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Insights into the increasing virulence of the swine-origin pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus  

Science.gov (United States)

Pandemic H1N1/2009 viruses have been stabilized in swine herds, and some strains display higher pathogenicity than the human-origin isolates. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is applied to explore the systemic transcriptome responses of the mouse lungs infected by swine (Jia6/10) and human (LN/09) H1N1/2009 viruses. The transcriptome data show that Jia6/10 activates stronger virus-sensing signals, such as the toll-like receptor, RIG-I like receptor and NOD-like receptor signalings, as well as a stronger NF-?B and JAK-STAT singals, which play significant roles in inducing innate immunity. Most cytokines and interferon-stimulated genes show higher expression lever in Jia/06 infected groups. Meanwhile, virus Jia6/10 activates stronger production of reactive oxygen species, which might further promote higher mutation rate of the virus genome. Collectively, our data reveal that the swine-origin pandemic H1N1/2009 virus elicits a stronger innate immune reaction and pro-oxidation stimulation, which might relate closely to the increasing pathogenicity.

Zou, Wei; Chen, Dijun; Xiong, Min; Zhu, Jiping; Lin, Xian; Wang, Lun; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Lingling; Zhang, Hongyu; Chen, Huanchun; Chen, Ming; Jin, Meilin

2013-01-01

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Human T-cells directed to seasonal influenza A virus cross-react with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and swine-origin triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Virus-specific CD8(+) T-cells contribute to protective immunity against influenza A virus (IAV) infections. As the majority of these cells are directed to conserved viral proteins, they may afford protection against IAVs of various subtypes. The present study assessed the cross-reactivity of human CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, induced by infection with seasonal A (H1N1) or A (H3N2) influenza virus, with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] and swine-origin triple-reassortant A (H3N2) [A(H3N2)v] viruses that are currently causing an increasing number of human cases in the USA. It was demonstrated that CD8(+) T-cells induced after seasonal IAV infections exerted lytic activity and produced gamma interferon upon in vitro restimulation with A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2)v influenza A viruses. Furthermore, CD8(+) T-cells directed to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus displayed a high degree of cross-reactivity with A(H3N2)v viruses. It was concluded that cross-reacting T-cells had the potential to afford protective immunity against A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses during the pandemic and offer some degree of protection against infection with A(H3N2)v viruses. PMID:23152369

Hillaire, Marine L B; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E; Kreijtz, Joost H C M; de Mutsert, Gerrie; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

2012-11-14

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Human T-cells directed to seasonal influenza A virus cross-react with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and swine-origin triple-reassortant H3N2 influenza viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Virus-specific CD8(+) T-cells contribute to protective immunity against influenza A virus (IAV) infections. As the majority of these cells are directed to conserved viral proteins, they may afford protection against IAVs of various subtypes. The present study assessed the cross-reactivity of human CD8(+) T-lymphocytes, induced by infection with seasonal A (H1N1) or A (H3N2) influenza virus, with 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] and swine-origin triple-reassortant A (H3N2) [A(H3N2)v] viruses that are currently causing an increasing number of human cases in the USA. It was demonstrated that CD8(+) T-cells induced after seasonal IAV infections exerted lytic activity and produced gamma interferon upon in vitro restimulation with A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2)v influenza A viruses. Furthermore, CD8(+) T-cells directed to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus displayed a high degree of cross-reactivity with A(H3N2)v viruses. It was concluded that cross-reacting T-cells had the potential to afford protective immunity against A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses during the pandemic and offer some degree of protection against infection with A(H3N2)v viruses.

Hillaire ML; Vogelzang-van Trierum SE; Kreijtz JH; de Mutsert G; Fouchier RA; Osterhaus AD; Rimmelzwaan GF

2013-03-01

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A Set of Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine-Origin Pandemic H1N1 Differentiate Swine H1N1 and Human Seasonal H1N1  

Science.gov (United States)

In April 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) emerged in North America and caused the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The new pandemic strain is a triple reassortant influenza virus of swine origin containing genes from avian, swine and human influenza viruses. It is genetically ...

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An update on swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. The emergence of new strains will continue to pose challenges to public health and the scientific communities. The recent flu pandemic caused by a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 (S-OIV) presents an opportunity to examine virulence factors, the spread of the infection and to prepare for major influenza outbreaks in the future. The virus contains a novel constellation of gene segments, the nearest known precursors being viruses found in swine and it probably arose through reassortment of two viruses of swine origin. Specific markers for virulence can be evaluated in the viral genome, PB1-F2 is a molecular marker of pathogenicity but is not present in the new S-OIV. While attention was focused on a threat of an avian influenza H5N1 pandemic emerging from Asia, a novel influenza virus of swine origin emerged in North America, and is now spreading worldwide. However, S-OIV demonstrates that even serotypes already encountered in past human pandemics may constitute new pandemic threats. There are concerns that this virus may mutate or reassort with existing influenza viruses giving rise to more transmissible or more pathogenic viruses. The 1918 Spanish flu pandemic virus was relatively mild in its first wave and acquired more virulence when it returned in the winter. Thus preparedness on a global scale against a potential more virulent strain is highly recommended. Most isolates of the new S-OIVs are susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors, and currently a vaccine against the pandemic strain is being manufactured and will be available this fall. This review summarizes the current information on the new pandemic swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1.

Schnitzler SU; Schnitzler P

2009-12-01

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An update on swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that have claimed the lives of millions. The emergence of new strains will continue to pose challenges to public health and the scientific communities. The recent flu pandemic caused by a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 (S-OIV) presents an opportunity to examine virulence factors, the spread of the infection and to prepare for major influenza outbreaks in the future. The virus contains a novel constellation of gene segments, the nearest known precursors being viruses found in swine and it probably arose through reassortment of two viruses of swine origin. Specific markers for virulence can be evaluated in the viral genome, PB1-F2 is a molecular marker of pathogenicity but is not present in the new S-OIV. While attention was focused on a threat of an avian influenza H5N1 pandemic emerging from Asia, a novel influenza virus of swine origin emerged in North America, and is now spreading worldwide. However, S-OIV demonstrates that even serotypes already encountered in past human pandemics may constitute new pandemic threats. There are concerns that this virus may mutate or reassort with existing influenza viruses giving rise to more transmissible or more pathogenic viruses. The 1918 Spanish flu pandemic virus was relatively mild in its first wave and acquired more virulence when it returned in the winter. Thus preparedness on a global scale against a potential more virulent strain is highly recommended. Most isolates of the new S-OIVs are susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors, and currently a vaccine against the pandemic strain is being manufactured and will be available this fall. This review summarizes the current information on the new pandemic swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1. PMID:19809872

Schnitzler, Sebastian U; Schnitzler, Paul

2009-10-07

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Swine-origin influenza-virus-induced acute lung injury: Novel or classical pathogenesis?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza viruses are common respiratory pathogens in humans and can cause serious infection that leads to the development of pneumonia. Due to their host-range diversity, genetic and antigenic diversity, and potential to reassort genetically in vivo, influenza A viruses are continual sources of novel influenza strains that lead to the emergence of periodic epidemics and outbreaks in humans. Thus, newly emerging viral diseases are always major threats to public health. In March 2009, a novel influenza virus suddenly emerged and caused a worldwide pandemic. The novel pandemic influenza virus was genetically and antigenically distinct from previous seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 viruses; it was identified to have originated from pigs, and further genetic analysis revealed it as a subtype of A/H1N1, thus later called a swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1. Since the novel virus emerged, epidemiological surveys and research on experimental animal models have been conducted, and characteristics of the novel influenza virus have been determined but the exact mechanisms of pulmonary pathogenesis remain to be elucidated. In this editorial, we summarize and discuss the recent pandemic caused by the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 with a focus on the mechanism of pathogenesis to obtain an insight into potential therapeutic strategies.

Naoyoshi Maeda; Toshimitsu Uede

2010-01-01

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Dynamic variations in the peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups of patients with 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza A virus infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel Influenza A (H1N1) is an acute respiratory infectious disease. Animal experiments indicated that when H1N1 virus infected early hosts, it showed strong CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic fluctuations of the peripheral blood lymphocyte subgroups in patients infected with H1N1 swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV). Methods The frequency of T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and regulatory T cells (Treg) in 36 severe H1N1 and 40 moderate H1N1 patients were detected at different periods by flow cytometry. In parallel, serum cytokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and C-reactive protein (CRP) was analyzed through an image-type automatic biochemical analyzer. In addition, 20 healthy volunteers, who were not infected with 2009 H1N1 virus, were selected as controls. Results The frequency of NK cells were decreased in all cases and CD19+ B cells were increased in severe cases than those of the controls. At 1-2d from onset, the frequency of CD4+ and CD4+CD25+ T cells in moderate cases was higher than in the severe cases. Serum cytokines, specifically IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-? exhibited no significant change both in the moderate and the severe cases during the whole monitoring process. In the early stage of the disease, serum CRP levels in the severe and moderate groups were significantly higher than that in the control group. Conclusions Patients showed different lymphocyte subgroup distributions between mild and severe cases, which might affect the incidence and development of 2009 H1N1.

Guo Xichao; Chen Yu; Li Xuefen; Kong Haishen; Yang Shigui; Ye Bo; Cui Dawei; Wu Wei; Li Lanjuan

2011-01-01

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Crystal structure of swine major histocompatibility complex class I SLA-1 0401 and identification of 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza A H1N1 virus cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope peptides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presentation of viral epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) by swine leukocyte antigen class I (SLA I) is crucial for swine immunity. To illustrate the structural basis of swine CTL epitope presentation, the first SLA crystal structures, SLA-1 0401, complexed with peptides derived from either 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV(NW9); NSDTVGWSW) or Ebola virus (Ebola(AY9); ATAAATEAY) were determined in this study. The overall peptide-SLA-1 0401 structures resemble, as expected, the general conformations of other structure-solved peptide major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC). The major distinction of SLA-1 0401 is that Arg(156) has a "one-ballot veto" function in peptide binding, due to its flexible side chain. S-OIV(NW9) and Ebola(AY9) bind SLA-1 0401 with similar conformations but employ different water molecules to stabilize their binding. The side chain of P7 residues in both peptides is exposed, indicating that the epitopes are "featured" peptides presented by this SLA. Further analyses showed that SLA-1 0401 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I HLA-A 0101 can present the same peptides, but in different conformations, demonstrating cross-species epitope presentation. CTL epitope peptides derived from 2009 pandemic S-OIV were screened and evaluated by the in vitro refolding method. Three peptides were identified as potential cross-species influenza virus (IV) CTL epitopes. The binding motif of SLA-1 0401 was proposed, and thermostabilities of key peptide-SLA-1 0401 complexes were analyzed by circular dichroism spectra. Our results not only provide the structural basis of peptide presentation by SLA I but also identify some IV CTL epitope peptides. These results will benefit both vaccine development and swine organ-based xenotransplantation.

Zhang N; Qi J; Feng S; Gao F; Liu J; Pan X; Chen R; Li Q; Chen Z; Li X; Xia C; Gao GF

2011-11-01

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Pandemic Influenza in Two Newborns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The new influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin was first described from Mexico in April 2009. Subsequently spreading all over the world, it was considered to be the first pandemic of the 21st century. According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), the highest disease rates in American and European regions were reported among children and young adults. Despite the highly contagious nature of pandemic influenza, most cases displayed a mild course. WHO declared the risk factors for severe disease in children as ongoing chronic disease, intake of aspirin and age below two-years.The youngest patient reported in the literature is 21 days old. We would like to present two neonatal cases with verified pandemic influenza, who recovered without any complications.

Medine Ay?in Ta?ar; Yasemin Ar?kan; Fatma ?nci Ar?kan; Y?ld?z Dallar

2010-01-01

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From where did the 2009 'swine-origin' influenza A virus (H1N1) emerge?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus that appeared in 2009 and was first found in human beings in Mexico, is a reassortant with at least three parents. Six of the genes are closest in sequence to those of H1N2 'triple-reassortant' influenza viruses isolated from pigs in North America around 1999-2000. Its other two genes are from different Eurasian 'avian-like' viruses of pigs; the NA gene is closest to H1N1 viruses isolated in Europe in 1991-1993, and the MP gene is closest to H3N2 viruses isolated in Asia in 1999-2000. The sequences of these genes do not directly reveal the immediate source of the virus as the closest were from isolates collected more than a decade before the human pandemic started. The three parents of the virus may have been assembled in one place by natural means, such as by migrating birds, however the consistent link with pig viruses suggests that human activity was involved. We discuss a published suggestion that unsampled pig herds, the intercontinental live pig trade, together with porous quarantine barriers, generated the reassortant. We contrast that suggestion with the possibility that laboratory errors involving the sharing of virus isolates and cultured cells, or perhaps vaccine production, may have been involved. Gene sequences from isolates that bridge the time and phylogenetic gap between the new virus and its parents will distinguish between these possibilities, and we suggest where they should be sought. It is important that the source of the new virus be found if we wish to avoid future pandemics rather than just trying to minimize the consequences after they have emerged. Influenza virus is a very significant zoonotic pathogen. Public confidence in influenza research, and the agribusinesses that are based on influenza's many hosts, has been eroded by several recent events involving the virus. Measures that might restore confidence include establishing a unified international administrative framework coordinating surveillance, research and commercial work with this virus, and maintaining a registry of all influenza isolates.

Gibbs Adrian J; Armstrong John S; Downie Jean C

2009-01-01

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Pathogenesis and transmission of swine origin A(H3N2)v influenza viruses in ferrets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent isolation of a novel swine-origin influenza A H3N2 variant virus [A(H3N2)v] from humans in the United States has raised concern over the pandemic potential of these viruses. Here, we analyzed the virulence, transmissibility, and receptor-binding preference of four A(H3N2)v influenza viruses isolated from humans in 2009, 2010, and 2011. High titers of infectious virus were detected in nasal turbinates and nasal wash samples of A(H3N2)v-inoculated ferrets. All four A(H3N2)v viruses possessed the capacity to spread efficiently between cohoused ferrets, and the 2010 and 2011 A(H3N2)v isolates transmitted efficiently to naïve ferrets by respiratory droplets. A dose-dependent glycan array analysis of A(H3N2)v showed a predominant binding to ?2-6-sialylated glycans, similar to human-adapted influenza A viruses. We further tested the viral replication efficiency of A(H3N2)v viruses in a relevant cell line, Calu-3, derived from human bronchial epithelium. The A(H3N2)v viruses replicated in Calu-3 cells to significantly higher titers compared with five common seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses. These findings suggest that A(H3N2)v viruses have the capacity for efficient replication and transmission in mammals and underscore the need for continued public health surveillance.

Pearce MB; Jayaraman A; Pappas C; Belser JA; Zeng H; Gustin KM; Maines TR; Sun X; Raman R; Cox NJ; Sasisekharan R; Katz JM; Tumpey TM

2012-03-01

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"Trivalent influenza vaccination of healthy adults 3 years after the onset of swine-origin H1N1 pandemic: restricted immunogenicity of the new A/H1N1v constituent?".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenza vaccination is advised annually to reduce the burden of influenza disease. For sufficient vaccine campaigns also a continuous adoption of influenza vaccines are necessary, due to particularly high genetic variability of influenza A virus. Therefore, we evaluate the effectiveness of the trivalent influenza vaccine 2010/2011, against influenza A (H1N1, H3N2) and influenza B. Immune response was investigated in paired sera from 92 healthcare workers with the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI). Protective antibody levels (HI titer ?40) were found after vaccination for influenza A/California/07/2009(H1N1): 84.71 % [GMT: 115.34]; for influenza A/Perth/16/2009(H3N2): 94.94 % [GMT: 268.47] and for influenza B/Brisbane/60/2008: 96.20 % [GMT: 176.83]; matching with the currently circulating virus strains. However, the highest seroprevalence rate was found against influenza B; pre- and post-vaccination titers as well, which may be due to comparatively high virus preservation. Remarkable, lowest seropositivity was seen against H1N1. Despite the significant titer rise, sufficient H1N1 herd immunity was still not achieved. It can be assumed that a high influenza A herd immunity may be a requirement for a successful booster vaccination.

Allwinn R; Bickel M; Lassmann C; Wicker S; Friedrichs I

2013-04-01

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"Trivalent influenza vaccination of healthy adults 3 years after the onset of swine-origin H1N1 pandemic: restricted immunogenicity of the new A/H1N1v constituent?".  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza vaccination is advised annually to reduce the burden of influenza disease. For sufficient vaccine campaigns also a continuous adoption of influenza vaccines are necessary, due to particularly high genetic variability of influenza A virus. Therefore, we evaluate the effectiveness of the trivalent influenza vaccine 2010/2011, against influenza A (H1N1, H3N2) and influenza B. Immune response was investigated in paired sera from 92 healthcare workers with the hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI). Protective antibody levels (HI titer ?40) were found after vaccination for influenza A/California/07/2009(H1N1): 84.71 % [GMT: 115.34]; for influenza A/Perth/16/2009(H3N2): 94.94 % [GMT: 268.47] and for influenza B/Brisbane/60/2008: 96.20 % [GMT: 176.83]; matching with the currently circulating virus strains. However, the highest seroprevalence rate was found against influenza B; pre- and post-vaccination titers as well, which may be due to comparatively high virus preservation. Remarkable, lowest seropositivity was seen against H1N1. Despite the significant titer rise, sufficient H1N1 herd immunity was still not achieved. It can be assumed that a high influenza A herd immunity may be a requirement for a successful booster vaccination. PMID:22986732

Allwinn, R; Bickel, M; Lassmann, C; Wicker, S; Friedrichs, I

2012-09-19

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Coupling sensitive in vitro and in silico techniques to assess cross-reactive CD4(+) T cells against the swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The outbreak of the novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza in the spring of 2009 took epidemiologists, immunologists, and vaccinologists by surprise and galvanized a massive worldwide effort to produce millions of vaccine doses to protect against this single virus strain. Of particular concern was the apparent lack of pre-existing antibody capable of eliciting cross-protective immunity against this novel virus, which fueled fears this strain would trigger a particularly far-reaching and lethal pandemic. Given that disease caused by the swine-origin virus was far less severe than expected, we hypothesized cellular immunity to cross-conserved T cell epitopes might have played a significant role in protecting against the pandemic H1N1 in the absence of cross-reactive humoral immunity. In a published study, we used an immunoinformatics approach to predict a number of CD4(+) T cell epitopes are conserved between the 2008-2009 seasonal H1N1 vaccine strain and pandemic H1N1 (A/California/04/2009) hemagglutinin proteins. Here, we provide results from biological studies using PBMCs from human donors not exposed to the pandemic virus to demonstrate that pre-existing CD4(+) T cells can elicit cross-reactive effector responses against the pandemic H1N1 virus. As well, we show our computational tools were 80-90% accurate in predicting CD4(+) T cell epitopes and their HLA-DRB1-dependent response profiles in donors that were chosen at random for HLA haplotype. Combined, these results confirm the power of coupling immunoinformatics to define broadly reactive CD4(+) T cell epitopes with highly sensitive in vitro biological assays to verify these in silico predictions as a means to understand human cellular immunity, including cross-protective responses, and to define CD4(+) T cell epitopes for potential vaccination efforts against future influenza viruses and other pathogens.

Schanen BC; De Groot AS; Moise L; Ardito M; McClaine E; Martin W; Wittman V; Warren WL; Drake DR 3rd

2011-04-01

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Pandemic influenza planning, United States, 1978-2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the past century, 4 influenza pandemics occurred. After the emergence of a novel influenza virus of swine origin in 1976, national, state, and local US public health authorities began planning efforts to respond to future pandemics. Several events have since stimulated progress in public health emergency planning: the 1997 avian influenza A(H5N1) outbreak in Hong Kong, China; the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States; the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome; and the 2003 reemergence of influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in humans. We outline the evolution of US pandemic planning since the late 1970s, summarize planning accomplishments, and explain their ongoing importance. The public health community's response to the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic demonstrated the value of planning and provided insights into improving future plans and response efforts. Preparedness planning will enhance the collective, multilevel response to future public health crises.

Iskander J; Strikas RA; Gensheimer KF; Cox NJ; Redd SC

2013-06-01

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Pathogenesis and transmission of swine origin A(H3N2)v influenza viruses in ferrets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent isolation of a novel swine-origin influenza A H3N2 variant virus [A(H3N2)v] from humans in the United States has raised concern over the pandemic potential of these viruses. Here, we analyzed the virulence, transmissibility, and receptor-binding preference of four A(H3N2)v influenza viruses isolated from humans in 2009, 2010, and 2011. High titers of infectious virus were detected in nasal turbinates and nasal wash samples of A(H3N2)v-inoculated ferrets. All four A(H3N2)v viruses possessed the capacity to spread efficiently between cohoused ferrets, and the 2010 and 2011 A(H3N2)v isolates transmitted efficiently to naïve ferrets by respiratory droplets. A dose-dependent glycan array analysis of A(H3N2)v showed a predominant binding to ?2-6-sialylated glycans, similar to human-adapted influenza A viruses. We further tested the viral replication efficiency of A(H3N2)v viruses in a relevant cell line, Calu-3, derived from human bronchial epithelium. The A(H3N2)v viruses replicated in Calu-3 cells to significantly higher titers compared with five common seasonal H3N2 influenza viruses. These findings suggest that A(H3N2)v viruses have the capacity for efficient replication and transmission in mammals and underscore the need for continued public health surveillance. PMID:22355116

Pearce, Melissa B; Jayaraman, Akila; Pappas, Claudia; Belser, Jessica A; Zeng, Hui; Gustin, Kortney M; Maines, Taronna R; Sun, Xiangjie; Raman, Rahul; Cox, Nancy J; Sasisekharan, Ram; Katz, Jaqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

2012-02-21

18

Resurrected pandemic influenza viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenza viruses continue to pose a major global public health problem. There is a need to better understand the pathogenicity and transmission of pandemic influenza viruses so that we may develop improved methods for their prevention and control. Reconstruction of the 1918 virus and studies elucidating the exceptional virulence and transmissibility of the virus are providing exciting new insights into this devastating pandemic strain. The primary approach has been to reconstruct and analyze recombinant viruses, in which genes of the 1918 virus are replaced with genes of contemporary influenza viruses of lesser virulence. This review highlights the current status of the field and discusses the molecular determinants of the 1918 pandemic virus that may have contributed to its virulence and spread. Identifying the exact genes responsible for the high virulence of the 1918 virus will be an important step toward understanding virulent influenza strains and will allow the world to better prepare for and respond to future influenza pandemics.

Tumpey TM; Belser JA

2009-01-01

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CT manifestations of patients with swine-origin influenza A H1N1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To explore the manifestations of chest multi-slice spiral CT in patients with initial infection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV). Methods: The chest multi-slices spirals CT images of 19 firstly diagnosed patients with swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in our institution were retrospectively studied. CT manifestations were evaluated by three experienced radiologists. Location, appearance of lung abnormalities, abnormal distribution, pleural effusion and others (pericadiaum, lymphadenopathy and pleural thickening) were observed and quantitatively analyzed. The correlation of ground-glass and consolidation CT scores with the fever time was studied. Results: The abnormal CT findings were observed bilaterally in 18 of 19 subjects including ground-glass (n=3), consolidation (n=3), consolidation accompanied with ground-glass (n=12). Most of these lesions were distributed diffusively (n=14) while the others located in the middle and low lobes (n=4). Unilateral (n=3) or bilateral (n=2) pleural effusion were observed. Lymphadenopathy (n=2), effusion of pericadium (n=1), pleural thickening (n=1) and cardiac enlargement (n=2) were also found in patients with H1N1. CT scores of ground-glass were 4.25 (n=2), 3.75 (n=1), 2.25 (n=1), 1.75 (n=1), 1.00 (n=6), 0.75 (n=2), 0.50 (n=2), 0 (n=4). CT scores of consolidation were 4.25 (n=1), 4.00 (n=1), 3.75 (n=1), 2.75 (n=1), 1.25 (n=3), 1.00 (n=2), 0.75 (n=2), 0.50 (n=1), 0.25 (n=3), 0 (n=4). CT scores of ground-glass were significantly correlated with the fever time (r=0.776, P0.01). Conclusions: The most common CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are diffuse distribution of bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. The increasing of ground-glass's range could be the marker of progression of H1N1 pulmonary infection at initial stage. (authors)

2010-01-01

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A national study of individuals who handle migratory birds for evidence of avian and swine-origin influenza virus infections  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Persons with occupational or recreational exposure to migratory birds may be at risk for infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza and other avian influenza viruses since wild birds are the natural reservoir of influenza A. Additionally, bird handlers may host avian and swine-origin influenza (pH1N1) virus co-infections, which generate reassortant viruses with high pathogenicity in mammals. Objectives We assessed the prevalence of avian and swine influenza viruses in US-based bird handlers and estimated their exposure to different orders of wild birds including waterfowl (Anseriformes), songbirds (Passeriformes), and shorebirds (Charadriiformes). Study Design Cross-sectional serologic survey accompanied by a questionnaire to estimate behavioral risk factors. This is first survey of US-based bird handlers who also work at international sites. Results 401 participants were recruited and tested over the course of three years. One participant with occupational exposure to migratory birds had evidence of past infections with a H5N2 virus antigenically related to A/Nopi/MN/07/462960-02, which is the first case of this influenza subtype in a human host associated with exposure to wild rather than domestic birds. We detected no avian and swine-origin influenza virus co-infections. The exposure of bird handlers to songbirds was four times greater than to shorebirds or waterfowl. Conclusions Though rare, the transmission of avian influenza viruses from migratory birds to US-based bird handlers has potentially significant public health and economic consequences.

Shafir, Shira C.; Fuller, Trevon; Smith, Thomas B.; Rimoin, Anne W.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Modifications in the Polymerase Genes of a Swine-Like Triple-Reassortant Influenza Virus To Generate Live Attenuated Vaccines against 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Viruses? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On 11 June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the outbreaks caused by novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus had reached pandemic proportions. The pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus is the predominant influenza virus strain in the human population. It has also crossed the specie...

Pena, Lindomar; Vincent, Amy L.; Ye, Jianqiang; Ciacci-Zanella, Janice R.; Angel, Matthew; Lorusso, Alessio; Gauger, Philip C.

22

Influenza pandemic planning guide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An influenza pandemic will have serious economic impacts on the natural gas industry due to absenteeism as well as downstream effects due to supply disruption.This guide was prepared to assist gas distribution companies in planning for an influenza epidemic. The guide aimed to minimize the risks that an influenza pandemic might pose to the health and safety of employees and the continuity of business operations. The guide discussed 5 critical aspects of emergency planning: (1) prevention and threat mitigation; (2) preparedness; (3) response; (4) business continuity; and (5) communication. The legal context of the emergency plans were discussed. The plans were also discussed to other essential infrastructure emergency response plans. Recommendations were presented for infection control, decentralization and access restriction. Outlines for pandemic response planning teams and training and exercise programs were provided. Issues related to alert, mobilization, and response procedures were also discussed. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

NONE

2006-11-15

23

Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (

2011-01-01

24

Detection of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) viruses using a localized surface plasmon coupled fluorescence fiber-optic biosensor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) was identified as a new reassortant strain of influenza A virus in April 2009 and led to an influenza pandemic. Accurate and timely diagnoses are crucial for the control of influenza disease. We developed a localized surface plasmon coupled fluorescence fiber-optic biosensor (LSPCF-FOB) which combines a sandwich immunoassay with the LSP technique using antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) proteins of S-OIVs. The detection limit of the LSPCF-FOB for recombinant S-OIV H1 protein detection was estimated at 13.9 pg/mL, which is 10(3)-fold better than that of conventional capture ELISA when using the same capture antibodies. For clinical S-OIV isolates measurement, meanwhile, the detection limit of the LSPCF-FOB platform was calculated to be 8.25 × 10(4)copies/mL, compared with 2.06 × 10(6)copies/mL using conventional capture ELISA. Furthermore, in comparison with the influenza A/B rapid test, the detection limit of the LSPCF-FOB for S-OIV was almost 50-fold in PBS solution and 25-fold lower in mimic solution, which used nasal mucosa from healthy donors as the diluent. The findings of this study therefore indicate that the high detection sensitivity and specificity of the LSPCF-FOB make it a potentially effective diagnostic tool for clinical S-OIV infection and this technique has the potential to be applied to the development of other clinical microbe detection platforms.

Chang YF; Wang SF; Huang JC; Su LC; Yao L; Li YC; Wu SC; Chen YM; Hsieh JP; Chou C

2010-11-01

25

Molecular epidemiology of novel swine origin influenza virus (S-OIV) from Gwalior, India, 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The H1N1pandemic virus is a newly emergent human influenza A virus that is closely related to a number of currently circulating pig viruses in the 'classic North American' and 'Eurasian' swine influenza virus lineages and thus referred as S-OIV. Since the first reports of the virus in humans in April 2009, H1N1 virus has spread to 168 countries and overseas territories. India also witnessed severe H1N1 pandemic virus epidemic with considerable morbidity and mortality in different parts starting from May 2009. Findings The suspected swine flu outbreak from Gwalior India during October- December 2009 was confirmed through S-OIV HA gene specific RT-LAMP and real time RT-PCR. Positive samples through CDC real time and Lamp assay were further processed for isolation of the virus. Full HA gene sequencing of the H1N1 isolates of Gwalior, India revealed 99% homology with California and other circulating novel swine flu viruses. Three major changes were observed at nucleotide level, while two major amino acid shifts were observed at the position C9W and I30M corresponding to the ORF with prototype strain. The HA gene sequence phylogeny revealed the circulation of two genetically distinct lineages belonging to Clade VII and Clade I of S-OIV. Conclusions Our findings also supported the earlier report about circulation of mixed genogroups of S-OIV in India. Therefore continuous monitoring of the genetic makeup of this newly emergent virus is essential to understand its evolution within the country.

Sharma Shashi; Parida Manmohan; Shukla Jyoti; Rao PVL

2011-01-01

26

Transmission and pathogenesis of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses in ferrets and mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent reports of mild to severe influenza-like illness in humans caused by a novel swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus underscore the need to better understand the pathogenesis and transmission of these viruses in mammals. In this study, selected 2009 A(H1N1) influenza isolates were assessed for their ability to cause disease in mice and ferrets and compared with a contemporary seasonal H1N1 virus for their ability to transmit to naïve ferrets through respiratory droplets. In contrast to seasonal influenza H1N1 virus, 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses caused increased morbidity, replicated to higher titers in lung tissue, and were recovered from the intestinal tract of intranasally inoculated ferrets. The 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses exhibited less efficient respiratory droplet transmission in ferrets in comparison with the highly transmissible phenotype of a seasonal H1N1 virus. Transmission of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses was further corroborated by characterizing the binding specificity of the viral hemagglutinin to the sialylated glycan receptors (in the human host) by use of dose-dependent direct receptor-binding and human lung tissue-binding assays. PMID:19574347

Maines, Taronna R; Jayaraman, Akila; Belser, Jessica A; Wadford, Debra A; Pappas, Claudia; Zeng, Hui; Gustin, Kortney M; Pearce, Melissa B; Viswanathan, Karthik; Shriver, Zachary H; Raman, Rahul; Cox, Nancy J; Sasisekharan, Ram; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

2009-07-02

27

IL-17 response mediates acute lung injury induced by the 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 2009 flu pandemic involved the emergence of a new strain of a swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV H1N1) that infected almost every country in the world. Most infections resulted in respiratory illness and some severe cases resulted in acute lung injury. In this report, we are the first to d...

Li, Chenggang; Yang, Penghui; Sun, Yang; Li, Taisheng; Wang, Chen; Wang, Zhong; Zou, Zhen; Yan, Yiwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chen

28

Introduction of a Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus into Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On 17 April 2009, novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) cases appeared within the United States. Most influenza A diagnostic assays currently utilized in local clinical laboratories do not allow definitive subtype determination. Detailed subtype analysis of influenza A positive samples in our laboratory allowed early confirmation of a large outbreak of S-OIV in southeastern Wisconsin (SEW). The initial case of S-OIV in SEW was detected on 28 April 2009. All influenza A samples obtained during the 16 week period prior to 28 April 2009, and the first four weeks of the subsequent epidemic were sub typed. Four different multiplex assays were employed, utilizing real time PCR and end point PCR to fully subtype human and animal influenza viral components. Specific detection of S-OIV was developed within days. Data regarding patient demographics and other concurrently circulating viruses were analyzed. During the first four weeks of the epidemic, 679 of 3726 (18.2%) adults and children tested for influenza A were identified with S-OIV infection. Thirteen patients (0.34%) tested positive for seasonal human subtypes of influenza A during the first two weeks and none in the subsequent 2 weeks of the epidemic. Parainfluenza viruses were the most prevalent seasonal viral agents circulating during the epidemic (of those tested), with detection rates of 12% followed by influenza B and RSV at 1.9% and 0.9% respectively. S-OIV was confirmed on day 2 of instituting subtype testing and within 4 days of report of national cases of S-OIV. Novel surge capacity diagnostic infrastructure exists in many specialty and research laboratories around the world. The capacity for broader influenza A sub typing at the local laboratory level allows timely and accurate detection of novel strains as they emerge in the community, despite the presence of other circulating viruses producing identical illness. This is likely to become increasingly important given the need for appropriate subtype driven anti-viral therapy and the potential shortage of such medications in a large epidemic.

Swati Kumar; Michael J. Chusid; Rodney E. Willoughby; Peter L. Havens; Sue C. Kehl; Nathan A. Ledeboer; Shun-Hwa Li; Kelly J. Henrickson

2009-01-01

29

Using routine surveillance data to estimate the epidemic potential of emerging zoonoses: application to the emergence of US swine origin influenza A H3N2v virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prior to emergence in human populations, zoonoses such as SARS cause occasional infections in human populations exposed to reservoir species. The risk of widespread epidemics in humans can be assessed by monitoring the reproduction number R (average number of persons infected by a human case). However, until now, estimating R required detailed outbreak investigations of human clusters, for which resources and expertise are not always available. Additionally, existing methods do not correct for important selection and under-ascertainment biases. Here, we present simple estimation methods that overcome many of these limitations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our approach is based on a parsimonious mathematical model of disease transmission and only requires data collected through routine surveillance and standard case investigations. We apply it to assess the transmissibility of swine-origin influenza A H3N2v-M virus in the US, Nipah virus in Malaysia and Bangladesh, and also present a non-zoonotic example (cholera in the Dominican Republic). Estimation is based on two simple summary statistics, the proportion infected by the natural reservoir among detected cases (G) and among the subset of the first detected cases in each cluster (F). If detection of a case does not affect detection of other cases from the same cluster, we find that R can be estimated by 1-G; otherwise R can be estimated by 1-F when the case detection rate is low. In more general cases, bounds on R can still be derived. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a simple approach with limited data requirements that enables robust assessment of the risks posed by emerging zoonoses. We illustrate this by deriving transmissibility estimates for the H3N2v-M virus, an important step in evaluating the possible pandemic threat posed by this virus. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

Cauchemez S; Epperson S; Biggerstaff M; Swerdlow D; Finelli L; Ferguson NM

2013-01-01

30

Chest Radiographic Findings of Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyze chest radiographic findings in children infected with laboratory confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus. Three hundred seventy-two out of 2,014 children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 infection and who also underwent a chest radiograph from September to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. Patients were divided into in-patients, out-patients, and patients with co-infections and further subdivided into with underlying disease and without underlying disease as well as age (<2 years old, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, 10-18 years old). The initial radiographs were evaluated for radiographic findings and the anatomic distribution of abnormalities. The initial radiographs were abnormal in 154 (41.39%) patients. The predominant radiographic findings were peribronchial wall opacity found in 85 (22.84%) patients and hyperinflation observed in 69 (18.54%) patients. Further, 75 (71.42%) patients exhibited central predominance and the right lower lung zone was also commonly involved. There were statistically significant differences in the radiological findings between in-patient and out-patient groups. However, there were no significant differences in the radiographic findings between in-patients and the co-infection group with respect the presence of underlying disease and age. Initial radiographs of children with laboratory confirmed H1N1 virus were abnormal in 41.39% of cases. The common radiographic findings included peribronchial opacities, hyperinflation, lower lung zonal distribution, and central predominance

Bae, So Young; Hong, Eun Sook; Paik, Sang Hyun; Park, Seong Jin; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Hae Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-06-15

31

Pneumonia induced by swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) infection. Chest computed tomography findings in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of this study was to determine the features of chest computed tomography (CT) in children with swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV). The study population consisted of 16 children with laboratory-confirmed S-OIV infection (12 boys, 4 girls), with an age range of 5-10 years (mean 6.3 years). Pneumonia was suspected in these patients based on clinical features or confirmed by radiography. All subjects underwent CT for close evaluation of pneumonia, including characteristics, distribution, extent, and other findings such as pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. The predominant CT finding was consolidation plus ground-grass opacity (GGO) (11/16, 69%). The consolidation-dominant pattern was found in 10 of 16 (66%) patients, and 1 (6%) was GGO-dominant. One (6%) had only GGO. In all, 7 of the 16 patients had segmental or lobar consolidation. Abnormal opacities were primarily distributed in the central lung zone (8/16, 50%) and were multifocal (15/16, 94%). Four showed atelectasis (4/16, 25%). Pneumomediastinum was observed in 4 of 16 (25%). One patient had negative radiographic findings but was positive on CT. Multifocal consolidation with central distribution is a common CT finding in children with S-OIV, but there are few GGO-dominant cases. Widespread consolidation (segmental or lobar) is also common. (author)

2011-01-01

32

Swine-origin influenza A viral (H1N1) infection in children. Chest computed tomography findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this study was to review the chest computed tomography (CT) findings in children with swine-origin influenza (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection. The radiologists retrospectively reviewed chest CT findings in 12 children with S-OIV infection and recorded the following findings: ground-glass opacities (GGO), consolidation, nodules, reticular opacities, peribronchial cuffing, and air trapping; distribution; affected lobes. The presence of pleural effusions, pneumomediastinum, pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE), and lymphadenopathy was also recorded. Chest CT revealed GGO (67%), consolidation (67%), nodules (25%), peribronchial cuffing (42%), and air trapping (33%). The distribution of the lesions was random (75%), peribronchial (17%), or subpleural (8%). The lobes affected were the lower (92%), upper (58%), and middle (17%) lobes. There were associated pleural effusions (42%), PIE (42%), pneumomediastinum (33%), and lymphadenopathy (75%). Among five patients with air-leak complications, three had a history of allergies and three required the intensive care unit. Chest CT findings in children with S-OIV infection were peribronchial thickening and a mixture of airspace consolidation and GGO with random distribution and lower lobe predominance. Pleural effusion, lymphadenopathy, PIE, and pneumomediastinum may be associated findings. (author)

2011-01-01

33

Developing vaccines against pandemic influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pandemic influenza presents special problems for vaccine development. There must be a balance between rapid availability of vaccine and the safeguards to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of vaccine. Vaccine was developed for the pandemics of 1957, 1968, 1977 and for the pandemic alert of 1976. This experience is compared with that gained in developing vaccines for a possible H5N1 pandemic in 1997-1998. Our ability to mass produce influenza vaccines against a pandemic threat was well illustrated by the production of over 150 million doses of 'swine flu' vaccine in the USA within a 3 month period in 1976. However, there is cause for concern that the lead time to begin vaccine production is likely to be about 7-8 months. Attempts to reduce this time should receive urgent attention. Immunogenicity of vaccines in pandemic situations is compared over the period 1968-1998. A consistent feature of the vaccine trials is the demonstration that one conventional 15 microg haemagglutinin dose of vaccine is not sufficiently immunogenic in naive individuals. Much larger doses or two lower doses are needed to induce satisfactory immunity. There is some evidence that whole-virus vaccines are more immunogenic than split or subunit vaccines, but this needs substantiating by further studies. H5 vaccines appeared to be particularly poor immunogens and there is evidence that an adjuvant may be needed. Prospects for improving the development of pandemic vaccines are discussed.

Wood JM

2001-12-01

34

Developing vaccines against pandemic influenza.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pandemic influenza presents special problems for vaccine development. There must be a balance between rapid availability of vaccine and the safeguards to ensure safety, quality and efficacy of vaccine. Vaccine was developed for the pandemics of 1957, 1968, 1977 and for the pandemic alert of 1976. This experience is compared with that gained in developing vaccines for a possible H5N1 pandemic in 1997-1998. Our ability to mass produce influenza vaccines against a pandemic threat was well illustrated by the production of over 150 million doses of 'swine flu' vaccine in the USA within a 3 month period in 1976. However, there is cause for concern that the lead time to begin vaccine production is likely to be about 7-8 months. Attempts to reduce this time should receive urgent attention. Immunogenicity of vaccines in pandemic situations is compared over the period 1968-1998. A consistent feature of the vaccine trials is the demonstration that one conventional 15 microg haemagglutinin dose of vaccine is not sufficiently immunogenic in naive individuals. Much larger doses or two lower doses are needed to induce satisfactory immunity. There is some evidence that whole-virus vaccines are more immunogenic than split or subunit vaccines, but this needs substantiating by further studies. H5 vaccines appeared to be particularly poor immunogens and there is evidence that an adjuvant may be needed. Prospects for improving the development of pandemic vaccines are discussed. PMID:11779397

Wood, J M

2001-12-29

35

Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p 2 test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S-OIV (H1N1).

2011-01-01

36

Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus (H1N1/2009) from Other Seasonal Influenza A Viruses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We previously developed a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle(NP)-based genomic microarray assay for identification of the avian H5N1 virus and its discrimination from other influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2). In this study, we expanded the platform to detect the 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009). Multiple specific capture and intermediate oligonucleotides were designed for the matrix (M), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the H1N1/2009 virus. The H1N1/2009 microarrays were printed in the same format as those of the seasonal influenza H1N1 and H3N2 for the HA, NA, and M genes. Viral RNA was tested using capture-target-intermediate oligonucleotide hybridization and gold NP-mediated silver staining. The signal from the 4 capture-target-intermediates of the HA and NA genes was specific for H1N1/2009 virus and showed no cross hybridization with viral RNA from other influenza strains H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1. All of the 3 M gene captures showed strong affinity with H1N1/2009 viral RNA, with 2 out of the 3 M gene captures showing cross hybridization with the H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 samples tested. The current assay was able to detect H1N1/2009 and distinguish it from other influenza A viruses. This new method may be useful for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza A viruses and can be rapidly modified to detect other emerging influenza strains in public health settings.

Jiangqin Zhao; Xue Wang; Viswanath Ragupathy; Panhe Zhang; Wei Tang; Zhiping Ye; Maryna Eichelberger; Indira Hewlett

2012-01-01

37

CLINICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF H1N1 INFLUENZA TAQMAN REAL TIME PCR POSITIVE CASES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: A novel swine origin influenza virus (H1N1) is spreading worldwide and become the first pandemic of the 21st century. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human v...

Sangita Revdiwala; Summaiya Mulla; Tanvi Panwala; Latika Shah; Arpita Shah

38

Pneumonia in novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: High-resolution CT findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Objective: The purpose of our study was to review the initial high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in pneumonia patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and detect pneumonia earlier. Materials and methods: High-resolution CT (HRCT) findings of 106 patients with presumed/laboratory-confirmed novel S-OIV (H1N1) infection were reviewed. The 106 patients were divided into two groups according to the serious condition of the diseases. The pattern (consolidation, ground-glass, nodules, and reticulation), distribution, and extent of abnormality on the HRCT were evaluated in both groups. The dates of the onset of symptoms of the patients were recorded. Results: The predominant CT findings in the patients at presentation were unilateral or bilateral multifocal asymmetric ground-glass opacities alone (n = 29, 27.4%), with unilateral or bilateral consolidation (n = 50, 47.2%). The consolidation had peribronchovascular and subpleural predominance. The areas of consolidation were found mainly in the posterior, middle and lower regions of the lungs. Reticular opacities were found in 6 cases of the initial MDCT scan. The extent of disease was greater in group 1 patients requiring advanced mechanical ventilation, with diffuse involvement in 19 patients (63.3%) of group 1 patients, and only 15/76 (19.7%) of group 2 patients (p < 0.01, {chi}{sup 2} test). 20 cases (19%) of the 106 patients had small bilateral or unilateral pleural effusions. None had evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymph node enlargement on CT performed at admission or later. Conclusions: The most common radiographic and CT findings in patients with S-OIV infection are unilateral or bilateral ground-glass opacities with or without associated focal or multifocal areas of consolidation. On HRCT, the ground-glass opacities had a predominant peribronchovascular and subpleural distribution. CT plays an important role in the early recognition of severe S-OIV (H1N1).

Li Ping, E-mail: pinglee_2000@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Su Dongju, E-mail: hyd_sdj@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Respiratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhang Jifeng, E-mail: zjf2005520@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Xia Xudong, E-mail: xiaxd888@163.com [Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Sui Hong, E-mail: suisuihong@126.com [Department of Statistics, Harbin Medical University, 240 Xue Fu Road, Harbin 150086 (China); Zhao Donghui, E-mail: yhwoooooo@yahoo.com.cn [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Heilongjiang, 187 Xiang An Street, Harbin 150036 (China)

2011-11-15

39

High mortality from respiratory failure secondary to swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The novel influenza A (H1N1) pandemic affected South Africa late during the 2009 Southern hemisphere winter and placed an extra burden on a health care system already dealing with a high prevalence of chronic lung diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, management and outcomes of patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1) infection complicated by respiratory failure. METHODS: We included all adult patients with confirmed influenza A (H1N1) infection that were referred to the medical intensive care unit of a large academic hospital in Cape Town for ventilatory support in this prospective observational study. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients (39.5 +/- 14.8 years) needed ventilatory support over a 6-week period. Of these, 15 were female and 16 had identifiable risk factors for severe disease, including pregnancy (n = 6), type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 6), obesity (n = 4), HIV infection (n = 3), immunosuppressive therapy (n = 3) and active pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 2). The most frequent complications were acute renal failure (n = 13), acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 12) and ventilator associated pneumonia (n = 10). Thirteen patients died (mortality: 68.4%). Fatal cases were significantly associated with an APACHE II score >or=20 (P = 0.034), but not with a P(a)O(2)/F(I)O(2) <200 (P = 0.085) and a chest radiograph score >or=12 (P = 0.134). CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with respiratory failure secondary to influenza A (H1N1) infection were young females and had an underlying risk factor for severe disease. The condition had a high mortality, particularly amongst patients with an APACHE II score >or=20.

Koegelenberg CF; Irusen EM; Cooper R; Diacon AH; Taljaard JJ; Mowlana A; von Groote-Bidlingmaier F; Bolliger CT

2010-05-01

40

Pandemic Influenza Pediatric Office Plan Template  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a planning tool developed by pediatric stakeholders that is intended to assist pediatric medical offices that have no pandemic influenza plan in place, but may experience an increase in patient calls/visits or workload due to pandemic influenza.

HCTT CHE

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

The emergence of pandemic influenza viruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pandemic influenza has posed an increasing threat to public health worldwide in the last decade. In the 20th century, three human pandemic influenza outbreaks occurred in 1918, 1957 and 1968, causing significant mortality. A number of hypotheses have been proposed for the emergence and development o...

Guan, Y; Vijaykrishna, D; Bahl, J; Zhu, H; Wang, J; Smith, GJD

42

Receptor characterization and susceptibility of cotton rats to avian and 2009 pandemic influenza virus strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal influenza viruses (AIVs) are a major threat to human health and the source of pandemic influenza. A reliable small-mammal model to study the pathogenesis of infection and for testing vaccines and therapeutics against multiple strains of influenza virus is highly desirable. We show that cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are susceptible to avian and swine influenza viruses. Cotton rats express ?2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) and ?2,6-linked SA residues in the trachea and ?2,6-linked SA residues in the lung parenchyma. Prototypic avian influenza viruses (H3N2, H9N2, and H5N1) and swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses replicated in the nose and in the respiratory tract of cotton rats without prior adaptation and produced strong lung pathology that was characterized by early lung neutrophilia, followed by subsequent pneumonia. Consistent with other natural and animal models of influenza, only the H5N1 virus was lethal for cotton rats. More importantly, we show that the different avian and pandemic H1N1 strains tested are strong activators of the type I interferon (IFN)-inducible MX-1 gene both locally and systemically. Our data indicate that the cotton rat is a suitable small-mammal model to study the infection of animal influenza viruses and for validation of vaccines and therapeutics against these viruses. PMID:23192875

Blanco, Jorge C G; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Wan, Hongquan; Araya, Yonas; Angel, Matthew; Oue, Raymonde O; Sutton, Troy C; Perez, Daniel R

2012-11-28

43

Receptor characterization and susceptibility of cotton rats to avian and 2009 pandemic influenza virus strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Animal influenza viruses (AIVs) are a major threat to human health and the source of pandemic influenza. A reliable small-mammal model to study the pathogenesis of infection and for testing vaccines and therapeutics against multiple strains of influenza virus is highly desirable. We show that cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are susceptible to avian and swine influenza viruses. Cotton rats express ?2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) and ?2,6-linked SA residues in the trachea and ?2,6-linked SA residues in the lung parenchyma. Prototypic avian influenza viruses (H3N2, H9N2, and H5N1) and swine-origin 2009 pandemic H1N1 viruses replicated in the nose and in the respiratory tract of cotton rats without prior adaptation and produced strong lung pathology that was characterized by early lung neutrophilia, followed by subsequent pneumonia. Consistent with other natural and animal models of influenza, only the H5N1 virus was lethal for cotton rats. More importantly, we show that the different avian and pandemic H1N1 strains tested are strong activators of the type I interferon (IFN)-inducible MX-1 gene both locally and systemically. Our data indicate that the cotton rat is a suitable small-mammal model to study the infection of animal influenza viruses and for validation of vaccines and therapeutics against these viruses.

