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Sample records for palm oil mill

  1. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  2. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of waste...

  3. Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Weerachai Phutdhawong; Sengpracha, Waya P.; Agustin, Melissa B.

    2008-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as we...

  4. Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachai Phutdhawong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrocoagulation (EC is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME.

  5. Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, Melissa B.; Sengpracha, Waya P.; Phutdhawong, Weerachai

    2008-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME. PMID:19139537

  6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    OpenAIRE

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE; Hussain H. Al-kayiem

    2013-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF) from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests....

  7. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained. PMID:26520275

  8. Aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Ahmad, Desa; Ezani Bin Abdul Aziz, Mohd

    2007-01-01

    In this study treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated using aerobic oxidation based on an activated sludge process. The effects of sludge volume index, scum index and mixed liquor suspended solids during the acclimatizing phase and biomass build-up phase were investigated in order to ascertain the reactor stability. The efficiency of the activated sludge process was evaluated by treating anaerobically digested and diluted raw POME obtained from Golden Hope Plantations, Malaysia. The treatment of POME was carried out at a fixed biomass concentration of 3900+/-200mg/L, whereas the corresponding sludge volume index was found to be around 105+/-5mL/g. The initial studies on the efficiency of the activated sludge reactor were carried out using diluted raw POME for varying the hydraulic retention time, viz: 18, 24, 30 and 36h and influent COD concentration, viz: 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000mg/L, respectively. The results showed that at the end of 36h of hydraulic retention time for the above said influent COD, the COD removal efficiencies were found to be 83%, 72%, 64%, 54% and 42% whereas at 24h hydraulic retention time they were 57%, 45%, 38%, 30% and 27%, respectively. The effectiveness of aerobic oxidation was also compared between anaerobically digested and diluted raw POME having corresponding CODs of 3908 and 3925mg/L, for varying hydraulic retention time, viz: 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54 and 60h. The dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the activated sludge reactor were found to be 1.8-2.2mg/L and 7-8.5, respectively. The scum index was found to rise from 0.5% to 1.9% during the acclimatizing phase and biomass build-up phase. PMID:16584834

  9. PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Chiew Wei Puah; Yuen May Choo; Soon Hock Ong

    2013-01-01

    The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of...

  10. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden. PMID:26398023

  11. A Study of Biomass Fuel Briquettes from Oil Palm Mill Residues

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shiraz Aris; Chin Yee Sing

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a systematic approach in utilizing the large amount of oil palm mill residues that are loosely-bounded and have low energy density. The rate of waste materials (palm kernel shell, palm fiber and empty fruit bunches) generated by oil palm mills amounted to about 34 million tonnes in 2010. Efforts have been made to increase the energy density of the loosely-bounded waste materials, in which solid fuel briquettes made of densified oil palm residues would contribute towa...

  12. Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya S. Madaki

    2013-01-01

    Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm o...

  13. Valorization of palm oil (mill) residues. Identifyin and solving the challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H. W.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This report explains in brief how the palm oil production system is set-up and how by-products of palm oil extraction (Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Mesocarp Fibre, Shells and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)) are generated in the Palm oil Mill and what the composition of each stream is. Then the options are shown for improved energy efficiency and alternative uses for the by-products and additional income generation while reducing the GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions.

  14. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME...

  15. PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew Wei Puah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG such as methane and carbon dioxide emissions by avoiding the formation of liquid biomass in the form of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. The attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA shows the improved milling process contributes to significant reduction of GHG emission from palm oil mills as compared to the process of capturing biogas from POME. The palm based food source contains phytonutrients, namely carotenoids, tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienols and water soluble polyphenols.

  16. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine L.Y. Man

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel cake, oleo-chemicals and finished products, equivalent to RM 49.59 billion of export revenue. However, cost of production for Crude Palm Oil (CPO varies in a big gap. Therefore, it is essential to identify the major cost influencing factors in the production of CPO. Approach: The study system started with collection of Fresh Fruits Bunches (FFB from oil palm plantation to the production of CPO at palm oil mills. Two palm oil mills of different production capacity were chosen for this study. Statistical analysis was done to identify the major cost influencing factors of production cost for CPO. Results: The production cost of CPO for small scale palm oil mills preferably lied between RM 45 to RM 50 per metric tons while large scale palm oil mills lied below RM 45 per metric tons. Conclusion: Palm oil mills with higher production capacity were efficient in producing CPO than lower production capacity palm oil mills. Thus, the production cost of CPO was lower compared to that of small scale palm oil mills.

  17. Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal I. Daoud; Md Z. Alam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1) and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bodies. Approach: The aim of this study was to identify the potential of low cost substrate such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for the production of cellulase enzyme by liquid state bioconversion. The filamentous f...

  18. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  19. The possibility of palm oil mill effluent for biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Indonesia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil (Elaeis guiinensis Jacq.. The aims of the research were to (i characterize palm oil mill effluent which will be used as source of biogas production, (ii know the biotic and abiotic factors which effect POME substrate for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in bulk system. The results show that POME sludge generated from PT Pinago Utama mill is viscous, brown or grey and has an average total solid (TS content of, 26.5-45.4, BOD is 23.5-29.3, COD is 49.0-63.6 and SS is 17.1-35.9 g/L, respectively. This substrate is a potential source of environmental pollutants. The biotic factors were kind and concentration of the inoculums, i.e. seed sludge of anaerobic lagoon II and 20% (w/v respectively. Both physical and chemical factors such as pre-treated POME pH, pH neutralizer matter Ca (OH2, temperature ≥40oC, agitation effect to increase biogas production, but in both coagulant concentration, FeCl2 were not.

  20. Environmental Performance of the Milling Process Of Malaysian Palm Oil Using The Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya Subramaniam; Ma A. Ngan; Choo Y. May; Nik M.K. Sulaiman

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia is currently the world leader in the production and export of palm oil. This study has a gate to gate system boundary. The inventory data collection starts at the oil palm fresh fruit bunch hoppers when the fresh fruit bunch is received at the mill up till the production of the crude palm oil in the storage tanks at the mill. The plantation phase and land use for the production of oil palm fresh fruit bunch is not included in this system boundary. This gate to gate case study of 12 m...

  1. A Review of Biofilm Treatment Systems in Treating Downstream Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    Takriff, M. S.; N.L. Jaafar; S.R.S. Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The palm oil industry is a vital economic backbone of Malaysia since it is one of the world’s largest producer and exporter of palm oil despite creating enormous environmental problems, one being the huge generation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) during the oil extraction process. This highly polluting wastewater contains high concentrations of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Due to the high organic content of POME, biolog...

  2. Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. AHMAD; Bhatia, S; Ibrahim, N.; Sumathi, S.

    2005-01-01

    A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Ma...

  3. Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahaya S. Madaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm oil mills operators on current advance POME treatment technology (PTT in relation to achieving zero discharge concepts. The survey attempted to identify the key issues about the PTT in respect to feasibility of zero discharge concepts in palm oil mills. The results shows that, although palm oil mills generate a lot of different types of wastes during processing of Fresh Fruit Bunches, according to the operators and available literature, POME is the most difficult waste to manage. The results also shows that, palm oil mills cannot meet up with the new discharge limits of 20ppm of BOD and zero emission using only conventional open or closed pounding system

  4. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  5. Palm Oil Mill Biogas Producing Process Effluent Treatment: A Short Review

    OpenAIRE

    A.Y. Zahrim

    2014-01-01

    Biogas generation from palm oil mill effluent treatment plant is becoming the future trend for the palm oil millers. Therefore, the efficient treatment of biogas producing process effluent is equally important to minimize the detrimental effect towards human and environment. In addition, stricter regulations in the future, increasing in public awareness and towards water reuse also motivated investigation on this important topic. This study aims to discuss several treatment systems for palm o...

  6. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME and 98% biodegradability. Meanwhile, the maximum methane potential of EFB was 202mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 79.1m3 CH4/ton EFB with 38% biodegradability. Co-digestion of EFB with POME enhanced mi...

  7. Phytoremediations of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by Using Aquatic Plants and Microalge for Biomass Production

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Soetrisnanto; Marcelinus Christwardana; Hadiyanto

    2013-01-01

    Phytoremediation by using aquatic plants and microalgae was evaluated in study to reduce waste load of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). This study was aimed to utilize the aquatic plants i.e. water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lily (Nymphaea sp.) and alga Spriulina sp. to reduce COD and nutrients content in palm oil mill effluent. The phytoremediation was conducted in a sequence process. The aquatic plants were used in the first stage of remediation by varying height of culture (5-...

  8. Adsorption Chromatography of Carotenes from Extracted Oil of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

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    M.D. Mashitah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenes is one of the most important vitamin A precursor in human nutrition which has numerous advantages. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME is wastewater which consists of carotenes in the oil and grease content. Therefore, adsorption chromatography is used to separate the carotenes from the oil and grease in POME. Several types of adsorbents, temperatures and mass loading were studied in the experiments. The 40°C and oil:adsorbent ratio of 1:5 was recommended to be the most suitable temperature and mass loading for separation of carotenes by adsorption chromatography. Silica gel also shows better quality of adsorbent in separation of carotenes in hexane fractions.

  9. Effect of Microwave and Ultrasonic Pretreatments on Biogas Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effleunt

    OpenAIRE

    Saifuddin, N.; S A. Fazlili

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: Oil palm production is a major agricultural industry in Malaysia. In 2006, palm oil mills in Malaysia produced more than 58 million tonnes of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Existing treatment in a series of open lagoons at high ambient temperatures, results in the uncontrolled production of methane and carbon dioxide, which are both green house gases (GHGs). With the increased worldwide concern on environmentally friendly production processes particularly the emission of me...

  10. Ball milling pretreatment of oil palm biomass for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm biomass, namely empty fruit bunch and frond fiber, were pretreated using a planetary ball mill. Particle sizes and crystallinity index values of the oil palm biomass were significantly reduced with extended ball mill processing time. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the generation of glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields from the pretreatment process compared to the amount of sugars from raw materials. Glucose and xylose contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. An increasing trend in glucose and xylose yield as well as total sugar conversion yield was observed with decreasing particle size and crystallinity index. Oil palm frond fiber exhibited the best material yields using ball milling pretreatment with generated glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields of 87.0, 81.6, and 85.4%, respectively. In contrast, oil palm empty fruit bunch afforded glucose and xylose of 70.0 and 82.3%, respectively. The results obtained in this study showed that ball mill-treated oil palm biomass is a suitable pretreatment method for high conversion of glucose and xylose. PMID:24908052

  11. Solvent Fermentation From Palm Oil Mill Effluent Using Clostridium acetobutylicum In Oscillatory Flow Bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by C. acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 in an oscillatory flow bioreactor was investigated. Experimental works were conducted in a U-shaped stainless steel oscillatory flow bioreactor at oscillation frequency between 0.45-0.78 Hz and a constant amplitude of 12.5 mm. Fermentations were carried out for 72 hr at 35 degree Celsius using palm oil mill effluent and reinforced clostridia medium as a growth medium in batch culture. Result of this investigation showed that POME is a viable media for ABE fermentation and oscillatory flow bioreactor has an excellent potential as an alternative fermentation device. (author)

  12. A Study of Biomass Fuel Briquettes from Oil Palm Mill Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shiraz Aris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a systematic approach in utilizing the large amount of oil palm mill residues that are loosely-bounded and have low energy density. The rate of waste materials (palm kernel shell, palm fiber and empty fruit bunches generated by oil palm mills amounted to about 34 million tonnes in 2010. Efforts have been made to increase the energy density of the loosely-bounded waste materials, in which solid fuel briquettes made of densified oil palm residues would contribute towards a more efficient utilization of the waste material. This work focused on determining a fuel briquette with an optimum ratio of waste materials mixtures that has considerably high heating value and good mechanical properties. As part of the densification process, the waste material was pulverized and then compacted using a 200 kN force into 40 mm diameter briquettes. The heating values, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and burning profile of the briquettes were studied. The end result was an optimised solid fuel with relatively high energy content made from a suitable mixing ratio of the different palm oil mill residues and an appropriate binder to ensure acceptable mechanical strength.

  13. Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mayulu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available By-product produced from plantation and palm oil mill can be utilized for energy and protein source of ruminant feed. Thus, it still has potency for further exploration. The objective of the research was to investigate the nutrient value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product used to formulate ruminant feed. The research located in 66,118.5 ha of palm oil plantation in Paser regency, East Kalimantan province. The research was carried out in palm oil plantation and mill of PTPN XIII comprising productive plants (TM in +14,000 ha arranged in 9 divisions (afdeling. Measured variables consisted of: 1 dry mass production (mass of midrib every cutting and frond (kg;                        2 Centrosema sp mass production (kg; 3 mass of empty fruit bunches (kg; palm pressed fiber (PPF (kg, palm kernel cake (PKC (kg dan palm oil sludge (POS (kg; 4 nutrient content analyzed under proximate analysis in accordance with the procedure of Ruminant Feed Nutrient Laboratory, Faculty of Livestock, Diponegoro University. The result showed that total dry matter (DM production was 14.82 ton/ha/year, consisting: midrib 29.09% (crude protein (CP 3.16% and crude fiber (CF 37.85%, frond 10.31% (CP 6.53% dan CF 30.39%, Centrosema sp. 2.48% (CP 22.58% and CF 35.12, EFB 24.31% (CP 7.01% and CF 40.22%, PPF 1.23% (CP 5.56% and CF 50.36%, PKC 1.29% (CP 15.49% and CF10.45 and POS 1.20% (CP 17.86% and CF 45.99%. This could be concluded that palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product was recommended for ruminant feed as it had huge amount and appropriate nutrient contentDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60 [How to cite this article: Mayulu, H., Sunarso, C. I. Sutrisno, Sumarsono, M. Christiyanto, K. Isharyudono. (2013.  Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan, 5(2,56-60. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60

  14. Zero Discharge Performance of an Industrial Pilot-Scale Plant Treating Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; LI Xu-dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated “zero discharge” pilot-scale industrial plant comprising “pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation” was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and...

  15. Screening of thermotolerant microorganisms and application for oil separation from palm oil mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran H-Kittikun

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of palm oil mill wastewater (POMW were brown color, pH 3.8-4.3, temperature 48-55oC, total solids 68.2-82.1 g/l, suspended solids 26.2-65.6 g/l, oil and grease 19.1-25.1 g/l, COD 49.9-160.7g/l and BOD 32.5-75.3 g/l. After centrifugation (3,184 xg of 50 ml POMW for 10 min, the POMW was separated into 3 layers: top (oil, middle (supernatant and bottom layer (sediment. The sediment containeddry weight 1.19 g and oil and grease 1.07 g. In order to release oil and grease trapped in palm fiber debris in the POMW, cellulase- and/or xylanase-enzyme-producing and thermotolerant microorganisms wereisolated. The isolates SO1 and SO2 were isolated from soil near the first anaerobic pond of the palm oil mill. They were aerobic, Gram positive, rod shaped, thermotolerant microorganisms and produced cellulase 12.11 U/ml (3 days and 7.2 U/ml (4 days, and xylanase 50.98 U/ml (4 days and 20.42 U/ml (4 days, respectivelyin synthetic medium containing carboxymethycellulose as a carbon source. When these 2 isolates were added into the steriled POMW under shaking condition for 7 days, after centrifugation at 3,184 xg the isolate SO1gave the better % reduction of dry weight (64.66 % and of oil and grease in the bottom layer (85.32 % of the POMW.

  16. Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Ahmad

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Malaysian Department of Environment. A bench-scale study of the adsorption of residual oil in POME using synthetic rubber powder was conducted using a jar test apparatus. The adsorption process was studied by varying parameters affecting the process. The parameters were adsorbent dosage, mixing speed, mixing time and pH. The optimum values of the parameters were obtained. It was found that almost 88% removal of residual oil was obtained with an adsorbent dosage of 30 mg dm-3 and mixing speed of 150 rpm for 3 hr at a pH 7. Adsorption equilibrium was also studied, and it was found that the adsorption process on the synthetic rubber powder fit the Freundlich isotherm model.

  17. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping. PMID:16125215

  18. Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato [Department of Biological Functions and Engineering, Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0196 (Japan); Ali Hassan, Mohd [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Subash, Sunderaj [Felda Palm Industries Sdn. Bhd., Balai Felda, Jalan Gurney Satu, 54000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-07-31

    The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m{sup 2}. Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping. (author)

  19. A Review of Biofilm Treatment Systems in Treating Downstream Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Takriff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The palm oil industry is a vital economic backbone of Malaysia since it is one of the world’s largest producer and exporter of palm oil despite creating enormous environmental problems, one being the huge generation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME during the oil extraction process. This highly polluting wastewater contains high concentrations of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD. Due to the high organic content of POME, biological treatment method seems to be a preferable solution. Therefore, a series of treatment comprising of fermentation, algae, biofilm and membrane system is proposed as one of the possible option to treat POME. This paper also reviews few configurations and modes of operation of several biofilm treatment systems as well as focusing on the application of a Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor (FBBR in treating POME further down the proposed treatment chain.

  20. Air Pollution Modelling to Predict Maximum Ground Level Concentration for Dust from a Palm Oil Mill Stack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is to model emission from a stack to estimate ground level concentration from a palm oil mill. The case study is a mill located in Kuala Langat, Selangor. Emission source is from boilers stacks. The exercise determines the estimate the ground level concentrations for dust to the surrounding areas through the utilization of modelling software. The surround area is relatively flat, an industrial area surrounded by factories and with palm oil plantations in the outskirts. The model utilized in the study was to gauge the worst-case scenario. Ambient air concentrations were garnered calculate the increase to localized conditions. Keywords: emission, modelling, palm oil mill, particulate, POME

  1. Phytoremediation Potential of Vetiver System Technology for Improving the Quality of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Negisa Darajeh; Azni Idris; Paul Truong; Astimar Abdul Aziz; Rosenani Abu Bakar; Hasfalina Che Man,

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME), a pollutant produced by the palm oil industry, was treated by the Vetiver system technology (VST). This technology was applied for the first time to treat POME in order to decrease biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, two different concentrations of POME (low and high) were treated with Vetiver plants for 2 weeks. The results showed that Vetiver was able to reduce the BOD up to 90% in low concentration POME and 60% in ...

  2. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    H Hadiyanto; Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur; Ganang Dwi Hartanto

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%). The objective of the ...

