueva pandemia de influenza, lo que podría traer graves consecuencias para la salud de la población, así como para la economía y el comercio mundial. Por lo anterior, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha instado a los países miembros a desarrollar planes de preparación y respuesta para hacer frente a esta eventualidad. En el marco del Comité Nacional para la Seguridad en Salud, México ha diseñado el Plan Nacional de Preparación y Respuesta ante una Pandemia de Influenza con objeto de proteger a la población mediante acciones efectivas y oportunas. El Plan utiliza una escala de riesgo y define cinco líneas de acción: Coordinación, Vigilancia Epidemiológica, Atención Médica, Difusión y Movilización Social, y Reserva Estratégica. Si bien es imposible predecir cuándo se presentará la próxima pandemia y su impacto, es fundamental que las autoridades de salud nacionales, estatales y locales establezcan los mecanismos para poner en marcha los componentes del Plan en forma oportuna y garantizar con ello la salud de la población en caso de influenza pandémica. Abstract in english In 1992, a new type of influenza virus appeared in Southeast Asia. This new strain has caused to date, more than 120 cases and over 60 deaths in Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. This situation is seen by the experts as the possible genesis of a new influenza pandemic with the corresponding [...] negative effects on the health of the population, international commerce and world economy. In order to face the coming challenge, the World Health Organization (WHO) has asked member countries to develop national preparedness and response plans for an influenza pandemic. Within the framework of the National Committee for Health Security, Mexico has developed a National Preparedness and Response Plan for an Influenza Pandemic with the aim of protecting the health of the population with timely and effective measures. The Plan is based on a risk scale and five lines of action: Coordination, Epidemiological Surveillance, Medical Care, Risk Communication and Strategic Stockpile. It is currently impossible to predict when the next pandemic will start or what will be its impact. Nevertheless, it is fundamental that national and regional health authorities establish measures for protecting the health of the population in case this emergency occurs.

Pablo, Kuri-Morales; Miguel, Betancourt-Cravioto; Oscar, Velázquez-Monroy; Carlos, Alvarez-Lucas; Roberto, Tapia-Conyer.

2006-02-01

148

Pandemia de influenza: la respuesta de México / Influenza pandemic: Mexico's response  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En 1992 apareció en el sureste asiático un nuevo tipo de virus de la influenza, el cual ha ocasionado hasta la fecha más de 120 casos y un poco más de 60 defunciones en humanos en Camboya, Vietnam, Indonesia y Tailandia. Esta situación es considerada por los expertos como la probable génesis de una [...] nueva pandemia de influenza, lo que podría traer graves consecuencias para la salud de la población, así como para la economía y el comercio mundial. Por lo anterior, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha instado a los países miembros a desarrollar planes de preparación y respuesta para hacer frente a esta eventualidad. En el marco del Comité Nacional para la Seguridad en Salud, México ha diseñado el Plan Nacional de Preparación y Respuesta ante una Pandemia de Influenza con objeto de proteger a la población mediante acciones efectivas y oportunas. El Plan utiliza una escala de riesgo y define cinco líneas de acción: Coordinación, Vigilancia Epidemiológica, Atención Médica, Difusión y Movilización Social, y Reserva Estratégica. Si bien es imposible predecir cuándo se presentará la próxima pandemia y su impacto, es fundamental que las autoridades de salud nacionales, estatales y locales establezcan los mecanismos para poner en marcha los componentes del Plan en forma oportuna y garantizar con ello la salud de la población en caso de influenza pandémica. Abstract in english In 1992, a new type of influenza virus appeared in Southeast Asia. This new strain has caused to date, more than 120 cases and over 60 deaths in Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. This situation is seen by the experts as the possible genesis of a new influenza pandemic with the corresponding [...] negative effects on the health of the population, international commerce and world economy. In order to face the coming challenge, the World Health Organization (WHO) has asked member countries to develop national preparedness and response plans for an influenza pandemic. Within the framework of the National Committee for Health Security, Mexico has developed a National Preparedness and Response Plan for an Influenza Pandemic with the aim of protecting the health of the population with timely and effective measures. The Plan is based on a risk scale and five lines of action: Coordination, Epidemiological Surveillance, Medical Care, Risk Communication and Strategic Stockpile. It is currently impossible to predict when the next pandemic will start or what will be its impact. Nevertheless, it is fundamental that national and regional health authorities establish measures for protecting the health of the population in case this emergency occurs.

Pablo, Kuri-Morales; Miguel, Betancourt-Cravioto; Oscar, Velázquez-Monroy; Carlos, Alvarez-Lucas; Roberto, Tapia-Conyer.

2006-02-01

149

Pandemia de influenza: la respuesta de México Influenza pandemic: Mexico's response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En 1992 apareció en el sureste asiático un nuevo tipo de virus de la influenza, el cual ha ocasionado hasta la fecha más de 120 casos y un poco más de 60 defunciones en humanos en Camboya, Vietnam, Indonesia y Tailandia. Esta situación es considerada por los expertos como la probable génesis de una nueva pandemia de influenza, lo que podría traer graves consecuencias para la salud de la población, así como para la economía y el comercio mundial. Por lo anterior, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS ha instado a los países miembros a desarrollar planes de preparación y respuesta para hacer frente a esta eventualidad. En el marco del Comité Nacional para la Seguridad en Salud, México ha diseñado el Plan Nacional de Preparación y Respuesta ante una Pandemia de Influenza con objeto de proteger a la población mediante acciones efectivas y oportunas. El Plan utiliza una escala de riesgo y define cinco líneas de acción: Coordinación, Vigilancia Epidemiológica, Atención Médica, Difusión y Movilización Social, y Reserva Estratégica. Si bien es imposible predecir cuándo se presentará la próxima pandemia y su impacto, es fundamental que las autoridades de salud nacionales, estatales y locales establezcan los mecanismos para poner en marcha los componentes del Plan en forma oportuna y garantizar con ello la salud de la población en caso de influenza pandémica.In 1992, a new type of influenza virus appeared in Southeast Asia. This new strain has caused to date, more than 120 cases and over 60 deaths in Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. This situation is seen by the experts as the possible genesis of a new influenza pandemic with the corresponding negative effects on the health of the population, international commerce and world economy. In order to face the coming challenge, the World Health Organization (WHO has asked member countries to develop national preparedness and response plans for an influenza pandemic. Within the framework of the National Committee for Health Security, Mexico has developed a National Preparedness and Response Plan for an Influenza Pandemic with the aim of protecting the health of the population with timely and effective measures. The Plan is based on a risk scale and five lines of action: Coordination, Epidemiological Surveillance, Medical Care, Risk Communication and Strategic Stockpile. It is currently impossible to predict when the next pandemic will start or what will be its impact. Nevertheless, it is fundamental that national and regional health authorities establish measures for protecting the health of the population in case this emergency occurs.

Pablo Kuri-Morales

2006-02-01

150

Mortality from the influenza pandemic of 1918-19 in Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influenza pandemic of 1918-19 was the single most lethal short-term epidemic of the twentieth century. For Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous country, the most widely used estimate of mortality from that pandemic is 1.5 million. We estimated mortality from the influenza pandemic in Java and Madura, home to the majority of Indonesia's population, using panel data methods and data from multiple quinquennial population counts and two decennial censuses. The new estimates suggest that, for Java alone, population loss was in the range of 4.26-4.37 million, or more than twice the established estimate for mortality for all of Indonesia. We conclude that the standing estimates of mortality from influenza in Java and Indonesia need to be revised upward significantly. We also present new findings on geographic patterns of population loss across Java, and pre-pandemic and post-pandemic population growth rates. PMID:23339482

Chandra, Siddharth

2013-07-01

151

Comparative analysis of hemagglutinin of 2009 H1N1 influenza A pandemic indicates its evolution to 1918 H1N1 pandemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

To gain insight into the possible origin of the hemagglutinin of 2009 outbreak, we performed its comparative analysis with hemagglutinin of influenza viral strains from 2005 to 2008 and the past pandemics of 1977, 1968, 1957 and 1918. This insilico analysis showed a maximum sequence similarity between 2009 and 1918 pandemics. Primary structure analysis, antigenic and glycosylation site analyses revealed that this protein has evolved from 1918 pandemic. Phylogenetic analysis of HA amino acid sequence of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) viruses indicated that this virus possesses a distinctive evolutionary trait with 1918 influenza A virus. Although the disordered sequences are different among all the isolates, the disordered positions and sequences between 2009 and 1918 isolates show a greater similarity. Thus these analyses contribute to the evidence of the evolution of 2009 pandemic from 1918 influenza pandemic. This is the first computational evolutionary analysis of HA protein of 2009 H1N1 pandemic. PMID:22001408

Masoodi, Tariq Ahmad; Shaik, Noor Ahmad; Shafi, Gowhar; Munshi, Anjana; Ahamed, A Khaleel; Masoodi, Zahid A

2012-01-10

152

Simulation to assess the efficacy of US airport entry scrreening of passengers for pandemic influenza  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present our methodology and stochastic discrete-event simulation developed to model the screening of passengers for pandemic influenza at the US port-of-entry airports. Our model uniquely combines epidemiology modelling, evolving infected states and conditions of passengers over time, and operational considerations of screening in a single simulation. The simulation begins with international aircraft arrivals to the US. Passengers are then randomly assigned to one of three states -- not infected, infected with pandemic influenza and infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers then pass through various screening layers (i.e. pre-departure screening, en route screening, primary screening and secondary screening) and ultimately exit the system. We track the status of each passenger over time, with a special emphasis on false negatives (i.e. passengers infected with pandemic influenza, but are not identified as such) as these passengers pose a significant threat as they could unknowingly spread the pandemic influenza virus throughout our nation.

Mcmahon, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

153

Incorporating Research and Evaluation into Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Preparedness and Response  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Dr. Tom Shimabukuro, a medical officer at CDC, discusses Pandemic Influenza Vaccination Preparedness and Response.  Created: 3/27/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/27/2014.

2014-03-27

154

A Coordinated Approach to Communicating Pediatric-Related Information on Pandemic Influenza at the Community Level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to provide a suggested approach, based on input from pediatric stakeholders, to communicating pediatric-related information on pandemic influenza at the community level in a step-by-step manner.

HCTT CHE

2009-12-16

155

Factors associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination acceptance among university students from India during the post-pandemic phase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There was a low adherence to influenza A (H1N1) vaccination program among university students and health care workers during the pandemic influenza in many parts of the world. Vaccination of high risk individuals is one of the recommendations of World Health Organization during the post-pandemic period. It is not documented about the student's knowledge, attitude and willingness to accept H1N1 vaccination during the post-pandemic period. We aimed to analyz...

Thejaswini Venkatesh; Suresh Padmanaban S; Rajan Thangarasu

2011-01-01

156

Estrategia cubana de caracterización molecular del virus influenza A/H1N1pdm Cuban strategy for the molecular characterization of the pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: en Abril de 2009 se identificó una variante del virus influenza A/H1N1 de origen porcino, lo cual determinó que fuese declarada rápidamente la primera pandemia del siglo XXI. OBJETIVO: establecer una estrategia de secuenciación nucleotídica que permitiera diagnosticar diferencialmente los virus influenza A estacionales del nuevo virus pandémico, así como obtener la mayor cantidad de información posible desde el punto de vista molecular de los genes hemaglutinina y neuraminidasa, tanto de pacientes que sufrieron una enfermedad tipo influenza como los que padecieron de una infección respiratoria aguda grave y los que fallecieron. MÉTODOS: se diseñaron e implementaron tres estrategias de secuenciación que brindaron información importante acerca del nuevo virus en Cuba. RESULTADOS: a través de la tercera estrategia se obtuvieron los resultados más completos: diagnóstico diferencial, vigilancia de las mutaciones D222G/E en la hemaglutinina y las variantes virales H275Y resistentes al Tamiflu. A pesar de no haber detectado las mutaciones mencionadas, no se puede descartar su presencia en población cubana, debido a que estas estrategias no fueron diseñadas con ese fin. Se impone diseñar un estudio para cumplir con ese objetivo. CONCLUSIONES: las estrategias de secuenciación aplicadas en nuestro algoritmo permitieron realizar el diagnóstico diferencial de los virus influenza estacional del pandémico y su caracterización molecular.INTRODUCTION: in April 2009, there was identified a variant of the A/H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, and shortly after the first pandemic in XXI century was declared. OBJECTIVES: to establish a nucleotide sequencing strategy for the differential diagnosis of the seasonal and pandemic influenza A viruses, and to obtain as much molecular information as possible about hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes in patients with influenza-like illnesses, in those with severe respiratory infection and in patients who died. METHODS: three sequencing strategies were designed and implemented, which also offered important information about the new virus in Cuba. RESULTS: the third strategy provided the most comprehensive results such as differential diagnosis, the surveillance of the D222G/E mutation in hemagglutinin and Tamiflu-resistant H275Y viral variants. In spite of the fact that the mentioned mutations were not detected, their presence in the Cuban population can not be ignored since these strategies were not designed for this end. It is imperative to design a study to fulfill this objective. CONCLUSIONS: the sequencing strategies in our algorithm allowed the differential diagnosis of the seasonal and the pandemic viruses, and their molecular characterization.

Alexander Piñón Ramos

2011-04-01

157

Estrategia cubana de caracterización molecular del virus influenza A/H1N1pdm / Cuban strategy for the molecular characterization of the pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish INTRODUCCIÓN: en Abril de 2009 se identificó una variante del virus influenza A/H1N1 de origen porcino, lo cual determinó que fuese declarada rápidamente la primera pandemia del siglo XXI. OBJETIVO: establecer una estrategia de secuenciación nucleotídica que permitiera diagnosticar diferencialmente [...] los virus influenza A estacionales del nuevo virus pandémico, así como obtener la mayor cantidad de información posible desde el punto de vista molecular de los genes hemaglutinina y neuraminidasa, tanto de pacientes que sufrieron una enfermedad tipo influenza como los que padecieron de una infección respiratoria aguda grave y los que fallecieron. MÉTODOS: se diseñaron e implementaron tres estrategias de secuenciación que brindaron información importante acerca del nuevo virus en Cuba. RESULTADOS: a través de la tercera estrategia se obtuvieron los resultados más completos: diagnóstico diferencial, vigilancia de las mutaciones D222G/E en la hemaglutinina y las variantes virales H275Y resistentes al Tamiflu. A pesar de no haber detectado las mutaciones mencionadas, no se puede descartar su presencia en población cubana, debido a que estas estrategias no fueron diseñadas con ese fin. Se impone diseñar un estudio para cumplir con ese objetivo. CONCLUSIONES: las estrategias de secuenciación aplicadas en nuestro algoritmo permitieron realizar el diagnóstico diferencial de los virus influenza estacional del pandémico y su caracterización molecular. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: in April 2009, there was identified a variant of the A/H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, and shortly after the first pandemic in XXI century was declared. OBJECTIVES: to establish a nucleotide sequencing strategy for the differential diagnosis of the seasonal and pandemic influenza [...] A viruses, and to obtain as much molecular information as possible about hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes in patients with influenza-like illnesses, in those with severe respiratory infection and in patients who died. METHODS: three sequencing strategies were designed and implemented, which also offered important information about the new virus in Cuba. RESULTS: the third strategy provided the most comprehensive results such as differential diagnosis, the surveillance of the D222G/E mutation in hemagglutinin and Tamiflu-resistant H275Y viral variants. In spite of the fact that the mentioned mutations were not detected, their presence in the Cuban population can not be ignored since these strategies were not designed for this end. It is imperative to design a study to fulfill this objective. CONCLUSIONS: the sequencing strategies in our algorithm allowed the differential diagnosis of the seasonal and the pandemic viruses, and their molecular characterization.

Alexander, Piñón Ramos; Belsy, Acosta Herrera; Odalys, Valdés Ramírez; Amely, Arencibia García; Clara Estela, Savón Valdés; Grehete, González Muñoz; Suset Isabel, Oropesa Fernández; Elías, Quilarte García; Guelsys, González Baez; Bárbara, Hernández Espinosa; Ángel, Goyenechea Hernández; María Guadalupe, Guzmán Tirado; Alina, Llop Hernández; Vivian, Kourí Cardellá.

2011-04-01

158

Seroprevalence Following the Second Wave of Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: In April 2009, a new pandemic strain of influenza infected thousands of persons in Mexico and the United States and spread rapidly worldwide. During the ensuing summer months, cases ebbed in the Northern Hemisphere while the Southern Hemisphere experienced a typical influenza season dominated by the novel strain. In the fall, a second wave of pandemic H1N1 swept through the United States, peaking in most parts of the country by mid October and returning to baseline levels by early...

Ross, Ted; Zimmer, Shanta; Burke, Don; Crevar, Corey; Carter, Donald; Stark, James; Giles, Brendan; Zimmerman, Richard; Ostroff, Stephen; Lee, Bruce

2010-01-01

159

Adaptation of Pandemic H2N2 Influenza A Viruses in Humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1957 A/H2N2 influenza virus caused an estimated 2 million fatalities during the pandemic. Since viruses of the H2 subtype continue to infect avian species and pigs, the threat of reintroduction into humans remains. To determine factors involved in the zoonotic origin of the 1957 pandemic, we performed analyses on genetic sequences of 175 newly sequenced human and avian H2N2 virus isolates and all publicly available influenza virus genomes. PMID:25505070

Joseph, Udayan; Linster, Martin; Suzuki, Yuka; Krauss, Scott; Halpin, Rebecca A; Vijaykrishna, Dhanasekaran; Fabrizio, Thomas P; Bestebroer, Theo M; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Webby, Richard J; Wentworth, David E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Bahl, Justin; Smith, Gavin J D

2015-02-15

160

Statistical estimates of absenteeism attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza from the Canadian Labour Force Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background As many respiratory viruses are responsible for influenza like symptoms, accurate measures of the disease burden are not available and estimates are generally based on statistical methods. The objective of this study was to estimate absenteeism rates and hours lost due to seasonal influenza and compare these estimates with estimates of absenteeism attributable to the two H1N1 pandemic waves that occurred in 2009. Methods Key absenteeism variables were extracted from Statistics Canada's monthly labour force survey (LFS. Absenteeism and the proportion of hours lost due to own illness or disability were modelled as a function of trend, seasonality and proxy variables for influenza activity from 1998 to 2009. Results Hours lost due to the H1N1/09 pandemic strain were elevated compared to seasonal influenza, accounting for a loss of 0.2% of potential hours worked annually. In comparison, an estimated 0.08% of hours worked annually were lost due to seasonal influenza illnesses. Absenteeism rates due to influenza were estimated at 12% per year for seasonal influenza over the 1997/98 to 2008/09 seasons, and 13% for the two H1N1/09 pandemic waves. Employees who took time off due to a seasonal influenza infection took an average of 14 hours off. For the pandemic strain, the average absence was 25 hours. Conclusions This study confirms that absenteeism due to seasonal influenza has typically ranged from 5% to 20%, with higher rates associated with multiple circulating strains. Absenteeism rates for the 2009 pandemic were similar to those occurring for seasonal influenza. Employees took more time off due to the pandemic strain than was typical for seasonal influenza.

Zheng Hui

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

Comparative age distribution of influenza morbidity and mortality during seasonal influenza epidemics and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown a relatively high mortality rate among young people infected by the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus. Here we compared the age distributions of morbidity and mortality during two seasonal influenza epidemics (H1N1 and H3N2 in France and the United States with those of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic waves in the same countries. Methods Age-standardized ratios were used to compare the age distribution of morbidity and mortality due to influenza between the two countries and across the different years. Non parametric analysis of variance was used to compare these ratios between epidemic and pandemic influenza. Results Age distribution of morbidity was similar between the 2009 pandemic and seasonal epidemics due to H1N1 (p = 0.72 and H3N2 viruses (p = 0.68. In contrast, the proportion of under-60s among influenza deaths was markedly higher during the 2009 pandemic (peak Conclusions Young age was a principal mortality risk factor due to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

Lemaitre Magali

2010-06-01

162

Cross Sectional Survey of Influenza Antibodies before and during the 2009 Pandemic in Shenzhen, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Much information is available for the 2009 H1N1 influenza immunity response, but little is known about the antibody change in seasonal influenza before and during the novel influenza A pandemic. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional serological survey of 4 types of major seasonal influenza in March and September 2009 on a full range of age groups, to investigate seasonal influenza immunity response before and during the outbreak of the sH1N1 influenza in Shenzhen – the largest migra...

Wu, Chun-li; Lu, Juan; Wang, Maggie Haitian; Lv, Xing; Chen, Ying; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Zee, Benny; Cheng, Xiao-wen; He, Ming-liang

2013-01-01

163

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and other respiratory pathogens: clinical insights - from epidemiology to treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis contains clinical studies on 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and other respiratory pathogens. Chapter 1 is a general introduction. Chapter 2 comprises three studies on epidemiology. The first describes epidemiological characteristics of 964 adult outpatients who presented with influenza-like signs and symptoms during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Respiratory pathogens were detected in 41% and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in 16%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive...

Smit, P. M.

2012-01-01

164

Inactivated Seasonal Influenza Vaccines Increase Serum Antibodies to the Neuraminidase of Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 Virus in an Age-Dependent Manner  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Levels of preexisting antibodies to the hemagglutinin of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 (hereafter pandemic H1N1) virus positively correlate with age. The impact of contemporary seasonal influenza vaccines on establishing immunity to other pandemic H1N1 proteins is unknown. We measured serum antibodies to the neuraminidase (NA) of pandemic H1N1 in adults prior to and after vaccination with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines. Serum antibodies to pandemic H1N1 NA were observed i...

Marcelin, Glendie; Bland, Hilliary M.; Negovetich, Nicholas J.; Sandbulte, Matthew R.; Ellebedy, Ali H.; Webb, Ashley D.; Griffin, Yolanda S.; Debeauchamp, Jennifer L.; Mcelhaney, Janet E.; Webby, Richard J.

2010-01-01

165

The investigation of Risk factors of influenza pandemic H1N1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza pandemic H1N1 is an acute respiratory infectious disease that is combination of two types of influenza virus type A (H1N1. This study aimed to identify risk factors affecting influenza pandemic H1N1. Methods: In this case-control study, the cases were 18 positive cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 and the controls were the patients who were admitted during the same time as the cases to sections of Orthopedics, Urology, Surgery and Women of the same hospital for reasons other than influenza. The data were collected through a form by two experienced nurses and then were fed into SPSS, and were analyzed using independent T-test and chi-square. Results: A significant relationship was observed between pandemic H1N1 influenza infection and a history of domestic travel, contact with confirmed patients, respiratory diseases, and diabetes (P0.05. Conclusion: People with underlying diseases, especially respiratory diseases, diabetes, heart disease and a secondary infection and cardiovascular disease most likely are susceptible to influenza pandemic H1N1.

koorosh Holakooyi Naeini

2010-01-01

166

Efficacy of a pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus vaccine in pigs against the pandemic influenza virus is superior to commercially available swine influenza vaccines.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In April 2009 a new influenza A/H1N1 strain, currently named “pandemic (H1N1) influenza 2009? (H1N1v), started the first official pandemic in humans since 1968. Several incursions of this virus in pig herds have also been reported from all over the world. Vaccination of pigs may be an option to reduce exposure of human contacts with infected pigs, thereby preventing cross-species transfer, but also to protect pigs themselves, should this virus cause damage in the pig population. Three swi...

Loeffen, W. L. A.; Stockhofe-zurwieden, N.; Weesendorp, E.; Zoelen-bos, D. J.; Heutink, R.; Quak, J.; Goovaerts, D.; Heldens, J.; Maas, H. A.; Moormann, R. J. M.; Koch, G.

2011-01-01

167

Spatial considerations for the allocation of pre-pandemic influenza vaccination in the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The impact of the next influenza pandemic may be mitigated by inducing immunity in individuals prior to the start of national epidemics using a pre-pandemic vaccine targeted against current avian influenza strains. The US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) intends that pre-pandemic vaccines will be allocated to states in proportion to the size of their population in predefined priority groups, i.e. approximately pro-rata. We show that such an equitable policy is likely to be the le...

Wu, Joseph T.; Riley, Steven; Leung, Gabriel M.

2007-01-01

168

Key Molecular Factors in Hemagglutinin and PB2 Contribute to Efficient Transmission of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Animal influenza viruses pose a clear threat to public health. Transmissibility among humans is a prerequisite for a novel influenza virus to cause a human pandemic. A novel reassortant swine influenza virus acquired sustained human-to-human transmissibility and caused the 2009 influenza pandemic. However, the molecular aspects of influenza virus transmission remain poorly understood. Here, we show that an amino acid in hemagglutinin (HA) is important for the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic viru...

Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Qianyi; Gao, Yuwei; He, Xijun; Kong, Huihui; Jiang, Yongping; Guan, Yuntao; Xia, Xianzhu; Shu, Yuelong; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Bu, Zhigao; Chen, Hualan

2012-01-01

169

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Surveillance and Prevalence of Seasonal Influenza, Singapore  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On April 25, 2009, Singapore implemented strict containment measures for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 with enhanced surveillance and hospital isolation. In the first month, seasonal influenza, predominantly virus subtype H3N2, was diagnosed for 32% of patients with acute febrile respiratory illness. Our findings underscore the high prevalence of seasonal influenza in Singapore.

Leo, Yee-sin; Lye, David C.; Barkham, Timothy; Krishnan, Prabha; Seow, Eillyne; Chow, Angela

2010-01-01

170

Pandemic influenza control in Europe and the constraints resulting from incoherent public health laws  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background With the emergence of influenza H1N1v the world is facing its first 21st century global pandemic. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS and avian influenza H5N1 prompted development of pandemic preparedness plans. National systems of public health law are essential for public health stewardship and for the implementation of public health policy1. International coherence will contribute to effective regional and global responses. However little research has been undertaken on how law works as a tool for disease control in Europe. With co-funding from the European Union, we investigated the extent to which laws across Europe support or constrain pandemic preparedness planning, and whether national differences are likely to constrain control efforts. Methods We undertook a survey of national public health laws across 32 European states using a questionnaire designed around a disease scenario based on pandemic influenza. Questionnaire results were reviewed in workshops, analysing how differences between national laws might support or hinder regional responses to pandemic influenza. Respondents examined the impact of national laws on the movements of information, goods, services and people across borders in a time of pandemic, the capacity for surveillance, case detection, case management and community control, the deployment of strategies of prevention, containment, mitigation and recovery and the identification of commonalities and disconnects across states. Results Results of this study show differences across Europe in the extent to which national pandemic policy and pandemic plans have been integrated with public health laws. We found significant differences in legislation and in the legitimacy of strategic plans. States differ in the range and the nature of intervention measures authorized by law, the extent to which borders could be closed to movement of persons and goods during a pandemic, and access to healthcare of non-resident persons. Some states propose use of emergency powers that might potentially override human rights protections while other states propose to limit interventions to those authorized by public health laws. Conclusion These differences could create problems for European strategies if an evolving influenza pandemic results in more serious public health challenges or, indeed, if a novel disease other than influenza emerges with pandemic potential. There is insufficient understanding across Europe of the role and importance of law in pandemic planning. States need to build capacity in public health law to support disease prevention and control policies. Our research suggests that states would welcome further guidance from the EU on management of a pandemic, and guidance to assist in greater commonality of legal approaches across states.

Martin Robyn

2010-09-01

171

Pandemic response lessons from influenza H1N1 2009 in Asia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza A virus strain was identified in Mexico and the USA. Within weeks the virus had spread globally and the first pandemic of the 21st Century had been declared. It is unlikely to be the last and it is crucial that real lessons are learned from the experience. Asia is considered a hot spot for the emergence of new pathogens including past influenza pandemics. On this occasion while preparing for an avian, highly virulent influenza virus (H5N1 like) origin...

Fisher, D.; Hui, Ds; Gao, Z.; Lee, C.; Oh, Md; Cao, B.; Hien, Tt; Patlovich, K.; Farrar, J.

2011-01-01

172

Chest radiography findings in adults with pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current pandemic of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus, commonly referred to as "swine flu", began in Mexico in March 2009 and reached the UK in April 2009. By 21 July 2009, more than 850 suspected cases of influenza had been seen at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital (BHH), including 52 adults with laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 influenza who were admitted. Of seven patients (13%) requiring intensive care, six needed mechanical ventilation, two needed extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (...

Mcewen, Re; Scriven, JE; Green, Ca; Bailey, Ms; Banerjee, Ak

2010-01-01

173

Reassortment of pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus in swine  

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The emergence of pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza demonstrated that pandemic viruses could be generated in swine. Subsequent re-introduction of H1N1/2009 to swine has occurred in multiple countries. Through systematic surveillance of influenza viruses in swine from a Hong Kong abattoir, we characterize a reassortant progeny of H1N1/2009 with swine viruses. Continued reassortment of H1N1/2009 with swine influenza viruses could produce variants with transmissibility and altered virulence for humans...

Vijaykrishna, D.; Poon, L. L. M.; Ma, S. K.; Li, O. T. W.; Cheung, C. L.; Smith, G. J. D.; Peiris, J. S. M.; Guan, Y.

2010-01-01

174

Ostrich produce cross-reactive neutralization antibodies against pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1 following immunization with a seasonal influenza vaccine  

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An outbreak of influenza in 2009 was found to be caused by a novel strain of influenza virus designated as pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009. Vaccination with recent seasonal influenza vaccines induced little or no cross-reactive antibody response to the pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1 2009 in any age group in human populations. Accordingly, most people had low immunity against this pathogen, thus resulting in the worldwide spread of the infection to produce a so-called ‘pandemic’. This repo...

Adachi, Kazuhide; Takama, Kentaro; Tsukamoto, Masaya; Inai, Marie; Handharyani, Ekowati; Hiroi, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Yasuhiro

2010-01-01

175

Detection of Seasonal Influenza H1N1 and H3N2 Viruses using RT-PCR Assay during 2009 Pandemic Influenza in Golestan Province  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objective: The emergence of a novel H1N1influenza A virus of animal origin with transmissibility from human to human poses pandemic concern. Current subtypes of Seasonal influenza A viruses spread in human are influenza A H1N1 influenza A H3N2 and influenza type B viruses. The aim of this study was to determine current strains of the H3N2 and new H1N1 subtypes of influenza A virus from patients suspected influenza infection in 2009 flu pandemic in Golestan province, Iran. Mater...

Zhand, S.; Tabaraei, A.; Moradi A; Fotoohi, F.; Javid, N.; Bazoori, M.; Haji Mohammadi, E.; Ghaemi, A.

2014-01-01

176

Capacity Building in Response to Pandemic Influenza Threats: Lao PDR Case Study  

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The Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) committed to pandemic detection and response preparations when faced with the threat of avian influenza. Since 2006, the National Center for Laboratory and Epidemiology of Lao PDR has developed credible laboratory, surveillance, and epidemiological (human) capacity and as a result was designated a World Health Organization National Influenza Center in 2010. The Lao PDR experience in building influenza capacities provides a case study of the considera...