Blanco JC; Pletneva LM; Wan H; Araya Y; Angel M; Oue RO; Sutton TC; Perez DR

2013-02-01

44

Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

2010-03-01

45

Avian influenza: an omnipresent pandemic threat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Humans have faced 3 major influenza pandemics in the 20th century. In recent years, it has become evident that domestic poultry play an important role in the generation of novel influenza strains with the capacity to cross the species barrier and infect and kill humans at an alarming rate. There is particular concern that avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype could cause a pandemic. METHODS: A better understanding of the genetic factors that lead to interspecies transmission is essential to prevent the emergence of influenza pandemics. In addition, the stockpiling of antiviral drugs and development of vaccines against potentially pandemic viruses must be considered under the umbrella of pandemic plans. RESULTS: The world is ill-prepared to face an influenza pandemic. Only a handful of countries have developed influenza pandemic plans, and even fewer are developing vaccines or stockpiling antiinfluenza drugs to ameliorate the impact of a potential pandemic. Currently the major undertaking in several at risk nations is to implement effective control measures to stop the spread of the virus at its source, that is, avian species. These measures include the culling of domestic poultry to contain the virus, a practice that could eventually bring these countries to a financial and social breaking point. CONCLUSIONS: Avian influenza disease is preventable in humans and birds with the concerted effort of governments and poultry producers, large and small, to improve biosecurity and education programs. Pandemic plans can reduce the impact of the pandemic; however, preventing avian influenza in poultry can avert a pandemic altogether.

Perez DR; Sorrell EM; Donis RO

2005-11-01

46

Will the announced influenza pandemic really happen?  

CERN Multimedia

We propose two simple probability models to compute the probability of an influenza pandemic. Under a random walk model the probability that all pandemics between times 0 and 300 occur by time 150 is 1/2. Under a Poisson model with mean inter arrival time of 30 years the probability that no pandemic occurs during at least 60 years is 14%. These probabilities are much higher than generally perceived. So yes the next influenza pandemic will happen but maybe much later than generally thought.

Schinazi, Rinaldo B

2008-01-01

47

High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P

2012-01-01

48

Co-infection of adenovirus with swine origin influenza A (H1N1) and report of adenovirus with respiratory syncytial virus: report of two cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Respiratory virus infections represent a major public health problem because of their worldwide occurrence, ease of spread in the community and considerable morbidity and mortality. They are one of the most common reasons for hospitalization of children under the age of six. In some cases, infection with two different viruses increase the severity of disease which lead to the hospitalization."n"nCase presentation: Among 202 samples related to children under the age of six with respiratory infections, two dual infections of Adenovirus with other respiratory viruses with PCR test were detected."n"nConclusion: Mixed respiratory viral infections are sometimes associated with severe disease and recognition of coinfection is important. Dual infections of Adenovirus with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and Swine origin influenza A (H1N1) virus were demonstrated. The evidence showed that the co-infection of Adenovirus with swine origin influenza A (H1N1), has increased the severity of disease which lead to the hospitalization.

Shatizadeh Malekshahi S; Yavarian J; Naseri M; Rezaei F; Mokhtari Azad T

2010-01-01

49

Healthcare in Brunei Darussalam: Influenza pandemics.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last 120 years, there had been five recorded pandemic influenza; the Russian Flu (1889-1890), Spanish Flu (1918-19), Asian Flu (1958-59), Hong Kong Flu (1968-69) and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (2009-2010). Although a small country, Brunei Darussalam was also affected in some ways.

2012-01-01

50

Diagnostic testing for pandemic influenza in Singapore: a novel dual-gene quantitative real-time RT-PCR for the detection of influenza A/H1N1/2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the relative global lack of immunity to the pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 virus that emerged in April 2009 as well as the sustained susceptibility to infection, rapid and accurate diagnostic assays are essential to detect this novel influenza A variant. Among the molecular diagnostic methods that have been developed to date, most are in tandem monoplex assays targeting either different regions of a single viral gene segment or different viral gene segments. We describe a dual-gene (duplex) quantitative real-time RT-PCR method selectively targeting pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009. The assay design includes a primer-probe set specific to only the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of this novel influenza A variant and a second set capable of detecting the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of all swine-origin influenza A virus. In silico analysis of the specific HA oligonucleotide sequence used in the assay showed that it targeted only the swine-origin pandemic strain; there was also no cross-reactivity against a wide spectrum of noninfluenza respiratory viruses. The assay has a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 97.7% and 100%, respectively, a lower detection limit of 50 viral gene copies/PCR, and can be adapted to either a qualitative or quantitative mode. It was first applied to 3512 patients with influenza-like illnesses at a tertiary hospital in Singapore, during the containment phase of the pandemic (May to July 2009).

Lee HK; Lee CK; Loh TP; Tang JW; Chiu L; Tambyah PA; Sethi SK; Koay ES

2010-09-01

51

Monitoring vaccine safety during an influenza pandemic.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the event that a vaccine is available during an influenza pandemic, vaccine safety monitoring will occur as part of comprehensive public health surveillance of the vaccination campaign. Though inactivated influenza vaccines have been widely used in the United States and much is known about their ...

Iskander, John; Haber, Penina; Herrera, Guillermo

52

Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the treatment and infection control mechanisms as they pertain to occupational medicine. Planning activity for the potential arrival of pandemic avian influenza is growing rapidly. Much has been published on the molecular biology of H5N1 but there remains a paucity of literature on the occupational medicine impacts to organizations. This review summarizes some of the basic science surrounding H5N1 influenza and raises some key concerns in pandemic planning for the occupational medicine professional. Workplaces other than health care settings will be impacted greatly by an H5N1 pandemic and the occupational physician will play an essential role in corporate preparation, response, and business continuity strategies.

Journeay W Shane; Burnstein Matthew D

2009-01-01

53

Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the treatment and infection control mechanisms as they pertain to occupational medicine. Planning activity for the potential arrival of pandemic avian influenza is growing rapidly. Much has been published on the molecular biology of H5N1 but there remains a paucity of literature on the occupational medicine impacts to organizations. This review summarizes some of the basic science surrounding H5N1 influenza and raises some key concerns in pandemic planning for the occupational medicine professional. Workplaces other than health care settings will be impacted greatly by an H5N1 pandemic and the occupational physician will play an essential role in corporate preparation, response, and business continuity strategies.

Journeay WS; Burnstein MD

2009-01-01

54

Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the treatment and infection control mechanisms as they pertain to occupational medicine. Planning activity for the potential arrival of pandemic avian influenza is growing rapidly. Much has been published on the molecular biology of H5N1 but there remains a paucity of literature on the occupational medicine impacts to organizations. This review summarizes some of the basic science surrounding H5N1 influenza and raises some key concerns in pandemic planning for the occupational medicine professional. Workplaces other than health care settings will be impacted greatly by an H5N1 pandemic and the occupational physician will play an essential role in corporate preparation, response, and business continuity strategies. PMID:19549302

Journeay, W Shane; Burnstein, Matthew D

2009-06-23

55

Influenza 2010-2011: lessons from the 2009 pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Much was learned about the diagnosis, management, and pathogenesis of influenza from the 2009 pandemic of influenza A (H1N1). This knowledge can be applied to the management of people affected by seasonal infection and to future pandemics.

Ison MG; Lee N

2010-11-01

56

Substitutions T200A and E227A in the hemagglutinin of pandemic 2009 influenza A virus increase lethality but decrease transmission.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report that swine influenza virus-like substitutions T200A and E227A in the hemagglutinin (HA) of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus alter its pathogenesis and transmission. Viral replication is increased in mammalian cells. Infected mice show increased disease as measured by weight loss and lethality. Transmission in ferrets is decreased in the presence of both substitutions, suggesting that amino acids 200T and 227E are adaptive changes in the HA of swine origin influenza viruses associated with increased transmission and decreased pathogenesis.

Martínez-Romero C; de Vries E; Belicha-Villanueva A; Mena I; Tscherne DM; Gillespie VL; Albrecht RA; de Haan CA; García-Sastre A

2013-06-01

57

Substitutions T200A and E227A in the hemagglutinin of pandemic 2009 influenza A virus increase lethality but decrease transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report that swine influenza virus-like substitutions T200A and E227A in the hemagglutinin (HA) of the 2009 pandemic influenza virus alter its pathogenesis and transmission. Viral replication is increased in mammalian cells. Infected mice show increased disease as measured by weight loss and lethality. Transmission in ferrets is decreased in the presence of both substitutions, suggesting that amino acids 200T and 227E are adaptive changes in the HA of swine origin influenza viruses associated with increased transmission and decreased pathogenesis. PMID:23536663

Martínez-Romero, Carles; de Vries, Erik; Belicha-Villanueva, Alan; Mena, Ignacio; Tscherne, Donna M; Gillespie, Virginia L; Albrecht, Randy A; de Haan, Cornelis A M; García-Sastre, Adolfo

2013-03-27

58

Workplace health and safety during pandemic influenza : CAGC guideline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pandemic influenza is a possible biological hazard that employers must take into account during hazard assessment and emergency planning. This report presented a guideline to all workplaces in Alberta and provided information on legislated requirements, best practices, guidelines and strategies in workplace health and safety and employment standards in the event of a pandemic influenza. The report explained the difference between a pandemic and a pandemic influenza, and why scientists expect another pandemic influenza. Pandemic influenza was described as being different from seasonal influenza. This document also explained how pandemic influenza relates to the worker and the workplace, and how the workplace can prepare for and respond to pandemic influenza. Pandemic influenza hazard categories were also listed along with steps in the hazard assessment and control of pandemic influenza. The steps involve listing the types of work and work-related activities; identifying the hazard; assessing the hazards; implementing controls; communicating the information to workers and providing training; and evaluating the effectiveness of controls. The guide also addressed emergency response plan development for pandemic influenza; first aid; and employment standards during pandemic influenza. refs., tabs.

NONE

2009-11-15

59

The novel influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic: An update  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the 4 months since it was first recognized, the pandemic strain of a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread to all continents and, after documentation of human-to-human transmission of the virus in at least three countries in two separate World Health Organization (WHO) regions, the pandemic alert was raised to level 6. The agent responsible for this pandemic, a swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), is characterized by a unique combination of gene segments that has not previously been identified among human or swine influenza A viruses. As of 31th July 2009, 168 countries and overseas territories/communities have each reported at least one laboratory-confirmed case of pandemic H1N1 infection. There have been a total of 162,380 reported cases and 1154 associated deaths. Influenza epidemics usually take off in autumn, and it is important to prepare for an earlier start this season. Estimates from Europe indicate that 230 millions Europe inhabitants will have clinical signs and symptoms of S-OIV this autumn, and 7– 35% of the clinical cases will have a fatal outcome, which means that there will be 160,000– 750,000 H1N1-related deaths. A vaccine against H1N1 is expected to be the most effective tool for controlling influenza A (H1N1) infection in terms of reducing morbidity and mortality and limiting diffusion. However, there are several issues with regard to vaccine manufacture and approval, as well as production capacity, that remain unsettled. We searched the literature indexed in PubMed as well as the websites of major international health agencies to obtain the material presented in this update on the current S-OIV pandemic.

Petrosillo N; Di Bella S; Drapeau C; Grilli E

2009-01-01

60

Detection of novel swine origin influenza A virus (H1N1) by real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid detection of novel swine origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) (H1N1) is crucial for timely implementation of infection control measures. In this study, a haemagglutinin (HA) gene-based real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay was developed for the specific detection of S-OIV (H1N1). The assay was evaluated and validated by comparing it with existing detection methods for S-OIV (H1N1). Results obtained in a 10-fold dilution series assay demonstrated the analytic sensitivity of the present assay was comparable to that of a commercial S-OIV (H1N1) real-time RT-PCR kit and higher than that of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) TaqMan assay. The actual detection limit of the real-time NASBA assay was approximately 50 copies per reaction. Compared with reference methods (viral culture, conventional RT-PCR, and real-time RT-PCR), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the present assay were all 100%. Overall, the results showed that the real-time NASBA assay could be used for sensitive and specific detection of S-OIV (H1N1).

Ge Y; Cui L; Qi X; Shan J; Shan Y; Qi Y; Wu B; Wang H; Shi Z

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

Antiviral Strategies for Pandemic and Seasonal Influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While vaccines are the primary public health response to seasonal and pandemic flu, short of a universal vaccine there are inherent limitations to this approach. Antiviral drugs provide valuable alternative options for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. Here, we will review drugs and drug candidates against influenza with an emphasis on the recent progress of a host-targeting entry-blocker drug candidate, DAS181, a sialidase fusion protein.

Maria Hedlund; Jeffrey L. Larson; Fang Fang

2010-01-01

62

Influenza: the next pandemic?: A review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To examine existing information on the recent influenza outbreaks in order to create awareness of a possible influenza pandemic and to suggest future research areas in developing control strategies in Kenya. DATA SOURCES: Review of literature via Internet, articles, journals and un-refereed features from the media and personal communications. DATA SELECTION: Most published data from 1979 to March 2005 found to reveal cases of influenza outbreaks were included in the review. Also, selected articles on the recent outbreaks and professional guidance on influenza infections were critically examined and analyzed. DATA EXTRACTION: Abstracts and articles identified were accessed, read to establish relevance to this review. DATA SYNTHESIS: Important points were prioritised and then included as subtitles; below each subtitle, published works were included. Finally, a table of influenza outbreaks and the strains of the viruses involved were drawn as summary. CONCLUSION: Influenza is a highly contagious, acute respiratory disease that may spread rapidly and pervasively through a population. Due to the diversity of susceptible reservoirs of influenza viruses and the interspecies transmission recently reported, a mutated strain of the virus to which people have no immunity could cause an influenza pandemic once the virus gains efficient and sustained human-to-human transmission. The fear that avian influenza could be a precursor to the next pandemic is real and inevitable, given the extremely high case-fatality ratio among confirmed cases and that genetic sequencing of influenza A (H5N1) viruses from human cases in Thailand and Vietnam show resistance to the antiviral medication amantadine and rimantadine. This calls for a high level of preparedness to avoid a public health emergency. Nowhere is this paradigm more real than in Africa.

Adungo FO; Adungo NI; Bedno S; Yingst SL

2005-09-01

63

Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A viruses of avian and swine origin and in experimentally infected pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SAalpha- 2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods: This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA) I, and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA). Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV) subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. Results: SIV antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally in bronchiolar epithelial cells. SA-alpha- 2,6 was the predominant receptor in all areas of the respiratory tract with an average of 80-100% lining at the epithelial cells. On the contrary, the SA-alpha-2,3 was not present (0%) at epithelial cells of nose, trachea, and most bronchi, but was found in small amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions: A difference in predilection sites between SIV and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig acts as a mixing vessel between human and avian influenza viruses. Furthermore, it was shown that AIV prefers to infect alveolar type II epithelial cells in pigs. This corresponds with findings in humans emphasising the resemblance between the two species.

Trebbien, Ramona; Larsen, Lars Erik

2011-01-01

64

Distribution of sialic acid receptors and influenza A virus of avian and swine origin in experimentally infected pigs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pigs are considered susceptible to influenza A virus infections from different host origins because earlier studies have shown that they have receptors for both avian (sialic acid-alpha-2,3-terminal saccharides (SA-alpha-2,3)) and swine/human (SA-alpha-2,6) influenza viruses in the upper respiratory tract. Furthermore, experimental and natural infections in pigs have been reported with influenza A virus from avian and human sources. Methods This study investigated the receptor distribution in the entire respiratory tract of pigs using specific lectins Maackia Amurensis (MAA) I, and II, and Sambucus Nigra (SNA). Furthermore, the predilection sites of swine influenza virus (SIV) subtypes H1N1 and H1N2 as well as avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H4N6 were investigated in the respiratory tract of experimentally infected pigs using immunohistochemical methods. Results SIV antigen was widely distributed in bronchi, but was also present in epithelial cells of the nose, trachea, bronchioles, and alveolar type I and II epithelial cells in severely affected animals. AIV was found in the lower respiratory tract, especially in alveolar type II epithelial cells and occasionally in bronchiolar epithelial cells. SA-alpha-2,6 was the predominant receptor in all areas of the respiratory tract with an average of 80-100% lining at the epithelial cells. On the contrary, the SA-alpha-2,3 was not present (0%) at epithelial cells of nose, trachea, and most bronchi, but was found in small amounts in bronchioles, and in alveoli reaching an average of 20-40% at the epithelial cells. Interestingly, the receptor expression of both SA-alpha-2,3 and 2,6 was markedly diminished in influenza infected areas compared to non-infected areas. Conclusions A difference in predilection sites between SIV and AIV virus was found, and this difference was in accordance with the distribution of the SA-alpha-2,6 and SA-alpha-2,3 receptor, respectively. The results indicated that the distribution of influenza A virus receptors in pigs are similar to that of humans and therefore challenge the theory that the pig acts as a mixing vessel between human and avian influenza viruses. Furthermore, it was shown that AIV prefers to infect alveolar type II epithelial cells in pigs. This corresponds with findings in humans emphasising the resemblance between the two species.

Trebbien Ramona; Larsen Lars E; Viuff Birgitte M

2011-01-01

65

Mutations at positions 186 and 194 in the HA gene of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus improve replication in cell culture and eggs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Obtaining suitable seed viruses for influenza vaccines poses a challenge for public health authorities and manufacturers. We used reverse genetics to generate vaccine seed-compatible viruses from the 2009 pandemic swine-origin influenza virus. Comparison of viruses recovered with variations in residues 186 and 194 (based on the H3 numbering system) of the viral hemagglutinin showed that these viruses differed with respect to their ability to grow in eggs and cultured cells. Thus, we have demonstrated that molecular cloning of members of a quasispecies can help in selection of seed viruses for vaccine manufacture.

Suphaphiphat Pirada; Franti Michael; Hekele Armin; Lilja Anders; Spencer Terika; Settembre Ethan; Palmer Gene; Crotta Stefania; Tuccino Annunziata B; Keiner Bjoern; Trusheim Heidi; Balabanis Kara; Sackal Melissa; Rothfeder Mithra; Mandl Christian W; Dormitzer Philip R; Mason Peter W

2010-01-01

66

Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the tre...

Journeay W Shane; Burnstein Matthew D

67

Pandemic influenza: implications for occupational medicine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reviews the biological and occupational medicine literature related to H5N1 pandemic influenza and its impact on infection control, cost and business continuity in settings outside the health care community. The literature on H5N1 biology is reviewed including the treatment and infectio...

Journeay, W Shane; Burnstein, Matthew D

68

Novel swine-origin (S-OIV) H1N1 influenza A pneumonia in a lung transplant patient: a case report and review of the literature on performance characteristics of rapid screening tests for the S-OIV.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid screening tests are insensitive for detecting the novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), and false negatives can delay the diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antiviral therapy. The case of a 26-year-old double lung transplant recipient presenting with fever, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, and a negative influenza direct immunofluorescent antibody on bronchoalveolar lavage is presented. A diagnosis was made, and antiviral therapy was started 10 days after the initial bronchoalveolar lavage on receipt of a positive culture for S-OIV. The published literature on the performance characteristics of rapid screening tests for S-OIV is reviewed in this clinical context.

Raj R; Cerdan M; Yepeshurtado A; Kimbrough R; Nugent K

2009-12-01

69

76 FR 58466 - Request for Comments on World Health Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework  

Science.gov (United States)

...Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework AGENCY: International Trade Administration...Organization Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework (http://apps.who.int/gb...WHO) Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework by WHO Member States at the World...

2011-09-21

70

Preferential lower respiratory tract infection in swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus infection in which virus was detected predominantly in specimens from the lower respiratory tract but was absent or at very low levels in nasopharyngeal swab samples. This presentation suggests that, in certain hosts or for particular variants of 2009 A(H1N1) virus, the lower respiratory tract may be the preferred site of infection.

Yeh E; Luo RF; Dyner L; Hong DK; Banaei N; Baron EJ; Pinsky BA

2010-02-01

71

Preferential lower respiratory tract infection in swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) virus infection in which virus was detected predominantly in specimens from the lower respiratory tract but was absent or at very low levels in nasopharyngeal swab samples. This presentation suggests that, in certain hosts or for particular variants of 2009 A(H1N1) virus, the lower respiratory tract may be the preferred site of infection. PMID:20047483

Yeh, Ellen; Luo, Robert F; Dyner, Laurale; Hong, David K; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo; Pinsky, Benjamin A

2010-02-01

72

Developing Vaccines to Combat Pandemic Influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza vaccine manufacturers require antigenically relevant vaccine viruses that have good manufacturing properties and are safe to use. In developing pandemic vaccine viruses, reverse genetics has been employed as a rational approach that can also be used effectively to attenuate the highly virulent H5N1 virus and at the same time place the H5 HA and N1 NA on a background of PR8, a virus that has been used over many decades to provide high yielding vaccine viruses. Reverse genetics has also been used successfully alongside classical reassorting techniques in the development of (swine flu) pandemic A(H1N1)v vaccine viruses.

James S. Robertson; Othmar G. Engelhardt

2010-01-01

73

Pandemic H1N1 influenza infections in 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In early spring 2009 an outbreak of H1N1 influenza A virus infection was detected in Mexico, spreaded quickly, and on June 11 2009, World Health Organization raised its pandemic level to phase 6. This novel H1N1 pandemic influenza A virus represented a quadruple reassortment of swine, human and avian influenza virus strains. This pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A viruses in different regions of the world were found to be antigenically homogenous. Transmission features, incubation period and clinical findings wee similar with the seasonal influenza viruses, although the gastrointestinal manifestations were more common. Young children (<5years) and some special risk groups are at increased risk for infection complications and mortality. The recommended test for diagnosis is real-time PCR. Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A strains are sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir) and resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. Oseltamivir and zanamivir are used for prophlaxis and therapy of infection. However, vaccination against pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A should be the main target for individual and population based prevention. Monovalent pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A vaccines are available in this (recent) influenza season. According to CDC, the next (2010-2011) influenza season trivalent vaccines will coverage the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A vaccine. (Turk Arch Ped 2010; 45: 80th Year: 31-6)

Mustafa Hac?mustafao?lu

2010-01-01

74

Influenza pandemics: past, present and future challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza epidemics occur regularly and prediction of their conversion to pandemics and their impact is difficult. Coordination of efforts on a global scale to control or reduce the impact is fraught with potential for under and overreaction. In light of the 1956 pandemic and more recently the SARS and H1N1 pandemics, the public health community took steps toward strengthening global surveillance and a coordinated response in keeping with the continuing memory of the tragedy seen in 1918. The scientific, professional, and technical resources of the 21st century are now advanced far beyond those then available. The H1N1 pandemic which commenced in 2009 progressed differently than predicted; its course was difficult to predict with any degree of certainty. Public responses to national immunization programs against the H1N1 virus have been weak. International movement of diseases can lead to creation of new endemic areas and continuous spread such as that which happened with West Nile Fever and Chikungunya. The lessons learned and the public and political responses to each actual or threatened pandemic will serve public health well in dealing with future challenges.

Flahault Antoine; Zylberman Patrick

2010-01-01

75

Inefficient control of host gene expression by the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus NS1 protein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus emerged. Here, we characterize the multifunctional NS1 protein of this human pandemic virus in order to understand factors that may contribute to replication efficiency or pathogenicity. Although the 2009 H1N1 virus NS1 protein (2009/NS1) is an effective interferon antagonist, we found that this NS1 (unlike those of previous human-adapted influenza A viruses) is unable to block general host gene expression in human or swine cells. This property could be restored in 2009/NS1 by replacing R108, E125, and G189 with residues corresponding to human virus consensus. Mechanistically, these previously undescribed mutations acted by increasing binding of 2009/NS1 to the cellular pre-mRNA processing protein CPSF30. A recombinant 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus (A/California/04/09) expressing NS1 with these gain-of-function substitutions was more efficient than the wild type at antagonizing host innate immune responses in primary human epithelial cells. However, such mutations had no significant effect on virus replication in either human or swine tissue culture substrates. Surprisingly, in a mouse model of pathogenicity, the mutant virus appeared to cause less morbidity, and was cleared faster, than the wild type. The mutant virus also demonstrated reduced titers in the upper respiratory tracts of ferrets; however, contact and aerosol transmissibility of the virus was unaffected. Our data highlight a potential human adaptation of NS1 that seems absent in "classically derived" swine-origin influenza A viruses, including the 2009 H1N1 virus. We discuss the impact that a natural future gain of this NS1 function may have on the new pandemic virus in humans.

Hale BG; Steel J; Medina RA; Manicassamy B; Ye J; Hickman D; Hai R; Schmolke M; Lowen AC; Perez DR; García-Sastre A

2010-07-01

76

Inefficient control of host gene expression by the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus NS1 protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus emerged. Here, we characterize the multifunctional NS1 protein of this human pandemic virus in order to understand factors that may contribute to replication efficiency or pathogenicity. Although the 2009 H1N1 virus NS1 protein (2009/NS1) is an effective interferon antagonist, we found that this NS1 (unlike those of previous human-adapted influenza A viruses) is unable to block general host gene expression in human or swine cells. This property could be restored in 2009/NS1 by replacing R108, E125, and G189 with residues corresponding to human virus consensus. Mechanistically, these previously undescribed mutations acted by increasing binding of 2009/NS1 to the cellular pre-mRNA processing protein CPSF30. A recombinant 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus (A/California/04/09) expressing NS1 with these gain-of-function substitutions was more efficient than the wild type at antagonizing host innate immune responses in primary human epithelial cells. However, such mutations had no significant effect on virus replication in either human or swine tissue culture substrates. Surprisingly, in a mouse model of pathogenicity, the mutant virus appeared to cause less morbidity, and was cleared faster, than the wild type. The mutant virus also demonstrated reduced titers in the upper respiratory tracts of ferrets; however, contact and aerosol transmissibility of the virus was unaffected. Our data highlight a potential human adaptation of NS1 that seems absent in "classically derived" swine-origin influenza A viruses, including the 2009 H1N1 virus. We discuss the impact that a natural future gain of this NS1 function may have on the new pandemic virus in humans. PMID:20444891

Hale, Benjamin G; Steel, John; Medina, Rafael A; Manicassamy, Balaji; Ye, Jianqiang; Hickman, Danielle; Hai, Rong; Schmolke, Mirco; Lowen, Anice C; Perez, Daniel R; García-Sastre, Adolfo

2010-05-05

77

Inefficient Control of Host Gene Expression by the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein?  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2009, a novel swine-origin H1N1 influenza A virus emerged. Here, we characterize the multifunctional NS1 protein of this human pandemic virus in order to understand factors that may contribute to replication efficiency or pathogenicity. Although the 2009 H1N1 virus NS1 protein (2009/NS1) is an effective interferon antagonist, we found that this NS1 (unlike those of previous human-adapted influenza A viruses) is unable to block general host gene expression in human or swine cells. This property could be restored in 2009/NS1 by replacing R108, E125, and G189 with residues corresponding to human virus consensus. Mechanistically, these previously undescribed mutations acted by increasing binding of 2009/NS1 to the cellular pre-mRNA processing protein CPSF30. A recombinant 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus (A/California/04/09) expressing NS1 with these gain-of-function substitutions was more efficient than the wild type at antagonizing host innate immune responses in primary human epithelial cells. However, such mutations had no significant effect on virus replication in either human or swine tissue culture substrates. Surprisingly, in a mouse model of pathogenicity, the mutant virus appeared to cause less morbidity, and was cleared faster, than the wild type. The mutant virus also demonstrated reduced titers in the upper respiratory tracts of ferrets; however, contact and aerosol transmissibility of the virus was unaffected. Our data highlight a potential human adaptation of NS1 that seems absent in “classically derived” swine-origin influenza A viruses, including the 2009 H1N1 virus. We discuss the impact that a natural future gain of this NS1 function may have on the new pandemic virus in humans.

Hale, Benjamin G.; Steel, John; Medina, Rafael A.; Manicassamy, Balaji; Ye, Jianqiang; Hickman, Danielle; Hai, Rong; Schmolke, Mirco; Lowen, Anice C.; Perez, Daniel R.; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo

2010-01-01

78

High-resolution computed tomography findings of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection: comparison with scrub typhus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. Swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV) infection and scrub typhus, also known as tsutsugamushi disease can manifest as acute respiratory illnesses, particularly during the late fall or early winter, with similar radiographic findings, such as a predominance of ground-glass opacity (GGO). Purpose. To differentiate S-OIV infection from scrub typhus using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Material and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the HRCT findings of 14 patients with S-OIV infection and 10 patients with scrub typhus. We assessed the location, cross-sectional distribution, and the presence of a peribronchovascular distribution of GGO and consolidations on HRCT. We also assessed the presence of interlobular septal thickening, bronchial wall thickening, pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, pleural effusion, and mediastinal or axillary lymph node enlargement. Results. Scrub typhus was more common than S-OIV in elderly patients (P < 0.001). The monthly incidences of S-OIV and scrub typhus infection reached a peak between October and November. About 86% of S-OIV patients and 80% of scrub typhus patients presented with GGO. About 67% of the GGO lesions in S-OIV had a peribronchovascular distribution, but this was absent in scrub typhus (P = 0.005). Consolidation (93% vs. 10%, P < 0.001) and bronchial wall thickening (43% vs. 0%, P = 0.024) were more frequent in S-OIV infection than scrub typhus. Interlobular septal thickening (90% vs. 36%, P = 0.013) and axillary lymphadenopathy (90% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) were more common in scrub typhus than S-OIV infection. Conclusion. There was considerable overlap in HRCT findings between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus. However, S-OIV showed a distinctive peribronchovascular distribution of GGO lesions. Consolidation and bronchial wall thickening were seen more frequently in S-OIV infection, whereas interlobular septal thickening and axillary lymphadenopathy were more common in scrub typhus. Thus, CT could be helpful for differential diagnosis between S-OIV infection and scrub typhus.

Jo, Bang Sil; Lee, In Jae; Lee, Kwanseop [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ijlee2003@medimail.co.kr; Im, Hyoung June [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-15

79

Avian Influenza Virus: The Threat of A Pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 1918 influenza A virus pandemic caused a death toll of 40~50 million. Currently,because of the widespread dissemination of the avian influenza virus (H5N1), there is a highrisk of another pandemic. Avian species are the natural hosts for numerous subtypes ofinfluenza A viruses; however, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) is not onlyextremely lethal to domestic avian species but also can infect humans and cause death. Thisreview discusses why the avian influenza virus is considered the most likely candidate forthe first flu pandemic of the 21st century

Shih-Cheng Chang; Yi-Ying Cheng; Shin-Ru Shih

2006-01-01

80

Pathogenesis and transmission of the novel swine-origin influenza virus A/H1N1 after experimental infection of pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenza virus A/H1N1, which is currently causing a pandemic, contains gene segments with ancestors in the North American and Eurasian swine lineages. To get insights into virus replication dynamics, clinical symptoms and virus transmission in pigs, we infected animals intranasally with influenza virus A/Regensburg/D6/09/H1N1. Virus excretion in the inoculated pigs was detected in nasal swabs from 1 day post-infection (p.i.) onwards and the pigs developed generally mild symptoms, including fever, sneezing, nasal discharge and diarrhoea. Contact pigs became infected, shed virus and developed clinical symptoms similar to those in the inoculated animals. Plasma samples of all animals remained negative for virus RNA. Nucleoprotein- and haemagglutinin H1-specific antibodies could be detected by ELISA 7 days p.i. CD4(+) T cells became activated immediately after infection and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell populations expanded from 3 to 7 days p.i., coinciding with clinical signs. Contact chickens remained uninfected, as judged by the absence of virus excretion, clinical signs and seroconversion.

Lange E; Kalthoff D; Blohm U; Teifke JP; Breithaupt A; Maresch C; Starick E; Fereidouni S; Hoffmann B; Mettenleiter TC; Beer M; Vahlenkamp TW

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Novel swine-origin (S-OIV) H1N1 influenza A pneumonia in a lung transplant patient: a case report and review of the literature on performance characteristics of rapid screening tests for the S-OIV.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid screening tests are insensitive for detecting the novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-OIV), and false negatives can delay the diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antiviral therapy. The case of a 26-year-old double lung transplant recipient presenting with fever, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, and a negative influenza direct immunofluorescent antibody on bronchoalveolar lavage is presented. A diagnosis was made, and antiviral therapy was started 10 days after the initial bronchoalveolar lavage on receipt of a positive culture for S-OIV. The published literature on the performance characteristics of rapid screening tests for S-OIV is reviewed in this clinical context. PMID:20010157

Raj, Rishi; Cerdan, Mario; Yepeshurtado, Andresfelipe; Kimbrough, Robert; Nugent, Kenneth

2009-12-01

82

Barriers to pandemic influenza vaccination and uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine in the post-pandemic season in Germany  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Germany, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for certain target groups (e.g. persons aged ?60 years, chronically ill persons, healthcare workers (HCW)). In season 2009/10, vaccination against pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, which was controversially discussed in the public, was recommended for the whole population. The objectives of this study were to assess vaccination coverage for seasonal (seasons 2008/09-2010/11) and pandemic influenza (season 2009/10), to identify predictors of and barriers to pandemic vaccine uptake and whether the controversial discussions on pandemic vaccination has had a negative impact on seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in Germany. Methods We analysed data from the ‘German Health Update’ (GEDA10) telephone survey (n=22,050) and a smaller GEDA10-follow-up survey (n=2,493), which were both representative of the general population aged ?18 years living in Germany. Results Overall only 8.8% of the adult population in Germany received a vaccination against pandemic influenza. High socioeconomic status, having received a seasonal influenza shot in the previous season, and belonging to a target group for seasonal influenza vaccination were independently associated with the uptake of pandemic vaccines. The main reasons for not receiving a pandemic vaccination were ‘fear of side effects’ and the opinion that ‘vaccination was not necessary’. Seasonal influenza vaccine uptake in the pre-pandemic season 2008/09 was 52.8% among persons aged ?60 years; 30.5% among HCW, and 43.3% among chronically ill persons. A decrease in vaccination coverage was observed across all target groups in the first post-pandemic season 2010/11 (50.6%, 25.8%, and 41.0% vaccination coverage, respectively). Conclusions Seasonal influenza vaccination coverage in Germany remains in all target groups below 75%, which is a declared goal of the European Union. Our results suggest that controversial public discussions about safety and the benefits of pandemic influenza vaccination may have contributed to both a very low uptake of pandemic vaccines and a decreased uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines in the first post-pandemic season. In the upcoming years, the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines should be carefully monitored in all target groups to identify if this trend continues and to guide public health authorities in developing more effective vaccination and communication strategies for seasonal influenza vaccination.

Böhmer Merle M; Walter Dietmar; Falkenhorst Gerhard; Müters Stephan; Krause Gérard; Wichmann Ole

2012-01-01

83

Antigenically intact hemagglutinin in circulating avian and swine influenza viruses and potential for H3N2 pandemic  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza, though antigenically novel to the population at the time, was antigenically similar to the 1918 H1N1 pandemic influenza, and consequently was considered to be “archived” in the swine species before reemerging in humans. Given that the H3N2 is another subtype that currently circulates in the human population and is high on WHO pandemic preparedness list, we assessed the likelihood of reemergence of H3N2 from a non-human host. Using HA sequence features relevant to immune recognition, receptor binding and transmission we have identified several recent H3 strains in avian and swine that present hallmarks of a reemerging virus. IgG polyclonal raised in rabbit with recent seasonal vaccine H3 fail to recognize these swine H3 strains suggesting that existing vaccines may not be effective in protecting against these strains. Vaccine strategies can mitigate risks associated with a potential H3N2 pandemic in humans.

Tharakaraman, Kannan; Raman, Rahul; Stebbins, Nathan W.; Viswanathan, Karthik; Sasisekharan, Viswanathan; Sasisekharan, Ram

2013-01-01

84

Surveillance of influenza in Iceland during the 2009 pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a pandemic setting, surveillance is essential to monitor the spread of the disease and assess its impact. Appropriate mitigation and healthcare preparedness strategies depend on fast and accurate epidemic surveillance data. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, rapid improvements in influenza surveillance were made in Iceland. Here, we describe the improvements made in influenza surveillance during the pandemic , which could also be of great value in outbreaks caused by other pathogens. Following the raised level of pandemic influenza alert in April 2009, influenza surveillance was intensified. A comprehensive automatic surveillance system for influenza-like illness was developed, surveillance of influenza-related deaths was established and laboratory surveillance for influenza was strengthened. School absenteeism reports were also collected and compared with results from the automatic surveillance system. The first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) was diagnosed in Iceland in May 2009, but sustained community transmission was not confirmed until mid-August. The pandemic virus circulated during the summer and early autumn before an abrupt increase in the number of cases was observed in October. There were large outbreaks in elementary schools for children aged 6–15 years throughout the country that peaked in late October. School absenteeism reports from all elementary schools in Iceland gave a similar epidemiological curve as that from data from the healthcare system. Estimates of the proportion of the population infected with the pandemic virus ranged from 10% to 22%. This study shows how the sudden need for improved surveillance in the pandemic led to rapid improvements in data collection in Iceland. This reporting system will be improved upon and expanded to include other notifiable diseases, to ensure accurate and timely collection of epidemiological data.

Sigmundsdottir G; Gudnason T; Ólafsson Ö; Baldvinsdottir GE; Atladottir A; Löve A; Danon L; Briem H

2010-12-01

85

Subsisting H1N1 influenza memory responses are insufficient to protect from pandemic H1N1 influenza challenge in C57BL/6 mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 2009 swine-origin pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus transmitted and caused disease in many individuals immune to pre-2009 H1N1 influenza virus. Whilst extensive studies on antibody-mediated pH1N1 cross-reactivity have been described, few studies have focused on influenza-specific memory T-cells. To address this, the immune response in pre-2009 H1N1 influenza-immune mice was evaluated after pH1N1 challenge and disease pathogenesis was determined. The results show that despite homology shared between pre-2009 H1N1 and pH1N1 strains, the effector memory T-cell response to pre-2009 H1N1 was generally ineffective, a finding that correlated with lung virus persistence. Additionally, pH1N1 challenge generated T-cells reactive to new pH1N1 epitopes. These studies highlight the importance of vaccinating against immunodominant T-cell epitopes to provide for a more effective strategy to control influenza virus through heterosubtypic immunity.

Sage LK; Fox JM; Tompkins SM; Tripp RA

2013-08-01

86

[Concepts, effectiveness, and perspectives of pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For the first time in history, the conditions to influence the course of an influenza pandemic through vaccination were set during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009. The specific requirements for pandemic vaccines are to be highly immunogenic in immunologically naive individuals and to be producible quickly in large quantities. In contrast, seasonal influenza vaccines induce a booster response and a broadening of preexisting immunity. In this article the concepts of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines and data on their immunogenicity and clinical efficacy are reviewed and discussed. In the upcoming years, seasonal influenza vaccination will continue to be based on inactivated split-virion and subunit vaccines or the live attenuated cold-adapted vaccine. The pandemic vaccines used in 2009 proved to be more immunogenic than expected from prepandemic vaccine trials, while the adverse events observed with AS03-adjuvanted vaccines call their future use into question. However, neither seasonal nor pandemic influenza vaccines can be regarded to be an ideal solution, because they have to be frequently adapted to new virus strains and they lack effectiveness in particular risk groups. They can be regarded as interim approaches to highly immunogenic vaccines that hopefully become available in the future. The underlying principles of future vaccines are also presented in this article.

Grund S; Wichmann O; Mertens T; Hengel H

2013-01-01

87

Pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza A Virus Induces Weak Cytokine Response in Human Macrophages and Dendritic Cells and Is Highly Sensitive to Antiviral Actions of Interferons  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In less than three months after the first cases of swine-origin 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus infections were reported from Mexico, WHO declared a pandemic. The pandemic virus is antigenically distinct from seasonal influenza viruses and the majority of human population lacks immunity against this virus. We have studied the activation of innate immune responses in pandemic virus-infected human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. Pandemic A/Finland/553/2009 virus, representing a typical North American/European lineage virus, replicated very well in these cells. The pandemic virus, as well as the seasonal A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) and A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) viruses, induced type I (IFN-alpha/beta) and type III (IFN-lambda1-3) IFN, CXCL10 and TNF-alpha gene expression weakly in DCs. Mouse adapted A/WSN/33 (H1N1) and human A/Udorn/72 (H3N2) viruses, instead, induced efficiently the expression of antiviral and proinflammatory genes. Both IFN-alpha and IFN-beta inhibited the replication of the pandemic (H1N1) virus. The potential of IFN-lambda3 to inhibit the viral replication was lower than that of type I IFNs. However, the pandemic virus was more sensitive to the antiviral IFN-lambda3 than the seasonal A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) virus. The present study demonstrates that the novel pandemic (H1N1) influenza A virus can readily replicate in human primary DCs and macrophages and efficiently avoid the activation of innate antiviral responses. It is, however, highly sensitive to the antiviral actions of IFNs, which may provide us an additional means to treat severe cases of infection especially if a significant drug resistance will emerge.

Osterlund, Pamela; Pirhonen, Jaana

2010-01-01

88

INFLUENZA A H1N1 DE ORIGEN PORCINO: Métodos diagnósticos Influenza A H1N1 swine origin: diagnostic methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El diagnóstico de la infección por virus influenza reposa sobre técnicas virológicas directas e indirectas. Las diferentes pruebas diagnósticas poseen niveles de sensibilidad y especificidad variables que dependen en gran parte de las características genéticas y antigénicas del virus circulante. En el caso de la aparición de una nueva variante viral las pruebas disponibles en el mercado deben ser validadas para comprobar su eficiencia de detección para el nuevo virus. En caso de baja sensibilidad y especificidad, las pruebas deben ajustarse con el fin de mejorar su poder de detección del nuevo agente. Existen múltiples pruebas diagnósticas que presentan cada una sus ventajas y limitaciones y su selección dependerá de las condiciones específicas de cada laboratorio diagnóstico.The diagnosis of infection by influenza viruses relays on direct and indirect virologic techniques. Different diagnostic tests have variable sensitivities and specificities depending to a large extent on the genetic and antigenic features of the circulating virus. When a new viral variant appears, commercially available tests must be validated in order to verify their performance at detecting the new virus. If a low sensitivity or specificity is found, tests must be adjusted in order to improve their detection power for the new agent. There are multiple diagnostic tests, each one with its own advantages and limitations; so the selection of a test will depend on the specific conditions of a particular diagnostic laboratory.

Manuel Antonio Vargas-Córdoba

2010-01-01

89

Pandemic H1N1 influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus that has targeted not only those with chronic medical illness, the very young and old, but also a large segment of the patient population that has previously been afforded relative protection - those who are young, generally healthy, and immune naive. The illness is mild in most, but results in hospitalization and severe ARDS in an important minority. Among those who become critically ill, 20-40% will die, predominantly of severe hypoxic respiratory failure. However, and potentially in part due to the young age of those affected, intensive care with aggressive oxygenation support will allow most people to recover. The volume of patients infected and with critical illness placed substantial strain on the capacity of the health care system and critical care most specifically. Despite this, the 2009 pandemic has engaged our specialty and highlighted its importance like no other. Thus far, the national and global critical care response has been brisk, collaborative and helpful - not only for this pandemic, but for subsequent challenges in years ahead.

Kumar A

2011-12-01

90

Expert judgments of pandemic influenza risks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Structured surveys were conducted with 19 medical experts, and 17 non-medical experts in related fields, attending a meeting about pandemic influenza. Respondents gave quantitative judgments for key variables potentially affecting the extent of a possible H5N1 pandemic. The medical experts saw about a 15% (median) chance of efficient human-to-human transmission, in the next 3 years. Should it occur, they saw almost no chance of there being adequate vaccines or antiviral responses. They saw varying chances of six other mitigation strategies reducing the threat, expressing the greatest faith in improved surveillance. Compared to the medical experts, the non-medical experts saw much higher chances of both human-to-human transmission and of effective vaccine and antiviral responses being available. The medical experts and the non-medical experts had similar, dire predictions for the extent of casualties, should transmission occur in the next 3 years. Their responses to open-ended questions revealed some of the theories underlying these beliefs.

Bruine De Bruin W; Fischhoff B; Brilliant L; Caruso D

2006-01-01

91

Expert judgments of pandemic influenza risks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structured surveys were conducted with 19 medical experts, and 17 non-medical experts in related fields, attending a meeting about pandemic influenza. Respondents gave quantitative judgments for key variables potentially affecting the extent of a possible H5N1 pandemic. The medical experts saw about a 15% (median) chance of efficient human-to-human transmission, in the next 3 years. Should it occur, they saw almost no chance of there being adequate vaccines or antiviral responses. They saw varying chances of six other mitigation strategies reducing the threat, expressing the greatest faith in improved surveillance. Compared to the medical experts, the non-medical experts saw much higher chances of both human-to-human transmission and of effective vaccine and antiviral responses being available. The medical experts and the non-medical experts had similar, dire predictions for the extent of casualties, should transmission occur in the next 3 years. Their responses to open-ended questions revealed some of the theories underlying these beliefs. PMID:19153906

Bruine De Bruin, W; Fischhoff, B; Brilliant, L; Caruso, D

2006-01-01

92

Pandemic and post-pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection in critically ill patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a vast amount of information published regarding the impact of 2009 pandemic Influenza A (pH1N1) virus infection. However, a comparison of risk factors and outcome during the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period has not been described. METHODS: A prospective, observational, multi-center study was carried out to evaluate the clinical characteristics and demographics of patients with positive RT-PCR for H1N1 admitted to 148 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs). Data were obtained from the 2009 pandemic and compared to the 2010-2011 post-pandemic period. RESULTS: Nine hundred and ninety-seven patients with confirmed An/H1N1 infection were included. Six hundred and forty-eight patients affected by 2009 (pH1N1) virus infection and 349 patients affected by the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period were analyzed. Patients during the post-pandemic period were older, had more chronic comorbid conditions and presented with higher severity scores (Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA)) on ICU admission. Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period received empiric antiviral treatment less frequently and with delayed administration. Mortality was significantly higher in the post-pandemic period. Multivariate analysis confirmed that haematological disease, invasive mechanical ventilation and continuous renal replacement therapy were factors independently associated with worse outcome in the two periods. HIV was the only new variable independently associated with higher ICU mortality during the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period. CONCLUSION: Patients from the post-pandemic Influenza (H1N1)v infection period had an unexpectedly higher mortality rate and showed a trend towards affecting a more vulnerable population, in keeping with more typical seasonal viral infection.

Martin-Loeches I; Díaz E; Vidaur L; Torres A; Laborda C; Granada R; Bonastre J; Martín M; Insausti J; Arenzana A; Guerrero JE; Navarrete I; Bermejo-Martin J; Suarez D; Rodriguez A

2011-01-01

93

Transmission of pandemic influenza H1N1 (2009) in Vietnamese swine in 2009-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of 2009 was caused by an H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus of swine origin. This pandemic virus has repeatedly infected swine through reverse zoonosis, although the extent of such infection in swine remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study targets small and commercial pig producers in North Vietnam, in order to estimate the extent of H1N1pdm infection in swine and to identify the risk factors of infection. METHODS: Virologic and serologic surveillance of swine was carried out in 2009-2010 in pig farms (38 swabs and 1732 sera) and at a pig slaughterhouse (710 swabs and 459 sera) in North Vietnam. The sera were screened using a influenza type A-reactive ELISA assay, and positive sera were tested using hemagglutination inhibition tests for antibody to a panel of H1-subtype viruses representing pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (H1N1pdm), triple reassortant (TRIG), classical swine (CS), and Eurasian avian-like (EA) swine lineages. Farm-level risk factors were identified using a zero-inflated negative binomial model. RESULTS: We found a maximal seroprevalence of H1N1pdm of 55·6% [95% CI: 38·1-72·1] in the slaughterhouse at the end of December 2009, 2 weeks after the peak of reported human fatalities with H1N1pdm. Farm-level seroprevalence was 29% [95% CI: 23·2-35·7]. In seropositive farms, within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 10 to 100%. We identified an increased risk of infection for farms that specialized in fattening and a decreased risk of infection in farms hiring external swine workers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest extensive reverse-zoonotic transmission from humans to pigs with subsequent onward transmission within pig herds.

Trevennec K; Leger L; Lyazrhi F; Baudon E; Cheung CY; Roger F; Peiris M; Garcia JM

2012-09-01

94

Pandemic influenza: A global challenge for social marketing marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent years have seen increased attention and concern regarding the potential for pandemic influenza, following large-scale outbreaks of swine flu and bird flu. Governments and health agencies have time to develop social marketing strategies and specific messages that have the potential to minimize fear, refute or inoculate against misinformation that the public may encounter, and enhance the likelihood of the public taking the recommended preventive and remedial actions should these become necessary. This paper presents an overview of how social marketing can be used to tackle the global challenge of pandemic influenza. The potential pandemic influenza poses a major challenge for social marketers (along with governments, health services, and businesses). There are a number of critical factors about a potential pandemic influenza that make it fundamentally different to the majority of issues to which social marketing has previously been applied. The underlying principles of social marketing are equally applicable to a global infectious disease outbreak (such as pandemic influenza). Even if the current strains do not become pandemic, social marketers should use this impetus to develop the skills and resources to address future communicable disease outbreaks. This paper applies the concepts of social marketing to a unique health issue which has the potential to become one of the largest global public health crises in history, but which can be tackled with effective global social marketing.

Sandra C. Jones; Don Iverson

2012-01-01

95

Threat of an influenza pandemic: family physicians in the front line  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The chance of an influenza pandemic is real and clinicians should keep themselves informed about the rationale and science behind preventive and therapeutic principles relating to an (impending) influenza pandemic. Discussion Vaccination is consider...