  3. Environmental Performance of the Milling Process Of Malaysian Palm Oil Using The Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Subramaniam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is currently the world leader in the production and export of palm oil. This study has a gate to gate system boundary. The inventory data collection starts at the oil palm fresh fruit bunch hoppers when the fresh fruit bunch is received at the mill up till the production of the crude palm oil in the storage tanks at the mill. The plantation phase and land use for the production of oil palm fresh fruit bunch is not included in this system boundary. This gate to gate case study of 12 mills identifies the potential impacts associated with the production of palm oil using the life cycle assessment approach and evaluates opportunities to overcome the potential impacts. Most of the impact categories show savings rather than impact. Within the system boundary there are only two main parameters that are causing the potential impacts to the environment; they are the Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME followed by the boiler ash. The impact categories that the POME contributes to are under the Respiratory Organics and Climate Change. Both these impact categories are related to air emissions. The main air emission from the POME ponds during the anaerobic digestion is the biogas which consists of methane, carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen sulfide. An alternate scenario was conducted to see how the impact will be if the biogas was harvested and used as energy and the results shows that when the biogas is harvested, the impact from the POME is removed. The other significant impact is the boiler ash. This is the ash that is produced when the biomass is burnt in the boiler. This potential impact contributes to the ecotoxicity impact category. This is mainly because of the disposal of this ash which in most cases was used for land application in the roads leading to the mil or in the plantations. If the parameters causing these two potential impacts are curbed, then this will be a further plus point for the Malaysian oil palm industry which is already avoiding fossil fuel based energy and chemical use for processing.

  4. Biomethanation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) By Ultrasonic Membrane Anaerobic System (UMAS) Using Pome as Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurahman.H.Nour*1,; Nuri ‘AdilahNashrulmillah2

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) with average chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 70,000 and 30,000 mg/L, respectively, can cause serious environmental hazard if discharged untreated. There are conventional palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment systems that require large footprint, long HRT and fail to meet the Malaysia Department of Environment (DOE) discharge limit. In this study, the potential of ultrasonic-assisted membrane anaerobic system (...

  5. An Experimental Investigation on the Handling and Storage Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquettes Made from Oil Palm Mill Residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Shiraz Aris; Chin Yee Sing

    2012-01-01

    This study is about experimental investigation on solid fuel briquettes made of oil palm mill residues that exhibit optimum handling and storage properties. One of the major technical challenges in utilizing biomass waste material as a solid fuel is the handling and storage issues of loose and wet waste material. The solid biomass fuel briquettes made from different types and combinations of palm oil mill residues were explored for optimum storage and handling features. A solution to im...

  6. Baseline study of methane emission from open digesting tanks of palm oil mill effluent treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, Shahrakbah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

    2005-06-01

    Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, especially CO2 and CH4 has been recognized as one of the main causes of global warming. Several measures under the Kyoto Protocol 1997 have been drawn up to reduce the greenhouse gases emission. One of the measures is Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) that was created to enable developed countries to cooperate with developing countries in emission reduction activities. In Malaysia, palm oil industry particularly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic treatment has been identified as an important source of CH4. However, there is no study to quantify the actual CH4 emission from the commercial scale wastewater treatment facility. Hence, this paper shall address the CH4 emission from the open digesting tanks in Felda Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. CH4 emission pattern was recorded for 52 weeks from 3600 m3 open digesting tanks. The findings indicated that the CH4 content was between 13.5% and 49.0% which was lower than the value of 65% reported earlier. The biogas flow rate ranged between 0.8l min(-1)m(-2) and 9.8l min(-1)m(-2). Total CH4 emission per open digesting tank was 518.9 kgday(-1). Relationships between CH4 emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were also discussed. Fluctuation of biogas production was observed throughout the studies as a result of seasonal oil palm cropping, mill activities, variation of POME quality and quantity discharged from the mill. Thus only through long-term field measurement CH4 emission can be accurately estimated. PMID:15894045

  7. Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Wongistani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As the issue of global warming draws increasing concern, many studies to reduce CO2 and CH4 gases (greenhouse gases, GHG have been implemented in several countries, including in Indonesia. Considering that Indonesia has a huge numbers of palm oil mills, no doubt if their waste water treatment as one of the major sources in GHG.  This paper presents the results from a research project between Metawater Co., Ltd.-Japan and University of Sumatera Utara-Indonesia. The objective of the research is to study the methane emission of thermophilic fermentation in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME on a laboratory scale. Anaerobic digestion was performed in two-litre water jacketed biodigester type continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and operated at a thermophilic temperature (55 oC. As raw material, a real liquid waste (POME from palm oil mill was used. Fresh POME was obtained from seeding pond of PTPN II waste water treatment facility which has concentration of 39.7 g of VS/L and COD value of 59,000 mg/L. To gain precise results, complete recording and reliable equipment of reactor was employed. As the experimental results, for hydraulic retention time (HRT 8 days, VS decomposition rate of 63.5% and gas generation of 6.05-9.82 L/day were obtained, while for HRT 6 and 4 days, VS decomposition rate of 61.2, 53.3% and gas generation of  6.93-8.94  and  13.95-16.14 L/day were obtained respectively. Keywords—methane (CH4, palm oil mill effluent (POME, anaerobic digestion, thermophilic, green house gases (GHG

  8. Screening of Aspergillus for Citric Acid Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Parveen Jamal; Md Zahangir Alam; M. Ramlan; M. Salleh; Masrina M. Nadzir

    2005-01-01

    In this study, screening of potential microbes, especially Aspergillus, for citric acid production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is carried out to improve the product yield. The fermentation of the raw material POME for the production of citric acid was conducted by the liquid state fermentation process. A total of ten strains of Aspergillus were selected for the screening test of which six strains were isolated from Sewage Treatment Plant Sludge (STP Sludge), purified and identified up ...

  9. Removal Efficiency of Ammoniacal Nitrogen from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by Varying Soil Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Emra Elinda Jefferson; Devagi Kanakaraju; Meng Guan Tay

    2016-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) contains large amounts of organic matters and nutrients. Instead of discharging into oxidation ponds, POME can be used as an alternative option to replace inorganic fertilizers which have been known to increase the hardness and acidity of the soil over time. This study investigated the effect of different soil properties on the ammoniacal nitrogen removal efficiencies in POME. The ammoniacal nitrogen removal efficiencies from three mediums over 7 days of retentio...

  10. Mesophilic co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent and empty fruit bunches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Choi, Seon-Mi; Ju, Hyun-Jun; Jung, Jin-Young

    2013-01-01

    The palm oil mill industry generates palm oil mill effluent (POME) and empty fruit bunches (EFB) as by-products. This study reports the mesophilic co-digestion of POME with EFB. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of POME and EFB was 0.397 L CH4/g volatile solids (VS) and 0.264 L CH4/g VS, respectively. In a series of batch tests at various EFB to POME ratios, the maximum methane production rate was achieved at an EFB:POME ratio of 0.25-0.31:1. Performance data from lab-scale digesters confirmed the positive synergism by the addition of EFB to POME, which was attributed to the balanced chemical composition, for example the chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio. The EFB addition enhanced the acceptable organic loading rate, methane production, COD removal, and microbial activity. The mesophilic co-digestion of POME and EFB promises to be a viable recycling method to alleviate pollution problems and recover renewable energy in the palm oil mill industry. PMID:24350470

  11. Reclamation from palm oil mill effluent using an integrated zero discharge membrane-based process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research emphasizes eloquently on membrane technology for treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME as it is the Malaysia’s largest and most important agro based industry. Findings established significant quality improvement with an efficient recovery of water from palm oil mill via innovative membrane application. Conventional bio-methods, whilst adhering to the Department of Environment’s (DOE discharge regulations, produces brownish liquid which pales in comparison to the crystal clear water obtained through membrane treatment. The pre-treatment process consists of coagulation-flocculation using green environmental coagulant bases such as Moringa oleifera (MO seeds. The ultrafiltration polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF and thin film composite (TFC reverse osmosis were vital for the membrane processes. The system gave 99% suspended solids reduction in suspended solid and 78% of water present was successfully recovered. This technology guarantees water recovery with drinking water quality; meeting the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standard or could be recycled into the plant with sludge utilization for palm oil estates, thus enabling the concept of zero discharge to be executed in the industries. In addition, green and healthy antioxidants such as oil and beta-carotene can be recovered from POME further demonstrate. Silica gel showed better performance in separation of carotenes from oil at temperature 40°C using adsorption chromatography with 1154.55 ppm. The attractiveness of this technology, enabling the utilization of reuse of agricultural waste into potentially value added products.

  12. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  13. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-06-15

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  14. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME and 98% biodegradability. Meanwhile, the maximum methane potential of EFB was 202mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 79.1m3 CH4/ton EFB with 38% biodegradability. Co-digestion of EFB with POME enhanced microbial biodegradability and resulted in 25–32% higher methane production at mixing ratios of 0.4:1, 0.8:1 and 2.3:1 on VS basis than digesting EFB alone. The methane yield was 276–340mL CH4/gVS-added for co-digestion of EFB with POME at mixing ratios of 0.4:1–2.3:1, while minor improvement was observed at mixing ratios of 6.8:1 and 11:1 (175–197mL CH4/gVS-added). The best improved was achieved from co-digestion of treated EFB by NaOH presoaking and hydrothermal treatment with POME, which resulted in 98% improvement inmethane yield comparing with co-digesting untreated EFB. The maximum methane production of co-digestion treated EFB with POME was 82.7m3 CH4/ton of mixed treated EFB and POME (6.8:1), corresponding to methane yield of 392mL CH4/gVS-added. The electricity production of 1ton mixture of treated EFB and POME would be 1190MJ or 330kWh of electricity. The study shows that there is a great potential to co-digestion treated EFB with POME for bioenergy production.

  15. Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Ukita

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45ºC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

  16. BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER FROM PALM OIL MILL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora-Alcida Nabarlatz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact caused by the fossil fuel use encourages society to look for new sources of renewable energy, such as biodiesel. During the last years, palm oil production has dramatically increased in Colombia, since it is the main raw material for biodiesel production. As consequence of the process, palm oil mill effluents with high content of pollutants are released to the environment. Since these effluents have physicochemical characteristics that make them suitable for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion of residual water, this research evaluates the production of methane using wastewater as substrate from a Colombian palm oil mill. Anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted in batch mode to evaluate the influence of pH and inoculum to substrate ratio, by using two differents inoculums. It was found that the most suitable inoculum was a mixture of 1:1 v/v urban Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP anaerobic sludge/pig manure at a ratio 2 g Volatile Solids (VS inoculum/g VS substrate, which presented the highest accumulated methane production, reaching 2740 mL methane (0.343 m³ CH4/kg VS without neutralizing pH.

  17. Conventional methods and emerging wastewater polishing technologies for palm oil mill effluent treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Wai Loan; Kassim, Mohd Azraai; Muda, Khalida; Loh, Soh Kheang; Affam, Augustine Chioma

    2015-02-01

    The Malaysian palm oil industry is a major revenue earner and the country is ranked as one of the largest producers in the world. However, growth of the industry is synonymous with a massive production of agro-industrial wastewater. As an environmental protection and public health concern, the highly polluting palm oil mill effluent (POME) has become a major attention-grabber. Hence, the industry is targeting for POME pollution abatement in order to promote a greener image of palm oil and to achieve sustainability. At present, most palm oil mills have adopted the ponding system for treatment. Due to the successful POME pollution abatement experiences, Malaysia is currently planning to revise the effluent quality standards towards a more stringent discharge limits. Hence, the current trend of POME research focuses on developing tertiary treatment or polishing systems for better effluent management. Biotechnologically-advanced POME tertiary (polishing) technologies as well as other physicochemical methods are gaining much attention as these processes are the key players to push the industry towards the goal of environmental sustainability. There are still ongoing treatment technologies being researched and the outcomes maybe available in a while. However, the research completed so far are compiled herein and reported for the first time to acquire a better perspective and insight on the subject with a view of meeting the new standards. To this end, the most feasible technology could be the combination of advanced biological processes (bioreactor systems) with extended aeration, followed by solids separation prior to discharge. Chemical dosing is favoured only if effluent of higher quality is anticipated. PMID:25463585

  18. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME dump sites at Nsukka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ogugua Nwuche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42% and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%.The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL was the least.

  19. Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    Supawadee Sinnaraprasat; Prayoon Fongsatitkul

    2011-01-01

    Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME) for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w) and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio) used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molec...

  20. Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Charles Ogugua, Nwuche; James Chukwuma, Ogbonna.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered [...] (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

  1. Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation

    OpenAIRE

    M.D. Mashitah; Fadzilah, K

    2010-01-01

    Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm) and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm) on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1) and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1) was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation r...

  2. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine L.Y. Man; Adam Baharum

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including p...

  3. Evaluation of Hybrid Membrane Bioreactor (MBR For Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ahmad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The pollution load of palm oil mill effluent (POME is in the range of 50,000 mg COD/L. With more than 500 palm oil mills, Malaysia produces some 13.9 million tonnes of crude palm oil annually and generates around 35 x 106 m3 POME. Typically, raw POME is difficult to degrade because it contains significant amounts of oil (tryacylglycerols and degradative products such as di-and monoacylglycerols and fatty acids. The fatty acids composition (C12 – C20 of each of this fraction are different from one another and contribute to the high value of pollution load in POME. Thus POME has to be treated, usually in a series of anaerobic and aerobic treatment steps, for the organic matter to be degraded before the effluent is allowed to be discharged into public waterways. The objective of this study was to observe the performance of a hybrid membrane bioreactor (MBR for POME. The raw POME was introduced into sequencing processes of anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic in order to achieve biological nutrient removal and the membrane modules were submerged into the aerobic zone. The critical flux of MBR using the flux-step method based on transmembrane pressure (TMP was conducted as well as flux and permeability studies for assessing fouling in a membrane bioreactor operating at constant flux. The reactor was operated at a mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS concentration of 4000 to 8000 mg/l. The removal efficiency of COD, SS, TN and TP achieved were 94%, 98%, 83% and 64% respectively. The hybrid MBR was found to be able to degrade POME significantly and high quality effluent could be reused for various other applications.Keywords:

  4. Simultaneous treatment of raw palm oil mill effluent and biodegradation of palm fiber in a high-rate CSTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemkhao, Maneerat; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

    2015-02-01

    A high-rate continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was used to produce biogas from raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) at 55°C at a highest organic loading rate (OLR) of 19 g COD/ld. Physical and chemical pretreatments were not performed on the raw POME. In order to promote retention of suspended solids, the CSTR was installed with a deflector at its upper section. The average methane yield was 0.27 l/g COD, and the biogas production rate per reactor volume was 6.23 l/l d, and the tCOD removal efficiency was 82%. The hydrolysis rate of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin was 6.7, 3.0 and 1.9 g/d, respectively. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) suggested that the dominant hydrolytic bacteria responsible for the biodegradation of the palm fiber and residual oil were Clostridium sp., while the dominant methanogens were Methanothermobacter sp. PMID:25479389

  5. Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal I. Daoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1 and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bodies. Approach: The aim of this study was to identify the potential of low cost substrate such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for the production of cellulase enzyme by liquid state bioconversion. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum was used for liquid state bioconversion of POME for cellulase production. Statistical optimization was carried out to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters (factors for maximum cellulase production by 2-level fractional factorial design with six central points. The polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the effects of linear, quadratic and interaction of the factors. The factors involved were substrate (POME and co-substrate (wheat flour concentrations, temperature, pH, inoculum and agitation. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the optimum conditions were: Temperature of 30°C, substrate concentration of 2%, wheat flour concentration of 3%, pH of 4, inoculum of 3% and agitation of 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the model predicted the enzyme production to be about 14 FPU mL-1. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA of the design showed a high coefficient of determination (R2 value of 0.999, thus ensuring a high satisfactory adjustment of the quadratic model with the experimental data. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study indicates a better solution for waste management through the utilization of POME for cellulase production that could be used in the industrial applications such as bioethanol production.

  6. Fed batch production of hydrogen from palm oil mill effluent using anaerobic microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atif, A.A.Y.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ngan, M.A.; Morimoto, M. [Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), No. 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Iyuke, S.E. [School of Process and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, Witwaterstand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Veziroglu, N.T. [Clean Energy Research Institute, College of Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FI 33124 (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Anaerobic production of hydrogen from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by microflora was investigated in 5-l bioreactor at 60{sup o}C and pH 5.5. POME sludge was collected from the anaerobic pond of a POME treatment plant at a palm oil mill and used as a source of inocula. A batch reactor was found to yield a total of 4708ml H{sub 2}/(l POME) and the maximum evolution rate was 454ml-H{sub 2}/(l POMEh). A fed batch process was conducted after 50h. Two liters of reaction medium was removed and 2l of fresh POME was added to the reactor every 24h (15 times). The reproducibility of the fed batch process checked by changing the feeding time every 8h (10 times). A yield of 2382ml H{sub 2}/(l POME) and 2419ml H{sub 2}/(l POME) at maximum evolution rate of 313ml H{sub 2}/(l POMEh) and 436ml H{sub 2}/(l POMEh) were obtained, respectively. Throughout the study, methane gas was not observed in the evolved gas mixture. (author)

  7. Phytoremediations of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME by Using Aquatic Plants and Microalge for Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Soetrisnanto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation by using aquatic plants and microalgae was evaluated in study to reduce waste load of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. This study was aimed to utilize the aquatic plants i.e. water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and water lily (Nymphaea sp. and alga Spriulina sp. to reduce COD and nutrients content in palm oil mill effluent. The phytoremediation was conducted in a sequence process. The aquatic plants were used in the first stage of remediation by varying height of culture (5-15 cm, length of remediation (3-8 days and type of plants (water hyacinth and water lily. The effluent of the first stage was then transferred to the second remediation where microalgae Spriulina use this effluent as medium growth for 15 days. The results showed that the aquatic plants was able to reduce COD, N, P up to 50, 88 and 64%, respectively, while microalgae could reduce the COD, N, P up to 50.79, 96.5 and 85.92%, respectively. The maximum growth rate of Spirulina platensis was 0.412 day-1, while the correlation between Optical Density (OD and dry weight-g L-1 was shown as dry weight (g L-1 = 0.782.OD. In conclusion, two stage phytoremediation process gives promising method to reduce waste load and producing high value able biomass of algae.