Phommasack, Bounlay; Moen, Ann; Vongphrachanh, Phengta; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Cox, Nancy; Khamphaphongphanh, Bouaphanh; Phonekeo, Darouny; Kasai, Takeshi; Ketmayoon, Pakapak; Lewis, Hannah; Kounnavong, Bounheuang; Khanthamaly, Viengphone; Corwin, Andrew

2012-01-01

177

The ability of seasonal and pandemic influenza to disrupt military operations  

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Influenza is one of the few infectious diseases that is able to disrupt military operations quickly. Although the extreme mortality rates seen during the pandemic of 1918-19 when tens of thousands of soldiers died has never been repeated (for as yet unclear reasons), illness rates alone make influenza of great military importance. Seasonal influenza infection rates from 2-30% of a partially immunized force can still limit military activity and challenge the ability of medical facilities to...

Jon Hodge; Dennis Shanks

2011-01-01

178

Simulating the Spread of Influenza Pandemic of 2009 Considering International Traffic  

CERN Document Server

Pandemics have the potential to cause immense disruption and damage to communities and societies. In this paper, we model the Influenza Pandemic of 2009. We propose a hybrid model to determine how the pandemic spreads through the world. The model considers both the SEIR-based model for local areas and the network model for global connection between countries referring to data on international travelers. Our interest is to reproduce the situation using the data of early stage of pandemic and to predict the future transition by extending the simulation cycle. Without considering the tendency of seasonal flu, the simulation does not predict the second peak of the pandemic in the real world. However, considering the seasonal tendency, the simulation result predicts the next peak in winter. Thus we consider the seasonal tendency is an important factor for the spreading of the pandemic.

Yoneyama, Teruhiko

2010-01-01

179

Analysis of suspected adverse reactions following immunization against pandemic influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization was aimed at recording all adverse events possibly related with vaccines. During the implementation of immunization strategy against pandemic influenza A(H1N1 in 2009, the post-marketing comprehensive surveillance was suggested to be conducted due to limited clinical experience in applying this particular vaccine and because of the fact that some vaccines had been licensed only on the basis of the data regarding their quality. Material and Methods. The passive surveillance on adverse events following immunization was conducted simultaneously with immunization campaign against pandemic influenza in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Reporting of adverse events was conducted by health care service through a specially designed questionnaire Results. In the period from December 17th 2009 to February 7th 2010, of the total number of 55720 people who were vaccinated, 50433 received one dose and 5287 received two doses of vaccine. The total number of doses administered was 61007. During the observed period, some adverse reactions were recorded in 37 people, the rate of occurrence of adverse reactions being 6.6 per 10.000 vaccinated. Since the majority of patients had several symptoms and signs, the number of recorded clinical manifestations was much higher (140 than the number of patients with reactions. The dominant symptoms and signs were fever (51.4%, weakness/fatigue (48.6%, headache (40.5% and myalgia (31.5%. The reactions in the majority of patients were mild and transient. Only two patients sought medical care and one was hospitalized. Since the immunization coverage was very small, it was not possible to record rare adverse events, whose expected incidence is, anyway, very low. Conclusion. Surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization represents an important component of immunization program, especially when new vaccines are introduced. Therefore, this form of surveillance in our country needs further improvement in order to provide more complete information on occurrence and characteristics of adverse reactions following immunization.

Petrovi? Vladimir

2011-01-01

180

Early-warning signals for an outbreak of the influenza pandemic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the course of human history, influenza pandemics have been seen as major disasters, so studies on the influenza virus have become an important issue for many experts and scholars. Comprehensive research has been performed over the years on the biological properties, chemical characteristics, external environmental factors and other aspects of the virus, and some results have been achieved. Based on the chaos game representation walk model, this paper uses the time series analysis method to study the DNA sequences of the influenza virus from 1913 to 2010, and works out the early-warning signals indicator value for the outbreak of an influenza pandemic. The variances in the CGR walk sequences for the pandemic years (or + ?1 to 2 years) are significantly higher than those for the adjacent years, while those in the non-pandemic years are usually smaller. In this way we can provide an influenza early-warning mechanism so that people can take precautions and be well prepared prior to a pandemic. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

 
 
 
 
181

Selecting nonpharmaceutical strategies to minimize influenza spread: the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic and beyond.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shortly after the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic began, the U.S. government provided guidance to state and local authorities to assist decision-making for the use of nonpharmaceutical strategies to minimize influenza spread. This guidance included recommendations for flexible decision-making based on outbreak severity, and it allowed for uncertainty and course correction as the pandemic progressed. These recommendations build on a foundation of local, collaborative planning and posit a series of questions regarding epidemiology, the impact on the health-care system, and locally determined feasibility and acceptability of nonpharmaceutical strategies. This article describes -recommendations and key questions for decision makers. PMID:23115381

Barrios, Lisa C; Koonin, Lisa M; Kohl, Katrin S; Cetron, Martin

2012-01-01

182

Comparative age distribution of influenza morbidity and mortality during seasonal influenza epidemics and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic  

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Abstract Background Several studies have shown a relatively high mortality rate among young people infected by the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Here we compared the age distributions of morbidity and mortality during two seasonal influenza epidemics (H1N1 and H3N2) in France and the United States with those of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic waves in the same countries. Methods Age-standardized ratios were used to compare the age distribution of morbidity and ...

Lemaitre Magali; Carrat Fabrice

2010-01-01

183

The 1918–1919 influenza pandemic in England and Wales: spatial patterns in transmissibility and mortality impact  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spatial variations in disease patterns of the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic remain poorly studied. We explored the association between influenza death rates, transmissibility and several geographical and demographic indicators for the autumn and winter waves of the 1918–1919 pandemic in cities, towns and rural areas of England and Wales. Average measures of transmissibility, estimated by the reproduction number, ranged between 1.3 and 1.9, depending on model assumptions and pandemic wave a...

Chowell, Gerardo; Bettencourt, Lui?s M. A.; Johnson, Niall; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Viboud, Ce?cile

2008-01-01

184

Establishment of multiple sublineages of H5N1 influenza virus in Asia: Implications for pandemic control  

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Preparedness for a possible influenza pandemic caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A subtype H5N1 has become a global priority. The spread of the virus to Europe and continued human infection in Southeast Asia have heightened pandemic concern. It remains unknown from where the pandemic strain may emerge; current attention is directed at Vietnam, Thailand, and, more recently, Indonesia and China. Here, we report that genetically and antigenically distinct sublineages of H5N1 virus have...

Chen, H.; Smith, G. J. D.; Li, K. S.; Wang, J.; Fan, X. H.; Rayner, J. M.; Vijaykrishna, D.; Zhang, J. X.; Zhang, L. J.; Guo, C. T.; Cheung, C. L.; Xu, K. M.; Duan, L.; Huang, K.; Qin, K.

2006-01-01

185

Trend of emergency department presentations for influenza like illness: Differences between pandemic (2009-2010) and post-pandemic (2010-2011) season  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to analyze differences between incidence, characteristics and out-comes of patients with Influenza Like Illness (ILI) presenting to a teaching public hospital in Central Italy during pandemic influenza season (2009-2010) and during the post-pandemic outbreak (2010-2011). We performed a retrospective descriptive study, and we identified Emergency Department (ED) presentations for ILI, relying on hospital discharge data administrative database. Bivariate analyses for th...

Elena Di Tondo; Anna Marigliano; Ilaria Pellegrini; Francesco Di Stanislao; D’errico, Marcello M.

2012-01-01

186

Adaptation of High-Growth Influenza H5N1 Vaccine Virus in Vero Cells: Implications for Pandemic Preparedness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current egg-based influenza vaccine production technology can't promptly meet the global demand during an influenza pandemic as shown in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Moreover, its manufacturing capacity would be vulnerable during pandemics caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Therefore, vaccine production using mammalian cell technology is becoming attractive. Current influenza H5N1 vaccine strain (NIBRG-14), a reassortant virus between A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1) virus and egg-adap...

Tseng, Yu-fen; Hu, Alan Yung-chih; Huang, Mei-liang; Yeh, Wei-zhou; Weng, Tsai-chuan; Chen, Yu-shuan; Chong, Pele; Lee, Min-shi

2011-01-01

187

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccination in children: a UK perspective.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pandemic H1N1 influenza infection was common in the UK in 2009 and children were particularly vulnerable. Most cases were mild or subclinical, but there was significant mortality, predominantly in those with pre-existing disease. Despite the rapid development of monovalent pandemic vaccines, and the fast-tracked approval process, these products were not available for large-scale use until the end of the second wave of infection. Vaccine uptake was relatively low, both among children and healt...

Whalley, Pcs; Pollard, Aj

2013-01-01

188

Development and Evaluation of a Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Test for the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus?  

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We evaluated a new rapid influenza diagnostic test for the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) and viral culture. The sensitivities were 68.5% and 64.5%, and the specificities were 98.4% and 97.6%, respectively. This kit should be used with caution, and negative results should be verified by a confirmative test.

Kwon, Donghyok; Shin, Kyeongcheol; Kwon, Mihwa; Oh, Hee-bok; Kang, Chun; Lee, Joo-yeon

2010-01-01

189

Influence of the Cold War upon Influenza Pandemic of 1957-1958  

CERN Document Server

Influenza Pandemic of 1957-1958, also called Asian Flu Pandemic, was one of the most widespread pandemics in history. In this paper, we model the pandemic, considering the effect of the Cold War. There were some restrictions between Western and Eastern nations due to the Cold War during the pandemic. We expect that such restrictions influenced the spread of the pandemic. We propose a hybrid model to determine how the pandemic spread through the world. The model combines the SEIR-based model for local areas and the network model for global connection between countries. First, we reproduce the situation in 19 countries. Then, we run another experiment to find the influence of the war in the spread of the pandemic; simulation considering international relationships in different years. The simulation results show that the impact of the pandemic in each country was much influenced by international relationships. This study indicates that if there was less effect of the Cold War, Western nations would have larger n...

Yoneyama, Teruhiko

2010-01-01

190

Influenza pandemic and professional duty: family or patients first? A survey of hospital employees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicts between professional duties and fear of influenza transmission to family members may arise among health care professionals (HCP. Methods We surveyed employees at our university hospital regarding ethical issues arising during the management of an influenza pandemic. Results Of 644 respondents, 182 (28% agreed that it would be professionally acceptable for HCP to abandon their workplace during a pandemic in order to protect themselves and their families, 337 (52% disagreed with this statement and 125 (19% had no opinion, with a higher rate of disagreement among physicians (65% and nurses (54% compared with administrators (32%. Of all respondents, 375 (58% did not believe that the decision to report to work during a pandemic should be left to the individual HCP and 496 (77% disagreed with the statement that HCP should be permanently dismissed for not reporting to work during a pandemic. Only 136 (21% respondents agreed that HCW without children should primarily care for the influenza patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that a modest majority of HCP, but only a minority of hospital administrators, recognises the obligation to treat patients despite the potential risks. Professional ethical guidelines allowing for balancing the needs of society with personal risks are needed to help HCP fulfil their duties in the case of a pandemic influenza.

Hanses Frank

2006-12-01

191

Assessing exposure risks for aquatic organisms posed by Tamiflu use under seasonal influenza and pandemic conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental pollution by anti-influenza drugs is increasingly recognized as a threat to aquatic environments. However, little is known about empirical data on risk effects posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug based on recently published ecotoxicological researches in Taiwan. Here we linked ecotoxicology models with an epidemiological scheme to assess exposure risks of aquatic organisms and environmental hazards posed by antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) use in Taiwan. Built on published bioassays, we used probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate potential threats of environmentally relevant hazards on algae, daphnid, and zerbrafish. We found that Tamiflu use was unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk to daphnia and zebrafish during seasonal influenza. However, the chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu use during pandemic was alarming. We conclude that no significant risk to algal growth was found during seasonal influenza and high pandemic Tamiflu use. -- Highlights: • Environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug have ecotoxicologically important effects. • Tamiflu is unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk during seasonal influenza. • Chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu during pandemic is alarming. • Tertiary process in sewage treatment plants is crucial in mitigating Tamiflu exposure risk. -- A probabilistic framework can be used for assessing exposure risks posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug in aquatic ecosystems

192

Optimal vaccination strategies for 2009 pandemic H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccines in humans.  

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A randomized clinical trial was conducted to assess whether the immunogenicity of seasonal and pandemic (H1N1/09) influenza vaccines is affected by the order of vaccine administration. 151 healthy adult volunteers were randomized into three groups. All groups received one dose (15 ?g haemagglutinin) each of a pandemic H1N1 vaccine and a seasonal trivalent vaccine. Group 1 received the pandemic H1N1 vaccine first, followed by the seasonal vaccine 21 days later. Group 2 received vaccinations i...

Wu, J.; Zhong, X.; Li, Ck; Zhou, Jf; Lu, M.; Huang, Ky; Dong, M.; Liu, Y.; Luo, Fj; Du, N.; Chui, C.; Liu, Lq; Smith, Nm; Li, B.; Shi, Nm

2011-01-01

193

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination against pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009  

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Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 has caused 182 166 confirmed infections and 1799 deaths in more than 150 countries to date (1). Both the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have declared public health emergencies in response to global circulation of this virus, and the WHO has raised the influenza pandemic alert level from 3 to 6 (2). As a result of the strain's novelty, most people lack innate immunity to pandemic (H1N1) (3); currently available ...

Khazeni, Nayer; Hutton, David W.; Garber, Alan M.; Hupert, Nathaniel; Owens, Douglas K.

2009-01-01

194

Targets for the Induction of Protective Immunity Against Influenza A Viruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The current pandemic caused by the new influenza A(H1N1) virus of swine origin and the current pandemic threat caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the H5N1 subtype have renewed the interest in the development of vaccines that can induce broad protective immunity. Preferably, vaccines not only provide protection against the homologous strains, but also against heterologous strains, even of another subtype. Here we describe viral targets and the arms of the immune respo...

Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Rogier Bodewes

2010-01-01

195

Optimizing influenza vaccine distribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The criteria to assess public health policies are fundamental to policy optimization. Using a model parametrized with survey-based contact data and mortality data from influenza pandemics, we determined optimal vaccine allocation for five outcome measures: deaths, infections, years of life lost, contingent valuation, and economic costs. We find that optimal vaccination is achieved by prioritization of schoolchildren and adults aged 30 to 39 years. Schoolchildren are most responsible for transmission, and their parents serve as bridges to the rest of the population. Our results indicate that consideration of age-specific transmission dynamics is paramount to the optimal allocation of influenza vaccines. We also found that previous and new recommendations from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention both for the novel swine-origin influenza and, particularly, for seasonal influenza, are suboptimal for all outcome measures. PMID:19696313

Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison P

2009-09-25

196

Novel reassortment of Eurasian avian-like and pandemic/2009 influenza viruses in swine: Infectious potential for humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pigs are considered to be intermediate hosts and "mixing vessels," facilitating the genesis of pandemic influenza viruses, as demonstrated by the emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pdm/09) virus. The prevalence and repeated introduction of the pdm/09 virus into pigs raises the possibility of generating novel swine influenza viruses with the potential to infect humans. To address this, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted with slaughtered pigs in abattoirs in southern China...

Zhu, Huachen; Zhou, Boping; Fan, Xiaohui; Lam, Tommy T. Y.; Wang, Jia; Chen, Antony; Chen, Xinchun; Chen, Honglin; Webster, Robert G.; Webby, Richard; Peiris, Joseph S. M.; Smith, David K.; Guan, Yi

2011-01-01

197

Hemagglutinin–neuraminidase balance confers respiratory-droplet transmissibility of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in ferrets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel reassortant derived from North American triple-reassortant (TRsw) and Eurasian swine (EAsw) influenza viruses acquired sustained human-to-human transmissibility and caused the 2009 influenza pandemic. To identify molecular determinants that allowed efficient transmission of the pandemic H1N1 virus among humans, we evaluated the direct-contact and respiratory-droplet transmissibility in ferrets of representative swine influenza viruses of different lineages obtained through a 13-y surv...

Yen, Hui-ling; Liang, Chi-hui; Wu, Chung-yi; Forrest, Heather L.; Ferguson, Angela; Choy, Ka-tim; Jones, Jeremy; Wong, Diana Dik-yan; Cheung, Peter Pak-hang; Hsu, Che-hsiung; Li, Olive T.; Yuen, Kit M.; Chan, Renee W. Y.; Poon, Leo L. M.; Chan, Michael C. W.

2011-01-01

198

The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination in France: who accepted to receive the vaccine and why?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Previous studies investigating determinants of 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza vaccine acceptance have focused on target groups such as healthcare workers. Few studies in the European Union have examined the self-reported reasons as well as predictive socio-demographic and health factors for pandemic influenza vaccine acceptance in the general population, even though influenza vaccine was recommended for all people.

Raude, Jocelyn; Caille-brillet, Anne-laure; Setbon, Michel

2010-01-01

199

Comparison between pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza pneumonia and seasonal influenza pneumonia in adults  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compared 126 cases of seasonal influenza pneumonia (seasonal flu) reported between January, 1996 and March, 2009, with 10 cases of laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus pneumonia (novel flu), based on clinical condition, computed tomography (CT) findings, severity, treatment, and prognosis, to clarify the characteristics of this novel flu. The mean age of subjects was 52.4 years in the novel flu group and 64 years in the seasonal flu group, and novel flu patients were younger than seasonal flu patients. Seasonal flu patients had more underlying diseases than did novel flu patients. The median duration from illness onset to hospitalization was 4 days in both groups. Primary viral pneumonia was present in 70% of novel flu cases and 31% of seasonal flu cases. The proportion of primary virus pneumonia was higher in novel flu patients, and the disease severity of the seasonal flu group was more severe than that of the novel flu group. White blood cell and lymphocyte counts were lower in novel flu patients, and chest CT images showed bilateral shadows and pure ground-glass opacities more frequently in the novel flu cases. There were no differences in treatment, number of days required for the fever to subside, or mortality between the groups. (author)

200

Modeling the effects of drug resistant influenza virus in a pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Neuraminidase inhibitors (NI play a major role in plans to mitigate future influenza pandemics. Modeling studies suggested that a pandemic may be contained at the source by early treatment and prophylaxis with antiviral drugs. Here, we examine the influence of NI resistant influenza strains on an influenza pandemic. We extend the freely available deterministic simulation program InfluSim to incorporate importations of resistant infections and the emergence of de novo resistance. The epidemic with the fully drug sensitive strain leads to a cumulative number of 19,500 outpatients and 258 hospitalizations, respectively, per 100,000 inhabitants. Development of de novo resistance alone increases the total number of outpatients by about 6% and hospitalizations by about 21%. If a resistant infection is introduced into the population after three weeks, the outcome dramatically deteriorates. Wide-spread use of NI treatment makes it highly likely that the resistant strain will spread if its fitness is high. This situation is further aggravated if a resistant virus is imported into a country in the early phase of an outbreak. As NI-resistant influenza infections with high fitness and pathogenicity have just been observed, the emergence of drug resistance in treated populations and the transmission of drug resistant strains is an important public health concern for seasonal and pandemic influenza.

Koch Daniel

2008-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

An Avian Connection as a Catalyst to the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 1918 Influenza pandemic was one of the most virulent strains of influenza in history. This strain quickly dispatched previously held theories on influenza. World War One introduced new environmental stresses and speed of dissemination logistics never experienced by humans. In light of new phylogenic evidence the cause of this influenza outbreak is now being considered to have linkage to the avian influenza. Animals act as reservoirs for this influenza virus and research indicates the influenza virus often originates in the intestines of aquatic wildfowl. The virus is shed into the environment, which in turns infects domestic poultry, which in turn infects mammalian hosts. These animals, usually pigs, act as a transformer or converters; creating a strain that can more readily infect humans. Therefore swine can be infected with both avian and human influenza A viruses and serve as a source for infection for a number of species as the incidents of direct infection from birds to humans have been rare. Increased human habitation near poultry and swine raising facilities pose greater influenza outbreak risk. It was this combination of environmental factors that may have contributed to the greatest pandemic of recent times, and, moreover, similar conditions exist throughout Southeast Asia today.

2005-05-01

202

The El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-pandemic influenza connection: coincident or causal?  

Science.gov (United States)

We find that the four most recent human influenza pandemics (1918, 1957, 1968, and 2009), all of which were first identified in boreal spring or summer, were preceded by La Niña conditions in the equatorial Pacific. Changes in the phase of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation have been shown to alter the migration, stopover time, fitness, and interspecies mixing of migratory birds, and consequently, likely affect their mixing with domestic animals. We hypothesize that La Niña conditions bring divergent influenza subtypes together in some parts of the world and favor the reassortment of influenza through simultaneous multiple infection of individual hosts and the generation of novel pandemic strains. We propose approaches to test this hypothesis using influenza population genetics, virus prevalence in various host species, and avian migration patterns. PMID:22308322

Shaman, Jeffrey; Lipsitch, Marc

2013-02-26

203

The ability of seasonal and pandemic influenza to disrupt military operations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza is one of the few infectious diseases that is able to disrupt military operations quickly. Although the extreme mortality rates seen during the pandemic of 1918-19 when tens of thousands of soldiers died has never been repeated (for as yet unclear reasons, illness rates alone make influenza of great military importance. Seasonal influenza infection rates from 2-30% of a partially immunized force can still limit military activity and challenge the ability of medical facilities to cope with a sudden number of sick soldiers. Although social distancing and antiviral medications may have some role, in military practice the main preventive measure against seasonal and pandemic influenza is annual immunization with a current vaccine chosen to match the viruses then circulating.

Jon Hodge

2011-10-01

204

Non-pharmaceutical public health interventions for pandemic influenza: an evaluation of the evidence base  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In an influenza pandemic, the benefit of vaccines and antiviral medications will be constrained by limitations on supplies and effectiveness. Non-pharmaceutical public health interventions will therefore be vital in curtailing disease spread. However, the most comprehensive assessments of the literature to date recognize the generally poor quality of evidence on which to base non-pharmaceutical pandemic planning decisions. In light of the need to prepare for a possible pandemic despite concerns about the poor quality of the literature, combining available evidence with expert opinion about the relative merits of non-pharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza may lead to a more informed and widely accepted set of recommendations. We evaluated the evidence base for non-pharmaceutical public health interventions. Then, based on the collective evidence, we identified a set of recommendations for and against interventions that are specific to both the setting in which an intervention may be used and the pandemic phase, and which can be used by policymakers to prepare for a pandemic until scientific evidence can definitively respond to planners' needs. Methods Building on reviews of past pandemics and recent historical inquiries, we evaluated the relative merits of non-pharmaceutical interventions by combining available evidence from the literature with qualitative and quantitative expert opinion. Specifically, we reviewed the recent scientific literature regarding the prevention of human-to-human transmission of pandemic influenza, convened a meeting of experts from multiple disciplines, and elicited expert recommendation about the use of non-pharmaceutical public health interventions in a variety of settings (healthcare facilities; community-based institutions; private households and pandemic phases (no pandemic; no US pandemic; early localized US pandemic; advanced US pandemic. Results The literature contained a dearth of evidence on the efficacy or effectiveness of most non-pharmaceutical interventions for influenza. In an effort to inform decision-making in the absence of strong scientific evidence, the experts ultimately endorsed hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette, surveillance and case reporting, and rapid viral diagnosis in all settings and during all pandemic phases. They also encouraged patient and provider use of masks and other personal protective equipment as well as voluntary self-isolation of patients during all pandemic phases. Other non-pharmaceutical interventions including mask-use and other personal protective equipment for the general public, school and workplace closures early in an epidemic, and mandatory travel restrictions were rejected as likely to be ineffective, infeasible, or unacceptable to the public. Conclusion The demand for scientific evidence on non-pharmaceutical public health interventions for influenza is pervasive, and present policy recommendations must rely heavily on expert judgment. In the absence of a definitive science base, our assessment of the evidence identified areas for further investigation as well as non-pharmaceutical public health interventions that experts believe are likely to be beneficial, feasible and widely acceptable in an influenza pandemic.

Wasserman Jeffrey

2007-08-01

205

Estimating the incidence reporting rates of new influenza pandemics at an early stage using travel data from the source country.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the surveillance of influenza pandemics, underreported data are a public health challenge that complicates the understanding of pandemic threats and can undermine mitigation efforts. We propose a method to estimate incidence reporting rates at early stages of new influenza pandemics using 2009 pandemic H1N1 as an example. Routine surveillance data and statistics of travellers arriving from Mexico were used. Our method incorporates changes in reporting rates such as linearly increasing trends due to the enhanced surveillance. From our results, the reporting rate was estimated at 0·46% during early stages of the pandemic in Mexico. We estimated cumulative incidence in the Mexican population to be 0·7% compared to 0·003% reported by officials in Mexico at the end of April. This method could be useful in estimation of actual cases during new influenza pandemics for policy makers to better determine appropriate control measures. PMID:24107289

Chong, K C; Fong, H F; Zee, C Y

2014-05-01

206

Acceptance of a pandemic influenza vaccine: a systematic review of surveys of the general public  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trang Nguyen1,2, Kirsten Holdt Henningsen1, Jamie C Brehaut1,2, Erica Hoe1, Kumanan Wilson1,3 1Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute; 2Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa; 3Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada Introduction: The effectiveness of pandemic vaccine campaigns such as the H1N1 vaccine rollout is dependent on both the vaccines’ effectiveness and the general public’s willingness to be vaccinated. It is therefore critical to understand the factors that influence the decision of members of the public whether to get vaccinated with new, emergently released vaccines. Methods: A systematic review of English language quantitative surveys was conducted to identify consistent predictors of the decision to accept or decline any (prepandemic vaccine, including the H1N1 influenza A vaccine. A total of ten studies were included in this review and all pertained to the 2009 H1N1 influenza A pandemic. Respondents’ willingness to receive a pandemic vaccine ranged from 8%–67% across the ten studies. The factors reported to be consistent predictors of the intention to vaccinate were: risk of infection, proximity or severity of the public health event, severity of personal consequences resulting from the illness, harm or adverse events from the vaccine, acceptance of previous vaccination, and ethnicity. Age and sex were the demographic variables examined most frequently across the ten studies and there was no consistent association between these variables and the intention to accept or reject a pandemic vaccine. Conclusion: Some predictors of the intention to accept or decline a (prepandemic vaccine or the H1N1 influenza A vaccine are consistently identified by surveys. Understanding the important factors influencing the acceptance of a pandemic vaccine by individual members of the public may help inform strategies to improve vaccine uptake during future pandemics. Keywords: pandemic, H1N1 influenza A, emergent vaccine, personal risk, demographic

Nguyen T

2011-10-01

207

Searching of Main Cause Leading to Severe Influenza A Virus Mutations and Consequently to Influenza Pandemics/Epidemics  

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Full Text Available The unpredictable mutations in the proteins from influenza A virus lead to the great difficulty in prevention of possible outbreak of bird flu and pandemic/epidemic of influenza. This unpredictability is due to the fact that we know little about the causes that lead to the mutations. In three of our recent studies on the hemagglutinins from influenza A virus, we unintentionally noticed the periodicity of mutations in hemagglutinins similar to the periodicity of sunspot. We calculated the amino-acid pair predictability and amino-acid distribution rank, which are developed by us over last several years and can numerically present the evolution of proteins in question, of 1217 full-length hemagglutinins from influenza A viruses. We then used the fast Fourier transform to determine the periodicity of mutations in the hemagglutinins. We compare the periodicities of mutations in influenza A virus hemagglutinins with those of solar and galactic cosmic rays and find a main periodicity of the mutations identical to that of sunspot and neutron rate (11 years/circle. Then we plot the sunspot number with respect to the historical pandemics/epidemics/non-pandemic new strains over last three centuries and compare the recorded sunspots with the historical pandemics before 1700. Both show a good agreement between sunspot activity and influenza related events. As the histories of Sun and galaxy are incomparably much longer than the history of influenza virus, the only logical deduction is that the hemagglutinin periodicities, which are identical to the periodicities of solar and galactic cosmic rays, are attribute to the solar and galactic activity. As the hemagglutinin is a sample of influenza A virus, we can logically deduce the role of migratory wild birds on the outbreak of bird flu and influenza, that is, cosmic rays are heading towards the polar regions, where more mutations occur in influenza A virus either within the wild birds or in their living environments and as the winter approaches, these waterfowl fly forwards warm south bringing back the new mutated influenza A virus leading to outbreak of bird flu or influenza.

Guang Wu

2005-01-01

208

Qualification of the Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay in Support of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Licensure?  

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Continued outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza over the past decade have spurred global efforts to develop antivirals and vaccines. As part of vaccine development, standard methods are needed for determining serum antibody titers in response to vaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays are appropriate for assessing the immunogenicity of pandemic influenza vaccines in support of license approval. We demonstrate that a rigorous qualification of the HAI assay for H5N1 influ...

Noah, Diana L.; Hill, Heather; Hines, David; White, E. Lucile; Wolff, Mark C.

2009-01-01

209

An avian live attenuated master backbone for potential use in epidemic and pandemic influenza vaccines  

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The unprecedented emergence in Asia of multiple avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes with a broad host range poses a major challenge in the design of vaccination strategies that are both effective and available in a timely manner. The present study focused on the protective effects of a genetically modified AIV as a source for the preparation of vaccines for epidemic and pandemic influenza. It has previously been demonstrated that a live attenuated AIV based on the internal backbone of influe...

Hickman, Danielle; Hossain, Md Jaber; Song, Haichen; Araya, Yonas; Solo?rzano, Alicia; Perez, Daniel R.

2008-01-01

210

First wave of the influenza A/H1N1v pandemic in Switzerland  

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AIM: To describe the disease burden, clinical pattern and outcome of influenza-related cases presenting to a Swiss Emergency Department (ED), during the first wave of the 2009 pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data at the University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland. All patients presenting to the ED with influenza-like symptoms from June 1 to October 23, 2009, were studied. Rate of hospitalisation, demographic characteristics, symptoms, microbiological diagnos...

Nickel, C. H.; Stephan, F. P.; Dangel, M.; Blume, K.; Gehrisch, R.; Dumoulin, A.; Tschudin, S.; Keller, D. I.; Hirsch, H. H.; Widmer, A. F.; Bingisser, R.

2009-01-01

211

Statistical estimates of absenteeism attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza from the Canadian Labour Force Survey  

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Abstract Background As many respiratory viruses are responsible for influenza like symptoms, accurate measures of the disease burden are not available and estimates are generally based on statistical methods. The objective of this study was to estimate absenteeism rates and hours lost due to seasonal influenza and compare these estimates with estimates of absenteeism attributable to the two H1N1 pandemic waves that occurred in 2009. Methods Key absenteeism varia...

Zheng Hui; Schanzer Dena L; Gilmore Jason

2011-01-01

212

Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 antibodies after pandemic and trivalent seasonal influenza vaccination as well as natural infection in November 2010 in Hamburg, Germany  

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The 2009 influenza pandemic has introduced the new re-assorted influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus which recirculated during the 2010/11 influenza season. Before that season, it was possible to acquire protective immunity either by pandemic or seasonal influenza vaccination against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 or by natural infection. To obtain data on vaccination coverage and antibody levels in a reference population and to calculate whether or not the herd immunity threshold (HIT, calculated as 33% give...

Cramer, J. P.; Mac, T.; Hogan, B.; Stauga, S.; Eberhardt, S.; Wichmann, Ole; Mertens, Thomas; Burchard, G. D.