Opstelten Wim; van Steenbergen Jim E; van Essen Gerrit A; van der Sande Marianne AB

96

The high burden of pneumonia on US emergency departments during the 2009 influenza pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: ED visits for pneumonia increased substantially during the 2009 pandemic, especially during peak influenza activity, suggesting a strong association between influenza activity and pneumonia incidence during the pandemic period.

Self WH; Griffin MR; Zhu Y; Dupont WD; Barrett TW; Grijalva CG

2013-10-01

97

Characterizing transmission dynamics and severity of 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza in Hong Kong  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?Background: The first influenza pandemic in the 21st century, the past 2009 influenza pandemic (pdmH1N1), was caused by a novel H1N1 influenza virus. The virus was first described in April 2009 and is now believed to emerge from re-assortment of bird, pig and human flu viruses. Although this pandem...

Leung, Sze-man.; ???.

98

Choosing pandemic parameters for pandemic preparedness planning: a comparison of pandemic scenarios prior to and following the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mathematical models are used to explore various possible scenarios with regard to an influenza pandemic. We studied the ranges of parameter values in modelling studies on preparedness prior to 2009 in relation to the estimated parameter values of the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted two systematic literature searches, one aimed at epidemic parameter values that were used in pre-2009 pandemic influenza models, and the other aimed at estimates of epidemic variables from data collected during the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic. The range of parameter values used to inform models was broad and covered the range of estimates of these parameters inferred from the influenza A(H1N1) 2009 pandemic. CONCLUSION: The current practice of selecting a range of plausible parameter values for influenza works well for modelling scenarios where effects of different interventions are explored to guide public health decision makers. To narrow down this range of plausible parameter values to the actual value during a pandemic, using incoming data, real-time estimation might provide an additional benefit.

van der Weijden CP; Stein ML; Jacobi AJ; Kretzschmar ME; Reintjes R; van Steenbergen JE; Timen A

2013-01-01

99

An Agent-Based Modeling for Pandemic Influenza in Egypt  

CERN Multimedia

Pandemic influenza has great potential to cause large and rapid increases in deaths and serious illness. The objective of this paper is to develop an agent-based model to simulate the spread of pandemic influenza (novel H1N1) in Egypt. The proposed multi-agent model is based on the modeling of individuals' interactions in a space time context. The proposed model involves different types of parameters such as: social agent attributes, distribution of Egypt population, and patterns of agents' interactions. Analysis of modeling results leads to understanding the characteristics of the modeled pandemic, transmission patterns, and the conditions under which an outbreak might occur. In addition, the proposed model is used to measure the effectiveness of different control strategies to intervene the pandemic spread.

Khalil, Khaled M; Nazmy, Taymour T; Salem, Abdel-Badeeh M

2010-01-01

100

Joining the dots on the emergence of pandemic influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extensive research in the last 20 years has unveiled some of the factors associated with the emergence of pandemic influenza A viruses. Nonetheless, numerous extrinsic and virological factors are yet to be fully understood, especially with reference to their interconnection and interdependence. Knowledge gathered so far has motivated the scientific community to embrace the One Health-One Flu concept and to explore new scientific approaches in the field of influenza infections in order to make educated decisions when it comes to pandemic preparedness. As a result of this awareness, risk assessment methodology is currently being explored as a new tool to estimate the pandemic potential of influenza viruses circulating in animals, underlining the urgency for interdisciplinary collaboration and the need to share updated and high quality scientific and surveillance data.

Capua I

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
101

Employment and compliance with pandemic influenza mitigation recommendations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the event of a serious pandemic influenza outbreak, businesses must play a key role in protecting employees' health and safety. With regard to pandemic influenza mitigation recommendations requiring social distancing, we examined whether some US employees would disproportionately fail to comply because of job insecurity and financial problems associated with missing work. We used the 2006 Harvard School of Public Health Pandemic Influenza Survey and multivariable logistic regression to determine whether employment characteristics such as inability to work from home, lack of pay when absent from work, and self-employment would be associated with less ability to comply with recommendations. We found that inability to work from home, lack of paid sick leave, and income are associated with working adults' ability to comply and should be major targets for workplace interventions in the event of a serious outbreak.

Blake KD; Blendon RJ; Viswanath K

2010-02-01

102

Employment and Compliance with Pandemic Influenza Mitigation Recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

In the event of a serious pandemic influenza outbreak, businesses must play a key role in protecting employees' health and safety. With regard to pandemic influenza mitigation recommendations requiring social distancing, we examined whether some US employees would disproportionately fail to comply because of job insecurity and financial problems associated with missing work. We used the 2006 Harvard School of Public Health Pandemic Influenza Survey and multivariable logistic regression to determine whether employment characteristics such as inability to work from home, lack of pay when absent from work, and self-employment would be associated with less ability to comply with recommendations. We found that inability to work from home, lack of paid sick leave, and income are associated with working adults’ ability to comply and should be major targets for workplace interventions in the event of a serious outbreak.

Blendon, Robert J.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

2010-01-01

103

Pathogenic responses among young adults during the 1918 influenza pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of the unexplained characteristics of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic, the extreme mortality rate among young adults (W-shaped mortality curve) is the foremost. Lack of a coherent explanation of this and other epidemiologic and clinical manifestations of the pandemic contributes to uncertainty in preparing for future pandemics. Contemporaneous records suggest that immunopathologic responses were a critical determinant of the high mortality rate among young adults and other high-risk subgroups. Historical records and findings from laboratory animal studies suggest that persons who were exposed to influenza once before 1918 (e.g., A/H3Nx 1890 pandemic strain) were likely to have dysregulated, pathologic cellular immune responses to infections with the A/H1N1 1918 pandemic strain. The immunopathologic effects transiently increased susceptibility to ultimately lethal secondary bacterial pneumonia. The extreme mortality rate associated with the 1918-19 pandemic is unlikely to recur naturally. However, T-cell-mediated immunopathologic effects should be carefully monitored in developing and using universal influenza vaccines.

Shanks GD; Brundage JF

2012-02-01

104

Influenza pandemics, solar activity cycles, and vitamin D.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is historic evidence that influenza pandemics are associated with solar activity cycles (the Schwabe-cycle of about 11-years periodicity). The hypothesis is presented and developed that influenza pandemics are associated with solar control of vitamin D levels in humans which waxes and wanes in concert with solar cycle dependent ultraviolet radiation. It is proposed that this solar cycle dependence arises both directly from cyclic control of the amount of ultraviolet radiation as well as indirectly through cyclic control of atmospheric circulation and dynamics. PMID:20056531

Hayes, Daniel P

2009-12-28

105

Influenza pandemics, solar activity cycles, and vitamin D.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is historic evidence that influenza pandemics are associated with solar activity cycles (the Schwabe-cycle of about 11-years periodicity). The hypothesis is presented and developed that influenza pandemics are associated with solar control of vitamin D levels in humans which waxes and wanes in concert with solar cycle dependent ultraviolet radiation. It is proposed that this solar cycle dependence arises both directly from cyclic control of the amount of ultraviolet radiation as well as indirectly through cyclic control of atmospheric circulation and dynamics.

Hayes DP

2010-05-01

106

What have we learned from the novel influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in 2009 for strengthening pandemic influenza preparedness?  

Science.gov (United States)

We need to apply lessons learned from previous influenza pandemics to continuously update preparedness and response plans. It has become evident that strengthening networks of international referral laboratories coupled with scaling-up efforts to expand epidemiological surveillance networks is critical for responding and mitigating the impact of influenza pandemics. The current swine-related influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has also shown that international collaboration remains a critical component to effectively respond to influenza pandemics in the current globalized world. PMID:20304255

Santos-Preciado, José; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Hernandez-Flores, Isabel; Tellez, Ildefonso; Del Rio, Carlos; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto

2010-01-29

107

Genetic diversity among pandemic 2009 influenza viruses isolated from a transmission chain  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Influenza viruses such as swine-origin influenza A(H1N1) virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) generate genetic diversity due to the high error rate of their RNA polymerase, often resulting in mixed genotype populations (intra-host variants) within a single infection. This variation helps influenza to rapidly respond to selection pressures, such as those imposed by the immunological host response and antiviral therapy. We have applied deep sequencing to characterize influenza intra-host variation in a transmission chain consisting of three cases due to oseltamivir-sensitive viruses, and one derived oseltamivir-resistant case.

Fordyce, Sarah L; Bragstad, Karoline

2013-01-01

108

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster—readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that—help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners' (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. While the purpose of the CAT is to further prepare the community for an influenza pandemic, its framework is an extension of the traditional all-hazards approach to planning and preparedness. As such, the information gathered by the tool is useful in preparation for most widespread public health emergencies. This tool is primarily intended for use by those involved in healthcare emergency preparedness (e.g., community planners, community disaster preparedness coordinators, 9-1-1 directors, hospital emergency preparedness coordinators). It is divided into sections based on the core agency partners, which may be involved in the community's influenza pandemic influenza response.

HCTT-CHE

2011-04-14

109

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine: An update  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The world witnessed a the first influenza pandemic in this century and fourth overall since first flu pandemic was reported during the World War I. The past experiences with influenza viruses and this pandemic of H1N1 place a consider-able strain on health services and resulted in serious illnesses ...

Goel M; Goel M; Khanna P; Mittal K

110

77 FR 13329 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment  

Science.gov (United States)

...for H5N1 was first published on January 26, 2007. That declaration provided liability immunity for vaccines against H5N1 pandemic influenza under the terms and conditions stated in the declaration. The declaration was amended on November 30,...

2012-03-06

111

Rationing of influenza vaccine during a pandemic: ethical analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rationing of scarce vaccine supplies will likely be required when the next pandemic occurs, raising the questions about how to ration and upon what principles. Because influenza pandemics have differing mortality patterns, such as the 1918 pandemic's "W" shaped curve that effected healthy young adults, the particular pattern should inform rationing. Competing ethical principles for vaccine rationing are utilitarianism and egalitarianism. Vaccine manufacturers and essential healthcare workers can be justified with either principle. Utilitarian principles of choosing based on social worth or those in whom vaccination is most likely to medically succeed raise substantial justice issues. Egalitarian principles of medical neediness and random chance avoid justice concerns and are proposed. A framework that uses multiple principles to address influenza vaccine rationing in light of a shortage is recommended. PMID:17258359

Zimmerman, Richard Kent

2006-11-30

112

Threat of an influenza pandemic: family physicians in the front line  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The chance of an influenza pandemic is real and clinicians should keep themselves informed about the rationale and science behind preventive and therapeutic principles relating to an (impending) influenza pandemic. Discussion Vaccination is considered the best prevention in case of a pandemic threat and first choice to contain the impact of a pandemic. Pending the availability of an effective pandemic vaccine, antivirals are likely the only effective agents for prevention and treatment. When an influenza pandemic is impending, all interventions aim to prevent people becoming infected and to suppress replication and transmission of the virus as much as possible. Antivirals will be prescribed to patients with laboratory confirmed pre-pandemic influenza as well as to their contacts (post-exposure prophylaxis) which may delay development of or even prevent a pandemic. During a manifest influenza pandemic, however, there is large-scale spreading of the influenza virus. Therefore, preventive use of antivirals is less efficient to prevent transmission. Delaying the pandemic is then important in order to prevent exhausting public health resources and disruption of society. Thus, during a manifest pandemic everyone with influenza symptoms should receive antivirals as quickly as possible, regardless of virological confirmation. To ensure optimal effectiveness of antivirals and to minimize development of drug resistant viral strains, the use of antivirals for annual influenza should be restrictive. The crucial position of family physicians during an (impending) influenza pandemic necessitates the development of primary health care guidelines on this topic for all countries. Summary Family physicians will play a key role in assessing and treating victims of a new influenza virus, and in reassuring the worried well. We outline various possible interventions in the event of an impending and a manifest influenza pandemic, such as non-medial measures, prescription of antivirals, and vaccination, and emphasize the need for pandemic influenza preparedness.

Opstelten Wim; van Steenbergen Jim E; van Essen Gerrit A; van der Sande Marianne AB

2009-01-01

113

Pandemic H1N1 influenza surveillance in Haiti, July-December 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

Please cite this paper as: Fitter et al. (2012) Pandemic H1N1 influenza surveillance in Haiti, July-December 2009. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12060. From June 2009 through December 2009, Haiti conducted sentinel surveillance for influenza. 499 samples were collected and tested using real-time RT-PCR. 197 (39.5%) were positive for influenza, including 95 (48%) pandemic (H1N1) 2009, 57 (29%) seasonal influenza A and 45 (23%) influenza B. The median age of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases was 21.7; two-thirds of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases were in patients aged 6?years - 35?years. Pandemic activity peaked in September and co-circulated with other influenza subtypes. The age distribution and seasonality of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Haiti were similar to other countries in the Caribbean region. PMID:23199103

Fitter, David L; Freeman, Nicole M; Buteau, Josiane; Magloire, Roc; Sessions, Wendy M; Guo, Lizheng; Katz, Mark A; Boncy, Jacques

2012-11-30

114

Faith communities and pandemic flu : guidance for faith communities and local influenza pandemic committees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The threat of a potential world-wide influenza pandemic presents a real and daunting challenge to the health, social and economic well being of any country. Planning and preparing now will help to lessen its impact and aid in the UK's recovery from an influenza pandemic. The UK Government and key partners across all of society are therefore working together now to take every practical and proportional step to ensure that the UK prepares well for the pandemic. This guidance document forms part of that effort. Faith communities are an integral group of UK society, with the majority of the UK's population identifying themselves as having some kind of religious faith or link to religious tradition and thousands actively participating in faith communities across the country. There are in excess of 11,000 faith leaders in the UK who can coordinate communities and who have experience, expertise and assets which are a valuable resource to the public. In the event of an influenza pandemic, the role of faith communities is likely to be of particular importance. This guidance brings together the UK's planning assumptions and the Government's response strategy for the various aspects of an influenza pandemic that will be particularly relevant to faith communities. It also draws on existing good practice across faith communities in the UK and abroad. The guidance will help those at different levels in all faith communities in their consideration of the direct impacts that a pandemic will have on their communities and the ways in which they can protect themselves and others. It will, at the same time, help in the wider response to the pandemic and minimise its impacts for all of society. The guidance also recognises that planning for a pandemic, and responding to one while it is happening, involves many difficult decisions which may have the potential to create tension between the needs of individuals/communities and the needs of the wider population. In some cases, this may mean that difficult decisions may have to be made for the greater good of the UK population as the benefits to be gained from these actions has been judged to outweigh its potential impacts. In all its pandemic influenza planning, the UK has robustly applied the ethical framework already set out by the Government for responding to this threat. This means: Everyone matters; Everyone matters equally - but this does not mean that everyone is treated the same; The interests of each person are the concern of all of us, and of society; The harm that might be suffered by every person matters, and so minimising the harm that a pandemic might cause is a central concern; Working together to plan for, and respond to, a pandemic; Helping one another; Taking responsibility for our own behaviour, for example by not exposing others to risk. The UK Government aims to ensure that its approach to influenza pandemic planning and response is open and transparent. Those issues considered contentious and the proposed government plans to deal with them are discussed openly within this document to stimulate informed planning and discussions at all levels of society including within faith communities. Although pandemic influenza remains one of the most severe natural challenges likely to affect the UK, by working together and preparing proportionately, we can all do a great deal to lesson its potential impact on our health, social and economic wellbeing. This document was drafted by CLG and the Cabinet Office in consultation with officials from the Health Protection Agency, Department of Health and Home Office. Thanks are due to the Faith Communities Consultative Council flu planning working group under the Chair of Monsignor John Devine of the Catholic Bishops Conference. Specific thanks are also due to Jim McManus, Assistant Director at the Barking and Dagenham Primary Care trust, particularly for his earlier work on drafting key sections of this guidance.

115

Pandemic influenza and critical infrastructure dependencies: possible impact on hospitals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hospitals will be particularly challenged when pandemic influenza spreads. Within the health sector in general, existing pandemic plans focus on health interventions to control outbreaks. The critical relationship between the health sector and other sectors is not well understood and addressed. Hospitals depend on critical infrastructure external to the organisation itself. Existing plans do not adequately consider the complexity and interdependency of systems upon which hospitals rely. The failure of one such system can trigger a failure of another, causing cascading breakdowns. Health is only one of the many systems that struggle at maximum capacity during "normal" times, as current business models operate with no or minimal "excess" staff and have become irreducible operations. This makes interconnected systems highly vulnerable to acute disruptions, such as a pandemic. Companies use continuity plans and highly regulated business continuity management to overcome process interruptions. This methodology can be applied to hospitals to minimise the impact of a pandemic.

Itzwerth RL; Macintyre CR; Shah S; Plant AJ

2006-11-01

116

Healthcare worker compliance with seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Healthcare workers (HCWs) can be an important source of transmission of influenza to patients and family members, and their well-being is fundamental to the maintenance of healthcare services during influenza outbreaks and pandemics. Unfortunately, studies have shown consistently low levels of compliance with influenza vaccination among HCWs, a finding that became particularly pronounced during recent pandemic vaccination campaigns. Among the variables associated with vaccine acceptance in this group are demographic factors, fears and concerns over vaccine safety and efficacy, perceptions of risk and personal vulnerability, past vaccination behaviours and experience with influenza illness, as well as certain situational and organisational constructs. We report the findings of a review of the literature on these factors and highlight some important challenges in interpreting the data. In particular, we point out the need for longitudinal study designs, as well as focused research and interventions that are adapted to the most resistant HCW groups. Multi-pronged strategies are an important step forward in ensuring that future influenza vaccination campaigns, whether directed at seasonal or pandemic strains, will be successful in ensuring broad coverage among HCWs. PMID:24034493

Bellia, Claire; Setbon, Michel; Zylberman, Patrick; Flahault, Antoine

2013-09-01

117

Healthcare worker compliance with seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Healthcare workers (HCWs) can be an important source of transmission of influenza to patients and family members, and their well-being is fundamental to the maintenance of healthcare services during influenza outbreaks and pandemics. Unfortunately, studies have shown consistently low levels of compliance with influenza vaccination among HCWs, a finding that became particularly pronounced during recent pandemic vaccination campaigns. Among the variables associated with vaccine acceptance in this group are demographic factors, fears and concerns over vaccine safety and efficacy, perceptions of risk and personal vulnerability, past vaccination behaviours and experience with influenza illness, as well as certain situational and organisational constructs. We report the findings of a review of the literature on these factors and highlight some important challenges in interpreting the data. In particular, we point out the need for longitudinal study designs, as well as focused research and interventions that are adapted to the most resistant HCW groups. Multi-pronged strategies are an important step forward in ensuring that future influenza vaccination campaigns, whether directed at seasonal or pandemic strains, will be successful in ensuring broad coverage among HCWs.

Bellia C; Setbon M; Zylberman P; Flahault A

2013-09-01

118

Influence of copy number on the expression levels of pandemic influenza hemagglutinin recombinant protein in methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of novel Swine Origin Influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted protein. The full length HA-synthetic gene having ? secretory tag under the control of AOX1 promoter was integrated into P. pastoris genome through homologous recombination. The resultant Pichia clones having single and multiple copy integrants of the expression cassettes were screened for the expression of full length HA protein in the culture supernatant. In order to completely exploit the expression potential of the P. pastoris expression system, a systematic investigation on the influence of gene copy number on the expression of the recombinant protein was made. A panel of Pichia clones carrying increasing copies of the heterologous gene was selected based on Geneticin resistance and SYBR green-based quantitative real-time PCR approach. Using these strategies, recombinant Pichia transformants carrying up to a maximum of four to six copies of the transgene were identified. After optimising the expression conditions for shaker flask culture, the resultant clones demonstrated that the increase in copy number results in a proportional elevation in the expression level of H1N1HA recombinant protein. Our findings clearly suggest that the gene dosage effect play a vital role in high level expression of the pandemic Influenza HA protein in yeast system.

Athmaram TN; Saraswat S; Singh AK; Rao MK; Gopalan N; Suryanarayana VV; Rao PV

2012-12-01

119

Influence of copy number on the expression levels of pandemic influenza hemagglutinin recombinant protein in methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.  

Science.gov (United States)

The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of novel Swine Origin Influenza A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) was engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris as a soluble secreted protein. The full length HA-synthetic gene having ? secretory tag under the control of AOX1 promoter was integrated into P. pastoris genome through homologous recombination. The resultant Pichia clones having single and multiple copy integrants of the expression cassettes were screened for the expression of full length HA protein in the culture supernatant. In order to completely exploit the expression potential of the P. pastoris expression system, a systematic investigation on the influence of gene copy number on the expression of the recombinant protein was made. A panel of Pichia clones carrying increasing copies of the heterologous gene was selected based on Geneticin resistance and SYBR green-based quantitative real-time PCR approach. Using these strategies, recombinant Pichia transformants carrying up to a maximum of four to six copies of the transgene were identified. After optimising the expression conditions for shaker flask culture, the resultant clones demonstrated that the increase in copy number results in a proportional elevation in the expression level of H1N1HA recombinant protein. Our findings clearly suggest that the gene dosage effect play a vital role in high level expression of the pandemic Influenza HA protein in yeast system. PMID:22940846

Athmaram, T N; Saraswat, Shweta; Singh, Anil Kumar; Rao, M Kameswara; Gopalan, N; Suryanarayana, V V S; Rao, P V L

2012-09-02

120

Pandemic controllability: a concept to guide a proportionate and flexible operational response to future influenza pandemics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic posed challenges for governments worldwide. Strategies designed to limit community transmission, such as antiviral deployment, were largely ineffective due to both feasibility constraints and the generally mild nature of disease, resulting in incomplete case ascertainment. Reviews of national pandemic plans have identified pandemic impact, primarily linked to measures of transmissibility and severity, as a key concept to incorporate into the next generation of plans. While an assessment of impact provides the rationale under which interventions may be warranted, it does not directly provide an assessment on whether particular interventions may be effective. Such considerations motivate our introduction of the concept of pandemic controllability. For case-targeted interventions, such as antiviral treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis, we identify the visibility and transmissibility of a pandemic as the key drivers of controllability. Taking a case-study approach, we suggest that high-impact pandemics, for which control is most desirable, are likely uncontrollable with case-targeted interventions. Strategies that do not rely on the identification of cases may prove relatively more effective. By introducing a pragmatic framework for relating the assessment of impact to the ability to mitigate an epidemic (controllability), we hope to address a present omission identified in pandemic response plans.

McCaw JM; Glass K; Mercer GN; McVernon J

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Efficacy of seasonal live attenuated influenza vaccine against virus replication and transmission of a pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus in ferrets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In March 2009, a swine origin influenza A (2009 H1N1) virus was introduced into the human population and quickly spread from North America to multiple continents. Human serologic studies suggest that seasonal influenza virus vaccination or infection would provide little cross-reactive serologic immunity to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus. However, the efficacy of seasonal influenza infection or vaccination against 2009 H1N1 virus replication and transmission has not been adequately evaluated in vivo. Here, ferrets received one or two doses of the US licensed 2008-2009 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) intranasally. An additional group of ferrets were inoculated with the A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) virus to model immunity induced by seasonal influenza virus infection. All vaccinated and infected animals possessed high titer homologous hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibodies, with no demonstrable cross-reactive antibodies against 2009 H1N1 virus. However, in comparison to non-immune controls, immunized ferrets challenged with pandemic A/Mexico/4482/09 virus displayed a significant reduction in body temperature and virus shedding. The impact of single-dose LAIV inoculation on 2009 H1N1 disease and virus transmission was also measured in vaccinated ferrets that were challenged with pandemic A/Netherlands/1132/09 virus. Although a single dose of LAIV reduced virus shedding and the frequency of transmission following homologous seasonal virus challenge, it failed to reduce respiratory droplet transmission of 2009 H1N1 virus. The results demonstrate that prior immunization with seasonal LAIV or H1N1 virus infection provides some cross-protection against the 2009 H1N1 virus, but had no significant effect on the transmission efficiency of the 2009 H1N1 virus.

Pearce MB; Belser JA; Houser KV; Katz JM; Tumpey TM

2011-04-01

122

Efficacy of seasonal live attenuated influenza vaccine against virus replication and transmission of a pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus in ferrets.  

Science.gov (United States)

In March 2009, a swine origin influenza A (2009 H1N1) virus was introduced into the human population and quickly spread from North America to multiple continents. Human serologic studies suggest that seasonal influenza virus vaccination or infection would provide little cross-reactive serologic immunity to the pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus. However, the efficacy of seasonal influenza infection or vaccination against 2009 H1N1 virus replication and transmission has not been adequately evaluated in vivo. Here, ferrets received one or two doses of the US licensed 2008-2009 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) intranasally. An additional group of ferrets were inoculated with the A/Brisbane/59/07 (H1N1) virus to model immunity induced by seasonal influenza virus infection. All vaccinated and infected animals possessed high titer homologous hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibodies, with no demonstrable cross-reactive antibodies against 2009 H1N1 virus. However, in comparison to non-immune controls, immunized ferrets challenged with pandemic A/Mexico/4482/09 virus displayed a significant reduction in body temperature and virus shedding. The impact of single-dose LAIV inoculation on 2009 H1N1 disease and virus transmission was also measured in vaccinated ferrets that were challenged with pandemic A/Netherlands/1132/09 virus. Although a single dose of LAIV reduced virus shedding and the frequency of transmission following homologous seasonal virus challenge, it failed to reduce respiratory droplet transmission of 2009 H1N1 virus. The results demonstrate that prior immunization with seasonal LAIV or H1N1 virus infection provides some cross-protection against the 2009 H1N1 virus, but had no significant effect on the transmission efficiency of the 2009 H1N1 virus. PMID:21338676

Pearce, Melissa B; Belser, Jessica A; Houser, Katherine V; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

2011-02-21

123

Pathogenesis and transmission of triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses isolated before the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus represents the greatest incidence of human infection with an influenza virus of swine origin to date. Moreover, triple-reassortant swine (TRS) H1N1 viruses, which share similar host and lineage origins with 2009 H1N1 viruses, have been responsible for sporadic human cases since 2005. Similar to 2009 H1N1 viruses, TRS viruses are capable of causing severe disease in previously healthy individuals and frequently manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms; however, their ability to cause severe disease has not been extensively studied. Here, we evaluated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of two TRS viruses associated with disease in humans in the ferret model. TRS and 2009 H1N1 viruses exhibited comparable viral titers and histopathologies following virus infection and were similarly unable to transmit efficiently via respiratory droplets in the ferret model. Utilizing TRS and 2009 H1N1 viruses, we conducted extensive hematologic and blood serum analyses on infected ferrets to identify lymphohematopoietic parameters associated with mild to severe influenza virus infection. Following H1N1 or H5N1 influenza virus infection, ferrets were found to recapitulate several laboratory abnormalities previously documented with human disease, furthering the utility of the ferret model for the assessment of influenza virus pathogenicity. PMID:21123386

Belser, Jessica A; Gustin, Kortney M; Maines, Taronna R; Blau, Dianna M; Zaki, Sherif R; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

2010-12-01

124

Pathogenesis and Transmission of Triple-Reassortant Swine H1N1 Influenza Viruses Isolated before the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic?  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus represents the greatest incidence of human infection with an influenza virus of swine origin to date. Moreover, triple-reassortant swine (TRS) H1N1 viruses, which share similar host and lineage origins with 2009 H1N1 viruses, have been responsible for sporadic human cases since 2005. Similar to 2009 H1N1 viruses, TRS viruses are capable of causing severe disease in previously healthy individuals and frequently manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms; however, their ability to cause severe disease has not been extensively studied. Here, we evaluated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of two TRS viruses associated with disease in humans in the ferret model. TRS and 2009 H1N1 viruses exhibited comparable viral titers and histopathologies following virus infection and were similarly unable to transmit efficiently via respiratory droplets in the ferret model. Utilizing TRS and 2009 H1N1 viruses, we conducted extensive hematologic and blood serum analyses on infected ferrets to identify lymphohematopoietic parameters associated with mild to severe influenza virus infection. Following H1N1 or H5N1 influenza virus infection, ferrets were found to recapitulate several laboratory abnormalities previously documented with human disease, furthering the utility of the ferret model for the assessment of influenza virus pathogenicity.

Belser, Jessica A.; Gustin, Kortney M.; Maines, Taronna R.; Blau, Dianna M.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2011-01-01

125

Pathogenesis and transmission of triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses isolated before the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus represents the greatest incidence of human infection with an influenza virus of swine origin to date. Moreover, triple-reassortant swine (TRS) H1N1 viruses, which share similar host and lineage origins with 2009 H1N1 viruses, have been responsible for sporadic human cases since 2005. Similar to 2009 H1N1 viruses, TRS viruses are capable of causing severe disease in previously healthy individuals and frequently manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms; however, their ability to cause severe disease has not been extensively studied. Here, we evaluated the pathogenicity and transmissibility of two TRS viruses associated with disease in humans in the ferret model. TRS and 2009 H1N1 viruses exhibited comparable viral titers and histopathologies following virus infection and were similarly unable to transmit efficiently via respiratory droplets in the ferret model. Utilizing TRS and 2009 H1N1 viruses, we conducted extensive hematologic and blood serum analyses on infected ferrets to identify lymphohematopoietic parameters associated with mild to severe influenza virus infection. Following H1N1 or H5N1 influenza virus infection, ferrets were found to recapitulate several laboratory abnormalities previously documented with human disease, furthering the utility of the ferret model for the assessment of influenza virus pathogenicity.

Belser JA; Gustin KM; Maines TR; Blau DM; Zaki SR; Katz JM; Tumpey TM

2011-02-01

126

Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza causes substantial illness and loss of work days among young adults, and outbreaks can affect the preparedness of military units. In an influenza pandemic, people who live in confined settings have greater risk of infection. Military trainees are at particularly high risk. Because of likely unavailability of vaccines and antiviral drugs at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter, nonpharmaceutical interventions may be very important. During a pandemic, it seems prudent that military public health officials employ at least several nonpharmaceutical interventions. For example frequent handwashing and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be strongly encouraged among soldiers. Head-to-toe sleeping, a ?no-cost? intervention should be for crowded berthing areas. Isolation of patients with influenza and quarantine of their close contacts should be employed. Masks and alcohol-based hand rubs may be employed among those at highest risk. Finally, whenever possible military planners should, reduce crowding and limit the interaction of training cohorts to reduce risk of influenza virus transmission. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000): 285-290

Selim Kilic; Gregory C. Gray

2007-01-01

127

Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza causes substantial illness and loss of work days among young adults, and outbreaks can affect the preparedness of military units. In an influenza pandemic, people who live in confined settings have greater risk of infection. Military trainees are at particularly high risk. Because of likely unavailability of vaccines and antiviral drugs at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter, nonpharmaceutical interventions may be very important. During a pandemic, it seems prudent that military public health officials employ at least several nonpharmaceutical interventions. For example frequent handwashing and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be strongly encouraged among soldiers. Head-to-toe sleeping, a ?no-cost? intervention should be for crowded berthing areas. Isolation of patients with influenza and quarantine of their close contacts should be employed. Masks and alcohol-based hand rubs may be employed among those at highest risk. Finally, whenever possible military planners should, reduce crowding and limit the interaction of training cohorts to reduce risk of influenza virus transmission. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4): 285-290

Selim Kilic; Gregory C. Gray

2007-01-01

128

Vaccinating health care workers during an influenza pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In response to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, health care workers (HCWs) were offered immunization with H1N1 vaccine in addition to seasonal flu vaccine. Previously, low rates of influenza vaccine uptake in HCWs have been attributed to concerns about vaccine clinical effectiveness, side effects and access difficulties. AIMS: To explore H1N1 influenza vaccination of HCWs in London during 2009-10 and examine reasons for vaccine refusal. METHODS: An online questionnaire survey of doctors and nurses working in two primary care trust (PCT) areas and one acute trust area was carried out in London. RESULTS: Only 59% of the 221 respondents had been immunized with H1N1 influenza vaccine and 43% with seasonal influenza vaccine. The commonest reasons for remaining unvaccinated were 'side effects', 'swine flu not severe' and 'concerns about clinical effectiveness of the vaccine'. Respondents who had been vaccinated that season gave positive feedback on their experience. CONCLUSIONS: While uptake among HCWs was greater for the pandemic vaccine than is usually seen with seasonal influenza vaccine, this survey suggests that in this area of London during the 2009 pandemic, HCWs refused H1N1 vaccination due to concerns about clinical effectiveness, side effects and perceptions that H1N1 infection was not generally severe. We found no evidence to suggest poor access was a barrier to H1N1 vaccination of HCWs. If good access is maintained, the key barrier to improving seasonal flu vaccine uptake lies with informing the personal risk assessment made by the HCW.

Head S; Atkin S; Allan K; Ferguson C; Lutchmun S; Cordery R

2012-12-01

129

Ostrich produce cross-reactive neutralization antibodies against pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1 following immunization with a seasonal influenza vaccine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An outbreak of influenza in 2009 was found to be caused by a novel strain of influenza virus designated as pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009. Vaccination with recent seasonal influenza vaccines induced little or no cross-reactive antibody response to the pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1 2009 in any age ...

ADACHI, KAZUHIDE; TAKAMA, KENTARO; TSUKAMOTO, MASAYA; INAI, MARIE; HANDHARYANI, EKOWATI; HIROI, SATOSHI; TSUKAMOTO, YASUHIRO

130

Rapid detection of pandemic influenza in the presence of seasonal influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Key to the control of pandemic influenza are surveillance systems that raise alarms rapidly and sensitively. In addition, they must minimise false alarms during a normal influenza season. We develop a method that uses historical syndromic influenza data from the existing surveillance system 'SERVIS' (Scottish Enhanced Respiratory Virus Infection Surveillance) for influenza-like illness (ILI) in Scotland. Methods We develop an algorithm based on the weekly case ratio (WCR) of reported ILI cases to generate an alarm for pandemic influenza. From the seasonal influenza data from 13 Scottish health boards, we estimate the joint probability distribution of the country-level WCR and the number of health boards showing synchronous increases in reported influenza cases over the previous week. Pandemic cases are sampled with various case reporting rates from simulated pandemic influenza infections and overlaid with seasonal SERVIS data from 2001 to 2007. Using this combined time series we test our method for speed of detection, sensitivity and specificity. Also, the 2008-09 SERVIS ILI cases are used for testing detection performances of the three methods with a real pandemic data. Results We compare our method, based on our simulation study, to the moving-average Cumulative Sums (Mov-Avg Cusum) and ILI rate threshold methods and find it to be more sensitive and rapid. For 1% case reporting and detection specificity of 95%, our method is 100% sensitive and has median detection time (MDT) of 4 weeks while the Mov-Avg Cusum and ILI rate threshold methods are, respectively, 97% and 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. At 99% specificity, our method remains 100% sensitive with MDT of 5 weeks. Although the threshold method maintains its sensitivity of 100% with MDT of 5 weeks, sensitivity of Mov-Avg Cusum declines to 92% with increased MDT of 6 weeks. For a two-fold decrease in the case reporting rate (0.5%) and 99% specificity, the WCR and threshold methods, respectively, have MDT of 5 and 6 weeks with both having sensitivity close to 100% while the Mov-Avg Cusum method can only manage sensitivity of 77% with MDT of 6 weeks. However, the WCR and Mov-Avg Cusum methods outperform the ILI threshold method by 1 week in retrospective detection of the 2009 pandemic in Scotland. Conclusions While computationally and statistically simple to implement, the WCR algorithm is capable of raising alarms, rapidly and sensitively, for influenza pandemics against a background of seasonal influenza. Although the algorithm was developed using the SERVIS data, it has the capacity to be used at other geographic scales and for different disease systems where buying some early extra time is critical.

Singh Brajendra K; Savill Nicholas J; Ferguson Neil M; Robertson Chris; Woolhouse Mark EJ

2010-01-01

131

Pediatric Healthcare Response to Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Stakeholder Meeting - Summary of Proceedings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of the meeting was to bring together subject matter experts to develop tools and resources for use by the pediatric healthcare community in response to 2009 (H1N1) pandemic influenza activity during the 2009 influenza season.

HCTT CHE

2010-01-01

132

Reactive strategies for containing developing outbreaks of pandemic influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009 and the early part of 2010, the northern hemisphere had to cope with the first waves of the new influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. Despite high-profile vaccination campaigns in many countries, delays in administration of vaccination programs were common, and high vaccination coverage levels were not achieved. This experience suggests the need to explore the epidemiological and economic effectiveness of additional, reactive strategies for combating pandemic influenza. Methods We use a stochastic model of pandemic influenza to investigate realistic strategies that can be used in reaction to developing outbreaks. The model is calibrated to documented illness attack rates and basic reproductive number (R0) estimates, and constructed to represent a typical mid-sized North American city. Results Our model predicts an average illness attack rate of 34.1% in the absence of intervention, with total costs associated with morbidity and mortality of US$81 million for such a city. Attack rates and economic costs can be reduced to 5.4% and US$37 million, respectively, when low-coverage reactive vaccination and limited antiviral use are combined with practical, minimally disruptive social distancing strategies, including short-term, as-needed closure of individual schools, even when vaccine supply-chain-related delays occur. Results improve with increasing vaccination coverage and higher vaccine efficacy. Conclusions Such combination strategies can be substantially more effective than vaccination alone from epidemiological and economic standpoints, and warrant strong consideration by public health authorities when reacting to future outbreaks of pandemic influenza.

Andradóttir Sigrún; Chiu Wenchi; Goldsman David; Lee Mi; Tsui Kwok-Leung; Sander Beate; Fisman David N; Nizam Azhar

2011-01-01

133

Experimental vaccines against potentially pandemic and highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenza A viruses continue to emerge and re-emerge, causing outbreaks, epidemics and occasionally pandemics. While the influenza vaccines licensed for public use are generally effective against seasonal influenza, issues arise with production, immunogenicity, and efficacy in the case of vaccines against pandemic and emerging influenza viruses, and highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in particular. Thus, there is need of improved influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies. This review discusses advances in alternative influenza vaccines, touching briefly on licensed vaccines and vaccine antigens; then reviewing recombinant subunit vaccines, virus-like particle vaccines and DNA vaccines, with the main focus on virus-vectored vaccine approaches.

Mooney AJ; Tompkins SM

2013-01-01

134

Securitising health: Australian newspaper coverage of pandemic influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper analyses contemporary Australian newspaper coverage of the threat of pandemic influenza in humans, specifically in the light of recent transformations in biomedical and public health understandings of infectious disease as continuously emerging. Our analysis suggests that the spectre of pandemic influenza is characterised, in newspaper accounts, as invoking a specific form of nation building. The Australian nation is depicted as successfully securing itself in the face of a threat from Asia (and in the absence of an effective international health body). What is described in newspaper accounts reflects a shift in the public health response to infectious disease. This response does not entail a direct focus on protecting either the population or national territory. Instead, it involves the continuous rehearsal of readiness to react to disasters through the networking of government and private agencies responsible for maintaining critical infrastructure. In this way, coverage of pandemic influenza positions health as central to national security, with little reporting of the reasons for or the potential implications of this alliance. Thus, the imperative to 'be prepared' is presented as self-evident.

Stephenson N; Jamieson M

2009-05-01

135

Community Assessment Tool for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Community Assessment Tool (CAT) for Public Health Emergencies Including Pandemic Influenza (hereafter referred to as the CAT) was developed as a result of feedback received from several communities. These communities participated in workshops focused on influenza pandemic planning and response. The 2008 through 2011 workshops were sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Feedback during those workshops indicated the need for a tool that a community can use to assess its readiness for a disaster - readiness from a total healthcare perspective, not just hospitals, but the whole healthcare system. The CAT intends to do just that - help strengthen existing preparedness plans by allowing the healthcare system and other agencies to work together during an influenza pandemic. It helps reveal each core agency partners (sectors) capabilities and resources, and highlights cases of the same vendors being used for resource supplies (e.g., personal protective equipment [PPE] and oxygen) by the partners (e.g., public health departments, clinics, or hospitals). The CAT also addresses gaps in the community's capabilities or potential shortages in resources. This tool has been reviewed by a variety of key subject matter experts from federal, state, and local agencies and organizations. It also has been piloted with various communities that consist of different population sizes, to include large urban to small rural communities.

ORAU' s Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education (HCTT-CHE)

2011-04-14

136

Cross-reactive and vaccine-induced antibody to an emerging swine-origin variant of influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2v).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cases of infection due to a novel swine-origin variant of influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2v) have recently been identified in the United States, primarily among children. We estimate levels of cross-reactive antibody to H3N2v by age and assess whether seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV), with or without adjuvant, may increase seroprotection. METHODS: Antibody to H3N2v was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and, for a subset, also by microneutralization assay. Seroprevalence and seroprotection were defined as an HI titer of ?40, and levels were compared with those for ancestral and contemporary human strains. The analysis included 1116 sera collected during fall 2010, corresponding to approximately 100 sera per decade of life. Vaccine-induced antibody levels were also assessed in sera from 136 children aged <10 years and 65 adults aged 20-59 years before and after receipt of 2010-2011 split TIV and in sera from 182 elderly individuals aged ?65 years before and after receipt of 2011-2012 split TIV (for 31 individuals), MF59-adjuvanted TIV (for 72), or unadjuvanted subunit TIV (for 79). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of HI titers of ?40 against A(H3N2)v was 25%. No children aged <5 years and <20% of individuals aged ?14 years or ?40 years had an HI titer of ?40. Conversely, among individuals aged 15-39 years, half of teens and adults showed H3N2v seroprotection. Following TIV receipt, <15% of individuals in any vaccine group developed a 4-fold increase in antibody level. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of adolescents and young adults have cross-reactive antibody against emerging H3N2v, whereas children and older adults show broad susceptibility. Recent formulations of TIV do not substantially increase seroprotection. A specific vaccine would be needed if H3N2v establishes epidemic spread. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01140009 and NCT01368796.

Skowronski DM; Janjua NZ; De Serres G; Purych D; Gilca V; Scheifele DW; Dionne M; Sabaiduc S; Gardy JL; Li G; Bastien N; Petric M; Boivin G; Li Y

2012-12-01

137

Antivirals in seasonal and pandemic influenza--future perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antiviral drugs continue to be an important option for the treatment of influenza disease and will likely be the only option during the early phases of pandemic. However, the limited number of drug classes licensed for treatment of influenza raises several issues, particularly in the face of drug resistance. Two classes of drugs are presently licensed for treatment of influenza, M2 and neuraminidase inhibitors. M2 inhibitors are currently not recommended for treatment of influenza because of widespread resistance and resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors has been observed during the past influenza seasonal outbreaks. Additional antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action are clearly needed for the treatment of influenza. Fortunately, the landscape of drugs in early and advanced development has dramatically increased over the last 5 years. Drugs targeting viral functions such as attachment, entry/fusion, transcription, and polymerase and drugs targeting host factors affecting viral replication are currently in clinical trials. Examples of these novel antiviral drugs and the challenges for influenza antiviral drug development are discussed in this article.

Wathen MW; Barro M; Bright RA

2013-01-01

138

The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 – Initial Molecular Signals for the Next Influenza Pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new pandemic influenza in the human world may originate from avian reservoirs.Influenza is one of the most widely spread zoonotic infectious diseases. All avian influenzaviruses are type A, and they have often caused pandemics throughout human history. Thehighly pathogenic H5N1 influenza A viruses have now been spreading to many countries inAsia, Europe and Africa. They have infected an increasing number of humans in at least 15countries in the world. This paper describes recent advances in the mechanism of transmissionof highly pathogenic avian influenza to humans and measures for control of a new pandemic.

Yasuo Suzuki

2009-01-01

139

Aflunov®: a vaccine tailored for pre-pandemic and pandemic approaches against influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Aflunov is an egg-derived, subunit vaccine from Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics containing 7.5 ?g of hemagglutinin (HA) from the avian A/H5N1 virus and the oil-in-water adjuvant MF59. AREAS COVERED: Aflunov behaves as a pre-pandemic vaccine. It has a good safety profile at all ages. At all ages, it induces high and persisting antibody titers and activation of HA-specific Th0/Th1 CD4(+) T cells, the levels of which correlate with the neutralizing antibody titers after a booster dose 6 months later. Aflunov triggers strong immunological memory, which persists for at least 6 - 8 years and can be rapidly boosted with a heterovariant vaccine strain, inducing very high neutralizing antibody titers within one week. These antibodies broadly and strongly cross-react with drifted H5N1 virus strains from various clades. Finally, the MF59 changes the pattern of HA recognition by antibodies that react with the HA1 more than with the HA2 region. EXPERT OPINION: The available data show that Aflunov is a pre-pandemic vaccine suitable not only for stockpiling in case of a pandemic, but also before a pandemic is declared, with the ultimate objective of preventing the onset of an influenza pandemic.

Del Giudice G; Fragapane E; Della Cioppa G; Rappuoli R

2013-01-01

140

Pandemic Influenza: Risk of Multiple Introductions and the Need to Prepare for Them  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Containing an emerging influenza H5N1 pandemic in its earliest stages may be feasible, but containing multiple introductions of a pandemic-capable strain would be more difficult. Mills and colleagues argue that multiple introductions are likely, especially if risk of a pandemic is high.

Mills, Christina E; Robins, James M; Bergstrom, Carl T; Lipsitch, Marc

 
 
 
 
141

Would an Influenza Pandemic Qualify as a Major Disaster Under the Stafford Act.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report provides a legal analysis of the eligibility of an influenza pandemic (flu pandemic) to be declared by the President as a major disaster under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. Given the current influenza A(H...

E. C. Liu

2009-01-01

142

Pandemic H1N1 influenza surveillance in Haiti, July-December 2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From June 2009 through December 2009, Haiti conducted sentinel surveillance for influenza. 499 samples were collected and tested using real-time RT-PCR. 197 (39.5%) were positive for influenza, including 95 (48%) pandemic (H1N1) 2009, 57 (29%) seasonal influenza A and 45 (23%) influenza B. The median age of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases was 21.7; two-thirds of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases were in patients aged 6 years - 35 years. Pandemic activity peaked in September and co-circulated with other influenza subtypes. The age distribution and seasonality of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Haiti were similar to other countries in the Caribbean region.

Fitter DL; Freeman NM; Buteau J; Magloire R; Sessions WM; Guo L; Katz MA; Boncy J

2013-09-01

143

Economic analysis of pandemic influenza vaccination strategies in Singapore.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: All influenza pandemic plans advocate pandemic vaccination. However, few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different vaccination strategies. This paper compares the economic outcomes of vaccination compared with treatment with antiviral agents alone, in Singapore. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the economic outcomes of pandemic vaccination (immediate vaccination and vaccine stockpiling) compared with treatment-only in Singapore using a decision-based model to perform cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. We also explored the annual insurance premium (willingness to pay) depending on the perceived risk of the next pandemic occurring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The treatment-only strategy resulted in 690 deaths, 13,950 hospitalization days, and economic cost of USD$497 million. For immediate vaccination, at vaccine effectiveness of >55%, vaccination was cost-beneficial over treatment-only. Vaccine stockpiling is not cost-effective in most scenarios even with 100% vaccine effectiveness. The annual insurance premium was highest with immediate vaccination, and was lower with increased duration to the next pandemic. The premium was also higher with higher vaccine effectiveness, attack rates, and case-fatality rates. Stockpiling with case-fatality rates of 0.4-0.6% would be cost-beneficial if vaccine effectiveness was >80%; while at case-fatality of >5% stockpiling would be cost-beneficial even if vaccine effectiveness was 20%. High-risk sub-groups warrant higher premiums than low-risk sub-groups. CONCLUSIONS: The actual pandemic vaccine effectiveness and lead time is unknown. Vaccine strategy should be based on perception of severity. Immediate vaccination is most cost-effective, but requires vaccines to be available when required. Vaccine stockpiling as insurance against worst-case scenarios is also cost-effective. Research and development is therefore critical to develop and stockpile cheap, readily available effective vaccines.

Lee VJ; Tok MY; Chow VT; Phua KH; Ooi EE; Tambyah PA; Chen MI

2009-01-01

144

Influenza pandemic planning and performance in Canada, 2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This commentary evaluates Canadian actions following identification of pH1N1 influenza virus in 2009. We also report on some international issues affecting vaccine manufacture, and compare pH1N1 influenza vaccination programs in several industrialized countries. WHO's pandemic declaration was the trigger for Canada to take the following steps: (1) implement its sole source pandemic vaccine supply contract, (2) use an alternate, internationally-developed approach to authorize emergency use of adjuvant-containing vaccine not yet fully approved in Canada, (3) release stocks of antiviral, and (4) develop many health-related policies, through committees other than those normally used outside a pandemic. We note key successes and challenges in these steps, and suggest responses to two priority issues: first, improve planning for surges in demand for the clinical services that represent the main way in which severe disease impact was reduced, and second, establish from the outset of Public Health planning that immunization programs will phase use of vaccine in different target groups, as done elsewhere, reflecting realistic vaccine delivery rates and the likely early occurrence of the main epidemic wave.

Kendal AP; MacDonald NE

2010-11-01

145

Why was the 2009 influenza pandemic in England so small?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The "Swine flu" pandemic of 2009 caused world-wide infections and deaths. Early efforts to understand its rate of spread were used to predict the probable future number of cases, but by the end of 2009 it was clear that these predictions had substantially overestimated the pandemic's eventual impact. In England, the Health Protection Agency made announcements of the number of cases of disease, which turned out to be surprisingly low for an influenza pandemic. The agency also carried out a serological survey half-way through the English epidemic. In this study, we use a mathematical model to reconcile early estimates of the rate of spread of infection, weekly data on the number of cases in the 2009 epidemic in England and the serological status of the English population at the end of the first pandemic wave. Our results reveal that if there are around 19 infections (i.e., seroconverters) for every reported case then the three data-sets are entirely consistent with each other. We go on to discuss when in the epidemic such a high ratio of seroconverters to cases of disease might have been detected, either through patterns in the case reports or through even earlier serological surveys.