  8. Thermophilic biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using suspended mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Isnazunita [Environment and Bioprocess Technology Centre, SIRIM Berhad, 40911 Shah Alam, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Hassan, Mohd. Ali; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini [Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Soon, Chen Sau [Environment and Bioprocess Technology Centre, SIRIM Berhad, 40911 Shah Alam, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

    2010-01-15

    A batch study was conducted to determine the fate of carbohydrate and oil that are present in palm oil mill effluent (POME) during the biohydrogen fermentation process. Sucrose and crude palm oil (CPO) were chosen as substrates and the kinetic profile indicated that mainly sucrose was metabolised by the mixed sludge. The hydrogen yield based on the COD of sucrose added was 146 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} which is equivalent to a hydrogen to hexose mole ratio of 2.5. The free fatty acids from hydrolysed CPO were not metabolised further which render insignificant generation of hydrogen and volatile fatty acids from oil-based substrate. The average continuous biohydrogen production rate (HPR) from a unit volume of POME under thermophilic condition at 55 C was 2.64 m{sup 3} m{sup -3} d{sup -1} at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days. Hydrogen constitutes up to 52% of the total biogas and methane was not detected over the 60 day continuous operation. The hydrogen yield (i.e. based on mole ratio of hydrogen to hexose) was 1.72 with an average carbohydrate conversion efficiency of 58%. These limit the potential of recovering more hydrogen energy from POME under current operating conditions. (author)

  9. Zero discharge performance of an industrial pilot-scale plant treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Chi, Li-Na; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important agroindustries in Malaysia. Huge quantities of palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose a great threat to aqueous environment due to its very high COD. To make full use of discharged wastes, the integrated "zero discharge" pilot-scale industrial plant comprising "pretreatment-anaerobic and aerobic process-membrane separation" was continuously operated for 1 year. After pretreatment in the oil separator tank, 55.6% of waste oil in raw POME could be recovered and sold and anaerobically digested through 2 AnaEG reactors followed by a dissolved air flotation (DAF); average COD reduced to about 3587?mg/L, and biogas production was 27.65 times POME injection which was used to generate electricity. The aerobic effluent was settled for 3 h or/and treated in MBR which could remove BOD3 (30°C) to less than 20 mg/L as required by Department of Environment of Malaysia. After filtration by UF and RO membrane, all organic compounds and most of the salts were removed; RO permeate could be reused as the boiler feed water. RO concentrate combined with anaerobic surplus sludge could be used as biofertilizer. PMID:25685798

  10. An Experimental Investigation on the Handling and Storage Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquettes Made from Oil Palm Mill Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shiraz Aris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is about experimental investigation on solid fuel briquettes made of oil palm mill residues that exhibit optimum handling and storage properties. One of the major technical challenges in utilizing biomass waste material as a solid fuel is the handling and storage issues of loose and wet waste material. The solid biomass fuel briquettes made from different types and combinations of palm oil mill residues were explored for optimum storage and handling features. A solution to improving the handling and storage properties of loosely-bound oil palm mill residues is proposed in this work via a densification process known as fuel briquetting. Raw oil palm waste material was pulverized and compacted with a 159 MPa pressing pressure to form 40 mm diameter solid fuel briquettes. It was found that a fuel briquette with a 60:40 palm kernel shell to mesocarp fiber ratio using waste paper as its binding agent gave the best mechanical properties without sacrificing the combustion properties of the solid fuel.

  11. Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Qiao, Xiangli; Chi, Lina; Niu, Xiangjun; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water. PMID:18575108

  12. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME...

  13. Synthetic Polyelectrolytes Based on Acrylamide and Their Application as a Flocculent in the Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Ariffin, A.; Raid S.A. Shatat; A.R. Nik Norulaini; A.K.MoHD OMAR

    2004-01-01

    Five cationic polyacrylamides of varying molecular weights but similar charge density were synthesized using free radical polymerization and Mannich reaction, characterized by different methods (infra red (IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), viscosity measurements and conductometric titration) and applied as flocculants to palm oil mill effluents (POME). Flocculent performance was assessed by determining the polyelectrolyte dosa...

  14. Particulate emission factor: A case study of a palm oil mill boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to investigate the particulate emission from a boiler of a palm oil mill plant equipped with a multi-cyclones particulate arrest or was performed and reported in this paper. The particulate emission concentration was measured at the outlet of a 8 mt/ hr capacity water-tube typed boiler of a palm oil mill plant processing 27mt/ hr of fresh fruit bunch (FFB). The particulate sample was collected iso-kinetically using the USEPA method 5 sampling train through a sampling port made at the duct of the exiting flue gas between the boiler and a multi-cyclones unit. Results showed that the particulate emission rates exiting the boiler varied from 0.09 to 0.60 g/s with an average of 0.29 + 0.18 g/ s. While the average particulate emission concentration exiting the boiler was 12.1 + 7.36 g/ Nm3 (corrected to 7 % oxygen concentration), ranging from 3.62 to 25.3 g/ Nm3 (at 7 % O2) of the flue gas during the measurement. Based on the 27 mt/ hr FFB processed and the capacity of the boiler of 8mt steam/ hr, the calculated particulate emission factor was 39 g particulate/ mt FFB processed or 131 g particulate/ mt boiler capacity, respectively. In addition, based on the finding and in order to comply with the emission limits of 0.4 g/ Nm3, the collection efficiency of any given particulate emission pollution control system to consider for the mill will be from 87 to 98 %, which is not easily achievable with the existing multi-cyclones unit. A considerable amount of efforts are still needed pertaining to the particulate emission control problem in the industry. (author)

  15. Renewable and sustainable bioenergies production from palm oil mill effluent (POME): win-win strategies toward better environmental protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Man Kee; Lee, Keat Teong

    2011-01-01

    Palm oil industry is one of the leading agricultural industries in Malaysia with average crude palm oil production of more than 13 million tonne per year. However, production of such huge amount of crude palm oil has consequently resulted to even larger amount of palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is a highly polluting wastewater with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in which can caused severe pollution to the environment, typically pollution to water resources. On the other hand, POME was identified as a potential source to generate renewable bioenergies such as biomethane and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion. In other words, a combination of wastewater treatment and renewable bioenergies production would be an added advantage to the palm oil industry. In line with the world's focus on sustainability concept, such strategy should be implemented immediately to ensure palm oil is produced in an environmental friendly and sustainable manner. This review aims to discuss various technologies to convert POME to biomethane and biohydrogen in a commercial scale. Furthermore, discussion on using POME to culture microalgae for biodiesel and bioethanol production was included in the present paper as a new remedy to utilize POME with a greater beneficial return. PMID:20940036

  16. Biohydrogen generation from palm oil mill effluent using anaerobic contact filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Ahmad, Desa [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2006-08-15

    In this study treatment of palm oil mill effluent was carried out with the intention to produce hydrogen during the anaerobic degradation process. The hydrogen generating microflora was isolated from the cow dung based on pH adjustment (pH 5) coupled with heat treatment (2h). The microflora was initially tested for its hydrogen generating capability for varying fermentation pH of 4, 5, 6 and 7 while degrading palm oil mill effluent. The results showed that the biogas generation and its hydrogen content decreased in the following order of pH 5, 6, 7 and 4. Further treatment of palm oil mill effluent was carried out at an optimized fermentation pH value of 5, for varying influent COD concentration of 5,000; 10,000; 20,000; 30,000; 40,000 and 59,300mg/L at a hydraulic retention time of 3; 5 and 7d, respectively. The average biogas generation was found to be 0.42L/g COD destroyed, with a hydrogen content of 57+/-2% at 7d HRT. The generated biogas was free from methane. As the hydraulic retention time increased the biogas generation also increased, with a marginal increase in the hydrogen content. For example at an initial COD concentration of 59,300mg/L for a hydraulic retention time of 3; 5 and 7d, the hydrogen generation were found to be 52.2; 72.4 and 102.6mL respectively. The average volatile fatty acid content in the reactor was found to be in the range 1215+/-130mg/L when the influent COD concentrations were in the range 20,000-59,300mg/L. In the case of influent COD concentration ranging between 5,000 and 10,000mg/L, the average volatile fatty acid was found to be 830+/-90mg/L. (author)

  17. Enumeration, identification and decontamination of microorganisms on empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm press fibre (PPF) from selected palm oil mills in the Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PPF and EFB temporarily disposed into the environment at the mill are heavily contaminated with micro-organisms, therefore require decontamination prior to utilisation. The current methods for decontaminating PPF and EFB has been briefly reviewed (Mat Rasol et. al.,1987). They suggested that these by-products can be effectively decontaminated by gamma-irradiation and the resulting sterilised by-products could subsequently be used for conversion into animals feeds by fermentation with fungi or chemical stock. The primary objectives of the investigation are: a) to enumerate contaminating microorganisms on PPF and EFB collected from various oil palm mills in the Peninsular Malaysia, and b) to establish the inactivation curves of the PPF and EFB from the selected palm oil mills

  18. Concurrent bioelectricity generation and palm oil mill effluent treatment using microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) provides promising microbial environmental technology to generate bio energy while treating organic wastewaters at the same time. In this study, a dual-chamber MFC system was developed to evaluate the continuous bioelectricity production while treating palm oil mill effluent (POME). A maximum power density of 622 mW/ m2 was generated with continuous feeding of 200 ppm POME. Meanwhile, a COD removal efficiency of 23% and coulombic efficiency of 32 % was recorded. Direct 16S rDNA analyses showed predomination by Geobacter-related sequences at the MFC anode electrode. It is shown that electrochemically-active bacteria originated from POME can be enriched to concurrently generate electricity and treat POME. (author)

  19. Comparison on decolorization of palm oil mill effluent by biological, chemical and physical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantaphaso, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Decolorization of palm oil mill effluent pretreated by enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 was investigated. The culture filtrate after separation of suspended solids was used for decolorization by biological, chemical and physical methods. Results indicated that the chemical method (using coagulant was more effective than the biological method (using commercial peroxidase, two strains of white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus versicolor and physical method (using activated carbon, pararubber seed and sand filter. Studies on the effect of coagulant concentrations on decolorization revealed that using the combination of 10 ml/l polyferric sulphate and 10 g/l calcium oxide gave the highest color removal of 84.5% and organic matter (in term of chemical oxygen demand, COD removal of 86.5%.

  20. Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sahaid Kalil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on the effect of concentration of sedimented POME, the effect of initial culture pH and the use of immobilized cells for ABE production. It was found that C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 grown in 90% sedimented POME with initial pH 5.8 produced highest total ABE (4 g L-1. However, butanol production was maximum (1.82 gL-1 in the culture with the initial pH of 6.0. Results obtained from these experiment with immobilized cells of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 indicated that ABE production from POME could be improved when high concentrations of cells at solventogenic growth phase were used.

  1. Production of a bioflocculant from Aspergillus niger using palm oil mill effluent as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuboori, Ahmad H Rajab; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Osman, Noridah Binti; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated the potential of bioflocculant production from Aspergillus niger using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as carbon source. The bioflocculant named PM-5 produced by A. niger showed a good flocculating capability and flocculating rate of 76.8% to kaolin suspension could be achieved at 60 h of culture time. Glutamic acid was the most favorable nitrogen source for A. niger in bioflocculant production at pH 6 and temperature 35 °C. The chemical composition of purified PM-5 was mainly carbohydrate and protein with 66.8% and 31.4%, respectively. Results showed the novel bioflocculant (PM-5) had high potential to treat river water from colloids and 63% of turbidity removal with the present of Ca(2+) ion. PMID:25189510

  2. Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic EGSB Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Mahmood, Qaisar; Qiu, Jiang-Ping; Li, Yin-Sheng; Chang, Yoon-Seong; Li, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Large volumes of untreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) pose threat to aquatic environment due to the presence of very high organic content. The present investigation involved two pilot-scale anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors, continuously operated for 1 year to treat POME. Setting HRT at 9.8 d, the anaerobic EGSB reactors reduced COD from 71179 mg/L to 12341 mg/L and recycled half of sludge by a dissolved air flotation (DAF). The average effluent COD was 3587 mg/L with the consistent COD removal efficiency of 94.89%. Adding cationic polymer (PAM) dose of 30 mg/L to DAF unit and recycling its half of sludge caused granulation of anaerobic sludge. Bacilli and small coccid bacteria were the dominant microbial species of the reactor. The reactor produced 27.65 m(3) of biogas per m(3) of POME which was utilized for electricity generation. PMID:26167485

  3. Kinetic studies of controlled-release formulations of diuron containing palm oil mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled-release formulations of diuron herbicide containing sodium alginate as binder and kaolin or palm oil mill effluent (POME) as fillers were studied. Small ratios of alginates to kaolin or POME in the formulation produce less spherical granular products. The kinetic of release in static water was studied spectrophotometrically at 248nm. Both products with two different fillers showed good first order plots with rate constants about ax10-1 day-1. Preliminary screening on several species of weeds in one square meter boxes in glasshouse showed good effectiveness of the slow release products. Further studies are being carried out especially with the POME formulations which contain quite high major nutrients. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  4. Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Mashitah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1 and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1 was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation rate, with maximum kLa (124.2 h-1 attained at 300 rpm and 1.5 vvm.

  5. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in palm oil mill effluent by soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from palm oil mill effluent based on gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Extraction of spiked PAHs (napthalene, fluorene phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in palm oil waste was carried out by Soxhlet extraction using hexane-dichloromethane (60:40 v/v) as the solvent. Excellent separations were achieved using temperature programmed GC on Ultra-1 fused-silica capillary column (30 m x 250 ?m ID), carrier gas helium at a flow rate of 1 mL/ min. (author)

  6. Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2010-07-01

    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances. PMID:20231054

  7. A holistic approach to managing palm oil mill effluent (POME): biotechnological advances in the sustainable reuse of POME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2009-01-01

    During the last century, a great deal of research and development as well as applications has been devoted to waste. These include waste minimization and treatment, the environmental assessment of waste, minimization of environmental impact, life cycle assessment and others. The major reason for such huge efforts is that waste generation constitutes one of the major environmental problems where production industries are concerned. Until now, an increasing pressure has been put on finding methods of reusing waste, for instance through cleaner production, thus mirroring rapid changes in environmental policies. The palm oil industry is one of the leading industries in Malaysia with a yearly production of more than 13 million tons of crude palm oil and plantations covering 11% of the Malaysian land area. However, the production of such amounts of crude palm oil result in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME), estimated at nearly three times the quantity of crude palm oil. Normally, POME is treated using end-of-pipe processes, but it is worth considering the potential value of POME prior to its treatment through introduction of a cleaner production. It is envisaged that POME can be sustainably reused as a fermentation substrate in the production of various metabolites, fertilizers and animal feeds through biotechnological advances. The present paper thus discusses various technically feasible and economically beneficial means of transforming the POME into low or preferably high value added products. PMID:18804158

  8. Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Pui Wah

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water. The proposed treatment will also ensure the industry to meet a more stringent discharge standard in terms of the BOD, COD and nitrogen values. In this study membrane ultrafiltration is used as the tertiary treatment method. Before the actual membrane operation was conducted, the samples were pre-treated using three separate method namely filtration, centrifugation and coagulation. It was found that the combination of filtrationultrafiltration treatment POME produced the best-treated sample quality in terms of pollutant contents elimination, namely % BOD, % COD and % nitrogen removal.

  9. Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

  10. Morphological Characterization of Photosynthetic Microbial Granule from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, global warming is the most highlighted subjects in the environmental issues which relates closely to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assigns only methane (CH4) emissions to wastewater treatment rather than GHG emissions specifically carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from the aerobic treatment processes. Focusing on the palm oil industry in Malaysia, the most commonly used treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is the conventional pounding system, has caused excessive generation of GHG such as CH4 and CO2 gases. To develop a novel, innovative and environmental-friendly mitigation method, this study explores into the possibility of growing the photosynthetic bacteria in the form of granules via the aerobic granulation process with potential applications in reducing CO2 gases. The cultivation of photosynthetic microbial granules was investigated using POME as the substrate in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system via the sequencing cycle of feeding, reacting, settling and decanting. Evidence of the formation of granule was based on microscopic examination of the morphological changes during the development of the granule in the SBR system over a period of 90 days. It shows changes from dispersed loose structure of the sludge merging into small flocs of irregular shapes and finally into dense and compact granular form. The granule was formed by applying an organic loading rate (OLR) at 2.75 kg COD/ m3.day, hydraulic retention time (HRT) at 4 h and superficial air velocity of 2.07 cm/ s. The biomass concentration began to decreased first (initial sludge biomass = 16750 mg/ L) and then increased steadily to a constant value of 32000 mg/ L after 90 days. Besides, the results also demonstrated a good accumulation of biomass as the settleability between raw sludge and granule increased from 0.03 cm/ s to 0.94 cm/ s. The maximum settling velocity obtained in the reactor was approximately 2.0 cm/ s. (author)

  11. Performance comparison between mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic reactors for treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo-Young; Son, Sung-Min; Pyon, Jun-Hyeon; Park, Joo-Yang

    2014-08-01

    The anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out under mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions without long-time POME storage in order to compare the performance of each condition in the field of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The anaerobic treatment system was composed of anaerobic hybrid reactor and anaerobic baffled filter. Raw POME was pretreated by screw decanter to reduce suspended solids and residual oil. The total COD removal rate of 90-95% was achieved in both conditions at the OLR of 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d. The COD removal in thermophilic conditions was slightly better, however the biogas production was much higher than that in the mesophilic one at high OLR. The organic contents in pretreated POME were highly biodegradable in mesophilic under the lower OLRs. The biogas production was 13.5-20.0l/d at the 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d OLR, and the average content of carbon dioxide was 5-35% in both conditions. PMID:24797939

  12. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hadiyanto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME, this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%. The objective of the research is to determine growth rate and biomass productivity in Chlorella Sp cultured in POME. Chlorella Sp was cultured in 20%, 50%, 70% POME using urea concentration 0.1gr/L (low nitrogen source and 1gr/l (high nitrogen source at flask disk, pH 6.8-7.2; aerated using aquarium pump and fluorescence lamp 3000-6000 lux as light. Medium was measured using spectrophotometer Optima Sp-300 OD at 680 wave length in 15 days to calculate specific growth rate. At end of cultivation, Chlorella sp was filtered and measured as dry weight. Result indicated that Chlorella sp at 50% POME 1gr/L urea showed higher specific growth rate (0.066/day. Factor affecting growth rate of microalgae is CNP ratio, POME concentration, and urea concentration.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost

    OpenAIRE

    Azhari S. Baharuddin; Mohamad N.A. Razak; Lim S. Hock; Mohd N. Ahmad; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Nor A.A. Rahman; Umi K.M Shah; Mohd A. Hassan; Kenji Sakai; Yoshihito Shirai

    2010-01-01

    Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile ...

  14. Techno-economic Evaluation on Enhancing Cogeneration Plant Capacity: Case Study of Palm Oil Mill Cogeneration Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Amin Abd Majid; Zulkipli Ghazali; Nazri Talib Shin Min

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to apply techno-economic evaluation for selecting a feasible alternative to enhance a co-generation power generation capacity of a palm oil mill. The co-generation plant is using Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) as fuel. The basis of the technical evaluation is to compare three alternatives on increasing the co-generation power generation capacity. Alternative 1 is to consider installing a new high capacity boiler to the current cogeneration ...