2012-01-01

213

Caffeoylquinic Acids Are Major Constituents with Potent Anti-Influenza Effects in Brazilian Green Propolis Water Extract  

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Influenza A viral infections reached pandemic levels in 1918, 1957, 1968, and, most recently, in 2009 with the emergence of the swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus. The development of novel therapeutics or prophylactics for influenza virus infection is urgently needed. We examined the evaluation of the anti-influenza virus (A/WSN/33 (H1N1)) activity of Brazilian green propolis water extract (PWE) and its constituents by cell viability and real-time PCR assays. Our findings showed strong eviden...

Kazuo Kuwata; Yoko Araki; Junji Hosokawa-Muto; Mayuko Fukuoka; Tomohiko Urushisaki; Tomoaki Takemura; Shigemi Tazawa

2011-01-01

214

The community impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in the WHO European Region: a comparison with historical seasonal data from 28 countries  

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Abstract Background The world has recently experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century that lasted 14 months from June 2009 to August 2010. This study aimed to compare the timing, geographic spread and community impact during the winter wave of influenza pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 to historical influenza seasons in countries of the WHO European region. Methods We assessed the timing of pandemic by comparing the median peak of influenza activity in c...

Martirosyan Liana; John, Paget W.; Jorgensen Pernille; Brown Caroline S; Meerhoff Tamara J; Pereyaslov Dmitriy; Mott Joshua A

2012-01-01

215

Comparison of a Rapid Antigen Test with Nucleic Acid Testing during Cocirculation of Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 2009 and Seasonal Influenza A/H3N2?  

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The rapid diagnosis of influenza is critical in optimizing clinical management. Rapid antigen tests have decreased sensitivity in detecting pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus compared to seasonal influenza A subtypes (53.4% versus 74.2%, P < 0.001). Nucleic acid tests should be used to detect pandemic influenza virus when rapid antigen tests are negative.

Kok, Jen; Blyth, Christopher C.; Foo, Hong; Patterson, Jason; Taylor, Janette; Mcphie, Kenneth; Ratnamohan, V. Mala; Iredell, Jonathan R.; Dwyer, Dominic E.

2009-01-01

216

Coordination Costs for School-Located Influenza Vaccination Clinics, Maine, 2009 H1N1 Pandemic  

Science.gov (United States)

School nurses played a key role in Maine's school-located influenza vaccination (SLV) clinics during the 2009-2010 pandemic season. The objective of this study was to determine, from the school district perspective, the labor hours and costs associated with outside-clinic coordination activities (OCA). The authors defined OCA as labor hours spent…

Asay, Garrett R. Beeler; Cho, Bo-Hyun; Lorick, Suchita A.; Tipton, Meredith L.; Dube, Nancy L.; Messonnier, Mark L.

2012-01-01

217

Confronting an influenza pandemic with inexpensive generic agents: can it be done?  

Science.gov (United States)

Avian influenza A H5N1 presents a serious and possibly imminent pandemic threat. In such an event, adequate supplies of affordable vaccines and antiviral agents will be unavailable to most people in the world. In view of the overwhelming need for effective alternatives, generic agents that target the host immune response or the pandemic virus should be considered. Many scientists doubt the effectiveness of these agents. Nonetheless, several studies suggest that statins improve outcomes in patients with bacteraemia and pneumonia and might be similarly effective against influenza. An experimental study has shown that the fibrate gemfibrozil, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha agonist, reduces mortality in H2N2 influenza virus-infected mice. There is substantial molecular cross-talk between statins and PPAR agonists, and their clinical effects are additive in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Chloroquine increases endosomal pH, impairing influenza virus release into the cytosol. Statins, fibrates, and chloroquine are produced as generic medications in developing countries. They are inexpensive, could be stockpiled, and would be available on the first pandemic day. With a lack of realistic alternatives for confronting the next pandemic, research is urgently needed to determine whether these and other generic agents could mitigate the effects of what might otherwise become an unprecedented global public-health crisis. PMID:18420459

Fedson, David S

2008-09-01

218

DNA vaccination elicits protective immune responses against pandemic and classic swine influenza viruses in pigs  

Science.gov (United States)

Swine influenza is a highly contagious viral infection in pigs that significantly impacts the pork industry due to weight loss and secondary infections. There is also the potential of a significant public health threat, highlighted by the possibility that the 2009 H1N1 pandemic strain emerged from r...

219

Lymphocytopenia as a marker for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus infection in children  

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Abstract Lymphocytopenia has been reported in adults with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 infection, but data in children are inconclusive. Data from 76 children presented with flu-like symptoms between July and November 2009 and tested for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus and white blood cell (WBC) counts were analyzed. Samples from thirty-seven (48.7%) children resulted in a positive PCR assay for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus. When comparing data from these children w...

Chiappini, Elena; Galli, Luisa; Azzi, Alberta; Resti, Massimo; Bonsignori, Francesca; Martino, Maurizio

2010-01-01

220

Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus  

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The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

2010-05-25

 
 
 
 
221

Prior immunity helps to explain wave-like behaviour of pandemic influenza in 1918-9  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The ecology of influenza may be more complex than is usually assumed. For example, despite multiple waves in the influenza pandemic of 1918-19, many people in urban locations were apparently unaffected. Were they unexposed, or protected by pre-existing cross-immunity in the first wave, by acquired immunity in later waves, or were their infections asymptomatic? Methods We modelled all these possibilities to estimate parameters to best explain patterns of repeat attacks in 24,706 individuals potentially exposed to summer, autumn and winter waves in 12 English populations during the 1918-9 pandemic. Results Before the summer wave, we estimated that only 52% of persons (95% credibility estimates 41-66% were susceptible, with the remainder protected by prior immunity. Most people were exposed, as virus transmissibility was high with R0 credibility estimates of 3.10-6.74. Because of prior immunity, estimates of effective R at the start of the summer wave were lower at 1.57-3.96. Only 25-66% of exposed and susceptible persons reported symptoms. After each wave, 33-65% of protected persons became susceptible again before the next wave through waning immunity or antigenic drift. Estimated rates of prior immunity were less in younger populations (19-59% than in adult populations (38-66%, and tended to lapse more frequently in the young (49-92% than in adults (34-76%. Conclusions Our model for pandemic influenza in 1918-9 suggests that pre-existing immune protection, presumably induced by prior exposure to seasonal influenza, may have limited the pandemic attack-rate in urban populations, while the waning of that protection likely contributed to recurrence of pandemic waves in exposed cities. In contrast, in isolated populations, pandemic attack rates in 1918-9 were much higher than in cities, presumably because prior immunity was less in populations with infrequent prior exposure to seasonal influenza. Although these conclusions cannot be verified by direct measurements of historical immune mechanisms, our modelling inferences from 1918-9 suggest that the spread of the influenza A (H1N1 2009 pandemic has also been limited by immunity from prior exposure to seasonal influenza. Components of that immunity, which are measurable, may be short-lived, and not necessarily correlated with levels of HI antibody.

Pallaghy Paul K

2010-05-01

222

The burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza in infants and children  

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The burden of influenza is unevenly distributed, with more severe outcomes in children aged <5 years than older children and adults. In spite of this, immunisation policies for young children are far from universal. This article provides an overview of the published evidence on the burden of influenza in children worldwide, with a particular interest in the impact of pandemic influenza in 2009–2010 (caused by the H1N1pdm09 virus). In an average season, up to 9.8 % of 0- to 14-year olds pr...

Ruf, Bernhard R.; Knuf, Markus

2013-01-01

223

Excess healthcare burden during 1918-1920 influenza pandemic in Taiwan: implications for post-pandemic preparedness  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is speculated that the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus might fall into a seasonal pattern during the current post-pandemic period with more severe clinical presentation for high-risk groups identified during the 2009 pandemic. Hence the extent of likely excess healthcare needs during this period must be fully considered. We will make use of the historical healthcare record in Taiwan during and after the 1918 influenza pandemic to ascertain the scope of potential excess healthcare burden during the post-pandemic period. Methods To establish the healthcare needs after the initial wave in 1918, the yearly healthcare records (hospitalizations, outpatients, etc. in Taiwan during 1918-1920 are compared with the corresponding data from the adjacent "baseline" years of 1916, 1917, 1921, and 1922 to estimate the excess healthcare burden during the initial outbreak in 1918 and in the years immediately after. Results In 1918 the number of public hospital outpatients exceeded the yearly average of the baseline years by 20.11% (95% CI: 16.43, 25.90, and the number of hospitalizations exceeded the corresponding yearly average of the baseline years by 12.20% (10.59, 14.38, while the excess number of patients treated by the public medics was statistically significant at 32.21% (28.48, 39.82 more than the yearly average of the baseline years. For 1920, only the excess number of hospitalizations was statistically significant at 19.83% (95% CI: 17.21, 23.38 more than the yearly average of the baseline years. Conclusions Considerable extra burden with significant loss of lives was reported in 1918 by both the public medics system and the public hospitals. In comparison, only a substantial number of excess hospitalizations in the public hospitals was reported in 1920, indicating that the population was relatively unprepared for the first wave in 1918 and did not fully utilize the public hospitals. Moreover, comparatively low mortality was reported by the public hospitals and the public medics during the second wave in 1920 even though significantly more patients were hospitalized, suggesting that there had been substantially less fatal illnesses among the hospitalized patients during the second wave. Our results provide viable parameters for assessing healthcare needs for post-pandemic preparedness.

Chan Chi-Ho

2011-01-01

224

Multiplex point-of-care detection of human and avian influenza viruses using an antibody microarray technology  

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Over the last two decades concern about influenza has increased worldwide due to the rising number of human infections caused by an avian virus, H5N1, and the 2009-pandemic of swine-origin H1N1 virus. Counter-measures, for example the selective administration of antivirals to infected individuals, their hospitalization, and the culling of large numbers of infected animals require a prompt and reliable diagnosis, that ideally identifies the type and subtype of the virus and can ...

D’episcopo, Lorenzo

2013-01-01

225

Killing of Avian and Swine Influenza Virus by Natural Killer Cells?  

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Today, global attention is focused on two influenza virus strains: the current pandemic strain, swine origin influenza virus (H1N1-2009), and the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H5N1. At present, the infection caused by the H1N1-2009 is moderate, with mortality rates of less <1%. In contrast, infection with the H5N1 virus resulted in high mortality rates, and ca. 60% of the infected patients succumb to the infection. Thus, one of the world greatest concerns is that the H5N1 virus wil...

Achdout, Hagit; Meningher, Tal; Hirsh, Shira; Glasner, Ariella; Bar-on, Yotam; Gur, Chamutal; Porgador, Angel; Mendelson, Michal; Mandelboim, Michal; Mandelboim, Ofer

2010-01-01

226

The potential impact of the next influenza pandemic on a national primary care medical workforce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Another influenza pandemic is all but inevitable. We estimated its potential impact on the primary care medical workforce in New Zealand, so that planning could mitigate the disruption from the pandemic and similar challenges. Methods The model in the "FluAid" software (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, Atlanta was applied to the New Zealand primary care medical workforce (i.e., general practitioners. Results At its peak (week 4 the pandemic would lead to 1.2% to 2.7% loss of medical work time, using conservative baseline assumptions. Most workdays (88% would be lost due to illness, followed by hospitalisation (8%, and then premature death (4%. Inputs for a "more severe" scenario included greater health effects and time spent caring for sick relatives. For this scenario, 9% of medical workdays would be lost in the peak week, and 3% over a more compressed six-week period of the first pandemic wave. As with the base case, most (64% of lost workdays would be due to illness, followed by caring for others (31%, hospitalisation (4%, and then premature death (1%. Conclusion Preparedness planning for future influenza pandemics must consider the impact on this medical workforce and incorporate strategies to minimise this impact, including infection control measures, well-designed protocols, and improved health sector surge capacity.

Crampton Peter

2005-08-01

227

Theodore E. Woodward Award Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions Employed By Major American Cities During the 1918–19 Influenza Pandemic  

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A critical question in pandemic influenza planning is the role that non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) such as isolation and quarantine, social distancing, and school closure, might play in delaying the temporal impact of a pandemic, reducing the overall and peak attack rate, and reducing the number of cumulative deaths. Such measures could potentially provide valuable time for pandemic-strain vaccine and antiviral medication production and distribution. Optimally, appropriate NPI impleme...

Markel, Howard; Stern, Alexandra M.; Cetron, Martin S.

2008-01-01

228

Low adherence to influenza vaccination campaigns: is the H1N1 virus pandemic to be blamed?  

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Abstract Background Over the last few months, debates about the handling of the influenza virus A (H1N1) pandemic took place, in particular regarding the change of the WHO pandemic definition, economic interests, the dramatic communication style of mass media. The activation of plans to reduce the virus diffusion resulted in an important investment of resources. Were those investments proportionate to the risk? Was the pandemic overrated? The workload of the Pediatric Emergen...

Trivellin Valeria; Gandini Vera; Nespoli Luigi

2011-01-01

229

What infection control measures will people carry out to reduce transmission of pandemic influenza? A focus group study  

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Abstract Background Pandemic influenza poses a future health threat against which infection control behaviours may be an important defence. However, there is little qualitative research examining perceptions of infection control measures in the context of pandemic influenza. Methods Eight focus groups and one interview were conducted with a purposive sample of 31 participants. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of infection transmission and l...

Yardley Lucy; Morrison Leanne G

2009-01-01

230

Evolutionary Dynamics of Local Pandemic H1N1/2009 Influenza Virus Lineages Revealed by Whole-Genome Analysis  

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Virus gene sequencing and phylogenetics can be used to study the epidemiological dynamics of rapidly evolving viruses. With complete genome data, it becomes possible to identify and trace individual transmission chains of viruses such as influenza virus during the course of an epidemic. Here we sequenced 153 pandemic influenza H1N1/09 virus genomes from United Kingdom isolates from the first (127 isolates) and second (26 isolates) waves of the 2009 pandemic and used their sequences, dates of ...

Baillie, Gj; Galiano, M.; Agapow, Pm; Myers, R.; Chiam, R.; Gall, A.; Palser, Al; Watson, Sj; Hedge, J.; Underwood, A.; Platt, S.; Mclean, E.; Pebody, Rg; Rambaut, A.; Green, J.

2012-01-01

231

A cost comparison of electronic and hybrid data collection systems in Ontario during pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccination campaigns  

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Abstract Background During the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccination campaign, health regions in Canada collected client-level immunization data using fully electronic or hybrid systems, with the latter comprising both electronic and paper-based elements. The objective of our evaluation was to compare projected five-year costs associated with implementing these systems in Ontario public health units (PHUs) during pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccination campaigns....

Quan Sherman D; Quach Susan; Heidebrecht Christine L; Kwong Jeffrey C; Foisy Julie; Pereira Jennifer A; Guay Maryse; Sander Beate

2011-01-01

232

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 vaccine: An update  

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Full Text Available The world witnessed a the first influenza pandemic in this century and fourth overall since first flu pandemic was reported during the World War I. The past experiences with influenza viruses and this pandemic of H1N1 place a consider-able strain on health services and resulted in serious illnesses and a large number of deaths. Develop-ing countries were declared more likely to be at risk from the pandemic effects, as they faced the dual problem of highly vulnerable populations and limited resources to respond H1N1. The public health experts agreed that vaccination is the most effective ways to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic. The vaccines for H1N1 virus have been used in over 40 coun-tries and administered to over 200 million people helped in a great way and on August 10, 2010, World Health Organization (WHO announced H1N1 to be in postpandemic period. But based on knowledge about past pandemics, the H1N1 (2009 virus is expected to continue to circulate as a seasonal virus and may undergo some agenic-variation. As WHO strongly recommends vaccination, vigilance for regular updating of the composition of influenza vaccines, based on an assessment of the future impact of circulating viruses along with safety surveillance of the vaccines is necessary. This review has been done to take a stock of the currently available H1N1 vaccines and their possible use as public health intervention in the postpandemic period.

Goel M

2011-01-01

233

Seroconversion to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus and Cross-Reactive Immunity to Other Swine Influenza Viruses  

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To assess herd immunity to swine influenza viruses, we determined antibodies in 28 paired serum samples from participants in a prospective serologic cohort study in Hong Kong who had seroconverted to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Results indicated that infection with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 broadens cross-reactive immunity to other recent subtype H1 swine viruses.

Perera, Ranawaka A. P. M.; Riley, Steven; Ma, Siu K.; Zhu, Hua-chen; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. M.

2011-01-01

234

Influenza Virus Vaccines: Lessons from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic  

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Reflecting on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, we summarize lessons regarding influenza vaccines that can be applied in the future. The two major challenges to vaccination during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic were timing and availability of vaccine. Vaccines were, however, well-tolerated and immunogenic, with inactivated vaccines containing 15?g of HA generally inducing antibody titers ?1:40 in adults within 2 weeks of the administration of a single dose. Moreover, the use of oil-in-water adjuvants in Eur...

Broadbent, Andrew J.; Subbarao, Kanta

2011-01-01

235

Heterogeneous virulence of pandemic 2009 influenza H1N1 virus in mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathogenesis of influenza infection is a key factor leading to the prevention and control of future outbreaks. Pandemic 2009 Influenza H1N1 infection, although frequently mild, led to a severe and fatal form of disease in certain cases that make its virulence nature debatable. Much effort has been made toward explaining the determinants of disease severity; however, no absolute reason has been established. Results This study presents the heterogeneous virulence of clinically similar strains of pandemic 2009 influenza virus in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells and mice. The viruses were obtained from patients who were admitted in a local hospital in China with a similar course of infection and recovered. The A/Nanchang/8002/2009 and A/Nanchang/8011/2009 viruses showed efficient replication and high lethality in mice while infection with A/Nanchang/8008/2009 was not lethal with impaired viral replication, minimal pathology and modest proinflammatory activity in lungs. Sequence analysis displayed prominent differences between polymerase subunits (PB2 and PA of viral genomes that might correlate with their different phenotypic behavior. Conclusions The study confirms that biological heterogeneity, linked with the extent of viral replication, exists among pandemic H1N1 strains that may serve as a benchmark for future investigations on influenza pathogenesis.

Farooqui Amber

2012-06-01

236

Cloned Defective Interfering Influenza Virus Protects Ferrets from Pandemic 2009 Influenza A Virus and Allows Protective Immunity to Be Established  

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Influenza A viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population, causing epidemics in the winter, and occasional worldwide pandemics. In addition there are periodic outbreaks in domestic poultry, horses, pigs, dogs, and cats. Infections of domestic birds can be fatal for the birds and their human contacts. Control in man operates through vaccines and antivirals, but both have their limitations. In the search for an alternative treatment we have focussed on defective i...

Dimmock, Nigel J.; Dove, Brian K.; Scott, Paul D.; Meng, Bo; Taylor, Irene; Cheung, Linda; Hallis, Bassam; Marriott, Anthony C.; Carroll, Miles W.; Easton, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

237

Seroprevalence study in Vojvodina (Serbia following 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The seroprevalence study was performed in Vojvodina during May and June 2010 in order to asses the effects of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v epidemic on herd immunity. It was a part of the Serbian Ministry of Health funded nationwide study. Objective. Prevalence of antibodies against 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v was determined in a 1% sample of the population monitored for influenza-like illness and acute respiratory infections in Vojvodina through sentinel surveillance system. Methods. The study sample involved a total of 1004 inhabitants of Vojvodina. The control group consisted of randomly selected and age-adjusted 1054 sera collected in the pre-pandemic period. Sera were tested by the reaction of hemagglutination inhibition using influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1 antigen in dilution from 1:8 to 1:256. Antibody titers ?1:32 and ?1:8 were considered protective and diagnostic, respectively. Results. The differences between control and study sera in all age groups were significant for both diagnostic ?1/8 and protective titres ?1/32 of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies (chi square test, p<0.001. The highest percentage of seropositive subjects was registered in the age group 15-19 years followed by children aged 5-14 years. Both diagnostic and protective titres were about twice higher in the vaccinated as compared to the non-vaccinated group. There were no statistically significant differences in seroprevalence between seven districts of Vojvodina. Conclusion. The 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1v epidemic significantly influenced the herd immunity in our population regardless of low immunization coverage with highest immunity levels in adolescents aged 15-19 years and with similar herd immunity levels in all the regions in the province six months after the outbreak.

Petrovi? Vladimir

2012-01-01

238

Severe pandemic H1N1 and seasonal influenza in children and young adults with sickle cell disease  

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Influenza causes excess morbidity in sickle cell disease (SCD). H1N1 pandemic influenza has been severe in children. To compare H1N1 with seasonal influenza in SCD (patients younger than 22), we reviewed medical records (1993-2009). We identified 123 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza (94 seasonal, 29 H1N1). Those with seasonal influenza were younger (median 4.4 vs 8.7 years old, P = .006) and had less asthma (24% vs 56%, P = .002). Those with H1N1 influenza more often had acute chest sy...

Strouse, John J.; Reller, Megan E.; Bundy, David G.; Amoako, Martha; Cancio, Maria; Han, Rachel N.; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Casella, James F.

2010-01-01

239

The effect of healthcare environments on a pandemic influenza outbreak.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this presentation are: (1) To determine if healthcare settings serve as intensive transmission environments for influenza epidemics, increasing effects on communities; (2) To determine which mitigation strategies are best for use in healthcare settings and in communities to limit influenza epidemic effects; and (3) To determine which mitigation strategies are best to prevent illness in healthcare workers.

Cannon, Daniel C.; Davey, Victoria J. (Department of Veterans Affairs); Glass, Robert John, Jr.

2010-12-01

240

An M2 Cytoplasmic Tail Mutant as a Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine against Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus  

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The 2009 influenza pandemic brought home the importance of vaccines in infection control. Previously, we demonstrated an M2 cytoplasmic tail mutant H5N1 influenza virus could serve as a live-attenuated vaccine. Here, we adapted that strategy, generating a mutant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus that grew well in cell culture, but replicated less well in mice than did wild-type virus. The mutant virus elicited sterile immunity in mice, completely protecting them from challenge with a pandemic (H1N1)...

Hatta, Yasuko; Hatta, Masato; Bilsel, Pamuk; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Direct association between pharyngeal viral secretion and host cytokine response in severe pandemic influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe disease caused by 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1virus is characterized by the presence of hypercytokinemia. The origin of the exacerbated cytokine response is unclear. As observed previously, uncontrolled influenza virus replication could strongly influence cytokine production. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between host cytokine responses and viral levels in pandemic influenza critically ill patients. Methods Twenty three patients admitted to the ICU with primary viral pneumonia were included in this study. A quantitative PCR based method targeting the M1 influenza gene was developed to quantify pharyngeal viral load. In addition, by using a multiplex based assay, we systematically evaluated host cytokine responses to the viral infection at admission to the ICU. Correlation studies between cytokine levels and viral load were done by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Fifteen patients needed of intubation and ventilation, while eight did not need of mechanical ventilation during ICU hospitalization. Viral load in pharyngeal swabs was 300 fold higher in the group of patients with the worst respiratory condition at admission to the ICU. Pharyngeal viral load directly correlated with plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-12p70, IFN-?, the chemotactic factors MIP-1?, GM-CSF, the angiogenic mediator VEGF and also of the immuno-modulatory cytokine IL-1ra (p Conclusions Severe respiratory disease caused by the 2009 pandemic influenza virus is characterized by the existence of a direct association between viral replication and host cytokine response, revealing a potential pathogenic link with the severe disease caused by other influenza subtypes such as H5N1.

Castro Carmen

2011-08-01

242

Human swine influenza A [H1N1]: practical advice for clinicians early in the pandemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influenza pandemic the world was waiting for may have arrived, but the early indications are that the first wave of human swine influenza A [H1N1], also referred to as H1N1 Mexico 09 or "swine flu", is highly transmissible but of no greater virulence than seasonal influenza to date. The new swine flu H1N1 virus is a mixture of avian, porcine and human influenza RNA. With twenty thousand confirmed cases worldwide and 117 deaths within 7 weeks of the first acknowledgement of a possible pandemic by Mexican and WHO experts, the mortality rate is less than 0.1% and the majority of deaths centred upon the origin of the epidemic in Mexico [83%]. Swine flu is thus far a relatively mild illness seen predominantly in those who are healthy and under 25 years of age, perhaps reflecting protection from previous human influenza exposure in older people. As the virus spreads internationally, border protection issues have surfaced and public health initiatives are being progressively rolled out to minimise the transmission. Vaccines are being developed which will be trialled in the coming months with a likely availability by August 2009, in time for the northern hemisphere autumn and winter. Vigilance without alarm appears to be the recommendation so far. PMID:19651387

Fitzgerald, Dominic A

2009-09-01

243

Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine as a Rapid-Response Tool Against Avian Influenza Pandemic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Influenza viruses in nature undergo genetic mutation and reassortment. Three pandemics of avian influenza in man were recorded in the twentieth century. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses currently in circulation pose a threat for another world-wide pandemic, if they become transmissible from man to man. Manufacturing protective vaccines using current egg-based technology is often difficult due to the virulence of the virus and its adverse effects on the embryonating egg substrate. New technologies allow the creation of safe and protective pandemic influenza vaccines without the need for egg based substrates. These technologies allow new vaccines to be created in less than one month. Manufacturing is in tissue culture, not eggs. Vaccine can be administered to man non-invasively, without adjuvants, eliciting a rapid and protective immune response. Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 HPAI virus challenges. Mass-administration of this bird flu vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. Vaccination using this vaccine could protect the the largest host reservoir (chickens) and greatly reduce the exposure of man to avian influenza. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of a non-replicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural AI virus infections. In addition to mass immunization of poultry, both animals and humans have been effectively immunized by intranasal administration of Ad5-vectored influenza vaccines without any appreciable side effects, even in mice and human volunteers with preexisting immunity to Ad5. RCA-free Ad5-vectored AI vaccines may thus provide a critical tool for mitigating an AI pandemic in a simple, rapid, and safe manner. (author)

244

Pandemic potential of avian influenza A (H7N9) viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Avian influenza viruses rarely infect humans, but the recently emerged avian H7N9 influenza viruses have caused sporadic infections in humans in China, resulting in 440 confirmed cases with 122 fatalities as of 16 May 2014. In addition, epidemiologic surveys suggest that there have been asymptomatic or mild human infections with H7N9 viruses. These viruses replicate efficiently in mammals, show limited transmissibility in ferrets and guinea pigs, and possess mammalian-adapting amino acid changes that likely contribute to their ability to infect mammals. In this review, we summarize the characteristic features of the novel H7N9 viruses and assess their pandemic potential. PMID:25264312

Watanabe, Tokiko; Watanabe, Shinji; Maher, Eileen A; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

2014-11-01

245

Pandemic influenza A virus codon usage revisited: biases, adaptation and implications for vaccine strain development  

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Abstract Background Influenza A virus (IAV) is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae and contains eight segments of a single-stranded RNA genome with negative polarity. The first influenza pandemic of this century was declared in April of 2009, with the emergence of a novel H1N1 IAV strain (H1N1pdm) in Mexico and USA. Understanding the extent and causes of biases in codon usage is essential to the understanding of viral evolution. A comprehensive study to investiga...

Goñi Natalia; Iriarte Andrés; Comas Victoria; Soñora Martín; Moreno Pilar; Moratorio Gonzalo; Musto Héctor; Cristina Juan

2012-01-01

246

Prolonged shedding of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in a pancreas-after-kidney transplant recipient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prolonged shedding of influenza virus has been reported in immunocompromised patients. Delayed viral clearance may contribute to antiviral resistance and nosocomial transmission. We report a case of a pancreas-after-kidney transplant recipient who had detectable pandemic influenza A virus for 12 months. Pyrosequencing analysis detected the H275Y mutation, which is associated with resistance to oseltamivir. PMID:25081940

Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Deziel, Paul J; Wotton, Jason T; Binnicker, Matthew J; Razonable, Raymund R

2014-10-01

247

Performance of the Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Directigen EZ Flu A+B rapid influenza diagnostic test, as compared to real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, demonstrated suboptimal performance to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009. Age- and viral load-stratified test sensitivity ranged from 33.3 to 84.6% and 0 to 100%, respectively. PMID:24582319

Boyanton, Bobby L; Almradi, Amro; Mehta, Tejal; Robinson-Dunn, Barbara

2014-04-01

248

Challenge of Pigs with Natural Immunity to H1 and H3 Swine Influenza Virus with Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. The emergence of the pandemic 2009 human H1N1 influenza A virus raised many questions about the implications for this virus in swine (1). One such question is, does prior exposure to influenza virus confer any protection against the new virus? This report describes a study to evaluate ...

249

Antibody response of healthy children to pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the proportion of pediatric pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza cases who showed seroconversion, the magnitude of this seroconversion, or the factors that can affect the antibody level evoked by the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza. Aims of this study were to analyse antibody responses and the factors associated with high antibody titres in a cohort of children with naturally acquired A/H1N1/2009 influenza infection confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results Demographic, clinical and virologic data were collected from 69 otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza (27 females, mean age ± SD: 5.01 ± 4.55 years. Their antibody levels against pandemic A/H1N1/2009 and seasonal A/H1N1 influenza viruses were evaluated by measuring hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies using standard assays. Sixty-four patients (92.8% with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza had A/H1N1/2009 antibody levels of ?40, whereas only 28/69 (40.6% were seroprotected against seasonal A/H1N1 influenza virus. Those who were seroprotected against seasonal A/H1N1 virus were significantly older, significantly more often hospitalised, had a diagnosis of pneumonia significantly more frequently, and were significantly more often treated with oseltamivir than those who were not seroprotected (p Conclusions Otherwise healthy children seem to show seroprotective antibody titres after natural infection with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus. The strength of the immune response seems to be related to the severity of the disease, but not to previous seasonal A/H1N1 influenza immunity.

Esposito Susanna

2011-12-01

250

Protective immunity to lethal challenge of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus by vaccination  

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The remarkable infectivity and virulence of the 1918 influenza virus resulted in an unprecedented pandemic, raising the question of whether it is possible to develop protective immunity to this virus and whether immune evasion may have contributed to its spread. Here, we report that the highly lethal 1918 virus is susceptible to immune protection by a preventive vaccine, and we define its mechanism of action. Immunization with plasmid expression vectors encoding hemagglutinin (HA) elicited po...

Kong, Wing-pui; Hood, Chantelle; Yang, Zhi-yong; Wei, Chih-jen; Xu, Ling; Garci?a-sastre, Adolfo; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Nabel, Gary J.

2006-01-01

251

The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)–pandemic Influenza connection: Coincident or causal?  

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We find that the four most recent human influenza pandemics (1918, 1957, 1968, and 2009), all of which were first identified in boreal spring or summer, were preceded by La Niña conditions in the equatorial Pacific. Changes in the phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation have been shown to alter the migration, stopover time, fitness, and interspecies mixing of migratory birds, and consequently, likely affect their mixing with domestic animals. We hypothesize that La Niña conditions brin...

Shaman, Jeffrey; Lipsitch, Marc

2013-01-01

252

Pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza: Experience from a critical care unit in India  

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Full Text Available This case series details our experience with seven patients with pandemic (H1N1 2009 influenza from an intensive care unit in India. All the patients had respiratory failure requiring ventilation except one; two patients developed pneumothorax. Of the seven patients, two died (28.5% and five recovered. Four patients had co-morbid conditions and one was morbidly obese; all the five patients were discharged alive.