Kubiak RJ; McLean AR

2012-01-01

146

Characterization of an influenza A virus in Mexican swine that is related to the A/H1N1/2009 pandemic clade.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the spring of 2009, swine-origin influenza H1N1pdm09 viruses caused the first influenza pandemic of this century. We characterized the influenza viruses that circulated early during the outbreak in Mexico, including one newly sequenced swine H1N1pdm09 virus and three newly sequenced human H1N1pdm09 viruses that circulated in the outbreak of respiratory disease in La Gloria, Veracruz. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the swine isolate (A/swine/Mexico/4/2009) collected in April 2009 is positioned in a branch that is basal to the rest of the H1N1pdm09 clade in two (NP and PA) of the eight single-gene trees. In addition, the concatenated HA-NA and the complete whole-genome trees also showed a basal position for A/swine/Mexico/4/2009. Furthermore, this swine virus was found to share molecular traits with non-H1N1pdm09 H1N1 viral lineages. These results suggest that this isolate could potentially be the first one detected from a sister lineage closely related to the H1N1pdm09 viruses.

Escalera-Zamudio M; Cobián-Güemes G; de los Dolores Soto-del Río M; Isa P; Sánchez-Betancourt I; Parissi-Crivelli A; Martínez-Cázares MT; Romero P; Velázquez-Salinas L; Huerta-Lozano B; Nelson M; Montero H; Vinuesa P; López S; Arias CF

2012-11-01

147

Cellular immune correlates of protection against symptomatic pandemic influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of T cells in mediating heterosubtypic protection against natural influenza illness in humans is uncertain. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) provided a unique natural experiment to determine whether crossreactive cellular immunity limits symptomatic illness in antibody-naive individuals. We followed 342 healthy adults through the UK pandemic waves and correlated the responses of pre-existing T cells to the pH1N1 virus and conserved core protein epitopes with clinical outcomes after incident pH1N1 infection. Higher frequencies of pre-existing T cells to conserved CD8 epitopes were found in individuals who developed less severe illness, with total symptom score having the strongest inverse correlation with the frequency of interferon-? (IFN-?)(+) interleukin-2 (IL-2)(-) CD8(+) T cells (r = -0.6, P = 0.004). Within this functional CD8(+)IFN-?(+)IL-2(-) population, cells with the CD45RA(+) chemokine (C-C) receptor 7 (CCR7)(-) phenotype inversely correlated with symptom score and had lung-homing and cytotoxic potential. In the absence of crossreactive neutralizing antibodies, CD8(+) T cells specific to conserved viral epitopes correlated with crossprotection against symptomatic influenza. This protective immune correlate could guide universal influenza vaccine development.

Sridhar S; Begom S; Bermingham A; Hoschler K; Adamson W; Carman W; Bean T; Barclay W; Deeks JJ; Lalvani A

2013-09-01

148

Protective efficacy against pandemic influenza of seasonal influenza vaccination in children in Hong Kong: a randomized controlled trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination against 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) remains unclear. METHODS: One child aged 6-17 years in each of 796 households was randomized to receive 2009-2010 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or saline placebo between August...

Cowling, BJ; Ng, S; Ma, ESK; Fang, VJ; So, HC; Wai, W; Cheng, CKY; Wong, JY; Chan, KH; Ip, DKM; Chiu, SS; Peiris, JSM; Leung, GM

149

The 2009 Pandemic H1N1 and Triple-Reassortant Swine H1N1 Influenza Viruses Replicate Efficiently but Elicit an Attenuated Inflammatory Response in Polarized Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells ?  

Science.gov (United States)

The pandemic H1N1 virus of 2009 (2009 H1N1) produced a spectrum of disease ranging from mild illness to severe illness and death. Respiratory symptoms were frequently associated with virus infection, with relatively high rate of gastrointestinal symptoms reported. To better understand 2009 H1N1 virus pathogenesis in humans, we studied virus and host responses following infection of two cell types: polarized bronchial and pharyngeal epithelial cells, which exhibit many features of the human airway epithelium, and colon epithelial cells to serve as a human intestinal cell model. Selected 2009 H1N1 viruses were compared to both seasonal H1N1 and triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses that have circulated among North American pigs since before the 2009 pandemic. All H1N1 viruses replicated productively in airway cells; however, in contrast to seasonal H1N1 virus infection, infection with the 2009 H1N1 and triple-reassortant swine H1N1 viruses resulted in an attenuated inflammatory response, a weaker interferon response, and reduced cell death. Additionally, the H1N1 viruses of swine origin replicated less efficiently at the temperature of the human proximal airways (33°C). We also observed that the 2009 H1N1 viruses replicated to significantly higher titers than seasonal H1N1 virus in polarized colon epithelial cells. These studies reveal that in comparison to seasonal influenza virus, H1N1 viruses of swine origin poorly activate multiple aspects of the human innate response, which may contribute to the virulence of these viruses. In addition, their less efficient replication at human upper airway temperatures has implications for the understanding of pandemic H1N1 virus adaptation to humans.

Zeng, Hui; Pappas, Claudia; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

2011-01-01

150

The 2009 pandemic H1N1 and triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses replicate efficiently but elicit an attenuated inflammatory response in polarized human bronchial epithelial cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pandemic H1N1 virus of 2009 (2009 H1N1) produced a spectrum of disease ranging from mild illness to severe illness and death. Respiratory symptoms were frequently associated with virus infection, with relatively high rate of gastrointestinal symptoms reported. To better understand 2009 H1N1 virus pathogenesis in humans, we studied virus and host responses following infection of two cell types: polarized bronchial and pharyngeal epithelial cells, which exhibit many features of the human airway epithelium, and colon epithelial cells to serve as a human intestinal cell model. Selected 2009 H1N1 viruses were compared to both seasonal H1N1 and triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses that have circulated among North American pigs since before the 2009 pandemic. All H1N1 viruses replicated productively in airway cells; however, in contrast to seasonal H1N1 virus infection, infection with the 2009 H1N1 and triple-reassortant swine H1N1 viruses resulted in an attenuated inflammatory response, a weaker interferon response, and reduced cell death. Additionally, the H1N1 viruses of swine origin replicated less efficiently at the temperature of the human proximal airways (33°C). We also observed that the 2009 H1N1 viruses replicated to significantly higher titers than seasonal H1N1 virus in polarized colon epithelial cells. These studies reveal that in comparison to seasonal influenza virus, H1N1 viruses of swine origin poorly activate multiple aspects of the human innate response, which may contribute to the virulence of these viruses. In addition, their less efficient replication at human upper airway temperatures has implications for the understanding of pandemic H1N1 virus adaptation to humans.

Zeng H; Pappas C; Katz JM; Tumpey TM

2011-01-01

151

The 2009 pandemic H1N1 and triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses replicate efficiently but elicit an attenuated inflammatory response in polarized human bronchial epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pandemic H1N1 virus of 2009 (2009 H1N1) produced a spectrum of disease ranging from mild illness to severe illness and death. Respiratory symptoms were frequently associated with virus infection, with relatively high rate of gastrointestinal symptoms reported. To better understand 2009 H1N1 virus pathogenesis in humans, we studied virus and host responses following infection of two cell types: polarized bronchial and pharyngeal epithelial cells, which exhibit many features of the human airway epithelium, and colon epithelial cells to serve as a human intestinal cell model. Selected 2009 H1N1 viruses were compared to both seasonal H1N1 and triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses that have circulated among North American pigs since before the 2009 pandemic. All H1N1 viruses replicated productively in airway cells; however, in contrast to seasonal H1N1 virus infection, infection with the 2009 H1N1 and triple-reassortant swine H1N1 viruses resulted in an attenuated inflammatory response, a weaker interferon response, and reduced cell death. Additionally, the H1N1 viruses of swine origin replicated less efficiently at the temperature of the human proximal airways (33°C). We also observed that the 2009 H1N1 viruses replicated to significantly higher titers than seasonal H1N1 virus in polarized colon epithelial cells. These studies reveal that in comparison to seasonal influenza virus, H1N1 viruses of swine origin poorly activate multiple aspects of the human innate response, which may contribute to the virulence of these viruses. In addition, their less efficient replication at human upper airway temperatures has implications for the understanding of pandemic H1N1 virus adaptation to humans. PMID:21047961

Zeng, Hui; Pappas, Claudia; Katz, Jacqueline M; Tumpey, Terrence M

2010-11-03

152

Detecting 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: availability of diagnostic testing led to rapid pandemic response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnostic tests for detecting emerging influenza virus strains with pandemic potential are critical for directing global influenza prevention and control activities. In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention received US Food and Drug Administration approval for a highly sensitive influenza polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Devices were deployed to public health laboratories in the United States and globally. Within 2 weeks of the first recognition of 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and began distributing a new approved pandemic influenza H1N1 PCR assay, which used the previously deployed device platform to meet a >8-fold increase in specimen submissions. Rapid antigen tests were widely used by clinicians at the point of care; however, test sensitivity was low (40%-69%). Many clinical laboratories developed their own pandemic influenza H1N1 PCR assays to meet clinician demand. Future planning efforts should identify ways to improve availability of reliable testing to manage patient care and approaches for optimal use of molecular testing for detecting and controlling emerging influenza virus strains. PMID:21342897

Jernigan, D B; Lindstrom, S L; Johnson, J R; Miller, J D; Hoelscher, M; Humes, R; Shively, R; Brammer, L; Burke, S A; Villanueva, J M; Balish, A; Uyeki, T; Mustaquim, D; Bishop, A; Handsfield, J H; Astles, R; Xu, X; Klimov, A I; Cox, N J; Shaw, M W

2011-01-01

153

Detecting 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection: availability of diagnostic testing led to rapid pandemic response.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diagnostic tests for detecting emerging influenza virus strains with pandemic potential are critical for directing global influenza prevention and control activities. In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention received US Food and Drug Administration approval for a highly sensitive influenza polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Devices were deployed to public health laboratories in the United States and globally. Within 2 weeks of the first recognition of 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed and began distributing a new approved pandemic influenza H1N1 PCR assay, which used the previously deployed device platform to meet a >8-fold increase in specimen submissions. Rapid antigen tests were widely used by clinicians at the point of care; however, test sensitivity was low (40%-69%). Many clinical laboratories developed their own pandemic influenza H1N1 PCR assays to meet clinician demand. Future planning efforts should identify ways to improve availability of reliable testing to manage patient care and approaches for optimal use of molecular testing for detecting and controlling emerging influenza virus strains.

Jernigan DB; Lindstrom SL; Johnson JR; Miller JD; Hoelscher M; Humes R; Shively R; Brammer L; Burke SA; Villanueva JM; Balish A; Uyeki T; Mustaquim D; Bishop A; Handsfield JH; Astles R; Xu X; Klimov AI; Cox NJ; Shaw MW

2011-01-01

154

Pacific islands which escaped the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic and their subsequent mortality experiences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARYVery few Pacific islands escaped the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic. Subsequent influenza epidemics in the established colonial outposts of American Samoa and New Caledonia infected many but killed very few persons whereas the extraordinarily isolated Niue, Rotuma, Jaliut and Yule islands experienced high mortality influenza epidemics (>3% of population) following 1918. These dichotomous outcomes indicate that previous influenza exposure and degree of epidemiological isolation were important mortality risk factors during influenza epidemics on Pacific islands.

Shanks GD; Brundage JF

2012-05-01

155

Renal complications of seasonal and pandemic influenza A virus infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Renal complications of influenza A virus infections are uncommon but can contribute to a deterioration in the patient's condition, which include acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients, rhabdomyolysis, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), acute glomerulonephritis (AGN), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), Goodpasture's syndrome, and acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN). The clinical characteristics of AKI in critically ill patients with pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus (A(H1N1)pdm09) infection are similar to uninfected patients. Underlying conditions associated with AKI include older age, diabetes mellitus, obesity, pregnancy, history of asthma, and chronic kidney disease. Histologic examination of the kidneys from patients with A(H1N1)pdm09 infection who died include acute tubular necrosis (ATN), myoglobin pigment, and DIC. A(H1N1)pdm09 is present in the kidneys of some patients. The clinical characteristics of patients with rhabdomyolysis associated with influenza A include younger age and the frequent occurrence of muscle symptoms. AKI occurs in approximately one third of patients with rhabdomyolysis due to influenza A. HUS is associated with A(H1N1)pdm09 as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated HUS following A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, HUS triggered by A(H1N1)pdm09 in patients with genetic complement dysregulation, and HUS associated with A(H1N1)pdm09 without known underlying disorder. AGN, Goodpasture's syndrome, and acute TIN are extremely rare complications of influenza A virus infection. Although the pathogenesis underlying renal injuries due to influenza A virus has not been delineated, some hypotheses have been advanced, including ATN due to renal hypoperfusion or rhabdomyolysis, glomerular microthrombosis due to DIC, direct viral injury to the kidney, and an altered immune system with systemic mononuclear cell activation following influenza A virus infections.

Watanabe T

2013-01-01

156

Clinical outcomes of seasonal influenza and pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in pediatric inpatients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2009, a novel influenza A H1N1 (nH1N1) virus emerged and spread rapidly worldwide. News of the pandemic led to a heightened awareness of the consequences of influenza and generally resulted in enhanced infection control practices and strengthened vaccination efforts for both healthcare workers and the general population. Seasonal influenza (SI) illness in the pediatric population has been previously shown to result in significant morbidity, mortality, and substantial hospital resource utilization. Although influenza pandemics have the possibility of resulting in considerable illness, we must not ignore the impact that we can experience annually with SI. Methods We compared the outcomes of pediatric patients ?18 years of age at a large urban hospital with laboratory confirmed influenza and an influenza-like illness (ILI) during the 2009 pandemic and two prior influenza seasons. The primary outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS). All variables potentially associated with LOS based on univariable analysis, previous studies, or hypothesized relationships were included in the regression models to ensure adjustment for their effects. Results There were 133 pediatric cases of nH1N1 admitted during 2009 and 133 cases of SI admitted during the prior 2 influenza seasons (2007-8 and 2008-9). Thirty-six percent of children with SI and 18% of children with nH1N1 had no preexisting medical conditions (p = 0.14). Children admitted with SI had 1.73 times longer adjusted LOS than children admitted for nH1N1 (95% CI 1.35 - 2.13). There was a trend towards more children with SI requiring mechanical ventilation compared with nH1N1 (16 vs.7, p = 0.08). Conclusions This study strengthens the growing body of evidence demonstrating that SI results in significant morbidity in the pediatric population. Pandemic H1N1 received considerable attention with strong media messages urging people to undergo vaccination and encouraging improved infection control efforts. We believe that this attention should become an annual effort for SI. Strong unified messages from health care providers and the media encouraging influenza vaccination will likely prove very useful in averting some of the morbidity related to influenza for future epidemics.

Tamma Pranita D; Turnbull Alison E; Milstone Aaron M; Cosgrove Sara E; Valsamakis Alexandra; Budd Alicia; Perl Trish M

2010-01-01

157

Epidemiological isolation causing variable mortality in Island populations during the 1918-1920 influenza pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: During the 1918 pandemic period, influenza-related mortality increased worldwide; however, mortality rates varied widely across locations and demographic subgroups. Islands are isolated epidemiological situations that may elucidate why influenza pandemic mortality rates were so variable in apparently similar populations. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine and compare the patterns of pandemic influenza mortality on islands. METHODS: We reviewed historical records of mortality associated with the 1918-1920 influenza pandemic in various military and civilian groups on islands. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Mortality differed more than 50-fold during pandemic-related epidemics on Pacific islands [range: 0.4% (Hawaii) to 22% (Samoa)], and on some islands, mortality sharply varied among demographic subgroups of island residents such as Saipan: Chamorros [12%] and Caroline Islanders [0.4%]. Among soldiers from island populations who had completed initial military training, influenza-related mortality rates were generally low, for example, Puerto Rico (0.7%) and French Polynesia (0.13%). The findings suggest that among island residents, those who had been exposed to multiple, antigenically diverse respiratory pathogens prior to infection with the 1918 pandemic strain (e.g., less isolated) experienced lower mortality. The continuous circulation of antigenically diverse influenza viruses and other respiratory infectious agents makes widespread high mortality during future influenza pandemics unlikely.

Shanks GD; Hussell T; Brundage JF

2012-11-01

158

Knowledge about pandemic influenza and compliance with containment measures among Australians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the level of stated compliance with public health pandemic influenza control measures and explore factors influencing cooperation for pandemic influenza control in Australia. METHODS: A computer-assisted telephone interview survey was conducted by professional interviewers to collect information on the Australian public's knowledge of pandemic influenza and willingness to comply with public health control measures. The sample was randomly selected using an electronic database and printed telephone directories to ensure sample representativeness from all Australian states and territories. After we described pandemic influenza to the respondents to ensure they understood the significance of the issue, the questions on compliance were repeated and changes in responses were analysed with McNemar's test for paired data FINDINGS: Only 23% of the 1166 respondents demonstrated a clear understanding of the term 'pandemic influenza'. Of those interviewed, 94.1% reported being willing to comply with home quarantine; 94.2%, to avoid public events; and 90.7%, to postpone social gatherings. After we explained the meaning of 'pandemic' to interviewees, stated compliance increased significantly (to 97.5%, 98.3% and 97.2% respectively). Those who reported being unfamiliar with the term 'pandemic influenza,' male respondents and employed people not able to work from home were less willing to comply. CONCLUSION: In Australia, should the threat arise, compliance with containment measures against pandemic influenza is likely to be high, yet it could be further enhanced through a public education programme conveying just a few key messages. A basic understanding of pandemic influenza is associated with stated willingness to comply with containment measures. Investing now in promoting measures to prepare for a pandemic or other health emergency will have considerable value.

Eastwood K; Durrheim D; Francis JL; d'Espaignet ET; Duncan S; Islam F; Speare R

2009-08-01

159

Isolation and characterization of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are endemic diseases in pork producing countries around the world. The emergence of the pandemic 2009 human H1N1 influenza A virus (pH1N1) raised questions about the occurrence of this virus in Brazilian swine populations. During a 2009-2010 swine influenza virus r...

160

Deaths associated with influenza pandemic of 1918-19, Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Current estimates of deaths from the influenza pandemic of 1918-19 in Japan are based on vital records and range from 257,000 to 481,000. The resulting crude death rate range of 0.47%-0.88% is considerably lower than parallel and conservative worldwide estimates of 1.66%-2.77%. Because the accuracy of vital registration records for early 20th century Asia is questionable, to calculate the percentage of the population who died from the pandemic, we used alternative prefecture-level population count data for Japan in combination with estimation methods for panel data that were not available to earlier demographers. Our population loss estimates of 1.97-2.02 million are appreciably higher than the standing estimates, and they yield a crude rate of population loss of 3.62%-3.71%. This rate resolves a major puzzle about the pandemic by indicating that the experience of Japan was similar to that of other parts of Asia.

Chandra S

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

Pandemic influenza preparedness: the critical role of the syringe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the face of an almost unprecedented threat of a global pandemic of influenza it is imperative that stockpiling of appropriate drugs and devices begin now. One vital device is an appropriate syringe for delivering vaccine. With the potential for millions to be infected and the vaccine supply severely stretched it is imperative that the syringe used to vaccinate waste as little vaccine as possible and thus allow for a maximum number of persons to be vaccinated. Our study tested seven leading candidate vaccine syringes for dosing accuracy, dose-capacity per vial, medication wastage and a battery of ergonomic features. One device, the Flu+trade mark syringe, proved superior to the others in all important categories, possibly due to its low dead-space volume and its dosing accuracy. The data suggest that switching to this device from any of the others tested would provide between 2 and 19% additional vaccine doses per vial if the current 10-dose vials are used. Extrapolations from this data suggest that many thousands to millions of additional persons could be vaccinated in mass campaigns. Use of a syringe of this type, and the vaccine savings that would accrue, would likely be important in reducing morbidity and mortality in the event of a pandemic of influenza.

Strauss K; van Zundert A; Frid A; Costigliola V

2006-05-01

162

Committee opinion: no. 563: ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning concerning pregnant women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pregnant women traditionally have been assigned priority in the allocation of prevention and treatment resources during outbreaks of influenza because of their increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The Committee on Ethics of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists explores ethical justifications for assigning priority for prevention and treatment resources to pregnant women during an influenza pandemic, makes recommendations to incorporate ethical issues in pandemic influenza planning concerning pregnant women, and calls for pandemic preparedness efforts to include clinical research specifically designed to address safety and efficacy of treatment interventions or prevention strategies used by pregnant women.

2013-05-01

163

Postpartum and Neonatal Nursing Care During the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe select influenza infection control policies and practices related to postpartum and newborn care during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. In an online survey of obstetric and neonatal nurses, significantly more nurses indicated a written hospital policy supporting each of the practices during versus before the pandemic. The two practices least often implemented were temporary separation of healthy newborns from ill mothers (37.7 percent) and testing newborns for influenza virus infection if signs of influenza were observed (31.4 percent). Presence of written hospital policies increased implementation of practices. Findings may be useful to guide planning for future pandemics or other public health emergencies.

Zapata LB; Ruch-Ross HS; Williams JL; Ruhl C

2013-08-01

164

Postpartum and Neonatal Nursing Care During the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe select influenza infection control policies and practices related to postpartum and newborn care during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. In an online survey of obstetric and neonatal nurses, significantly more nurses indicated a written hospital policy supporting each of the practices during versus before the pandemic. The two practices least often implemented were temporary separation of healthy newborns from ill mothers (37.7 percent) and testing newborns for influenza virus infection if signs of influenza were observed (31.4 percent). Presence of written hospital policies increased implementation of practices. Findings may be useful to guide planning for future pandemics or other public health emergencies. PMID:23957794

Zapata, Lauren B; Ruch-Ross, Holly S; Williams, Jennifer L; Ruhl, Catherine

2013-08-01

165

Optimal vaccine allocation for the early mitigation of pandemic influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With new cases of avian influenza H5N1 (H5N1AV) arising frequently, the threat of a new influenza pandemic remains a challenge for public health. Several vaccines have been developed specifically targeting H5N1AV, but their production is limited and only a few million doses are readily available. Because there is an important time lag between the emergence of new pandemic strain and the development and distribution of a vaccine, shortage of vaccine is very likely at the beginning of a pandemic. We coupled a mathematical model with a genetic algorithm to optimally and dynamically distribute vaccine in a network of cities, connected by the airline transportation network. By minimizing the illness attack rate (i.e., the percentage of people in the population who become infected and ill), we focus on optimizing vaccine allocation in a network of 16 cities in Southeast Asia when only a few million doses are available. In our base case, we assume the vaccine is well-matched and vaccination occurs 5 to 10 days after the beginning of the epidemic. The effectiveness of all the vaccination strategies drops off as the timing is delayed or the vaccine is less well-matched. Under the best assumptions, optimal vaccination strategies substantially reduced the illness attack rate, with a maximal reduction in the attack rate of 85%. Furthermore, our results suggest that cooperative strategies where the resources are optimally distributed among the cities perform much better than the strategies where the vaccine is equally distributed among the network, yielding an illness attack rate 17% lower. We show that it is possible to significantly mitigate a more global epidemic with limited quantities of vaccine, provided that the vaccination campaign is extremely fast and it occurs within the first weeks of transmission.

Matrajt L; Halloran ME; Longini IM Jr

2013-01-01

166

Estrategia cubana de caracterización molecular del virus influenza A/H1N1pdm Cuban strategy for the molecular characterization of the pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: en Abril de 2009 se identificó una variante del virus influenza A/H1N1 de origen porcino, lo cual determinó que fuese declarada rápidamente la primera pandemia del siglo XXI. OBJETIVO: establecer una estrategia de secuenciación nucleotídica que permitiera diagnosticar diferencialmente los virus influenza A estacionales del nuevo virus pandémico, así como obtener la mayor cantidad de información posible desde el punto de vista molecular de los genes hemaglutinina y neuraminidasa, tanto de pacientes que sufrieron una enfermedad tipo influenza como los que padecieron de una infección respiratoria aguda grave y los que fallecieron. MÉTODOS: se diseñaron e implementaron tres estrategias de secuenciación que brindaron información importante acerca del nuevo virus en Cuba. RESULTADOS: a través de la tercera estrategia se obtuvieron los resultados más completos: diagnóstico diferencial, vigilancia de las mutaciones D222G/E en la hemaglutinina y las variantes virales H275Y resistentes al Tamiflu. A pesar de no haber detectado las mutaciones mencionadas, no se puede descartar su presencia en población cubana, debido a que estas estrategias no fueron diseñadas con ese fin. Se impone diseñar un estudio para cumplir con ese objetivo. CONCLUSIONES: las estrategias de secuenciación aplicadas en nuestro algoritmo permitieron realizar el diagnóstico diferencial de los virus influenza estacional del pandémico y su caracterización molecular.INTRODUCTION: in April 2009, there was identified a variant of the A/H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, and shortly after the first pandemic in XXI century was declared. OBJECTIVES: to establish a nucleotide sequencing strategy for the differential diagnosis of the seasonal and pandemic influenza A viruses, and to obtain as much molecular information as possible about hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes in patients with influenza-like illnesses, in those with severe respiratory infection and in patients who died. METHODS: three sequencing strategies were designed and implemented, which also offered important information about the new virus in Cuba. RESULTS: the third strategy provided the most comprehensive results such as differential diagnosis, the surveillance of the D222G/E mutation in hemagglutinin and Tamiflu-resistant H275Y viral variants. In spite of the fact that the mentioned mutations were not detected, their presence in the Cuban population can not be ignored since these strategies were not designed for this end. It is imperative to design a study to fulfill this objective. CONCLUSIONS: the sequencing strategies in our algorithm allowed the differential diagnosis of the seasonal and the pandemic viruses, and their molecular characterization.

Alexander Piñón Ramos; Belsy Acosta Herrera; Odalys Valdés Ramírez; Amely Arencibia García; Clara Estela Savón Valdés; Grehete González Muñoz; Suset Isabel Oropesa Fernández; Elías Quilarte García; Guelsys González Baez; Bárbara Hernández Espinosa; Ángel Goyenechea Hernández; María Guadalupe Guzmán Tirado; Alina Llop Hernández; Vivian Kourí Cardellá

2011-01-01

167

Macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza and associated policies in Thailand, South Africa and Uganda.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Research has shown the value of conducting a macroeconomic analysis of the impact of influenza pandemics. However, previous modelling applications focus on high-income countries, and there is a lack of evidence concerning the potential impact of an influenza pandemic on lower- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza in Thailand, South Africa and Uganda with particular reference to pandemic (H1N1) 2009. METHODS: A single-country whole-economy Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model was set up for each of the three countries in question and used to estimate the economic impact of declines in labour attributable to morbidity, mortality and school closure. RESULTS: Overall GDP impacts were less than 1% of GDP for all countries and scenarios. Uganda's losses were proportionally larger than those of Thailand and South Africa. Labour-intensive sectors suffer the largest losses. CONCLUSION: The economic cost of unavoidable absence in the event of an influenza pandemic could be proportionally larger for low-income countries. The cost of mild pandemics, such as pandemic (H1N1) 2009, appears to be small, but could increase for more severe pandemics and/or pandemics with greater behavioural change and avoidable absence.

Smith RD; Keogh-Brown MR

2013-09-01

168

Pandemia de influenza: la respuesta de México Influenza pandemic: Mexico's response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En 1992 apareció en el sureste asiático un nuevo tipo de virus de la influenza, el cual ha ocasionado hasta la fecha más de 120 casos y un poco más de 60 defunciones en humanos en Camboya, Vietnam, Indonesia y Tailandia. Esta situación es considerada por los expertos como la probable génesis de una nueva pandemia de influenza, lo que podría traer graves consecuencias para la salud de la población, así como para la economía y el comercio mundial. Por lo anterior, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha instado a los países miembros a desarrollar planes de preparación y respuesta para hacer frente a esta eventualidad. En el marco del Comité Nacional para la Seguridad en Salud, México ha diseñado el Plan Nacional de Preparación y Respuesta ante una Pandemia de Influenza con objeto de proteger a la población mediante acciones efectivas y oportunas. El Plan utiliza una escala de riesgo y define cinco líneas de acción: Coordinación, Vigilancia Epidemiológica, Atención Médica, Difusión y Movilización Social, y Reserva Estratégica. Si bien es imposible predecir cuándo se presentará la próxima pandemia y su impacto, es fundamental que las autoridades de salud nacionales, estatales y locales establezcan los mecanismos para poner en marcha los componentes del Plan en forma oportuna y garantizar con ello la salud de la población en caso de influenza pandémica.In 1992, a new type of influenza virus appeared in Southeast Asia. This new strain has caused to date, more than 120 cases and over 60 deaths in Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. This situation is seen by the experts as the possible genesis of a new influenza pandemic with the corresponding negative effects on the health of the population, international commerce and world economy. In order to face the coming challenge, the World Health Organization (WHO) has asked member countries to develop national preparedness and response plans for an influenza pandemic. Within the framework of the National Committee for Health Security, Mexico has developed a National Preparedness and Response Plan for an Influenza Pandemic with the aim of protecting the health of the population with timely and effective measures. The Plan is based on a risk scale and five lines of action: Coordination, Epidemiological Surveillance, Medical Care, Risk Communication and Strategic Stockpile. It is currently impossible to predict when the next pandemic will start or what will be its impact. Nevertheless, it is fundamental that national and regional health authorities establish measures for protecting the health of the population in case this emergency occurs.

Pablo Kuri-Morales; Miguel Betancourt-Cravioto; Oscar Velázquez-Monroy; Carlos Alvarez-Lucas; Roberto Tapia-Conyer

2006-01-01

169

Pandemia de influenza: la respuesta de México/ Influenza pandemic: Mexico's response  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En 1992 apareció en el sureste asiático un nuevo tipo de virus de la influenza, el cual ha ocasionado hasta la fecha más de 120 casos y un poco más de 60 defunciones en humanos en Camboya, Vietnam, Indonesia y Tailandia. Esta situación es considerada por los expertos como la probable génesis de una nueva pandemia de influenza, lo que podría traer graves consecuencias para la salud de la población, así como para la economía y el comercio mundial. Por lo anterior, (more) la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha instado a los países miembros a desarrollar planes de preparación y respuesta para hacer frente a esta eventualidad. En el marco del Comité Nacional para la Seguridad en Salud, México ha diseñado el Plan Nacional de Preparación y Respuesta ante una Pandemia de Influenza con objeto de proteger a la población mediante acciones efectivas y oportunas. El Plan utiliza una escala de riesgo y define cinco líneas de acción: Coordinación, Vigilancia Epidemiológica, Atención Médica, Difusión y Movilización Social, y Reserva Estratégica. Si bien es imposible predecir cuándo se presentará la próxima pandemia y su impacto, es fundamental que las autoridades de salud nacionales, estatales y locales establezcan los mecanismos para poner en marcha los componentes del Plan en forma oportuna y garantizar con ello la salud de la población en caso de influenza pandémica. Abstract in english In 1992, a new type of influenza virus appeared in Southeast Asia. This new strain has caused to date, more than 120 cases and over 60 deaths in Cambodia, Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. This situation is seen by the experts as the possible genesis of a new influenza pandemic with the corresponding negative effects on the health of the population, international commerce and world economy. In order to face the coming challenge, the World Health Organization (WHO) has aske (more) d member countries to develop national preparedness and response plans for an influenza pandemic. Within the framework of the National Committee for Health Security, Mexico has developed a National Preparedness and Response Plan for an Influenza Pandemic with the aim of protecting the health of the population with timely and effective measures. The Plan is based on a risk scale and five lines of action: Coordination, Epidemiological Surveillance, Medical Care, Risk Communication and Strategic Stockpile. It is currently impossible to predict when the next pandemic will start or what will be its impact. Nevertheless, it is fundamental that national and regional health authorities establish measures for protecting the health of the population in case this emergency occurs.

Kuri-Morales, Pablo; Betancourt-Cravioto, Miguel; Velázquez-Monroy, Oscar; Alvarez-Lucas, Carlos; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto

2006-02-01

170

Human monoclonal antibodies to pandemic 1957 H2N2 and pandemic 1968 H3N2 influenza viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Investigation of the human antibody response to the 1957 pandemic H2N2 influenza A virus has been largely limited to serologic studies. We generated five influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)-reactive human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by hybridoma technology from the peripheral blood of healthy donors who were born between 1950 and 1968. Two MAbs reacted with the pandemic H2N2 virus, two recognized the pandemic H3N2 virus, and remarkably, one reacted with both the pandemic H2N2 and H3N2 viruses. Each of these five naturally occurring MAbs displayed hemagglutination inhibition activity, suggesting specificity for the globular head domain of influenza virus HA. When incubated with virus, MAbs 8F8, 8M2, and 2G1 each elicited H2N2 escape mutations immediately adjacent to the receptor-binding domain on the HA globular head in embryonated chicken eggs. All H2N2-specific MAbs were able to inhibit a 2006 swine H2N3 influenza virus. MAbs 8M2 and 2G1 shared the V(H)1-69 germ line gene, but these antibodies were otherwise not genetically related. Each antibody was able to protect mice in a lethal H2N2 virus challenge. Thus, even 43 years after circulation of H2N2 viruses, these subjects possessed peripheral blood B cells encoding potent inhibiting antibodies specific for a conserved region on the globular head of the pandemic H2 HA.

Krause JC; Tsibane T; Tumpey TM; Huffman CJ; Albrecht R; Blum DL; Ramos I; Fernandez-Sesma A; Edwards KM; García-Sastre A; Basler CF; Crowe JE Jr

2012-06-01

171

Pandemic influenza in Papua New Guinea: a modelling study comparison with pandemic spread in a developed country.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The possible occurrence of a highly pathogenic influenza strain is of concern to health authorities worldwide. It is known that during past influenza pandemics developing countries have experienced considerably higher death rates compared with developed countries. Furthermore, many developing countries lack appropriate pandemic preparedness plans. Mathematical modelling studies to guide the development of such plans are largely focused on predicting pandemic influenza spread in developed nations. However, intervention strategies shown by modelling studies to be highly effective for developed countries give limited guidance as to the impact which an influenza pandemic may have on low-income countries given different demographics and resource constraints. To address this, an individual-based model of a Papua New Guinean (PNG) community was created and used to simulate the spread of a novel influenza strain. The results were compared with those obtained from a comparable Australian model. DESIGN: A modelling study. SETTING: The towns of Madang in PNG (population ?35 000) and Albany (population ?30 000) in Australia. OUTCOME MEASURES: Daily and cumulative illness attack rates in both models following introduction of a novel influenza strain into a naive population, for an unmitigated scenario and two social distancing intervention scenarios. RESULTS: The unmitigated scenario indicated an approximately 50% higher attack rate in PNG compared with the Australian model. The two social distancing-based interventions strategies were 60-70% less effective in a PNG setting compared with an Australian setting. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides further evidence that an influenza pandemic occurring in a low-income country such as PNG may have a greater impact than one occurring in a developed country, and that PNG-feasible interventions may be substantially less effective. The larger average household size in PNG, the larger proportion of the population under 18 and greater community-wide contact all contribute to this feature.

Milne GJ; Baskaran P; Halder N; Karl S; Kelso J

2013-01-01

172

The science behind preparing and responding to pandemic influenza: the lessons and limits of science.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A strong evidence base provides the foundation for planning and response strategies. Investments in pandemic preparedness included support for research that aided early detection, response, and control of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) pandemic. Scientific investigations conducted during the pandemic guided understanding of the virus, disease severity, and epidemiologic risk factors. Field investigations also produced information that strengthened guidance for the use of antivirals, identification of target populations for monovalent pH1N1 vaccine, and refinement of recommendations for social distancing measures. Communication of this evolving evidence base was important to sustaining credibility of public health. Areas where substantial controversy emerged, such as the optimal approach to respiratory protection of healthcare workers, often suffered from gaps in the evidence base. Many aspects of the 2009-2010 pandemic influenza experience provide ongoing opportunities for additional study, which will strengthen plans for future pandemic response as well as control of seasonal influenza.

Schuchat A; Bell BP; Redd SC

2011-01-01

173

A Coordinated Approach to Communicating Pediatric-Related Information on Pandemic Influenza at the Community Level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this document is to provide a suggested approach, based on input from pediatric stakeholders, to communicating pediatric-related information on pandemic influenza at the community level in a step-by-step manner.

HCTT CHE

2009-12-16

174

Simulation to assess the efficacy of US airport entry scrreening of passengers for pandemic influenza  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present our methodology and stochastic discrete-event simulation developed to model the screening of passengers for pandemic influenza at the US port-of-entry airports. Our model uniquely combines epidemiology modelling, evolving infected states and conditions of passengers over time, and operational considerations of screening in a single simulation. The simulation begins with international aircraft arrivals to the US. Passengers are then randomly assigned to one of three states -- not infected, infected with pandemic influenza and infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers then pass through various screening layers (i.e. pre-departure screening, en route screening, primary screening and secondary screening) and ultimately exit the system. We track the status of each passenger over time, with a special emphasis on false negatives (i.e. passengers infected with pandemic influenza, but are not identified as such) as these passengers pose a significant threat as they could unknowingly spread the pandemic influenza virus throughout our nation.

Mcmahon, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

175

Crying wolf? Impact of the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic on anticipated public response to a future pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in public threat perception and anticipated compliance with health-protective behaviours in response to a future pandemic; using data collected before and after the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Repeat cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone surveys with representative samples of the general New South Wales population in 2007 (2081 participants) and 2010 (2038 participants). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Perceived likelihood of a future pandemic in Australia; concern that respondents or their families would be affected; degree of change made to life because of the possibility of a pandemic; and willingness to comply with health-protective behaviours (to be vaccinated, to be isolated if necessary, and to wear a face mask). RESULTS: In 2007, 14.9% of the general population considered that an influenza pandemic would be highly likely to occur in future; this proportion rose to 42.8% in 2010 (odds ratio [OR], 4.96; 95% CI, 3.99-6.16; P < 0.001). Conversely, in the same period concern that respondents or their families would be directly affected by a future pandemic dropped from 45.5% to 32.5% (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.44-0.74; P < 0.001). Willingness to be vaccinated against influenza in a future pandemic decreased from 75.4% to 64.6% (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.55-0.86; P < 0.001). A general decrease in willingness to be vaccinated was noted across all age groups, most notably for those aged 35-44 years. CONCLUSIONS: Data collected before and after the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic indicated significant shifts in public threat perception and anticipated response to a future pandemic. The H1N1 2009 pandemic has altered public perceptions of the probability of a pandemic in the future, but has left the public feeling less vulnerable. Shifts in perception have the potential to reduce future public compliance with health-protective measures, including critical elements of the public health response, such as vaccination.

Taylor MR; Stevens GJ; Agho KE; Kable SA; Raphael B

2012-11-01

176

Statistical estimates of absenteeism attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza from the Canadian Labour Force Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background As many respiratory viruses are responsible for influenza like symptoms, accurate measures of the disease burden are not available and estimates are generally based on statistical methods. The objective of this study was to estimate absenteeism rates and hours lost due to seasonal influenza and compare these estimates with estimates of absenteeism attributable to the two H1N1 pandemic waves that occurred in 2009. Methods Key absenteeism variables were extracted from Statistics Canada's monthly labour force survey (LFS). Absenteeism and the proportion of hours lost due to own illness or disability were modelled as a function of trend, seasonality and proxy variables for influenza activity from 1998 to 2009. Results Hours lost due to the H1N1/09 pandemic strain were elevated compared to seasonal influenza, accounting for a loss of 0.2% of potential hours worked annually. In comparison, an estimated 0.08% of hours worked annually were lost due to seasonal influenza illnesses. Absenteeism rates due to influenza were estimated at 12% per year for seasonal influenza over the 1997/98 to 2008/09 seasons, and 13% for the two H1N1/09 pandemic waves. Employees who took time off due to a seasonal influenza infection took an average of 14 hours off. For the pandemic strain, the average absence was 25 hours. Conclusions This study confirms that absenteeism due to seasonal influenza has typically ranged from 5% to 20%, with higher rates associated with multiple circulating strains. Absenteeism rates for the 2009 pandemic were similar to those occurring for seasonal influenza. Employees took more time off due to the pandemic strain than was typical for seasonal influenza.

Schanzer Dena L; Zheng Hui; Gilmore Jason

2011-01-01

177

Predicting the Antigenic Structure of the Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin  

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The pandemic influenza virus (2009 H1N1) was recently introduced into the human population. The hemagglutinin (HA) gene of 2009 H1N1 is derived from “classical swine H1N1” virus, which likely shares a common ancestor with the human H1N1 virus that caused the pandemic in 1918, whose descendant viruse...

Igarashi, Manabu; Ito, Kimihito; Yoshida, Reiko; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Kida, Hiroshi; Takada, Ayato

178

Characterization of cross protection of Swine-Origin Influenza Virus (S-OIV) H1N1 and reassortant H5N1 influenza vaccine in BALB/c mice given a single-dose vaccination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Influenza virus has antigen drift and antigen shift effect, vaccination with some influenza vaccine might not induce sufficient immunity for host to the threat of other influenza virus strains. S-OIV H1N1 and H5N1 influenza vaccines in single-dose immunization were evaluated in mice for cross protection to the challenge of A/California/7/2009 H1N1 or NIBRG-14 H5N1 virus. RESULTS: Both H1N1 and H5N1 induced significant homologous IgG, HAI, and microneutralization antibody responses in the mice, while only vaccines plus adjuvant produced significant heterogeneous IgG and HAI antibody responses. Both alum and MPLA adjuvants significantly reduced the S-OIV H1N1 vaccine dose required to elicit protective HAI antibody titers from 0.05 ?g to 0.001 ?g. Vaccines alone did not protect mice from challenge with heterogeneous influenza virus, while H5N1 vaccine plus alum and MPLA adjuvants did. Mouse body weight loss was also less significant in the presence of adjuvant than in the vaccine without adjuvant. Furthermore, both H1N1 and H5N1 lung viral titers of immunized mice were significantly reduced post challenge with homologous viruses. CONCLUSION: Only in the presence of MPLA adjuvant could the H5N1 vaccine significantly reduce mouse lung viral titers post H1N1 virus challenge, and not vice versa. MPLA adjuvant induced cross protection with a single dose vaccination to the challenge of heterogeneous influenza virus in mice. Lung viral titer seemed to be a better indicator compared to IgG, neutralization antibody, and HAI titer to predict survival of mice infected with influenza virus.

Lin HT; Chuang CC; Wu HL; Chu DM; Wang YC

2013-01-01

179

Searching of Main Cause Leading to Severe Influenza A Virus Mutations and Consequently to Influenza Pandemics/Epidemics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The unpredictable mutations in the proteins from influenza A virus lead to the great difficulty in prevention of possible outbreak of bird flu and pandemic/epidemic of influenza. This unpredictability is due to the fact that we know little about the causes that lead to the mutations. In three of our...

Guang Wu; Shaomin Yan

180

Comparative age distribution of influenza morbidity and mortality during seasonal influenza epidemics and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown a relatively high mortality rate among young people infected by the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Here we compared the age distributions of morbidity and mortality during two seasonal influenza epidemics (H1N1 and H3N2) in France and the United States with those of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic waves in the same countries. Methods Age-standardized ratios were used to compare the age distribution of morbidity and mortality due to influenza between the two countries and across the different years. Non parametric analysis of variance was used to compare these ratios between epidemic and pandemic influenza. Results Age distribution of morbidity was similar between the 2009 pandemic and seasonal epidemics due to H1N1 (p = 0.72) and H3N2 viruses (p = 0.68). In contrast, the proportion of under-60s among influenza deaths was markedly higher during the 2009 pandemic (peak Conclusions Young age was a principal mortality risk factor due to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

Lemaitre Magali; Carrat Fabrice

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza a (H1N1) 2009 viruses in Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus appeared in Spain on April 25, 2009 for the first time. This new virus was adamantane-resistant but it was sensitive to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir. OBJECTIVES: To detect oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses by the Spanish Influenza Surveillance System (SISS) and a possible spread of oseltamivir-resistant viruses in Spain since starting of the pandemic situation. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 1229 respiratory samples taken from 413 severe and 766 non-severe patients with confirmed viral detection of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses from different Spanish regions were analyzed for the specific detection of the H275Y mutation in NA between April 2009 and May 2010. RESULTS: H275Y NA substitution was found in 8 patients infected with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses collected in November and December 2009 and in January 2010. All oseltamivir-resistant viruses were detected in severe patients (8/413, 1.93%) who previously received treatment with oseltamivir. Six of these patients were immunocompromised. CONCLUSION: In Spain, the number of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses is until now very low. No evidence for any spread of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses is achieved in our Country.

Ledesma J; Vicente D; Pozo F; Cilla G; Castro SP; Fernández JS; Ruiz MP; Navarro JM; Galán JC; Fernández M; Reina J; Larrauri A; Cuevas MT; Casas I; Breña PP

2011-07-01

182

Natality Decline and Miscarriages Associated With the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: The Scandinavian and United States Experiences  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background.?Although pregnancy is a recognized risk factor for severe influenza infection, the effect of influenza on miscarriages and births remains unclear. We examined the relationship between influenza and birth rates during the 1918 pandemic in the United States, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. Methods.?We compiled monthly birth rates from 1911 through 1930 in 3 Scandinavian countries and the United States, identified periods of unusually low or high birth rates, and quantified births as “missing” or “in excess” of the normal expectation. Using monthly influenza data, we correlated the timing of peak pandemic exposure and depressions in birth rates, and identified pregnancy stages at risk of influenza-related miscarriage. Results.?Birth rates declined in all study populations in spring 1919 by a mean of 2.2 births per 1000 persons, representing a 5%–15% drop below baseline levels (P < .05). The 1919 natality depression reached its trough 6.1–6.8 months after the autumn pandemic peak, suggesting that missing births were attributable to excess first trimester miscarriages in ?1 in 10 women who were pregnant during the peak of the pandemic. Pandemic-related mortality was insufficient to explain observed patterns. Conclusions.?The observed birth depressions were consistent with pandemic influenza causing first trimester miscarriages in ?1 in 10 pregnant women. Causality is suggested by temporal synchrony across geographical areas.

Bloom-Feshbach, Kimberly; Simonsen, Lone

2011-01-01

183

Statistical estimates of respiratory admissions attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza for Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Please cite this paper as: Schanzer et al. (2012) Statistical estimates of respiratory admissions attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza for Canada. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12011. Background? The number of admissions to hospital for which influenza is laboratory confirmed is considered to be a substantial underestimate of the true number of admissions due to an influenza infection. During the 2009 pandemic, testing for influenza in hospitalized patients was a priority, but the ascertainment rate remains uncertain. Methods? The discharge abstracts of persons admitted with any respiratory condition were extracted from the Canadian Discharge Abstract Database, for April 2003-March 2010. Stratified, weekly admissions were modeled as a function of viral activity, seasonality, and trend using Poisson regression models. Results? An estimated 1 out of every 6·4 admissions attributable to seasonal influenza (2003-April 2009) were coded to J10 (influenza virus identified). During the 2009 pandemic (May-March 2010), the influenza virus was identified in 1 of 1·6 admissions (95% CI, 1·5-1·7) attributed to the pandemic strain. Compared with previous H1N1 seasons (2007/08, 2008/09), the influenza-attributed hospitalization rate for persons <65?years was approximately six times higher during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, whereas for persons 75?years or older, the pandemic rate was approximately fivefold lower. Conclusions? Case ascertainment was much improved during the pandemic period, with under ascertainment of admissions due to H1N1/2009 limited primarily to patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia. PMID:23122189

Schanzer, Dena L; McGeer, Allison; Morris, Kathleen

2012-11-05

184

Influenza A (H5N1) pandemic prototype vaccine Fluval.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The timely development of safe and effective vaccines is likely to be the single most important public-health tool for decreasing the morbidity, mortality and economic effects of the influenza pandemic. The objective of this article is to provide a detailed description of the chemistry and immunogenicity of one of the better studied inactivated whole-virion aluminum phosphate-adjuvanted vaccines, Fluval (Omninvest, Hungary), while we discuss safety data of all clinical trials published on H5N1 vaccines to date. Fluval was chosen for detailed discussion owing to its immunogenicity after only one dose, the fact that it was one of the very first H5N1 vaccines that demonstrated the potential for dose sparing and, unlike all mainstream oil-in-water adjuvanted reverse genetics-derived H5N1 vaccines, it is whole virion based.

Vajo Z

2009-05-01

185

A perspective on multiple waves of influenza pandemics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A striking characteristic of the past four influenza pandemic outbreaks in the United States has been the multiple waves of infections. However, the mechanisms responsible for the multiple waves of influenza or other acute infectious diseases are uncertain. Understanding these mechanisms could provide knowledge for health authorities to develop and implement prevention and control strategies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We exhibit five distinct mechanisms, each of which can generate two waves of infections for an acute infectious disease. The first two mechanisms capture changes in virus transmissibility and behavioral changes. The third mechanism involves population heterogeneity (e.g., demography, geography), where each wave spreads through one sub-population. The fourth mechanism is virus mutation which causes delayed susceptibility of individuals. The fifth mechanism is waning immunity. Each mechanism is incorporated into separate mathematical models, and outbreaks are then simulated. We use the models to examine the effects of the initial number of infected individuals (e.g., border control at the beginning of the outbreak) and the timing of and amount of available vaccinations. RESULTS: Four models, individually or in any combination, reproduce the two waves of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the United States, both qualitatively and quantitatively. One model reproduces the two waves only qualitatively. All models indicate that significantly reducing or delaying the initial numbers of infected individuals would have little impact on the attack rate. Instead, this reduction or delay results in a single wave as opposed to two waves. Furthermore, four of these models also indicate that a vaccination program started earlier than October 2009 (when the H1N1 vaccine was initially distributed) could have eliminated the second wave of infection, while more vaccine available starting in October would not have eliminated the second wave.