  15. Effect of Microwave and Ultrasonic Pretreatments on Biogas Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effleunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Oil palm production is a major agricultural industry in Malaysia. In 2006, palm oil mills in Malaysia produced more than 58 million tonnes of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. Existing treatment in a series of open lagoons at high ambient temperatures, results in the uncontrolled production of methane and carbon dioxide, which are both green house gases (GHGs. With the increased worldwide concern on environmentally friendly production processes particularly the emission of methane, it is important to develop an alternative concept for POME treatment. This study elucidates the effects of pre-treatment of palm oil mill effluent by microwave irradiation and ultrasonic on anaerobic digestion. Approach: Effects of pre-treatment on sludge characterisation parameters were monitored. The Soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (SCOD/total COD ratio and biodegradability of soluble organic matter increased significantly after both the pre-treatments which indicated an increase in disintegration of the floc structure of the sludge. Three identical bioreactors with working volume of 5 litres were used as anaerobic digesters at 32-35°C. The reactors were separately fed with pre-treated sludge (microwave, ultrasonic and combination of microwave and ultrasonic and control sludge at different Hydraulic Retention Times (HRT to check for the production of methane. Results: The maximum SCOD/TCOD ratio reached almost 29% after 30 min of ultrasonic treatment, while it was 45% after 7 min of microwave irradiation. The BOD5/SCOD ratio also increased after the pre-treatments suggesting the biodegradability of the soluble organic material increased during the treatment. It was observed that TVFA released was increased after both the treatments, with microwave treatment showing a higher yield of TVFA. Greatest enhancement in methane production was shown by the 3 min microwave plus 10 min ultrasonic treatment. Conclusion: The microwave in combination with ultrasonic would be a rapid and economical method for sludge pre-treatment for enhancement of biogas production.

  16. Optimization and performance evaluation for nutrient removal from palm oil mill effluent wastewater using microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Raheek I.; Wong, Z. H.; Mohammad, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) wastewater was produced in huge amounts in Malaysia, and if it discharged into the environment, it causes a serious problem regarding its high content of nutrients. This study was devoted to POME wastewater treatment with microalgae. The main objective was to find the optimum conditions (retention time, and pH) in the microalgae treatment of POME wastewater considering retention time as a most important parameter in algae treatment, since after the optimum conditions there is a diverse effect of time and pH and so, the process becomes costly. According to our knowledge, there is no existing study optimized the retention time and pH with % removal of nutrients (ammonia nitrogen NH3-N, and orthophosphorous PO43-) for microalgae treatment of POME wastewater. In order to achieve with optimization, a central composite rotatable design with a second order polynomial model was used, regression coefficients and goodness of fit results in removal percentages of nutrients (NH3-N, and PO43-) were estimated.WinQSB technique was used to optimize the surface response objective functionfor the developed model. Also experiments were done to validate the model results.The optimum conditions were found to be 18 day retention time for ammonia nitrogen, and pH of 9.22, while for orthophosphorous, 15 days were indicated as the optimum retention time with a pH value of 9.2.

  17. Characterization of Matured Vermicompost Derived from Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Byproduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong

    2016-03-01

    The valorization process involves transforming low-value materials such as wastes into high-value-added products. The current study aims to determine the potential of using a valorization process such as vermicomposting technology to convert palm oil mill byproduct, namely, decanter cake (DC), into organic fertilizer or vermicompost. The maturity of the vermicompost was characterized through various chemical and instrumental characterization to ensure the end product was safe and beneficial for agricultural application. The vermicomposting of DC showed significantly higher nutrient recovery and decreases in C:N ratio in comparison with the controls, particularly in the treatment with 2 parts DC and 1 part rice straw (w/w) (2DC:1RS). 2DC:1RS vermicompost had a final C:N ratio of 9.03 ± 0.12 and reasonably high levels of calcium (1.13 ± 0.05 g/kg), potassium (25.47 ± 0.32 g/kg), magnesium (4.87 ± 0.19 g/kg), sodium (7.40 ± 0.03 g/kg), and phosphorus (3.62 ± 0.27 g/kg). In addition, instrumental characterization also revealed a higher degree of maturity in the vermicompost. Ratios of 2921:1633 and DTG2:DTG3 also showed significant linear correlations with the C:N ratio, implying that those ratios could be used to characterize the progression of vermicompost maturity during the valorization process of DC. PMID:26844586

  18. Comparative mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemkhao, Maneerat; Nuntakumjorn, Boonyarit; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

    2012-07-01

    The effects of organic loading rate and operating temperature on the microbial diversity and performances of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) were investigated. The following two UASB reactors were run in parallel for comparison: (1) under a mesophilic condition (37 degrees C) and (2) under a mesophilic condition in transition to a thermophilic condition (57 degrees C). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the microbial population profiles significantly changed with the organic loading rate (OLR) and the temperature transition from the mesophilic to the thermophilic condition. Significant biomass washout was observed for the mesophilic UASB when operating at a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.5 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L.d. In contrast, the thermophilic UASB can be operated at this OLR and at a temperature of 57 degrees C with satisfactory COD removal and biogas production. The PCR-based DGGE analysis suggested that the thermophilic temperature of 57 degrees C was suitable for a number of hydrolytic, acidogenic, and acetogenic bacteria. PMID:22876480

  19. Biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum EB6 from palm oil mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Mei-Ling; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shirai, Yoshihito [Graduate School of Life Sciences and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 808-0196 Hibikimo 2-4, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    A hydrogen producer was successfully isolated from anaerobic digested palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge. The strain, designated as Clostridium butyricum EB6, efficiently produced hydrogen concurrently with cell growth. A controlled study was done on a synthetic medium at an initial pH value of 6.0 with 10 g/L glucose with the maximum hydrogen production at 948 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium and the volumetric hydrogen production rate at 172 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium/h. The supplementation of yeast extract was shown to have a significant effect with a maximum hydrogen production of 992 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium at 4 g/L of yeast extract added. The effect of pH on hydrogen production from POME was investigated. Experimental results showed that the optimum hydrogen production ability occurred at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen production and maximum volumetric hydrogen production rate were at 3195 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium and 1034 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium/h, respectively. The hydrogen content in the biogas produced was in the range of 60-70%. (author)

  20. Decolorization of palm oil mill effluent using growing cultures of Curvularia clavata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoh, Chin Hong; Lam, Chi Yong; Lim, Chi Kim; Yahya, Adibah; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2014-03-01

    Agricultural wastewater that produces color are of environmental and health concern as colored effluent can produce toxic and carcinogenic by-products. From this study, batch culture optimization using response surface methods indicated that the fungus isolated from the pineapple solid waste, Curvularia clavata was able to decolorize sterile palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is mainly associated with polyphenol and lignin. Results showed successful decolorization of POME up to 80 % (initial ADMI [American Dye Manufacturing Index] of 3,793) with 54 % contributed by biosorption and 46 % by biodegradation after 5 days of treatment. Analysis using HPLC and GC-MS showed the degradation of color causing compound such as 3-methoxyphenyl isothiocynate and the production of new metabolites. Ecotoxicity test indicated that the decolorized effluent is safe for discharge. To determine the longevity of the fungus for a prolonged decolorization period, sequential batch decolorization studies were carried out. The results showed that lignin peroxidase and laccase were the main ligninolytic enzymes involved in the degradation of color. Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase activities were also detected suggesting possible roles of the enzymes in promoting growth of the fungus which consequently contributed to improved decolorization of POME. In conclusion, the ability of C. clavata in treating color of POME indicated that C. clavata is of potential use for decolorization and degradation of agricultural wastewater containing polyphenolic compounds. PMID:24327114

  1. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent using combined high-rate anaerobic reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Ho; Shin, Chang-Ha; Son, Sung-Min; Ghorpade, Praveen A; Kim, Jeong-Joo; Park, Joo-Yang

    2013-08-01

    Combined system of high-rate anaerobic reactors for treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) was developed and investigated in this study. The system composed of one common primary hybrid reactor which was shared by two different secondary filter reactors. An overall COD removal efficiency of 93.5% was achieved in both systems. The secondary reactors contributed not only in enhancing the COD removal efficiency, but also ensured the performance stability of the entire system. Biomass remained intact in the secondary reactor in contrast to the primary reactor in which occasional washout of biomass was observed. The pH of POME was adjusted at the beginning of the operation, as the process continued POME did not require the external pH adjustment as the pH was maintained in desired range. The biogas was produced up to 110 l/d with the yield of 0.171-0.269 l [CH₄]/g [COD removed] and 59.5-78.2% content of methane. PMID:23489567

  2. Hydrothermal and wet disk milling pretreatment for high conversion of biosugars from oil palm mesocarp fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Norrrahim, Mohd Nor Faiz; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2015-04-01

    Eco-friendly pretreatment methods for lignocellulosic biomass are being developed as alternatives to chemical based methods. Superheated steam (SHS), hot compressed water (HCW) and wet disk milling (WDM) were used individually and with combination to partially remove hemicellulose and alter the lignin composition of recalcitrant structure of oil palm mesocarp fiber (OPMF). The efficiency of the pretreatment methods was evaluated based on the chemical compositions altered, SEM analysis, power consumption and degree of enzymatic digestibility. Hemicellulose removal (94.8%) was more pronounced under HCW compared to SHS, due to maximal contact of water and production of acetic acid which enhanced further degradation of hemicellulose. Subsequent treatment with WDM resulted in defibrillation of OPMF and expansion of the specific surface area thus increasing the conversion of cellulose to glucose. The highest glucose yield was 98.1% (g/g-substrate) when pretreated with HCW (200 °C, 20 min) and WDM which only consumed 9.6 MJ/kg of OPMF. PMID:25659104

  3. Optimization of fresh palm oil mill effluent biodegradation with Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalaludin Noorbaizura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, response surface optimization strategy was employed to enhance the biodegradation process of fresh palm oil mill effluent (POME by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens. A central composite design (CCD combined with response surface methodology (RSM were employed to study the effects of three independent variables: inoculum size (%, agitation rate (rpm and temperature (°C on the biodegradation processes and production of biosolids enriched with fungal biomass protein. The results achieved using A. niger were compared to those obtained using T. virens. The optimal conditions for the biodegradation processes in terms of total suspended solids (TSS, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD, specific resistance to filtration (SRF and production of biosolids enriched with fungal biomass protein in fresh POME treated with A. niger and T. virens have been predicted by multiple response optimization and verified experimentally at 19% (v/v inoculum size, 100 rpm, 30.2°C and 5% (v/v inoculum size, 100 rpm, 33.3°C respectively. As disclosed by ANOVA and response surface plots, the effects of inoculum size and agitation rate on fresh POME treatment process by both fungal strains were significant.

  4. Lipase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent by Aspergillus terreus Immobilized on Luffa Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles O. Nwuche

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated treatment and valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME by Aspergillus terreus IMI 282743 immobilized on Luffa sponge was investigated. Effects of POME concentrations and nitrogen supplementation on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD reduction, microbial lipase and biomass production were evaluated in batch cultures. A 50% POME promoted the highest lipolytic activities in both immobilized and free cell cultures. In the former, the maximum lipase activity was 5.14 U mL-1 but in the non-immobilized batch, it was only 2.10 U mL-1. Lipase activities were low in the 25 and 100% POME due to overdilution and presence of inhibitory compounds, respectively. The pH was unchanged in the 100% POME but in other cultures, there were significant increase in the pH values. The pH of the 75% POME increased after a 48 h lag but in the 25 and 50% POME, the pH rose from 4-6.43 within a period of 96 h. COD did not change in the 100% POME but in the 75% POME, a 60.7% reduction was achieved. The COD of both the 50 and 25% POME decreased by 45% respectively. The immobilized biomass concentration was highest in the 75% POME (0.83 g L-1 but in the 25 and 100% POME, it was 0.27 and 0.63 g L-1, respectively. Supplementation of the 50% POME with a mixture of ammonium sulphate and yeast extract increased lipase production to10.6 U mL-1, biomass concentration to 3.7 g L-1 while the COD decreased by 80%. Lipase production from POME could be economically competitive to present industrial processes and provides additional incentive of treatment that is cheap and sustainable.

  5. Techno-economic Evaluation on Enhancing Cogeneration Plant Capacity: Case Study of Palm Oil Mill Cogeneration Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Amin Abd Majid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to apply techno-economic evaluation for selecting a feasible alternative to enhance a co-generation power generation capacity of a palm oil mill. The co-generation plant is using Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB as fuel. The basis of the technical evaluation is to compare three alternatives on increasing the co-generation power generation capacity. Alternative 1 is to consider installing a new high capacity boiler to the current cogeneration system and maintaining the current turbine. Alternative 2 is to install a new high efficiency back pressure steam turbine and maintain the current boiler. While Alternative 3, is to install high capacity an extraction steam turbine and maintain the current boiler. Present worth analysis is used for economic evaluation. Both the capital and operational expenditures are taken into account in assessing the present worth of the alternatives. Results from the technical and economic analysis have identified Alternative 2 as the most feasible alternative. Since substantial quantity EFB are available in Malaysia and being used as fuel for power generation at the palm oil mills, the approach could be useful for enhancement of co-generation capacity of the mills.

  6. Adsorption isotherm studies of BOD, TSS and colour reduction from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using boiler fly ash

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.C, Igwe; C.O, Onyegbado; A.A, Abia.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the two most important vegetable oils in the world's oil and fats market. The extraction and purification processes generate different kinds of waste generally known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). Earlier studies had indicated the possibility of using boiler fly ash to adsorb i [...] mpurities and colour in POME treatment. The adsorption treatment of POME using boiler fly ash was further investigated in detail in this work with regards to the reduction of BOD, colour and TSS from palm oil mill effluent. The amount of BOD, colour and TSS adsorbed increased as the weight of the boiler fly ash used was increased. Also, the smaller particle size of 425µm adsorbed more than the 850µm size. Attempts were made to fit the experimental data with the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The R² values, which ranged from 0.8974-0.9898, 0.8848-0.9824 and 0.6235-0.9101 for Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms respectively, showed that Freundlich isotherm gave a better fit followed by Langmuir and then Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The sorption trend could be put as BOD > Colour > TSS. The apparent energy of adsorption was found to be 1.25, 0.58 and 0.97 (KJ/mol) for BOD, colour and TSS respectively, showing that sorption process occurs by physiosorption. Therefore, boiler fly ash is capable of reducing BOD, Colour and TSS from POME and hence could be used to develop a good adsorbent for POME treatment.

  7. Identification and growth conditions of purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria isolated from palm oil mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indigenous strain of the purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterium, isolated from palm oil mill effluent was presumably identified as species of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Cultivation in synthetic medium under different conditions indicated that it gave maximum carotenoid and bacteriophyll synthesis under anaerobic conditions in the light with values of 12.6 and 108.1 mg/g dry cell weight respectively. These values were significantly higher than the pigment content obtained from aerobic cultivation. The specific growth rates in anaerobic was twice those in aerobic conditions in the light. Growth was not occurred in anaerobic or aerobic conditions in the dark. (Author)

  8. Project Economics as a Tool for Evaluation of Viability of Projects, A Case of Palm Oil Milling Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Obukoeroro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, a case study of a proposed palm oil milling plant by an entrepreneur is looked into. This is with a view to ensuring its Viability, and also delving into the Risk, Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of vital parameters. At the end of all analyses, the entrepreneur is well guided to take a decision on whether or not to commit his or her scarce resources. Basic engineering economy methods for project evaluation are highlighted. With the added information from the sensitivity analysis the investor would be better informed about critical factor and therefore could take appropriate actions.

  9. Evaluation of palm oil mill fly ash supported calcium oxide as a heterogeneous base catalyst in biodiesel synthesis from crude palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Calcination temperature is an important influencing factor in catalytic activity. • The optimum calcination conditions were determined to be 850 °C for 2 h. • Maximum yield of 79.8% and FAME conversion of 97.1% was achieved. • Kinetic data fitted the pseudo-first order model and the Ea was 42.56 kJ mol−1. • The novel catalyst can be reused for 3 cycles with a final biodiesel yield of 60%. - Abstract: A palm oil mill fly ash supported calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst was developed to be used as a heterogeneous base catalyst in biodiesel synthesis from crude palm oil (CPO). The catalyst preparation procedure was optimised in terms of final calcination temperature and duration. The optimum catalyst preparation conditions were determined as final calcination at 850 °C for 2 h with 45 wt.% loading of calcined calcium carbonate (CaCO3). A maximum biodiesel yield of 75.73% was achieved for this catalyst under fixed transesterification conditions. Characterisation tests showed that the catalyst had higher surface area and basic sites which favoured transesterification. The effects of catalyst loading, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time on biodiesel yield and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) conversion were also investigated. It was determined that transesterification conditions of 6 wt.% catalyst loading, 12:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 45 °C reaction temperature, 3 h reaction time and 700 rpm stirring speed resulted in biodiesel yield and FAME conversion of 79.76% and 97.09%, respectively. Experimental kinetic data obtained from the heterogeneous transesterification reactions fitted the pseudo-first order kinetic model. The activation energy (Ea) of the reaction was calculated to be 42.56 kJ mol−1. Key physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and found to be within the limits set by EN 14214. The developed catalyst could feasibly be used up to three consecutive cycles after regeneration using methanol washing followed by recalcination at 850 °C for 2 h

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhari S. Baharuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile at day 7 treatment were 58.3, 8.1 and 65.5°C, respectively. The morphological analysis of the isolated microbes was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Gram stain method. The congo red test was conducted in order to detect 1% CMC agar degradation activities. Total genomic DNAs were extracted from approximately 1.0 g of mixed compost and amplified by using PCR primers. The PCR product was sequent to identify the nearest relatives of 16S rRNA genes. The localization of bacteria chromosomes was determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis. Results: Single isolated bacteria species was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME compost at thermophilic stage. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs with the phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated bacteria from EFB-POME thermophilic compost gave the highest homology (99% with similarity to Geobacillus pallidus. The strain was spore forming bacteria and able to grow at 60°C with pH 7. Conclusion: Thermophilic bacteria strain, Geobacillus pallidus was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mil Effluent (POME compost and characterized.