Sahoo Jyoti

2010-01-01

253

Epidemiology of fatal cases associated with pandemic influenza reported in Yemen  

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Objectives: This study describes the incidence of all fatal cases associated with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Yemen. It sets out to highlight the factors associated with poor prognosis *The authors declare that they have no competing interests. to enhance the implementation of prevention and control programs. Methods: The study is based on retrospective analysis of available data until 14 March 2010, as compiled by the disease control and surveillance team in Yemen. Results: Between 16 Jun...

Thabet, Ahmed A. K.; Moulhee, Najeeb M.; Abdulhakeem Al-kohlani; Mohammed Jahaf

2012-01-01

254

Hedging against Antiviral Resistance during the Next Influenza Pandemic Using Small Stockpiles of an Alternative Chemotherapy  

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Background: The effectiveness of single-drug antiviral interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality during the next influenza pandemic will be substantially weakened if transmissible strains emerge which are resistant to the stockpiled antiviral drugs. We developed a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that a small stockpile of a secondary antiviral drug could be used to mitigate the adverse consequences of the emergence of resistant strains. Methods and Findings: We used a multistra...

Wu, Jt; Leung, Gm; Lipsitch, M.; Cooper, Bs; Riley, S.

2009-01-01

255

Influenza virus genotypes circulating in and around Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, during post pandemic period, August 2010 - September 2012  

Science.gov (United States)

Background & objectives: During the post influenza pandemic period, continuous surveillance of influenza virus and its subtypes is mandatory to help the policy makers to take effective and appropriate decisions. Therefore, this study was planned to determine the pattern of influenza virus activity in context to various meteorological and clinical parameters in and around Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, during post pandemic period August 2010 - September 2012. Methods: Nasal swabs/throat swabs/nasopharyngeal aspirates of 2669 patients were collected. One-step real time PCR for detection of influenza virus was done according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) protocol. Results: Influenza positivity was 15.8 per cent (423/2669) in symptomatic patients. Of the 423 total positives, 192 (7.2%) were influenza A and 231 (8.7%) were influenza B. Positivity for influenza virus was significantly (P=0.001, OR=2.9, CI=1.9-4.3) higher in patients with Influenza like illness (ILI) (17.4%, 396/2271) than those with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) (6.8%, 27/398). Influenza A positive samples were subtyped as; pdmH1N1 (67.2%, 129/192) and seasonal H3N2 (32.8%, 63/192). It significantly correlated with monthly mean rainfall, humidity and dew point while atmospheric pressure was inversely related. No significant association was found with temperature and wind speed. Clinical variations were observed between different strains of Influenza virus. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings provide a clear picture of different clinical presentations of various strains of influenza A and B viruses and epidemiology of influenza infection from Lucknow (UP), India. The seasonality of influenza virus infection showed variation in relation to different environmental factors. Pandemic H1N1 caused more systemic infection than seasonal influenza A/H3N2 virus. PMID:24820836

Dangi, Tanushree; Jain, Bhawana; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Mohan, Madan; Dwivedi, Mukesh; Singh, J. V.; Kumar, Rashmi; Singh, K. P.; Chaddha, M. S.; Mishra, A. C.; Jain, Amita

2014-01-01

256

Novel Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses Are Potently Inhibited by DAS181, a Sialidase Fusion Protein  

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Background: The recent emergence of a novel pandemic influenza A(H1N1) strain in humans exemplifies the rapid and unpredictable nature of influenza virus evolution and the need for effective therapeutics and vaccines to control such outbreaks. However, resistance to antivirals can be a formidable problem as evidenced by the currently widespread oseltamivir- and adamantane-resistant seasonal influenza A viruses (IFV). Additional antiviral approaches with novel mechanisms of action are needed t...

Triana-baltzer, Gallen B.; Gubareva, Larisa V.; Nicholls, John M.; Pearce, Melissa B.; Mishin, Vasiliy P.; Belser, Jessica A.; Chen, Li-mei; Chan, Renee W. Y.; Chan, Michael C. W.; Hedlund, Maria; Larson, Jeffrey L.; Moss, Ronald B.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Fang, Fang

2009-01-01

257

Trend of emergency department presentations for influenza like illness: Differences between pandemic (2009-2010 and post-pandemic (2010-2011 season  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze differences between incidence, characteristics and out-comes of patients with Influenza Like Illness (ILI presenting to a teaching public hospital in Central Italy during pandemic influenza season (2009-2010 and during the post-pandemic outbreak (2010-2011. We performed a retrospective descriptive study, and we identified Emergency Department (ED presentations for ILI, relying on hospital discharge data administrative database. Bivariate analyses for the outcome of hospital admission were performed for both seasons and a multiple logistic regression model has been developed to evaluate which factors were independently associated with hospital admission. Among all the ED presentations (51,757, visits for ILI were respectively 821 (3.1% during the pandemic season, and 704 (2.8% during the post-pandemic one. The pandemic cohort differs significantly from the post-pandemic cohort for every characteristic investigated, with the exception of the length of stay in the ED. Overall in 2009-2010 there were more ED presentations compared to the following season, but hospital admission rates were less than in 2010-2011. Further studies are needed to assess if other variables may affect the use of the ED for ILI in order to try to plan staff and hospital organization.

Elena Di Tondo

2012-12-01

258

An analysis of national target groups for monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine and trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines in 2009-10 and 2010-11  

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Abstract Background Vaccination is generally considered to be the best primary prevention measure against influenza virus infection. Many countries encourage specific target groups of people to undertake vaccination, often with financial subsidies or a priority list. To understand differential patterns of national target groups for influenza vaccination before, during and after the 2009 influenza pandemic, we reviewed and analyzed the country-specific policies in the correspo...

St, Lee Esther; Km, Ip Dennis; Nishiura Hiroshi; Wu Peng; Ng Sophia; Cowling Benjamin J

2011-01-01

259

Humanized antibody neutralizing 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2009 pandemic H1N1 S-OIV (swine origin influenza A virus) caused noticeable morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to vaccine and antiviral drug therapy, the use of influenza virus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for treatment purposes is a viable alternative. We previously reported the isolation of a high affinity, potently neutralizing murine MAb MA2077 against 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus. We describe here the humanization of MA2077 and its expression in a mammalian cell line. Six complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of MA2077 were grafted onto the human germline variable regions; along with six and eight back mutations in the framework of heavy and light chains, respectively, pertaining to the vernier zone and interchain packing residues to promote favorable CDR conformation and facilitate antigen binding. The full length humanized antibody, 2077Hu2, expressed in CHO-K1 cells, showed high affinity to hemagglutinin protein (KD = 0.75 ± 0.32 nM) and potent neutralization of pandemic H1N1 virus (IC50 = 0.17 ?g/mL), with marginally higher IC50 as compared to MA2077 (0.08 ?g/mL). In addition, 2077Hu2 also retained the epitope specificity for the "Sa" antigenic site on pandemic HA. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a humanized neutralizing antibody against pandemic H1N1 virus. PMID:25044602

Shembekar, Nachiket; Mallajosyula, Vamsee V Aditya; Chaudhary, Piyush; Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Varadarajan, Raghavan; Gupta, Satish Kumar

2014-12-01

260

Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus in Danish pigs: Diagnosis and lack of surveillance  

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In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 virus (H1N1v) of likely swine origin emerged in the human population globally. The first case in pigs was reported from Canada in May 2009 and presently almost all countries with pig production have reported cases. The emergence of a new influenza subtype in swine with a genetic profile similar to older circulating strains implied a challenge for the veterinary diagnostic laboratories. We report the development, validation and implemen...

Larsen, Lars Erik; Nielsen, L. P.; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1 Infection in Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to share our experience of sixty-eight pediatric hospitalizations associated with influenza-like illness and pneumonia between November, 2009 and December, 2009.Materials and Methods: Clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory and radiological results, length of stay in hospital and intensive care unit, treatments and complications were compared in laboratory confirmed pandemic influenza A positive and negative cases.Results: There was no significant difference in gender distribution between the two groups. The number of positive cases in patients over 5 years of age were significantly higher than the same age group in negative patients (p=0.004. There were underlying health conditions in 78.8% of the positive cases and in 68.8% of the negative cases (p=0.57. The incidence of diarrhea in positive group was significantly higher than in the negative group (p=0.02. Low immunization rates of the seasonal influenza vaccine were remarkable in each group. There was no significant difference in vaccination rates between the two groups (p=0.99.Conclusions: The severity of the disease remained similar in patients with positive and negative groups. In both groups, the high ratio of those having an underlying disease was noteworthy. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2011; 9: 53-9Key words: Pandemic 2009 influenza A, childhood, pneumonia

Taner Özgür

2011-08-01

262

Severe pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza disease due to pathogenic immune complexes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pandemic influenza viruses often cause severe disease in middle-aged adults without preexisting comorbidities. The mechanism of illness associated with severe disease in this age group is not well understood. Here we find preexisting serum antibodies that cross-react with, but do not protect against, 2009 H1N1 influenza virus in middle-aged adults. Nonprotective antibody is associated with immune complex-mediated disease after infection. We detected high titers of serum antibody of low avidity for H1-2009 antigen, and low-avidity pulmonary immune complexes against the same protein, in severely ill individuals. Moreover, C4d deposition--a marker of complement activation mediated by immune complexes--was present in lung sections of fatal cases. Archived lung sections from middle-aged adults with confirmed fatal influenza 1957 H2N2 infection revealed a similar mechanism of illness. These observations provide a previously unknown biological mechanism for the unusual age distribution of severe cases during influenza pandemics. PMID:21131958

Monsalvo, Ana Clara; Batalle, Juan P; Lopez, M Florencia; Krause, Jens C; Klemenc, Jennifer; Hernandez, Johanna Zea; Maskin, Bernardo; Bugna, Jimena; Rubinstein, Carlos; Aguilar, Leandro; Dalurzo, Liliana; Libster, Romina; Savy, Vilma; Baumeister, Elsa; Aguilar, Liliana; Cabral, Graciela; Font, Julia; Solari, Liliana; Weller, Kevin P; Johnson, Joyce; Echavarria, Marcela; Edwards, Kathryn M; Chappell, James D; Crowe, James E; Williams, John V; Melendi, Guillermina A; Polack, Fernando P

2011-02-01

263

One-way trip: Influenza virus' adaptation to gallinaceous poultry may limit its pandemic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

We hypothesise that some influenza virus adaptations to poultry may explain why the barrier for human-to-human transmission is not easily overcome once the virus has crossed from wild birds to chickens. Since the cluster of human infections with H5N1 influenza in Hong Kong in 1997, chickens have been recognized as the major source of avian influenza virus infection in humans. Although often severe, these infections have been limited in their subsequent human-to-human transmission, and the feared H5N1 pandemic has not yet occurred. Here we examine virus adaptations selected for during replication in chickens and other gallinaceous poultry. These include altered receptor binding and increased pH of fusion of the haemagglutinin as well as stalk deletions of the neuraminidase protein. This knowledge could aid the delivery of vaccines and increase our ability to prioritize research efforts on those viruses from the diverse array of avian influenza viruses that have greatest human pandemic potential. Also watch the Video Abstract. PMID:25546511

Long, Jason S; Benfield, Camilla T; Barclay, Wendy S

2015-02-01

264

Prevalence of influenza-like illness and seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination coverage among workers--United States, 2009-10 influenza season.  

Science.gov (United States)

During an influenza pandemic, information about the industry and occupation (I&O) of persons likely to be infected with influenza virus is important to guide key policy decisions regarding vaccine prioritization and exposure-control measures. Health-care personnel (HCP) might have increased opportunity for exposure to influenza infection, and they have been prioritized for influenza vaccination because of their own risk and the risk that infected HCP pose to patients. To identify other groups of workers that might be at increased risk for pandemic influenza infection, influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination coverage data from the 2009 National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), which was conducted during October 2009 through June 2010, were analyzed. In a representative sample of 28,710 employed adults, 5.5% reported ILI symptoms in the month before the interview, and 23.7% received the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine. Among employed adults, the highest prevalence of ILI was reported by those employed in the industry groups "Real estate and rental and leasing" (10.5%) and "Accommodation and food services" (10.2%), and in the occupation groups "Food preparation and serving related" (11.0%) and "Community and social services" (8.3%). Both seasonal influenza and pH1N1 vaccination coverage were relatively low in all of these groups of workers. Adults not in the labor force (i.e., homemakers, students, retired persons, and persons unable to work) had ILI prevalence and pH1N1 vaccination coverage similar to those found in all employed adults combined; in contrast, ILI prevalence was higher and pH1N1 vaccination coverage was lower among unemployed adults (i.e., those looking for work). These results suggest that adults employed in certain industries and occupations might have increased risk for influenza infection, and that the majority of these workers did not receive seasonal or pH1N1 influenza vaccine. Unemployed adults might also be considered a high risk group for influenza. PMID:24622286

Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Li, Jia; Sweeney, Marie; Santibanez, Tammy A

2014-03-14

265

Responding to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza: the role of oseltamivir.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza is affecting countries in all five continents, with most cases so far having been reported in North and South America and Europe, and children and young adults being the most susceptible age groups. To date, the clinical course of disease is typically mild, with low hospitalization and mortality rates. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 is susceptible to oseltamivir and, although few clinical data are yet available, current information suggests that treatment with oseltamivir appears to be beneficial. Only isolated cases of resistance to the drug have been reported to date, in keeping with the low frequency observed in clinical studies involving patients infected with seasonal influenza viruses. Current health authority guidelines recommend the use of oseltamivir in infected adults and children who have or are at elevated risk for severe disease, including pregnant women; use during the pandemic in infants contracts with local companies in Asia and Africa. Furthermore, Roche has published a document outlining how it would allocate limited supplies of Tamiflu during a pandemic, which are in line with WHO recommendations stating that 'resources should be used to provide the maximum possible health benefit'. Roche is also offering support such as reprocessing of expiring capsule stocks (in development) and shelf-life extension to support governments in the management of their stockpiles. Clinical studies, either sponsored by or supported by Roche, are in progress. These trials are designed to investigate the effectiveness of oseltamivir in patients infected with the pandemic virus in greater depth, and include high-dose studies, assessment of natural and drug-induced resistance, and response to treatment in high-risk populations such as young infants, immunocompromised patients and the severely ill. PMID:20215134

Reddy, David

2010-04-01

266

Viral shedding in children infected by pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate viral shedding in otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in order to define how long children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza shed the virus, and also plan adequate measures to control the spread of the disease within households. Findings In 74 otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza, nasopharyngeal swabs were taken for virus detection upon hospital admission and every two days until negative. The nasopharyngeal swabs of all of the children were positive for pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus in the first three days after the onset of infection, and only 21.6% and 13.5% remained positive after respectively 11 and 15 days. No child was positive after more than 15 days. Viral load also decreased over time, and was not associated with patient age or the risk of pneumonia. Those who shed the virus for ? 9 days were not at any increased risk of suffering from more severe disease in comparison with those who shed the virus for a shorter time, but their households experienced a significantly higher number of influenza-like illness during the two weeks after the onset of the initial disease (72.3% vs 41.4%; p Conclusions Regardless of their age, healthy children can shed pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus for up to two weeks after illness onset, and the households of the children who shed the virus for ? 9 days suffered a higher number of influenza-like illness in the two weeks following the onset of the first disease. This could suggest that when a completely unknown influenza virus is circulating, isolation period of infected children has to be longer than the 7 days recommended for the infections due to seasonal influenza viruses.

Fossali Emilio

2011-07-01

267

Influenza-like illness in acute myocardial infarction patients during the winter wave of the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in London: a case-control study.  

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To investigate recent respiratory and influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in acute myocardial infarction patients compared with patients hospitalised for acute non-vascular surgical conditions during the second wave of the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic.

Warren-gash, C.; Geretti, A. M.; Hamilton, G.; Rakhit, R. D.; Smeeth, L.; Hayward, A. C.

2013-01-01

268

Cloned Defective Interfering Influenza Virus Protects Ferrets from Pandemic 2009 Influenza A Virus and Allows Protective Immunity to Be Established  

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Influenza A viruses are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population, causing epidemics in the winter, and occasional worldwide pandemics. In addition there are periodic outbreaks in domestic poultry, horses, pigs, dogs, and cats. Infections of domestic birds can be fatal for the birds and their human contacts. Control in man operates through vaccines and antivirals, but both have their limitations. In the search for an alternative treatment we have focussed on defective interfering (DI) influenza A virus. Such a DI virus is superficially indistinguishable from a normal virus but has a large deletion in one of the eight RNAs that make up the viral genome. Antiviral activity resides in the deleted RNA. We have cloned one such highly active DI RNA derived from segment 1 (244 DI virus) and shown earlier that intranasal administration protects mice from lethal disease caused by a number of different influenza A viruses. A more cogent model of human influenza is the ferret. Here we found that intranasal treatment with a single dose of 2 or 0.2 µg 244 RNA delivered as A/PR/8/34 virus particles protected ferrets from disease caused by pandemic virus A/California/04/09 (A/Cal; H1N1). Specifically, 244 DI virus significantly reduced fever, weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and infectious load. 244 DI RNA, the active principle, was amplified in nasal washes following infection with A/Cal, consistent with its amelioration of clinical disease. Animals that were treated with 244 DI RNA cleared infectious and DI viruses without delay. Despite the attenuation of infection and disease by DI virus, ferrets formed high levels of A/Cal-specific serum haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies and were solidly immune to rechallenge with A/Cal. Together with earlier data from mouse studies, we conclude that 244 DI virus is a highly effective antiviral with activity potentially against all influenza A subtypes. PMID:23251341

Dimmock, Nigel J.; Taylor, Irene; Cheung, Linda; Hallis, Bassam; Marriott, Anthony C.; Carroll, Miles W.; Easton, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

269

Examining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of domestic and international university students towards seasonal and pandemic influenza  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the availability of the specific pandemic vaccine, strategies to mitigate the impact of the disease typically involved antiviral treatment and “non-pharmaceutical” community interventions. However, compliance with these strategies is linked to risk perceptions, perceived severity and perceived effectiveness of the strategies. In 2010, we undertook a study to examine the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, practices and barriers towards influenza and infection control strategies amongst domestic and international university students. Methods A study using qualitative methods that incorporated 20 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with domestic and international undergraduate and postgraduate university students based at one university in Sydney, Australia. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of influenza (seasonal vs. pandemic in terms of perceived severity and impact, and attitudes towards infection control measures including hand-washing and the use of social distancing, isolation or cough etiquette. Results While participants were generally knowledgeable about influenza transmission, they were unable to accurately define what ‘pandemic influenza’ meant. While avian flu or SARS were mistaken as examples of past pandemics, almost all participants were able to associate the recent “swine flu” situation as an example of a pandemic event. Not surprisingly, it was uncommon for participants to identify university students as being at risk of catching pandemic influenza. Amongst those interviewed, it was felt that ‘students’ were capable of fighting off any illness. The participant’s nominated hand washing as the most feasible and acceptable compared with social distancing and mask use. Conclusions Given the high levels of interaction that occurs in a university setting, it is really important that students are informed about disease transmission and about risk of infection. It may be necessary to emphasize that pandemic influenza could pose a real threat to them, that it is important to protect oneself from infection and that infection control measures can be effective.

Seale Holly

2012-04-01

270

Genomic analysis of pandemic and post-pandemic influenza A pH1N1 viruses isolated in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  

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During the 2009 influenza A pH1N1 pandemics in Brazil, the state that was most affected was Rio Grande do Sul (RS), with over 3,000 confirmed cases, including 298 deaths. While no cases were confirmed in 2010, 103 infections with 14 deaths by pH1N1 were reported in 2011. Genomic analysis of the circulating viruses is fundamental for understanding viral evolution and supporting vaccine development against these pathogens. This study investigated whole genomes of six pH1N1 virus isolates from pandemic and post-pandemic periods in RS, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis using the concatenated genome segments demonstrated that at least two lineages of the virus co-circulated in RS during the 2009 pandemic period. Moreover, our analysis showed that the post-pandemic pH1N1 virus from 2011 constitutes a distinct clade whose ancestor belongs to clade 7. All six isolates contained amino acid substitutions in their proteins when compared to the archetype strains California/04/2009 and California/07/2009. The 2011 isolates contained more amino acid substitutions, and most of their genes were under purifying selection. Based on the amino acid substitutions in HA epitopes from strains isolated in RS, Brazil, in silico analysis predicted a decrease in vaccine efficacy against post-pandemic strains (median 31.562 %) in relation to pandemic ones (median 39.735 %). PMID:24114147

Sant'Anna, F H; Borges, L G A; Fallavena, P R V; Gregianini, T S; Matias, F; Halpin, R A; Wentworth, D; d'Azevedo, P A; Veiga, A B G

2014-04-01

271

Quarantine for pandemic influenza control at the borders of small island nations  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although border quarantine is included in many influenza pandemic plans, detailed guidelines have yet to be formulated, including considerations for the optimal quarantine length. Motivated by the situation of small island nations, which will probably experience the introduction of pandemic influenza via just one airport, we examined the potential effectiveness of quarantine as a border control measure. Methods Analysing the detailed epidemiologic characteristics of influenza, the effectiveness of quarantine at the borders of islands was modelled as the relative reduction of the risk of releasing infectious individuals into the community, explicitly accounting for the presence of asymptomatic infected individuals. The potential benefit of adding the use of rapid diagnostic testing to the quarantine process was also considered. Results We predict that 95% and 99% effectiveness in preventing the release of infectious individuals into the community could be achieved with quarantine periods of longer than 4.7 and 8.6 days, respectively. If rapid diagnostic testing is combined with quarantine, the lengths of quarantine to achieve 95% and 99% effectiveness could be shortened to 2.6 and 5.7 days, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that quarantine alone for 8.7 days or quarantine for 5.7 days combined with using rapid diagnostic testing could prevent secondary transmissions caused by the released infectious individuals for a plausible range of prevalence at the source country (up to 10% and for a modest number of incoming travellers (up to 8000 individuals. Conclusion Quarantine at the borders of island nations could contribute substantially to preventing the arrival of pandemic influenza (or at least delaying the arrival date. For small island nations we recommend consideration of quarantine alone for 9 days or quarantine for 6 days combined with using rapid diagnostic testing (if available.

Wilson Nick

2009-03-01

272

Influenza epidemiology in Italy two years after the 2009–2010 pandemic  

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Since 2000, a sentinel surveillance of influenza, INFLUNET, exists in Italy. It is coordinated by the Ministry of Health and is divided into two parts; one of these is coordinated by the National Institute of Health (NIH), the other by the Inter-University Centre for Research on Influenza and other Transmissible Infections (CIRI-IT). The influenza surveillance system performs its activity from the 42nd week of each year (mid-October) to the 17th week of the following year (late April). Only during the pandemic season (2009/2010) did surveillance continue uninterruptedly. Sentinel physicians – about 1,200 general practitioners and independent pediatricians – send in weekly reports of cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) among their patients (over 2% of the population of Italy) to these centers. In order to estimate the burden of pandemic and seasonal influenza, we examined the epidemiological data collected over the last 3 seasons (2009–2012). On the basis of the incidences of ILIs at different ages, we estimated that: 4,882,415; 5,519,917; and 4,660,601 cases occurred in Italy in 2009–2010, 2010–2011 and 2011–2012, respectively. Considering the ILIs, the most part of cases occurred in < 14 y old subjects and especially in 5–14 y old individuals, about 30% and 21% of cases respectively during 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. In 2011–2012, our evaluation was of about 4.7 million of cases, and as in the previous season, the peak of cases regarded subjects < 14 y (about 29%). A/California/07/09 predominated in 2009–2010 and continued to circulate in 2010–2011. During 2010–2011 B/Brisbane/60/08 like viruses circulated and A/H3N2 influenza type was sporadically present. H3N2 (A/Perth/16/2009 and A/Victoria/361/2011) was the predominant influenza type-A virus that caused illness in the 2011–2012 season. Many strains of influenza viruses were present in the epidemiological scenario in 2009–2012. In the period 2009–2012, overall vaccination coverage was low, never exceeding 20% of the Italian population. Among the elderly, coverage rates grew from 40% in 1999 to almost 70% in 2005–2006, but subsequently decreased, in spite of the pandemic; this trend reveals a slight, though constant, decline in compliance with vaccination. Our data confirm that 2009 pandemics had had a spread particularly important in infants and schoolchildren, and this fact supports the strategy to vaccinate schoolchildren at least until 14 y of age. Furthermore, the low levels of vaccination coverage in Italy reveal the need to improve the catch-up of at-risk subjects during annual influenza vaccination campaigns, and, if possible, to extend free vaccination to at least all 50–64-y-old subjects. Virologic and epidemiological surveillance remains critical for detection of evolving influenza viruses and to monitor the health and economic burden in all age class annually. PMID:23292210

Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo; Amicizia, Daniela; Bella, Antonino; Donatelli, Isabella; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Panatto, Donatella; Lai, Piero Luigi

2013-01-01

273

Knowledge and attitudes of university students toward pandemic influenza: a cross-sectional study from Turkey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background During an influenza pandemic, higher education institutions with large populations of young adults can become serious outbreak centers. Since outbreak management is essential to disease control, we aimed to examine university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 and vaccination and other preventive measures. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 402 first year university students at Yeditepe University in Istanbul, Turkey between 1st and 30th of November 2009. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of the students, perceptions, level of knowledge and attitudes toward influenza pandemic and prevention measures were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed by the students affiliated with SANITAS, a university club of students in health related sciences. Results 25.1% (101/402 of the study group perceived their personal risk of influenza as "high", while 40.5% (163/402 perceived it as "moderate", 20.6% (107/402 viewed it as "low" and 7.7% (31/402 indicated that it was "unknown". The risk perception of males was significantly lower than that of females (p = 0.004 and the risk perception among the students of health sciences was significantly lower than that of students of other sciences (p = 0.037. Within the study group, 72.1% (290/402 indicated that their main information source regarding H1N1 was the mass media. Health sciences students tended to rely more on the internet as an information source than other students (p = 0.015. The vast majority (92.8%; 373/402 of those interviewed indicated that they would not be vaccinated. The major concerns regarding vaccination had to do with the safety and side effects of the vaccine. Most of the participants (343/402, 85.3% were carrying out one of prevention measures and the vast majority believed that hand washing, face mask and quarantina were effective measures for prevention. Conclusion The participants had enough knowledge about H1N1 pandemic about the disease although there were still gaps and confusions in some areas. In the future, when planning management strategies regarding pandemics or outbreaks in higher education institutions, new strategies should be developed to promote positive health behaviour among university students compatible with the international guidelines. Main information source is mass media, so it seems that new policies must be developed to attract attention of students to use different and more scientific-based information sources.

Hayran Osman

2010-07-01

274

Differences in pandemic influenza vaccination policies for pregnant women in Europe  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An important component of the policy to deal with the H1N1 pandemic in 2009 was to develop and implement vaccination. Since pregnant women were found to be at particular risk of severe morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization and the European Centers for Disease Control advised vaccinating pregnant women, regardless of trimester of pregnancy. This study reports a survey of vaccination policies for pregnant women in European countries. Methods Questionnaires were sent to European competent authorities of 27 countries via the European Medicines Agency and to leaders of registries of European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies in 21 countries. Results Replies were received for 24 out of 32 European countries of which 20 had an official pandemic vaccination policy. These 20 countries all had a policy targeting pregnant women. For two of the four countries without official pandemic vaccination policies, some vaccination of pregnant women took place. In 12 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate only second and third trimester pregnant women and in 8 out of 20 countries the policy was to vaccinate pregnant women regardless of trimester of pregnancy. Seven different vaccines were used for pregnant women, of which four contained adjuvants. Few countries had mechanisms to monitor the number of vaccinations given specifically to pregnant women over time. Vaccination uptake varied. Conclusions Differences in pandemic vaccination policy and practice might relate to variation in perception of vaccine efficacy and safety, operational issues related to vaccine manufacturing and procurement, and vaccination campaign systems. Increased monitoring of pandemic influenza vaccine coverage of pregnant women is recommended to enable evaluation of the vaccine safety in pregnancy and pandemic vaccination campaign effectiveness.

Marnoch Gordon J

2011-10-01

275

Development of a Quick Look Pandemic Influenza Modeling and Visualization Tool  

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Federal, State, and local decision makers and public health officials must prepare and exercise complex plans to contend with a variety of possible mass casualty events, such as pandemic influenza. Through the provision of quick look tools (QLTs) focused on mass casualty events, such planning can be done with higher accuracy and more realism through the combination of interactive simulation and visualization in these tools. If an event happens, the QLTs can then be employed to rapidly assess and execute alternative mitigation strategies, and thereby minimize casualties. This can be achieved by conducting numerous 'what-if' assessments prior to any event in order to assess potential health impacts (e.g., number of sick individuals), required community resources (e.g., vaccinations and hospital beds), and optimal mitigative decision strategies (e.g., school closures) during the course of a pandemic. In this presentation, we overview and demonstrate a pandemic influenza QLT, discuss some of the modeling methods and construct and visual analytic components and interface, and outline additional development concepts. These include the incorporation of a user selectable infectious disease palette, simultaneous visualization of decision alternatives, additional resource elements associated with emergency response (e.g., first responders and medical professionals), and provisions for other potential disaster events.

Brigantic, Robert T.; Ebert, David S.; Corley, Courtney D.; Maciejewski, Ross; Muller, George; Taylor, Aimee E.

2010-05-30

276

Structural Characterization of the Hemagglutinin Receptor Specificity from the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic  

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Influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral envelope protein that mediates viral attachment to host cells and elicits membrane fusion. The HA receptor-binding specificity is a key determinant for the host range and transmissibility of influenza viruses. In human pandemics of the 20th century, the HA normally has acquired specificity for human-like receptors before widespread infection. Crystal structures of the H1 HA from the 2009 human pandemic (A/California/04/2009 [CA04]) in complex with human and avian receptor analogs reveal conserved recognition of the terminal sialic acid of the glycan ligands. However, favorable interactions beyond the sialic acid are found only for {alpha}2-6-linked glycans and are mediated by Asp190 and Asp225, which hydrogen bond with Gal-2 and GlcNAc-3. For {alpha}2-3-linked glycan receptors, no specific interactions beyond the terminal sialic acid are observed. Our structural and glycan microarray analyses, in the context of other high-resolution HA structures with {alpha}2-6- and {alpha}2-3-linked glycans, now elucidate the structural basis of receptor-binding specificity for H1 HAs in human and avian viruses and provide a structural explanation for the preference for {alpha}2-6 siaylated glycan receptors for the 2009 pandemic swine flu virus.

Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Nycholat, Corwin M.; Paulson, James C.; Wilson, Ian A. (Scripps)

2012-02-13

277

A hemagglutinin quantification method for development of an influenza pandemic vaccine using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.  