Mummert A; Weiss H; Long LP; Amigó JM; Wan XF

2013-01-01

186

Influenza mortality in the United States, 2009 pandemic: burden, timing and age distribution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In April 2009, the most recent pandemic of influenza A began. We present the first estimates of pandemic mortality based on the newly-released final data on deaths in 2009 and 2010 in the United States. METHODS: We obtained data on influenza and pneumonia deaths from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Age- and sex-specific death rates, and age-standardized death rates, were calculated. Using negative binomial Serfling-type methods, excess mortality was calculated separately by sex and age groups. RESULTS: In many age groups, observed pneumonia and influenza cause-specific mortality rates in October and November 2009 broke month-specific records since 1959 when the current series of detailed US mortality data began. Compared to the typical pattern of seasonal flu deaths, the 2009 pandemic age-specific mortality, as well as influenza-attributable (excess) mortality, skewed much younger. We estimate 2,634 excess pneumonia and influenza deaths in 2009-10; the excess death rate in 2009 was 0.79 per 100,000. CONCLUSIONS: Pandemic influenza mortality skews younger than seasonal influenza. This can be explained by a protective effect due to antigenic cycling. When older cohorts have been previously exposed to a similar antigen, immune memory results in lower death rates at older ages. Age-targeted vaccination of younger people should be considered in future pandemics.

Nguyen AM; Noymer A

2013-01-01

187

The investigation of Risk factors of influenza pandemic H1N1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Influenza pandemic H1N1 is an acute respiratory infectious disease that is combination of two types of influenza virus type A (H1N1). This study aimed to identify risk factors affecting influenza pandemic H1N1. Methods: In this case-control study, the cases were 18 positive cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 and the controls were the patients who were admitted during the same time as the cases to sections of Orthopedics, Urology, Surgery and Women of the same hospital for reasons other than influenza. The data were collected through a form by two experienced nurses and then were fed into SPSS, and were analyzed using independent T-test and chi-square. Results: A significant relationship was observed between pandemic H1N1 influenza infection and a history of domestic travel, contact with confirmed patients, respiratory diseases, and diabetes (P0.05). Conclusion: People with underlying diseases, especially respiratory diseases, diabetes, heart disease and a secondary infection and cardiovascular disease most likely are susceptible to influenza pandemic H1N1.

koorosh Holakooyi Naeini; Reza Chaman; Abbas Rahimi; Masoomeh Javaheri; Abolhasan Nadim; Mohammad Mehdi Gooya; Hasan Mahmoodi; younes mohammadi

2010-01-01

188

Pulmonary Embolism Associated with Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus Infection: a Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On May 15, 2009, the Turkish Ministry of Health reported the first case of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in the Republic of Turkey. Pandemic H1N1virus is a new and mutant influenza virus and has many epidemiologic and clinic features. These cases have been reported in multiple geographic regions of the world. School children are more affected than adults. In the elderly, it has a higher mortality rate. The clinical aspects of infection with H1N1 influenza A virus remains to be understood. A few cases of pulmonary embolism associated with H1N1 influenza A virus infection were reported. We herein report a pulmonary embolism in a patient with pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. A 42-year-old Turkish woman was admitted to our emergency department with dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain. She complained of fever, myalgia, sore throat and cough of four days duration on admission to our hospital. She was tested for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test which revealed a positive result. Chest tomography showed pulmonary embolism. She was successfully treated with intravenous heparin and oseltamivir. This case report demonstrates the importance of considering pulmvonary embolism as a diagnosis in 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus infected persons who present with sudden onset of dyspnea, fever and chest pain.

Ahmet Cumhur Dülger; Serhat Avcu; Harun Arslan; Bülent Özbay; Hülya Günbatar; Mehmet Emin Küçüko?lu; Mehmet Kadir Bart?n

2011-01-01

189

Mortality associated with influenza in tropics, state of sao paulo, Brazil, from 2002 to 2011: the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and post-pandemic periods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of the seasonal influenza and 2009 AH1N1 pandemic influenza on mortality is not yet completely understood, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries. The trends of influenza related mortality rate in different age groups and different outcomes on a area in tropical and subtropical climate with more than 41 million people (State of São Paulo, Brazil), were studied from 2002 to 2011 were studied. Serfling-type regression analysis was performed using weekly mortality registries and virological data obtained from sentinel surveillance. The prepandemic years presented a well-defined seasonality during winter and a clear relationship between activity of AH3N2 and increase of mortality in all ages, especially in individuals older than 60 years. The mortality due to pneumonia and influenza and respiratory causes associated with 2009 pandemic influenza in the age groups 0-4 years and older than 60 was lower than the previous years. Among people aged 5-19 and 20-59 years the mortality was 2.6 and 4.4 times higher than that in previous periods, respectively. The mortality in all ages was higher than the average of the previous years but was equal mortality in epidemics of AH3N2. The 2009 pandemic influenza mortality showed significant differences compared to other years, especially considering the age groups most affected.

Freitas AR; Francisco PM; Donalisio MR

2013-01-01

190

Mortality Associated with Influenza in Tropics, State of S?o Paulo, Brazil, from 2002 to 2011: The Pre-Pandemic, Pandemic, and Post-Pandemic Periods  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of the seasonal influenza and 2009 AH1N1 pandemic influenza on mortality is not yet completely understood, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries. The trends of influenza related mortality rate in different age groups and different outcomes on a area in tropical and subtropical climate with more than 41 million people (State of São Paulo, Brazil), were studied from 2002 to 2011 were studied. Serfling-type regression analysis was performed using weekly mortality registries and virological data obtained from sentinel surveillance. The prepandemic years presented a well-defined seasonality during winter and a clear relationship between activity of AH3N2 and increase of mortality in all ages, especially in individuals older than 60 years. The mortality due to pneumonia and influenza and respiratory causes associated with 2009 pandemic influenza in the age groups 0–4 years and older than 60 was lower than the previous years. Among people aged 5–19 and 20–59 years the mortality was 2.6 and 4.4 times higher than that in previous periods, respectively. The mortality in all ages was higher than the average of the previous years but was equal mortality in epidemics of AH3N2. The 2009 pandemic influenza mortality showed significant differences compared to other years, especially considering the age groups most affected.

Freitas, Andre Ricardo Ribas; Francisco, Priscila M. S. Bergamo; Donalisio, Maria Rita

2013-01-01

191

Mortality burden of the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in France: comparison to seasonal influenza and the A/H3N2 pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The mortality burden of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic remains unclear in many countries due to delays in reporting of death statistics. We estimate the age- and cause-specific excess mortality impact of the pandemic in France, relative to that of other countries and past epidemic and pandemic seasons. METHODS: We applied Serfling and Poisson excess mortality approaches to model weekly age- and cause-specific mortality rates from June 1969 through May 2010 in France. Indicators of influenza activity, time trends, and seasonal terms were included in the models. We also reviewed the literature for country-specific estimates of 2009 pandemic excess mortality rates to characterize geographical differences in the burden of this pandemic. RESULTS: The 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic was associated with 1.0 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI) 0.2-1.9) excess respiratory deaths per 100,000 population in France, compared to rates per 100,000 of 44 (95% CI 43-45) for the A/H3N2 pandemic and 2.9 (95% CI 2.3-3.7) for average inter-pandemic seasons. The 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic had a 10.6-fold higher impact than inter-pandemic seasons in people aged 5-24 years and 3.8-fold lower impact among people over 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: The 2009 pandemic in France had low mortality impact in most age groups, relative to past influenza seasons, except in school-age children and young adults. The historical A/H3N2 pandemic was associated with much larger mortality impact than the 2009 pandemic, across all age groups and outcomes. Our 2009 pandemic excess mortality estimates for France fall within the range of previous estimates for high-income regions. Based on the analysis of several mortality outcomes and comparison with laboratory-confirmed 2009/H1N1 deaths, we conclude that cardio-respiratory and all-cause mortality lack precision to accurately measure the impact of this pandemic in high-income settings and that use of more specific mortality outcomes is important to obtain reliable age-specific estimates.

Lemaitre M; Carrat F; Rey G; Miller M; Simonsen L; Viboud C

2012-01-01

192

Rhinoviruses as an underestimated cause of influenza-like illness in pregnancy during the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic, pregnant women were identified at high risk for severe infection. In case of influenza-like illness they were systematically treated with oseltamivir. When performed, virological diagnosis showed that some of these women were not influenza-infected. The objectives of the study were to identify viruses which could induce an influenza-like illness in pregnant women during the 2009-2010 pandemic, then to establish possible links between detected viruses and symptoms, and then characterize human rhinoviruses (HRV) strains detected in some samples. Nasal swabs from 78 pregnant women presenting with influenza-like illness and previously tested for influenza virus by RT-PCR in 2009-2010 were further assayed by multiplex RespiFinder assay and bocavirus PCR to search for 13 other viruses. Genotyping of HRV strains was carried out using partial genomic sequencing in the VP4/VP2 region. Influenza A virus infection was confirmed in 33 women (42%). Non-influenza viruses were detected in 18 additional cases (23%). Rhinoviruses were the most numerous (13%) and belonged to 9 different genotypes distributed between the 3 genogroups. When comparing symptoms observed in influenza-infected women and women infected by other viruses, shivers were more frequent in the former group (P=0.02), and expectorations in the latter (P=0.03). During the influenza pandemic 2009-2010, non-influenza viruses and mostly rhinoviruses were an underestimated cause of influenza-like illness in pregnant women. Viral diagnosis should help to stop empiric oseltamivir therapy in influenza-negative patients and antibiotic treatment in patients infected with a non-influenza virus.

Pilorgé L; Chartier M; Méritet JF; Cervantes M; Tsatsaris V; Launay O; Rozenberg F; Krivine A

2013-08-01

193

Cross sectional survey of influenza antibodies before and during the 2009 pandemic in Shenzhen, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Much information is available for the 2009 H1N1 influenza immunity response, but little is known about the antibody change in seasonal influenza before and during the novel influenza A pandemic. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional serological survey of 4 types of major seasonal influenza in March and September 2009 on a full range of age groups, to investigate seasonal influenza immunity response before and during the outbreak of the sH1N1 influenza in Shenzhen - the largest migration city in China. We found that the 0-5 age group had an increased antibody level for all types of seasonal influenza during the pandemic compared to the pre-outbreak level, in contrast with almost all other age groups, in which the antibody level decreased. Also, distinct from the antibodies of A/H3N2, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria that decreased significantly during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the antibody of A/H1N1 showed no statistical difference from the pre-outbreak level. The results suggest that the antibodies against the 2009 sH1N1 cross-reacted with seasonal H1N1. Moreover, the 0-5 age group was under attack by both seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza during the pandemic, hence vaccination merely against a new strain of flu might not be enough to protect the youngest group.

Wu CL; Lu J; Wang MH; Lv X; Chen Y; Kung HF; Zee B; Cheng XW; He ML

2013-01-01

194

Cross Sectional Survey of Influenza Antibodies before and during the 2009 Pandemic in Shenzhen, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Much information is available for the 2009 H1N1 influenza immunity response, but little is known about the antibody change in seasonal influenza before and during the novel influenza A pandemic. In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional serological survey of 4 types of major seasonal influenza in March and September 2009 on a full range of age groups, to investigate seasonal influenza immunity response before and during the outbreak of the sH1N1 influenza in Shenzhen – the largest migration city in China. We found that the 0–5 age group had an increased antibody level for all types of seasonal influenza during the pandemic compared to the pre-outbreak level, in contrast with almost all other age groups, in which the antibody level decreased. Also, distinct from the antibodies of A/H3N2, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria that decreased significantly during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, the antibody of A/H1N1 showed no statistical difference from the pre-outbreak level. The results suggest that the antibodies against the 2009 sH1N1 cross-reacted with seasonal H1N1. Moreover, the 0–5 age group was under attack by both seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza during the pandemic, hence vaccination merely against a new strain of flu might not be enough to protect the youngest group.

Lv, Xing; Chen, Ying; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Zee, Benny; Cheng, Xiao-wen; He, Ming-Liang

2013-01-01

195

Interleukin-6 Is a Potential Biomarker for Severe Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pandemic H1N1 influenza A (H1N1pdm) is currently a dominant circulating influenza strain worldwide. Severe cases of H1N1pdm infection are characterized by prolonged activation of the immune response, yet the specific role of inflammatory mediators in disease is poorly understood. The inflammatory cy...

Paquette, Stéphane G.; Banner, David; Zhao, Zhen; Fang, Yuan; Huang, Stephen S. H.; Le?n, Alberto J.; Ng, Derek C. K.

196

Pandemic H1N1 influenza: zoonoses are a two-way street  

Science.gov (United States)

Influenza is a zoonotic viral disease representing a worldwide health and economic threat to humans and animals. Swine influenza was first recognized clinically in pigs in the Midwestern United States in 1918 concurrent with the Spanish flu human pandemic. Since the first report that flu was caused ...

197

Risk of fetal death after pandemic influenza infection or vaccination during pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic, pregnant women were at particular risk of serious influenza illness. This concern was further complicated by questions about vaccine safety in pregnant women raised by anecdotal reports of fetal deaths following vaccination. Methods We explored the safety of influenza vaccination of pregnant women by linking Norwegian national registries and medical consultation data to determine influenza diagnosis, vaccination status, birth outcomes, and background information for pregnant women before, during, and after the pandemic. We used Cox regression models to estimate hazard ratios of fetal death, with gestational day as the time metric and vaccination and pandemic exposure as time-dependent exposure variables. Results There were 117,347 eligible pregnancies in Norway in 2009–2010. Fetal mortality was 4.9/1000. 54% of pregnant women in their second or third trimester during the pandemic were vaccinated. Vaccination in pregnancy substantially reduced the risk of influenza diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.34). A clinical diagnosis of influenza in the mother increased the risk of fetal death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.07 to 3.41). Among pregnant women, the risk of fetal death was lower with vaccination, although this reduction was not statistically significant (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.17). Conclusions Pandemic influenza in pregnancy was associated with increased risk of fetal death. Vaccination during pregnancy reduced the risk of influenza diagnosis. Vaccination itself did not increase fetal mortality, and may have reduced the risk of influenza-related fetal death during the pandemic.

Haberg, Siri E; Trogstad, Lill; Gunnes, Nina; Wilcox, Allen J.; Gjessing, Hakon K.; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Skrondal, Anders; Cappelen, Inger; Engeland, Anders; Aavitsland, Preben; Madsen, Steinar; Buajordet, Ingebj?rg; Furu, Kari; Nafstad, Per; Vollset, Stein Emil; Berit, Feiring; N?kleby, Hanne; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla

2013-01-01

198

Novel framework for assessing epidemiologic effects of influenza epidemics and pandemics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of influenza on a population are attributable to the clinical severity of illness and the number of persons infected, which can vary greatly between seasons or pandemics. To create a systematic framework for assessing the public health effects of an emerging pandemic, we reviewed data from past influenza seasons and pandemics to characterize severity and transmissibility (based on ranges of these measures in the United States) and outlined a formal assessment of the potential effects of a novel virus. The assessment was divided into 2 periods. Because early in a pandemic, measurement of severity and transmissibility is uncertain, we used a broad dichotomous scale in the initial assessment to divide the range of historic values. In the refined assessment, as more data became available, we categorized those values more precisely. By organizing and prioritizing data collection, this approach may inform an evidence-based assessment of pandemic effects and guide decision making.

Reed C; Biggerstaff M; Finelli L; Koonin LM; Beauvais D; Uzicanin A; Plummer A; Bresee J; Redd SC; Jernigan DB

2013-01-01

199

Pandemic planning and response in academic pediatric emergency departments during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, initiated a shift toward a comprehensive, or "all-hazards," framework of emergency preparedness in the United States. Since then, the threat of H5N1 avian influenza, the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic, and the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic have underscored the importance of considering infectious events within such a framework. Pediatric emergency departments (EDs) were disproportionately burdened by the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and therefore serve as a robust context for evaluation of pandemic preparedness. The objective of this study was to explore pediatric ED leaders' experiences with preparedness, response, and postincident actions related to the H1N1 pandemic to inform future pandemic and all-hazards planning and policy for EDs. METHODS: The authors selected a qualitative design, well suited for exploring complex, multifaceted organizational processes such as planning for and responding to a pandemic and learning from institutional experiences. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit medical directors or their designated physician respondents from pediatric emergency medicine training institutions representing a range of geographic regions across the United States, hospital types, and annual ED volumes; snowball sampling identified additional information-rich respondents. Recruitment began in May 2011 and continued until thematic saturation was reached in January 2012 (n = 20). Data were collected through in-depth individual phone interviews that were recorded and professionally transcribed. Using a standard interview guide, respondents were asked open-ended questions about pandemic planning, response, and institutional learning related to the H1N1 pandemic. Data analysis was performed by a multidisciplinary team using a grounded theory approach to generate themes inductively from respondents' expressed perspectives. The constant comparative method was used to identify emerging themes. RESULTS: Five common themes characterized respondents' experiences with pandemic planning and response: 1) national pandemic influenza preparedness guidance has not fully penetrated to the level of pediatric emergency physician (EP) leaders, leading to variable states of preparedness; 2) pediatric EDs that maintained strong relationships with local public health and other health care entities found those relationships to be beneficial to pandemic response; 3) pediatric EP leaders reported difficulty reconciling public health guidance with the reality of ED practice; 4) although many anticipated obstacles did not materialize, in some cases pediatric EP leaders experienced unexpected institutional challenges; and 5) pediatric EP leaders described varied experiences with organizational learning following the H1N1 pandemic experience. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a decade of investment in hospital preparedness, gaps in pediatric ED pandemic preparedness remain. This work suggests that raising awareness of pandemic planning standards and promoting strategies to overcome barriers to their adoption could enhance ED and hospital preparedness. Helping hospitals better prepare for pandemic events may lead to strengthened all-hazards preparedness.

Filice CE; Vaca FE; Curry L; Platis S; Lurie N; Bogucki S

2013-01-01

200

Pandemic influenza control in Europe and the constraints resulting from incoherent public health laws  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background With the emergence of influenza H1N1v the world is facing its first 21st century global pandemic. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and avian influenza H5N1 prompted development of pandemic preparedness plans. National systems of public health law are essential for public health stewardship and for the implementation of public health policy1. International coherence will contribute to effective regional and global responses. However little research has been undertaken on how law works as a tool for disease control in Europe. With co-funding from the European Union, we investigated the extent to which laws across Europe support or constrain pandemic preparedness planning, and whether national differences are likely to constrain control efforts. Methods We undertook a survey of national public health laws across 32 European states using a questionnaire designed around a disease scenario based on pandemic influenza. Questionnaire results were reviewed in workshops, analysing how differences between national laws might support or hinder regional responses to pandemic influenza. Respondents examined the impact of national laws on the movements of information, goods, services and people across borders in a time of pandemic, the capacity for surveillance, case detection, case management and community control, the deployment of strategies of prevention, containment, mitigation and recovery and the identification of commonalities and disconnects across states. Results Results of this study show differences across Europe in the extent to which national pandemic policy and pandemic plans have been integrated with public health laws. We found significant differences in legislation and in the legitimacy of strategic plans. States differ in the range and the nature of intervention measures authorized by law, the extent to which borders could be closed to movement of persons and goods during a pandemic, and access to healthcare of non-resident persons. Some states propose use of emergency powers that might potentially override human rights protections while other states propose to limit interventions to those authorized by public health laws. Conclusion These differences could create problems for European strategies if an evolving influenza pandemic results in more serious public health challenges or, indeed, if a novel disease other than influenza emerges with pandemic potential. There is insufficient understanding across Europe of the role and importance of law in pandemic planning. States need to build capacity in public health law to support disease prevention and control policies. Our research suggests that states would welcome further guidance from the EU on management of a pandemic, and guidance to assist in greater commonality of legal approaches across states.

Martin Robyn; Conseil Alexandra; Longstaff Abie; Kodo Jimmy; Siegert Joachim; Duguet Anne-Marie; Lobato de Faria Paula; Haringhuizen George; Espin Jaime; Coker Richard

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Transmission and control of an emerging influenza pandemic in a small-world airline network.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The avian influenza virus H5N1 and the 2009 swine flu H1N1 are potentially serious pandemic threats to human health, and air travel readily facilitates the spread of infectious diseases. However, past studies have not yet incorporated the effects of air travel on the transmission of influenza in the construction of mathematical epidemic models. Therefore, this paper focused on the human-to-human transmission of influenza, and investigated the effects of air travel activities on an influenza pandemic in a small-world network. These activities of air travel include passengers' consolidation, conveyance and distribution in airports and flights. Dynamic transmission models were developed to assess the expected burdens of the pandemic, with and without control measures. This study also investigated how the small-world properties of an air transportation network facilitate the spread of influenza around the globe. The results show that, as soon as the influenza is spread to the top 50 global airports, the transmission is greatly accelerated. Under the constraint of limited resources, a strategy that first applies control measures to the top 50 airports after day 13 and then soon afterwards to all other airports may result in remarkable containment effectiveness. As the infectiousness of the disease increases, it will expand the scale of the pandemic, and move the start time of the pandemic ahead.

Hsu CI; Shih HH

2010-01-01

202

Serologic evidence of pandemic influenza virus H1N1 2009 infection in cats in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infection of domestic cats with (H1N1) pandemic 2009 (pdm09) influenza A virus has recently been documented. In this paper, we report for the first time the sporadically current seroprevalence of (H1N1) pdm09 influenza A virus infection in cats in China. Thirteen of 1,080 sera were found positive by nucleoprotein (NP)-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in different cat populations in southern China. It is very important to stress further surveillance of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus in cats in southern China.

Su S; Yuan L; Li H; Chen J; Xie J; Huang Z; Jia K; Li S

2013-01-01

203

Human monoclonal antibodies to pandemic 1957 H2N2 and pandemic 1968 H3N2 influenza viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigation of the human antibody response to the 1957 pandemic H2N2 influenza A virus has been largely limited to serologic studies. We generated five influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA)-reactive human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) by hybridoma technology from the peripheral blood of healthy donors who were born between 1950 and 1968. Two MAbs reacted with the pandemic H2N2 virus, two recognized the pandemic H3N2 virus, and remarkably, one reacted with both the pandemic H2N2 and H3N2 viruses. Each of these five naturally occurring MAbs displayed hemagglutination inhibition activity, suggesting specificity for the globular head domain of influenza virus HA. When incubated with virus, MAbs 8F8, 8M2, and 2G1 each elicited H2N2 escape mutations immediately adjacent to the receptor-binding domain on the HA globular head in embryonated chicken eggs. All H2N2-specific MAbs were able to inhibit a 2006 swine H2N3 influenza virus. MAbs 8M2 and 2G1 shared the V(H)1-69 germ line gene, but these antibodies were otherwise not genetically related. Each antibody was able to protect mice in a lethal H2N2 virus challenge. Thus, even 43 years after circulation of H2N2 viruses, these subjects possessed peripheral blood B cells encoding potent inhibiting antibodies specific for a conserved region on the globular head of the pandemic H2 HA. PMID:22457520

Krause, Jens C; Tsibane, Tshidi; Tumpey, Terrence M; Huffman, Chelsey J; Albrecht, Randy; Blum, David L; Ramos, Irene; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Edwards, Kathryn M; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Basler, Christopher F; Crowe, James E

2012-03-28

204

Impaired dendritic cell maturation in response to pandemic H1N109 influenza virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Infection with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus led to hospitalisation of patients not expected to be at risk of severe disease from seasonal influenza infection. OBJECTIVES: We sought to establish whether (i) DC maturation was compromised in patients experiencing severe pandemic influenza infection, (ii) the pandemic virus differed from seasonal influenza virus in its ability to induce DC maturation and (iii) there was an associated inability to activate memory B cells or induce antibody. STUDY DESIGN: Peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMCs) cells were sampled from individuals with confirmed acute pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza infection or from healthy vaccinated controls. DCs were differentiated from the PBMC and tested for their ability to mature following stimulation with pandemic virus, seasonal H3N2 influenza virus or LPS. Serum samples from the patients were used to assess seroconversion to influenza and the levels of influenza specific memory B cells in PBMC were also determined. RESULTS: DCs obtained from all individuals exhibited negligible maturation marker upregulation when exposed to pandemic A/H1N1/2009 virus but showed a strong response to the seasonal H3N2 virus and LPS. Robust levels of memory B cell were obtained in both groups and patients seroconverted to the virus. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the ability of patient's DC to mature in response to different stimuli was no different to that of control subjects DCs. Importantly, panH1N109 virus failed to induce substantial DC maturation in any individual, contrasting with seasonal virus, but this did not result in failure to mount memory B cell and antibody responses to the virus.

Chin R; Earnest-Silviera L; Gordon CL; Olsen K; Barr I; Brown LE; Jackson DC; Torresi J

2013-03-01

205

Use of animal models to understand the pandemic potential of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been 40 years since the last influenza pandemic and it is generally considered that another could occur at any time. Recent introductions of influenza A viruses from avian sources into the human population have raised concerns that these viruses may be a source of a future pandemic strain. Therefore, there is a need to better understand the pathogenicity of avian influenza viruses for mammalian species so that we may be better able to predict the pandemic potential of such viruses and develop improved methods for their prevention and control. In this review, we describe the virulence of H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses in the mouse and ferret models. The use of these models is providing exciting new insights into the contribution of virus and host responses toward avian influenza viruses, virus tropism, and virus transmissibility. Identifying the role of individual viral gene products and mapping the molecular determinants that influence the severity of disease observed following avian influenza virus infection is dependent on the use of reliable animal models. As avian influenza viruses continue to cause human disease and death, animal pathogenesis studies identify avenues of investigation for novel preventative and therapeutic agents that could be effective in the event of a future pandemic.

Belser JA; Szretter KJ; Katz JM; Tumpey TM

2009-01-01

206

Simulating the Spread of Influenza Pandemic of 2009 Considering International Traffic  

CERN Multimedia

Pandemics have the potential to cause immense disruption and damage to communities and societies. In this paper, we model the Influenza Pandemic of 2009. We propose a hybrid model to determine how the pandemic spreads through the world. The model considers both the SEIR-based model for local areas and the network model for global connection between countries referring to data on international travelers. Our interest is to reproduce the situation using the data of early stage of pandemic and to predict the future transition by extending the simulation cycle. Without considering the tendency of seasonal flu, the simulation does not predict the second peak of the pandemic in the real world. However, considering the seasonal tendency, the simulation result predicts the next peak in winter. Thus we consider the seasonal tendency is an important factor for the spreading of the pandemic.

Yoneyama, Teruhiko

2010-01-01

207

Burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza-associated hospitalization during and after 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic in a rural community in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Influenza is vaccine-preventable; however, the burden of severe influenza in India remains unknown. We conducted a population-based study to estimate the incidence of laboratory confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations in a rural community in western India. METHODS: We conducted active surveillance for hospitalized patients with acute medical illnesses or acute chronic disease exacerbations in Pune during pandemic and post pandemic periods (May 2009-April 2011). Nasal and throat swabs were tested for influenza viruses. A community health utilization survey estimated the proportion of residents hospitalized with respiratory illness at non-study facilities and was used to adjust incidence estimates from facility-based surveillance. RESULTS: Among 9,426 hospitalizations, 3,391 (36%) patients were enrolled; 665 of 3,179 (20.9%) tested positive for influenza. Of 665 influenza positives, 340 (51%) were pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 and 327 (49%) were seasonal, including A/H3 (16%), A/H1 (3%) and influenza B (30%). The proportion of patients with influenza peaked during August 2009 (39%) and 2010 (42%). The adjusted annual incidence of influenza hospitalizations was 46.8/10,000 during pandemic and 40.5/10,000 during post-pandemic period with comparable incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 during both periods (18.8 and 20.3, respectively). The incidence of both pH1N1 and seasonal hospitalized influenza disease was highest in the 5-29 year olds. CONCLUSIONS: We document the previously unrecognized burden of influenza hospitalization in a rural community following the emergence of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in India. During peak periods of influenza activity circulation i.e during the monsoon period, 20% of all hospital admissions in the community had influenza positivity. These findings can inform development of influenza prevention and control strategies in India.

Chadha MS; Hirve S; Dawood FS; Lele P; Deoshatwar A; Sambhudas S; Juvekar S; LaFond KE; Mott JA; Lal RB; Mishra AC

2013-01-01

208

Pandemic influenza H1N1 outbreak in the military school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIM: The first cases of the pandemic pH1N1 influenza virus infection was observed in the Unated States and Mexico in April 2009 and the first laboratory confirmed case in Serbia was registered in June 2009. The aim of this paper was to report on the investigation of the first confirmed outbreak of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza in Serbia and to describe the clinical and epidemiologic findings from this investigation. METHODS: Descriptive and analytical epidemiological methods were used. Data were collected from medical records of the Military School students and epidemiological questionnaire. Pandemic H1N1 infection was initially confirmed by the RT-PCR assay in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs and subsequently by the complement fixation test in serum samples. RESULTS: The attack rate of acute respiratory illness was 70.8% (204/288). Pandemic H1N1 virus infection was confirmed in 44 of 82 tested cases of acute respiratory illness (53.7%) The most common clinical manifestations of pandemic influenza H1N1 were fever (88.6%/), cough (61.4%/o), malaise (38.6%/), runny nose (36.4%), headache (29.60/%), sore throat (20.50/%) and muscle pain (15.9%). CONCLUSION: The findings from this investigation suggest that pandemic H1N1 influenza in a high military school was widespread but did not cause severe illness.

Mladenovi? J; Cekanac R; Lazi? S; Jadranin Z; Dimitrije T; Nedeljkovi? J; Pavlovi? M

2013-06-01

209

Pandemic influenza H1N1 outbreak in the military school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. The first cases of the pandemic pH1N1 influenza virus infection was observed in the United States and Mexico in April 2009 and the first laboratory confirmed case in Serbia was registered in June 2009. The aim of this paper was to report on the investigation of the first confirmed outbreak of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza in Serbia and to describe the clinical and epidemiologic findings from this investigation. Methods. Descriptive and analytical epidemiological methods were used. Data were collected from medical records of the Military School students and epidemiological questionnaire. Pandemic H1N1 infection was initially confirmed by the RT-PCR assay in nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs and subsequently by the complement fixation test in serum samples. Results. The attack rate of acute respiratory illness was 70.8% (204/288). Pandemic H1N1 virus infection was confirmed in 44 of 82 tested cases of acute respiratory illness (53.7%) The most common clinical manifestations of pandemic influenza H1N1 were fever (88.6%), cough (61.4%), malaise (38.6%), runny nose (36.4%), headache (29.6%), sore throat (20.5%) and muscle pain (15.9%). Conclusion. The findings from this investigation suggest that pandemic H1N1 influenza in a high military school was widespread but did not cause severe illness.

Mladenovi? Jovan; ?ekanac Radovan; Lazi? Sr?an; Jadranin Željko; Dimitrije Tasi?; Nedeljkovi? Jasminka; Pavlovi? Miroslav

2013-01-01

210

The possible macroeconomic impact on the UK of an influenza pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little is known about the possible impact of an influenza pandemic on a nation's economy. We applied the UK macroeconomic model 'COMPACT' to epidemiological data on previous UK influenza pandemics, and extrapolated a sensitivity analysis to cover more extreme disease scenarios. Analysis suggests that the economic impact of a repeat of the 1957 or 1968 pandemics, allowing for school closures, would be short-lived, constituting a loss of 3.35 and 0.58% of GDP in the first pandemic quarter and year, respectively. A more severe scenario (with more than 1% of the population dying) could yield impacts of 21 and 4.5%, respectively. The economic shockwave would be gravest when absenteeism (through school closures) increases beyond a few weeks, creating policy repercussions for influenza pandemic planning as the most severe economic impact is due to policies to contain the pandemic rather than the pandemic itself.Accounting for changes in consumption patterns made in an attempt to avoid infection worsens the potential impact. Our mild disease scenario then shows first quarter/first year reductions in GDP of 9.5/2.5%, compared with our severe scenario reductions of 29.5/6%. These results clearly indicate the significance of behavioural change over disease parameters.

Keogh-Brown MR; Wren-Lewis S; Edmunds WJ; Beutels P; Smith RD

2010-11-01

211

Analysis of suspected adverse reactions following immunization against pandemic influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. The surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization was aimed at recording all adverse events possibly related with vaccines. During the implementation of immunization strategy against pandemic influenza A(H1N1) in 2009, the post-marketing comprehensive surveillance was suggested to be conducted due to limited clinical experience in applying this particular vaccine and because of the fact that some vaccines had been licensed only on the basis of the data regarding their quality. Material and Methods. The passive surveillance on adverse events following immunization was conducted simultaneously with immunization campaign against pandemic influenza in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Reporting of adverse events was conducted by health care service through a specially designed questionnaire Results. In the period from December 17th 2009 to February 7th 2010, of the total number of 55720 people who were vaccinated, 50433 received one dose and 5287 received two doses of vaccine. The total number of doses administered was 61007. During the observed period, some adverse reactions were recorded in 37 people, the rate of occurrence of adverse reactions being 6.6 per 10.000 vaccinated. Since the majority of patients had several symptoms and signs, the number of recorded clinical manifestations was much higher (140) than the number of patients with reactions. The dominant symptoms and signs were fever (51.4%), weakness/fatigue (48.6%), headache (40.5%) and myalgia (31.5%). The reactions in the majority of patients were mild and transient. Only two patients sought medical care and one was hospitalized. Since the immunization coverage was very small, it was not possible to record rare adverse events, whose expected incidence is, anyway, very low. Conclusion. Surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization represents an important component of immunization program, especially when new vaccines are introduced. Therefore, this form of surveillance in our country needs further improvement in order to provide more complete information on occurrence and characteristics of adverse reactions following immunization.

Petrovi? Vladimir; Šeguljev Zorica; Medi? Snežana; Risti? Mioljub; Tomi? Sla?ana; Cveti? Gordana

2011-01-01

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Effectiveness of seasonal 2008-2009, 2009-2010 and pandemic vaccines, to prevent influenza hospitalizations during the autumn 2009 influenza pandemic wave in Castellon, Spain. A test-negative, hospital-based, case-control study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We estimate the impact of the two previous influenza seasonal vaccines and the pandemic vaccine on risk of A (H1N1) 2009 laboratory confirmed hospitalizations during the autumn 2009 pandemic wave in Castellón, Spain. We conducted a test-negative, hospital-based, case-control study. Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection was detected in 147 (44%) of 334 patients hospitalized for a presumptive influenza related illness. No effect was observed for the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasonal influenza vaccines. However, the pandemic vaccine was associated with an adjusted vaccine effectiveness of 90% (95% CI, 48-100%). Pandemic vaccines were effective in preventing pandemic influenza associated hospitalizations.

Puig-Barberà J; Arnedo-Pena A; Pardo-Serrano F; Tirado-Balaguer MD; Pérez-Vilar S; Silvestre-Silvestre E; Calvo-Mas C; Safont-Adsuara L; Ruiz-García M

2010-11-01

213

[Trends in the spread of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) swl in the Far East in 2009  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper describes the trend in the spread of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) swl virus in the Far East, which started in this region 2-3 months later than that in the European part of Russia. By mid-October seasonal epidemic influenza was practically displaced by pandemic one.

Shchelkanov MIu; L'vov DN; Fediakina IT; Baranov NI; Gorelikov VN; Reznik VIa; Zdanovskaia NI; Pukhovskaia NM; Avdoshina LN; Shapiro NI; Snetkova IP; Kozhan VN; Iarovenko GM; Kalaeva EE; Gromova MA; Elovski? OV; Eremeeva IuV; Dovgal' MA; Kuchenkov AA; Anan'ev VIu; Burtnik VI; Ivanov LI; Garbuz IuA; Podolianko IA; Grigor'ev SN; Proshina ES; Samokhvalov EI; Al'khovski? SV; Burtseva EI; Prilipov AG; Abbasova EI; Mironenko ES; Kolobukhina LV; Deriabin PG; Ott VA; Maslov DV; Ianovich VA; L'vov DK

2010-05-01

214

Public health and economic impact of vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in the context of the annual influenza epidemic and a severe influenza pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza pandemic outbreaks occurred in the US in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Historical evidence suggests that the majority of influenza-related deaths during the 1918 US pandemic were attributable to bacterial pneumococcal infections. The 2009 novel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak highlights the importance of interventions that may mitigate the impact of a pandemic. Methods A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate the impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal disease incidence and mortality during a typical influenza season (13/100) and a severe influenza pandemic (30/100). Outcomes were compared for current PCV7 vaccination practices vs. no vaccination. The model was estimated using published sources and includes indirect (herd) protection of non-vaccinated persons. Results The model predicts that PCV7 vaccination in the US is cost saving for a normal influenza season, reducing pneumococcal-related costs by $1.6 billion. In a severe influenza pandemic, vaccination would save $7.3 billion in costs and prevent 512,000 cases of IPD, 719,000 cases of pneumonia, 62,000 IPD deaths, and 47,000 pneumonia deaths; 84% of deaths are prevented due to indirect (herd) protection in the unvaccinated. Conclusions PCV7 vaccination is highly effective and cost saving in both normal and severe pandemic influenza seasons. Current infant vaccination practices may prevent >1 million pneumococcal-related deaths in a severe influenza pandemic, primarily due to herd protection.

Rubin Jaime L; McGarry Lisa J; Klugman Keith P; Strutton David R; Gilmore Kristen E; Weinstein Milton C

2010-01-01

215

Pandemic and post-pandemic influenza A (H1N1) seasons in a tertiary care university hospital-high rate of complications compared to previous influenza seasons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The aim was to study the characteristics and case severity of patients hospitalized for influenza with a pandemic strain at a German tertiary care university hospital in 2009/10 and 2010/11 and to compare them to two previous influenza seasons. METHODS: An observational study of all patients hospitalized for laboratory-confirmed influenza during the last four influenza seasons at Regensburg University Hospital was undertaken. RESULTS: During the last four seasons, a rising number of patients were admitted due to influenza (4 in 2007/8, 16 in 2008/9, 27 in 2009/10, and 55 in 2010/11). Patients seen in the last two seasons were younger (median age 63 years in 2007/8, 52 years in 2008/9, 42 years in 2009/10, and 48 years in 2010/11) (p = 0.046) and presented with a lower rate of major comorbidities (75 % in 2007/8, 62.5 % in 2008/9, 37 % in 2009/10, and 47.3 % in 2010/11). The pandemic and post-pandemic seasons were characterized by a high rate of seriously ill patients with longer hospitalizations (11 days in 2007/8, 7 days in 2008/9, 22 days in 2009/10 and 2010/11) (p = 0.004) and higher rates of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (25 % in 2007/8, 18.8 % in 2008/9, 66.7 % in 2009/10, and 52.7 % in 2010/11) (p = 0.003) and mechanical ventilation (25 % in 2007/8, 6.3 % in 2008/9, 63 % in 2009/10, and 49.1 % in 2010/11) (p < 0.001). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was necessary in 33.3 % of patients in 2009/10 and 25.5 % in 2010/11. We had six fatalities in both pandemic and post-pandemic seasons. CONCLUSION: Compared to seasonal influenza, we observed even more so in the post-pandemic than the pandemic season a higher number of younger patients, with less serious comorbidities often showing a very severe course.

Bauernfeind S; Bruennler T; Ehrenstein B; Langgartner J; Wenzel JJ; Werner S; Lubnow M; Mueller T; Floerchinger B; Salzberger B

2013-02-01

216

Influenza surveillance in the Pacific Island countries and territories during the 2009 pandemic: an observational study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) have been more severely affected by influenza pandemics than any other part of the world. We herein describe the emergence and epidemiologic characteristics of pandemic influenza H1N1 in PICTs from 2009 to 2010. Methods The World Health Organization gathered reports of influenza-like-illness and laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases from all 23 Pacific island countries and territories, from April 2009 through August 2010. Data were gathered through weekly email reports from Pacific island countries and territories and through email or telephone follow-up. Results Pacific island countries and territories started detecting pandemic H1N1 cases in June 2009, firstly in French Polynesia, with the last new detection occurring in August 2009 in Tuvalu. Nineteen Pacific island countries and territories reported 1,972 confirmed cases, peaking in August 2009. No confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases were identified in Niue, Pitcairn and Tokelau; the latter instituted strict maritime quarantine. Influenza-like-illness surveillance showed trends similar to surveillance of confirmed cases. Seven Pacific island countries and territories reported 21 deaths of confirmed pandemic H1N1. Case-patients died of acute respiratory distress syndrome or multi-organ failure, or both. The most reported pre-existing conditions were obesity, lung disease, heart disease, and pregnancy. Pacific island countries and territories instituted a variety of mitigation measures, including arrival health screening. Multiple partners facilitated influenza preparedness planning and outbreak response. Conclusions Pandemic influenza spread rapidly throughout the Pacific despite enormous distances and relative isolation. Tokelau and Pitcairn may be the only jurisdictions to have remained pandemic-free. Despite being well-prepared, Pacific island countries and territories experienced significant morbidity and mortality, consistent with other indigenous and low-resource settings. For the first time, regional influenza-like-illness surveillance was conducted in the Pacific, allowing health authorities to monitor the pandemic’s spread and severity in real-time. Future regional outbreak responses will likely benefit from the lessons learned during this outbreak.

Kool Jacobus Leen; Pavlin Boris Igor; Musto Jennie; Dawainavesi Akanisi

2013-01-01

217

Treatment with oseltamivir and prone positioning for a 9-year-old boy with ARDS caused by pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here we report the case of a 9-year-old boy with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by novel H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus A. A diagnosis of ARDS caused by a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus was made on the basis of chest X-ray and computed tomography together with low oxygenation index (OI) and the detection of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus from tracheal secretion samples. Oseltamivir phosphate and prone positioning were effective in the treatment of ARDS in this case. These findings suggest that anti-viral drugs and prone positioning can play an important role in the improvement of ARDS caused by novel H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus A.

Suyama K; Kawasaki Y; Suzuki Y; Ishii K; Sakai N; Sato M; Hashimoto K; Hosoya M

2013-06-01

218

Principles and Methods for Vaccine Epidemiology: Evaluation of Immunogenicity and Effectiveness of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Vaccine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenza vaccination is the most effective method of preventing influenza and its complications. In the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, monovalent strain-specific pandemic vaccines were developed rapidly. However, they were only available in limited supply at the initial stage of the vaccination campaign. Thus, tiered use of vaccines, after careful prioritization and determination of dose per individual, was important to maximize the benefit of the available doses. In this study, the principles and methods of epidemiological evaluation of influenza vaccines were investigated, focusing on the immunogenicity and effectiveness. The results of the study of the 2009/H1N1 pandemic will then be detailed.

Hara M; Ohfuji S; Fukushima W; Hirota Y

2013-01-01

219

Description of antiviral treatment among adults hospitalized with influenza before and during the 2009 pandemic: United States, 2005-2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The 2009 influenza pandemic led to guidelines emphasizing antiviral treatment for all persons hospitalized with influenza, including pregnant women. We compared antiviral use among adults hospitalized with influenza before and during the pandemic. METHODS: The Emerging Infections Program conducts active population-based surveillance for persons hospitalized with community-acquired, laboratory-confirmed influenza in 10 states. We analyzed data collected via medical record review of patients aged ?18 years admitted during prepandemic (1 October 2005 through 14 April 2009) and pandemic (15 April 2009 through 31 December 2009) time frames. RESULTS: Of 5943 adults hospitalized with influenza in prepandemic seasons, 3235 (54%) received antiviral treatment, compared with 4055 (82%) of 4966 during the pandemic. Forty-one (22%) of 187 pregnant women received antiviral treatment in prepandemic seasons, compared with 369 (86%) of 430 during the pandemic. Pregnancy was a negative predictor of antiviral treatment before the pandemic (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], .16-.35) but was independently associated with treatment during the pandemic (aOR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.32-2.96). Antiviral treatment among adults hospitalized >2 days after illness onset increased from 43% before the pandemic to 79% during the pandemic (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Antiviral treatment of hospitalized adults increased during the pandemic, especially among pregnant women. This suggests that many clinicians followed published guidance to treat hospitalized adults with antiviral agents. However, compliance with antiviral recommendations could be improved.

Doshi S; Kamimoto L; Finelli L; Perez A; Reingold A; Gershman K; Yousey-Hindes K; Arnold K; Ryan P; Lynfield R; Morin C; Baumbach J; Hancock EB; Bennett NM; Zansky S; Thomas A; Schaffner W; Fry AM

2011-12-01

220

Test characteristics of commercial influenza assays for detecting pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We assessed the test characteristics of 2 influenza antigen tests, a rapid immunoassay and a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) assay, in detecting pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in children up to 18 years of age, using polymerase chain reaction as the standard. The sensitivities of BinaxNOW (59.6%) and direct fluorescence antibody (57.3%) were similar. The specificity of each test was >99%.

Sandora TJ; Smole SC; Lee GM; Chung S; Williams L; McAdam AJ

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

The development of vaccine viruses against pandemic A(H1N1) influenza.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wild type human influenza viruses do not usually grow well in embryonated hens' eggs, the substrate of choice for the production of inactivated influenza vaccine, and vaccine viruses need to be developed specifically for this purpose. In the event of a pandemic of influenza, vaccine viruses need to be created with utmost speed. At the onset of the current A(H1N1) pandemic in April 2009, a network of laboratories began a race against time to develop suitable candidate vaccine viruses. Two approaches were followed, the classical reassortment approach and the more recent reverse genetics approach. This report describes the development and the characteristics of current pandemic H1N1 candidate vaccine viruses. PMID:21199698

Robertson, James S; Nicolson, Carolyn; Harvey, Ruth; Johnson, Rachel; Major, Diane; Guilfoyle, Kate; Roseby, Sarah; Newman, Robert; Collin, Rebecca; Wallis, Chantal; Engelhardt, Othmar G; Wood, John M; Le, Jianhua; Manojkumar, Ramanunninair; Pokorny, Barbara A; Silverman, Jeanmarie; Devis, Rene; Bucher, Doris; Verity, Erin; Agius, Catherine; Camuglia, Sarina; Ong, Chi; Rockman, Steven; Curtis, Anne; Schoofs, Peter; Zoueva, Olga; Xie, Hang; Li, Xing; Lin, Zhengshi; Ye, Zhiping; Chen, Li-Mei; O'Neill, Eduardo; Balish, Amanda; Lipatov, Aleksandr S; Guo, Zhu; Isakova, Irina; Davis, Charles T; Rivailler, Pierre; Gustin, Kortney M; Belser, Jessica A; Maines, Taronna R; Tumpey, Terrence M; Xu, Xiyan; Katz, Jacqueline M; Klimov, Alexander; Cox, Nancy J; Donis, Ruben O

2011-01-01

222

The development of vaccine viruses against pandemic A(H1N1) influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wild type human influenza viruses do not usually grow well in embryonated hens' eggs, the substrate of choice for the production of inactivated influenza vaccine, and vaccine viruses need to be developed specifically for this purpose. In the event of a pandemic of influenza, vaccine viruses need to be created with utmost speed. At the onset of the current A(H1N1) pandemic in April 2009, a network of laboratories began a race against time to develop suitable candidate vaccine viruses. Two approaches were followed, the classical reassortment approach and the more recent reverse genetics approach. This report describes the development and the characteristics of current pandemic H1N1 candidate vaccine viruses.

Robertson JS; Nicolson C; Harvey R; Johnson R; Major D; Guilfoyle K; Roseby S; Newman R; Collin R; Wallis C; Engelhardt OG; Wood JM; Le J; Manojkumar R; Pokorny BA; Silverman J; Devis R; Bucher D; Verity E; Agius C; Camuglia S; Ong C; Rockman S; Curtis A; Schoofs P; Zoueva O; Xie H; Li X; Lin Z; Ye Z; Chen LM; O'Neill E; Balish A; Lipatov AS; Guo Z; Isakova I; Davis CT; Rivailler P; Gustin KM; Belser JA; Maines TR; Tumpey TM; Xu X; Katz JM; Klimov A; Cox NJ; Donis RO

2011-02-01

223

Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid influenza test for pandemic influenza A H1N1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: With the current influenza A H1N1 pandemic (H1N1pdm), it is extremely important that clinicians can quickly and accurately identify influenza cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the performance of the QuickVue Influenza A+B rapid test, we conducted a prospective study of the diagnostic accuracy of the QuickVue Influenza A+B test compared to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for influenza A H1N1pdm in Nicaraguan children aged 2 to 14 years. Rapid test sensitivity and specificity compared to real-time RT-PCR were 64.1% (95% CI 53.5, 73.9) and 98.3% (95.0, 99.6), respectively. Agreement between the two tests was 86.4% (95% CI 81.7, 90.3), and kappa was calculated to be 0.67 (95% CI 0.56, 0.76). Performance of the rapid test varied by day of presentation, with a sensitivity of 41.7% (95% CI 22.1, 63.4) for samples from children presenting on the day of symptom onset and a sensitivity of 72.1% (95% CI 59.9, 82.3) for samples from children presenting one or more days post-symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that the rapid test performed with moderate sensitivity and high specificity. Test performance varied by day of onset, with lower sensitivity on the day of symptom onset.

Gordon A; Videa E; Saborío S; López R; Kuan G; Balmaseda A; Harris E

2010-01-01

224

Influence of the Cold War upon Influenza Pandemic of 1957-1958  

CERN Multimedia

Influenza Pandemic of 1957-1958, also called Asian Flu Pandemic, was one of the most widespread pandemics in history. In this paper, we model the pandemic, considering the effect of the Cold War. There were some restrictions between Western and Eastern nations due to the Cold War during the pandemic. We expect that such restrictions influenced the spread of the pandemic. We propose a hybrid model to determine how the pandemic spread through the world. The model combines the SEIR-based model for local areas and the network model for global connection between countries. First, we reproduce the situation in 19 countries. Then, we run another experiment to find the influence of the war in the spread of the pandemic; simulation considering international relationships in different years. The simulation results show that the impact of the pandemic in each country was much influenced by international relationships. This study indicates that if there was less effect of the Cold War, Western nations would have larger n...