  11. Combined pretreatment using alkaline hydrothermal and ball milling to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm mesocarp fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2014-10-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber was conducted in tube reactor at treatment severity ranges of log Ro = 3.66-4.83 and partial removal of hemicellulose with migration of lignin was obtained. Concerning maximal recovery of glucose and xylose, 1.5% NaOH was impregnated in the system and subsequent ball milling treatment was employed to improve the conversion yield. The effects of combined hydrothermal and ball milling pretreatments were evaluated by chemical composition changes by using FT-IR, WAXD and morphological alterations by SEM. The successful of pretreatments were assessed by the degree of enzymatic digestibility of treated samples. The highest xylose and glucose yields obtained were 63.2% and 97.3% respectively at cellulase loadings of 10 FPU/g-substrate which is the highest conversion from OPMF ever reported. PMID:25058299

  12. Development of Microbial Fuel Cell for Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a device that utilises microorganisms as a bio catalyst, to oxidize organic and inorganic matters to generate electric current. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate laboratory scale MFC which was inoculated with sludge containing mixed culture grown in palm oil mill effluent (POME). This work also aimed to construct a suitable design of MFC and to observe mixed culture activation that could lead to electricity power production. POME was used in diluted form with COD concentration of 3750 mg-COD L-1. The performance of power generation and the efficiency of waste-water treatment in term of COD, nitrogen and total carbohydrate removal, in dual chamber MFC were recorded and analysed everyday for 15 days. The plots between experimental data and polarization model fit well and are able to describe the ability of power density generated in each day. Power density increased from 1.607 mW m-2 (3.816 mA m-2), in the first day of the experiments to a maximum value on the third day 1.979 mW m-2 (4.780 mA m-2) and then slowed down in day seventh to a minimum value of 1.311 mW m-2 (3.346 mA m-2). The removal efficiency in MFC could be divided into three different levels. The first level is in term of poor efficiency although the power was increasing, while in the second level, the efficiency was getting higher and finally in third level, power production of MFC started to diminish. The highest efficiency occurs during the third level when steady power generation took place at certain level. The treatment efficiency in term of COD removal, nitrogen and carbohydrate utilization at day 15th were 54.9, 100 and 98.9 %, respectively. The relationship between electricity power generation and treatment efficiency was successfully modelled into linear equation based on the respective power generation levels. (author)

  13. Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Abu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78°C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5–99.2%. Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Results Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70°C and was also stable up to 60°C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T. Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T. Conclusion Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular thermostable lipase into culture medium. The strain T1T was identified as Geobacillus zalihae T1T as it differs from its type strains Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T and Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T on some physiological studies, cellular fatty acids composition, RiboPrint analysis, length of lipase gene and protein profile.

  14. Effect of temperature on the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wanna, Choorit; Pornpan, Wisarnwan.

    2007-07-15

    Full Text Available Two continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) each fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME), operated at 37ºC and 55ºC, respectively, were investigated for their performance under varies organic loading rates (OLRs). The 37ºC reactor operated successfully at a maximum OLR of 12.25 g[COD]/L/day and a hy [...] draulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The 55ºC reactor operated successfully at the higher loading rate of 17.01 g[COD]/L/day and had a HRT of 5 days. The 37ºC reactor achieved a 71.10% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), a biogas production rate of 3.73 L of gas/L[reactor]/day containing 71.04% methane, whereas the 55ºC reactor achieved a 70.32% reduction of COD, a biogas production rate of 4.66 L of gas/L[reactor]/day containing 69.53% methane. An OLR of 9.68 g[COD]/L/day, at a HRT of 7 days, was used to study the effects of changing the temperature by 3ºC increments. The reactor processes were reasonably stable during the increase from 37ºC to 43ºC and the decrease from 55ºC to 43ºC. When the temperature was increased from 37ºC to 46ºC, the total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration and biogas production was 2,059 mg as acetic acid/L and 1.49 L of gas/L[reactor]/day at day 56, respectively. When the temperature was reduced from 55ºC to 40ºC, the TVFA concentration and biogas production was 2,368 mg as acetic acid/L and 2.01 L of gas/L[reactor]/day at day 102, respectively. By first reducing the OLR to 4.20 g[COD]/L/day then slowly increasing the OLR back to 9.68 g[COD]/L/day, both reactors were restored to stable conditions at 49ºC and 37ºC respectively. The initial 37ºC reactor became fully acclimatized at 55ºC with an efficiency similar to that when operated at the initial 37ºC whereas the 55ºC reactor also achieved stability at 37ºC but with a lower efficiency

  15. Treatment and biotransformation of highly polluted agro-industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill into vermicompost using earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Clarke, Charles

    2014-01-22

    In this laboratory-scale study, earthworms were introduced as biodegraders of palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is a wastewater produced from the wet process of palm oil milling. POME was absorbed into amendments (soil or rice straw) in different ratios as feedstocks for the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The presence of earthworms led to significant increases in pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient content but decreases in the C/N ratio (0.687-75.8%), soluble chemical oxygen demand (19.7-87.9%), and volatile solids (0.687-52.7%). However, earthworm growth was reduced in all treatments by the end of the treatment process. Rice straw was a better amendment/absorbent relative to soil, with a higher nutrient content and greater reduction in soluble chemical oxygen demand with a lower C/N ratio in the vermicompost. Among all treatments investigated, the treatment with 1 part rice straw and 3 parts POME (w/v) (RS1:3) produced the best quality vermicompost with high nutritional status. PMID:24372356

  16. Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment Process Evaluation and Fate of Priority Components in an Open and Closed Digestion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation for the degradability of chemical oxygen demand (COD and biogas contents before and after closed tank reactor (CR and open tank reactor (TP were observed. COD reduction in the TP (maximum degradability rate of 60% and CR (maximum degradability rate of 85%. The variation in CH4, volatile fatty acid (VFA and total suspended (TSS contents in the effluent was more pronounced in the first six months and found stable afterward. The maximum organic loading rate (OLR of 11.5 g-COD l/d attained corresponded to 85% overall COD removal. However, there is study to degradability of COD and quantify the actual CH4 recover from the commercial scale wastewater treatment from TP and CR. The findings indicated that the CH4 content was between 49% TP which was lower than the value of 57% reported in TP. The lower VFAs were found in the CR because of variation of palm oil mill effluent quality and quantity from palm oil mill industry.

  17. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M., van

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms were not felled and in the subsequent regeneration period they obtained a favourable position resulting in semi-wild palm groves. Thinning of groves gave rise to semi-permanent or permanent intercrop...

  18. Feasibility Studies of Palm Oil Mill Waste Aggregates for the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the years. Palm oil clinker (POC is a byproduct obtained from the palm oil industry. Its lightweight properties allows for its utilization as an aggregate, while in powder form as a filler material in concrete. POC specimens obtained throughout each state in Malaysia were investigated to evaluate the physical, chemical, and microstructure characteristics. Variations between each state were determined and their possible contributory factors were assessed. POC were incorporated as a replacement material for aggregates and their engineering characteristics were ascertained. Almost 7% of density was reduced with the introduction of POC as aggregates. A sustainability assessment was made through greenhouse gas emission (GHG and cost factor analyses to determine the contribution of the addition of POC to the construction industry. Addition of POC helps to lower the GHG emission by 9.6% compared to control specimens. By channeling this waste into the construction industry, an efficient waste-management system can be promoted; thus, creating a cleaner environment. This study is also expected to offer some guides and directions for upcoming research works on the incorporation of POC.

  19. Combined pretreatment with hot compressed water and wet disk milling opened up oil palm biomass structure resulting in enhanced enzymatic digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2015-10-01

    Combined pretreatment with hot compressed water and wet disk milling was performed with the aim to reduce the natural recalcitrance of oil palm biomass by opening its structure and provide maximal access to cellulase attack. Oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber were first hydrothermally pretreated at 150-190° C and 10-240 min. Further treatment with wet disk milling resulted in nanofibrillation of fiber which caused the loosening of the tight biomass structure, thus increasing the subsequent enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose. The effectiveness of the combined pretreatments was evaluated by chemical composition changes, power consumption, morphological alterations by SEM and the enzymatic digestibility of treated samples. At optimal pretreatment process, approximately 88.5% and 100.0% of total sugar yields were obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber samples, which only consumed about 15.1 and 23.5 MJ/kg of biomass, respectively. PMID:26125612

  20. Effect of Ni and Co as Trace Metals on Digestion Performance and Biogas Produced from The Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Matseh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro and micro nutrients are important ingredients for successful anaerobic digestion. The presence or lack of nutrients can enhance or limit the functioning of the fermentation process. Micro-nutrients most often reported as stimulatory are trace metals such as nickel, cobalt, iron, and zinc. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nickel and cobalt as trace metals on digestion performance and biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Anaerobic digestion was performed in a two litres stirred tank reactor and operated at a thermophilic temperature (55 oC. As raw material, a real liquid waste (POME from palm oil mill was used. Fresh POME was obtained from a fat pit of palm oil mill’s waste water treatment facility belongs to one of the palm oil company in North Sumatera which has VS concentration of 26,300 mg/L and COD value of 42,000 mg/L. To gain precise results, complete recording and reliable equipment of digester were employed. Supporting materials were also needed such as sodium bicarbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, and hydrochloric acid solution. Variables observed were included M-alkalinity, total solid (TS, volatile solid (VS, and biogas production. Hydraulic retention time (HRT was maintained at 6 days. Experimental results concluded that the reduction of trace metals concentration did not affect the TS and VS concentration and M-alkalinity. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijwr.2.2.2012.16-19 [ How to cite this article: Irvan, M. (2012. Effect of Ni and Co as Trace Metals on Digestion Performance and Biogas Produced from The Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent. International Journal of Waste Resources (IJWR, 2(2, 16-19. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijwr.2.2.2012.16-19

  1. Effect of inoculum size on production of compost and enzymes from palm oil mill biogas sludge mixed with shredded palm empty fruit bunches and decanter cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawut Nutongkaew

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inoculum size on production of compost and enzymes from palm oil mill biogas sludge (POMS mixed with shredded palm empty fruit bunches (PEFB and decanter cake (DC was studied using the mixed culture LDD1 as an inoculum. Three piles of 50 kg mixture (POMS:PEFB:DC = 2:1:1 with different inoculum sizes of 0.0075% (treatment A, 0.015% (treatment B, and 0.030% (treatment C were set up. The physicochemical parameters were measured during the composting. All the compost appeared dark brown in color, crumbly, attained an ambient temperature and had the C/N ratio of 11:1 after 40 days fermentation, indicating the maturity of the compost. The optimal inoculum size was found to be 0.030% (w/w. For enzyme production, the highest carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase activity was 3.23 Unit/g substrates at 12 days incubation whereas the highest xylanase activity was 3.11 Unit/g substrates at 6 days incubation. At the end of 60 days fermentation, the compost (treatment C had a TN-P2O5 -K2O of 3.10-1.29-2.01% (dry basis. Therefore, the compost quality complied with the national compost standard set by the Ministry of Agriculture, Thailand.

  2. The Effect of Higher Sludge Recycling Rate on Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in a Semi-Commercial Closed Digester for Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Alawi Sulaiman; Zainuri Busu; Meisam Tabatabaei; Shahrakbah Yacob; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Mohd Ali Hassan; Yoshihito Shirai

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: A 500 m3 semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester was constructed for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment and methane gas capture for renewable energy. During the start-up operation period, the Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) accumulation could not be controlled and caused instability on the system. Approach: A settling tank was installed and sludge was recycled as to provide a balanced microorganisms population for the treatment of POME ...

  3. Lipase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent by Aspergillus terreus Immobilized on Luffa Sponge

    OpenAIRE

    Nwuche, Charles O.; Hideki Aoyagi; James C. Ogbonna

    2013-01-01

    An integrated treatment and valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by Aspergillus terreus IMI 282743 immobilized on Luffa sponge was investigated. Effects of POME concentrations and nitrogen supplementation on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction, microbial lipase and biomass production were evaluated in batch cultures. A 50% POME promoted the highest lipolytic activities in both immobilized and free cell cultures. In the former, the maximum lipase...

  4. Comparative studies on the adsorption properties of powdered activated carbon and propenoic acid modified sawdust in the treatment of secondary palm oil mill effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Propenoic acid monomer was used to modify pulped cellulosic materials (sawdust). The sorption properties of the propenoic acid modified sawdust (PAMS) were compared with those of powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the tertiary treatment of palm oil mill effluent, previously clarified with iron (III) chloride plus lime (secondary effluent). The adsorption processes were effected in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at a pressure of 80 kilo Newton per meter square (kNm/sup -2/). Optimum amount of PAC and PAMS used for the fluidized adsorption of contaminants from the secondary palm oil mill effluent (POME) were 2.5 g/1 and 4.0 g/1, respectively. These sorption processes were found to be optimum at 10 min and 50 min for PAC and PAMS, respectively. At optimum sorption conditions, removal differentials of 28.6%/g chemical oxygen demand, 19.1%/g suspended solids, and 19.3%/g colour in favour of PAC were established. The application of optimum conditions for adsorption, for both adsorbents, to the bulk treatment of the palm oil mill effluent yielded a clear effluent with wider reuse applicability. (author)

  5. Waste to Wealth: Hidden Treasures in the Oil Palm Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)

  6. The effect of operating parameters on ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis of palm oil mill effluent for reclamation and reuse of water

    OpenAIRE

    Nazatul Shima Azmi; Khairul Faezah Md. Yunos; Azhari Samsu Baharuddin,; Zanariah Md Dom

    2013-01-01

    An attempt was made to reclaim and recover palm oil mill effluent (POME) for water reuse using tubular ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. The reclaimed water was compared with the final discharged water of the local mill. The raw POME was first subjected to a physical pre-treatment process to remove the content of organic matter and suspended solids. The pre-treatment process was coupled with membrane technology (UF and RO) to reclaim the clean water from POME. From the ...

  7. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610mL-CH4/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436–438mL-CH4/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555mL-CH4/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

  8. UASB performance and microbial adaptation during a transition from mesophilic to thermophilic treatment of palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemkhao, Maneerat; Nuntakumjorn, Boonyarit; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

    2012-07-30

    The treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) at organic loading rates (OLR) between 2.2 and 9.5 g COD l(-1) day(-1) was achieved by acclimatizing the mesophilic (37 °C) microbial seed to the thermophilic temperature (57 °C) by a series of stepwise temperature shifts. The UASB produced up to 13.2 l biogas d(-1) with methane content on an average of 76%. The COD removal efficiency ranged between 76 and 86%. Microbial diversity of granules from the UASB reactor was also investigated. The PCR-based DGGE analysis showed that the bacterial population profiles significantly changed with the temperature transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. In addition, the results suggested that even though the thermophilic temperature of 57 °C was suitable for a number of hydrolytic, acidogenic and acetogenic bacteria, it may not be suitable for some Methanosaeta species acclimatized from 37 °C. Specifically, the bands associated with Methanosaeta thermophila PT and Methanosaeta harundinacea can be detected during the four consecutive operation phases of 37 °C, 42 °C, 47 °C and 52 °C, but their corresponding bands were found to fade out at 57 °C. The DGGE analysis predicted that the temperature transition can result in significant methanogenic biomass washout at 57 °C. PMID:22466006

  9. Utilization of palm oil mill effluent as a novel and promising substrate for biosurfactant production by Nevskia ramosa NA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces palm oil mill effluent as a promising substrate for biosurfactant production. Potential strains ofbacteria were isolated from various hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and screened for biosurfactant production with the helpof the drop collapse method and surface tension measurements. Out of 26 isolates of bacteria, the strain NA3 showed thehighest bacterial growth with the highest surface tension reduction of 27.2 mN/m. It was then identified as Nevskia ramosaNA3 by biochemical and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to determinethe important nutritional requirements for biosurfactant production by N. ramosa NA3 under controlled conditions. Six outof 11 factors of the production medium were found to significantly affect the production of biosurfactant. FeCl2 and NaNO3had a direct proportional correlation with the biosurfactant production. Commercial sugar, glucose, K2HPO4 and MgCl2showed inversely proportional relationship with biosurfactant production in the selected experimental range.

  10. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Angelidaki, Irini, E-mail: ria@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

  11. Synthetic Polyelectrolytes Based on Acrylamide and Their Application as a Flocculent in the Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ariffin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cationic polyacrylamides of varying molecular weights but similar charge density were synthesized using free radical polymerization and Mannich reaction, characterized by different methods (infra red (IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, viscosity measurements and conductometric titration and applied as flocculants to palm oil mill effluents (POME. Flocculent performance was assessed by determining the polyelectrolyte dosage and the removal efficiency of the resulting supernatants using turbidity, suspended solids (SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD as indicators. It was found that varying in the molecular weight of the cationic polyacrylamide from 20X103 to 1.5X106 g mol-1 affects flocculent performance significantly. Polyelectrolyte adsorption increased as the molecular weight of the polyelectrolyte increased. High molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (1.5X106 g mol-1 is the most effective polymer as it obtains a high removal efficiency (% with a dosage as low as 60 mg L-1 at pH 3 of POME. The very high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (over 5 million g mol-1 produced very poor floc formation this is because polyelectrolytes having very high molecular weights do not dissolve readily but tend to form gel lumps.

  12. Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH4/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH4/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH4/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

  13. Treatment and decolorization of biologically treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using banana peel as novel biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rafie Rushdy; Chong, Mei Fong

    2014-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of applying natural, chemically and thermally modified banana peel as sorbent for the treatment of biologically treated POME. Characteristics of these sorbents were analyzed with BET surface area and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to remove color, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannin and lignin, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) onto natural banana peel (NBP), methylated banana peel (MBP), and banana peel activated carbon (BPAC) respectively. The variables of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were investigated in this study. Maximum percentage removal of color, TSS, COD, BOD, and tannin and lignin (95.96%, 100%, 100%, 97.41%, and 76.74% respectively) on BPAC were obtained at optimized pH of 2, contact time of 30 h and adsorbent dosage of 30 g/100 ml. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model with correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Kinetic of adsorption was examined by Langergren pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and second order. The pseudo second order was identified to be the governing mechanism with high correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. PMID:24321284

  14. Optimization of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum EB6 from palm oil mill effluent using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Mei-Ling; Abdul Rahman, Nor' Aini; Aziz, Suraini Abdul; Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Raha Abdul [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shirai, Yoshihito [Graduate School of Life Sciences and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 808-0196 Hibikino 2-4, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    Clostridium butyricum EB6 successfully produced hydrogen gas from palm oil mill effluent (POME). In this study, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to determine the optimum conditions for hydrogen production (P{sub c}) and maximum hydrogen production rate (R{sub max}) from POME. Experimental results showed that the pH, temperature and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of POME affected both the hydrogen production and production rate, both individually and interactively. The optimum conditions for hydrogen production (P{sub c}) were pH 5.69, 36 C, and 92 g COD/l; with an estimated P{sub c} value of 306 ml H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate. The optimum conditions for maximum hydrogen production rate (R{sub max}) were pH 6.52, 41 C and 60 g COD/l; with an estimated R{sub max} value of 914 ml H{sub 2}/h. An overlay study was performed to obtain an overall model optimization. The optimized conditions for the overall model were pH 6.05, 36 C and 94 g COD/l. The hydrogen content in the biogas produced ranged from 60% to 75%. (author)

  15. By-products of palm oil extraction and refining

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Yew-Ai

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the utilisation of by-products resulting from the extraction and refining of palm oil. It summarises research by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) directed at producing zero waste from the palm oil industry. MPOB regards by-products of the palm oil industry not as waste but resources. It will be evident that by-products from the palm oil industry can be and have been used extensively and that the research carried out is relevant to both the milling and refining sectors.