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Single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay requires a reference antigen and an antibody to the hemagglutinin (HA) of an influenza vaccine. As it takes 2?3 months to develop the reference antigen, vaccine development is delayed in cases of an influenza pandemic. In the present study, the measurement of the HA content of influenza vaccines was assessed using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE?HPLC) for the rapid development of a pandemic vaccine. When the 2009 H1N1 reference antigen, pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine and 2010 seasonal influenza vaccines were analyzed by SE?HPLC, the HA of the reference antigen and vaccines was specifically separated. The presence and specificity of HA were evidenced with immunoprecipitation and ELISA assays. For the influenza vaccines, the chromatogram pattern and retention time of HA were similar among the antigen types (2009 H1N1, 2010 H3N2 and 2010 B). In addition, when SE?HPLC was applied, the ratio of HA chromatogram to peak area revealed a significant correlation with HA concentration for the reference antigen and vaccine. The result of the HA content calculation based on SE?HPLC exhibited 99.91?100% similarity, compared with that of SRID. These findings suggest that the measurement of peak area ratio/HA content using SE?HPLC may be a substitute for SRID and rapidly measure HA content to enable faster development of a vaccine during an influenza pandemic. PMID:25482872

Roh, Hang Sik; Song, Hye Min; Yun, Bo Reum; Kang, Hyun Kyung; Choi, Keum Suk; Park, Yun Ju; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Seung Hee; Mo, In Pil; An, Beum-Soo; Ahn, Chi Young

2015-04-01

278

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes established by seasonal human influenza cross-react against 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus  

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While few children and young adults have cross-protective antibodies to the pandemic H1N1 2009 (pdmH1N1) virus, the illness remains mild. The biological reasons for these epidemiological observations are unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the bulk memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) established by seasonal influenza viruses from healthy individuals who have not been exposed to pdmH1N1 can directly lyse pdmH1N1-infected target cells and produce gamma interferon (IFN-?) and tumor ne...

Tu, Wenwei; Mao, Huawei; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Yinping; Chiu, Susan S.; Qin, Gang; Chan, Ping-lung; Lam, Kwok-tai; Guan, Jing; Zhang, Lijuan; Guan, Yi; Yuen, Kwok-yung; Peiris, J. S. Malik; Lau, Yu-lung

2010-01-01

279

Pandemic preparedness with live attenuated influenza vaccines based on A/Leningrad/134/17/57 master donor virus.  

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Continuously evolving avian influenza viruses pose a constant threat to the human public health. In response to this threat, a number of pandemic vaccine candidates have been prepared and evaluated in animal models and clinical trials. This review summarizes the data from the development and preclinical and clinical evaluation of pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) based on Russian master donor virus A/Leningrad/134/17/57. LAIV candidates of H5N1, H5N2, H7N3, H1N1 and H2N2 subtypes were safe, immunogenic and protected animals from challenge with homologous and heterologous viruses. Clinical trials of the pandemic LAIVs demonstrated their safety and immunogenicity for healthy adult volunteers. The vaccine viruses were infectious, genetically stable and did not transmit to unvaccinated contacts. In addition, here we discuss criteria for the assessment of pandemic LAIV immunogenicity and efficacy necessary for their licensure. PMID:25555687

Rudenko, Larisa; Isakova-Sivak, Irina

2015-03-01

280

Clinical characteristics of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection in children and the performance of rapid antigen test  

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Purpose : In autumn 2009, the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus spread throughout South Korea. The aims of this study were to determine the clinical characteristics of children infected by the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus, and to compare the rapid antigen and realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Methods : We conducted a retrospective review of patients ?#241;8 years of age who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital in Seoul with respiratory symptoms, including fever, bet...

Yong-Jae Park; Jang-Yong Jin; Hyeon-Jong Yang; Woo-Ryung Lee; Dong-Hwan Lee; Bok-Yang Pyun; Eun-Sook Suh

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Continued dominance of pandemic A(H1N1 2009 influenza in Victoria, Australia in 2010  

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Full Text Available The 2010 Victorian influenza season was characterized by normal seasonal influenza activity and the dominance of the pandemic A(H1N1 2009 strain. General Practice Sentinel Surveillance rates peaked at 9.4 ILI cases per 1000 consultations in week 36 for metropolitan practices, and at 10.5 ILI cases per 1000 in the following week for rural practices. Of the 678 ILI cases, 23% were vaccinated, a significantly higher percentage than in previous years. A significantly higher percentage of ILI patients were swabbed in 2010 compared to 2003–2008, but similar to 2009, with a similar percentage being positive for influenza as in previous years. Vaccination rates increased with patient age. Melbourne Medical Deputising Service rates peaked in week 35 at 19.1 ILI cases per 1000 consultations. Of the 1914 cases of influenza notified to the Department of Health, Victoria, 1812 (95% were influenza A infections - 1001 (55% pandemic A(H1N1 2009, 4 (<1% A(H3N2 and 807 (45% not subtyped; 88 (5% were influenza B; and 14 (< 1% were influenza A and B co-infections. The World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza tested 403 isolates of which 261 were positive for influenza, 250 of which were influenza A and 11 were influenza B. Ninety-two per cent of the influenza A viruses were pandemic A(H1N1 2009, and following antigenic analysis all of these were found to be similar to the current vaccine strain. Three viruses (0.9% were found to be oseltamivir resistant due to an H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene.

James E. Fielding

2011-08-01

282

Poor Clinical Sensitivity of Rapid Antigen Test for Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus  

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Influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus RNA was detected by reverse transcription–PCR in 144 clinical samples from Bonn, Germany. A common rapid antigen–based test detected the virus in only 11.1% of these samples. The paramount feature of rapid test–positive samples was high virus concentration. Antigen-based rapid tests appear unsuitable for virologic diagnostics in the current pandemic.

Drexler, Jan Felix; Helmer, Angelika; Kirberg, Heike; Reber, Ulrike; Panning, Marcus; Mu?ller, Marcel; Ho?fling, Katja; Matz, Bertfried; Drosten, Christian; Eis-hu?binger, Anna Maria

2009-01-01

283

Evaluation of Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assays Compared to Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests for the Detection of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09  

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Performance of indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assays and rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic was evaluated, along with the relative effects of age and illness severity on test accuracy. Clinicians and laboratories submitted specimens on patients with respiratory illness to public health from April to mid October 2009 for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing as part of pandemic H1N1 surveillance efforts in Orange County, CA; IFA and RIDT were performed...

Nutter, Sandra; Cheung, Michele; Adler-shohet, Felice C.; Krusel, Kathryn; Vogel, Kate; Meyers, Hildy

2012-01-01

284

Comparison of the protection of ferrets against pandemic 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1) by 244 DI influenza virus and oseltamivir  

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? We compared the ability of DI RNA and Tamiflu to protect ferrets from influenza. ? We treated ferrets with one 2 ?g intranasal dose of DI RNA delivered as DI virus. ? Or we treated ferrets with 10 oral doses of Tamiflu totalling 25 mg over 5 days. ? Pandemic A/California/04/09 amplified the DI RNA by >25,000-fold. ? DI virus was more effective than Tamiflu in combatting pandemic A/California/04/09.

Dimmock, Nigel J.; Dove, Brian K.; Meng, Bo; Scott, Paul D.; Taylor, Irene; Cheung, Linda; Hallis, Bassam; Marriott, Anthony C.; Carroll, Miles W.; Easton, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

285

Key transmission parameters of an institutional outbreak during the 1918 influenza pandemic estimated by mathematical modelling  

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Full Text Available Abstract Aim To estimate the key transmission parameters associated with an outbreak of pandemic influenza in an institutional setting (New Zealand 1918. Methods Historical morbidity and mortality data were obtained from the report of the medical officer for a large military camp. A susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered epidemiological model was solved numerically to find a range of best-fit estimates for key epidemic parameters and an incidence curve. Mortality data were subsequently modelled by performing a convolution of incidence distribution with a best-fit incidence-mortality lag distribution. Results Basic reproduction number (R0 values for three possible scenarios ranged between 1.3, and 3.1, and corresponding average latent period and infectious period estimates ranged between 0.7 and 1.3 days, and 0.2 and 0.3 days respectively. The mean and median best-estimate incidence-mortality lag periods were 6.9 and 6.6 days respectively. This delay is consistent with secondary bacterial pneumonia being a relatively important cause of death in this predominantly young male population. Conclusion These R0 estimates are broadly consistent with others made for the 1918 influenza pandemic and are not particularly large relative to some other infectious diseases. This finding suggests that if a novel influenza strain of similar virulence emerged then it could potentially be controlled through the prompt use of major public health measures.

Nelson Peter

2006-11-01

286

Seasonal influenza vaccination predicts pandemic H1N1 vaccination uptake among healthcare workers in three countries.  

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The aim of this study was to identify the common barriers and facilitators for acceptance of pandemic influenza vaccination across different countries. This study utilized a standardized, anonymous, self-completed questionnaire-based survey recording the demographics and professional practice, previous experience and perceived risk and severity of influenza, infection control practices, information of H1N1 vaccination, acceptance of the H1N1 vaccination and reasons of their choices and opinions on mandatory vaccination. Hospital-based doctors, nurses and allied healthcare workers in Hong Kong (HK), Singapore (SG) and Leicester, United Kingdom (UK) were recruited. A total of 6318 (HK: 5743, SG: 300, UK: 275) questionnaires were distributed, with response rates of 27.1% (HK), 94.7% (SG) and 94.5% (UK). The uptake rates for monovalent 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine were 13.5% (HK), 36.2% (SG) and 41.3% (UK). The single common factor associated with vaccine acceptance across all sites was having seasonal influenza vaccination in 2009. In UK and HK, overestimation of side effect reduced vaccination acceptance; and fear of side effect was a significant barrier in all sites. In HK, healthcare workers with more patient contact were more reluctant to accept vaccination. Drivers for vaccination in UK and HK were concern about catching the infection and following advice from health authority. Only a small proportion of respondents agreed with mandatory pandemic influenza vaccination (HK: 25% and UK: 42%), except in Singapore where 75.3% were in agreement. Few respondents (<5%) chose scientific publications as their primary source of information, but this group was more likely to receive vaccination. The acceptance of pandemic vaccine among healthcare workers was poor (13-41% of respondents). Breaking barriers to accept seasonal influenza vaccination should be part of the influenza pandemic preparedness plan. Mandatory vaccination even during pandemic is likely to arouse substantial discontent. PMID:21807048

Chor, Josette S Y; Pada, Surinder K; Stephenson, Iain; Goggins, William B; Tambyah, Paul A; Clarke, Tristan William; Medina, Mariejo; Lee, Nelson; Leung, Ting Fun; Ngai, Karry L K; Law, Shu Kei; Rainer, Timothy H; Griffiths, Sian; Chan, Paul K S

2011-10-01

287

Cold-Adapted Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Live Vaccine Elicits Cross-Reactive Immune Responses against Seasonal and H5 Influenza A Viruses  

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The rapid transmission of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1) among humans has raised the concern of a potential emergence of reassortment between pH1N1 and highly pathogenic influenza strains, especially the avian H5N1 influenza virus. Here, we report that the cold-adapted pH1N1 live attenuated vaccine (CApH1N1) elicits cross-reactive immunity to seasonal and H5 influenza A viruses in the mouse model. Immunization with CApH1N1 induced both systemic and mucosal antibodies with broa...

Jang, Yo Han; Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Kwang-hee; Seong, Baik Lin

2012-01-01

288

Experimental infection with H1N1 European swine influenza virus protects pigs from an infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 human influenza virus  

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The recent pandemic caused by human influenza virus A(H1N1) 2009 contains ancestral gene segments from North American and Eurasian swine lineages as well as from avian and human influenza lineages. The emergence of this A(H1N1) 2009 poses a potential global threat for human health and the fact that it can infect other species, like pigs, favours a possible encounter with other influenza viruses circulating in swine herds. In Europe, H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 subtypes of swine influenza virus curren...

Busquets, Nu?ria; Segale?s, Joaquim; Co?rdoba, Lorena; Mussa?, Tufaria; Crisci, Elisa; Marti?n-valls, Gerard E.; Simon-grife?, Meritxell; Pe?rez-simo?, Marta; Pe?rez-mai?llo, Monica; Nu?n?ez, Jose I.; Abad, Francesc X.; Fraile, Lorenzo; Pina, Sonia; Majo?, Natalia; Bensaid, Albert

2010-01-01

289

Epidemiological characteristics of the influenza A(H1N1 2009 pandemic in the Western Pacific Region  

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Full Text Available The first laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 in the Western Pacific Region were reported on 28 April 2009. By 11 June 2009, the day the pandemic was declared by the World Health Organization, nine Western Pacific Region countries and areas had reported laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 cases. From April 2009 to July 2010, more than 250 000 cases and 1800 deaths from laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1 2009 were reported from 34 countries and areas in the Region. By age group region-wide, 8.6%, 41.9%, 48.3%, and 1.2% of cases were in the < 5 years, 5–14 years, 15–64 years, and 65+ years age groups, respectively; the overall crude case fatality ratio in the Western Pacific Region was 0.5%. The pandemic demonstrated that region-wide disease reporting was possible. Countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region should take this opportunity to strengthen the systems established during the pandemic to develop routine disease reporting.

Lisa McCallum

2010-12-01

290

Healthcare workers as parents: attitudes toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Both the health care workers (HCWs and children are target groups for pandemic influenza vaccination. The coverage of the target populations is an important determinant for impact of mass vaccination. The objective of this study is to determine the attitudes of HCWs as parents, toward vaccinating their children with pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted with health care workers (HCWs in a public hospital during December 2009 in Istanbul. All persons employed in the hospital with or without a health-care occupation are accepted as HCW. The HCWs who are parents of children 6 months to 18 years of age were included in the study. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis was applied for the statistical analyses. Results A total of 389 HCWs who were parents of children aged 6 months-18 years participated study. Among all participants 27.0% (n = 105 reported that themselves had been vaccinated against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Two third (66.1% of the parents answered that they will not vaccinate their children, 21.1% already vaccinated and 12.9% were still undecided. Concern about side effect was most reported reason among who had been not vaccinated their children and among undecided parents. The second reason for refusing the pandemic vaccine was concerns efficacy of the vaccine. Media was the only source of information about pandemic influenza in nearly one third of HCWs. Agreement with vaccine safety, self receipt of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine, and trust in Ministry of Health were found to be associated with the positive attitude toward vaccinating their children against pandemic influenza A/H1N1. Conclusions Persuading parents to accept a new vaccine seems not be easy even if they are HCWs. In order to overcome the barriers among HCWs related to pandemic vaccines, determination of their misinformation, attitudes and behaviors regarding the pandemic influenza vaccination is necessary. Efforts for orienting the HCWs to use evidence based scientific sources, rather than the media for information should be considered by the authorities.

Torun Fuat

2010-10-01

291

Pandemic influenza A virus codon usage revisited: biases, adaptation and implications for vaccine strain development  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus (IAV is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae and contains eight segments of a single-stranded RNA genome with negative polarity. The first influenza pandemic of this century was declared in April of 2009, with the emergence of a novel H1N1 IAV strain (H1N1pdm in Mexico and USA. Understanding the extent and causes of biases in codon usage is essential to the understanding of viral evolution. A comprehensive study to investigate the effect of selection pressure imposed by the human host on the codon usage of an emerging, pandemic IAV strain and the trends in viral codon usage involved over the pandemic time period is much needed. Results We performed a comprehensive codon usage analysis of 310 IAV strains from the pandemic of 2009. Highly biased codon usage for Ala, Arg, Pro, Thr and Ser were found. Codon usage is strongly influenced by underlying biases in base composition. When correspondence analysis (COA on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU is applied, the distribution of IAV ORFs in the plane defined by the first two major dimensional factors showed that different strains are located at different places, suggesting that IAV codon usage also reflects an evolutionary process. Conclusions A general association between codon usage bias, base composition and poor adaptation of the virus to the respective host tRNA pool, suggests that mutational pressure is the main force shaping H1N1 pdm IAV codon usage. A dynamic process is observed in the variation of codon usage of the strains enrolled in these studies. These results suggest a balance of mutational bias and natural selection, which allow the virus to explore and re-adapt its codon usage to different environments. Recoding of IAV taking into account codon bias, base composition and adaptation to host tRNA may provide important clues to develop new and appropriate vaccines.

Goñi Natalia

2012-11-01

292

Influenza pandemic intervention planning using InfluSim: pharmaceutical and non- pharmaceutical interventions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza pandemic preparedness plans are currently developed and refined on national and international levels. Much attention has been given to the administration of antiviral drugs, but contact reduction can also be an effective part of mitigation strategies and has the advantage to be not limited per se. The effectiveness of these interventions depends on various factors which must be explored by sensitivity analyses, based on mathematical models. Methods We use the freely available planning tool InfluSim to investigate how pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions can mitigate an influenza pandemic. In particular, we examine how intervention schedules, restricted stockpiles and contact reduction (social distancing measures and isolation of cases determine the course of a pandemic wave and the success of interventions. Results A timely application of antiviral drugs combined with a quick implementation of contact reduction measures is required to substantially protract the peak of the epidemic and reduce its height. Delays in the initiation of antiviral treatment (e.g. because of parsimonious use of a limited stockpile result in much more pessimistic outcomes and can even lead to the paradoxical effect that the stockpile is depleted earlier compared to early distribution of antiviral drugs. Conclusion Pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical measures should not be used exclusively. The protraction of the pandemic wave is essential to win time while waiting for vaccine development and production. However, it is the height of the peak of an epidemic which can easily overtax general practitioners, hospitals or even whole public health systems, causing bottlenecks in basic and emergency medical care.

Schwehm Markus

2007-07-01

293

Transmission of a 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus Occurs before Fever Is Detected, in the Ferret Model  

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During the early phase of the 2009 influenza pandemic, attempts were made to contain the spread of the virus. Success of reactive control measures may be compromised if the proportion of transmission that occurs before overt clinical symptoms develop is high. In this study we investigated the timing of transmission of an early prototypic strain of pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus in the ferret model. Ferrets are the only animal model in which this can be assessed because they display typica...

Roberts, Kim L.; Shelton, Holly; Stilwell, Peter; Barclay, Wendy S.

2012-01-01

294

Seasonal influenza infection and live vaccine prime for a response to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 vaccine  

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The robust immune response to a single dose of pandemic 2009 H1N1 vaccine suggests that a large segment of the population has been previously primed. We evaluated the effect of seasonal (s) H1N1 infection, s-trivalent inactivated vaccine (s-TIV), and trivalent s-live attenuated influenza vaccine (s-LAIV) before immunization with a pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccine (p-LAIV) in mice. We compared serum and mucosal antibody and pulmonary CD8 and CD4 responses and the virologic response t...

Chen, Grace L.; Lau, Yuk-fai; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Mccall, Amber W.; Subbarao, Kanta

2011-01-01

295

Evolution and adaptation of the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza virus  

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Full Text Available Mariette F Ducatez, Thomas P Fabrizio, Richard J WebbyDepartment of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USAAbstract: The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus [A(H1N1pdm09] has provided the public health community with many challenges, but also the scientific community with an opportunity to monitor closely its evolution through the processes of drift and shift. To date, and despite having circulated in humans for nearly two years, little antigenic variation has been observed in the A(H1N1pdm09 viruses. However, as the A(H1N1pdm09 virus continues to circulate and the immunologic pressure within the human population increases, future antigenic change is almost a certainty. Several coinfections of A(H1N1pdm09 and seasonal A(H1N1 or A(H3N2 viruses have been observed, but no reassortant viruses have been described in humans, suggesting a lack of fitness of reassortant viruses or a lack of opportunities for interaction of different viral lineages. In contrast, multiple reassortment events have been detected in swine populations between A(H1N1 pdm09 and other endemic swine viruses. Somewhat surprisingly, many of the well characterized influenza virus virulence markers appear to have limited impact on the phenotype of the A(H1N1pdm09 viruses when they have been introduced into mutant viruses in laboratory settings. As such, it is unclear what the evolutionary path of the pandemic virus will be, but the monitoring of any changes in the circulating viruses will remain a global public and animal health priority.Keywords: influenza, pandemic, evolution, adaptation

Ducatez MF

2011-07-01

296

Influenza pandémica A (H1N1) 2009: epidemiología, características clínicas y diferencias con influenza estacional en Chile / Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009: epidemiology, clinical features and differences with seasonal influenza in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La pandemia de inluenza A (H1N1) 2009 generó preguntas sobre sus diferencias con influenza estacional. Objetivos: Describir las características de influenza pandémica y comparar con influenza estacional. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de casos confirmados de influenza pandémica en adultos [...] internados en el Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica entre mayo y julio de 2009, comparado con 95 casos históricos de influenza estacional. Resultados: 54 pacientes con influenza pandémica, 51,9% género masculino, edad 52,8 ± 19,5 años; 79,6% presentaban co-morbilidades; 16,7% inmunocomprometidos, 7,4% mujeres embarazadas, 25,9% de adquisición nosocomial, 31,5% requirió cuidados intensivos/intermedios. Se diagnosticó neumonía en 37% y la mortalidad global fue 3,7%. En la comparación con inluenza estacional, la pandémica afectó menos pacientes > de 65 años (31,5 vs 68%, p Abstract in english Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 raised questions regarding differences with seasonal influenza. Objectives: To describe the clinical features of pandemic influenza and compare them to seasonal influenza. Patients y Methods: A descriptive study that compared hospitalized adults was done between pati [...] ents with confirmed pandemic inluenza in the Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica in Santiago, Chile, from May to July 2009 and 95 confirmed historic cases of seasonal influenza. Results: 54 patients with pandemic influenza were included, 51.9% were male, age of 52.8 ± 19.5 years old; 79.6% had chronic diseases; 16.7% were immunocompromised patients and 7.4% of pregnant women. 25.9% of the patients acquired the infection during the hospitalization. 31.5% were admitted to intermediate/intensive care units. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 37%, and the mortality rate was 3.7%. The comparison between pandemic and seasonal influenza showed less proportion of patient > 65 years of age (31.5% vs. 68%; p

Ricardo, Rabagliati B; Leonardo, Siri Z; Carlos M, Pérez C; Jaime, Labarca L; Marcela, Ferrés G.

2011-12-01

297

New Pre-pandemic Influenza Vaccines: An Egg-and Adjuvant-independent Human Adenoviral Vector Strategy Induces Long-lasting Protective Immune Responses in Mice  

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Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses that are currently circulating in southeast Asia may acquire the potential to cause the next influenza pandemic. A number of alternate approaches are being pursued to generate cross-protective, dose-sparing, safe, and effective vaccines, as traditional vaccine approaches, i.e., embryonated egg-grown, are not immunogenic. We developed a replication-incompetent adenoviral vector-based, adjuvant-and egg-independent pandemic influenza vaccine strateg...

Hoelscher, Ma; Jayashankar, L.; Garg, S.; Veguilla, V.; XLu; Singh, N.; Katz, Jm; Mittal, Sk; Sambhara, S.

2007-01-01

298

Responses to pandemic ASO3-adjuvanted A/California/07/09 H1N1 influenza vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals  

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Abstract Background Influenza infection may be more serious in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, therefore, vaccination against seasonal and pandemic strains is highly advised. Seasonal influenza vaccines have had no significant negative effects in well controlled HIV infection, but the impact of adjuvanted pandemic A/California/07/2009 H1N1 influenza hemaglutinin (HA) vaccine, which was used for the first time in the Canadian population as an authorize...

Kelly Deborah; Burt Kimberley; Missaghi Bayan; Barrett Lisa; Keynan Yoav; Fowke Keith; Grant Michael

2012-01-01

299

Attitudes of the General Public and General Practitioners in Five Countries towards Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza Vaccines during Season 2009/2010  

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BACKGROUND: Vaccination coverage rates for seasonal influenza are not meeting national and international targets. Here, we investigated whether the 2009/2010 A/H1N1 pandemic influenza affected the uptake of influenza vaccines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In December 2009/January 2010 and April 2010, 500 randomly selected members of the general public in Germany, France, the United States, China, and Mexico were surveyed by telephone about vaccination for seasonal and A/H1N1 pandemic influ...

Blank, Patricia R.; Bonnelye, Genevieve; Ducastel, Aurore; Szucs, Thomas D.

2012-01-01

300

Evolution and adaptation of the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza virus  

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Mariette F Ducatez, Thomas P Fabrizio, Richard J WebbyDepartment of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USAAbstract: The emergence of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] has provided the public health community with many challenges, but also the scientific community with an opportunity to monitor closely its evolution through the processes of drift and shift. To date, and despite having circulated in humans for nearly two years, li...

Mf, Ducatez; Tp, Fabrizio; Rj, Webby

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Persistent oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infection in an adult with cystic fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report the case of a 25-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) who developed pandemic influenza A/H1N1 during a visit to the USA in August 2010. The patient has severe CF lung disease and takes maintenance oral corticosteroids. The influenza virus was positive for the H275Y oseltamivir-resistance mutation despite the patient never having received oseltamivir. The patient has remained sputum-positive for over 4 months despite inhaled zanamivir therapy. This is the first reported case of transmission of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 influenza to a patient with CF. The frequency of prolonged sputum carriage of pandemic influenza and transmission of oseltamivir-resistant strains are unknown on a population level. However, if our observations are replicated in other CF patients, they are potentially of considerable importance to clinical and infection-control practices in this patient group. PMID:22696672

Flight, William George; Bright-Thomas, Rowland; Mutton, Kenneth; Webb, Kevin; Jones, Andrew

2011-01-01

302

Syndromic surveillance for influenza in two hospital emergency departments. Relationships between ICD-10 codes and notified cases, before and during a pandemic  

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Abstract Background Interest in the use of emergency department (ED) data by syndromic surveillance systems to detect influenza outbreaks has been growing. Evaluations of these systems generally focus on events during influenza seasons. The aims of this study were to identify which emergency department disease codes best correlated with confirmed influenza cases and to determine if these same codes would be useful in the non-influenza season. The 2009 influenza pandemic in Vi...

Rowe Stacey; Black James; Moore Karen; Franklin Lucinda

2011-01-01

303

Fatal pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus infection in a Pennsylvania domestic cat.  

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We report the earliest recognized fatality associated with laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza in a domestic cat in the United States. The 12-year old, indoor cat died on 6 November 2009 after exposure to multiple family members who had been ill with influenza-like illness during the peak period of the fall wave of pH1N1 in Pennsylvania during late October 2009. The clinical presentation, history, radiographic, laboratory and necropsy findings are presented to assist veterinary care providers in understanding the features of this disease in cats and the potential for transmission of infection to pets from infected humans. PMID:21824345

Campagnolo, E R; Rankin, J T; Daverio, S A; Hunt, E A; Lute, J R; Tewari, D; Acland, H M; Ostrowski, S R; Moll, M E; Urdaneta, V V; Ostroff, S M

2011-11-01

304

Dendritic Cell Activation by Recombinant Hemagglutinin Proteins of H1N1 and H5N1 Influenza A Viruses?  

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Since dendritic cells may play a key role in defense against influenza virus infection, we examined the effects of recombinant hemagglutinin (HA) proteins derived from mouse-adapted H1N1 (A/WSN/1933), swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A/Texas/05/2009), and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (A/Thailand/KAN-1/2004) viruses on mouse myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs). The results reveal that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70, and major histocompatibility complex cl...

Liu, Wen-chun; Lin, Shih-chang; Yu, Yen-ling; Chu, Ching-liang; Wu, Suh-chin

2010-01-01

305

"Will they just pack up and leave?" – attitudes and intended behaviour of hospital health care workers during an influenza pandemic  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a general consensus that another influenza pandemic is inevitable. Although health care workers (HCWs are essential to the health system response, there are few studies exploring HCW attitudes to pandemic influenza. The aim of this study was to explore HCWs knowledge, attitudes and intended behaviour towards pandemic influenza. Methods Cross-sectional investigation of a convenience sample of clinical and non-clinical HCWs from two tertiary-referral teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia was conducted between June 4 and October 19, 2007. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to hospital personal from 40 different wards and departments. The main outcome measures were intentions regarding work attendance and quarantine, antiviral use and perceived preparation. Results Respondents were categorized into four main groups by occupation: Nursing (47.5%, Medical (26.0%, Allied (15.3% and Ancillary (11.2%. Our study found that most HCWs perceived pandemic influenza to be very serious (80.9%, n = 873 but less than half were able to correctly define it (43.9%, n = 473. Only 24.8% of respondents believed their department to be prepared for a pandemic, but nonetheless most were willing to work during a pandemic if a patient or colleague had influenza. The main determinants of variation in our study were occupational factors, demographics and health beliefs. Non-clinical staff were significantly most likely to be unsure of their intentions (OR 1.43, p Conclusion We identified two issues that could undermine the best of pandemic plans – the first, a low level of confidence in antivirals as an effective measure; secondly, that non-clinical workers are an overlooked group whose lack of knowledge and awareness could undermine pandemic plans. Other issues included a high level of confidence in dietary measures to protect against influenza, and a belief among ancillary workers that antibiotics would be protective. All health care worker strategies should include non clinical and ancillary staff to ensure adequate business continuity for hospitals. HCW education, psychosocial support and staff communication could improve knowledge of appropriate pandemic interventions and confidence in antivirals.

Po Kieren

2009-02-01

306

Cerebral edema and a transtentorial brain herniation syndrome associated with pandemic swine influenza A (H1N1) virus infection  

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Acute encephalitis, encephalopathy, and seizures are known rare neurologic sequelae of respiratory tract infection with seasonal influenza A and B virus, but the neurological complications of the pandemic 2009 swine influenza A (H1N1) virus, particularly in adults, are ill-defined. We document two young adults suffering from H1N1-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal failure who developed cerebral edema. The patients acutely developed a transtentorial brain herniation syndr...

Kahle, Kristopher T.; Walcott, Brian P.; Nahed, Brian V.; Barnard, Zachary R.; Lo, Eng H.; Buonanno, Ferdinando S.; Venna, Nagagopal; Ning, Mingming

2011-01-01

307

The so-called Great Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918 may have originated in France in 1916.  

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This discussion piece examines the likely epicentre of the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919. Contrary to previous studies that have proposed a Chinese origin, there is documentation that suggests that, in this instance, the virus spread eastwards to China from Europe. Although more recent oubreaks of influenza have undoubtedly had an Oriental origin, the evidence indicates that future outbreaks could conceivably arise anywhere in the world.

Oxford, J. S.

2001-01-01

308

The community impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in the WHO European Region: a comparison with historical seasonal data from 28 countries  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The world has recently experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century that lasted 14 months from June 2009 to August 2010. This study aimed to compare the timing, geographic spread and community impact during the winter wave of influenza pandemic A (H1N1 2009 to historical influenza seasons in countries of the WHO European region. Methods We assessed the timing of pandemic by comparing the median peak of influenza activity in countries of the region during the last seven influenza seasons. The peaks of influenza activity were selected by two independent researchers using predefined rules. The geographic spread was assessed by correlating the peak week of influenza activity in included countries against the longitude and latitude of the central point in each country. To assess the community impact of pandemic influenza, we constructed linear regression models to compare the total and age-specific influenza-like-illness (ILI or acute respiratory infection (ARI rates reported by the countries in the pandemic season to those observed in the previous six influenza seasons. Results We found that the influenza activity reached its peak during the pandemic, on average, 10.5 weeks (95% CI 6.4-14.2 earlier than during the previous 6 seasons in the Region, and there was a west to east spread of pandemic A(H1N1 influenza virus in the western part of the Region. A regression analysis showed that the total ILI or ARI rates were not higher than historical rates in 19 of the 28 countries. However, in countries with age-specific data, there were significantly higher consultation rates in the 0-4 and/or 5-14 age groups in 11 of the 20 countries. Conclusions Using routine influenza surveillance data, we found that pandemic influenza had several differential features compared to historical seasons in the region. It arrived earlier, caused significantly higher number of outpatient consultations in children in most countries and followed west to east spread that was previously observed during some influenza seasons with dominant A (H3N2 ifluenza viruses. The results of this study help to understand the epidemiology of 2009 influenza pandemic and can be used for pandemic preparedness planning.