Yoneyama, Teruhiko

2010-01-01

225

Influenza surveillance in the Pacific Island countries and territories during the 2009 pandemic: an observational study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Historically, Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) have been more severely affected by influenza pandemics than any other part of the world. We herein describe the emergence and epidemiologic characteristics of pandemic influenza H1N1 in PICTs from 2009 to 2010. METHODS: The World Health Organization gathered reports of influenza-like-illness and laboratory-confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases from all 23 Pacific island countries and territories, from April 2009 through August 2010. Data were gathered through weekly email reports from Pacific island countries and territories and through email or telephone follow-up. RESULTS: Pacific island countries and territories started detecting pandemic H1N1 cases in June 2009, firstly in French Polynesia, with the last new detection occurring in August 2009 in Tuvalu. Nineteen Pacific island countries and territories reported 1,972 confirmed cases, peaking in August 2009. No confirmed pandemic H1N1 cases were identified in Niue, Pitcairn and Tokelau; the latter instituted strict maritime quarantine. Influenza-like-illness surveillance showed trends similar to surveillance of confirmed cases.Seven Pacific island countries and territories reported 21 deaths of confirmed pandemic H1N1. Case-patients died of acute respiratory distress syndrome or multi-organ failure, or both. The most reported pre-existing conditions were obesity, lung disease, heart disease, and pregnancy.Pacific island countries and territories instituted a variety of mitigation measures, including arrival health screening. Multiple partners facilitated influenza preparedness planning and outbreak response. CONCLUSIONS: Pandemic influenza spread rapidly throughout the Pacific despite enormous distances and relative isolation. Tokelau and Pitcairn may be the only jurisdictions to have remained pandemic-free. Despite being well-prepared, Pacific island countries and territories experienced significant morbidity and mortality, consistent with other indigenous and low-resource settings.For the first time, regional influenza-like-illness surveillance was conducted in the Pacific, allowing health authorities to monitor the pandemic's spread and severity in real-time.Future regional outbreak responses will likely benefit from the lessons learned during this outbreak.

Kool JL; Pavlin BI; Musto J; Dawainavesi A

2013-01-01

226

Influenza pandemic: perception of risk and individual precautions in a general population. Cross sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An influenza pandemic may have considerable impact on health and societal functioning. The aim of this study was to explore people's reflections on the consequences of a pandemic. Methods Cross-sectional web-based survey of 1,168 Norwegians aged 16–82 years. The main outcome measures were answers to questions about a potential pandemic ("serious influenza epidemic"): statements about personal precautions including stockpiling Tamiflu®, the perceived number of fatalities, the perceived effects of Tamiflu®, the sources of information about influenza and trust in public information. Results While 80% of the respondents stated that they would be "careful about personal hygiene", only a few would stay away from work (2%), or move to an isolated place (4%). While 27% of respondents were uncertain about the number of fatalities during an influenza pandemic, 48% thought it would be lower than the estimate of Norwegian health authorities (0.05%–1%) and only 3% higher. At least half of the respondents thought that Tamiflu® might reduce the mortality risk, but less than 1% had personally purchased the drug. The great majority had received their information from the mass media, and only 9% directly from health authorities. Still the majority (65%) trusted information from the authorities, and only 9% reported overt distrust. Conclusion In Norway, considerable proportions of people seem to consider the mortality risk during a pandemic less than health authorities do. Most people seem to be prepared to take some, but not especially disruptive, precautions.

Kristiansen Ivar S; Halvorsen Peder A; Gyrd-Hansen Dorte

2007-01-01

227

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccination in children: a UK perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pandemic H1N1 influenza infection was common in the UK in 2009 and children were particularly vulnerable. Most cases were mild or subclinical, but there was significant mortality, predominantly in those with pre-existing disease. Despite the rapid development of monovalent pandemic vaccines, and the fast-tracked approval process, these products were not available for large-scale use until the end of the second wave of infection. Vaccine uptake was relatively low, both among children and health-care workers. The monovalent pandemic vaccines and the 2010/2011 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines were immunogenic and effective, and they probably reduced the impact of the third wave of infection. Vaccines containing novel adjuvants enabled antigen sparing, but safety concerns could limit the future use of these adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children. Public perceptions that the threat of the pandemic was exaggerated by the authorities, and concerns about vaccine safety, might prompt an inadequate response to the next influenza pandemic, potentially compromising public health.

de Whalley PC; Pollard AJ

2013-03-01

228

Influenza pandemic and professional duty: family or patients first? A survey of hospital employees  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Conflicts between professional duties and fear of influenza transmission to family members may arise among health care professionals (HCP). Methods We surveyed employees at our university hospital regarding ethical issues arising during the management of an influenza pandemic. Results Of 644 respondents, 182 (28%) agreed that it would be professionally acceptable for HCP to abandon their workplace during a pandemic in order to protect themselves and their families, 337 (52%) disagreed with this statement and 125 (19%) had no opinion, with a higher rate of disagreement among physicians (65%) and nurses (54%) compared with administrators (32%). Of all respondents, 375 (58%) did not believe that the decision to report to work during a pandemic should be left to the individual HCP and 496 (77%) disagreed with the statement that HCP should be permanently dismissed for not reporting to work during a pandemic. Only 136 (21%) respondents agreed that HCW without children should primarily care for the influenza patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that a modest majority of HCP, but only a minority of hospital administrators, recognises the obligation to treat patients despite the potential risks. Professional ethical guidelines allowing for balancing the needs of society with personal risks are needed to help HCP fulfil their duties in the case of a pandemic influenza.

Ehrenstein Boris P; Hanses Frank; Salzberger Bernd

2006-01-01

229

Knowledge and attitudes on pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccination among Slovenian physicians and dentists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to determine vaccination coverage among Slovenian physicians and dentists and assess their knowledge and attitudes regarding the pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccine. METHODS: In February 2010, an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was developed and sent to all practising physicians and dentists in Slovenia. RESULTS: Out of 7092 physicians/dentists, 1718 (24%) completed the questionnaire and 41.7% of the respondents were vaccinated against pandemic and seasonal influenza, while 58.3% of the study participants decided not to adhere to the recommendation: 15.6% received the pandemic vaccine only, 10.1% the seasonal vaccine only and 32.4% were not vaccinated at all. Acceptance of the pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccine was determined by higher age, being an internal medical trainee or specialist, working in a hospital, performing any kind of vaccination and having a chronic disease. Unvaccinated participants were more often working in out-patient clinics, were without a specialty, were dentists and were not performing any vaccinations. Those who declined vaccination believed that they did not need to be vaccinated, had safety concerns and were afraid of side effects. Physicians/dentists vaccinated against pandemic and seasonal influenza had better knowledge and a more positive attitude towards the issue compared with their non-vaccinated colleagues. CONCLUSIONS: Education on the efficacy and safety of vaccines should be one of the priority public health measures taken to improve knowledge and eliminate misconceptions and attitudinal barriers regarding immunization in physicians and dentists.

So?an M; Er?ulj V; Lajovic J

2013-02-01

230

[Efficacy of anti-neuraminidase drugs application during and after an influenza pandemic].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The emergent 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic brought into acute focus the problem of choosing the most effective anti-influenza drugs for successive influenza infection spreading control. Oseltamivir and zanamivir, influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), were recommended by the WHO experts for the treatment and prevention of influenza, including that caused by pandemic strains. A major concern regarding the use of specific antiviral compounds is the emergence of the drug-resistant strains. Oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir IC50 values were equal to 0.3-5.2 microM for the most of A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic strains and 1.6-8.6 microM for the strains of influenza B virus in cell-based ELISA assay (2009-2010 season). All the studied strains of influenza A(H1N1 ) pdm09 (151) and B (22) viruses were sensitive to NAIs (2009-2011 seasons). For the first time in Russia oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) pdm09 influenza virus was isolated from the patient on the 5th day of a treatment course of this drug.

Breslav NV; Shevchenko ES; Abramov DD; Prilipov AG; Zhuravleva MM; Oskerko TA; Kolobukhina LV; Merkulova LN; Shchelkanov MIu; Burtseva EI; L'vov DK

2013-01-01

231

Pathogenicity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus in Immunocompromised Cynomolgus Macaques  

Science.gov (United States)

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus spread throughout the world since most people did not have immunity against the virus. In the post pandemic phase when many humans might possess immunity against the pandemic virus, one of the concerns is infection in immunocompromised people. Therefore, we used an immunosuppressed macaque model to examine pathogenicity of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus under an immunocompromised condition. The virus in nasal samples of immunosuppressed macaques infected with the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was detected longer after infection than was the virus in nasal samples of immunocompetent macaques. As expected, not only virus amounts but also virus propagation sites in the immunosuppressed macaques were larger than those in lungs of the immunocompetent macaques when they were infected with the pandemic virus. Immunosuppressed macaques possessed low levels of immune cells producing cytokines and chemokines, but levels of inflammatory cytokines/chemokine interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 in lungs of the immunosuppressed macaques were higher than those in lungs of the immunocompetent macaques, though the differences were not statistically significant. Therefore, under an immunosuppressive condition, the pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 virus might cause more severe morbidity with high cytokine/chemokine production by the host innate immune system than that seen in macaques under the immunocompetent condition.

Itoh, Yasushi; Ishigaki, Hirohito; Kitano, Mitsutaka; Arikata, Masahiko; Ishida, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Naoko; Shichinohe, Shintaro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kida, Hiroshi; Ogasawara, Kazumasa

2013-01-01

232

Comparison between pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza pneumonia and seasonal influenza pneumonia in adults  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We compared 126 cases of seasonal influenza pneumonia (seasonal flu) reported between January, 1996 and March, 2009, with 10 cases of laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus pneumonia (novel flu), based on clinical condition, computed tomography (CT) findings, severity, treatment, and prognosis, to clarify the characteristics of this novel flu. The mean age of subjects was 52.4 years in the novel flu group and 64 years in the seasonal flu group, and novel flu patients were younger than seasonal flu patients. Seasonal flu patients had more underlying diseases than did novel flu patients. The median duration from illness onset to hospitalization was 4 days in both groups. Primary viral pneumonia was present in 70% of novel flu cases and 31% of seasonal flu cases. The proportion of primary virus pneumonia was higher in novel flu patients, and the disease severity of the seasonal flu group was more severe than that of the novel flu group. White blood cell and lymphocyte counts were lower in novel flu patients, and chest CT images showed bilateral shadows and pure ground-glass opacities more frequently in the novel flu cases. There were no differences in treatment, number of days required for the fever to subside, or mortality between the groups. (author)

2011-01-01

233

[Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Vaccination: Coverage and Attitude among Private Physicians in Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

General practitioners serve as important multipliers for seasonal influenza vaccination in risk groups such as elderly or chronically ill persons, for whom vaccination is recommended in Germany by the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO). Moreover, physicians are a target group for influenza vaccination themselves.Data from 1 590 telephone interviews were analysed. The study population comprised private physicians from 4 different disciplines (general and internal medicine, gynaecology, paediatrics). We assessed seasonal and pandemic vaccination coverage, attitudes and informational needs related to vaccination in general, and opinions about the pandemic situation 2009.Of the interviewed physicians, 61% stated that they have been vaccinated against seasonal influenza regularly. Main reasons for not/only occasionally having received a flu shot were: the belief that seasonal influenza vaccination is not necessary for them (78%) or having forgotten about the vaccination (28%). The interviewed physicians expressed a great demand for active information on STIKO recommendations and certain aspects of the seasonal influenza vaccination. There was a significant association between physicians' own influenza vaccination status and the provision of vaccination information materials, utilisation of a data management system for the vaccination of patients, and active vaccination reminders in the physicians' office. In 2009/10, almost 60% had received a pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination. A major barrier to vaccine uptake was the mistrust in the safety of H1N1 vaccines (stated by 54% of non-vaccinees). Information for the public and physicians by the German public health authorities during the pandemic was rather critically appraised by the respondents.Compared to other subgroups of health-care workers, among private physicians seasonal and pandemic vaccine uptake was rather high. The physicians' need for more information on vaccination topics can be met by intensified publishing and communication activities of STIKO and by using existing physician-information channels.

Böhmer MM; Walter D; Ehrhardt J; Reiter S; Krause G; Wichmann O

2013-04-01

234

[Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Vaccination: Coverage and Attitude among Private Physicians in Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

General practitioners serve as important multipliers for seasonal influenza vaccination in risk groups such as elderly or chronically ill persons, for whom vaccination is recommended in Germany by the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO). Moreover, physicians are a target group for influenza vaccination themselves.Data from 1 590 telephone interviews were analysed. The study population comprised private physicians from 4 different disciplines (general and internal medicine, gynaecology, paediatrics). We assessed seasonal and pandemic vaccination coverage, attitudes and informational needs related to vaccination in general, and opinions about the pandemic situation 2009.Of the interviewed physicians, 61% stated that they have been vaccinated against seasonal influenza regularly. Main reasons for not/only occasionally having received a flu shot were: the belief that seasonal influenza vaccination is not necessary for them (78%) or having forgotten about the vaccination (28%). The interviewed physicians expressed a great demand for active information on STIKO recommendations and certain aspects of the seasonal influenza vaccination. There was a significant association between physicians' own influenza vaccination status and the provision of vaccination information materials, utilisation of a data management system for the vaccination of patients, and active vaccination reminders in the physicians' office. In 2009/10, almost 60% had received a pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination. A major barrier to vaccine uptake was the mistrust in the safety of H1N1 vaccines (stated by 54% of non-vaccinees). Information for the public and physicians by the German public health authorities during the pandemic was rather critically appraised by the respondents.Compared to other subgroups of health-care workers, among private physicians seasonal and pandemic vaccine uptake was rather high. The physicians' need for more information on vaccination topics can be met by intensified publishing and communication activities of STIKO and by using existing physician-information channels. PMID:23632821

Böhmer, M M; Walter, D; Ehrhardt, J; Reiter, S; Krause, G; Wichmann, O

2013-04-30

235

Incidence of symptomatic A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza during the pandemic and post-pandemic periods in a rural Indian community.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Data on influenza illness rates with population denominators are needed to quantify overall morbidity and to prioritize public health intervention strategies. METHODS: The rates of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection during pandemic phases were determined in a longitudinal community cohort study as part of an influenza vaccine study in a rural community of North India. RESULTS: During the 711 731 person-weeks of surveillance, a total of 1410/7571 (19%) febrile acute respiratory illness cases were positive for influenza. Of these, 749 (53%) were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 643 (46%) influenza B, and 18 (1%) influenza A (H3N2). The overall incidence rate of influenza-associated febrile acute respiratory illness was 128/1000 person-years. The incidence rates of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 were high during both the pandemic phase (179/1000 person-years; November 2009 to January 2010) and post-pandemic phase (156/1000 person-years; August to October 2010), with children <18 years of age being at the greatest risk of influenza infection in the community. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide important information for planning clinical and public health intervention strategies to mitigate the impact of influenza epidemics.

Fowler KB; Gupta V; Sullender W; Broor S; Widdowson MA; Lal RB; Krishnan A

2013-09-01

236

An Avian Connection as a Catalyst to the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 1918 Influenza pandemic was one of the most virulent strains of influenza in history. This strain quickly dispatched previously held theories on influenza. World War One introduced new environmental stresses and speed of dissemination logistics never experienced by humans. In light of new phylogenic evidence the cause of this influenza outbreak is now being considered to have linkage to the avian influenza. Animals act as reservoirs for this influenza virus and research indicates the influenza virus often originates in the intestines of aquatic wildfowl. The virus is shed into the environment, which in turns infects domestic poultry, which in turn infects mammalian hosts. These animals, usually pigs, act as a transformer or converters; creating a strain that can more readily infect humans. Therefore swine can be infected with both avian and human influenza A viruses and serve as a source for infection for a number of species as the incidents of direct infection from birds to humans have been rare. Increased human habitation near poultry and swine raising facilities pose greater influenza outbreak risk. It was this combination of environmental factors that may have contributed to the greatest pandemic of recent times, and, moreover, similar conditions exist throughout Southeast Asia today.

Hollenbeck James E.

2005-01-01

237

Assessing exposure risks for aquatic organisms posed by Tamiflu use under seasonal influenza and pandemic conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Environmental pollution by anti-influenza drugs is increasingly recognized as a threat to aquatic environments. However, little is known about empirical data on risk effects posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug based on recently published ecotoxicological researches in Taiwan. Here we linked ecotoxicology models with an epidemiological scheme to assess exposure risks of aquatic organisms and environmental hazards posed by antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) use in Taiwan. Built on published bioassays, we used probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate potential threats of environmentally relevant hazards on algae, daphnid, and zerbrafish. We found that Tamiflu use was unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk to daphnia and zebrafish during seasonal influenza. However, the chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu use during pandemic was alarming. We conclude that no significant risk to algal growth was found during seasonal influenza and high pandemic Tamiflu use.

Chen WY; Lin CJ; Liao CM

2013-10-01

238

Non-pharmaceutical public health interventions for pandemic influenza: an evaluation of the evidence base  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In an influenza pandemic, the benefit of vaccines and antiviral medications will be constrained by limitations on supplies and effectiveness. Non-pharmaceutical public health interventions will therefore be vital in curtailing disease spread. However, the most comprehensive assessments of the literature to date recognize the generally poor quality of evidence on which to base non-pharmaceutical pandemic planning decisions. In light of the need to prepare for a possible pandemic despite concerns about the poor quality of the literature, combining available evidence with expert opinion about the relative merits of non-pharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza may lead to a more informed and widely accepted set of recommendations. We evaluated the evidence base for non-pharmaceutical public health interventions. Then, based on the collective evidence, we identified a set of recommendations for and against interventions that are specific to both the setting in which an intervention may be used and the pandemic phase, and which can be used by policymakers to prepare for a pandemic until scientific evidence can definitively respond to planners' needs. Methods Building on reviews of past pandemics and recent historical inquiries, we evaluated the relative merits of non-pharmaceutical interventions by combining available evidence from the literature with qualitative and quantitative expert opinion. Specifically, we reviewed the recent scientific literature regarding the prevention of human-to-human transmission of pandemic influenza, convened a meeting of experts from multiple disciplines, and elicited expert recommendation about the use of non-pharmaceutical public health interventions in a variety of settings (healthcare facilities; community-based institutions; private households) and pandemic phases (no pandemic; no US pandemic; early localized US pandemic; advanced US pandemic). Results The literature contained a dearth of evidence on the efficacy or effectiveness of most non-pharmaceutical interventions for influenza. In an effort to inform decision-making in the absence of strong scientific evidence, the experts ultimately endorsed hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette, surveillance and case reporting, and rapid viral diagnosis in all settings and during all pandemic phases. They also encouraged patient and provider use of masks and other personal protective equipment as well as voluntary self-isolation of patients during all pandemic phases. Other non-pharmaceutical interventions including mask-use and other personal protective equipment for the general public, school and workplace closures early in an epidemic, and mandatory travel restrictions were rejected as likely to be ineffective, infeasible, or unacceptable to the public. Conclusion The demand for scientific evidence on non-pharmaceutical public health interventions for influenza is pervasive, and present policy recommendations must rely heavily on expert judgment. In the absence of a definitive science base, our assessment of the evidence identified areas for further investigation as well as non-pharmaceutical public health interventions that experts believe are likely to be beneficial, feasible and widely acceptable in an influenza pandemic.

Aledort Julia E; Lurie Nicole; Wasserman Jeffrey; Bozzette Samuel A

2007-01-01

239

Searching of Main Cause Leading to Severe Influenza A Virus Mutations and Consequently to Influenza Pandemics/Epidemics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The unpredictable mutations in the proteins from influenza A virus lead to the great difficulty in prevention of possible outbreak of bird flu and pandemic/epidemic of influenza. This unpredictability is due to the fact that we know little about the causes that lead to the mutations. In three of our recent studies on the hemagglutinins from influenza A virus, we unintentionally noticed the periodicity of mutations in hemagglutinins similar to the periodicity of sunspot. We calculated the amino-acid pair predictability and amino-acid distribution rank, which are developed by us over last several years and can numerically present the evolution of proteins in question, of 1217 full-length hemagglutinins from influenza A viruses. We then used the fast Fourier transform to determine the periodicity of mutations in the hemagglutinins. We compare the periodicities of mutations in influenza A virus hemagglutinins with those of solar and galactic cosmic rays and find a main periodicity of the mutations identical to that of sunspot and neutron rate (11 years/circle). Then we plot the sunspot number with respect to the historical pandemics/epidemics/non-pandemic new strains over last three centuries and compare the recorded sunspots with the historical pandemics before 1700. Both show a good agreement between sunspot activity and influenza related events. As the histories of Sun and galaxy are incomparably much longer than the history of influenza virus, the only logical deduction is that the hemagglutinin periodicities, which are identical to the periodicities of solar and galactic cosmic rays, are attribute to the solar and galactic activity. As the hemagglutinin is a sample of influenza A virus, we can logically deduce the role of migratory wild birds on the outbreak of bird flu and influenza, that is, cosmic rays are heading towards the polar regions, where more mutations occur in influenza A virus either within the wild birds or in their living environments and as the winter approaches, these waterfowl fly forwards warm south bringing back the new mutated influenza A virus leading to outbreak of bird flu or influenza.

Guang Wu; Shaomin Yan

2005-01-01

240

Evaluation of QuickVue influenza A+B rapid test for detection of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A novel influenza A/H1N1 emerged in early 2009 and by June 2009 was declared a pandemic by WHO. Rapid influenza antigen detection tests have been used to diagnose seasonal influenza but have not been adequately evaluated for the pandemic strain among all age groups. In the Philippines, pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 was first detected in May 2009 and by July 2009, 3207 cases and 6 deaths were reported. OBJECTIVES: Using RT-PCR as the gold standard, clinical sensitivity/specificity of Quidel QuickVue (QV) influenza A+B was estimated across all age groups for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 using nasal swabs in a hospital setting. Effect of age, viral titers (Ct values), and timing of collection on QV sensitivity to detect pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 was also determined. STUDY DESIGN: Febrile patients with influenza-like illness (n=360) at the V. Luna General Hospital, Manila from 1 June to 31 August 2009 were included. Nasal swabs were tested using QV and RT-PCR. RESULTS: Of 360 nasal specimens 226 (63%) were positive for pandemic influenza A/H1N1. QV sensitivity was 63% (95% confidence interval (CI): 56-69%), specificity was 96% (95% CI: 91-99%), positive predictive value was 97% (CI: 93-99%), and negative predictive value was 57% (95% CI: 49-64%). Patient's age, fever severity, presenting symptoms or number of symptoms did not significantly affect QV sensitivity, however QV sensitivity was correlated with decreasing Ct values. CONCLUSION: QuickVue demonstrated moderate sensitivity for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infection. There was a significant inverse association between Ct values and QV sensitivity for pandemic influenza A/H1N1.

Velasco JM; Montesa-Develos ML; Jarman RG; Lopez MN; Gibbons RV; Valderama MT; Yoon IK

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

The economic burden of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza in Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although there have been numerous studies concerning the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza, limited data are available on the economic burden of the pandemic. The present study was undertaken to help policy makers prepare for future H1N1 pandemics. METHODS: We assessed the socioeconomic burden of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza that infected 3,082,113 patients in South Korea, which represents 6.6% of the population of South Korea. Data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Claims database using claims submitted from 1 August 2009 to 31 July 2010. Costs were converted to United States dollars (US$). RESULTS: The annual socioeconomic costs of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza were US$1.09 billion (0.14% of the national GDP). Direct costs included US$322.6 million (29.6% of total costs) of direct medical costs, with an additional US$105.4 million (9.7% of total cost) of direct non-medical costs. The indirect costs totaled US$662.5 million (60.8% of total cost). The economic impact was much higher for men than for women due to the fact that indirect costs were 2.2-times higher because of the higher male wage. Also direct medical costs peaked for patients in the children and adolescent groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate the socioeconomic burden associated with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza in Korea and can be used for future pandemic planning.

Kim YW; Yoon SJ; Oh IH

2013-05-01

242

Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated acute myopericarditis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus may cause an upper respiratory tract infection similar to that caused by seasonal influenza, it can lead to serious complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and myocarditis. We describe a 2-year-old girl admitted with fever, cough, and vomiting followed by acute respiratory distress and diagnosed as H1N1-related myopericarditis. (Turk Arch Ped 2011; 46: 337-9)

Yakup; Kemal; Mehmet Sait; Rukiye

2011-01-01

243

Emergence and characterisation of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in Hungarian swine herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2010, two novel porcine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs with influenza-like illness in Hungarian swine herds. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of these strains revealed that they shared molecular features with the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus strains, which emerged globally during 2009. The PB2, HA and NA genes contained unique amino acid changes compared to the available new H1N1 influenza virus sequences of pig origin. Furthermore, the investigated strains could be separated with respect to parallel amino acid substitutions affecting the polymerase genes (PB2, PB1 and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) gene, supporting the proposed complementarities between these proteins, all required for the viral fitness. Molecular characterisation of two Hungarian human pandemic H1N1 isolates was also performed, so that we could compare contemporaneous strains of different host species origins. Shared molecular motifs in various genes of animal and human influenza strains suggested that the Hungarian porcine strains could have originated from humans through direct interspecies transmission. This study is among the few that support the natural human-to-pig transmission of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus. PMID:23439297

Bálint, Adám; Kiss, István; Bányai, Krisztián; Biksi, Imre; Szentpáli-Gavallér, Katalin; Magyar, Tibor; Jankovics, István; Rózsa, Mónika; Szalai, Bálint; Takács, Mária; Tóth, Adám György; Dán, Adám

2013-03-01

244

Emergence and characterisation of pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses in Hungarian swine herds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 2010, two novel porcine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs with influenza-like illness in Hungarian swine herds. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of these strains revealed that they shared molecular features with the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus strains, which emerged globally during 2009. The PB2, HA and NA genes contained unique amino acid changes compared to the available new H1N1 influenza virus sequences of pig origin. Furthermore, the investigated strains could be separated with respect to parallel amino acid substitutions affecting the polymerase genes (PB2, PB1 and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) gene, supporting the proposed complementarities between these proteins, all required for the viral fitness. Molecular characterisation of two Hungarian human pandemic H1N1 isolates was also performed, so that we could compare contemporaneous strains of different host species origins. Shared molecular motifs in various genes of animal and human influenza strains suggested that the Hungarian porcine strains could have originated from humans through direct interspecies transmission. This study is among the few that support the natural human-to-pig transmission of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

Bálint A; Kiss I; Bányai K; Biksi I; Szentpáli-Gavallér K; Magyar T; Jankovics I; Rózsa M; Szalai B; Takács M; Tóth AG; Dán A

2013-03-01

245

A pandemic influenza vaccine in India: from strain to sale within 12 months.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the event of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic, the Indian subcontinent would need 1.2 billion doses of vaccine to immunize its entire population, double if two doses were required to assure immunity. Serum Institute of India Limited (SII) thus became one of six initial grantees of the World Health Organization (WHO) technology transfer initiative to create capacity in developing countries to manufacture H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccine. At the outbreak of the A(H1N1) 2009 influenza pandemic, experience gained from the H5N1 project was used to develop a live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), since this was the only option for the level of surge capacity required for a large-scale immunization campaign in India. SII took <12 months to develop and market its LAIV intranasal vaccine from receipt of the seed strain from WHO. As of November 2010, over 2.5 million persons have been vaccinated with Nasovac(®) with no serious adverse reactions or vaccine failure after 3 months' post-marketing surveillance. The product has been submitted for prequalification by WHO for purchase by United Nations agencies. In parallel, SII also developed an inactivated influenza vaccine, and is currently looking to ensure the sustainability of its influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity. PMID:21684421

Dhere, Rajeev; Yeolekar, Leena; Kulkarni, Prasad; Menon, Ravi; Vaidya, Vivek; Ganguly, Milan; Tyagi, Parikshit; Barde, Prajakt; Jadhav, Suresh

2011-07-01

246

A Two-Year Surveillance of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Guangzhou, China: From Pandemic to Seasonal Influenza?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this two-years surveillance of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) in Guangzhou, China, we reported here that the scale and duration of pH1N1 outbreaks, severe disease and fatality rates of pH1N1 patients were significantly lower or shorter in the second epidemic year (May 2010-April 2011) t...

Li, Tiegang; Fu, Chuanxi; Di, Biao; Wu, Jibin; Yang, Zhicong; Wang, Yulin; Li, Meixia; Lu, Jianyun; Chen, Yiyun; Lu, Enjie

247

Modeling influenza epidemics and pandemics: insights into the future of swine flu (H1N1)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Here we present a review of the literature of influenza modeling studies, and discuss how these models can provide insights into the future of the currently circulating novel strain of influenza A (H1N1), formerly known as swine flu. We discuss how the feasibility of controlling an epidemic critically depends on the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (R0). The R0 for novel influenza A (H1N1) has recently been estimated to be between 1.4 and 1.6. This value is below values of R0 estimated for the 1918–1919 pandemic strain (mean R0~2: range 1.4 to 2.8) and is comparable to R0 values estimated for seasonal strains of influenza (mean R0 1.3: range 0.9 to 2.1). By reviewing results from previous modeling studies we conclude it is theoretically possible that a pandemic of H1N1 could be contained. However it may not be feasible, even in resource-rich countries, to achieve the necessary levels of vaccination and treatment for control. As a recent modeling study has shown, a global cooperative strategy will be essential in order to control a pandemic. This strategy will require resource-rich countries to share their vaccines and antivirals with resource-constrained and resource-poor countries. We conclude our review by discussing the necessity of developing new biologically complex models. We suggest that these models should simultaneously track the transmission dynamics of multiple strains of influenza in bird, pig and human populations. Such models could be critical for identifying effective new interventions, and informing pandemic preparedness planning. Finally, we show that by modeling cross-species transmission it may be possible to predict the emergence of pandemic strains of influenza.

Coburn Brian J; Wagner Bradley G; Blower Sally

2009-01-01

248

Impact of Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza on Emergency Department Visits, 2003-2010, Ontario, Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) consultation rates are an integral part of influenza surveillance. However, in most health care settings, only a small proportion of true influenza cases are clinically diagnosed as influenza or ILI. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the number and rate of visits to the emergency department (ED) that are attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza and to describe the effect of influenza on the ED by age, diagnostic categories, and visit disposition. A secondary objective was to assess the weekly “real-time” time series of ILI ED visits as an indicator of the full burden due to influenza. Methods The authors performed an ecologic analysis of ED records extracted from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NARCS) database for the province of Ontario, Canada, from September 2003 to March 2010 and stratified by diagnostic characteristics (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision [ICD-10]), age, and visit disposition. A regression model was used to estimate the seasonal baseline. The weekly number of influenza-attributable ED visits was calculated as the difference between the weekly number of visits predicted by the statistical model and the estimated baseline. Results The estimated rate of ED visits attributable to influenza was elevated during the H1N1/2009 pandemic period at 1,000 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 920 to 1,100) population compared to an average annual rate of 500 per 100,000 (95% CI = 450 to 550) for seasonal influenza. ILI or influenza was clinically diagnosed in one of 2.6 (38%) and one of 14 (7%) of these visits, respectively. While the ILI or clinical influenza diagnosis was the diagnosis most specific to influenza, only 87% and 58% of the clinically diagnosed ILI or influenza visits for pandemic and seasonal influenza, respectively, were likely directly due to an influenza infection. Rates for ILI ED visits were highest for younger age groups, while the likelihood of admission to hospital was highest in older persons. During periods of seasonal influenza activity, there was a significant increase in the number of persons who registered with nonrespiratory complaints, but left without being seen. This effect was more pronounced during the 2009 pandemic. The ratio of influenza-attributed respiratory visits to influenza-attributed ILI visits varied from 2.4:1 for the fall H1N1/2009 wave to 9:1 for the 2003/04 influenza A(H3N2) season and 28:1 for the 2007/08 H1N1 season. Conclusions Influenza appears to have had a much larger effect on ED visits than was captured by clinical diagnoses of influenza or ILI. Throughout the study period, ILI ED visits were strongly associated with excess respiratory complaints. However, the relationship between ILI ED visits and the estimated effect of influenza on ED visits was not consistent enough from year to year to predict the effect of influenza on the ED or downstream in-hospital resource requirements.

Schanzer, Dena L; Schwartz, Brian

2013-01-01

249

Burden of pediatric influenza A virus infection post swine-flu H1N1 pandemic in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To screen children with influenza like illness or with symptoms of acute respiratory tract infections for influenza A virus infection - post swine flu pandemic era - using rapid influenza diagnostic tests. METHODS: During two years (2010 & 2011), 1 200 children with influenza like illness or acute respiratory tract infections (according to World Health Organization criteria) were recruited. Their ages ranged from 2-60 months. Nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens were collected from all children for rapid influenza A diagnostic test. RESULTS: Influenza A virus rapid test was positive in 47.5% of the children; the majority (89.6%) were presented with lower respiratory tract infections. Respiratory rate and temperature were significantly higher among positive rapid influenza test patients. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza A virus infection is still a major cause of respiratory tract infections in Egyptian children. It should be considered in all cases with cough and febrile episodes and influenza like symptoms even post swine flu pandemic.

Khattab A; Shaheen M; Kamel T; El Faramay A; El Rahman SA; Nabil D; Gouda M

2013-09-01

250

Modeling Uncertainties in Workforce Disruptions from Influenza Pandemics Using Dynamic Input-Output Analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenza pandemic is a serious disaster that can pose significant disruptions to the workforce and associated economic sectors. This article examines the impact of influenza pandemic on workforce availability within an interdependent set of economic sectors. We introduce a simulation model based on the dynamic input-output model to capture the propagation of pandemic consequences through the National Capital Region (NCR). The analysis conducted in this article is based on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic data. Two metrics were used to assess the impacts of the influenza pandemic on the economic sectors: (i) inoperability, which measures the percentage gap between the as-planned output and the actual output of a sector, and (ii) economic loss, which quantifies the associated monetary value of the degraded output. The inoperability and economic loss metrics generate two different rankings of the critical economic sectors. Results show that most of the critical sectors in terms of inoperability are sectors that are related to hospitals and health-care providers. On the other hand, most of the sectors that are critically ranked in terms of economic loss are sectors with significant total production outputs in the NCR such as federal government agencies. Therefore, policy recommendations relating to potential mitigation and recovery strategies should take into account the balance between the inoperability and economic loss metrics.

Haimar AE; Santos JR

2013-09-01

251

Epidemiology of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus during 2009-2010 in Taiwan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Outbreak of swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus (pdmH1N1) occurred in 2009. Taiwanese authorities implemented nationwide vaccinations with pdmH1N1-specific inactivated vaccine as of November 2009. This study evaluates prevalence, HA phylogenetic relationship, and transmission dynamic of influenza A and B viruses in Taiwan in 2009-2010. Respiratory tract specimens were analyzed for influenza A and B viruses. The pdmH1N1 peaked in November 2009, was predominant from August 2009 to January 2010, then sharply dropped in February 2010. Significant prevalence peaks of influenza B in April-June of 2010 and H3N2 virus in July and August were observed. Highest percentage of pdmH1N1- and H3N2-positive cases appeared among 11-15-year-olds; influenza B-positive cases were dominant among those 6-10 years old. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees showed 11 unique clusters of pdmH1N1, seasonal H3N2 influenza A and B viruses, as well as transmission clusters and mixed infections of influenza strains in Taiwan. The 2009 pdmH1N1 virus was predominant in Taiwan from August 2009 to January 2010; seasonal H3N2 influenza A and B viruses exhibited small prevalence peaks after nationwide vaccinations. Phylogenetic evidence indicated transmission clusters and multiple independent clades of co-circulating influenza A and B strains in Taiwan.

Lan YC; Su MC; Chen CH; Huang SH; Chen WL; Tien N; Lin CW

2013-10-01

252

Institutional popularization of medical knowledge: the case of pandemic influenza A (H1N1)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because of the way in which the media industry covered news about the pandemic level of H1N1 established by the World Health Organization (WHO), local institutions were advised by WHO to adopt strategic communication plans to inform citizens about the real nature of the spread of the novel influenza...

MACI, STEFANIA MARIA

253

Broadly protective adenovirus-based multivalent vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses for pandemic preparedness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recurrent outbreaks of H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry accompanied by their occasional transmission to humans have highlighted the public health threat posed by these viruses. Newer vaccine approaches for pandemic preparedness against these viruses are needed, given the limitations of vaccines currently approved for H5N1 viruses in terms of their production timelines and the ability to induce protective immune responses in the absence of adjuvants. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of an adenovirus (AdV)-based multivalent vaccine approach for pandemic preparedness against H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses in a mouse model. Replication-defective AdV vectors expressing hemagglutinin (HA) from different subtypes and nucleoprotein (NP) from one subtype induced high levels of humoral and cellular immune responses and conferred protection against virus replication following challenge with H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza virus subtypes. Inclusion of HA from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus in the vaccine formulation further broadened the vaccine coverage. Significantly high levels of HA stalk-specific antibodies were observed following immunization with the multivalent vaccine. Inclusion of NP into the multivalent HA vaccine formulation resulted in the induction of CD8 T cell responses. These results suggest that a multivalent vaccine strategy may provide reasonable protection in the event of a pandemic caused by H5, H7, or H9 avian influenza virus before a strain-matched vaccine can be produced.

Vemula SV; Ahi YS; Swaim AM; Katz JM; Donis R; Sambhara S; Mittal SK

2013-01-01

254

The practitioners guide for dealing with the novel Influenza A, H1N1 pandemic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Within three months of its discovery, the new Influenza A (H1N1) swineflu strain has spread to such an extent that a pandemic has been declared by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although most cases seem to be mild, cases of severe disease have also been reported and by 6 July 2009, 94 912 case...

Venter, Marietjie; Blumberg, Lucille H.

255

Pandemic H1N1 influenza-associated myocarditis in a patient with Castleman's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on a patient with longstanding multicentric Castleman's disease, hyaline-vascular type, who presented with nearly-fatal myocarditis associated with a 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection. This is the first case of such an association described in the literature.

Roca B; Penades M; Resino E

2013-02-01

256

Pandemic influenza outbreak on a troop ship--diary of a soldier in 1918.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A newly identified diary from a soldier in 1918 describes aspects of a troop ship outbreak of pandemic influenza. This diary is the only known document that describes this outbreak and provides information not officially documented concerning possible risk factors such as overcrowding and the suboptimal outbreak response by military leaders. It also presents an independent personal perspective of this overwhelming experience.

Summers JA

2012-11-01

257

Spreading Patterns of the Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the dynamics of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1/S-OIV) pandemic by analyzing data obtained from World Health Organization containing the total number of laboratory-confirmed cases of infections - by country - in a period of 69 day...

de Picoli Junior, Sergio; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Ribeiro, Haroldo Valentin; Malacarne, Luis Carlos

258

Adaptive vaccination strategies to mitigate pandemic influenza: Mexico as a case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this modeling work, we explore the effectiveness of various age-targeted vaccination strategies to mitigate hospitalization and mortality from pandemic influenza, assuming limited vaccine supplies. We propose a novel adaptive vaccination strategy in which vaccination is initiated during the outbr...

Chowell, Gerardo; Viboud, Cecile; Wang, Xiaohong; Bertozzi, Stefano; Miller, Mark

259

Healthcare workers' attitudes to working during pandemic influenza: a qualitative study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare workers (HCWs) will play a key role in any response to pandemic influenza, and the UK healthcare system's ability to cope during an influenza pandemic will depend, to a large extent, on the number of HCWs who are able and willing to work through the crisis. UK emergency planning will be improved if planners have a better understanding of the reasons UK HCWs may have for their absenteeism, and what might motivate them to work during an influenza pandemic. This paper reports the results of a qualitative study that explored UK HCWs' views (n = 64) about working during an influenza pandemic, in order to identify factors that might influence their willingness and ability to work and to identify potential sources of any perceived duty on HCWs to work. Methods A qualitative study, using focus groups (n = 9) and interviews (n = 5). Results HCWs across a range of roles and grades tended to feel motivated by a sense of obligation to work through an influenza pandemic. A number of significant barriers that may prevent them from doing so were also identified. Perceived barriers to the ability to work included being ill oneself, transport difficulties, and childcare responsibilities. Perceived barriers to the willingness to work included: prioritising the wellbeing of family members; a lack of trust in, and goodwill towards, the NHS; a lack of information about the risks and what is expected of them during the crisis; fear of litigation; and the feeling that employers do not take the needs of staff seriously. Barriers to ability and barriers to willingness, however, are difficult to separate out. Conclusion Although our participants tended to feel a general obligation to work during an influenza pandemic, there are barriers to working, which, if generalisable, may significantly reduce the NHS workforce during a pandemic. The barriers identified are both barriers to willingness and to ability. This suggests that pandemic planning needs to take into account the possibility that staff may be absent for reasons beyond those currently anticipated in UK planning documents. In particular, staff who are physically able to attend work may nonetheless be unwilling to do so. Although there are some barriers that cannot be mitigated by employers (such as illness, transport infrastructure etc.), there are a number of remedial steps that can be taken to lesson the impact of others (providing accommodation, building reciprocity, provision of information and guidance etc). We suggest that barriers to working lie along an ability/willingness continuum, and that absenteeism may be reduced by taking steps to prevent barriers to willingness becoming perceived barriers to ability.

Ives Jonathan; Greenfield Sheila; Parry Jayne M; Draper Heather; Gratus Christine; Petts Judith I; Sorell Tom; Wilson Sue

2009-01-01

260

Healthcare workers' attitudes to working during pandemic influenza: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) will play a key role in any response to pandemic influenza, and the UK healthcare system's ability to cope during an influenza pandemic will depend, to a large extent, on the number of HCWs who are able and willing to work through the crisis. UK emergency planning will be improved if planners have a better understanding of the reasons UK HCWs may have for their absenteeism, and what might motivate them to work during an influenza pandemic.This paper reports the results of a qualitative study that explored UK HCWs' views (n = 64) about working during an influenza pandemic, in order to identify factors that might influence their willingness and ability to work and to identify potential sources of any perceived duty on HCWs to work. METHODS: A qualitative study, using focus groups (n = 9) and interviews (n = 5). RESULTS: HCWs across a range of roles and grades tended to feel motivated by a sense of obligation to work through an influenza pandemic. A number of significant barriers that may prevent them from doing so were also identified. Perceived barriers to the ability to work included being ill oneself, transport difficulties, and childcare responsibilities. Perceived barriers to the willingness to work included: prioritising the wellbeing of family members; a lack of trust in, and goodwill towards, the NHS; a lack of information about the risks and what is expected of them during the crisis; fear of litigation; and the feeling that employers do not take the needs of staff seriously. Barriers to ability and barriers to willingness, however, are difficult to separate out. CONCLUSION: Although our participants tended to feel a general obligation to work during an influenza pandemic, there are barriers to working, which, if generalisable, may significantly reduce the NHS workforce during a pandemic. The barriers identified are both barriers to willingness and to ability. This suggests that pandemic planning needs to take into account the possibility that staff may be absent for reasons beyond those currently anticipated in UK planning documents. In particular, staff who are physically able to attend work may nonetheless be unwilling to do so. Although there are some barriers that cannot be mitigated by employers (such as illness, transport infrastructure etc.), there are a number of remedial steps that can be taken to lesson the impact of others (providing accommodation, building reciprocity, provision of information and guidance etc). We suggest that barriers to working lie along an ability/willingness continuum, and that absenteeism may be reduced by taking steps to prevent barriers to willingness becoming perceived barriers to ability.

Ives J; Greenfield S; Parry JM; Draper H; Gratus C; Petts JI; Sorell T; Wilson S

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Experience of pandemic influenza with H1N1 in children with leukemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is not exactly known the risks from infection with pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 in children with leukemia. Here the authors present their experience in 5 children with leukemia. Pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 was detected in 5 patients (F/M: 3/2) at their institution. The ages of these patients were between 2 and 16 years. Four had acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 1 acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). Three of the ALL patients had the diagnosis of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 at the same time as they were diagnosed with ALL. The remaining 2 patients were receiving intensive chemotherapy. All patients had fever, rhinorrhea, and cough. Although bronchopneumonia was seen in 3 patients, only 1 revealed respiratory distress. Stomach ache and diarrhea was seen in the patient who had no pneumonia. All treated as inpatients, but none of them required hospitalization in intensive care unit. One to 3 days after the symptoms of influenza appeared, oseltamivir (Tamiflu) was given to all patients in combination with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Fever declined to normal ranges in 1 to 3 days after treatment was started. The patients received oseltamivir for 5 to 7 days. Cell culture tests were found to be positive for influenza A and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed H1N1 for all 5 patients. Although this is a very small case series, pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 did not seem to be very dangerous for children with leukemia if the oseltamivir treatment was given early when symptoms of influenza appeared.

Karapinar DY; Ay Y; Karzao?lu Z; Balkan C; Ergin F; Vardar F; Kavakli K

2011-02-01

262

Structural Basis of Preexisting Immunity to the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Virus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 2009 H1N1 swine flu is the first influenza pandemic in decades. The crystal structure of the hemagglutinin from the A/California/04/2009 H1N1 virus shows that its antigenic structure, particularly within the Sa antigenic site, is extremely similar to those of human H1N1 viruses circulating early in the 20th century. The cocrystal structure of the 1918 hemagglutinin with 2D1, an antibody from a survivor of the 1918 Spanish flu that neutralizes both 1918 and 2009 H1N1 viruses, reveals an epitope that is conserved in both pandemic viruses. Thus, antigenic similarity between the 2009 and 1918-like viruses provides an explanation for the age-related immunity to the current influenza pandemic.

Xu, Rui; Ekiert, Damian C.; Krause, Jens C.; Hai, Rong; Crowe, Jr., James E.; Wilson, Ian A. (Sinai); (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

2010-05-25

263

Vero cell culture-derived pandemic influenza vaccines: preclinical and clinical development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several subtypes of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential are endemic in bird populations throughout Asia, Africa and the Middle East, and evidence suggests that these viruses are adapting to the mammalian host. As emphasized by the high mortality rate of humans infected with H5N1 viruses, this situation presents a substantial risk to global human health. The Vero cell culture platform has been used to develop whole-virus influenza vaccines that provide broad cross-clade protection against viruses with pandemic potential, at low antigen doses, without the requirement for adjuvantation. The safety and immunogenicity of these vaccines has been demonstrated in studies with more than 10,000 individuals, including healthy adult and elderly subjects, children and various risk groups. These Vero cell-derived vaccines are licensed for prepandemic and pandemic use. The Vero platform is also being explored to develop next-generation live-attenuated and recombinant vaccines.

Barrett PN; Portsmouth D; Ehrlich HJ

2013-04-01

264

Prior immunity helps to explain wave-like behaviour of pandemic influenza in 1918-9  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The ecology of influenza may be more complex than is usually assumed. For example, despite multiple waves in the influenza pandemic of 1918-19, many people in urban locations were apparently unaffected. Were they unexposed, or protected by pre-existing cross-immunity in the first wave, by acquired immunity in later waves, or were their infections asymptomatic? Methods We modelled all these possibilities to estimate parameters to best explain patterns of repeat attacks in 24,706 individuals potentially exposed to summer, autumn and winter waves in 12 English populations during the 1918-9 pandemic. Results Before the summer wave, we estimated that only 52% of persons (95% credibility estimates 41-66%) were susceptible, with the remainder protected by prior immunity. Most people were exposed, as virus transmissibility was high with R0 credibility estimates of 3.10-6.74. Because of prior immunity, estimates of effective R at the start of the summer wave were lower at 1.57-3.96. Only 25-66% of exposed and susceptible persons reported symptoms. After each wave, 33-65% of protected persons became susceptible again before the next wave through waning immunity or antigenic drift. Estimated rates of prior immunity were less in younger populations (19-59%) than in adult populations (38-66%), and tended to lapse more frequently in the young (49-92%) than in adults (34-76%). Conclusions Our model for pandemic influenza in 1918-9 suggests that pre-existing immune protection, presumably induced by prior exposure to seasonal influenza, may have limited the pandemic attack-rate in urban populations, while the waning of that protection likely contributed to recurrence of pandemic waves in exposed cities. In contrast, in isolated populations, pandemic attack rates in 1918-9 were much higher than in cities, presumably because prior immunity was less in populations with infrequent prior exposure to seasonal influenza. Although these conclusions cannot be verified by direct measurements of historical immune mechanisms, our modelling inferences from 1918-9 suggest that the spread of the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic has also been limited by immunity from prior exposure to seasonal influenza. Components of that immunity, which are measurable, may be short-lived, and not necessarily correlated with levels of HI antibody.

Mathews John D; McBryde Emma S; McVernon Jodie; Pallaghy Paul K; McCaw James M

2010-01-01

265

Influenza Infection Control Practices in Labor and Delivery Units During the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the presence and usefulness of written policies and practices on infection control consistent with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) guidance in hospital labor and delivery (L&D) units during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. SETTING: Online survey. PARTICIPANTS: Of 11,845 eligible nurses, 2,641 (22%) participated. This analysis includes a subset of 1,866 nurses who worked exclusively in L&D units. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive evaluation was sent to 12,612 members from the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) who reported working in labor, delivery, postpartum, or newborn care settings during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. RESULTS: Respondents (73.8%) reported that CDC guidance was very useful for infection control in L&D settings during the pandemic. We assessed the presence of the following infection control written policies, consistent with CDC's guidance in hospital L&D units, during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and their rate of implementation most of the time: questioning women upon arrival about recent flu-like symptoms (89.4%, 89.9%), immediate initiation of antiviral medicines if flu suspected or confirmed (65.2%, 49%), isolating ill women from healthy women immediately (90.7%, 84.7%), ask ill women to wear masks during L&D (67%, 57.7%), immediately separating healthy newborns from ill mothers (50.9%, 42.4%), and bathing healthy infants when stable (58.4%, 56.9%). Reported written policies for five of the six practices increased during the pandemic. Five of six written policies remained above baseline after the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents considered CDC guidance very useful. The presence of written policies is important for the implementation of infection control practices by L&D nurses.