  16. By-products of palm oil extraction and refining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yew-Ai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the utilisation of by-products resulting from the extraction and refining of palm oil. It summarises research by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB directed at producing zero waste from the palm oil industry. MPOB regards by-products of the palm oil industry not as waste but resources. It will be evident that by-products from the palm oil industry can be and have been used extensively and that the research carried out is relevant to both the milling and refining sectors.

  17. Global oil palm suitability assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pirker, J.; Mosnier, A.

    2015-01-01

    The palm oil boom of recent years has brought about both positive - economic development - and negative impacts - deforestation, habitat losses and increased GHG emissions - in the main producer countries in South-East Asia. As global demand for palm oil is still increasing, governments of developing and emerging countries increasingly promote oil palm cultivation as a major contributor to economic development, but there are concerns about the potential negative impacts of oil palm expansion ...

  18. Pretreatment Evaluation and its Application on Palm Oil Mill Effluent for Bio-Hydrogen Enhancement and Methanogenic Activity Repression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porntip Wimonsong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretreatment evaluations of biological sludge were performed to observe the enhancement of hydrogen production and repression of methanogenic activity using anaerobic sludge and sucrose as substrate. The treatments include heating (H, ozonation (O, drug (D application using fluvastatin, Na2SO4(S dosing and their combinations to make up for the total of 9 pretreatment methods. Heat treatment at 95°C for 45 min provided a complete methanogen repression and good enhancement of hydrogen production activity. The remaining pretreatments were imperfect either for repression or enhancement based on the application conditions and concentration ranges. The order of methane repression was: H>HO>HD>HS>O>D>OD>OS>S while hydrogen production was: HO>H>HS>OD>HD>OS>D>O>S. Heat treatment at the specified condition was considered sufficient and suitable for pretreatment of anaerobic sludge. The practical application was explored using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME containing different amounts of solid content (15.830 g VSS L-1, namely LPOME and 21.445 g VSS L-1, namely HPOME as substrate. Beside the difference in COD of nearly 16% which is higher for HPOME, a higher specific hydrogen production rate was obtained at 0.81 and 0.17 mL H2 g-1 COD h for LPOME and HPOME, respectively. It should also be noted that a prolonged lag-time during start-up was observed for HPOME as well as hydrogen suppression which may be associated with the solid content mainly lipids in wastewater. Thus, high solid content of wastewater may be of concerned for bio-hydrogen production.

  19. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biohydrogen from palm oil mill effluent by thermophilic fermentative process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Palm Oil Product and Technology Research Center, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Phatthalung 93110 (Thailand); Birkeland, Nils-Kaare [Department of Biology and Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2009-09-15

    The optimum values of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR) of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) for biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) under thermophilic conditions (60 C) were investigated in order to achieve the maximum process stability. Microbial community structure dynamics in the ASBR was studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) aiming at improved insight into the hydrogen fermentation microorganisms. The optimum values of 2-d HRT with an OLR of 60 gCOD l{sup -1} d{sup -1} gave a maximum hydrogen yield of 0.27 l H{sub 2} g COD{sup -1} with a volumetric hydrogen production rate of 9.1 l H{sub 2} l{sup -1} d{sup -1} (16.9 mmol l{sup -1}h{sup -1}). The hydrogen content, total carbohydrate consumption, COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal and suspended solids removal were 55 {+-} 3.5%, 92 {+-} 3%, 57 {+-} 2.5% and 78 {+-} 2%, respectively. Acetic acid and butyric acid were the major soluble end-products. The microbial community structure was strongly dependent on the HRT and OLR. DGGE profiling illustrated that Thermoanaerobacterium spp., such as Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum and Thermoanaerobacterium bryantii, were dominant and probably played an important role in hydrogen production under the optimum conditions. The shift in the microbial community from a dominance of T. thermosaccharolyticum to a community where also Caloramator proteoclasticus constituted a major component occurred at suboptimal HRT (1 d) and OLR (80 gCOD l{sup -1} d{sup -1}) conditions. The results showed that the hydrogen production performance was closely correlated with the bacterial community structure. This is the first report of a successful ASBR operation achieving a high hydrogen production rate from real wastewater (POME). (author)

  20. Optimization of simultaneous thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production and COD reduction from palm oil mill effluent by Thermoanaerobacterium-rich sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai 90112, Songkhla (Thailand); Department of Biology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020, Bergen (Norway); Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai 90112, Songkhla (Thailand); Intrasungkha, Nugul [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Songkhla (Thailand); Dhamwichukorn, Srisuda [Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Birkeland, Nils-KAare [Department of Biology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020, Bergen (Norway); Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, N-5020, Bergen (Norway)

    2008-02-15

    Thermoanaerobacterium-rich sludge acclimated with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operating at 60 C was used as a seed in batch experiments to investigate the effects of C/N (carbon/nitrogen) ratio, C/P (carbon/phosphate) ratio and iron concentration in POME on fermentative hydrogen production. A central composite design was performed with the aim of optimizing the hydrogen yield together with POME degradation using response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM results indicated that the presence of 257 mg Fe{sup 2+}/l, a C/N ratio of 74 and a C/P ratio of 559 were optimal for simultaneous hydrogen production and COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal. C/N ratio, C/P ratio and iron concentration all had an individual effect on hydrogen production and COD removal, while iron concentration and C/N ratio had the greatest interactive effect on hydrogen production (P<0.05) while C/N and C/P ratio gave more profound interactive effect on COD removal (P<0.05). The predicted maximum simultaneous hydrogen production and COD removal were 6.5 l H{sub 2}/l-POME and 58%, respectively. In a confirmation experiment under optimized conditions highly reproducible results were obtained, with a hydrogen production and COD removal efficiency of 6.33{+-}0.142lH{sub 2}/l-POME and 44{+-}1.5%, respectively. The total carbohydrate conversion was 92{+-}2.7%. The hydrogen production rate reached 25.9mmolH{sub 2}/l/day and increased by 60% as compared with the use of raw POME. Thermoanaerobacterium spp. were found to be dominant and present at a higher population density under optimized conditions than in raw POME fermentation. Optimization of the culture cultivation conditions in POME resulted in a simultaneous increase in biohydrogen production and COD reduction. (author)

  1. Bio-oils from Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad A. Sukiran; Chow M. Chin; Nor K.A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the mesocarp fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB), frond, trunk and palm oil mill effluent (POME). For 80 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processed last year, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 25 million tones. The objectives of this study were to: (i) Determine the effect of various pyrolysis parameters on product yields and (ii) Characterise liquid product obtained under differe...

  2. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number

    OpenAIRE

    Meftah Salem M. Alfatni; Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff; Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri; Osama M. Ben Saaed; Omar M. Eshanta

    2008-01-01

    This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was base...

  3. Study the Growth of Microalgae in Palm Oil Mill Effluent Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper emphasizes mainly on the biomass productivity and lipids content of two microalgae strains known by their high lipids content namely: Botryoccoccus sudeticus and Chlorella vulgaris. These strains were first screened for the highest biomass and lipids content, then Plackett–Burman design was used to evaluate the significant media for the growth when using POME waste water as culture medium. Results show that Botryoccocus sudeticus contains high content of biomass and lipids yield. Moreover, all the three factors have positive effect on the biomass productivity, while using one nutrient factor gives much lower biomass. These results can be used further as an insight for optimizing the biomass and the oil productivity of the microalgae.

  4. Study the Growth of Microalgae in Palm Oil Mill Effluent Waste Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmani, Nabila; Mirghani, Mohamed E. S.; Zahangir Alam, Md

    2013-06-01

    This paper emphasizes mainly on the biomass productivity and lipids content of two microalgae strains known by their high lipids content namely: Botryoccoccus sudeticus and Chlorella vulgaris. These strains were first screened for the highest biomass and lipids content, then Plackett-Burman design was used to evaluate the significant media for the growth when using POME waste water as culture medium. Results show that Botryoccocus sudeticus contains high content of biomass and lipids yield. Moreover, all the three factors have positive effect on the biomass productivity, while using one nutrient factor gives much lower biomass. These results can be used further as an insight for optimizing the biomass and the oil productivity of the microalgae.

  5. Coagulation-Sedimentation-Extraction Pretreatment Methods for The Removal of Suspended Solids and Residual Oil From Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Ahmad, Norliza Ibrahim , Suzylawati Ismail and Subhash Bhatia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspended solids and residual oil removal in a liquid are relevant to numerous research areas and industry. The suspended solid cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Large and heavy particles can settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. Because of this, it requires efficient physical-chemical pretreatment methods.   Our current research is to study the pretreatment methods in the removal of suspended solids and residual oil content in POME. Preliminary analysis shows that POME contains 40,000 mg/L suspended solid and 4,000 mg/L oil and grease content that relatively very high compared to the maximum allowable limit by the Malaysian Department of Environment which are only 400 mg/L and 50 mg/L respectively. The methods chosen were coagulation-sedimentation method for suspended solids removal and solvent extraction for residual oil removal.  Jar test apparatus was used as the standard procedure for bench-scale testing and alum was used as the coagulant. Parameters studied were alum dosage, mixing time, mixing speed, sedimentation time and pH. For removal of residual oil, six different organic solvents; n-hexane, n-heptane, benzene, petroleum ether, pentane and petroleum benzene were used. For every solvent the effect of solvent ratio, mixing time, mixing speed and pH were analyzed. The results show that the optimum conditions in removal of suspended solid from POME were at pH 4.11, sedimentation time of 100 minutes and 150 rpm mixing speed with 1.5 hr mixing time. N-hexane give the best performance in extracting residual oil from POME with solvent to POME ratio of 6:10. It was estimated about 0.54 grams of oil and grease can be extracted with optimum variables at pH 4, mixing speed of 200 rpm, and 20 minutes mixing time.  Key Words: palm oil mill effluent, coagulation, suspended solid, residual oil, solvent extraction.

  6. Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Anwar, E-mail: anwarak218@yahoo.co.uk [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abd. [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO-CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main objective was to determine the influent CaO-CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 Degree-Sign C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m{sup 3} d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased significantly after long-term operation due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the granules. Granulation and methanogenesis decreased with an increase in the influent CaO-CKD concentration.

  7. Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: ► Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO–CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. ► The main objective was to determine the influent CaO–CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. ► The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. ► SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO–CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO–CKD at doses of 1.5–20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 °C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO–CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5–65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5–12.5 kg-COD/m3 d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased significantly after long-term operation due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the granules. Granulation and methanogenesis decreased with an increase in the influent CaO–CKD concentration.

  8. The effect of operating parameters on ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis of palm oil mill effluent for reclamation and reuse of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazatul Shima Azmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to reclaim and recover palm oil mill effluent (POME for water reuse using tubular ultrafiltration (UF and reverse osmosis (RO membranes. The reclaimed water was compared with the final discharged water of the local mill. The raw POME was first subjected to a physical pre-treatment process to remove the content of organic matter and suspended solids. The pre-treatment process was coupled with membrane technology (UF and RO to reclaim the clean water from POME. From the combined techniques of UF (5 bar and RO (30 bar the results showed that the turbidity and BOD5 were reduced by 99% and 98.9%, respectively. Compared to the final discharged POME, this suggested method gives a significant difference in BOD5 and turbidity. The final permeate of RO was found to comply with the standards for water reuse. Therefore, the combined UF and RO method is a viable alternative and has a great potential for use in the palm oil industry.

  9. PCR-based DGGE and FISH analysis of methanogens in an anaerobic closed digester tank for treating palm oil mill effluent

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Meisam, Tabatabaei; Mohd Rafein, Zakaria; Raha Abdul, Rahim; André-Denis G., Wright; Yoshihito, Shirai; Norhani, Abdullah; Kenji, Sakai; Shinya, Ikeno; Masatsugu, Mori; Nakamura, Kazunori; Alawi, Sulaiman; Mohd Ali, Hassan.

    2009-07-15

    Full Text Available 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-cloning, light microscopy using Gram stains, scanning electron microscopy and denatured gradient gel electrophoresis were used to reveal the distribution of methanogens within an anaerob [...] ic closed digester tank fed with palm oil mill effluent. For specific detection of methanogens, 16S rRNA-cloning analysis was conducted followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for presumptive identification of methanogens. To cover the drawbacks of the PCR-cloning study, the organization of the microorganisms was visualized in the activated sludge sample by using fluorescent oligonucleotide probes specific to several different methanogens, and a probe for bacteria. In situ hybridization with methanogens and bacterial probes and denatured gradient gel electrophoresis within activated sludge clearly confirmed the presence of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanosarcina sp. cells. Methanosaeta concilii was found to be the dominant species in the bioreactor. These results revealed the presence of possibly new strain of Methanosaeta in the bioreactor for treating palm oil mill effluent called Methanosaeta concilii SamaliEB (Gene bank accession number: EU580025). In addition, fluorescent hybridization pictured the close association between the methanogens and bacteria and that the number of methanogens was greater than the number of bacteria.

  10. Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2012-11-01

    Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

  11. A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Habeeb, AB. Aziz Abdul Latiff, Zawawi Daud, Zulkifli Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME. This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB. Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28±2°C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37±1°C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

  12. A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, AB. Aziz Abdul; Daud, Zawawi; Ahmad, Zulkifli [Faculty of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01

    Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28{+-}2 C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37{+-}1 C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

  13. Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ohimain, Elijah I.; Sylvester C. Izah; Francis A.U. Obieze

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF), Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF), Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Crude Palm Oil (CPO), chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012), 8 of th...

  14. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    OpenAIRE

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood...

  15. A novel application of red mud-iron on granulation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    The performance of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor that used red mud-iron (RM-Fe) for methane production for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) at various hydraulic retention time (HRT) was determined. POME was used as the substrate carbon source. The biogas production rate was 1.7 l biogas/h with a methane yield of 0.78 l CH4/g CODremoved and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 85% at POME concentration of 30 g COD/l at HRT 16 h. The reactor R2 showed average methane content of biogas and COD reduction of 78% and 85% at 400 mg/l RM-Fe. Significant increase in the granule diameter (up to 2900 ?m) in R2 was compared to control R1 (up to 86 ?m) at end of the experiment. PMID:25176306

  16. The influenced of PAC, zeolite, and Moringa oleifera as biofouling reducer (BFR) on hybrid membrane bioreactor of palm oil mill effluent (POME).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, A; Ujang, Z; Salim, M R

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of this work was to determine the effectiveness of various biofouling reducers (BFRs) to operational condition in hybrid membrane bioreactor (MBR) of palm oil mill effluent (POME). A series of tests involving three bench scale (100 L) hybrid MBR were operated at sludge retention times (SRTs) of 30 days with biofouling reducer (BFR). Three different biofouling reducers (BFRs) were powdered actived carbon (PAC), zeolite (Ze), and Moringa oleifera (Mo) with doses of 4, 8 and 12 g L(-1) respectively were used. Short-term filtration trials and critical flux tests were conducted. Results showed that, all BFRs successfully removed soluble microbial products (SMP), for PAC, Ze, and Mo at 58%, 42%, and 48%, respectively. At their optimum dosages, PAC provided above 70% reductions and 85% in fouling rates during the short-term filtration and critical flux tests. PMID:21251818

  17. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  18. Exploratory Study of Oil Palm Shell as Partial Sand Replacement in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    K. Muthusamy; N.A. Zulkepli; F. Mat Yahaya

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers has been disposing oil palm shell, which is a by-product from palm oil mill thus causing negative impact to the environment. At the same time, extensive mining of natural river sand in large amount to meet the increasing demand of concrete production for the use in rapidly developing construction industry has posed the risk of natural aggregate depletion and ecological imbalance in future. The effect of finely Crushed Oil Palm Shell (...

  19. Sustainability of Palm Oil Industries: An Innovative Treatment via Membrane Technology

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. Ahmad; Chan, C. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Malaysia is the largest producer of palm oil, the processing of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) has resulted large amount Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The highly polluting POME is identified as the major stumbling block to the development of palm oil industry in Malaysia. Hence, an integrated membrane process with physical-chemical treatment had been successfully achieved for treatment of POME. The role of membrane was explored significantly; where the chemical treated POME was further t...

  20. Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: → We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. → Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. → Co-composting of EFB and POME reduces greenhouse gas emission significantly. → Flue gas cleaning would abate the eutrophication and human toxicity potential.

  1. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    OpenAIRE

    Röll, A; F. Niu; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto .; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major componen...

  2. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    OpenAIRE

    Röll, A; F. Niu; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto .; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components ...

  3. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  4. Industrial ecosystems in the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chavalparit, O.

    2003-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in Thai economic development and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it contributes to environmental degradation from both input and output sides of its activities. On the input side, crude palm oil mill uses much water in production process and consumes high energy. On the output side , manufacturing process generates large quantity of wastewater, solid waste/ by-prod...

  5. Natural weathering studies of oil palm trunk lumber (OPTL) green polymer composites enhanced with oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Nazrul ISLAM; Dungani, Rudi; Abdul Khalil, HPS; Alwani, M Siti; Nadirah, WO Wan; Fizree, H Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a green composite was produced from Oil Palm Trunk Lumber (OPTL) by impregnating oil palm shell (OPS) nanoparticles with formaldehyde resin. The changes of physical, mechanical and morphological properties of the OPS nanoparticles impregnated OPTL as a result of natural weathering was investigated. The OPS fibres were ground with a ball-mill for producing nanoparticles before being mixed with the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin at a concentration of 1, 3, 5 and 10% w/w basis and...

  6. Biodiesel production from palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiatsimkul, P.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ester was produced from many sources of oil palm products, namely used frying oil, RBD palm oil, degummed and deacidified palm oil, palm stearin and superhard palm stearin. Production process was a conventional transesterification batch process using methanol as reactant and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Production procedure consisted of oil preparation, solvent preparation, reaction step, glycerol separation, washing step and finishing step. Thin layer chromatograph was used to determine the composition of product and nearly 100% methyl ester was obtained at a suitable condition. Molar ratio of oil: methanol was about 1:6, which equal to 20% by weight of methanol. Sodium hydroxide was 0.5-1 %wt. of oil. The production temperature was 60-80ºC, mixing time was only 15-30 minutes and reaction time was 3-4 hours. Many fuel properties of methyl ester were very close to high-speed diesel such as viscosity, density, heating value and boiling point range. Pour point of methyl ester was higher than diesel owing to the high composition of saturated methyl ester that has a high melting point.