Martirosyan Liana

2012-02-01

309

Simulating the Spread of Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919 Considering the Effect of the First World War  

CERN Document Server

The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919, also called Spanish Flu Pandemic, was one of the severest pandemics in history. It is thought that the First World War much influenced the spread of the pandemic. In this paper, we model the pandemic considering both civil and military traffic. We propose a hybrid model to determine how the pandemic spread through the world. Our approach considers both the SEIR-based model for local areas and the network model for global connection between countries. First, we reproduce the situation in 12 countries. Then, we simulate another scenario: there was no military traffic during the pandemic, to determine the influence of the influenced of the war on the pandemic. By considering the simulation results, we find that the influence of the war varies in countries; in countries which were deeply involved in the war, the infections were much influenced by the war, while in countries which were not much engaged in the war, the infections were not influenced by the war.

Yoneyama, Teruhiko

2010-01-01

310

Emergence of oseltamivir resistance: control and management of influenza before, during and after the pandemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), such as oseltamivir and zanamivir, are the medicines of choice against influenza A or B. Oseltamivir resistance can be conferred by a single point missense mutation from histidine to tyrosine at position 275 (H275Y) of the neuraminidase gene. Oseltamivir resistance in seasonal influenza A/H1N1 strains rose markedly during the 2007-2008 season. Furthermore, oseltamivir resistant (OsR) strains of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 (influenza A(H1N1)pdm09) have been increasingly isolated, although the majority remain sensitive. These OsR strains retain virulence, replicative fitness and transmissibility from person to person, with outbreaks reported. Treatment options in those at risk of severe or complicated disease are limited to zanamivir which is only licenced in those over the age of 5 years; of further concern, strains demonstrating low level resistance to both oseltamivir and zanamivir have been reported. Strategies to reduce emergence of resistant strains, such as higher dose oseltamivir regimens, need further examination. PMID:23675925

Dixit, Rashmi; Khandaker, Gulam; Ilgoutz, Scott; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert

2013-02-01

311

A qualitative study of pandemic influenza preparedness among small and medium-sized businesses in New York City.  

Science.gov (United States)

Small businesses need to engage in continuity planning to assure delivery of goods and services and to sustain the economy during an influenza pandemic. This is especially true in New York City, where 98 per cent of businesses have fewer than 100 employees. It was an objective therefore, to determine pandemic influenza business continuity practices and strategies suitable for small and medium-sized NYC businesses. The study design used focus groups, and the participants were owners and managers of businesses with fewer than 500 employees in New York City. The main outcome measures looked for were the degree of pandemic preparedness, and the feasibility of currently proposed business continuity strategies. Most participants reported that their businesses had no pandemic influenza plan. Agreement with feasibility of specific business continuity strategies was influenced by the type of business represented, cost of the strategy, and business size. It was concluded that recommendations for pandemic-related business continuity plans for small and medium-sized businesses should be tailored to the type and size of business and should highlight the broad utility of the proposed strategies to address a range of business stressors. PMID:22308579

Burton, Deron C; Confield, Evan; Gasner, Mary Rose; Weisfuse, Isaac

2011-10-01

312

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 in Saudi Arabia: Description of the first one hundred cases  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives : In April 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO declared pandemic influenza A (H1N1 "public health emergency of international concern". On June 11, 2009, WHO raised the pandemic alert level to phase 6, indicating a global pandemic. By December 2009, more than 208 countries and territories had reported swine flu cases. The descriptive epidemiology of the first reported 100 cases of this virus in Saudi Arabia are summarized in this report. Methods : Data were collected from 1 June to 3 July, 2009 using a predesigned questionnaire. Questionnaires were filled by Field Epidemiology Training Program residents. Data for the first 100 complete cases of confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1 were compiled and analyzed. Results : The age of reported cases was in the range of 1 to 56 years. The highest percentage of cases was in the age group of 20 to 30 years followed by the age group of 1 to 10 years. Females represented 55% of the cases; imported cases represented 47%, 58% of whom had come via the King Khaled Airport. The most common nationalities most were from Saudi Arabia and the Philippines. The main symptoms were fever (56%, cough (54%, and sore throat and the number of cases was seen to peak from the 27 to 29 June. Conclusion : Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 is still a threat to Saudi Arabia. Thus, comprehensive and effective measures for surveillance and prevention of the disease are needed to control its spread.

AlMazroa Mohammad

2010-01-01

313

Male predominance of pneumonia and hospitalization in pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pandemic influenza A (H1N1 disproportionately affects different age groups. The purpose of the current study was to describe the age and gender difference of pandemic influenza A (H1N1 cases that lead to pneumonia, hospitalization or ICU admission. Methods Data were collected retrospectively between May 2009 and December 2009. All of the diagnoses of H1N1 were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Results During the study period there were 3402 cases of RT-PCR positive H1N1, among which 1812 were males and 1626 were adults (> 15 years of age. 6% (206/3402 of patients required hospitalization, 3.6% (122/3402 had infiltrates on chest radiographs, and 0.70% (24/3402 were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU. The overall fatality rate was 0.1% (4/3402. The rate of hospitalization was sharply increased in patients ? 50 years of age especially in male. Out of 122 pneumonia patients, 68.8% (84 patients were male. Among the patients admitted to the ICU, 70.8% (17 patients were male. Approximately 1 of 10 H1N1-infected patients admitted to the ICU were ? 70 years of age. Conclusions Among the confirmed cases of H1N1, the ICU admission rate was

Lee Mi-Young

2011-09-01

314

Importation and spread of pandemic influenza virus a(H1N1 in Autonomous Province of vojvodina in preepidemic period  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Influenza is the most frequently reported communicable disease, having epidemic and pandemic potential. The first influenza pandemic in this century started in Mexico and spread quickly throughout the world. This paper analyses importation of pandemic influenza cases and local transmission among population in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Material and methods. According to the WHO guidelines and national recommendations, the influenza surveillance activities were conducted in Vojvodina in order to detect, isolate and treat affected international travelers and their close contacts. Patients whose pandemic influenza infection was laboratory confirmed were classified as confirmed cases, while those with symptoms who were epidemiologically linked with confirmed cases were classified as probable cases. Results. During the period from the 24th of June to 17th of August 2009, 123 pandemic influenza cases were recorded in Vojvodina. Infection was imported through international travelers and our citizens coming from countries affected by influenza outbreaks. Majority of cases had mild clinical picture. Most frequently reported symptoms were high fever (above 38oC (85.6%, and cough (61.6%. Difficulty in breathing was recorded in 20 (16.0% cases, while pneumonia developed in 4 (3.2% cases but none of the cases required mechanical ventilation. Conclusion. The imported cases of pandemic influenza in the pre-epidemic period led to limited local transmission in general population and caused a small outbreak among visitors of International music festival called EXIT.

Risti? Mioljub

2010-01-01

315

Contemporary Seasonal Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection Primes for a More Robust Response To Split Inactivated Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Vaccination in Ferrets ?  

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Human influenza pandemics occur when influenza viruses to which the population has little or no immunity emerge and acquire the ability to achieve human-to-human transmission. In April 2009, cases of a novel H1N1 influenza virus in children in the southwestern United States were reported. It was retrospectively shown that these cases represented the spread of this virus from an ongoing outbreak in Mexico. The emergence of the pandemic led to a number of national vaccination programs. Surprisi...

Ellebedy, Ali H.; Fabrizio, Thomas P.; Kayali, Ghazi; Oguin, Thomas H.; Brown, Scott A.; Rehg, Jerold; Thomas, Paul G.; Webby, Richard J.

2010-01-01

316

Development of a new candidate H5N1 avian influenza virus for pre-pandemic vaccination production  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND. Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses currently circulating in birds have caused hundreds of human infections, and pose a significant pandemic threat. Vaccines are a major component of the public health sector preparedness for this likely event. The rapid evolution of H5N1 vi...

317

Evaluation of New Rapid Antigen Test for Detection of Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 2009 Virus ?  

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We evaluated the SD Bioline Influenza Ag A/B/A(H1N1) Pandemic test kit and compared it with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for its ability to detect H1N1 2009. The sensitivity and specificity of the test kit for H1N1 2009 were 77% and 100%, respectively.

Choi, Young Jin; Kim, Hwi Jun; Park, Joon Soo; Oh, Myung Ho; Nam, Hae Seon; Kim, Yong Bae; Cho, Byung Ki; Ji, Mi Jung; Oh, Jin Sik

2010-01-01

318

Willingness to accept H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine: A cross-sectional study of Hong Kong community nurses  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The 2009 pandemic of influenza A (H1N1 infection has alerted many governments to make preparedness plan to control the spread of influenza A (H1N1 infection. Vaccination for influenza is one of the most important primary preventative measures to reduce the disease burden. Our study aims to assess the willingness of nurses who work for the community nursing service (CNS in Hong Kong on their acceptance of influenza A (H1N1 influenza vaccination. Methods 401 questionnaires were posted from June 24, 2009 to June 30, 2009 to community nurses with 67% response rate. Results of the 267 respondents on their willingness to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccine were analyzed. Results Twenty-seven percent of respondents were willing to accept influenza vaccination if vaccines were available. Having been vaccinated for seasonable influenza in the previous 12 months were significantly independently associated with their willingness to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccination (OR = 4.03; 95% CI: 2.03-7.98. Conclusions Similar to previous findings conducted in hospital healthcare workers and nurses, we confirmed that the willingness of community nurses to accept influenza A (H1N1 vaccination is low. Future studies that evaluate interventions to address nurses' specific concerns or interventions that aim to raise the awareness among nurses on the importance of influenza A (H1N1 vaccination to protect vulnerable patient populations is needed.

Wong Carmen

2010-10-01

319

Comparison of a Live Attenuated 2009 H1N1 Vaccine with Seasonal Influenza Vaccines against 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Virus Infection in Mice and Ferrets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of seasonal influenza vaccination in pandemic influenza A H1N1 disease is important to address, because a large segment of the population is vaccinated annually. We administered 1 or 2 doses of pandemic H1N1 vaccine (CA/7 ca), a seasonal trivalent inactivated (s-TIV), or live attenuated influenza vaccine (s-LAIV) to mice and ferrets and subsequently challenged them with a pandemic H1N1 virus. In both species, CA/7 ca was immunogenic and conferred complete protection against challenge...

Chen, Grace L.; Min, Ji-young; Lamirande, Elaine W.; Santos, Celia; Jin, Hong; Kemble, George; Subbarao, Kanta

2011-01-01

320

Antibody and inflammatory response-mediated severity of pandemic 2009 (pH1N1) influenza virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza A virus causes significant morbidity and mortality each year worldwide due to antigenic drift, punctuated by infrequent pandemics following antigenic shift. H1N1 subtype of pandemic 2009 (pH1N1) influenza virus lineages has continued to circulate in humans and raised severe concerns about its pandemic developments. The pathogenesis of the disease and its progression as post-infectious sequelae is not well understood. Moderate inflammatory response protects against the ill effects and hyper-inflammatory response promotes the pathogenesis in disease progression. Samples were screened by RT-PCR and classified in pandemic 2009 (pH1N1), Influenza A virus infected patient. Further antibody titer was analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition assay and cytokine/chemokine response by Cytometric bead array assy. Screening of 216 patients shows 63 were belongs to pH1N1 influenza virus infection and 47 were Influenza A virus infected and 106 samples were negative for these viruses, were used as a disease control. Apart from that 100 samples were taken for healthy control. Lower antibody titer was found in patient infected with pH1N1/Influenza A virus and expression of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10) and chemokine MCP-1 was higher in patient infected with pH1N1 compare to healthy/disease control however there was no significant difference observed in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and antiviral cytokine IFN-? in pH1N1 influenza virus infected patients. PMID:24615905

Tiwari, Nivedita; Kapoor, Prerna; Dhole, Tapan N

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Social contact networks for the spread of pandemic influenza in children and teenagers  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a viral infection that primarily spreads via fluid droplets from an infected person's coughs and sneezes to others nearby. Social contact networks and the way people interact within them are thus important to its spread. We developed a method to characterize the social contact network for the potential transmission of influenza and then applied the method to school aged children and teenagers. Methods Surveys were administered to students in an elementary, middle and high-school in the United States. The social contact network of a person was conceptualized as a set of groups to which they belong (e.g., households, classes, clubs each composed of a sub-network of primary links representing the individuals within each group that they contact. The size of the group, number of primary links, time spent in the group, and level of contact along each primary link (near, talking, touching, or kissing were characterized. Public activities done by groups venturing into the community where random contacts occur (e.g., friends viewing a movie also were characterized. Results Students, groups and public activities were highly heterogeneous. Groups with high potential for the transmission of influenza were households, school classes, friends, and sports; households decreased and friends and sports increased in importance with grade level. Individual public activity events (such as dances were also important but lost their importance when averaged over time. Random contacts, primarily in school passing periods, were numerous but had much lower transmission potential compared to those with primary links within groups. Students are highly assortative, interacting mainly within age class. A small number of individual students are identified as likely "super-spreaders". Conclusion High-school students may form the local transmission backbone of the next pandemic. Closing schools and keeping students at home during a pandemic would remove the transmission potential within these ages and could be effective at thwarting its spread within a community. Social contact networks characterized as groups and public activities with the time, level of contact and primary links within each, yields a comprehensive view, which if extended to all ages, would allow design of effective community containment for pandemic influenza.

Glass Robert J

2008-02-01

322

Targets for the Induction of Protective Immunity Against Influenza A Viruses  

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Full Text Available The current pandemic caused by the new influenza A(H1N1 virus of swine origin and the current pandemic threat caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses of the H5N1 subtype have renewed the interest in the development of vaccines that can induce broad protective immunity. Preferably, vaccines not only provide protection against the homologous strains, but also against heterologous strains, even of another subtype. Here we describe viral targets and the arms of the immune response involved in protection against influenza virus infections such as antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and the M2 protein and cellular immune responses directed against the internal viral proteins.

Guus F. Rimmelzwaan

2010-01-01

323

The influence of social-cognitive factors on personal hygiene practices to protect against influenzas: Using modelling to compare avian A/H5N1 and 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 Influenzas in Hong Kong  

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Background Understanding population responses to influenza helps optimize public health interventions. Relevant theoretical frameworks remain nascent. Purpose To model associations between trust in information, perceived hygiene effectiveness, knowledge about the causes of influenza, perceived susceptibility and worry, and personal hygiene practices (PHPs) associated with influenza. Methods Cross-sectional household telephone surveys on avian influenza A/H5N1 (2006) and pandemic influenza A/ ...

Liao, Qiuyan; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Lam, Wendy Wing Tak; Fielding, Richard

2011-01-01

324

Influenza Aviar y Riesgo de Pandemia / Pandemic risk of Avian Influenza  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Influenza es una enfermedad común que se presenta en Chile en forma estacional. Ocasionalmente ocurren pandemias las que se generan cuando aparece un nuevo subtipo de virus influenza A en la humanidad producto de la recombinación de genomas de virus de influenza humano con virus de influenza de otra [...] s especies. En los últimos años la humanidad se encuentra en una situación de alerta de una nueva pandemia dada la existencia de la más grande epizootia por influenza A, subtipo H5N1 en aves que se extiende desde el Sudeste Asiático a Europa Oriental, Occidental y África. Se han documentado casos esporádicos en humanos por contacto cercano con aves infectadas. El presente artículo revisa las características virológicas del virus de influenza A, la situación actual de la epizootia por H5N1, las características de esta infección en humanos y el estado de preparación que se encuentra Chile frente a una eventual pandemia Abstract in english Influenza is a common season pathology that occasionally presents pandemia, caused by a new Influenza A virus subtype that results from the genomic recombination of human virus with virus from other species. During the last years, there is a worldwide alert situation in terms of a new pandemia, due [...] to the existence of Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 in birds from Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa. There are some sporadic cases in humans produced by close exposure with infected birds. The present article reviews the virologic characteristics of Influenza A H5N1 virus in humans and the chilean guidelines for a potential pandemia. Influenza is a respiratory disease produced by Influenza virus A,B,C, being the A type the most important due to its capacity to change structure and cause epidemia or pandemia. The last pandemias were classified as Spamsh flu in 1918-1919 (H1N1), Asian flu in 1957 (H2N2) and the Hong-Kong flu in 1967 (H3N2), with the biggest death population in 1918. In template countries, Influenza presents in epidemia affecting the winter months; in tropical countries, the virus circulation occurs during the whole year

CECILIA, PERRET P; JEANNETTE, DABANCH P.

2008-08-01

325

Influenza Aviar y Riesgo de Pandemia Pandemic risk of Avian Influenza  

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Full Text Available Influenza es una enfermedad común que se presenta en Chile en forma estacional. Ocasionalmente ocurren pandemias las que se generan cuando aparece un nuevo subtipo de virus influenza A en la humanidad producto de la recombinación de genomas de virus de influenza humano con virus de influenza de otras especies. En los últimos años la humanidad se encuentra en una situación de alerta de una nueva pandemia dada la existencia de la más grande epizootia por influenza A, subtipo H5N1 en aves que se extiende desde el Sudeste Asiático a Europa Oriental, Occidental y África. Se han documentado casos esporádicos en humanos por contacto cercano con aves infectadas. El presente artículo revisa las características virológicas del virus de influenza A, la situación actual de la epizootia por H5N1, las características de esta infección en humanos y el estado de preparación que se encuentra Chile frente a una eventual pandemiaInfluenza is a common season pathology that occasionally presents pandemia, caused by a new Influenza A virus subtype that results from the genomic recombination of human virus with virus from other species. During the last years, there is a worldwide alert situation in terms of a new pandemia, due to the existence of Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 in birds from Southeast Asia, Europe and Africa. There are some sporadic cases in humans produced by close exposure with infected birds. The present article reviews the virologic characteristics of Influenza A H5N1 virus in humans and the chilean guidelines for a potential pandemia. Influenza is a respiratory disease produced by Influenza virus A,B,C, being the A type the most important due to its capacity to change structure and cause epidemia or pandemia. The last pandemias were classified as Spamsh flu in 1918-1919 (H1N1, Asian flu in 1957 (H2N2 and the Hong-Kong flu in 1967 (H3N2, with the biggest death population in 1918. In template countries, Influenza presents in epidemia affecting the winter months; in tropical countries, the virus circulation occurs during the whole year

CECILIA PERRET P

2008-08-01

326

Detection of Molecular Markers of Drug Resistance in 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses by Pyrosequencing ? †  

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The M2 blockers amantadine and rimantadine and the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir and zanamivir are approved by the FDA for use for the control of influenza A virus infections. The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses (H1N1pdm) are reassortants that acquired M and NA gene segments from a Eurasian adamantane-resistant swine influenza virus. NAI resistance in the H1N1pdm viruses has been rare, and its occurrence is mainly limited to oseltamivir-exposed patients. The pyrose...

Deyde, Varough M.; Sheu, Tiffany G.; Trujillo, A. Angelica; Okomo-adhiambo, Margaret; Garten, Rebecca; Klimov, Alexander I.; Gubareva, Larisa V.

2009-01-01

327

Reduced Antibody Responses to the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Vaccine after Recent Seasonal Influenza Vaccination?†  

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The vaccination program against the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (2009 H1N1) provided a unique opportunity to determine if immune responses to the 2009 H1N1 vaccine were affected by a recent, prior vaccination against seasonal influenza virus. In the present study, we studied the immune responses to the 2009 H1N1 vaccine in subjects who either received the seasonal influenza virus vaccination within the prior 3 months or did not. Following 2009 H1N1 vaccination, subjects previously give...

Choi, Yoon Seok; Baek, Yun Hee; Kang, Wonseok; Nam, Seung Joo; Lee, Jino; You, Sooseong; Chang, Dong-yeop; Youn, Jong-chan; Choi, Young Ki; Shin, Eui-cheol

2011-01-01

328

Gradual changes in the age distribution of excess deaths in the years following the 1918 influenza pandemic in Copenhagen : Using epidemiological evidence to detect antigenic drift  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: The 1918 influenza pandemic was associated with an unusual age pattern of mortality, with most deaths occurring among young adults. Few studies have addressed changes in the age distribution for influenza-related mortality in the pre-pandemic and post-pandemic period, which has implications for pandemic preparedness. In the present paper, we analyse the age patterns of influenza-related excess mortality in the decades before and after the 1918 pandemic, using detailed historic surveillance data from Copenhagen. Methods: Weekly age-specific rates of respiratory mortality and influenza-like-illnesses were compiled for 1904–1937. Seasonal excess rates of morbidity and mortality attributable to influenza were calculated using a seasonal regression approach. To characterize the age patterns of influenza-related deaths in individual seasons, we used two rate ratio (RR) measures representing ratios of excess mortality rates between age groups and influenza seasons. Results: Individuals aged 15–64 years experienced sharply elevated excess respiratory mortality rates in the 1918–1919 and 1919–1920 pandemic periods, compared to pre-pandemic seasons (RR for excess mortality in the fall of 1918 = 67 relative to inter-pandemic seasons). Of all excess respiratory deaths occurring during 1918–1919, 84% were reported in individuals 15–64 years. By contrast, seniors over 65 years of age experienced no measurable excess mortality during 1918–1919 and moderate excess mortality in the recrudescent pandemic wave of 1919–1920. The first post-pandemic season associated with high excess mortality rates in individuals over 65 years was 1928–1929, with 73% of excess deaths occurring among seniors. We estimate that the age patterns of influenza-related mortality returned to pre-pandemic levels after 1925, based on trends in the rate ratio of excess respiratory mortality in people under and over 65 years. Conclusions: The unusual elevation of excess respiratory mortality rates in young and middle-aged adults wasconfined to the first three years of A/H1N1 virus circulation 1918–1920; the rapid return to “epidemic” mortality pattern in this age group was probably due to high attack rates and build-up of immunity. In contrast, seniors were completely spared from pandemic mortality during 1918–1919, likely due to childhood exposure to an A/H1-like influenza virus. The rise in excess mortality rates in seniors in the recrudescent pandemic wave of 1919–1920 may suggest the emergence of an early influenza A/H1N1 drift variant. Subsequent drift events may have been associated with the particularly severe 1928–1929 epidemic in Denmark and elsewhere.

Saglanmak, Neslihan; Andreasen, Viggo

2011-01-01

329

Epidemiology of fatal cases associated with pandemic influenza reported in Yemen  

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Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes the incidence of all fatal cases associated with Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 in Yemen. It sets out to highlight the factors associated with poor prognosis *The authors declare that they have no competing interests. to enhance the implementation of prevention and control programs. Methods: The study is based on retrospective analysis of available data until 14 March 2010, as compiled by the disease control and surveillance team in Yemen. Results: Between 16 June 2009 and 14 March 2010, a total of 33 laboratory-confirmed death cases associated with pandemic influenza A (H1N1 were reported to the Diseases Control and Surveillance in the Ministry of Public Health and Population. During this period, a total of 6049 suspected influenza A (H1N1 cases were recorded. With this denominator, the case fatality rate (CFR was 0.54%. During June through August, H1N1 confirmed cases were infrequently detected, including only 30; however, from September through December, over 200 confirmed cases were reported each month. Of the 33 cases recorded, 25 were male (76% and 8 were female (24%, male to female ratio being 3:1. Overall median age of the death cases was 30.8 years (range 1 - 55. The most common diagnosis upon admission was pneumonia. Out of the deaths, twenty five (75.8% had no documented underlying diseases. Chronic cardiovascular disease (9.1% was the most commonly reported disease and 2 deaths (6.1% were recorded as pregnant women. Conclusions: The most common diagnosis upon admission was pneumonia. Chronic cardiovascular diseases were the most commonly reported underlying conditions, while the most identified risk factor was pregnancy. These findings should be taken into consideration, when vaccination strategies are employed.

Ahmed A. K. Thabet

2012-11-01

330

Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus and asthma  

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Full Text Available Respiratory viral infection is a major cause of asthma exacerbations in both children and adults. Among the respiratory viruses, influenza virus is a particularly important pathogen due to its enormous morbidity and mortality in annual epidemics. The swine-origin influenza A virus, designated as A(H1N1pdm09, emerged in the spring of 2009 and caused the first influenza pandemic in the 21st century. With the emergence of the novel A(H1N1pdm09 virus, numerous epidemiologic studies detected asthma as a frequent comorbid condition in patients infected with this virus. Here we review recent reports regarding asthma in patients infected with influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus, and we discuss the utility of influenza vaccines and antivirals.

MasatsuguObuchi

2013-10-01

331

An H5N1 M2e-based multiple antigenic peptide vaccine confers heterosubtypic protection from lethal infection with pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A 2009 global influenza pandemic caused by a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus has posted an increasing threat of a potential pandemic by the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus, driving us to develop an influenza vaccine which confers cross-protection against both H5N1 and H1N1 viruses. Previously, we have shown that a tetra-branched multiple antigenic peptide (MAP vaccine based on the extracellular domain of M2 protein (M2e from H5N1 virus (H5N1-M2e-MAP induced strong immune responses and cross-protection against different clades of HPAI H5N1 viruses. In this report, we investigated whether such M2e-MAP presenting the H5N1-M2e consensus sequence can afford heterosubtypic protection from lethal challenge with the pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus. Results Our results demonstrated that H5N1-M2e-MAP plus Freund's or aluminum adjuvant induced strong cross-reactive IgG antibody responses against M2e of the pandemic H1N1 virus which contains one amino acid variation with M2e of H5N1 at position 13. These cross-reactive antibodies may maintain for 6 months and bounced back quickly to the previous high level after the 2nd boost administered 2 weeks before virus challenge. H5N1-M2e-MAP could afford heterosubtypic protection against lethal challenge with pandemic H1N1 virus, showing significant decrease of viral replications and obvious alleviation of histopathological damages in the challenged mouse lungs. 100% and 80% of the H5N1-M2e-MAP-vaccinated mice with Freund's and aluminum adjuvant, respectively, survived the lethal challenge with pandemic H1N1 virus. Conclusions Our results suggest that H5N1-M2e-MAP has a great potential to prevent the threat from re-emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza and possible novel influenza pandemic due to the reassortment of HPAI H5N1 virus with the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus.

Yu Hong

2010-07-01

332

Factors associated with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 vaccination acceptance among university students from India during the post-pandemic phase  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There was a low adherence to influenza A (H1N1 vaccination program among university students and health care workers during the pandemic influenza in many parts of the world. Vaccination of high risk individuals is one of the recommendations of World Health Organization during the post-pandemic period. It is not documented about the student's knowledge, attitude and willingness to accept H1N1 vaccination during the post-pandemic period. We aimed to analyze the student's knowledge, attitude and willingness to accept H1N1 vaccination during the post-pandemic period in India. Methods Vaccine against H1N1 was made available to the students of Vellore Institute of Technology, India from September 2010. The data are based on a cross-sectional study conducted during October 2010 to January 2011 using a self-administered questionnaire with a representative sample of the student population (N = 802. Results Of the 802 respondents, only 102/802 (12.7% had been vaccinated and 105/802 (13% planned to do so in the future, while 595/802 (74% would probably or definitely not get vaccinated in the future. The highest coverage was among the female (65/102, 63.7% and non-compliance was higher among men in the group (384/595; 64.5% (p Conclusions Our study shows that the vaccination coverage among university students remains very low in the post-pandemic period and doubts about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine are key elements in their rejection. Our results indicate a need to provide accessible information about the vaccine safety by scientific authorities and fill gaps and confusions in this regard.

Thejaswini Venkatesh

2011-07-01

333

Fully human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against influenza A viruses generated from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Whether the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine can induce heterosubtypic cross-protective anti-hemagglutinin (HA) neutralizing antibodies is an important issue. We obtained a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient. Most of the monoclonal antibodies targeted the HA protein but not the HA1 fragment. Among the analyzed antibodies, seven mAbs exhibited neutralizing activity against several influenza A viruses of different subtypes. The conserved linear epitope targeted by the neutralizing mAbs (FIEGGWTGMVDGWYGYHH) is part of the fusion peptide on HA2. Our work suggests that a heterosubtypic neutralizing antibody response primarily targeting the HA stem region exists in recipients of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine. The HA stem region contains various conserved neutralizing epitopes with the fusion peptide as an important one. This work may aid in the design of a universal influenza A virus vaccine.

Hu, Weibin [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Chen, Aizhong [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Miao, Yi [Shanghai Xuhui Central Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Xia, Shengli [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Ling, Zhiyang; Xu, Ke; Wang, Tongyan [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Xu, Ying; Cui, Jun; Wu, Hongqiang; Hu, Guiyu; Tian, Lin; Wang, Lingling [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shu, Yuelong [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206 (China); Ma, Xiaowei [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Xu, Bianli; Zhang, Jin [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Henan Province, Zhengzhou 450016 (China); Lin, Xiaojun, E-mail: linxiaojun@hualan.com [Hualan Biological Bacterin Company, Xinxiang 453003 (China); Bian, Chao, E-mail: cbian@sibs.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Sun, Bing, E-mail: bsun@sibs.ac.cn [Molecular Virus Unit, Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200025 (China); Key Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

2013-01-20

334

Fully human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against influenza A viruses generated from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Whether the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine can induce heterosubtypic cross-protective anti-hemagglutinin (HA) neutralizing antibodies is an important issue. We obtained a panel of fully human monoclonal antibodies from the memory B cells of a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine recipient. Most of the monoclonal antibodies targeted the HA protein but not the HA1 fragment. Among the analyzed antibodies, seven mAbs exhibited neutralizing activity against several influenza A viruses of different subtypes. The conserved linear epitope targeted by the neutralizing mAbs (FIEGGWTGMVDGWYGYHH) is part of the fusion peptide on HA2. Our work suggests that a heterosubtypic neutralizing antibody response primarily targeting the HA stem region exists in recipients of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine. The HA stem region contains various conserved neutralizing epitopes with the fusion peptide as an important one. This work may aid in the design of a universal influenza A virus vaccine.

335

Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003, Asia-Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, has received substantial attention because of the anticipation that it could be the epicentre of the next pandemic. There has been active investment but earlier review of pandemic preparedness plans in the region reveals that the translation of these strategic plans into operational plans is still lacking in some countries particularly those with low resources. The objective of this study is to understand the pandemic preparedness programmes, the health systems context, and challenges and constraints specific to the six Asian countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand, and Viet Nam in the prepandemic phase before the start of H1N1/2009. Methods The study relied on the Systemic Rapid Assessment (SYSRA toolkit, which evaluates priority disease programmes by taking into account the programmes, the general health system, and the wider socio-cultural and political context. The components under review were: external context; stewardship and organisational arrangements; financing, resource generation and allocation; healthcare provision; and information systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the second half of 2008 based on a review of published data and interviews with key informants, exploring past and current patterns of health programme and pandemic response. Results The study shows that health systems in the six countries varied in regard to the epidemiological context, health care financing, and health service provision patterns. For pandemic preparation, all six countries have developed national governance on pandemic preparedness as well as national pandemic influenza preparedness plans and Avian and Human Influenza (AHI response plans. However, the governance arrangements and the nature of the plans differed. In the five developing countries, the focus was on surveillance and rapid containment of poultry related transmission while preparation for later pandemic stages was limited. The interfaces and linkages between health system contexts and pandemic preparedness programmes in these countries were explored. Conclusion Health system context influences how the six countries have been preparing themselves for a pandemic. At the same time, investment in pandemic preparation in the six Asian countries has contributed to improvement in health system surveillance, laboratory capacity, monitoring and evaluation and public communications. A number of suggestions for improvement were presented to strengthen the pandemic preparation and mitigation as well as to overcome some of the underlying health system constraints.