Williams JL; Mersereau PW; Ruch-Ross H; Zapata LB; Ruhl C

2013-09-01

266

Existing health inequalities in India: informing preparedness planning for an influenza pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On 11 June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the world was in phase 6 of an influenza pandemic. In India, the first case of 2009 H1N1 influenza was reported on 16 May 2009 and by August 2010 (when the pandemic was declared over), 38730 cases of 2009 H1N1 had been confirmed of which there were 2024 deaths. Here, we propose a conceptual model of the sources of health disparities in an influenza pandemic in India. Guided by a published model of the plausible sources of such disparities in the United States, we reviewed the literature for the determinants of the plausible sources of health disparities during a pandemic in India. We find that factors at multiple social levels could determine inequalities in the risk of exposure and susceptibility to influenza, as well as access to treatment once infected: (1) religion, caste and indigenous identity, as well as education and gender at the individual level; (2) wealth at the household level; and (3) the type of location, ratio of health care practitioners to population served, access to transportation and public spending on health care in the geographic area of residence. Such inequalities could lead to unequal levels of disease and death. Whereas causal factors can only be determined by testing the model when incidence and mortality data, collected in conjunction with socio-economic and geographic factors, become available, we put forth recommendations that policy makers can undertake to ensure that the pandemic preparedness plan includes a focus on social inequalities in India in order to prevent their exacerbation in a pandemic.

Kumar S; Quinn SC

2012-09-01

267

[Estimation of the excess death associated with influenza pandemics and epidemics in Japan after world war II: relation with pandemics and the vaccination system].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the excess death associated with influenza pandemics and epidemics in Japan after World War II, and to reexamine the relationship between the excess death and the vaccination system in Japan. METHODS: Using the Japanese national vital statistics data for 1952-2009, we specified months with influenza epidemics, monthly mortality rates and the seasonal index for 1952-74 and for 1975-2009. Then we calculated excess deaths of each month from the observed number of deaths and the 95% range of expected deaths. Lastly we calculated age-adjusted excess death rates using the 1985 model population of Japan. RESULTS: The total number of excess deaths for 1952-2009 was 687,279 (95% range, 384,149-970,468), 12,058 (95% range, 6,739-17,026) per year. The total number of excess deaths in 6 pandemic years of 1957-58, 58-59, 1968-69, 69-70, 77-78 and 78-79, was 95,904, while that in 51 'non-pandemic' years was 591,376, 6.17 fold larger than pandemic years. The average number of excess deaths for pandemic years was 23,976, nearly equal to that for 'non-pandemic' years, 23,655. At the beginning of pandemics, 1957-58, 1968-69, 1969-70, the proportion of those aged <65 years in excess deaths rose compared with 'non-pandemic' years. In the 1970s and 1980s, when the vaccination program for schoolchildren was mandatory in Japan on the basis of the "Fukumi thesis", age-adjusted average excess mortality rates were relatively low, with an average of 6.17 per hundred thousand. In the 1990s, when group vaccination was discontinued, age-adjusted excess mortality rose up to 9.42, only to drop again to 2.04 when influenza vaccination was made available to the elderly in the 2000s, suggesting that the vaccination of Japanese children prevented excess deaths from influenza pandemics and epidemics. Moreover, in the age group under 65, average excess mortality rates were low in the 1970s and 1980s rather than in the 2000s, which shows that the "Social Defensive" schoolchildren vaccination program in the 1970s and 1980s was more effective than the "Individual Defensive" vaccination program in the 2000s. CONCLUSION: Excess deaths were observed continually, and not limited to pandemic years. We must not slight public health interventions for 'non-pandemic' influenza as well as pandemic influenza. We should also re-examine the importance of "Social Defenses", including preventative vaccination, for public health policy.

Ohmi K; Marui E

2011-10-01

268

Journalists' views about reporting avian influenza and a potential pandemic: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The mass media is a key component of any public communication strategy for influenza or other respiratory illnesses, but coverage can be variable. In this study, we explored the factors that influenced journalists' coverage of avian influenza as a model for coverage of a potential influenza pandemic. METHODS: This study involved semi-structured interviews with 16 journalists from major Australian print, radio and television media organisations reporting on avian influenza and pandemic planning. Journalists, including reporters, editors and producers, were interviewed between October 2006 and August 2007. Thematic analysis was used to draw out major lessons for health communicators. RESULTS: Coverage of avian influenza was influenced by a small set of news values: catastrophic potential, cultural and geographical proximity, unfamiliarity and uncertainty. Lack of novelty and the absence of compelling images led to a decline in coverage. Journalists expressed concerns about the accuracy and impacts of reporting, but saw as critically important, their primary role as informants. They hence emphasised the importance of journalistic independence. Journalists all intended to continue working in a pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Health experts need to adapt their timetables and resources to journalists' needs to improve their mutual communication. In crisis situations, journalists communicate with the public efficiently and effectively, but expert and journalistic views on the role and content of coverage may diverge in the post-acute, reflective phase of a crisis.

Hooker C; King C; Leask J

2012-05-01

269

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in pediatric hematology/oncology units in Lebanon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The impact of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza on immunocompromised patients in western countries has been described, but reports from pediatric patients in the Middle East or Arab countries are deficient. In this study, we describe the clinical characteristics of children with hematological malignancies and laboratory-proven H1N1 influenza. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were recruited from 3 pediatric hematology/oncology units in Lebanon. A confirmed case of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza is a clinically suspected case with positive H1N1 test by either a rapid immunofluorescence test or by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were collected retrospectively from the medical charts. RESULTS: From October 2009 to March 2010, 14 immunocompromised children were infected with H1N1 influenza. Eight were male and 6 were female. The median age of patients was 4.5 years (range, 1 to 14). All children were hospitalized and treated with oseltamivir. Twelve children responded to treatment; the other 2 patients with severe respiratory distress were transferred to intensive care unit and resuscitated but died after 7 and 12 days. CONCLUSIONS: Immunocompromised children infected with pandemic 2009 influenza may respond very well when the diagnosis and treatment are rapid. However, on the basis of our experience, if the underlying disease is more severe (immunodeficiency with significant immunosuppressive treatment and induction of high-risk leukemia), the odds of mortality are likely greater.

Noun P; Farah R; Bechara E; Hage P; Hajj MJ; Audi N; Khalifeh MC

2013-03-01

270

Confronting potential influenza A (H5N1) pandemic with better vaccines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Influenza A (H5N1) viruses are strong candidates for causing the next influenza pandemic if they acquire the ability for efficient human-to-human transmission. A major public health goal is to make efficacious vaccines against these viruses by using novel approaches, including cell-culture system, reverse genetics, and adjuvant development. Important consideration for the strategy includes preparation of vaccines from a currently circulating strain to induce broad-spectrum immunity toward newly emerged human H5 strains. This strategy would be a good solution early in a pandemic until an antigenically matched and approved vaccine is produced. The concept of therapeutic vaccines (e.g., antidisease vaccine) directed at diminishing the cytokine storm frequently seen in subtype H5N1-infected persons is underscored. Better understanding of host-virus interaction is essential to identify tools to produce effective vaccines against influenza (H5N1).

Haque A; Hober D; Kasper LH

2007-10-01

271

Exceptionally high mortality rate of the 1918 influenza pandemic in the Brazilian naval fleet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The naval experience with the 1918 pandemic during World War I remains underexplored despite its key role on the pandemic's global diffusion and the epidemiological interest of isolated and relatively homogeneous populations. The pandemic outbreak in the Brazilian naval fleet is of particular interest both because of its severity and the fact that it was the only Latin American military force deployed to war. OBJECTIVES: To study the mortality patterns of the pandemic in the Brazilian fleet sent to patrol the West African coast in 1918. METHOD: We investigated mortality across vessels, ranks, and occupations based on official population and mortality records from the Brazilian Navy Archives. RESULTS: The outbreak that swept this fleet included the highest influenza mortality rate on any naval ship reported to date. Nearly 10% of the crews died, with death rates reaching 13-14% on two destroyers. While overall mortality was lower for officers, stokers and engineer officers were significantly more likely to die from the pandemic, possibly due to the pulmonary damage from constant exposure to the smoke and coal dust from the boilers. CONCLUSIONS: The fatality patterns observed provide valuable data on the conditions that can exacerbate the impact of a pandemic. While the putative lack of exposure to a first pandemic wave may have played a role in the excessive mortality observed in this fleet, our results indicate that strenuous labor conditions, dehydration, and exposure to coal dust were major risk factors. The unequal death rates among vessels remain an open question.

Schuck-Paim C; Shanks GD; Almeida FE; Alonso WJ

2013-01-01

272

Excess healthcare burden during 1918-1920 influenza pandemic in Taiwan: implications for post-pandemic preparedness  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is speculated that the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus might fall into a seasonal pattern during the current post-pandemic period with more severe clinical presentation for high-risk groups identified during the 2009 pandemic. Hence the extent of likely excess healthcare needs during this period must be fully considered. We will make use of the historical healthcare record in Taiwan during and after the 1918 influenza pandemic to ascertain the scope of potential excess healthcare burden during the post-pandemic period. Methods To establish the healthcare needs after the initial wave in 1918, the yearly healthcare records (hospitalizations, outpatients, etc.) in Taiwan during 1918-1920 are compared with the corresponding data from the adjacent "baseline" years of 1916, 1917, 1921, and 1922 to estimate the excess healthcare burden during the initial outbreak in 1918 and in the years immediately after. Results In 1918 the number of public hospital outpatients exceeded the yearly average of the baseline years by 20.11% (95% CI: 16.43, 25.90), and the number of hospitalizations exceeded the corresponding yearly average of the baseline years by 12.20% (10.59, 14.38), while the excess number of patients treated by the public medics was statistically significant at 32.21% (28.48, 39.82) more than the yearly average of the baseline years. For 1920, only the excess number of hospitalizations was statistically significant at 19.83% (95% CI: 17.21, 23.38) more than the yearly average of the baseline years. Conclusions Considerable extra burden with significant loss of lives was reported in 1918 by both the public medics system and the public hospitals. In comparison, only a substantial number of excess hospitalizations in the public hospitals was reported in 1920, indicating that the population was relatively unprepared for the first wave in 1918 and did not fully utilize the public hospitals. Moreover, comparatively low mortality was reported by the public hospitals and the public medics during the second wave in 1920 even though significantly more patients were hospitalized, suggesting that there had been substantially less fatal illnesses among the hospitalized patients during the second wave. Our results provide viable parameters for assessing healthcare needs for post-pandemic preparedness.

Hsieh Ying-Hen; Chan Chi-Ho

2011-01-01

273

Cross-reactive antibody responses to the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A new pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus has emerged, causing illness globally, primarily in younger age groups. To assess the level of preexisting immunity in humans and to evaluate seasonal vaccine strategies, we measured the antibody response to the pandemic virus resulting from previous influenza infection or vaccination in different age groups. METHODS: Using a microneutralization assay, we measured cross-reactive antibodies to pandemic H1N1 virus (2009 H1N1) in stored serum samples from persons who either donated blood or were vaccinated with recent seasonal or 1976 swine influenza vaccines. RESULTS: A total of 4 of 107 persons (4%) who were born after 1980 had preexisting cross-reactive antibody titers of 40 or more against 2009 H1N1, whereas 39 of 115 persons (34%) born before 1950 had titers of 80 or more. Vaccination with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines resulted in an increase in the level of cross-reactive antibody to 2009 H1N1 by a factor of four or more in none of 55 children between the ages of 6 months and 9 years, in 12 to 22% of 231 adults between the ages of 18 and 64 years, and in 5% or less of 113 adults 60 years of age or older. Seasonal vaccines that were formulated with adjuvant did not further enhance cross-reactive antibody responses. Vaccination with the A/New Jersey/1976 swine influenza vaccine substantially boosted cross-reactive antibodies to 2009 H1N1 in adults. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with recent seasonal nonadjuvanted or adjuvanted influenza vaccines induced little or no cross-reactive antibody response to 2009 H1N1 in any age group. Persons under the age of 30 years had little evidence of cross-reactive antibodies to the pandemic virus. However, a proportion of older adults had preexisting cross-reactive antibodies.

Hancock K; Veguilla V; Lu X; Zhong W; Butler EN; Sun H; Liu F; Dong L; DeVos JR; Gargiullo PM; Brammer TL; Cox NJ; Tumpey TM; Katz JM

2009-11-01

274

Evaluation of the Children Hospitalized with Pandemic H1N1 Influenza  

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Full Text Available Objective: In April 2009, a new influenza virus (H1N1) emerged in Mexico and USA that quickly spread worldwide and the World Health Organization declared this outbreak as the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century. The aim of this study was to evaluate the laboratory confirmed children hospitalized due to pandemic influenza in our hospital.Material and Methods: Fifty-six patients who were hospitalized between October 1, 2009 and January 31, 2010 due to pandemic influenza, were followed prospectively in the Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases,Erciyes University Medical Faculty, and patients with laboratory confirmed tests were included in this study. Results: Seventy three percent of the patients hospitalized due to pandemic influenza (n=41/56) were confirmed and 37 patients were included in this study. Median age was 6.2 years (1 month-18 years) and 51.4% of the patients were female. The most common symptoms were fever (83.8%), cough (81.1%) and respiratory distress (45.9%). The most common finding was pharyngeal hyperemia (89.2%). It was determined that 48.6% of the patients (n=17/35) had increased aspartate aminotransferase levels, 42.9% of the patients (n=9/21) had increased creatine kinase levels, and 18% of the patients (n=6/33) had increased alanine aminotransferase levels. Six patients (16.2%) had leukopenia, seven (18.9%) had neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <1500/mm3) and eleven (29.7%) had lymphopenia. Underlying diseases were detected in 64.9% of the patients (n=24) and 45.8% of these patients (n=11) had neurological diseases. Five patients required intensive care and mechanical ventilation, four of them (10.8%) died. Conclusion: H1N1 infection in children had features similar to those of seasonal influenza. Underlying medical conditions can increase the morbidity and mortality of the disease.

Meda Kondolot; Mustafa K. Öztürk

2010-01-01

275

Pandemic A/H1N1 influenza: transmission of the first cases in Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Pandemic A/H1N1 influenza emerged in Mexico at the end of March 2009. Since then, it is still important to provide evidences that contributed to the international spread of the virus and to ascertain the attack rate of this new strain of influenza among the first cases in Spain that led to identify the first transmission in Europe. METHODS: Three pandemic A/H1N1 influenza groups related to an overseas flight were studied: 71 student group, 94 remaining passengers, and 68 contacts of confirmed cases. The attack rate with their 95% confidence interval (CI) among the student group and contacts was calculated. On April 26th, when the first cases were notified, strong preventive measures were implemented among the student group and the contacts of the confirmed cases. RESULTS: On 27th April, the first pandemic A/H1N1 influenza cases confirmed in Spain were three students that came back from Mexico by airplane. A student generated the first native case in Spain and one of the first cases in Europe. Similar attack rates were found between the student group (14.1%; CI: 12.1-16.1) and their contacts (13.2%; CI: 4.4-22.0), but no cases among remaining passengers were detected, suggesting low transmission risk during air travel. CONCLUSION: The first cases of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza in Spain were imported by airplane from Mexico. Preventive efforts to reduce the impact of the influenza influenced that primary and secondary rates were lower than first estimations by WHO.

Català L; Rius C; García de Olalla P; Nelson JL; Alvarez J; Minguell S; Camps N; Sala MR; Arias C; Barrabeig I; Carol M; Torra R; Cardeñosa N; Pumarola T; Caylà JA

2012-02-01

276

Distribution of influenza and other acute respiratory viruses during the first year after the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic in the English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Limited specimen collection and testing for influenza occurred in the English and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries prior to the 2009/2010 influenza pandemic. Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) member countries rapidly mobilized to collect specimens during the pandemic and a vast majority of confirmed cases during the pandemic period were influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. OBJECTIVES: To describe the aetiology and distribution of acute respiratory illness (ARI) among laboratory confirmed cases during the first year after the 2009/2010 influenza pandemic in the English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean. RESULTS: In total, 774 specimens were tested and 394 (52.7%) cases had positive laboratory confirmation. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (28.4%) and influenza A(H3N2) (23.1%) were most frequently detected. RSV activity peaked in July 2011 while influenza A(H3N2) peaked in October 2010. Influenza was responsible for illness in greater numbers in persons 15-64 years while RSV was seen in primarily in children <5 years and adults >65 years. Other agents confirmed include rhinovirus (12.9%), influenza B (10.9%) and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (9.4%). CONCLUSIONS: RSV and influenza A(H3N2) were the most common viruses identified during the first year after the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Influenza was detected every month with peak activity corresponding to that typically seen in North America (October to March). In order to determine the seasonality of influenza and RSV, laboratory data from subsequent years and increased specimen submission is needed.

Edwards L; Boisson E; Nathaniel-Girdharrie S; Morris-Glasgow V

2013-06-01

277

Trends in parameterization, economics and host behaviour in influenza pandemic modelling: a review and reporting protocol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The volume of influenza pandemic modelling studies has increased dramatically in the last decade. Many models incorporate now sophisticated parameterization and validation techniques, economic analyses and the behaviour of individuals. METHODS: We reviewed trends in these aspects in models for influenza pandemic preparedness that aimed to generate policy insights for epidemic management and were published from 2000 to September 2011, i.e. before and after the 2009 pandemic. RESULTS: We find that many influenza pandemics models rely on parameters from previous modelling studies, models are rarely validated using observed data and are seldom applied to low-income countries. Mechanisms for international data sharing would be necessary to facilitate a wider adoption of model validation. The variety of modelling decisions makes it difficult to compare and evaluate models systematically. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a model Characteristics, Construction, Parameterization and Validation aspects protocol (CCPV protocol) to contribute to the systematisation of the reporting of models with an emphasis on the incorporation of economic aspects and host behaviour. Model reporting, as already exists in many other fields of modelling, would increase confidence in model results, and transparency in their assessment and comparison.

Carrasco LR; Jit M; Chen MI; Lee VJ; Milne GJ; Cook AR

2013-01-01

278

Naturally occurring human monoclonal antibodies neutralize both 1918 and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus exhibits hemagglutinin protein sequence homology with the 1918 pandemic influenza virus. We found that human monoclonal antibodies recognized the Sa antigenic site on the head domains of both 1918 and 2009 hemagglutinins, a site that is hypervariable due to immune selection. These antibodies exhibited high potency against the 2009 virus in vitro, and one exerted a marked therapeutic effect in vivo.

Krause JC; Tumpey TM; Huffman CJ; McGraw PA; Pearce MB; Tsibane T; Hai R; Basler CF; Crowe JE Jr

2010-03-01

279

Naturally occurring human monoclonal antibodies neutralize both 1918 and 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus exhibits hemagglutinin protein sequence homology with the 1918 pandemic influenza virus. We found that human monoclonal antibodies recognized the Sa antigenic site on the head domains of both 1918 and 2009 hemagglutinins, a site that is hypervariable due to immune selection. These antibodies exhibited high potency against the 2009 virus in vitro, and one exerted a marked therapeutic effect in vivo. PMID:20042511

Krause, Jens C; Tumpey, Terrence M; Huffman, Chelsey J; McGraw, Patricia A; Pearce, Melissa B; Tsibane, Tshidi; Hai, Rong; Basler, Christopher F; Crowe, James E

2009-12-30

280

Naturally Occurring Human Monoclonal Antibodies Neutralize both 1918 and 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses ?  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus exhibits hemagglutinin protein sequence homology with the 1918 pandemic influenza virus. We found that human monoclonal antibodies recognized the Sa antigenic site on the head domains of both 1918 and 2009 hemagglutinins, a site that is hypervariable due to immune selection. These antibodies exhibited high potency against the 2009 virus in vitro, and one exerted a marked therapeutic effect in vivo.

Krause, Jens C.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Huffman, Chelsey J.; McGraw, Patricia A.; Pearce, Melissa B.; Tsibane, Tshidi; Hai, Rong; Basler, Christopher F.; Crowe, James E.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Alberta family physicians' willingness to work during an influenza pandemic: a cross-sectional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Effective pandemic responses rely on frontline healthcare workers continuing to work despite increased risk to themselves. Our objective was to investigate Alberta family physicians willingness to work during an influenza pandemic. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Alberta prior to the fall wave of the H1N1 epidemic. Participants: 192 participants from a random sample of 1000 Alberta family physicians stratified by region. Main Outcome Measures: Willingness to work through difficult scenarios created by an influenza epidemic. RESULTS: The corrected response rate was 22%. The most physicians who responded were willing to continue working through some scenarios caused by a pandemic, but in other circumstances less than 50% would continue. Men were more willing to continue working than women. In some situations South African and British trained physicians were more willing to continue working than other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although many physicians intend to maintain their practices in the event of a pandemic, in some circumstances fewer are willing to work. Pandemic preparation requires ensuring a workforce is available. Healthcare systems must provide frontline healthcare workers with the support and resources they need to enable them to continue providing care.

Dickinson JA; Bani-Adam G; Williamson T; Berzins S; Pearce C; Ricketson L; Medd E

2013-01-01

282

Planning and response to the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic: ethics, equity and justice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper aims to highlight three ethical considerations related to influenza pandemic planning and response: ethical allocation of scarce resources; obligations and duties of healthcare workers to treat patients, and the balance between conflicting individual and community interests. Among these, perhaps the most challenging question facing bioethics is how to allocate scarce, life-saving resources given the devastating social and economic ramifications of a pandemic. In such situations, the identification of clear overall goals for pandemic planning is essential in making difficult choices. The dilemma between the duty to save patients and the right to protect the healthcare personnel's own life and health is a key issue. During the course of a pandemic, civil liberties may also be threatened, requiring limits on individual freedom to protect individuals as well as entire communities. Yet, individual liberty should be restricted with great care, and only when alternative approaches are not effective. Pandemic influenza planning and response should be a cooperative and shared responsibility that balances community and individual interests.

Devnani M; Gupta AK; Devnani B

2011-10-01

283

Isolation and complete genomic characterization of pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza viruses from Cuban swine herds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The emergence of the pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus poses a potential global threat for human and animal health. In this study, we carried out pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus surveillance in swine herds in Cuba intending to determine whether the virus was circulating among pig populations. As a result we describe, for the first time, the detection of pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza virus in swine herds in Cuba. In addition, phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization of three viral isolates were performed. Phylogenetic relationships confirmed that all of the eight genes of the three isolates were derived from the pandemic H1N1/2009 virus. The Cuban isolates, formed an independent cluster within the pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza strains. Different molecular markers, previously described in pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza viruses, related with adaptive evolution, viral evasion from the host-immune response, virulence and dissemination were also present in Cuban pandemic H1N1/2009 isolates.

Pérez LJ; Perera CL; Vega A; Frías MT; Rouseaux D; Ganges L; Nuñez JI; Díaz de Arce H

2013-06-01

284

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 vaccine: An update  

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Full Text Available The world witnessed a the first influenza pandemic in this century and fourth overall since first flu pandemic was reported during the World War I. The past experiences with influenza viruses and this pandemic of H1N1 place a consider-able strain on health services and resulted in serious illnesses and a large number of deaths. Develop-ing countries were declared more likely to be at risk from the pandemic effects, as they faced the dual problem of highly vulnerable populations and limited resources to respond H1N1. The public health experts agreed that vaccination is the most effective ways to mitigate the negative effects of the pandemic. The vaccines for H1N1 virus have been used in over 40 coun-tries and administered to over 200 million people helped in a great way and on August 10, 2010, World Health Organization (WHO) announced H1N1 to be in postpandemic period. But based on knowledge about past pandemics, the H1N1 (2009) virus is expected to continue to circulate as a seasonal virus and may undergo some agenic-variation. As WHO strongly recommends vaccination, vigilance for regular updating of the composition of influenza vaccines, based on an assessment of the future impact of circulating viruses along with safety surveillance of the vaccines is necessary. This review has been done to take a stock of the currently available H1N1 vaccines and their possible use as public health intervention in the postpandemic period.

Goel M; Goel M; Khanna P; Mittal K

2011-01-01

285

Issues Regarding the Implementation of eHealth: Preparing for Future Influenza Pandemics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: eHealth is a tool that may be used to facilitate responses to influenza pandemics. Prior to implementation of eHealth in the hospital setting, assessment of the organizational preparedness is an important step in the planning process. Including this step may increase the chance of implementation success. OBJECTIVE: To identify the preparedness issues in relation to implementation of eHealth for future influenza pandemics. METHODS: One hospital was selected in Australia for this study. We conducted 12 individual interviews to gather a rich data set in relation to eHealth preparedness in the context of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic at this major teaching hospital. These participants' views were analyzed according to five main themes: (1) challenges in present practices or circumstances for pandemic responses, which indicates a need for change, (2) healthcare providers' exposure to eHealth, (3) organizational technological capacity to support an IT innovation for medical practices, (4) resource preparedness, and (5) socio-cultural issues in association with eHealth implementation in response to a pandemic. RESULTS: This article reports a subset of the issues identified during the case study. These issues include, for example, poor sharing of patient health records, poor protection of patient privacy, clinicians' concerns about IT reliability and dissatisfaction with the software in use, clinicians' concerns about IT's impact on professional autonomy versus having inefficient IT support, and inefficient communication across departments in the form of consultation. CONCLUSIONS: Based on discussions with the participants and interpretation of their responses, we assessed the hospital's preparedness status and also identified areas of deficiency. Accordingly, we suggest possible solutions for the areas in need of improvement to facilitate eHealth implementation's success. The study results will also provide policymakers at national, state and local levels with insights to refine relevant public health policies for the planning and management of pandemics from the eHealth perspective.

Li J; Seale H; Ray P; Rawlinson W; Lewis L; Macintyre CR

2012-01-01

286

Economics of employer-sponsored workplace vaccination to prevent pandemic and seasonal influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Employers may be loath to fund vaccination programs without understanding the economic consequences. We developed a decision analytic computational simulation model including dynamic transmission elements that estimated the cost-benefit of employer-sponsored workplace vaccination from the employer's perspective. Implementing such programs was relatively inexpensive (<$35/vaccinated employee) and, in many cases, cost saving across diverse occupational groups in all seasonal influenza scenarios. Such programs were cost-saving for a 20% serologic attack rate pandemic scenario (range: -$15 to -$995) per vaccinated employee) and a 30% serologic attack rate pandemic scenario (range: -$39 to -$1,494 per vaccinated employee) across all age and major occupational groups.

Lee BY; Bailey RR; Wiringa AE; Afriyie A; Wateska AR; Smith KJ; Zimmerman RK

2010-08-01

287

Distribution of selected healthcare resources for influenza pandemic response in Cambodia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Human influenza infection poses a serious public health threat in Cambodia, a country at risk for the emergence and spread of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Prior pandemics demonstrated the adverse impact of influenza on poor communities in developing countries. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution can inform decisions regarding resource mobilization and investment for pandemic mitigation. METHODS: A health facility survey performed across Cambodia obtained data on availability of healthcare resources important for pandemic influenza response. Focusing on five key resources considered most necessary for treating severe influenza (inpatient beds, doctors, nurses, oseltamivir, and ventilators), resource distributions were analyzed at the Operational District (OD) and Province levels, refining data analysis from earlier studies. Resources were stratified by respondent type (hospital vs. District Health Office [DHO]). A summary index of distribution inequality was calculated using the Gini coefficient. Indices for local spatial autocorrelation were measured at the OD level using geographical information system (GIS) analysis. Finally, a potential link between socioeconomic status and resource distribution was explored by mapping resource densities against poverty rates. RESULTS: Gini coefficient calculation revealed variable inequality in distribution of the five key resources at the Province and OD levels. A greater percentage of the population resides in areas of relative under-supply (28.5%) than over-supply (21.3%). Areas with more resources per capita showed significant clustering in central Cambodia while areas with fewer resources clustered in the northern and western provinces. Hospital-based inpatient beds, doctors, and nurses were most heavily concentrated in areas of the country with the lowest poverty rates; however, beds and nurses in Non-Hospital Medical Facilities (NHMF) showed increasing concentrations at higher levels of poverty. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable heterogeneity in healthcare resource distribution across Cambodia. Distribution mapping at the local level can inform policy decisions on where to stockpile resources in advance of and for reallocation in the event of a pandemic. These findings will be useful in determining future health resource investment, both for pandemic preparedness and for general health system strengthening, and provide a foundation for future analyses of equity in health services provision for pandemic mitigation planning in Cambodia.

Schwanke Khilji SU; Rudge JW; Drake T; Chavez I; Borin K; Touch S; Coker R

2013-10-01

288

Heterogeneous virulence of pandemic 2009 influenza H1N1 virus in mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathogenesis of influenza infection is a key factor leading to the prevention and control of future outbreaks. Pandemic 2009 Influenza H1N1 infection, although frequently mild, led to a severe and fatal form of disease in certain cases that make its virulence nature debatable. Much effort has been made toward explaining the determinants of disease severity; however, no absolute reason has been established. Results This study presents the heterogeneous virulence of clinically similar strains of pandemic 2009 influenza virus in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells and mice. The viruses were obtained from patients who were admitted in a local hospital in China with a similar course of infection and recovered. The A/Nanchang/8002/2009 and A/Nanchang/8011/2009 viruses showed efficient replication and high lethality in mice while infection with A/Nanchang/8008/2009 was not lethal with impaired viral replication, minimal pathology and modest proinflammatory activity in lungs. Sequence analysis displayed prominent differences between polymerase subunits (PB2 and PA) of viral genomes that might correlate with their different phenotypic behavior. Conclusions The study confirms that biological heterogeneity, linked with the extent of viral replication, exists among pandemic H1N1 strains that may serve as a benchmark for future investigations on influenza pathogenesis.

Farooqui Amber; Leon Alberto J; Lei Yanchang; Wang Pusheng; Huang Jianyun; Tenorio Raquel; Dong Wei; Rubino Salvatore; Lin Jie; Li Guishuang; Zhao Zhen; Kelvin David J

2012-01-01

289

Influenza pandémica A (H1N1) 2009: epidemiología, características clínicas y diferencias con influenza estacional en Chile/ Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009: epidemiology, clinical features and differences with seasonal influenza in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La pandemia de inluenza A (H1N1) 2009 generó preguntas sobre sus diferencias con influenza estacional. Objetivos: Describir las características de influenza pandémica y comparar con influenza estacional. Pacientes y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de casos confirmados de influenza pandémica en adultos internados en el Hospital Clínico de la Pontificia Universidad Católica entre mayo y julio de 2009, comparado con 95 casos históricos de influenza estacional. Resultado (more) s: 54 pacientes con influenza pandémica, 51,9% género masculino, edad 52,8 ± 19,5 años; 79,6% presentaban co-morbilidades; 16,7% inmunocomprometidos, 7,4% mujeres embarazadas, 25,9% de adquisición nosocomial, 31,5% requirió cuidados intensivos/intermedios. Se diagnosticó neumonía en 37% y la mortalidad global fue 3,7%. En la comparación con inluenza estacional, la pandémica afectó menos pacientes > de 65 años (31,5 vs 68%, p Abstract in english Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 raised questions regarding differences with seasonal influenza. Objectives: To describe the clinical features of pandemic influenza and compare them to seasonal influenza. Patients y Methods: A descriptive study that compared hospitalized adults was done between patients with confirmed pandemic inluenza in the Hospital Clínico Universidad Católica in Santiago, Chile, from May to July 2009 and 95 confirmed historic cases of seasonal influ (more) enza. Results: 54 patients with pandemic influenza were included, 51.9% were male, age of 52.8 ± 19.5 years old; 79.6% had chronic diseases; 16.7% were immunocompromised patients and 7.4% of pregnant women. 25.9% of the patients acquired the infection during the hospitalization. 31.5% were admitted to intermediate/intensive care units. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 37%, and the mortality rate was 3.7%. The comparison between pandemic and seasonal influenza showed less proportion of patient > 65 years of age (31.5% vs. 68%; p

Rabagliati B, Ricardo; Siri Z, Leonardo; Pérez C, Carlos M; Labarca L, Jaime; Ferrés G, Marcela

2011-12-01

290

Experimental infection of pigs with the human 1918 pandemic influenza virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease entity during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic. The aim of this work was to determine the virulence of a plasmid-derived human 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (reconstructed 1918, or 1918/rec, virus) in swine using a plasmid-derived A/swine/Iowa/15/1930 H1N1 virus (1930/rec virus), representing the first isolated influenza virus, as a reference. Four-week-old piglets were inoculated intratracheally with either the 1930/rec or the 1918/rec virus or intranasally with the 1918/rec virus. A transient increase in temperature and mild respiratory signs developed postinoculation in all virus-inoculated groups. In contrast to other mammalian hosts (mice, ferrets, and macaques) where infection with the 1918/rec virus was lethal, the pigs did not develop severe respiratory distress or become moribund. Virus titers in the lower respiratory tract as well as macro- and microscopic lesions at 3 and 5 days postinfection (dpi) were comparable between the 1930/rec and 1918/rec virus-inoculated animals. In contrast to the 1930/rec virus-infected animals, at 7 dpi prominent lung lesions were present in only the 1918/rec virus-infected animals, and all the piglets developed antibodies at 7 dpi. Presented data support the hypothesis that the 1918 pandemic influenza virus was able to infect and replicate in swine, causing a respiratory disease, and that the virus was likely introduced into the pig population during the 1918 pandemic, resulting in the current lineage of the classical H1N1 swine influenza viruses.

Weingartl HM; Albrecht RA; Lager KM; Babiuk S; Marszal P; Neufeld J; Embury-Hyatt C; Lekcharoensuk P; Tumpey TM; García-Sastre A; Richt JA

2009-05-01

291

Experimental infection of pigs with the human 1918 pandemic influenza virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Swine influenza was first recognized as a disease entity during the 1918 "Spanish flu" pandemic. The aim of this work was to determine the virulence of a plasmid-derived human 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus (reconstructed 1918, or 1918/rec, virus) in swine using a plasmid-derived A/swine/Iowa/15/1930 H1N1 virus (1930/rec virus), representing the first isolated influenza virus, as a reference. Four-week-old piglets were inoculated intratracheally with either the 1930/rec or the 1918/rec virus or intranasally with the 1918/rec virus. A transient increase in temperature and mild respiratory signs developed postinoculation in all virus-inoculated groups. In contrast to other mammalian hosts (mice, ferrets, and macaques) where infection with the 1918/rec virus was lethal, the pigs did not develop severe respiratory distress or become moribund. Virus titers in the lower respiratory tract as well as macro- and microscopic lesions at 3 and 5 days postinfection (dpi) were comparable between the 1930/rec and 1918/rec virus-inoculated animals. In contrast to the 1930/rec virus-infected animals, at 7 dpi prominent lung lesions were present in only the 1918/rec virus-infected animals, and all the piglets developed antibodies at 7 dpi. Presented data support the hypothesis that the 1918 pandemic influenza virus was able to infect and replicate in swine, causing a respiratory disease, and that the virus was likely introduced into the pig population during the 1918 pandemic, resulting in the current lineage of the classical H1N1 swine influenza viruses. PMID:19224986

Weingartl, Hana M; Albrecht, Randy A; Lager, Kelly M; Babiuk, Shawn; Marszal, Peter; Neufeld, James; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Lekcharoensuk, Porntippa; Tumpey, Terrence M; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Jürgen A

2009-02-18

292

Age- and sex-specific mortality associated with the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in Kentucky.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The reasons for the unusual age-specific mortality patterns of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic remain unknown. Here we characterize pandemic-related mortality by single year of age in a unique statewide Kentucky data set and explore breakpoints in the age curves. METHODS: Individual death certificates from Kentucky during 1911-1919 were abstracted by medically trained personnel. Pandemic-associated excess mortality rates were calculated by subtracting observed rates during pandemic months from rates in previous years, separately for each single year of age and by sex. RESULTS: The age profile of excess mortality risk in fall 1918 was characterized by a maximum among infants, a minimum at ages 9-10 years, a maximum at ages 24-26 years, and a second minimum at ages 56-59 years. The excess mortality risk in young adults had been greatly attenuated by winter 1919. The age breakpoints of mortality risk did not differ between males and females. CONCLUSIONS: The observed mortality breakpoints in male and female cohorts born during 1859-1862, 1892-1894, and 1908-1909 did not coincide with known dates of historical pandemics. The atypical age mortality patterns of the 1918-1919 pandemic cannot be explained by military crowding, war-related factors, or prior immunity alone and likely result from a combination of unknown factors.

Viboud C; Eisenstein J; Reid AH; Janczewski TA; Morens DM; Taubenberger JK

2013-03-01

293

The effect of healthcare environments on a pandemic influenza outbreak.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this presentation are: (1) To determine if healthcare settings serve as intensive transmission environments for influenza epidemics, increasing effects on communities; (2) To determine which mitigation strategies are best for use in healthcare settings and in communities to limit influenza epidemic effects; and (3) To determine which mitigation strategies are best to prevent illness in healthcare workers.

Cannon, Daniel C.; Davey, Victoria J. (Department of Veterans Affairs); Glass, Robert John, Jr.

2010-12-01

294

Primary care physicians' response to pandemic influenza in Hong Kong: a mixed quantitative and qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The current study was conducted to use a developed framework to appraise the public primary care response to pandemic 2009 influenza A H1N1 virus in Hong Kong in 2009. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 300 doctors working in public primary care clinics. In addition, a qualitative study was conducted in two selected general outpatient clinics (GOPCs) with 10 doctors between September and December 2009. RESULTS: We found that there was an increase in clinical service demand for public primary care doctors and that there was lower compliance with hand washing as compared to the wearing of masks among GOPC doctors during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Since hand hygiene and influenza vaccination are effective methods to prevent the spread of influenza infection, future studies should explore the reasons for non-compliance with these preventive behaviors among doctors. More education and training in dealing with influenza A H1N1 infection may be needed.

Wong SY; Kung K; Wong MC; Wong C; Tsui W; Chan K; Liang J; Lee NL; Cheung AW; Wong EL

2012-09-01

295

Risk factors for influenza among health care workers during 2009 pandemic, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This prospective cohort study, performed during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, was aimed to determine whether adults working in acute care hospitals were at higher risk than other working adults for influenza and to assess risk factors for influenza among health care workers (HCWs). We assessed the risk for influenza among 563 HCWs and 169 non-HCWs using PCR to test nasal swab samples collected during acute respiratory illness; results for 13 (2.2%) HCWs and 7 (4.1%) non-HCWs were positive for influenza. Influenza infection was associated with contact with family members who had acute respiratory illnesses (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 6.9, 95% CI 2.2-21.8); performing aerosol-generating medical procedures (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.5); and low self-reported adherence to hand hygiene recommendations (AOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.0). Contact with persons with acute respiratory illness, rather than workplace, was associated with influenza infection. Adherence to infection control recommendations may prevent influenza among HCWs.

Kuster SP; Coleman BL; Raboud J; McNeil S; De Serres G; Gubbay J; Hatchette T; Katz KC; Loeb M; Low D; Mazzulli T; Simor A; McGeer AJ

2013-04-01

296

The serial intervals of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses in households in Bangkok, Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The serial interval (SI) of human influenza virus infections is often described by a single distribution. Understanding sources of variation in the SI could provide valuable information for understanding influenza transmission dynamics. Using data from a randomized household study of nonpharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in Bangkok, Thailand, over 34 months between 2008 and 2011, we estimated the influence of influenza virus type/subtype and other characteristics of 251 pediatric index cases and their 315 infected household contacts on estimates of household SI. The mean SI for all households was 3.3 days. Relative to influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (3.1 days), the SI for influenza B (3.7 days) was 22% longer (95% confidence interval: 4, 43), or about half a day. The SIs for influenza viruses A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) were similar to that for A(H1N1)pdm09. SIs were shortest for older index cases (age 11-14 years) and for younger infected household contacts (age ?15 years). Greater time spent in proximity to the index child was associated with shorter SIs. Differences in the SI might reflect differences in incubation period, viral shedding, contact, or susceptibility. These findings could improve parameterization of mathematical models to better predict the impact of epidemic or pandemic influenza mitigation strategies.

Levy JW; Cowling BJ; Simmerman JM; Olsen SJ; Fang VJ; Suntarattiwong P; Jarman RG; Klick B; Chotipitayasunondh T

2013-06-01

297

Risk factors for influenza among health care workers during 2009 pandemic, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

This prospective cohort study, performed during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, was aimed to determine whether adults working in acute care hospitals were at higher risk than other working adults for influenza and to assess risk factors for influenza among health care workers (HCWs). We assessed the risk for influenza among 563 HCWs and 169 non-HCWs using PCR to test nasal swab samples collected during acute respiratory illness; results for 13 (2.2%) HCWs and 7 (4.1%) non-HCWs were positive for influenza. Influenza infection was associated with contact with family members who had acute respiratory illnesses (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 6.9, 95% CI 2.2-21.8); performing aerosol-generating medical procedures (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.5); and low self-reported adherence to hand hygiene recommendations (AOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.0). Contact with persons with acute respiratory illness, rather than workplace, was associated with influenza infection. Adherence to infection control recommendations may prevent influenza among HCWs. PMID:23631831

Kuster, Stefan P; Coleman, Brenda L; Raboud, Janet; McNeil, Shelly; De Serres, Gaston; Gubbay, Jonathan; Hatchette, Todd; Katz, Kevin C; Loeb, Mark; Low, Donald; Mazzulli, Tony; Simor, Andrew; McGeer, Allison J

2013-04-01

298

Influenza 2009 pandemic: Cellular immune-mediated surveillance modulated by TH17 & Tregs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza A virus is a serious public health threat. Most recently the 2009/H1N1 pandemic virus had an inherent ability to evade the host’s immune surveillance through genetic drift, shift, and genomic reassortment. Immune characterization of 2009/H1N1 utilized monoclonal antibodies, neutralizing sera, and proteomics. Increased age may have provided some degree of immunity, but vaccines against seasonal influenza viruses seldom yield cross-reactive immunity, exemplified by 2009/H1N1. Nonetheless, about 33% of individuals, over the age of 60, had cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against 2009/H1N1, whereas only 6-9% young adults had these antibodies. Children characteristically had no detectable immunity against 2009/H1N1. Taken together, these observations suggest some degree of immune transference with at least certain strains of virus that have afflicted the human population in past decades. Because internal influenza proteins may exhibit less antigenic variation, it is possible that prior exposure to diverse strains of influenza virus provide some immunity to novel strains, including the recent pandemic strain (swine-avian A/H1N1). Current trends in immunological studies – specifically the modulation of cellular immune surveillance provided by TH17 and Tregs – also support the need for additional proteomic research for characterizing novel translational evidence-based treatment interventions based on cytokine function to help defeat the virus. Timely and critical research must characterize the impact of genetics and epigenetics of oral and systemic host immune surveillance responses to influenza A virus. The continued development and application of proteomics and gene expression across viral strains and human tissues increases our ability to combat the spread of influenza epidemics and pandemics.

Andre Barkhordarian; Natasha Iyer; Paul Shapshak; Charurut Somboonwit; John Sinnott; Francesco Chiappelli

2011-01-01

299

2009 Pandemic H1N1 influenza: Risk factors for severe and fatal manifestations.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Most of the confirmed 2009 H1N1 pandemic cases showed mild influenza like illness similar to seasonal influenza. However, there were also severe and fatal cases. Knowledge of the risk factors associated with severe and fatal cases is important. This study assessed the risk factors for severe and fatal manifestations. Materials and Methods: Search of Medline/PubMed (search period unrestricted) using keywords ‘Pandemic’, ‘H1N1 influenza’, ‘risk factor’, ‘severe and/or fatal’ was performed. In addition, existing articles in our libraries concerning H1N1 influenza and environmental factors were used, without cross reference check on other search engines.  Results: The incidence of severe and fatal cases ranged from 20 to 100% and from 0.7 to 39% respectively. Studies on the age as a factor showed mixed results but generally showed the younger age group to be at higher risk, different to that of seasonal influenza. Various co morbid conditions such as pregnancy, obesity, diabetes mellitus, chronic pulmonary and cardiac disease, being immune suppressed, nutritional status, and delay in treatment have been shown to important risk factors for severe disease. One study showed Streptococcus pneumoniae and Human respiratory syncytial virus A co-infection to have a role in the severity of the disease. Indirect racial study suggested that genetic factors are important. Other factors that may be important and required further research such as associated preexisting conditions such as arterial hypertension, active tuberculosis and neurological disease, in addition to over-responsive innate immune response, viral dose, alcohol consumption, and environmental factors. Conclusion: In the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, risk factors for severe and fatal cases include preexisting medical conditions, obesity, underweight, pregnancy, and delay in antiviral treatment. Respiratory co-infection may be important.

Jeanne Adiwinata PAWITAN

2011-01-01

300

DNA vaccination elicits protective immune responses against pandemic and classic swine influenza viruses in pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Swine influenza is a highly contagious viral infection in pigs that significantly impacts the pork industry due to weight loss and secondary infections. There is also the potential of a significant threat to public health, as was seen in 2009 when the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus strain emerged from reassortment events among avian, swine, and human influenza viruses within pigs. As classic and pandemic H1N1 strains now circulate in swine, an effective vaccine may be the best strategy to protect the pork industry and public health. Current inactivated-virus vaccines available for swine influenza protect only against viral strains closely related to the vaccine strain, and egg-based production of these vaccines is insufficient to respond to large outbreaks. DNA vaccines are a promising alternative since they can potentially induce broad-based protection with more efficient production methods. In this study we evaluated the potentials of monovalent and trivalent DNA vaccine constructs to (i) elicit both humoral and gamma interferon (IFN-?) responses and (ii) protect pigs against viral shedding and lung disease after challenge with pandemic H1N1 or classic swine H1N1 influenza virus. We also compared the efficiency of a needle-free vaccine delivery method to that of a conventional needle/syringe injection. We report that DNA vaccination elicits robust serum antibody and cellular responses after three immunizations and confers significant protection against influenza virus challenge. Needle-free delivery elicited improved antibody responses with the same efficiency as conventional injection and should be considered for development as a practical alternative for vaccine administration.

Gorres JP; Lager KM; Kong WP; Royals M; Todd JP; Vincent AL; Wei CJ; Loving CL; Zanella EL; Janke B; Kehrli ME Jr; Nabel GJ; Rao SS

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Mutations in NA that induced low pH-stability and enhanced the replication of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus at an early stage of the pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An influenza A virus that originated in pigs caused a pandemic in 2009. The sialidase activity of the neuraminidase (NA) of previous pandemic influenza A viruses are stable at low pH (?5). Here, we identified the amino acids responsible for this property. We found differences in low-pH stability at pH 5.0 among pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses, which enhanced the replication of these viruses. Low-pH-stable NA enhancement of virus replication may have contributed to the rapid worldwide spread and adaptation to humans of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses during the early stages of the 2009 pandemic.

Takahashi T; Song J; Suzuki T; Kawaoka Y

2013-01-01

302

Surveillance of influenza A and the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 in sewage and surface water in the Netherlands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of the water cycle in spreading human pathogenic influenza viruses is poorly studied and is not considered to be significant. However, gastrointestinal symptoms developed in a large proportion of influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infected people during the pandemic in 2009 and fecal shedding was reported. This fecal route could potentially play a role in the entry of human pathogenic influenza viruses in to the water cycle. Monitoring of influenza viruses in sewage and surface water during the pandemic in 2009 showed that influenza A viruses were detected in sewage and surface water. However, the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus was not detected. These findings imply that the water cycle did not play a relevant role in spreading the pandemic influenza virus during the epidemic in the Netherlands in 2009. Analyses of deliberately contaminated water samples confirmed the ability of quantitative RT-PCR to detect influenza viruses in sewage samples whereas the analysis of large volumes of surface water was strongly hampered by the presence of PCR-inhibiting substances.

Heijnen L; Medema G

2011-09-01

303

Evaluation of a proximity extension assay for the detection of H1 2009 pandemic influenza viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) are widely distributed, simple to use, but often lack sensitivity as compared to gold standard methods (viral culture and nucleic acid detection technologies). Applying RIDTs outside of epidemic or pandemic infections results in large numbers of false negatives. Hence, a sensitive RIDT that would reduce the number of false negatives would result in an increased clinical value. We evaluated the potential of a proximity extension assay (PEA) for the detection of influenza A H1 viruses. This technology makes use of antibodies to capture the pathogen, followed by molecular detection. Forty-seven nasopharyngeal swab samples, all confirmed infections of the H1 2009 pandemic influenza virus, were evaluated. The performance of PEA was compared to the RIDT Quickvue Influenza A+B assay. The success rate of the comparative assays was modeled by means of a binary logistic response model. Both assays performed equally well within the current range of viral particles, expressed as log10 copies/ml. When the actual input of viral particles was taken into account, the 95% hitrate of PEA lies within the range of 4.60-7.02 log10 copies/reaction, which is an almost 2 log10 sensitivity improvement over the 95% hitrate of the Quickvue RIDT, ranging from 6.86 to 9.37 log10 copies/reaction. The PEA method holds promise to improve sensitive detection of influenza viruses in clinical samples. PMID:23707923

Van Wesenbeeck, Liesbeth; Meeuws, Hanne; De Wolf, Hans; Stuyver, Lieven

2013-05-23

304

The politics of medicine and the global governance of pandemic influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While still significant, the 2009 H1N1 (A) influenza pandemic was generally viewed as comparatively mild in contrast to past influenza pandemics. Even so, the conventional response of many governments to protect their populations against the threat from the H1N1 virus was to ensure adequate vaccine production and/or access to supplies of vaccines and antiviral medications. In this article, I examine the influence of biomedical knowledge (and the professionals that wield it) in determining the acceptable and rational limits of influenza public policy from 1918 to today. Particular attention is given to the role that medical practitioners have played in shaping post-World War II influenza policy and governance structures, together with the development, deployment, and political effect of more recent biomedical techniques-such as evidence-based medicine-in reinforcing the importance attached to influenza vaccines and antivirals. The article concludes by discussing how the intense focus on pharmaceutical-based solutions reflects a particular view of biomedicine that has had serious political implications in distorting global health governance arrangements, and I argue that only by unpacking these structures and revealing the political authority in play can alternative policy responses more appropriate to a wider proportion of humanity be considered.