  7. Greasy Palms. European buyers of Indonesian palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gelder, J.W. [Profundo, Castricum (Netherlands)

    2004-03-15

    The international trade in palm oil is a key driver of rain forest destruction and human rights abuses on a massive scale. This report is one of two research projects undertaken for Friends of the Earth in 2003 into the impacts of the palm oil industry in South East Asia, its links to the European market and the involvement of European companies in the palm oil trade. Chapters 1 - 3 of this report (examining the growth of the European market for oil palm and the Indonesian export market) are printed here. Chapters 4 - 6 (focusing on the palm oil market in UK, the Netherlands and Sweden) are available on request from Friends of the Earth. Research methodology into the impacts of palm oil included monitoring reports compiled by the Indonesian non-governmental organisation (NGO) SawitWatch and interviews with community members and local activists. The SawitWatch data had been gathered over a period of five years, based on field investigations, meetings with local community members, media reports and regular monitoring. The analysis of the European market focused particularly on the companies trading in palm oil in the UK, the Netherlands and Sweden as well as giving a general overview of the trade in oil palm and the growth of the European market. This research is available in two reports: (1) Greasy palms: the social and ecological impacts of large-scale oil palm plantation development in South East Asia; (2) Greasy palms: European buyers of Indonesian palm oil. A summary of the two research reports (Greasy Palms - palm oil, the environment and big business) is also available.

  8. BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER FROM PALM OIL MILL INDUSTRY / PRODUCCIÓN DE BIOGÁS MEDIANTE DIGESTIÓN ANAEROBIA DE AGUAS RESIDUALES PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA PALMERA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Debora-Alcida, Nabarlatz; Ligia-Patricia, Arenas-Beltrán; Diana-Milena, Herrera-Soracá; Diana-Andrea, Niño-Bonilla.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O impacto ambiental gerado pelo uso de combustíveis fósseis, incentiva à sociedade a procurar novas fontes de energia renováveis, tais como o biodiesel. Na Colômbia, a matéria-prima mais utilizada para produzir biodiesel é o óleo de palma, devido a isso a sua produção tem aumentado drasticamente nos [...] últimos anos, gerando efluentes com alta carga contaminante para o meio ambiente como consequência do processo. Dado que as características físico químicas destes efluentes são propícias para a produção de biogás mediante digestão anaeróbia, este trabalho avalia a produção de metano a partir de água residual de uma empresa extratora de óleo de palma colombiana. Foram realizados experimentos de digestão anaeróbia em modo batch para avaliar a influência do pH e a relação inoculo/substrato utilizando dois inóculos diferentes. Encontrou-se que a mistura 1:1 v/v lodo anaerobio de tratamento de águas residuais urbanas e esterco de porco usada como inóculo, gerou a maior produção de metano acumulado, atingindo 2740 mL de metano (0,343 m³ CH4/kg SV), usando uma relação de 2 g SV de inóculo/g SV de substrato, sem necessidade de neutralizar o pH do sistema. Abstract in spanish El impacto ambiental generado por el uso de combustibles fósiles, incentiva a la sociedad a buscar nuevas fuentes de energía renovables tales como el biodiesel. En Colombia, la materia prima más utilizada para producir biodiesel es el aceite de palma, con lo que su producción ha aumentado drásticame [...] nte en los últimos años, generando efluentes con alta carga contaminante para el medio ambiente como consecuencia del proceso. Dado que las características físico-químicas de estos efluentes son propicias para la producción de biogas mediante digestión anaerobia, este trabajo evalúa la producción de metano a partir de agua residual de una empresa extractora de aceite de palma colombiana. Se realizaron experimentos de digestión anaerobia en modo batch para evaluar la influencia del pH y la relación inóculo/ sustrato utilizando dos inóculos diferentes. Se encontró que la mezcla 1:1 v/v lodo anaerobio de planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas y estiércol de cerdo usada como inóculo, generó la mayor producción de metano acumulado, alcanzando 2740 mL de metano (0.343 m³ CH4/kg SV), usando una relación de 2 g SV de inóculo/g SV de sustrato, sin necesidad de neutralizar el pH del sistema. Abstract in english The environmental impact caused by the fossil fuel use encourages society to look for new sources of renewable energy, such as biodiesel. During the last years, palm oil production has dramatically increased in Colombia, since it is the main raw material for biodiesel production. As consequence of t [...] he process, palm oil mill effluents with high content of pollutants are released to the environment. Since these effluents have physicochemical characteristics that make them suitable for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion of residual water, this research evaluates the production of methane using wastewater as substrate from a Colombian palm oil mill. Anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted in batch mode to evaluate the influence of pH and inoculum to substrate ratio, by using two differents inoculums. It was found that the most suitable inoculum was a mixture of 1:1 v/v urban Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) anaerobic sludge/pig manure at a ratio 2 g Volatile Solids (VS) inoculum/g VS substrate, which presented the highest accumulated methane production, reaching 2740 mL methane (0.343 m³ CH4/kg VS) without neutralizing pH.

  9. Preliminary experimental results of Sewage Sludge (SS) Co-digestion with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for Enhanced Biogas Production in Laboratory Scale Anaerobic Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation on the feasibility of co-digesting Sewage Sludge with Palm Oil Mill Effluent for enhancing the biogas production and the corresponding effect of the co-digestion substrate ratio on the biogas production has been evaluated. Anaerobic co-digestion of POME with SS was performed at ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 60:40 and 0:100 to find the optimum blend required for enhanced waste digestion and biogas production. Single stage batch digestion was carried out for 12 days in a laboratory scale anaerobic digester. Co-digestion of sludge's at the 70:30 proportion resulted in optimal COD and C: N ratio which subsequently recorded the highest performance with regards to biogas production at 28.1 L's compared to the 1.98 L's of biogas produced from digestion of SS alone. From the results obtained, it is evident that co-digestion of POME and SS is an attractive option to be explored for enhancement of biogas production in anaerobic digesters.

  10. Preliminary experimental results of Sewage Sludge (SS) Co-digestion with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for Enhanced Biogas Production in Laboratory Scale Anaerobic Digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankari, R.; Kumaran, P.; Normanbhay, Saifuddin; Halim Shamsuddin, Abd

    2013-06-01

    An investigation on the feasibility of co-digesting Sewage Sludge with Palm Oil Mill Effluent for enhancing the biogas production and the corresponding effect of the co-digestion substrate ratio on the biogas production has been evaluated. Anaerobic co-digestion of POME with SS was performed at ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 60:40 and 0:100 to find the optimum blend required for enhanced waste digestion and biogas production. Single stage batch digestion was carried out for 12 days in a laboratory scale anaerobic digester. Co-digestion of sludge's at the 70:30 proportion resulted in optimal COD and C: N ratio which subsequently recorded the highest performance with regards to biogas production at 28.1 L's compared to the 1.98 L's of biogas produced from digestion of SS alone. From the results obtained, it is evident that co-digestion of POME and SS is an attractive option to be explored for enhancement of biogas production in anaerobic digesters.

  11. Column dynamic studies and breakthrough curve analysis for Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions adsorption onto palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul Shukor Abdul; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Man, Hasfalina Che; Kumar, Nadavala Siva

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA) derived from an agricultural waste material in removing Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution via column studies. The performance of the study is described through the breakthrough curves concept under relevant operating conditions such as column bed depths (1, 1.5, and 2 cm) and influent metal concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg/L). The Cd(II) and Cu(II) uptake mechanism is particularly bed depth- and concentration-dependant, favoring higher bed depth and lower influent metal concentration. The highest bed capacity of 34.91 mg Cd(II)/g and 21.93 mg Cu(II)/g of POFA was achieved at 20 mg/L of influent metal concentrations, column bed depth of 2 cm, and flow rate of 5 mL/min. The whole breakthrough curve simulation for both metal ions were best described using the Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models, but it is apparent that the initial region of the breakthrough for Cd(II) was better described using the BDST model. The results illustrate that POFA could be utilized effectively for the removal of Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column system. PMID:24659435

  12. Effect of solids retention time on membrane fouling intensity in two-stage submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating palm oil mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annop, S; Sridang, P; Puetpaiboon, U; Grasmick, A

    2014-01-01

    Submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs) treating palm oil mill effluent were analysed in terms of membrane fouling dynamics when working at three different sludge retention times (SRTs of 15, 30 and 60 d). The average permeate flux was fixed at 2.4 L x m(-2) x h(-1). During operation, the membrane was regenerated by using two steps: membrane wiping during each experiment as soon as trans-membrane pressure reached 125-130 mbars, and complete membrane cleaning including backwash and chemical cleaning at the end of each experiment when analysing the membrane surface and foulant material. Whatever the SRT, the cake formation was the dominant effect on membrane fouling dynamics. The concentration of suspended solids in the SAnMBRs, depending on the SRT, was then a determining criterion. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that fouled membrane surfaces were covered with a cake layer containing organic and inorganic elements whose concentrations were higher when working at a higher SRT; the higher concentrations of such elements gave to the cake layer a denser and more compact structure. In these experiments, the soluble fractions played a secondary role because of the dominant effect of cake layer structuring. PMID:25145221

  13. Isolation of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria from Songkhla Lake for use in a two-staged biohydrogen production process from palm oil mill effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwansaard, Maneewan; Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Choorit, Wanna [School of Agricultural Technology, Walailak University, Nakhonsithammarat 80160 (Thailand); Zeilstra-Ryalls, Jill H. [Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    We are developing a process to produce biohydrogen from palm oil mill effluent. Part of this process will involve photohydrogen production from volatile fatty acids under low light conditions. We sought to isolate suitable bacteria for this purpose from Songkhla Lake in Southern Thailand. Enrichment for phototrophic bacteria from 34 samples was conducted providing acetate as a major carbon source and applying culturing conditions of anaerobic-low light (3000 lux) at 30 C. Among the independent isolates from these enrichments 19 evolved hydrogen with productivities between 4 and 326 ml l{sup -1} d{sup -1}. Isolate TN1 was the most efficient producer at a rate of 1.85 mol H{sub 2} mol acetate{sup -1} with a light conversion efficiency of 1.07%. The maximum hydrogen production rate for TN1 was determined to be 43 ml l{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Environmentally desirable features of photohydrogen production by TN1 included the absence of pH change in the cultures and no detectable residual CO{sub 2}. (author)

  14. Pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent as a basal medium and its immobilization by selected materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asih, Devi Ratna; Alam, Md Zahangir; Alam, Zahangir; Salleh, Md Noor; Salleh, Noor; Salihu, Aliyu

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale production of lipase using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a fermentation basal medium was carried out, and parameters for immobilization of the produced lipase were optimized. Lipase production in a 300-L bioreactor was performed using two proposed strategies, constant power per volume (P/V) and constant tip speed. Moreover, lipase immobilization on different materials was also investigated. Lipase production was performed using liquid-state bioconversion of POME as the medium and Candida cylindracea as the inoculum. The fermentation medium was composed of 1% total suspended solids (TSS) of POME, 0.5% (w/v) peptone, 0.7% (v/v) Tween-80, and 2.2% inoculum. The medium composition was decided on the basis of the medium optimization results of a previous study. The fermentation was carried out for 48 h at 30°C and pH 6. The maximum lipase production was 5.72U/mL and 21.34 U/mL, obtained from the scale-up strategies of constant tip speed and P/V, respectively. Four accessible support materials were screened for their potential use in immobilization. The most suitable support material was found to be activated carbon, with a maximum immobilization of 94%. PMID:25017863

  15. Effect of temperature and initial pH on biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent: long-term evaluation and microbial community analysis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sompong, O-Thong; Chonticha, Mamimin; Poonsuk, Prasertsan.

    2011-09-15

    Full Text Available Anaerobic sludge from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment plant was used as a source of inocula for the conversion of POME into hydrogen. Optimization of temperature and initial pH for biohydrogen production from POME was investigated by response surface methodology. Temperature of 60ºC and init [...] ial pHof 5.5 was optimized for anaerobic microflora which gave a maximum hydrogen production of 4820 ml H2/l-POME corresponding to hydrogen yield of 243 ml H2/g-sugar. Total sugar consumption and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were 98.7% and 46%, respectively. Long-term hydrogen production in continuous reactor at HRT of 2 days, 1 day and 12 hrs were 4850 ± 90, 4660 ± 99 and 2590 ± 120 ml H2/l-POME, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the mixed culture revealed that members involved hydrogen producers in both batch and continuous reactors were phylogenetically related to the Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum. Batch reactor showed more diversity of microorganisms than continuous reactor. Microbial community structure of batch reactor was comprised of T. thermosaccharolyticum, T. bryantii, Thermoanaerobacterium sp., Clostridium thermopalmarium and Clostridium NS5-4, while continuous reactor was comprised of T. thermosaccharolyticum, T. bryantii and Thermoanaerobacterium sp. POME is good substrate for biohydrogen production under thermophilic condition with Thermoanaerobacterium species play an important role in hydrogen fermentation.

  16. Bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cell using natural microflora and isolated pure culture bacteria from anaerobic palm oil mill effluent sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Muhamad Hanif Md; Mubarak, Mohd Fahmi Muhammad; Elmi, Hassan Sh Abdirahman; Ibrahim, Norahim; Wahab, Mohd Firdaus Abdul; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2015-08-01

    A double-chambered membrane microbial fuel cell (MFC) was constructed to investigate the potential use of natural microflora anaerobic palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge and pure culture bacteria isolated from anaerobic POME sludge as inoculum for electricity generation. Sterilized final discharge POME was used as the substrate with no addition of nutrients. MFC operation using natural microflora anaerobic POME sludge showed a maximum power density and current density of 85.11mW/m(2) and 91.12mA/m(2) respectively. Bacterial identification using 16S rRNA analysis of the pure culture isolated from the biofilm on the anode MFC was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZH1. The electricity generated in MFC using P. aeruginosa strain ZH1 showed maximum power density and current density of 451.26mW/m(2) and 654.90mA/m(2) respectively which were five times higher in power density and seven times higher in current density compared to that of MFC using anaerobic POME sludge. PMID:25799955

  17. Flexural strength of palm oil clinker concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Palm oil clinker can be used as lightweight aggregate for the production of structural concrete. • The palm oil clinker concrete can be classified as lightweight concrete. • Full scale reinforced palm oil clinker concrete beams were tested. • The palm oil clinker concrete beam can provide ample warning to the imminence of failure. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental program on the flexural behaviour of reinforced concrete beams produced from palm oil clinker (POC) aggregates. POC is obtained from by-product of palm oil milling. Utilisation of POC in concrete production not only solves the problem of disposal of this solid waste but also helps to conserve natural resources. An experimental work was conducted involving eight under-reinforced beams with varying reinforcement ratios (0.34–2.21%) which were fabricated and tested. The data presented include the deflection characteristics, cracking behaviour and ductility indices. It was found that although palm oil clinker concrete (POCC) has a low modulus of elasticity, the test results revealed that the deflection of singly reinforced POCC beams, with reinforcement ratio less than 0.524, under the design service load is acceptable as the span-deflection ratios range between 250 and 257 and these values are within the allowable limit provided by BS 8110. In addition, the results reported in this paper indicate that the BS8110 based design equations can be used for the prediction of the flexural capacity of POCC beams with reinforcement ratio up to 2.23%

  18. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020. PMID:11171275

  19. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25-year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12-year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of 2 years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2-year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12-year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Comparing sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2-year old stand and 53 % in the 12-year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g., from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk epiphytes. Diurnally, oil palm transpiration rates were characterized by an early peak between 10 and 11 a.m.; there was a pronounced hysteresis in the leaf water use response to changes in vapor pressure deficit for all palms of advanced age. On the day-to-day basis this resulted in a relatively low variability of oil palm water use regardless of fluctuations in vapor pressure deficit and radiation. We conclude that oil palm dominated landscapes show some spatial variations in (evapo)transpiration rates, e.g., due to varying age-structures, but that the temporal variability of oil palm transpiration is rather low. The stand transpiration of some of the studied oil palm stands was as high or even higher than values reported for different tropical forests, indicating a high water use of oil palms under yet to be explained site or management conditions. Our study provides first insights into the eco-hydrological characteristics of oil palms as well as a first estimate of oil palm water use across a gradient of plantation age. It sheds first light on some of the hydrological consequences of the continuing expansion of oil palm plantations.

  20. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Röll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25 year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12 year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of two years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day?1 in a 2 year old to 2.5 mm day?1 in a 12 year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Confronting sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2 year old stand and 53 % in the 12 year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g. from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk epiphytes. Diurnally, oil palm transpiration rates were characterized by an early peak between 10 and 11 a.m.; there was a pronounced hysteresis in the leaf water use response to changes in vapor pressure deficit for all palms of advanced age. On the day-to-day basis this resulted in a relatively low variability of oil palm water use regardless of fluctuations in vapor pressure deficit and radiation. We conclude, that oil palm dominated landscapes show some spatial variations in (evapotranspiration rates, e.g. due to varying age-structures, but that the temporal variability of oil palm transpiration is rather low. Stand transpiration rates of some studied oil palm stands compared to or even exceed values reported for different tropical forests, indicating a high water use of oil palms under certain site or management conditions. Our study provides first insights into the eco-hydrological characteristics of oil palms as well as a first estimate of oil palm water use across a gradient of plantation age. It sheds first light on some of the hydrological consequences of the continuing expansion of oil palm plantations.

  1. The Effect of Higher Sludge Recycling Rate on Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in a Semi-Commercial Closed Digester for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi Sulaiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A 500 m3 semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester was constructed for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME treatment and methane gas capture for renewable energy. During the start-up operation period, the Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation could not be controlled and caused instability on the system. Approach: A settling tank was installed and sludge was recycled as to provide a balanced microorganisms population for the treatment of POME and methane gas production. The effect of sludge recycling rate was studied by applying Organic Loading Rates (OLR (between 1.0 and 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 at different sludge recycling rates (6, 12 and 18 m3 day-1. Results: At sludge recycling rate of 18 m3 day-1, the maximum OLR was 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 with biogas and methane productivity of 1.5 and 0.9 m3 m-3 day-1, respectively. By increasing the sludge recycling rate the VFA concentration was controlled below its inhibitory limit (1000 mg L-1 and the COD removal efficiency recorded was above 95% which indicated good treatment performance for the digester. Two methanogens species (Methanosarcina sp. and Methanosaeta concilii had been identified from sludge samples obtained from the digester and recycled stream. Conclusion: By increasing the sludge recycling rate upon higher application of OLR, the treatment process was kept stable with high COD removal efficiency. The biogas and methane productivity were initially improved but reduced once OLR and recycling rate were increased to 10.0 kg COD m3 day-1 and 18 m3 day-1 respectively.