Putthasri Weerasak

2010-06-01

336

Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test, NanoSign® Influenza A/B Antigen, for detection of the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 viruses  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the clinical accuracy and analytical sensitivity of the NanoSign® Influenza A/B antigen kit in detecting 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 viruses. The kit is one of the most popular rapid diagnostic tests for detecting influenza in Republic of Korea. Results The NanoSign® Influenza A/B kit resulted in 79.4% sensitivity and 97.2% specificity compared to RT-PCR in the detection of the viruses from 1,023 specimens. In addition, the kit was able to detect two strains of novel influenza viruses, Influenza A/California/12/2009(H1N1 and clinically isolated wild-type novel influenza A/H1N1, both of which are spreading epidemically throughout the world. In addition, the correlation between NanoSign® Influenza A/B test and conventional RT-PCR was approximately 94%, indicating a high concordance rate. Analytical sensitivity of the kit was approximately 73 ± 3.65 ng/mL of the purified viral proteins and 1.13 ± 0.11 hemagglutination units for the cultured virus. Conclusions As the NanoSign® Influenza A/B kit showed relatively high sensitivity and specificity and the good correlation with RT-PCR, it will be very useful in the early control of influenza infection and in helping physicians in making early treatment decisions.

Lee Gyu-Cheol

2010-09-01

337

Preliminary study about sublingual administration of bacteria-expressed pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in miniature pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sublingual (SL) administration of influenza vaccine would be non-invasive and effective way to give human populations protective immunity against the virus, especially when pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this study, the efficacy of pandemic influenza virus-based subunit vaccines was tested after sublingual (SL) adjuvant administration in pigs. Eight specific pathogen-free Yucatan pigs were divided into 4 groups: nonvaccinated but challenged (A) and vaccinated and challenged (B, C, and D). The vaccinated groups were subdivided by vaccine type and inoculation route: SL subunit vaccine (hemagglutinin antigen 1 [HA1] + wild-type cholera toxin [wtCT], B); IM subunit vaccine (HA1 + aluminum hydroxide, C); and IM inactivated vaccine (+ aluminum hydroxide, D). The vaccines were administered twice at a 2-week interval. All pigs were challenged with pandemic influenza virus (A/swine/GCVP-KS01/2009 [H1N1]) and monitored for clinical signs, serology, viral shedding, and histopathology. After vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition titre was higher in group D (320) than in the other vaccinated groups (40-80) at the time of challenge. The mobility and feed intake were reduced in group C. Both viral shedding and histopathological lesions were reduced in groups B and D. Although this study has limitation due to the limited number of pigs (2 pigs per a group), the preliminary data in this study provided the protective potential of SL administration of bacteria-expressed pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccine in pigs. There should be additional animal studies about effective adjuvant system and vaccine types for the use of SL influenza vaccination. PMID:25079956

Kim, Hyekwon; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Song, Hohyun; Choi, Jungah; Shim, Byoungshik; Kang, Bokyu; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Yeom, Minjoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Song, Daesub; Song, Manki

2014-09-01

338

Novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of influenza-associated death, and Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae have been important pathogens that have caused pneumonia since the influenza pandemic in 1919. Emergence of novel influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and the concomitant global spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) have led to increasing prevalence of CA-MRSA pneumonia following influenza infection. Such an epidemiologic change poses a therapeutic challenge due to a high risk of inappropriate empiric antimicrobial therapy and poor clinical outcomes. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for post-influenza bacterial pneumonia have become even more important in the era of CA-MRSA. Therefore, novel molecular diagnostic techniques should be applied to more readily diagnose MRSA pneumonia. PMID:25578884

Chung, Doo Ryeon; Huh, Kyungmin

2015-02-01

339

GLA-AF, an emulsion-free vaccine adjuvant for pandemic influenza.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ongoing threat from Influenza necessitates the development of new vaccine and adjuvant technologies that can maximize vaccine immunogenicity, shorten production cycles, and increase global vaccine supply. Currently, the most successful adjuvants for Influenza vaccines are squalene-based oil-in-water emulsions. These adjuvants enhance seroprotective antibody titers to homologous and heterologous strains of virus, and augment a significant dose sparing activity that could improve vaccine manufacturing capacity. As an alternative to an emulsion, we tested a simple lipid-based aqueous formulation containing a synthetic TLR4 ligand (GLA-AF) for its ability to enhance protection against H5N1 infection. GLA-AF was very effective in adjuvanting recombinant H5 hemagglutinin antigen (rH5) in mice and was as potent as the stable emulsion, SE. Both adjuvants induced similar antibody titers using a sub-microgram dose of rH5, and both conferred complete protection against a highly pathogenic H5N1 challenge. However, GLA-AF was the superior adjuvant in ferrets. GLA-AF stimulated a broader antibody response than SE after both the prime and boost immunization with rH5, and ferrets were better protected against homologous and heterologous strains of H5N1 virus. Thus, GLA-AF is a potent emulsion-free adjuvant that warrants consideration for pandemic influenza vaccine development. PMID:24551202

Clegg, Christopher H; Roque, Richard; Perrone, Lucy A; Rininger, Joseph A; Bowen, Richard; Reed, Steven G

2014-01-01

340

Access to the NHS by telephone and Internet during an influenza pandemic: an observational study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To examine use of a novel telephone and Internet service—the National Pandemic Flu Service (NPFS)—by the population of England during the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic. Setting National telephone and Internet-based service. Participants Service available to population of England (n=51.8 million). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary: service use rate, by week. Numbers and age-specific and sex-specific rates of population who: accessed service; were authorised to collect antiviral medication; collected antiviral medication; were advised to seek further face-to-face assessment. Secondary: daily mean contacts by hour; proportion using service by telephone/Internet. Results The NPFS was activated on 23 July 2009, operated for 204?days and assessed 2.7 million patients (5200 consultations/100?000 population). This was six times the number of people who consulted their general practitioner with influenza-like illness during the same period (823 consultations/100?000 population, rate ratio (RR)=6.30, 95% CI 6.28 to 6.32). Women used the service more than men (52.6 vs 43.4 assessments/1000 population, RR1 21, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.22). Among adults, use of the service declined with age (16–29 years: 74.4 vs 65 years+: 9.9 assessments/1000 population (RR 7.46 95% CI 7.41 to 7.52). Almost three-quarters of those assessed met the criteria to receive antiviral medication (1?807?866/2?488?510; 72.6%). Most of the people subsequently collected this medication, although more than one-third did not (n=646?709; 35.8%). Just over one-third of those assessed were advised to seek further face-to-face assessment with a practitioner (951?332/2?488?504; 38.2%). Conclusions This innovative healthcare service operated at large scale and achieved its aim of relieving considerable pressure from mainstream health services, while providing appropriate initial assessment and management for patients. This offers proof-of-concept for such a service that, with further refinement, England can use in future pandemics. Other countries may wish to adopt a similar system as part of their pandemic emergency planning. PMID:24491382

Rutter, Paul; Mytton, Oliver; Ellis, Benjamin; Donaldson, Liam

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Pandemic Panic  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students engage in an inquiry into influenza A (H1N1), considering the virus and the pandemic from multiple perspectives and acting as advisers to share factual information they learn with their classmates and school communities.

2010-01-01

342

Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Isolated from Free-Ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the Central California Coast  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustir...

Goldstein, Tracey; Mena, Ignacio; Anthony, Simon J.; Medina, Rafael; Robinson, Patrick W.; Greig, Denise J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Garcia-sastre, Adolfo; Boyce, Walter M.

2013-01-01

343

Comparative estimation of the reproduction number for pandemic influenza from daily case notification data.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reproduction number, R, defined as the average number of secondary cases generated by a primary case, is a crucial quantity for identifying the intensity of interventions required to control an epidemic. Current estimates of the reproduction number for seasonal influenza show wide variation and, in particular, uncertainty bounds for R for the pandemic strain from 1918 to 1919 have been obtained only in a few recent studies and are yet to be fully clarified. Here, we estimate R using daily case notifications during the autumn wave of the influenza pandemic (Spanish flu) in the city of San Francisco, California, from 1918 to 1919. In order to elucidate the effects from adopting different estimation approaches, four different methods are used: estimation of R using the early exponential-growth rate (Method 1), a simple susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model (Method 2), a more complex SEIR-type model that accounts for asymptomatic and hospitalized cases (Method 3), and a stochastic susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) with Bayesian estimation (Method 4) that determines the effective reproduction number Rt at a given time t. The first three methods fit the initial exponential-growth phase of the epidemic, which was explicitly determined by the goodness-of-fit test. Moreover, Method 3 was also fitted to the whole epidemic curve. Whereas the values of R obtained using the first three methods based on the initial growth phase were estimated to be 2.98 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.73, 3.25), 2.38 (2.16, 2.60) and 2.20 (1.55, 2.84), the third method with the entire epidemic curve yielded a value of 3.53 (3.45, 3.62). This larger value could be an overestimate since the goodness-of-fit to the initial exponential phase worsened when we fitted the model to the entire epidemic curve, and because the model is established as an autonomous system without time-varying assumptions. These estimates were shown to be robust to parameter uncertainties, but the theoretical exponential-growth approximation (Method 1) shows wide uncertainty. Method 4 provided a maximum-likelihood effective reproduction number 2.10 (1.21, 2.95) using the first 17 epidemic days, which is consistent with estimates obtained from the other methods and an estimate of 2.36 (2.07, 2.65) for the entire autumn wave. We conclude that the reproduction number for pandemic influenza (Spanish flu) at the city level can be robustly assessed to lie in the range of 2.0-3.0, in broad agreement with previous estimates using distinct data. PMID:17254982

Chowell, Gerardo; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Bettencourt, Luís M A

2007-02-22

344

Contemporary Avian Influenza A Virus Subtype H1, H6, H7, H10, and H15 Hemagglutinin Genes Encode a Mammalian Virulence Factor Similar to the 1918 Pandemic Virus H1 Hemagglutinin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zoonotic avian influenza virus infections may lead to epidemics or pandemics. The 1918 pandemic influenza virus has an avian influenza virus-like genome, and its H1 hemagglutinin was identified as a key mammalian virulence factor. A chimeric 1918 virus expressing a contemporary avian H1 hemagglutinin, however, displayed murine pathogenicity indistinguishable from that of the 1918 virus. Here, isogenic chimeric avian influenza viruses were constructed on an avian influenza virus backbone, diff...

Qi, Li; Pujanauski, Lindsey M.; Davis, A. Sally; Schwartzman, Louis M.; Chertow, Daniel S.; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Hartshorn, Kevan L.; Slemons, Richard D.; Walters, Kathie-anne; Kash, John C.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

2014-01-01

345

Estimating infection attack rates and severity in real time during an influenza pandemic: Analysis of serial cross-sectional serologic surveillance data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In an emerging influenza pandemic, estimating severity (the probability of a severe outcome, such as hospitalization, if infected) is a public health priority. As many influenza infections are subclinical, sero-surveillance is needed to allow reliable real-time estimates of infection attack rate (IAR) and severity. Methods and Findings: We tested 14,766 sera collected during the first wave of the 2009 pandemic in Hong Kong using viral microneutralization. We estimated IAR and infe...

Wu, Joseph T.; Ho, Andrew; Ma, Edward S. K.; Lee, Cheuk Kwong; Chu, Daniel K. W.; Ho, Po-lai; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Ho, Lai Ming; Lin, Che Kit; Tsang, Thomas; Lo, Su-vui; Lau, Yu-lung; Leung, Gabriel M.; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Peiris, J. S. Malik

2011-01-01

346

Community psychological and behavioral responses through the first wave of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in Hong Kong  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Little is known about the community psychological and behavioral responses to influenza pandemics. Methods: Using random digit dialing, we sampled 12,965 Hong Kong residents in 13 cross-sectional telephone surveys between April and November 2009, covering the entire first wave of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic. We examined trends in anxiety, risk perception, knowledge on modes of transmission, and preventive behaviors. Results: Respondents reported low anxiety levels througho...

Cowling, Bj; Ng, Dmw; Ip, Dkm; Liao, Q.; Lam, Wwt; Wu, Jt; Lau, Jtf; Griffiths, Sm; Fielding, R.

2010-01-01

347

The Impact of the H1N1 Influenza pandemic on Clinical Presentations and Viral Epidemiology of Acute Respiratory Infection in Pre-school Children in Brazil  

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We assessed the impact of the H1N1 influenza pandemic on acute respiratory infection (ARI) in young children from low-income families in Brazil. Influenza (specifically H1N1) detection in ARI quintupled during the pandemic and, during its peak, it was associated with 30% of all ARI visits to the emergency department. H1N1 was also associated with increased risk of hospitalisation and co-infection.

Fawkner-corbett, David W.; Duarte, Maria Docarmo Mb; Rose, Katie; Fonceca, Angela; Britto, Murilo; Bezerra, Patricia; Cuevas, Luis E.; Hopkins, Mark; Correia, Jailson B.; Mcnamara, Paul Stephen

2012-01-01

348

Vaccination against pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza in pregnancy and risk of fetal death: cohort study in Denmark  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective To investigate whether an adjuvanted pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza vaccine in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of fetal death. Design Nationwide register based cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants All clinically recognised singleton pregnancies that ended between November 2009 and September 2010. Individual level data on exposure to an inactivated AS03 pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza vaccine (Pandemrix) and potential confounders were linked to the study cohort ...

Pasternak, Bjorn; Svanstrom, Henrik; Molgaard-nielsen, Ditte; Krause, Tyra G.; Emborg, Hanne-dorthe; Melbye, Mads; Hviid, Anders

2012-01-01

349

A(H1N1) pandemic influenza and its prevention by vaccination: Paediatricians' opinions before and after the beginning of the vaccination campaign  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In June 2009, the World Health Organization declared an A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. In October 2009, the largest vaccination campaign in Canadian history began. The aim of this study was to document paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding A(H1N1) pandemic influenza and its prevention by vaccination just after the beginning of the A(H1N1) vaccination campaign and to compare the results with those obtained before campaign initiatio...

France Lavoie; Chantal Sauvageau; Julie Bettinger A; Vladimir Gilca; Fannie Defay; Dubé Eve; François Boucher D; Shelly McNeil; Ian Gemmill; Nicole Boulianne

2011-01-01

350

Molecular and serological investigations of the Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic virus in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intense research has been conducted on influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus to determine the virulence markers. Limited information on characteristics of pandemic virus has become available in Turkey since the pandemic. In this first report from Turkey, we investigated the molecular markers that have been associated with increased virulence and oseltamivir resistance. We also conducted serological studies in people after infection, vaccination, exposure, and no-exposure controls to determine the level of protection against the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. Thirteen rRT-PCR positive samples were analyzed for presence of mutations that have been associated with host range, virulence, and antiviral resistance: substitution D222G in the HA, E627K in the PB2, and H275Y in the neuraminidase (NA). In addition, 135 serum samples from vaccinated, recovered, asymptomatic contacts, and control individuals were tested using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. D222G was detected in nasal samples from two severe cases. No specified mutations in the PB2 and NA were identified. Additional substitutions, I216V, V321I, E374K, S203T in HA, V655I in PB2, and I163V in NA, were detected. HI testing from vaccinated individuals, recovered patients, asymptomatic contacts, and control individuals showed that 97.9, 99.7, 88.2, and 44.2 % had HI titers ?40, respectively. Molecular markers promoting influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 to become a pandemic virus are still under investigation. Serological results confirm that younger, un-exposed individuals are at increased risk of pandemic virus infections. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are still in circulation around the globe. Therefore, these viruses need to be monitored closely for development of new markers including antiviral resistance mutations. PMID:23483248

Akcay Ciblak, Meral; Hasoksuz, Mustafa; Kanturvardar, Melis; Asar, Serkan; Badur, Selim

2013-08-01

351

How integration of global omics-data could help preparing for pandemics - a scent of influenza.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pandemics caused by novel emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases could lead to high mortality and morbidity world-wide when left uncontrolled. In this perspective, we evaluate the possibility of integration of global omics-data in order to timely prepare for pandemics. Such an approach requires two major innovations. First, data that is obtained should be shared with the global community instantly. The strength of rapid integration of simple signals is exemplified by Google's(TM) Flu Trend, which could predict the incidence of influenza-like illness based on online search engine queries. Second, omics technologies need to be fast and high-throughput. We postulate that analysis of the exhaled breath would be a simple, rapid and non-invasive alternative. Breath contains hundreds of volatile organic compounds that are altered by infection and inflammation. The molecular fingerprint of breath (breathprint) can be obtained using an electronic nose, which relies on sensor technology. These breathprints can be stored in an online database (a "breathcloud") and coupled to clinical data. Comparison of the breathprint of a suspected subject to the breathcloud allows for a rapid decision on the presence or absence of a pathogen. PMID:24795745

Bos, Lieuwe D J; de Jong, Menno D; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J

2014-01-01

352

Human H-ficolin inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic influenza A viruses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The collectins have been shown to have a role in host defense against influenza A virus (IAV) and other significant viral pathogens (e.g., HIV). The ficolins are a related group of innate immune proteins that are present at relatively high concentrations in serum, but also in respiratory secretions; however, there has been little study of the role of ficolins in viral infection. In this study, we demonstrate that purified recombinant human H-ficolin and H-ficolin in human serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid bind to IAV and inhibit viral infectivity and hemagglutination activity in vitro. Removal of ficolins from human serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid reduces their antiviral activity. Inhibition of IAV did not involve the calcium-dependent lectin activity of H-ficolin. We demonstrate that H-ficolin is sialylated and that removal of sialic acid abrogates IAV inhibition, while addition of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir potentiates neutralization, hemagglutinin inhibition, and viral aggregation caused by H-ficolin. Pandemic and mouse-adapted strains of IAV are generally not inhibited by the collectins surfactant protein D or mannose binding lectin because of a paucity of glycan attachments on the hemagglutinin of these strains. In contrast, H-ficolin inhibited both the mouse-adapted PR-8 H1N1 strain and a pandemic H1N1 strain from 2009. H-ficolin also fixed complement to a surface coated with IAV. These findings suggest that H-ficolin contributes to host defense against IAV.

Verma, Anamika; White, Mitchell

2012-01-01

353

Severe pandemic H1N1 and seasonal influenza in children and young adults with sickle cell disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza causes excess morbidity in sickle cell disease (SCD). H1N1 pandemic influenza has been severe in children. To compare H1N1 with seasonal influenza in SCD (patients younger than 22), we reviewed medical records (1993-2009). We identified 123 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza (94 seasonal, 29 H1N1). Those with seasonal influenza were younger (median 4.4 vs 8.7 years old, P = .006) and had less asthma (24% vs 56%, P = .002). Those with H1N1 influenza more often had acute chest syndrome (ACS; 34% vs 13%, P = .01) and required intensive care (17% vs 3%, P = .02), including mechanical ventilation (10% vs 0%, P = .02). In multivariate analysis, older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.1 per year, P = .04) and H1N1 influenza (OR 3.0, P = .04) were associated with ACS, and older age (OR 1.1 per year, P = .02) and prior ACS (OR 3.3 per episode in last year, P < .006) with intensive care. Influenza, especially H1N1, causes critical illness in SCD and should be prevented. PMID:20656929

Strouse, John J; Reller, Megan E; Bundy, David G; Amoako, Martha; Cancio, Maria; Han, Rachel N; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Casella, James F

2010-11-01

354

Serums and vaccines to fight the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Against the background of the renewed interest aroused in recent years by the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, and the leading role now played by research analysing the process of innovation in medicine, this paper assesses the role played by serums and vaccines —the new resources of the medical science of the time— in the fight against the influenza outbreak of 1918-1919. The paper highlights the dependence on combined scientific, social, economic and professional factors, and also shows the main consequences arising from the fine-tuning and implementation of these therapeutic and prophylactic resources.

En el marco de la renovada actualidad alcanzada por la pandemia de gripe de 1918-1919 en los últimos años y del protagonismo logrado por los estudios que analizan el proceso de innovación en Medicina, el presente trabajo analiza el papel representado por sueros y vacunas —los nuevos recursos de la ciencia médica del momento— en la lucha contra la gripe de 1918-1919. El estudio pone de relieve su dependencia de los factores científicos, sociales, económicos y profesionales que concurrieron, y muestra también las principales consecuencias derivadas de la puesta a punto y uso de los citados recursos terapéuticos y profilácticos.

Porras Gallo, María Isabel

2008-12-01

355

Continued dominance of pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza in Victoria, Australia in 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2010 Victorian influenza season was characterized by normal seasonal influenza activity and the dominance of the pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 strain. General Practice Sentinel Surveillance rates peaked at 9.4 ILI cases per 1000 consultations in week 36 for metropolitan practices, and at 10.5 ILI cases per 1000 in the following week for rural practices. Of the 678 ILI cases, 23% were vaccinated, a significantly higher percentage than in previous years. A significantly higher percentage of ILI patients were swabbed in 2010 compared to 2003-2008, but similar to 2009, with a similar percentage being positive for influenza as in previous years. Vaccination rates increased with patient age. Melbourne Medical Deputising Service rates peaked in week 35 at 19.1 ILI cases per 1000 consultations. Of the 1914 cases of influenza notified to the Department of Health, Victoria, 1812 (95%) were influenza A infections - 1001 (55%) pandemic A(H1N1) 2009, 4 (H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase gene. PMID:23908889

Grant, Kristina; Franklin, Lucinda; Kaczmarek, Marlena; Hurt, Aeron; Kostecki, Renata; Kelly, Heath; Fielding, James

2011-07-01

356

First Fatal Oseltamivir-Resistant 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Case in an Adult in Korea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been suggested that oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses harboring the H274/275Y mutation are less virulent than are those that are oseltamivir-sensitive, and fatality attributed to infection with an oseltamivir-resistant virus is very rare. Here we report the first fatal adult case of oseltamivir-resistant 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Korea. A 60-year-old Korean male who had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy visited Chonnam N...

Hong, Seung-dok; Park, Seong-hwan; Kang, Seung-ji; Kwon, Yong Soo; Kee, Seung-jung; Park, Kyung-hwa; Jung, Sook-in; Jang, Hee-chang

2011-01-01

357

Persistent oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infection in an adult with cystic fibrosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors report the case of a 25-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) who developed pandemic influenza A/H1N1 during a visit to the USA in August 2010. The patient has severe CF lung disease and takes maintenance oral corticosteroids. The influenza virus was positive for the H275Y oseltamivir-resistance mutation despite the patient never having received oseltamivir. The patient has remained sputum-positive for over 4 months despite inhaled zanamivir therapy. This is the first reporte...

Flight, William George; Bright-thomas, Rowland; Mutton, Kenneth; Webb, Kevin; Jones, Andrew

2011-01-01

358

Oseltamivir–Resistant Pandemic H1N1/2009 Influenza Virus Possesses Lower Transmissibility and Fitness in Ferrets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir offers an important immediate option for the control of influenza, and its clinical use has increased substantially during the recent H1N1 pandemic. In view of the high prevalence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in 2007–2008, there is an urgent need to characterize the transmissibility and fitness of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1/2009 viruses, although resistant variants have been isolated at a low rate. Here we studied the ...

Duan, Susu; Boltz, David A.; Seiler, Patrick; Li, Jiang; Bragstad, Karoline; Nielsen, Lars P.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

2010-01-01

359

Epidemiological survey on pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in Kurdistan province, Islamic Republic of Iran, 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the epidemiology of suspected cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in 2009-2010 in Kurdistan province, a frontier province of the Islamic Republic of Iran. A questionnaire covering demographic characteristics, clinical presentation and outcome, and history of exposure and travel was completed by patients attending health centres and hospitals in the province. Nasal and throat swabs were analysed by RT-PCR. A total of 1059 suspected cases were assessed; H1N1 influenza A was confirmed in 157 (14.8%). The highest proportion of confirmed cases was 30.0%, among children aged Kurdistan. PMID:24950074

Afrasiabian, S; Mohsenpour, B; Bagheri, K H; Barari, M; Ghaderi, E; Hashemi, R; Garibi, F

2014-03-01

360

Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus in Norwegian pigs naïve to influenza A viruses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1-09v) emerged in the human population. The first case of pH1N1v infection in pigs was reported from Canada in May 2009. In Norway, pH1N1v infection was recorded in a swine herd on the 10th of October of 2009. Here, we report results from the investigation performed during the outbreak and the follow up surveillance performed in the Norwegian pig population. Nasal swabs were collected from herds i) where pigs had been exposed to persons with verified pH1N1-09v infection or with influenza-like illness (ILI); ii) where pigs showed clinical signs or iii) with a history of close contact with or close proximity to infected herds. In addition, blood samples were collected from nucleus and multiplier breeding herds. Detection of pH1N1-09v was initially performed using a real-time RT-PCR targeted to detect influenza A virus. Positive samples were tested by a pH1N1-09v specific real-time RT-PCR. Blood samples were tested for presence of antibodies against influenza A virus by ELISA (IDVET) and positive samples in the ELISA were tested by haemagglutinin inhibition test using A/California/07/09 as antigen. From the onset of the outbreak and until 31st of December 2009, the pH1N1-09v was detected in nasal swabs from 54 of 114 herds investigated tested, while 55 of 140 herds tested positive for antibodies against pH1N1-09v. No herd has been tested positive for pH1N1-09v since early January 2010, however, results of the Norwegian surveillance and control programme for specific swine herds for 2010 so far indicates that 40 % of the swine herds (154 herds) are positive for antibodies against pH1N1-09. Serological evaluation of swine herds and detailed back tracking of the outbreak indicated that the virus was introduced in September 2009. The Norwegian swine population has, until the outbreak of pH1N1-09v, been considered free from influenza A virus infection as documented through serological surveillance program running since 1997. Virus isolated from one of the herds positive for pH1N1-09v was fully identical across the full genome to virus isolated from a confirmed human case at the farm. The majority of the positive herds had a history of contact with humans that were diagnosed with pandemic influenza or with ILI. This suggests that infected humans are the most likely source for introduction of pH1N1-09v to the Norwegian pig herds, especially in the early phase of the outbreak.

Germundsson, A.; Gjerset, B.

 
 
 
 
361

Correlation between emergency room visits for influenza-like illness during the influenza A (H1/N1) pandemic in children and adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surveillance of incident influenza-like illness (ILI) was implemented in two children and adult medical emergency departments during the influenza A (H1/N1) pandemic to assess correlations in the daily number of ILI-related emergency room visits (ERV) between these departments. A total of 7165 ILIs in children and 610 ILIs in adults were observed. We noticed a high linear correlation between the number of ERV involving ILI on day D in the pediatric department and the number of ERV because of ILI 2 days later in adults (R = 0·82, P ILI-related ERV might be anticipated based on the rate of pediatric ERV. PMID:22817669

Bénet, Thomas; Cassier, Pierre; Voirin, Nicolas; Morélon-Daum, Sophie; Floret, Daniel; Gillet, Yves; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; Vanhems, Philippe

2013-05-01

362

Response to 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine in HIV-Infected Patients and the Influence of Prior Seasonal Influenza Vaccination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The immunogenicity of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) (pH1N1) vaccines and the effect of previous influenza vaccination is a matter of current interest and debate. We measured the immune response to pH1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected patients and in healthy controls. In addition we tested whether recent vaccination with seasonal trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) induced cross-reactive antibodies to pH1N1. (clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:NCT01066169) Methods and Findings: In this singl...

Soonawala, D.; Rimmelzwaan, G. F.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Visser, L. G.; Kroon, F. P.

2011-01-01

363

Validation of Urban Community Survey Regarding Pandemic Flu Influenza A (H1N1) Using Rasch Measurement Tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This has made an attempt to apply the Rasch measurement model in the field of health sciences to validate the response behavioural patterns of local urban community regarding the risk of Pandemic Flu, Influenza A (H1N1). The variables include subjects' response behaviour towards H1N1 treatment effectiveness, knowledge, perceived risk attitude and preventive practices towards HINI. Following this is the investigation of the nature of associations between the binary response patterns (knowle...

Izni Syamsina Saari; Zamalia Mahmud; Nik Nairan Abdullah

2013-01-01

364

Planning for the Control of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Los Angeles County and the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mathematical and computer models can provide guidance to public health officials by projecting the course of an epidemic and evaluating control measures. The authors built upon an existing collaboration between an academic research group and the Los Angeles County, California, Department of Public Health to plan for and respond to the first and subsequent years of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) circulation. The use of models allowed the authors to 1) project the timing and magnitude of the epide...

Chao, Dennis L.; Matrajt, Laura; Basta, Nicole E.; Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Dean, Brandon; Bagwell, Dee Ann; Oiulfstad, Brit; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

2011-01-01

365

Impact of prior seasonal influenza vaccination and infection on pandemic A(H1N1) influenza virus replication in ferrets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early epidemiologic and serologic studies have suggested preexisting immunity to the pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus (H1N1pdm) may be altering its morbidity and mortality in humans. To determine the role that contemporary seasonal H1N1 virus infection or trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) might be playing in this immunity we conducted a vaccination-challenge study in ferrets. Vaccination with TIV was unable to alter subsequent morbidity or contact transmission in ferrets following cha...

Ellebedy, A. H.; Ducatez, M. F.; Duan, S.; Stigger-rosser, E.; Rubrum, A. M.; Govorkova, E. A.; Webster, R. G.; Webby, R. J.