Kamradt-Scott A

2013-01-01

305

Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine as a Rapid-Response Tool Against Avian Influenza Pandemic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Influenza viruses in nature undergo genetic mutation and reassortment. Three pandemics of avian influenza in man were recorded in the twentieth century. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses currently in circulation pose a threat for another world-wide pandemic, if they become transmissible from man to man. Manufacturing protective vaccines using current egg-based technology is often difficult due to the virulence of the virus and its adverse effects on the embryonating egg substrate. New technologies allow the creation of safe and protective pandemic influenza vaccines without the need for egg based substrates. These technologies allow new vaccines to be created in less than one month. Manufacturing is in tissue culture, not eggs. Vaccine can be administered to man non-invasively, without adjuvants, eliciting a rapid and protective immune response. Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 HPAI virus challenges. Mass-administration of this bird flu vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. Vaccination using this vaccine could protect the the largest host reservoir (chickens) and greatly reduce the exposure of man to avian influenza. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of a non-replicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural AI virus infections. In addition to mass immunization of poultry, both animals and humans have been effectively immunized by intranasal administration of Ad5-vectored influenza vaccines without any appreciable side effects, even in mice and human volunteers with preexisting immunity to Ad5. RCA-free Ad5-vectored AI vaccines may thus provide a critical tool for mitigating an AI pandemic in a simple, rapid, and safe manner. (author).

2007-01-01

306

Surveillance of influenza viruses in the post-pandemic era (2010-2012) in Northern Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The activity and circulation of influenza viruses in Lombardy - Northern Italy - (a region with nearly 10 out of the 60 million inhabitants of Italy) were investigated during two consecutive seasons (2010-2011 and 2011-2012), as part of the Italian Influenza Surveillance Network. The molecular characteristics of the hemagglutinin (HA) sequence of circulating viruses were analyzed to investigate the emergence of influenza viral variants. In the surveyed area, the influenza activity of these two post-pandemic seasons was similar in terms of both time frame and impact. The timing of the influenza epidemics was similar to the timing seen prior to the emergence of the pandemic A(H1N1) virus in 2009. A(H1N1)pdm09 was the predominant virus circulating during the 2010-2011 post-pandemic season and then-unexpectedly-almost disappeared. The HA sequences of these A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses segregated in a different genetic group with respect to those identified during the 2009 pandemic, although they were still closely related to the vaccine viral strain A/California/07/2009. Influenza A(H3N2) viruses were the predominant viruses circulating during the 2011-2012 season, accounting for nearly 88% of influenza viruses identified. All HA sequences of the A(H3N2) viruses isolated in the 2011-2012 season fell into the A/Victoria/208/2009 genetic clade (although the A/Perth/16/2009 virus was the reference vaccine strain). B viruses presented with a mixed circulation of viral variants during these two seasons: viruses belonging to both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages co-circulated in different proportions, with a notable rise in the proportion of B/Yamagata viruses (B/Wisconsin/1/2010-like) during the 2011-2012 epidemic. In conclusion, the continuous monitoring of the characteristics of circulating viruses is an essential tool for understanding the epidemiological and virological features of influenza viruses, for monitoring their matching with seasonal vaccine strains, and for tuning vaccination strategies.

Pariani E; Amendola A; Ranghiero A; Anselmi G; Zanetti A

2013-01-01

307

Novel pandemic A (H1N1) influenza vaccination among pregnant women: motivators and barriers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We sought to examine motivators and barriers related to monovalent 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccination among pregnant women. We conducted a national poll of pregnant women using a random online sample (237) and opt-in supplement (277). In all, 42% of pregnant women reported getting the vaccine. Vaccination was positively associated with attitudinal factors including believing the vaccine is very safe or benefits the baby, and with provider recommendations. Women in racial/ethnic minority groups, women with less education, and women <35 years were less likely to get the vaccine and had differing views and experiences. Despite H1N1 vaccination rates that are higher than past seasonal influenza rates, barriers like safety concerns may persist in a pandemic. Messaging from providers that encourages women to believe the vaccine is very safe and benefits their baby may be compelling. Messaging and outreach during future pandemics may require customization to increase vaccination among high-risk groups.

Steelfisher GK; Blendon RJ; Bekheit MM; Mitchell EW; Williams J; Lubell K; Peugh J; DiSogra CA

2011-06-01

308

Inferring the causes of the three waves of the 1918 influenza pandemic in England and Wales.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Past influenza pandemics appear to be characterized by multiple waves of incidence, but the mechanisms that account for this phenomenon remain unclear. We propose a simple epidemic model, which incorporates three factors that might contribute to the generation of multiple waves: (i) schools opening and closing, (ii) temperature changes during the outbreak, and (iii) changes in human behaviour in response to the outbreak. We fit this model to the reported influenza mortality during the 1918 pandemic in 334 UK administrative units and estimate the epidemiological parameters. We then use information criteria to evaluate how well these three factors explain the observed patterns of mortality. Our results indicate that all three factors are important but that behavioural responses had the largest effect. The parameter values that produce the best fit are biologically reasonable and yield epidemiological dynamics that match the observed data well.

He D; Dushoff J; Day T; Ma J; Earn DJ

2013-09-01

309

THE A (H1N1) INFLUENZA. SYMBOLIC DIMENSIONS OF A PANDEMIC ARTEFACT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to present the symbolic features that are exposed by the concept of artefact in the context of a pandemic alarm, such as the A (H1N1) influenza. The symbolic qualities entailed by the notion of artefact are well-known within the Social Sciences: Sociology, Anthropology, Archaeology, and Linguistics. The artefact is basically not an object, but an action aimed at designing, simulating or creating a simile by means of material, technological or linguistic structures. The purpose of the present work is to unveil the symbolic dimensions that are activated by the A (H1N1) influenza as a Pandemic Artefact: a) the assumption of separating information from matter; b) the need for a material support to enable the exchange; c) the sociological reflexivity of the artefact and its agency; d) the arbitrariness of its social use, that detaches it from the design as intention.

Andrés G. Seguel

2013-01-01

310

[The influenza pandemic 1968-1970: crisis management in separated Germany - "Vodka and Raspberry Tea"].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Hong Kong Flu in the years 1968-1970 challenged both German health care systems. This article intends to analyse the patterns of reaction to the pandemic. Both German states faced the threat according to their respective ideological orientation. This applied to the two parts of Berlin - West and East - as well. In the GDR the control of influenza was centrally organized. When the pandemic passed away an influenza guiding document ("Führungsdokument") was made obligatory for the fight against the plague. In the FRG hospital treatment maintained predominance while the outpatient sector was administrated by physicians in private practice. In West- Berlin outpatient clinics were declined by the Association of Physicians ("Kassenärztliche Vereinigung"). In 1970 a first concept of surveillance was presented on the level of the state in West Germany. In the years 1968-1970 vaccinations were not common in both German states. The essay is based on the analysis of archival sources, monographs, scientific and newspaper articles.

Witte W

2011-12-01

311

[The influenza pandemic 1968-1970: crisis management in separated Germany - "Vodka and Raspberry Tea"].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Hong Kong Flu in the years 1968-1970 challenged both German health care systems. This article intends to analyse the patterns of reaction to the pandemic. Both German states faced the threat according to their respective ideological orientation. This applied to the two parts of Berlin - West and East - as well. In the GDR the control of influenza was centrally organized. When the pandemic passed away an influenza guiding document ("Führungsdokument") was made obligatory for the fight against the plague. In the FRG hospital treatment maintained predominance while the outpatient sector was administrated by physicians in private practice. In West- Berlin outpatient clinics were declined by the Association of Physicians ("Kassenärztliche Vereinigung"). In 1970 a first concept of surveillance was presented on the level of the state in West Germany. In the years 1968-1970 vaccinations were not common in both German states. The essay is based on the analysis of archival sources, monographs, scientific and newspaper articles. PMID:22169920

Witte, W

2011-12-14

312

The Mx1 Gene Protects Mice against the Pandemic 1918 and Highly Lethal Human H5N1 Influenza Viruses?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mice carrying a wild-type Mx1 gene (Mx1+/+) differ from standard laboratory mice (Mx1?/?) in being highly resistant to infection with common laboratory strains of influenza A virus. We report that Mx1 also protects mice against the pandemic human 1918 influenza virus and a highly lethal human H5N1 s...

Tumpey, Terrence M.; Szretter, Kristy J.; Van Hoeven, Neal; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Kochs, Georg; Haller, Otto; García-Sastre, Adolfo

313

An adjuvanted pandemic influenza H1N1 vaccine provides early and long term protection in health care workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mass vaccination was the most effective prophylaxis for protecting the population during the influenza H1N1 pandemic. We have evaluated the tolerability, immunogenicity and kinetics of the antibody response to a monovalent oil-in-water (AS03) adjuvanted human pandemic split influenza A/California/7/2009 H1N1 (3.75 ?g haemagglutinin) vaccine in health care workers. Vaccination elicited a rapid and early protective level of haemagglutination inhibition antibody from 6 to 7 days post vaccination, and by 14 to 21 days post vaccination, up to 98% of vaccinees had protective antibody titres which persisted for at least 3 months in 84-92% of subjects. A rapid induction of protective antibody is important in reducing community spread of pandemic influenza and in helping maintain the integrity of the health care system during the pandemic.

Madhun AS; Akselsen PE; Sjursen H; Pedersen G; Svindland S; Nøstbakken JK; Nilsen M; Mohn K; Jul-Larsen A; Smith I; Major D; Wood J; Cox RJ

2010-12-01

314

Pandemic Influenza and Health System Resource Gaps in Bali: An Analysis Through a Resource Transmission Dynamics Model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The failure to contain pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 in Mexico has shifted global attention from containment to mitigation. Limited surveillance and reporting have, however, prevented detailed assessment of mitigation during the pandemic, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To assess pandemic influenza case management capabilities in a resource-limited setting, the authors used a health system questionnaire and density-dependent, deterministic transmission model for Bali, Indonesia, determining resource gaps. The majority of health resources were focused in and around the provincial capital, Denpasar; however, gaps are found in every district for nursing staff, surgical masks, and N95 masks. A relatively low pathogenicity pandemic influenza virus would see an overall surplus for physicians, antivirals, and antimicrobials; however, a more pathogenic virus would lead to gaps in every resource except antimicrobials. Resources could be allocated more evenly across Bali. These, however, are in short supply universally and therefore redistribution would not fill resource gaps.

Adisasmito W; Hunter BM; Krumkamp R; Latief K; Rudge JW; Hanvoravongchai P; Coker RJ

2011-11-01

315

Antibody response of healthy children to pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the proportion of pediatric pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza cases who showed seroconversion, the magnitude of this seroconversion, or the factors that can affect the antibody level evoked by the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza. Aims of this study were to analyse antibody responses and the factors associated with high antibody titres in a cohort of children with naturally acquired A/H1N1/2009 influenza infection confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Demographic, clinical and virologic data were collected from 69 otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza (27 females, mean age ± SD: 5.01 ± 4.55 years). Their antibody levels against pandemic A/H1N1/2009 and seasonal A/H1N1 influenza viruses were evaluated by measuring hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies using standard assays. Sixty-four patients (92.8%) with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza had A/H1N1/2009 antibody levels of ?40, whereas only 28/69 (40.6%) were seroprotected against seasonal A/H1N1 influenza virus. Those who were seroprotected against seasonal A/H1N1 virus were significantly older, significantly more often hospitalised, had a diagnosis of pneumonia significantly more frequently, and were significantly more often treated with oseltamivir than those who were not seroprotected (p Conclusions Otherwise healthy children seem to show seroprotective antibody titres after natural infection with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus. The strength of the immune response seems to be related to the severity of the disease, but not to previous seasonal A/H1N1 influenza immunity.

Esposito Susanna; Daleno Cristina; Tagliabue Claudia; Scala Alessia; Picciolli Irene; Taroni Francesca; Galeone Carlotta; Baldanti Fausto; Principi Nicola

2011-01-01

316

Factors associated with death or hospitalization due to pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection in California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) emerged rapidly in California in April 2009. Preliminary comparisons with seasonal influenza suggest that pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) disproportionately affects younger ages and causes generally mild disease. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiologic features of pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) cases that led to hospitalization or death. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Statewide enhanced public health surveillance of California residents who were hospitalized or died with laboratory evidence of pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection reported to the California Department of Public Health between April 23 and August 11, 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Characteristics of hospitalized and fatal cases. RESULTS: During the study period there were 1088 cases of hospitalization or death due to pandemic 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection reported in California. The median age was 27 years (range, <1-92 years) and 68% (741/1088) had risk factors for seasonal influenza complications. Sixty-six percent (547/833) of those with chest radiographs performed had infiltrates and 31% (340/1088) required intensive care. Rapid antigen tests were falsely negative in 34% (208/618) of cases evaluated. Secondary bacterial infection was identified in 4% (46/1088). Twenty-one percent (183/884) received no antiviral treatment. Overall fatality was 11% (118/1088) and was highest (18%-20%) in persons aged 50 years or older. The most common causes of death were viral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: In the first 16 weeks of the current pandemic, the median age of hospitalized infected cases was younger than is common with seasonal influenza. Infants had the highest hospitalization rates and persons aged 50 years or older had the highest mortality rates once hospitalized. Most cases had established risk factors for complications of seasonal influenza.

Louie JK; Acosta M; Winter K; Jean C; Gavali S; Schechter R; Vugia D; Harriman K; Matyas B; Glaser CA; Samuel MC; Rosenberg J; Talarico J; Hatch D

2009-11-01

317

Effect of climatic conditions on epidemic patterns of influenza in Okinawa, Japan, during the pandemic of 2009: surveillance of rapid antigen test results.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Climatic conditions may have affected the incidence of influenza during the pandemic of 2009 as well as at other times. This study evaluated the effects of climatic conditions on influenza incidence in Okinawa, a subtropical region in Japan, during the 2009 pandemic using surveillance data from rapid antigen test (RAT) results. Weekly RAT results performed in four acute care hospitals in the Naha region of the Okinawa Islands from January 2007 to July 2011 were anonymously collected for surveillance of regional influenza prevalence. Intense epidemic peaks were noted in August 2009 and December 2009-January 2010 during the influenza pandemic of 2009. RAT positivity rates were lower during the pandemic period than during the pre- and post-pandemic periods. Lower ambient temperature was associated with higher influenza incidence during pre- and post-pandemic periods but not during the pandemic of 2009. Lower relative humidity was associated with higher influenza incidence during the pandemic as well as during the other two periods. The association of climatic conditions and influenza incidence was less prominent during the pandemic of 2009 than during pre- and post-pandemic periods.

Iha Y; Higa F; Sunagawa S; Naka M; Cash HL; Miyagi K; Haranaga S; Tateyama M; Uno T; Fujita J

2012-07-01

318

Early introduction and delayed dissemination of pandemic influenza, Gabon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Active surveillance in health care centers in Gabon during 2009-2011 detected 72 clinical cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pH1N1). We found that pH1N1 virus was introduced in mid-2009 but spread throughout the country in 2010. Thus, Gabon was also affected by pH1N1.

Lekana-Douki SE; Mouinga-Ondémé A; Nkoghe D; Drosten C; Drexler JF; Kazanji M; Leroy EM

2013-04-01

319

Resilience training for hospital workers in anticipation of an influenza pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Well before the H1N1 influenza, health care organizations worldwide prepared for a pandemic of unpredictable impact. Planners anticipated the possibility of a pandemic involving high mortality, high health care demands, rates of absenteeism rising up to 20-30% among health care workers, rationing of health care, and extraordinary psychological stress. METHOD: The intervention we describe emerged from the recognition that an expected influenza pandemic indicated a need to build resilience to maintain the health of individuals within the organization and to protect the capacity of the organization to respond to extraordinary demands. Training sessions were one component of a multifaceted approach to reducing stress through effective preparation and served as an evidence based platform for our hospital's response to the H1N1 pandemic. RESULTS: The training was delivered to more than 1250 hospital staff representing more than 22 departments within the hospital. The proportion of participants who felt better able to cope after the session (76%) was significantly higher than the proportion who felt prepared to deal confidently with the pandemic before the session (35%). Ten key themes emerged from our qualitative analysis of written comments, including family-work balance, antiviral prophylaxis, and mistrust or fear towards health care workers. CONCLUSIONS: Drawing on what we learned from the impact of SARS on our hospital, we had the opportunity to improve our organization's preparedness for the pandemic. Our results suggest that an evidence-based approach to interventions that target known mediators of distress and meet standards of continuing professional development is not only possible and relevant, but readily supportable by senior hospital administration.

Aiello A; Khayeri MY; Raja S; Peladeau N; Romano D; Leszcz M; Maunder RG; Rose M; Adam MA; Pain C; Moore A; Savage D; Schulman RB

2011-01-01

320

Broadly protective adenovirus-based multivalent vaccines against highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses for pandemic preparedness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recurrent outbreaks of H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry accompanied by their occasional transmission to humans have highlighted the public health threat posed by these viruses. Newer vaccine approaches for pandemic preparedness against these viruses are needed, given the limitations of vaccines currently approved for H5N1 viruses in terms of their production timelines and the ability to induce protective immune responses in the absence of adjuvants. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of an adenovirus (AdV)-based multivalent vaccine approach for pandemic preparedness against H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza viruses in a mouse model. Replication-defective AdV vectors expressing hemagglutinin (HA) from different subtypes and nucleoprotein (NP) from one subtype induced high levels of humoral and cellular immune responses and conferred protection against virus replication following challenge with H5, H7 and H9 avian influenza virus subtypes. Inclusion of HA from the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus in the vaccine formulation further broadened the vaccine coverage. Significantly high levels of HA stalk-specific antibodies were observed following immunization with the multivalent vaccine. Inclusion of NP into the multivalent HA vaccine formulation resulted in the induction of CD8 T cell responses. These results suggest that a multivalent vaccine strategy may provide reasonable protection in the event of a pandemic caused by H5, H7, or H9 avian influenza virus before a strain-matched vaccine can be produced. PMID:23638099

Vemula, Sai V; Ahi, Yadvinder S; Swaim, Anne-Marie; Katz, Jacqueline M; Donis, Ruben; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Mittal, Suresh K

2013-04-30

 
 
 
 
321

Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus in Norwegian pigs naïve to influenza A viruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1-09v) emerged in the human population. The first case of pH1N1v infection in pigs was reported from Canada in May 2009. In Norway, pH1N1v infection was recorded in a swine herd on the 10th of October of 2009. Here, we report result...

Germundsson, A.; Gjerset, B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik; Er, C.; Hungnes, O.; Lium, B.

322

A geographic analysis of population density thresholds in the influenza pandemic of 1918-19.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Geographic variables play an important role in the study of epidemics. The role of one such variable, population density, in the spread of influenza is controversial. Prior studies have tested for such a role using arbitrary thresholds for population density above or below which places are hypothesized to have higher or lower mortality. The results of such studies are mixed. The objective of this study is to estimate, rather than assume, a threshold level of population density that separates low-density regions from high-density regions on the basis of population loss during an influenza pandemic. We study the case of the influenza pandemic of 1918-19 in India, where over 15 million people died in the short span of less than one year. METHODS: Using data from six censuses for 199 districts of India (n=1194), the country with the largest number of deaths from the influenza of 1918-19, we use a sample-splitting method embedded within a population growth model that explicitly quantifies population loss from the pandemic to estimate a threshold level of population density that separates low-density districts from high-density districts. RESULTS: The results demonstrate a threshold level of population density of 175 people per square mile. A concurrent finding is that districts on the low side of the threshold experienced rates of population loss (3.72%) that were lower than districts on the high side of the threshold (4.69%). CONCLUSIONS: This paper introduces a useful analytic tool to the health geographic literature. It illustrates an application of the tool to demonstrate that it can be useful for pandemic awareness and preparedness efforts. Specifically, it estimates a level of population density above which policies to socially distance, redistribute or quarantine populations are likely to be more effective than they are for areas with population densities that lie below the threshold.

Chandra S; Kassens-Noor E; Kuljanin G; Vertalka J

2013-01-01

323

The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 in two remote island nations: Iceland and New Zealand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Nations varied in their experience of, and response to, the 1918-19 influenza pandemic. Island communities can provide unique opportunities to study the epidemiology of infectious diseases. We aimed to compare the epidemiology and public health response to this pandemic in two remote island nations, on opposite sides of the globe: Iceland and New Zealand (NZ). METHOD: Historical accounts in both nations were reviewed, along with recent analysis of the pandemics impact and course. RESULTS: Marked similarities were noted in epidemic timing, failure of border control, shape of epidemic curves, and delayed use of public health interventions. However, amongst the exposed European populations, Iceland experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (830 vs 550 per 100,000) compared to NZ (rate ratio: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.4-1.6). There is evidence that some public health measures in specific areas of both nations resulted in lower mortality rates. In particular, Iceland's use of travel restrictions and ship quarantining, appeared to protect 36% of the population. CONCLUSION: The epidemiology of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic was fairly similar for the exposed European populations of Iceland and NZ. Nevertheless, major differences were the significantly higher overall mortality rate in Iceland and the success of Iceland's use of travel restrictions.

Summers JA; Wilson N; Baker MG; Gottfredsson M

2013-04-01

324

School illness absenteeism during 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic--South Dakota, 2009-2010.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Schools are important amplification settings of influenza virus transmission. We demonstrated correlation of school absenteeism (due to any illness) with other influenza A (H1N1) activity surveillance data during the 2009 pandemic. We collected nonspecific illness student absenteeism data from August 17, 2009 through April 3, 2010 from 187 voluntarily participating South Dakota schools using weekly online surveys. Relative risks (RR) were calculated as the ratio of the probability of absenteeism during elevated weeks versus the probability of absenteeism during the baseline weeks (RR = 1.89). We used Pearson correlation to associate absenteeism with laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, influenza cases diagnosed by rapid tests, influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths reported in South Dakota during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic period. School-absenteeism data correlated strongly with data from these other influenza surveillance sources.

Kightlinger L; Horan V

2013-05-01

325

Severe impact of the 1918-19 pandemic influenza in a national military force.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of pandemic influenza on the New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF) in 1918-19 has never been studied using modern epidemiological methods. Therefore we analysed mortality and descriptive data from various sources for these military personnel. An estimated 930 NZEF personnel deaths from pandemic influenza occurred in 1918-19, making it the main cause of disease deaths, and representing 5.1% of all NZEF deaths from World War One (WW1). The epidemic curve was much more drawn out in the Northern Hemisphere compared with the Southern Hemisphere. Mortality rates varied markedly by setting (e.g. in military camps, by country and by hemisphere). Significantly higher mortality rates were found amongst NZEF personnel: aged 30-34 years, those of Maori ethnicity, those with a rural background, and those who left New Zealand for Europe in 1918. In conclusion, this work documents the heavy mortality burden from pandemic influenza amongst this national military force and highlights the large variations in mortality rates through host and environmental factors.

Summers JA; Shanks GD; Baker MG; Wilson N

2013-01-01

326

The pandemic influenza policy model: a planning tool for military public health officials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Pandemic Influenza Policy Model (PIPM) is a collaborative computer modeling effort between the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Many helpful computer simulations exist for examining the propagation of pandemic influenza in civilian populations. We believe the mission-oriented nature and structured social composition of military installations may result in pandemic influenza intervention strategies that differ from those recommended for civilian populations. Intervention strategies may differ between military bases because of differences in mission, location, or composition of the population at risk. The PIPM is a web-accessible, user-configurable, installation-specific disease model allowing military planners to evaluate various intervention strategies. Innovations in the PIPM include expanding on the mathematics of prior stochastic models, using military-specific social network epidemiology, utilization of DoD personnel databases to more accurately characterize the population at risk, and the incorporation of possible interventions, e.g., pneumococcal vaccine, not examined in previous models.

Feighner BH; Chrétien JP; Murphy SP; Skora JF; Coberly JS; Dietz JE; Chaffee JL; Sikes ML; Mabee MJ; Russell BP; Gaydos JC

2009-06-01

327

Epidemiological consequences of household-based antiviral prophylaxis for pandemic influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antiviral treatment offers a fast acting alternative to vaccination; as such it is viewed as a first-line of defence against pandemic influenza in protecting families and households once infection has been detected. In clinical trials, antiviral treatments have been shown to be efficacious in preventing infection, limiting disease and reducing transmission, yet their impact at containing the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm outbreak was limited. To understand this seeming discrepancy, we develop a general and computationally efficient model for studying household-based interventions. This allows us to account for uncertainty in quantities relevant to the 2009 pandemic in a principled way, accounting for the heterogeneity and variability in each epidemiological process modelled. We find that the population-level effects of delayed antiviral treatment and prophylaxis mean that their limited overall impact is quantitatively consistent (at current levels of precision) with their reported clinical efficacy under ideal conditions. Hence, effective control of pandemic influenza with antivirals is critically dependent on early detection and delivery ideally within 24 h.

Black AJ; House T; Keeling MJ; Ross JV

2013-04-01

328

Increased emergency department chief complaints of fever identified the influenza (H1N1) pandemic before outpatient symptom surveillance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a sentinel clinic network or an emergency department (ED) was more timely in identifying the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. METHODS: All reasons for presenting to the adult regional medical ED were coded online by admission secretaries, without the aid of medical personnel. Increased influenza activity defined by weekly chief complaints of fever was compared with activity defined by the Israel Center for Disease Control (viral surveillance as well as a large sentinel clinic network). RESULTS: Influenza activity during the pandemic increased in the ED 2 weeks before outpatient sentinel clinics. During the pandemic, maximal ED activity was much higher than in previous seasons. Maximal activity during the past 5 years correlated with the timeliness of the chief complaint of fever in identifying the onset of epidemics. CONCLUSION: Chief complaint of fever in the ED can be a sensitive marker of increased influenza activity and might replace the use of sentinel clinics.

Shimoni Z; Rodrig J; Dusseldorp N; Niven M; Froom P

2012-01-01

329

Cold-Adapted Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Live Vaccine Elicits Cross-Reactive Immune Responses against Seasonal and H5 Influenza A Viruses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rapid transmission of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus (pH1N1) among humans has raised the concern of a potential emergence of reassortment between pH1N1 and highly pathogenic influenza strains, especially the avian H5N1 influenza virus. Here, we report that the cold-adapted pH1N1 live att...

Jang, Yo Han; Byun, Young Ho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Seong, Baik Lin

330

IgM levels in plasma predict outcome in severe pandemic influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little is known on the participation of immunoglobulin isotypes and subclasses in the pathogenesis of the severe disease caused by the pandemic influenza virus (influenza A(H1N1)pdm09). OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the association between plasma levels of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA, IgM, IgE and outcome in patients with severe pandemic influenza. (2) To evaluate the association between immunoglobulin and cytokine levels in these patients. STUDY DESIGN: 40 critically ill patients with community acquired pneumonia and influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were recruited from November 2010 to February 2011. Plasma samples were collected during the first 24h following admission to the ICU. Immunoglobulins and 17 major cytokines were profiled in plasma. RESULTS: 15 patients died (37.5%). When the association between clinical variables and prognosis was assessed, prior immunosuppression, APACHE II score, levels of IgG2 and levels of IgM were associated with outcome in a univariate Cox regression analysis. Kaplan Meier analysis showed that patients with levels of IgG2 and IgM<59 and<58mg/dl respectively died earlier. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that APACHE II score and levels of IgM were the best predictors of outcome, being levels of IgM a protective factor against mortality. IgM was the immunoglobulin showing the largest number of negative correlations with cytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a central role of IgM in preventing uncontrolled inflammatory response and mortality in severe pandemic influenza. Early assessment of IgM could contribute to guide clinical decisions in these patients.

Justel M; Socias L; Almansa R; Ramírez P; Gallegos MC; Fernandez V; Gordon M; Andaluz-Ojeda D; Nogales L; Rojo S; Vallés J; Estella A; Loza A; León C; Lopez-Mestanza C; Blanco J; Berezo JA; Rosich S; Cillòniz C; Torres A; de Lejarazu RO; Martin-Loeches I; Bermejo-Martin JF

2013-09-01

331

Assessing key model parameters for economic evaluation of pandemic influenza interventions: the data source matters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In our previous systematic review of economic evaluations of pandemic influenza interventions, five model parameters, namely probability of pandemic, duration of pandemic, severity, attack rate, and intervention efficacy, were not only consistently used in all studies but also considered important by authors. OBJECTIVES: Because these parameters originated from sources of varying quality ranging from experimental studies to expert opinion, this study aims to analyze the variation in values used according to sources of information across studies. METHODS: An analysis of estimated values of key parameters for economic modeling was performed against their different data sources, following the standard hierarchy of evidence. RESULTS: A lack of good-quality evidence to estimate pandemic duration, pandemic probability, and mortality reduction from antiviral treatment results in a large variation of values used in economic evaluations. Although there are variations in quality of evidence used for attack rate, basic reproduction number, and reduction in hospitalizations from antiviral treatment, the estimated values do not vary significantly. The use of higher-quality evidence results in better precision of estimated values compared to lower-quality sources. CONCLUSION: Hierarchies of evidence are a necessary tool to identify appropriate model parameters to populate economic evaluations and should be included in methodological guidelines. Knowledge gaps in some key parameters should be addressed, because if good-quality evidence is available, future economic evaluations will be more reliable. Some gaps may not be fulfilled by research but consensus among experts to ensure consistency in the use of these assumptions.

Praditsitthikorn N; Kotirum S; Mohara A; Dumrongprat K; Velasco RP; Teerawattananon Y

2013-09-01

332

The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic. Management and vaccination strategies in The Netherlands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior to 2009, The Netherlands had prepared itself extensively for a potential pandemic. Multidisciplinary guidelines had been drafted to control transmission and limit adverse outcomes for both a phase of early incidental introduction and for a phase with widespread transmission. The Ministry of Health had ensured a supply and distribution schedule for antivirals and negotiated a contract for vaccine purchases. During the pandemic, existing surveillance was expanded, the established infectious disease response structure was activated, and the previously prepared protocols for communication, diagnostics, use of antivirals, and vaccination implementation were operationalized and implemented. When the pandemic turned out to be less severe than many had anticipated, risk communication and rapid modification of guidelines and communication became a major challenge. Antivirals and pandemic vaccines were reserved for those at high risk for severe outcomes only. Overall, the impact of the pandemic was comparable to the impact of an average seasonal influenza epidemic, but with a shift in (severe) outcomes from the very young and elderly toward young adults. Established prepared protocols enabled timely coordinated responses. In preparing for the worst, sufficient attention must be given to preparing for a mild scenario as well. PMID:23275958

van der Sande, M A B; Jacobi, A; Meijer, A; Wallinga, J; van der Hoek, W; van der Lubben, M

2013-01-01

333

Influenza surveillance from November 2008 to 2011; including pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Bhutan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Describe the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in Bhutan. DESIGN: Observational study from sentinel surveillance sites. SETTING: Bhutan remains isolated, with only one to two flights a day at the lone airport, no trains, and only three major roads that enter from India. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PCR positive human respiratory samples. RESULTS: The first case of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection was detected in Bhutan in July 2009, 3 months after the virus was first reported in Mexico in April 2009. During the official WHO pandemic period (11 June 2009 to 8 August 2010), a total of 2149 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR of which 22.7% (487) were confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09; H3N2, H1N1, and B were positive in 2.2%, 1.1%, and 7.2%, respectively. The highest rate of A(H1N1)pdm09 cases (57.4%) was detected in the 6-20 year-old age group. Importantly, Bhutan increased from 3 sentinel sites in April 2009 to 11 a year later, and in April 2010 established PCR capability for influenza. CONCLUSIONS: Despite relative isolation, the A(H1N1)pdm09 reached Bhutan within 3 months of identification in Mexico. The H1N1 pandemic has made Bhutan more prepared for epidemics in the future.

Wangchuk S; Thapa B; Zangmo S; Jarman RG; Bhoomiboonchoo P; Gibbons RV

2013-05-01

334

Seroprevalence Following the Second Wave of Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In April 2009, a new pandemic strain of influenza infected thousands of persons in Mexico and the United States and spread rapidly worldwide. During the ensuing summer months, cases ebbed in the Northern Hemisphere while the Southern Hemisphere experienced a typical influenza season dominated by the novel strain. In the fall, a second wave of pandemic H1N1 swept through the United States, peaking in most parts of the country by mid October and returning to baseline levels by early December. The objective was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against the pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza strain by decade of birth among Pittsburgh-area residents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Anonymous blood samples were obtained from clinical laboratories and categorized by decade of birth from 1920-2009. Using hemagglutination-inhibition assays, approximately 100 samples per decade (n= 846) were tested from blood samples drawn on hospital and clinic patients in mid-November and early December 2009. Age specific seroprevalences against pandemic H1N1 (A/California/7/2009) were measured and compared to seroprevalences against H1N1 strains that had previously circulated in the population in 2007, 1957, and 1918. (A/Brisbane/59/2007, A/Denver/1/1957, and A/South Carolina/1/1918). Stored serum samples from healthy, young adults from 2008 were used as a control group (n=100). Seroprevalences against pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza varied by age group, with children age 10-19 years having the highest seroprevalence (45%), and persons age 70-79 years having the lowest (5%). The baseline seroprevalence among control samples from 18-24 year-olds was 6%. Overall seroprevalence against pandemic H1N1 across all age groups was approximately 21%. CONCLUSIONS: After the peak of the second wave of 2009 H1N1, HAI seroprevalence results suggest that 21% of persons in the Pittsburgh area had become infected and developed immunity. Extrapolating to the entire US population, we estimate that at least 63 million persons became infected in 2009. As was observed among clinical cases, this sero-epidemiological study revealed highest infection rates among school-age children.

Ross T; Zimmer S; Burke D; Crevar C; Carter D; Stark J; Giles B; Zimmerman R; Ostroff S; Lee B

2010-01-01

335

Nonpharmaceutical interventions implemented by US cities during the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: A critical question in pandemic influenza planning is the role nonpharmaceutical interventions might play in delaying the temporal effects of a pandemic, reducing the overall and peak attack rate, and reducing the number of cumulative deaths. Such measures could potentially provide valuable time for pandemic-strain vaccine and antiviral medication production and distribution. Optimally, appropriate implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions would decrease the burden on health care services and critical infrastructure. OBJECTIVES: To examine the implementation of nonpharmaceutical interventions for epidemic mitigation in 43 cities in the continental United States from September 8, 1918, through February 22, 1919, and to determine whether city-to-city variation in mortality was associated with the timing, duration, and combination of nonpharmaceutical interventions; altered population susceptibility associated with prior pandemic waves; age and sex distribution; and population size and density. DESIGN AND SETTING: Historical archival research, and statistical and epidemiological analyses. Nonpharmaceutical interventions were grouped into 3 major categories: school closure; cancellation of public gatherings; and isolation and quarantine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Weekly excess death rate (EDR); time from the activation of nonpharmaceutical interventions to the first peak EDR; the first peak weekly EDR; and cumulative EDR during the entire 24-week study period. RESULTS: There were 115,340 excess pneumonia and influenza deaths (EDR, 500/100,000 population) in the 43 cities during the 24 weeks analyzed. Every city adopted at least 1 of the 3 major categories of nonpharmaceutical interventions. School closure and public gathering bans activated concurrently represented the most common combination implemented in 34 cities (79%); this combination had a median duration of 4 weeks (range, 1-10 weeks) and was significantly associated with reductions in weekly EDR. The cities that implemented nonpharmaceutical interventions earlier had greater delays in reaching peak mortality (Spearman r = -0.74, P < .001), lower peak mortality rates (Spearman r = 0.31, P = .02), and lower total mortality (Spearman r = 0.37, P = .008). There was a statistically significant association between increased duration of nonpharmaceutical interventions and a reduced total mortality burden (Spearman r = -0.39, P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate a strong association between early, sustained, and layered application of nonpharmaceutical interventions and mitigating the consequences of the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic in the United States. In planning for future severe influenza pandemics, nonpharmaceutical interventions should be considered for inclusion as companion measures to developing effective vaccines and medications for prophylaxis and treatment.

Markel H; Lipman HB; Navarro JA; Sloan A; Michalsen JR; Stern AM; Cetron MS

2007-08-01

336

Early introduction and delayed dissemination of pandemic influenza, Gabon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Active surveillance in health care centers in Gabon during 2009-2011 detected 72 clinical cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (pH1N1). We found that pH1N1 virus was introduced in mid-2009 but spread throughout the country in 2010. Thus, Gabon was also affected by pH1N1. PMID:23631999

Lekana-Douki, Sonia Etenna; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric M

2013-04-01

337

Pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to share our experience of sixty-eight pediatric hospitalizations associated with influenza-like illness and pneumonia between November, 2009 and December, 2009.Materials and Methods: Clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory and radiological results, length of stay in hospital and intensive care unit, treatments and complications were compared in laboratory confirmed pandemic influenza A positive and negative cases.Results: There was no significant difference in gender distribution between the two groups. The number of positive cases in patients over 5 years of age were significantly higher than the same age group in negative patients (p=0.004). There were underlying health conditions in 78.8% of the positive cases and in 68.8% of the negative cases (p=0.57). The incidence of diarrhea in positive group was significantly higher than in the negative group (p=0.02). Low immunization rates of the seasonal influenza vaccine were remarkable in each group. There was no significant difference in vaccination rates between the two groups (p=0.99).Conclusions: The severity of the disease remained similar in patients with positive and negative groups. In both groups, the high ratio of those having an underlying disease was noteworthy. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2011; 9: 53-9)Key words: Pandemic 2009 influenza A, childhood, pneumonia

Deniz Çak?r; Solmaz Çelebi; Mustafa Turhan Hac?mustafao?lu; Enes Sal?; Taner Özgür

2011-01-01

338

Intranasal antibody gene transfer in mice and ferrets elicits broad protection against pandemic influenza.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emergence of a new influenza pandemic remains a threat that could result in a substantial loss of life and economic disruption worldwide. Advances in human antibody isolation have led to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that have broad neutralizing activity against various influenza strains, although their direct use for prophylaxis is impractical. To overcome this limitation, our approach is to deliver antibody via adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to the site of initial infection, which, for respiratory viruses such as influenza, is the nasopharyngeal mucosa. AAV vectors based on serotype 9 were engineered to express a modified version of the previously isolated broadly neutralizing mAb to influenza A, FI6. We demonstrate that intranasal delivery of AAV9.FI6 into mice afforded complete protection and log reductions in viral load to 100 LD?? (median lethal dose) of three clinical isolates of H5N1 and two clinical isolates of H1N1, all of which have been associated with historic human pandemics (including H1N1 1918). Similarly, complete protection was achieved in ferrets challenged with lethal doses of H5N1 and H1N1. This approach serves as a platform for the prevention of natural or deliberate respiratory diseases for which a protective antibody is available. PMID:23720583

Limberis, Maria P; Adam, Virginie S; Wong, Gary; Gren, Jason; Kobasa, Darwyn; Ross, Ted M; Kobinger, Gary P; Tretiakova, Anna; Wilson, James M

2013-05-29

339

Intranasal antibody gene transfer in mice and ferrets elicits broad protection against pandemic influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The emergence of a new influenza pandemic remains a threat that could result in a substantial loss of life and economic disruption worldwide. Advances in human antibody isolation have led to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that have broad neutralizing activity against various influenza strains, although their direct use for prophylaxis is impractical. To overcome this limitation, our approach is to deliver antibody via adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to the site of initial infection, which, for respiratory viruses such as influenza, is the nasopharyngeal mucosa. AAV vectors based on serotype 9 were engineered to express a modified version of the previously isolated broadly neutralizing mAb to influenza A, FI6. We demonstrate that intranasal delivery of AAV9.FI6 into mice afforded complete protection and log reductions in viral load to 100 LD?? (median lethal dose) of three clinical isolates of H5N1 and two clinical isolates of H1N1, all of which have been associated with historic human pandemics (including H1N1 1918). Similarly, complete protection was achieved in ferrets challenged with lethal doses of H5N1 and H1N1. This approach serves as a platform for the prevention of natural or deliberate respiratory diseases for which a protective antibody is available.

Limberis MP; Adam VS; Wong G; Gren J; Kobasa D; Ross TM; Kobinger GP; Tretiakova A; Wilson JM

2013-05-01

340

Priority setting of ICU resources in an influenza pandemic: a qualitative study of the Canadian public's perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pandemic influenza may exacerbate existing scarcity of life-saving medical resources. As a result, decision-makers may be faced with making tough choices about who will receive care and who will have to wait or go without. Although previous studies have explored ethical issues in priority setting from the perspective of clinicians and policymakers, there has been little investigation into how the public views priority setting during a pandemic influenza, in particular related to intensive care resources. Methods To bridge this gap, we conducted three public town hall meetings across Canada to explore Canadian's perspectives on this ethical challenge. Town hall discussions group discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Six interrelated themes emerged from the town hall discussions related to: ethical and empirical starting points for deliberation; criteria for setting priorities; pre-crisis planning; in-crisis decision-making; the need for public deliberation and input; and participants' deliberative struggle with the ethical issues. Conclusions Our findings underscore the importance of public consultation in pandemic planning for sustaining public trust in a public health emergency. Participants appreciated the empirical and ethical uncertainty of decision-making in an influenza pandemic and demonstrated nuanced ethical reasoning about priority setting of intensive care resources in an influenza pandemic. Policymakers may benefit from a better understanding the public's empirical and ethical 'starting points' in developing effective pandemic plans.

Silva Diego S; Gibson Jennifer L; Robertson Ann; Bensimon Cécile M; Sahni Sachin; Maunula Laena; Smith Maxwell J

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Viral shedding in children infected by pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate viral shedding in otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in order to define how long children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza shed the virus, and also plan adequate measures to control the spread of the disease within households. Findings In 74 otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza, nasopharyngeal swabs were taken for virus detection upon hospital admission and every two days until negative. The nasopharyngeal swabs of all of the children were positive for pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus in the first three days after the onset of infection, and only 21.6% and 13.5% remained positive after respectively 11 and 15 days. No child was positive after more than 15 days. Viral load also decreased over time, and was not associated with patient age or the risk of pneumonia. Those who shed the virus for ? 9 days were not at any increased risk of suffering from more severe disease in comparison with those who shed the virus for a shorter time, but their households experienced a significantly higher number of influenza-like illness during the two weeks after the onset of the initial disease (72.3% vs 41.4%; p Conclusions Regardless of their age, healthy children can shed pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus for up to two weeks after illness onset, and the households of the children who shed the virus for ? 9 days suffered a higher number of influenza-like illness in the two weeks following the onset of the first disease. This could suggest that when a completely unknown influenza virus is circulating, isolation period of infected children has to be longer than the 7 days recommended for the infections due to seasonal influenza viruses.

Esposito Susanna; Daleno Cristina; Baldanti Fausto; Scala Alessia; Campanini Giulia; Taroni Francesca; Fossali Emilio; Pelucchi Claudio; Principi Nicola

2011-01-01

342

Pandemic potential of a strain of influenza A (H1N1): early findings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has spread rapidly across the globe. Judging its pandemic potential is difficult with limited data, but nevertheless essential to inform appropriate health responses. By analyzing the outbreak in Mexico, early data on international spread, and viral genetic diversity, we make an early assessment of transmissibility and severity. Our estimates suggest that 23,000 (range 6000 to 32,000) individuals had been infected in Mexico by late April, giving an estimated case fatality ratio (CFR) of 0.4% (range: 0.3 to 1.8%) based on confirmed and suspected deaths reported to that time. In a community outbreak in the small community of La Gloria, Veracruz, no deaths were attributed to infection, giving an upper 95% bound on CFR of 0.6%. Thus, although substantial uncertainty remains, clinical severity appears less than that seen in the 1918 influenza pandemic but comparable with that seen in the 1957 pandemic. Clinical attack rates in children in La Gloria were twice that in adults (<15 years of age: 61%; >/=15 years: 29%). Three different epidemiological analyses gave basic reproduction number (R0) estimates in the range of 1.4 to 1.6, whereas a genetic analysis gave a central estimate of 1.2. This range of values is consistent with 14 to 73 generations of human-to-human transmission having occurred in Mexico to late April. Transmissibility is therefore substantially higher than that of seasonal flu, and comparable with lower estimates of R0 obtained from previous influenza pandemics.

Fraser C; Donnelly CA; Cauchemez S; Hanage WP; Van Kerkhove MD; Hollingsworth TD; Griffin J; Baggaley RF; Jenkins HE; Lyons EJ; Jombart T; Hinsley WR; Grassly NC; Balloux F; Ghani AC; Ferguson NM; Rambaut A; Pybus OG; Lopez-Gatell H; Alpuche-Aranda CM; Chapela IB; Zavala EP; Guevara DM; Checchi F; Garcia E; Hugonnet S; Roth C

2009-06-01

343

Examining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of domestic and international university students towards seasonal and pandemic influenza  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the availability of the specific pandemic vaccine, strategies to mitigate the impact of the disease typically involved antiviral treatment and “non-pharmaceutical” community interventions. However, compliance with these strategies is linked to risk perceptions, perceived severity and perceived effectiveness of the strategies. In 2010, we undertook a study to examine the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, practices and barriers towards influenza and infection control strategies amongst domestic and international university students. Methods A study using qualitative methods that incorporated 20 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with domestic and international undergraduate and postgraduate university students based at one university in Sydney, Australia. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of influenza (seasonal vs. pandemic) in terms of perceived severity and impact, and attitudes towards infection control measures including hand-washing and the use of social distancing, isolation or cough etiquette. Results While participants were generally knowledgeable about influenza transmission, they were unable to accurately define what ‘pandemic influenza’ meant. While avian flu or SARS were mistaken as examples of past pandemics, almost all participants were able to associate the recent “swine flu” situation as an example of a pandemic event. Not surprisingly, it was uncommon for participants to identify university students as being at risk of catching pandemic influenza. Amongst those interviewed, it was felt that ‘students’ were capable of fighting off any illness. The participant’s nominated hand washing as the most feasible and acceptable compared with social distancing and mask use. Conclusions Given the high levels of interaction that occurs in a university setting, it is really important that students are informed about disease transmission and about risk of infection. It may be necessary to emphasize that pandemic influenza could pose a real threat to them, that it is important to protect oneself from infection and that infection control measures can be effective.

Seale Holly; Mak Jackie PI; Razee Husna; MacIntyre C

2012-01-01

344

Examining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of domestic and international university students towards seasonal and pandemic influenza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prior to the availability of the specific pandemic vaccine, strategies to mitigate the impact of the disease typically involved antiviral treatment and "non-pharmaceutical" community interventions. However, compliance with these strategies is linked to risk perceptions, perceived severity and perceived effectiveness of the strategies. In 2010, we undertook a study to examine the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, practices and barriers towards influenza and infection control strategies amongst domestic and international university students. METHODS: A study using qualitative methods that incorporated 20 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with domestic and international undergraduate and postgraduate university students based at one university in Sydney, Australia. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of influenza (seasonal vs. pandemic) in terms of perceived severity and impact, and attitudes towards infection control measures including hand-washing and the use of social distancing, isolation or cough etiquette. RESULTS: While participants were generally knowledgeable about influenza transmission, they were unable to accurately define what 'pandemic influenza' meant. While avian flu or SARS were mistaken as examples of past pandemics, almost all participants were able to associate the recent "swine flu" situation as an example of a pandemic event. Not surprisingly, it was uncommon for participants to identify university students as being at risk of catching pandemic influenza. Amongst those interviewed, it was felt that 'students' were capable of fighting off any illness. The participant's nominated hand washing as the most feasible and acceptable compared with social distancing and mask use. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high levels of interaction that occurs in a university setting, it is really important that students are informed about disease transmission and about risk of infection. It may be necessary to emphasize that pandemic influenza could pose a real threat to them, that it is important to protect oneself from infection and that infection control measures can be effective.

Seale H; Mak JP; Razee H; MacIntyre CR

2012-01-01

345

Systematic review of economic evaluations of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although public health guidelines have implications for resource allocation, these issues were not explicitly considered in previous WHO pandemic preparedness and response guidance. In order to ensure a thorough and informed revision of this guidance following the H1N1 2009 pandemic, a systematic review of published and unpublished economic evaluations of preparedness strategies and interventions against influenza pandemics was conducted. METHODS: The search was performed in September 2011 using 10 electronic databases, 2 internet search engines, reference list screening, cited reference searching, and direct communication with relevant authors. Full and partial economic evaluations considering both costs and outcomes were included. Conversely, reviews, editorials, and studies on economic impact or complications were excluded. Studies were selected by 2 independent reviewers. RESULTS: 44 studies were included. Although most complied with the cost effectiveness guidelines, the quality of evidence was limited. However, the data sources used were of higher quality in economic evaluations conducted after the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Vaccination and drug regimens were varied. Pharmaceutical plus n