2011-01-01

366

[Highly pathogenic influenza pandemic: results of a feasibility study in a general practice (SIMUGRIP-MG2)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The French Pandemic Influenza Plan ("Plan National de Prévention et de Lutte Pandémie Grippale") places general practitioners at the heart of the provision of care to patients through consultations and house calls. The purpose of this study was to determine whether GP practices are able to provide treatment to flu patients within their premises in the event of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic. A simulation exercise conducted in a GP practice (SIMUGRIP-MG2) was carried out in the autumn of 2009. 3 general practitioners, the practice secretary, 33 patients and care staff took part in the exercise during a half day of practice. The study found that the quality of some hygiene practices and procedures was inadequate: the duration of handwashing was too short (mean: 11.8 seconds), gloves were not worn, and FFP2 masks were often handled. The study found that the implementation of these procedures required increased effort and attention from GPs. It was also found that this type of consultation requires additional preparation time (refitting, supply of materials) and generates additional costs (linked, for example, to storage issues). In seeking to improve the quality of care provided to infected patients in the event of an influenza pandemic, several factors must be considered, including recent data on the effectiveness of countermeasures, additional training to improve hygiene practices, and infrastructure modernization to improve ergonomics in GP practices. PMID:22365046

Lecapitaine, Anne-Lise; Barthe, Juliette; Audran, Ghislaine; Gauffier, Nora; Aubert, Jean-Pierre

2011-01-01

367

Radiological and Clinical Characteristics of a Military Outbreak of Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza Virus Infection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe detailed clinical and radiological features of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza viral infection among healthy young males in a semiclosed institutionalized setting. A total of 18 patients confirmed with the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection from July 18 to July 30, 2009 were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent an evaluation to determine detailed clinical and radiological features. All patients presented with high fever (> 38.0..C), with accompanying symptoms of cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat, myalgia and diarrhea, and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) values with no leukocytosis nor elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). All patients, including one patient who progressed into acute respiratory distress syndrome, were treated with oseltamivir phosphate and quickly recovered from their symptoms. Chest radiographs showed abnormalities of small nodules and lobar consolidation in only two out of 18 patients. However, six of 12 patients who underwent thin-section CT examinations showed abnormal findings for small ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in addition to poorly-defined nodules with upper lobe predominance. In a population of healthy young adults, elevated CRP with normal ESR and white blood cell levels combined with GGOs and nodules on thin section CT scans may indicate early signs of infection by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus

368

Radiological and Clinical Characteristics of a Military Outbreak of Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza Virus Infection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To describe detailed clinical and radiological features of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza viral infection among healthy young males in a semiclosed institutionalized setting. A total of 18 patients confirmed with the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus infection from July 18 to July 30, 2009 were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent an evaluation to determine detailed clinical and radiological features. All patients presented with high fever (> 38.0..C), with accompanying symptoms of cough, rhinorrhea, sore throat, myalgia and diarrhea, and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) values with no leukocytosis nor elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). All patients, including one patient who progressed into acute respiratory distress syndrome, were treated with oseltamivir phosphate and quickly recovered from their symptoms. Chest radiographs showed abnormalities of small nodules and lobar consolidation in only two out of 18 patients. However, six of 12 patients who underwent thin-section CT examinations showed abnormal findings for small ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in addition to poorly-defined nodules with upper lobe predominance. In a population of healthy young adults, elevated CRP with normal ESR and white blood cell levels combined with GGOs and nodules on thin section CT scans may indicate early signs of infection by the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus

Yun, Tae Jin; Kwon, Gu Jin; Oh, Mi Kyeong; Woo, Sung Koo; Park, Seung Hoon; Choi, Seung Hong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo; Yim, Jae Joon; Kim, Jong Sung; Park, Chang Min [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-15

369

An early ‘classical’ swine H1N1 influenza virus shows similar pathogenicity to the 1918 pandemic virus in ferrets and mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 1918 pandemic influenza virus has demonstrated significant pathogenicity in animal models and is the progenitor of ‘classical’ swine and modern seasonal human H1N1 lineages. Here we characterize the pathogenicity of an early ‘classical’ swine H1N1 influenza A virus isolated in 1931 compared to the pathogenicity of the 1918 pandemic virus and a seasonal H1N1 virus in mice and ferrets. A/Swine/Iowa/31 (Sw31) and the 1918 influenza viruses were uniformly lethal in mice at low doses a...

Memoli, Matthew J.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Jagger, Brett W.; Dugan, Vivien G.; Sheng, Zong-mei; Qi, Li; Kash, John C.; Taubenberger, Jeffery K.

2009-01-01

370

Severe influenza cases in paediatric intensive care units in Germany during the pre-pandemic seasons 2005 to 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on complications in children with seasonal influenza virus infection are limited. We initiated a nation-wide three-year surveillance of children who were admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU with severe seasonal influenza. Methods From October 2005 to July 2008, active surveillance was performed using an established reporting system for rare diseases (ESPED including all paediatric hospitals in Germany. Cases to be reported were hospitalized children Results Twenty severe influenza-associated cases were reported from 14 PICUs during three pre-pandemic influenza seasons (2005-2008. The median age of the patients (12 males/8 females was 7.5 years (range 0.1-15 years. None had received vaccination against influenza. In 14 (70% patients, the infection had been caused by influenza A and in five (25% by influenza B; in one child (5% the influenza type was not reported. Patients spent a median of 19 (IQR 12-38 days in the hospital and a median of 11 days (IQR 6-18 days in the PICU; 10 (50% needed mechanical ventilation. Most frequent diagnoses were influenza-associated pneumonia (60%, bronchitis/bronchiolitis (30%, encephalitis/encephalopathy (25%, secondary bacterial pneumonia (25%, and ARDS (25%. Eleven (55% children had chronic underlying medical conditions, including 8 (40% with chronic pulmonary diseases. Two influenza A- associated deaths were reported: i an 8-year old boy with pneumococcal encephalopathy following influenza infection died from cerebral edema, ii a 14-year-old boy with asthma bronchiale, cardiac malformation and Addison's disease died from cardiac and respiratory failure. For nine (45% patients, possibly permanent sequelae were reported (3 neurological, 3 pulmonary, 3 other sequelae. Conclusions Influenza-associated pneumonia and secondary bacterial infections are relevant complications of seasonal influenza in Germany. The incidence of severe influenza cases in PICUs was relatively low. This may be either due to the weak to moderate seasonal influenza activity during the years 2005 to 2008 or due to under-diagnosis of influenza by physicians. Fifty% of the observed severe cases might have been prevented by following the recommendations for vaccination of risk groups in Germany.

Liese Johannes G

2011-08-01

371

Potency of a vaccine prepared from A/swine/Hokkaido/2/1981 (H1N1) against A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus strain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The pandemic 2009 (H1N1) influenza virus has spread throughout the world and is now causing seasonal influenza. To prepare for the emergence of pandemic influenza, we have established a library of virus strains isolated from birds, pigs, and humans in global surveillance studies. Methods Inactivated whole virus particle (WV) and ether-split (ES) vaccines were prepared from an influenza virus strain, A/swine/Hokkaido/2/1981 (H1N1), from the li...

Okamatsu Masatoshi; Sakoda Yoshihiro; Hiono Takahiro; Yamamoto Naoki; Kida Hiroshi

2013-01-01

372

A community-based participatory approach and engagement process creates culturally appropriate and community informed pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic: remote and isolated First Nations communities of sub-arctic Ontario, Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health emergencies have the potential to disproportionately impact disadvantaged populations due to pre-established social and economic inequalities. Internationally, prior to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, existing pandemic plans were created with limited public consultation; therefore, the unique needs and characteristics of some First Nations communities may not be ethically and adequately addressed. Engaging the public in pandemic planning can provide vital information regarding local values and beliefs that may ultimately lead to increased acceptability, feasibility, and implementation of pandemic plans. Thus, the objective of the present study was to elicit and address First Nations community members’ suggested modifications to their community-level pandemic plans after the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Methods The study area included three remote and isolated First Nations communities located in sub-arctic Ontario, Canada. A community-based participatory approach and community engagement process (i.e., semi-directed interviews (n?=?13, unstructured interviews (n?=?4, and meetings (n?=?27 were employed. Participants were purposively sampled and represented various community stakeholders (e.g., local government, health care, clergy, education, etc. involved in the community’s pandemic response. Collected data were manually transcribed and coded using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. The data subsequently informed the modification of the community-level pandemic plans. Results The primary modifications incorporated in the community-level pandemic plans involved adding community-specific detail. For example, ‘supplies’ emerged as an additional category of pandemic preparedness and response, since including details about supplies and resources was important due to the geographical remoteness of the study communities. Furthermore, it was important to add details of how, when, where, and who was responsible for implementing recommendations outlined in the pandemic plans. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of the involved organizations were further clarified. Conclusions Our results illustrate the importance of engaging the public, especially First Nations, in pandemic planning to address local perspectives. The community engagement process used was successful in incorporating community-based input to create up-to-date and culturally-appropriate community-level pandemic plans. Since these pandemic plans are dynamic in nature, we recommend that the plans are continuously updated to address the communities’ evolving needs. It is hoped that these modified plans will lead to an improved pandemic response capacity and health outcomes, during the next public health emergency, for these remote and isolated First Nations communities. Furthermore, the suggested modifications presented in this paper may help inform updates to the community-level pandemic plans of other similar communities.

Charania Nadia A

2012-04-01

373

Oseltamivir for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection in households, Milwaukee, 2009  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background During an influenza pandemic, a substantial proportion of transmission is thought to occur in households. We used data on influenza progression in individuals and their contacts collected by the City of Milwaukee Health Department (MHD to study the transmission of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus in 362 households in Milwaukee, WI, and the effects of oseltamivir treatment and chemoprophylaxis. Methods 135 households had chronological information on symptoms and oseltamivir usage for all household members. The effect of oseltamivir treatment and other factors on the household secondary attack rate was estimated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression with households as the unit of analysis. The effect of oseltamivir treatment and other factors on the individual secondary attack rate was estimated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression with individual household contacts as the unit of analysis, and a generalized estimating equations approach was used to fit the model to allow for clustering within households. Results Oseltamivir index treatment on onset day or the following day (early treatment was associated with a 42% reduction (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.19, 1.73 in the odds of one or more secondary infections in a household and a 50% reduction (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.17, 1.46 in the odds of a secondary infection in individual contacts. The confidence bounds are wide due to a small sample of households with early oseltamivir index usage - in 29 such households, 5 had a secondary attack. Younger household contacts were at higher risk of infection (OR: 2.79, 95% CI: 1.50-5.20. Conclusions Early oseltamivir treatment may be beneficial in preventing H1N1pdm influenza transmission; this may have relevance to future control measures for influenza pandemics. Larger randomized trials are needed to confirm this finding statistically.

Miller Joel C

2010-07-01

374

U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A stochastic discrete event simulation model was developed to assess the effectiveness of passenger screening for Pandemic Influenza (PI) at U.S. airport foreign entry. Methods: International passengers arriving at 18 U.S. airports from Asia, Europe, South America, and Canada were assigned to one of three states: not infected, infected with PI, infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers passed through layered screening then exited the model. 80% screening effectiveness was assumed for symptomatic passengers; 6% asymptomatic passengers. Results: In the first 100 days of a global pandemic, U.S. airport screening would evaluate over 17 M passengers with 800 K secondary screenings. 11,570 PI infected passengers (majority asymptomatic) would enter the U.S. undetected from all 18 airports. Foreign airport departure screening significantly decreased the false negative (infected/undetected) passengers. U.S. attack rates: no screening (26.9%-30.9%); screening (26.4%-30.6%); however airport screening results in 800 K-1.8 M less U.S. PI cases; 16 K-35 K less deaths (2% fatality rate). Antiviral medications for travel contact prophylaxis (10 contacts/PI passenger) were high - 8.8 M. False positives from all 18 airports: 100-200/day. Conclusions: Foreign shore exit screening greatly reduces numbers of PI infected passengers. U.S. airport screening identifies 50% infected individuals; efficacy is limited by the asymptomatic PI infected. Screening will not significantly delay arrival of PI via international air transport, but will reduce the rate of new US cases and subsequent deaths. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Malone, John D. [Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS); Brigantic, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Muller, G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Gadgil, Ashok [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Delp, Woody [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); McMahon, Benjamin H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lee, Russell [ORNL; Kulesz, Jim [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Mihelic, F. Matthew [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2009-01-01

375

Oseltamivir compounding in the hospital pharmacy during the (H1N1 influenza pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIMS: Pandemics impose large demands on the health care system. The supply of appropriate chemotherapeutic agents, namely oseltamivir solution, presented a serious challenge in the recent influenza pandemic. This study reports on the rational series of pharmacotechnical steps that were followed to appropriately handle bulk oseltamivir powder to meet the increased demand. METHODS: During a six-week period in August and September of 2009, a task force was created in the Central Pharmacy of Hospital das Clínicas to convert imported oseltamivir phosphate into ready-to-use solution for utilization by physicians and public health authorities. The protocol included dissolution, physico-chemical tests and the bottling of a liquid microdose formulation for emergency room and outpatient dispensing with adequate quality control during all phases. RESULTS: The successful production routine was based on a specially designed flowchart according to which a batch of 33210 g of oseltamivir powder was converted into 32175 solution units during the aforementioned period with a net loss of only 2.6%. The end products were bottles containing 50 ml of 15 mg/mL oseltamivir solution. The measured concentration was stable and accurate (97.5% - 102.0% of the nominal value. The drug was prescribed as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent. DISCUSSION: Hospital pharmacies are conventionally engaged in the manipulation of medical prescriptions and specialty drugs. They are generally responsible for only small-scale equipment used for manufacturing and quality-control procedures. The compounding of oseltamivir was a unique effort dictated by exceptional circumstances. CONCLUSION: The shortage of oseltamivir solution for clinical use was solved by emergency operationalization of a semi-industrial process in which bulk powder was converted into practical vials for prompt delivery.

Márcia Lúcia de Mário Marin

2010-01-01

376

Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Phase of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009-Associated Encephalopathy in Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 has been shown to be associated more with neurological complications than the seasonal influenza virus. In this study, we focused on the clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the acute phase of influenza A (H1N1) 2009-associated encephalopathy. A questionnaire was distributed to pediatric and general hospitals in Japan that treat children with encephalopathy. We conducted a questionnaire-based study involving the collection of information regarding 207 patients with encephalopathy. Brain MRI was performed in 97 of these 207 patients in the age group of 9 months to 15 years (mean, 7.5 years) within 48 hours after the development of encephalopathy symptoms. Sixty-six patients (68%) showed normal imaging. Diffuse brain edema was visible in five patients and an abnormal signal in the deep gray matter in two patients which is consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy. Abnormal signals of the splenial lesion, subcortical white matter (bright tree appearance), and cortical area were observed in 15, 1, and 8 patients, respectively. From our findings based on the questionnaire results, we suggest that MRI is useful for determining fatal cases of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection when performed in the acute phase. However, MRI is not useful in predicting the development of sequelae. PMID:25290723

Ishida, Yu; Kawashima, Hisashi; Morichi, Shinichiro; Yamanaka, Gaku; Okumura, Akihisa; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Morishima, Tsuneo

2015-02-01

377

Role of laboratory in the virological diagnosis of pandemic Influenza A(H1N1v  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new pandemic influenza, occurred in april 2009 in Mexico is also called swine Influenza. It is caused by a new Influenza virus A(H1N1v, completely new, never before found in any species and results from complex genetic reassortment. The role of the laboratory is essential for the virological diagnosis of this emerging flu. It can provide the definitive diagnosis in patients whose clinical and epidemiological context is suggestive of infection with virus A(H1N1v. The virological confirmation of an infection case caused by this virus is provided by the positivity of the laboratory following tests: RT-PCR and/or viral culture and/or four-fold rise in the rate of specific neutralizing antibodies directed against A(H1N1v virus on a pair of sera collected two weeks apart. The real time RT-PCR is currently the tool of choice because of its rapidity, sensitivity and specificity. Immunological rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs can detect the presence of the nucleoprotein antigens of seasonal influenza viruses type A and B. The evaluation of these tests showed, in the current pandemic context, a low sensitivity which not confer them a negative predictive value compatible with widespread use. Their results must be interpreted with caution and despite their good positive predictive value, they allow a presumptive diagnosis, confirmation by real time RT-PCR will be conducted whenever necessary.

I. Lahlou Amine

2009-12-01

378

Preclinical evaluation of Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted Vero cell-derived seasonal split and pandemic whole virus influenza vaccines  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing the potency and supply of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines remains an important unmet medical need which may be effectively accomplished with adjuvanted egg- or cell culture-derived vaccines. Vaxfectin®, a cationic lipid-based adjuvant with a favorable safety profile in phase 1 plasmid DNA vaccines trials, was tested in combination with seasonal split, trivalent and pandemic whole virus, monovalent influenza vaccines produced in Vero cell cultures. Comparison of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers in Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted to nonadjuvanted vaccinated mice and guinea pigs revealed 3- to 20-fold increases in antibody titers against each of the trivalent influenza virus vaccine strains and 2- to 8-fold increases in antibody titers against the monovalent H5N1 influenza virus vaccine strain. With the vaccine doses tested, comparable antibody responses were induced with formulations that were freshly prepared or refrigerated at conventional 2–8°C storage conditions for up to 6 mo. Comparison of T-cell frequencies measured by interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay between groups revealed increases of between 2- to 10-fold for each of the adjuvanted trivalent strains and up to 22-fold higher with monovalent H5N1 strain. Both trivalent and monovalent vaccines were easy to formulate with Vaxfectin® by simple mixing. These preclinical data support further testing of Vaxfectin®-adjuvanted Vero cell culture vaccines toward clinical studies designed to assess safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines in humans. PMID:23857272

Smith, Larry R.; Wodal, Walter; Crowe, Brian A.; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Bruehl, Peter; Schwendinger, Michael G.; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Sullivan, Sean M.; Shlapobersky, Mark; Hartikka, Jukka; Rolland, Alain; Barrett, P. Noel; Kistner, Otfried

2013-01-01

379

Preclinical evaluation of Vaxfectin-adjuvanted Vero cell-derived seasonal split and pandemic whole virus influenza vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing the potency and supply of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines remains an important unmet medical need which may be effectively accomplished with adjuvanted egg- or cell culture-derived vaccines. Vaxfectin, a cationic lipid-based adjuvant with a favorable safety profile in phase 1 plasmid DNA vaccines trials, was tested in combination with seasonal split, trivalent and pandemic whole virus, monovalent influenza vaccines produced in Vero cell cultures. Comparison of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers in Vaxfectin-adjuvanted to nonadjuvanted vaccinated mice and guinea pigs revealed 3- to 20-fold increases in antibody titers against each of the trivalent influenza virus vaccine strains and 2- to 8-fold increases in antibody titers against the monovalent H5N1 influenza virus vaccine strain. With the vaccine doses tested, comparable antibody responses were induced with formulations that were freshly prepared or refrigerated at conventional 2-8°C storage conditions for up to 6 mo. Comparison of T-cell frequencies measured by interferon-gamma ELISPOT assay between groups revealed increases of between 2- to 10-fold for each of the adjuvanted trivalent strains and up to 22-fold higher with monovalent H5N1 strain. Both trivalent and monovalent vaccines were easy to formulate with Vaxfectin by simple mixing. These preclinical data support further testing of Vaxfectin-adjuvanted Vero cell culture vaccines toward clinical studies designed to assess safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines in humans. PMID:23857272

Smith, Larry R; Wodal, Walter; Crowe, Brian A; Kerschbaum, Astrid; Bruehl, Peter; Schwendinger, Michael G; Savidis-Dacho, Helga; Sullivan, Sean M; Shlapobersky, Mark; Hartikka, Jukka; Rolland, Alain; Barrett, P Noel; Kistner, Otfried

2013-06-01

380

Military and Military Medical Support in Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI/H5N1) Pandemic Scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Avian influenza (Bird flu) is a highly contagious viral disease affecting mainly chickens, turkeys, ducks, other birds and mammals. Reservoirs for HPAI /H5N1 virus are shore birds and waterfowl (asymptomatic, excrete virus in feces for a long periods of time), live bird markets and commercial swine facilities. Virus tends to cycle between pigs and birds. HPAI (H5N1) virus is on every 'top ten' list available for potential agricultural bio-weapon agents. The threat of a HPAI/H5N1 pandemic is a definitively global phenomenon and the response must be global. A number of National plans led to various measures of preventing and dealing with epidemics/pandemics. Lessons learned form the pandemic history indicated essential role of military and military medical support to civil authorities in a crisis situation. Based on International Military Medical Avian Influenza Pandemic workshop (Vienna 2006), an expected scenario would involve 30-50% outpatients, 20-30% hospital admission, 2-3% deaths, 10-20% complicated cases. Activities of civil hospital may be reduced by 50%. Benefits of military support could be in: Transportation of patients (primarily by air); Mass vaccination and provision of all other preventive measures (masks, Tamiflu); Restriction of movements; Infection control of health care facilities; Field hospitals for triage and quarantine, military barracks to treat milder cases and military hospitals for severe cases; Deal with corpses; Stockpiling (vaccines, antiviral, antibiotics, protective equipment, supplies); Training; Laboratories; Ensure public safety, etc. With the aim of minimizing the risk of a pandemic spread by means of rapid and uncomplicated cooperation, an early warning system has to be established to improve surveillance, improve international contacts (WHO, ECDC, CDC), establish Platform for sharing information, close contacts of national and international military and civilian surveillance networks and databases, cooperation between military and civilian labs (external quality control). (author)

 
 
 
 
381

Factors associated with parental acceptance and refusal of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the parents' attitudes towards and identify the possible factors associated with pandemic H1N1 vaccine uptake that was recommended to children between 6 months and 5 years of age. A questionnaire exploring the attitudes of parents to H1N1 vaccine was given to parents of children 6 through 60 months of age attending to Akdeniz and Gazi University Hospitals' well-child departments between 15 November 2009 and 15 January 2010. The questionnaire included questions on demographic characteristics, parental perception of the severity of the pandemic, the presence of anyone in their environment who suffered from pandemic influenza, their decision on whether or not to vaccinate their child, the factors that influenced them during decision-making process and possible factors that might have influenced the opponents of their decision. Those who accepted to get their children vaccinated got it immediately, free of charge. Out of 611 parents who responded the questionnaire 226 (36.7%) had their children vaccinated. Parental education period of less than 12 years, not being a close relative of a health care worker, not having a relative who suffered from the disease, having a child younger than 36 months, being influenced by the relatives' opinions or from the politicians or from the media all decreased vaccine acceptance. Factors that were most significantly associated with vaccine refusal were thinking that the pandemic was exaggerated (OR 9.44, 95% CI 4.28-20.82) and believing that other preventive measures were more effective than H1N1 vaccine (OR 15.61, 95% CI 7.37-33.08). Lessons learned from influenza H1N1/2009 pandemic may help national authorities, health care providers and media on how to keep the public well informed and find ways of better risk-benefit communication with the parents on vaccines. PMID:21347848

Akis, Sule; Velipasaoglu, Sevtap; Camurdan, Aysu Duyan; Beyazova, Ufuk; Sahn, Figen

2011-09-01

382

Scaling in the Global Spreading Patterns of Pandemic Influenza A and the Role of Control: Empirical Statistics and Modeling  

CERN Document Server

The pandemic of influenza A (H1N1) is a serious on-going global public crisis. Understanding its spreading dynamics is of fundamental importance for both public health and scientific researches. In this paper, we investigate the spreading patterns of influenza A and find the Zipf's law of the distributions of confirmed cases in different levels. Similar scaling properties are also observed for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and bird cases of avian influenza (H5N1). To explore the underlying mechanism, a model considering the control effects on both the local growth and transregional transmission is proposed, which shows that the strong control effects are responsible for the scaling properties. Although strict control measures for interregional travelers are helpful to delay the outbreak in the regions without local cases, our analysis suggests that the focus should be turned to local prevention after the outbreak of local cases. This work provides not only a deeper understanding of the generic mech...

Han, Xiao-Pu; Zhou, Chang-Song; Zhou, Tao; Zhu, Jun-Fang

2009-01-01

383

Los virus Influenza y la nueva pandemia A/H1N1 / Influenza virus and the new Influenza A/H1N1 pandemics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los virus Influenza pertenecen a la familia Orthomyxoviridae, virus con genoma RNA de sentido negativo segmentado. Los virus influenza tipo A infectan a humanos y otros organismos, y son los agentes causantes de influenza en humanos. Resaltan entre sus principales proteínas la Hemaglutinina y la Neu [...] raminidasa, que son utilizadas en la clasificación de los miembros de este grupo. Estos virus mutan continuamente, exhibiendo patrones muy estudiados, como el cambio y la deriva antigénica, siendo uno de los principales eventos de recombinación el reordenamiento. Todos los subtipos se encuentran en aves acuáticas silvestres, aunque se han encontrado otros hospederos, como equinos, visones, ballenas, focas, cerdos, gallinas y pavos, entre otros. Tanto las aves salvajes, las aves domésticas y el cerdo juegan un rol fundamental en la adaptación progresiva del virus al hospedero humano. Aunque los subtipos H2N2 y H3N2 han sido muy comunes, el subtipo H1N1 ha reemergido con mutaciones que le han permitido alcanzar el estado de pandemia en 2009. Este nuevo virus surge de un virus generado por triple reordenamiento con el virus humano, porcino norteamericano y aviar, conteniendo a su vez segmentos génicos de virus influenza porcina euroasiática. Esto ha hecho que el virus presente una enfermedad humana moderada y solamente severa y hasta letal en casos de individuos con condiciones médicas previas. A nivel mundial ha causado más de 134,510 casos y en el Perú alcanza cerca de 3,700 casos. El estado actual indica que la pandemia está por llegar a su pico máximo en el Perú, debido a la alta morbilidad del virus coincidente con la estación más fría del año. Es importante contener al máximo la dispersión del virus, ya que cuanto mayor sea el número de personas que infecte, el mismo estará sometido a un mayor número de eventos de recombinación genética por reordenamiento con virus influenza humanos previos y esto puede condicionar a la aparición todavía de nuevas cepas, para las que el sistema inmune podría no estar preparado a nivel poblacional. Abstract in english The Influenza virus belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family, viruses with a negative sense segmented RNA genome. The influenza virus type A infects humans and other organisms, and is the causative agent of human influenza. Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase stand out among other proteins, and are used i [...] n the classification of the members of this group. These viruses mutate continuously, with patterns long studied, the antigenic shift and the antigenic drift, with one major event of recombination called reassortment. All subtypes exist in wild aquatic birds, although other hosts can be found, such as horses, minks, whales, seals, pigs, hens and turkeys, among others. As part of its progressive adaptation to the human host, wild birds and poultry play a fundamental role as well as swine. Although H2N2 and H3N2 subtypes have been very common among the human population, H1N1 subtype has re-emerged with mutations that have allowed it to reach the pandemics state in 2009. This new virus has a close ancestor in a triple reassortant virus from a human influenza virus, a classic influenza swine virus and an avian influenza virus, and contains as well genetic segments from a Euroasian swine influenza virus. This has caused that the virus displays a mild disease, only severe or lethal in individuals with previous medical history. At worldwide level it has caused more than 134.510 cases and in Peru they are close to 3.700. The current state indicates that in Peru the pandemics is about to reach its peak due to the high morbidity of the virus and coldest season of the year. The containment of this virus is important, since the greater the number of people infected, the greater the number of reassortment events the virus will be subjected to, with previous human influenza viruses, and may determine the appearance of new strains, for which the immune system might not be prepared at t

Miguel, Talledo; Kattya, Zumaeta.

2009-12-01

384

University life and pandemic influenza: Attitudes and intended behaviour of staff and students towards pandemic (H1N1 2009  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In a pandemic young adults are more likely to be infected, increasing the potential for Universities to be explosive disease outbreak centres. Outbreak management is essential to reduce the impact in both the institution and the surrounding community. Through the use of an online survey, we aimed to measure the perceptions and responses of staff and students towards pandemic (H1N1 2009 at a major university in Sydney, Australia. Methods The survey was available online from 29 June to 30 September 2009. The sample included academic staff, general staff and students of the University. Results A total of 2882 surveys were completed. Nearly all respondents (99.6%, 2870/2882 were aware of the Australian pandemic situation and 64.2% (1851/2882 reported either "no anxiety" or "disinterest." Asian-born respondents were significantly (p Conclusions Responses to a pandemic are subject to change in its pre-, early and mid-outbreak stages. Lessons for these institutions in preparation for a second wave and future disease outbreaks include the need to promote positive public health behaviours amongst young people and students.

MacIntyre C Raina

2010-03-01

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Comparison of the protection of ferrets against pandemic 2009 influenza A virus (H1N1) by 244 DI influenza virus and oseltamivir  

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The main antivirals employed to combat seasonal and pandemic influenza are oseltamivir and zanamivir which act by inhibiting the virus-encoded neuraminidase. These have to be deployed close to the time of infection and antiviral resistance to the more widely used oseltamivir has arisen relatively rapidly. Defective interfering (DI) influenza virus is a natural antiviral that works in a different way to oseltamivir and zanamivir, and a cloned version (segment 1 244 DI RNA in a cloned A/PR/8/34 virus; 244/PR8) has proved effective in preclinical studies in mice. The active principle is the DI RNA, and this is thought to interact with all influenza A viruses by inhibiting RNA virus synthesis and packaging of the cognate virion RNA into nascent DI virus particles. We have compared the ability of DI virus and oseltamivir to protect ferrets from intranasal 2009 pandemic influenza virus A/California/04/09 (A/Cal, H1N1). Ferrets were treated with a single 2 ?g intranasal dose of 244 DI RNA delivered as 244/PR8 virus, or a total of 25 mg/kg body weight of oseltamivir given as 10 oral doses over 5 days. Both DI virus and oseltamivir reduced day 2 infectivity and the influx of cells into nasal fluids, and permitted the development of adaptive immunity. However DI virus, but not oseltamivir, significantly reduced weight loss, facilitated better weight gain, reduced respiratory disease, and reduced infectivity on days 4 and 6. 244 DI RNA was amplified by A/Cal by >25,000-fold, consistent with the amelioration of clinical disease. Treatment with DI virus did not delay clearance or cause persistence of infectious virus or DI RNA. Thus in this system DI virus was overall more effective than oseltamivir in combatting pandemic A/California/04/09. PMID:23041142

Dimmock, Nigel J.; Dove, Brian K.; Meng, Bo; Scott, Paul D.; Taylor, Irene; Cheung, Linda; Hallis, Bassam; Marriott, Anthony C.; Carroll, Miles W.; Easton, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

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Influenza epidemiology in Italy two years after the 2009-2010 pandemic: need to improve vaccination coverage.  

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Since 2000, a sentinel surveillance of influenza, INFLUNET, exists in Italy. It is coordinated by the Ministry of Health and is divided into two parts; one of these is coordinated by the National Institute of Health (NIH), the other by the Inter-University Centre for Research on Influenza and other Transmissible Infections (CIRI-IT). The influenza surveillance system performs its activity from the 42nd week of each year (mid-October) to the 17th week of the following year (late April). Only during the pandemic season (2009/2010) did surveillance continue uninterruptedly. Sentinel physicians - about 1,200 general practitioners and independent pediatricians - send in weekly reports of cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) among their patients (over 2% of the population of Italy) to these centers.   In order to estimate the burden of pandemic and seasonal influenza, we examined the epidemiological data collected over the last 3 seasons (2009-2012). On the basis of the incidences of ILIs at different ages, we estimated that: 4,882,415; 5,519,917; and 4,660,601 cases occurred in Italy in 2009-2010, 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, respectively. Considering the ILIs, the most part of cases occurred in < 14 y old subjects and especially in 5-14 y old individuals, about 30% and 21% of cases respectively during 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 influenza seasons. In 2011-2012, our evaluation was of about 4.7 million of cases, and as in the previous season, the peak of cases regarded subjects < 14 y (about 29%). A/California/07/09 predominated in 2009-2010 and continued to circulate in 2010-2011. During 2010-2011 B/Brisbane/60/08 like viruses circulated and A/H3N2 influenza type was sporadically present. H3N2 (A/Perth/16/2009 and A/Victoria/361/2011) was the predominant influenza type-A virus that caused illness in the 2011-2012 season. Many strains of influenza viruses were present in the epidemiological scenario in 2009-2012. In the period 2009-2012, overall vaccination coverage was low, never exceeding 20% of the Italian population. Among the elderly, coverage rates grew from 40% in 1999 to almost 70% in 2005-2006, but subsequently decreased, in spite of the pandemic; this trend reveals a slight, though constant, decline in compliance with vaccination. Our data confirm that 2009 pandemics had