  2. Co-Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Refined Glycerin Wash Water for Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Refined Glycerin Wash Water (RGWW from the oleochemical industry contains high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and requires proper treatment before disposal. Unfortunately the wash water also contains high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl that could cause inhibition to the normal biological treatment process. However, there is feasibility of co-digesting the RGWW and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for its treatment and methane recovery. Approach: A large 500 m3 semi-commercial closed digester tank was used to study the effect of co-digesting POME and RGWW under mesophilic condition at different RGWW percentage. The digester performance in terms of COD removal efficiency and methane production rate and stability based on total Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation, Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solid (MLVSS and pH were evaluated. Results: At 1.0% of RGWW co-digested, both COD removal efficiency and methane production rate showed satisfactory results with higher than 90% and 505 m3 day-1, respectively. However, once the percentage was increased to a maximum of 5.25%, COD removal efficiency remains high but the methane production rate reduced significantly down to 307 m3 day-1. At this stage, the digester was already unstable with high total VFA recorded of 913 mg L-1 and low cells concentration of 8.58 g L-1. This was probably due to the effect of plasmolysis on the methanogens at high concentration of NaCl in the digester of nearly 4000 mg L-1. Conclusion: Co-digesting of RGWW with high NaCl content and POME is satisfactory for COD removal but not for increasing the methane production.

  3. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor for thermophilic palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket-hollow centered packed bed (UASB-HCPB) reactor was developed with the aim to minimize operational problems in the anaerobic treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) under thermophilic conditions. The performance of UASB-HCPB reactor on POME treatment was investigated at 55 °C. Subsequent to start-up, the performance of the UASB-HCPB reactor was evaluated in terms of i) effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT); ii) effect of organic loading rate (OLR); and iii) effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solid (MLVSS) concentration on thermophilic POME treatment. Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days, removing 88% COD and 90% BOD respectively at an OLR of 28.12 g L−1 d−1, producing biogas with 52% of methane. Results from the performance study of the UASB-HCPB reactor on thermophilic POME treatment indicated that HRT of 2 days, OLR of 27.65 g L−1 d−1 and MLVSS concentration of 14.7 g L−1 was required to remove 90% of COD and BOD, 80% of suspended solid and at the same time produce 60% of methane. - Highlights: • UASB-HCPB was proposed for POME treatment under thermophilic conditions. • Start-up up of the UASB-HCPB reactor was completed in 36 days. • 88% COD and 90% BOD were removed at an OLR of 28.12 g COD/L.day during start-up. • HRT of 2 days and OLR of 27.65 g COD/L.day was required to produce 60% methane. • Methanosarcina sp. forms the majority of microbial population in the UASB section

  4. Zeolite Utilization as a Catalyst and Nutrient Adsorbent of an Organic Fertilizer Process From Palm Oil Mill Effluent as Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nursanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME cannot be directly used as an organic fertilizer source due to its high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD thus it is not environmentally safely. To increase the high quality of organic fertilizer obtained, the liquid wastes are needed to be processed in order to decrease the BOD to degrade both the soluble and suspension materials of organic materials. The altenative process to be conducted to make a better quality of POME is by adding the adsorbent. The aim of the research was to study the effect of zeolite utilization and duration of hydrolysis process in order to increase the nutrients content and to decrease the BOD of POME. The research was conducted at the PT Sumbertama Nusa Pertiwi Jambi, Indonesia in August 2012 until February 2013. The sample of POME was taken from the inlet of the factory’s acidulating pool. There were several doses of zeolite as treatments which were 0, 5, 10, 15% and several durations of hydrolysis process which were 1,2,3 and 4 weeks. Active zeolite was added to POME and then it was fermented with different hydrolysis duration times as mentioned above. The research showed that application of zeolite and duration of hydrolysis process significantly affected the pH, N, P, K, Al, Fe, BOD of POME and the adsorption of N, P, K, Al, Fe by zeolite. It can be concluded that 10% of zeolite incubated in two weeks duration of hydrolysis process produced higher nutrient of N, P, K with BOD, Al, Fe and pH matched with the waste quality standard. The highest efficiency of N, P and K adsorbent was show by the 15% of zeolite which was incubated for two weeks of hydrolysis process.

  5. Palm oil problems; Palmen-Geister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, C.; Kurniasih, F.D.

    2007-04-15

    Indonesia plans a massive expansion of palm oil production for biodiesel production. The locals are opposed to this. The contribution describes a visit to the island of Kalimantan, where the world's biggest palm plantation is planned. (orig.)

  6. Sustainable biogas and biomass utilization in Malaysian palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito (Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Yacob, Shahrakbah (Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn Bhd, Selangor (Malaysia)); Ali Hassan, M. (Dept. of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia))

    2007-07-01

    Palm oil industry in Malaysia is producing palm oil more than 12 million tones every year, while yielding more than 14 million of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and 25 million tones of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the POME treatment, huge anaerobic ponds (lagoon) are adopted, generating large amount of methane, more than 20 times global warming effect than CO{sub 2}. The objective of this research is to estimate actual methane emission from the POME treatment and to find out any possibility to utilize generated methane as an energy source under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Methane emission of 0.238 kg CH{sub 4} per kg COD removed or 12.36 kg CH{sub 4} per tone POME are obtained from actual mill operation throughout annual measurement. This indicates that more than 200,000 tones of methane, which is equivalent to 4 million tones of carbon dioxide, are estimated to be emitted from whole Malaysia. 500 tones of methane fermentor installed to palm oil mill to prevent GHG emission under the CDM. By this, lagoon system as major source of local environment pollution necessary no more, thus obtaining another 3 to 4 times large land area than mill. Our proposal is to establish novel industry utilizing biogas energy for value added material or energy conversion of excess biomass, thus enabling reduction of GHG and local environment pollution and sustainable development of local community. (orig.)

  7. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono or polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:25810814

  8. Improved Method for the Qualitative Analyses of Palm Oil Carotenes Using UPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mei Han; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is the richest source of natural carotenes, comprising 500-700 ppm in crude palm oil (CPO). Its concentration is found to be much higher in oil extracted from palm-pressed fiber, a by-product from the milling of oil palm fruits. There are 11 types of carotenes in palm oil, excluding the cis/trans isomers of some of the carotenes. Qualitative separation of these individual carotenes is particularly useful for the identification and confirmation of different types of oil as the carotenes profile is unique to each type of vegetable oil. Previous studies on HPLC separation of the individual palm carotenes reported a total analyses time of up to 100 min using C30 stationary phase. In this study, the separation was completed in <5 min. The qualitative separation was successfully carried out using a commonly used stationary phase, C18. PMID:26941414

  9. Comparison Study of Thermal Insulation Characteristics from Oil Palm Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan S.; Tesfamichael Aklilu; Mohd Nor M.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, investigation was conducted to study the use of solid biomass from palm oil mill as insulation material. The experimental study concentrates on using oil palm fiber to determine the unidirectional thermal conductivity, k. The experiment was conducted at different temperature ranges and packing density. The values of k obtained were found to be 0.2 W/m.K to 0.069 W/m.K for a packing density between 66 kg/m3 to 110 kg/m3, and at a temperature between 40ºC to 70ºC. Comparisons wer...

  10. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and agroforests, streams draining oil palm show greater biological activity, as indicated by elevated pH and reduced dissolved oxygen levels. Moreover, turbidity is elevated in young oil palm plantations watersheds compared to forest, agroforest, and old oil palm land covers. We discuss the implications of these findings for communities and ecosystems.

  11. Sourcing palm oil from sustainable sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, K. (ed.) [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    Our world is confronted with increasing concerns about global warming and security of energy supply. Renewable energy is promoted as one of the solutions to these challenges. One source of renewable energy is palm oil (derivatives). Crude palm oil and its derivatives can be used to produce biodiesel as well as to produce electricity and heat. Essent, a Dutch electricity producer, has co-fired palm oil for the generation of electricity from renewable sources. However, there has been an increasing concern about the sustainability of palm oil production. It is feared that the large-scale consumption of palm oil by the energy sector may have negative effects, e.g. on the environment in producing countries. In a reaction to this concern Essent suspended its sourcing of palm oil and asked a commission of experts to advise her on the possibilities of sourcing palm oil from verified sustainable sources. This report is the result of the Commission's work and documents the advice of the Commission to Essent. The assignment to the Commission is to determine whether it is possible to implement a certification system for palm oil products in the short term that enables sourcing of palm oil from verified sustainable sources.

  12. Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumate Chaiprapat

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane production. Therefore, POME without pH adjustment was used as influent for the UASB reactor. Moreover, the syntheticwastewater with pH adjustment to 6.00 was fed into the UFAF reactor. The inoculum source for both reactors was the combination of POME sludge collected from the CSTR of a POME treatment plant and granulesludge collected from the UASB reactor of a frozen sea food industry treatment plant. During experimental operation, the organic loading rate (OLR was gradually increased from 2.50 to 17.5 g COD/l/day in theUASB reactor and 1.10 to 10.0 g COD/l/day in the UFAF reactor. Consequently, hydraulic retention time (HRT ranged from 20.0 to 2.90 days in the UASB reactor and from 13.5 to 1.50 days in the UFAF reactor.The result showed that the COD removal efficiency from both reactors was greater than 60.0%. In addition, the total volatile fatty acids increased with the increasing OLR. The total volatile fatty acids and acetic acidproduction in the UASB reactor reached 5.50 g/l and 4.90 g/l, respectively at OLR of 17.5 g COD/l/day and HRT of 2.90 days before washout was observed. In the UFAF reactor, the methane and biogas productionincreased with increasing OLR until an OLR of 7.50 g COD/l/day. However, the methane and biogas production significantly decreased when OLR increased up to 10.0 g COD/l/day. Therefore, the optimum OLR inthe laboratory-scale UASB and UFAF reactors were concluded to be 15.5 and 7.50 g COD/l/day, respectively.

  13. Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

    2009-07-01

    Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were reduced to 3 mg/L and 5 mg/L respectively, satisfying the discharge requirement by Malaysia Department of Environment (DOE). The modeling study shows that the adsorption isotherm of boron onto POMB bottom ash conformed to the Freundlich Isotherm. The proposed method is suitable for boron removal in ceramic wastewater especially in regions where POMB bottom ash is abundant. PMID:19487007

  14. Evaluation of the Quality of Palm Oil Produced by Different Methods of Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Five palm oil samples obtained by different methods of processing were evaluated for quality. The palm oil samples evaluated were oils produced by traditional aqueous palm oil extraction method, palm oil press, fibre extract, Adapalm mechanized extraction method and adulterated palm oil extract. The physical quality indices analyzed were moisture content, impurities, density, smoke point, flash point and fire point, while the chemical quality indices analyzed were Free Fatty Acids (FFA, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter and potash content. The Adapalm oil ( from the standard industrial oil mill had significantly(p<0.05 lower values of FFA (0.97%, moisture content (0.23%, peroxide value (07.0 mEq kg-1 and the other quality parameters showed that it is of higher quality than the rest. It was closely followed by palm oil from press extract and traditional aqueous palm oil with FFA of 3.3% and 2.6%, respectively. These were then followed by palm oil from fibre extract with FFA (2.9%, moisture content (9.3%, impurities (1.6%, peroxide value (7.4 mEq kg -1. The adulterated palm oil extract was found to have significantly higher values of moisture content (26.4%, FFA (3.9%, impurities (1.89%, potash content (3.96% and other quality indices showed that it is of the poorest quality among all the oil samples.

  15. Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate from palm oil and some new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudesh, Kumar; Bhubalan, Kesaven; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Kek, Yik-Kang; Kamilah, Hanisah; Sridewi, Nanthini; Lee, Yan-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a potential substitute for some petrochemical-based plastics. This biodegradable plastic is derived from microbial fermentation using various carbon substrates. Since carbon source has been identified as one of the major cost-absorbing factors in PHA production, cheap and renewable substrates are currently being investigated as substitutes for existing sugar-based feedstock. Plant oils have been found to result in high-yield PHA production. Malaysia, being the world's second largest producer of palm oil, is able to ensure continuous supply of palm oil products for sustainable PHA production. The biosynthesis and characterization of various types of PHA using palm oil products have been described in detail in this review. Besides, by-products and waste stream from palm oil industry have also demonstrated promising results as carbon sources for PHA biosynthesis. Some new applications in cosmetic and wastewater treatment show the diversity of PHA usage. With proper management practices and efficient milling processes, it may be possible to supply enough palm oil-based raw materials for human consumption and other biotechnological applications such as production of PHA in a sustainable manner. PMID:21279347

  16. Sterilization of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Using Microwave Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Umudee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dramatically increasing rate of free fatty acid (FFA in long storage oil palm fruit is one of the most crucial problems of oil palm mill industries. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of oil palm fruits sterilization by using microwave irradiation in order of halting enzymatic lipolysis reaction which caused of FFA production. The results indicate that microwave heating can be interrupted the FFA produced reaction and the optimum condition heating temperature of the fruits mesocarp is 50 °C but not exceed to 80 °C, and the fruits can be storage for 7 days at ambient condition without FFA significantly generation. Conclude that heating from irradiation of microwave is capacitating for dry and clean sterilization system.

  17. Value-added Products from Palm Sludge Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo Yuen May

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The very short chain fatty acid has been recovered from palm sludge oils, a by-product of palm oil mills using vacuum distillation method. The recovered very short chain fatty acid contains mainly C6 fatty acid which is a valuable fine chemical in perfume industry. The very short chain fatty acid perfume esters were then synthesised using ethanol with sulphuric acid as catalyst. The reaction conditions were alcohol- very short chain fatty acid volume ratio of 2:1, 1.5% wt of sulphuric acid at temperature of 120°C for 20 min. The yield of very short chain fatty acid esters after distillation and purification processes was 50 to 60% wt. The treated palm sludge oils, after recovering of very short chain fatty acid was subjected to esterification using solid acid catalyst followed by conventional transesterification for biodiesel production. The free fatty acid in palm sludge oils was successfully reduced from 65% to less than 2% prior to transesterification. The conversion of free fatty acid to methyl ester and final yield of biodiesel were 98 and 83%, respectively. This paper demonstrates total utilisation of palm sludge oils by producing valuable very short chain fatty acid before converting it into biodiesel.

  18. Sustainability of palm oil production and opportunities for Finnish technology and know-how transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panapanaan, V.; Helin, T.; Kujanpaeae, M.; Soukka, R.; Heinimoe, R.; Linnanen, L.

    2009-07-01

    The global demand for palm oil is growing, thus prompting an increase in the global production particularly in Malaysia and Indonesia. Such increasing demand for palm oil is due to palm oil's relatively cheap price and versatile advantage both in edible and non-edible applications. Along with the increasing demand for palm oil, particularly for the production of biofuel, is a heated debate on its sustainability. Ecological degradation, climate change and social issues are among the main sustainability issues pressing the whole palm oil industry today. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects fulfilling the imperatives of the Kyoto Protocol are starting to gain momentum in Malaysia as reflected by the increasing registration of CDM projects in the palm oil mills. Most CDM projects in palm oil mills are on waste-to-energy, cocomposting, and methane recovery with the latter being the most common. The study on greenhouse gases (GHG) in the milling process points that biogas collection and energy utilisation has the greatest positive effect on GHG balance. On the other hand, empty fruit bunches (EFB) end-use as energy and high energy efficiency of the mill have the least effect on GHG balance of the mill. The range of direct GHG emissions from the palm oil mill is from 2.5 to 27 gCO{sub 2}e/MJ{sub CPO}, while the range of GHG emissions with all indirect and avoided emissions included is from -9 to 29 gCO{sub 2}e/MJ{sub CPO}. Comparing this GHG balance result with that of the EU RES-Directive suggests a further check on the values and emissions consideration of the latter. (orig.)

  19. A case study of pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2013-05-01

    Biomass seems to have a great potential as a source of renewable energy compared with other sources. The use of biomass as a source of energy could help to reduce the wastes and also to minimize the dependency on non-renewable energy, hence minimize environmental degradation. Among other types of biomass, oil palm wastes are the major contribution for energy production in Malaysia since Malaysia is one of the primary palm oil producers in the world. Currently, Malaysia's plantation area covers around 5 million hectares. In the oil palm mill, only 10% palm oil is produced and the other 90% is in the form of wastes such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm shells (OPS), oil palm fibre (OPFb) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). If these wastes are being used as a source of renewable energy, it is believed that it will help to increase the country's economy. Recently, the most potential and efficient thermal energy conversion technology is pyrolysis process. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia. The scope of this paper is to discuss on the types of pyrolysis process and its production. At present, most of the research conducted in this country is on EFB and OPS by fast, slow and microwave-assisted pyrolysis processes for fuel applications.

  20. Effects of palm oil on cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Y H; Ng, T K

    1991-03-01

    A major public health concern of affluent nations is the excessive consumption of dietary fats which are now closely linked to coronary heart disease. Against this scenario, the tropical oils and palm oil in particular, have been cast as major villains in the U.S.A., despite the fact that palm oil consumption there is negligible. The unsuspecting public may not realise that the call to avoid palm oil is nothing more than a trade ploy since in recent years palm oil has been very competitive and has gained a major share of the world's edible oils and fats market. Many also lose sight of the fact that, palm oil, like other edible oils and fats, is an important component of the diet. The allegation that palm oil consumption leads to raised blood cholesterol levels and is therefore atherogenic is without scientific foundation. Examination of the chemical and fatty acid composition of palm oil or its liquid fraction should convince most nutritionists that the oil has little cholesterol-raising potential. The rationale for these are: it is considered cholesterol free. its major saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (16:0) has recently been shown to be neutral in its cholesterolaemic effect, particularly in situations where the LDL receptors have not been down-regulated by dietary means or through a genetic effect. palm oil contains negligible amounts (less than 1.5%) of the hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, namely lauric acid (12:0) and myristic acid (14:0). it has moderately rich amounts of the hypocholesterolaemic, monounsaturated oleic acid (18:1, omega-9) and adequate amounts of linoleic acid. (18:2, omega-6). It contains minor components such as the vitamin E tocotrienols which are not only powerful antioxidants but are also natural inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Feeding experiments in various animal species and humans also do not support the allegation that palm oil is atherogenic. On the contrary, palm oil consumption reduces blood cholesterol in comparison with the traditional sources of saturated fats such as coconut oil, dairy and animal fats. In addition, palm oil consumption may raise HDL levels and reduce platelet aggregability. As with all nutrients, there is a need to obtain a balance of different fatty acids found in fats in edible oils and other food sources. There is no single ideal source of fat that answers to the recent American Heart Association's call to reflect a 1:1:1 ratio of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats in relation to the recommended dietary fat intake of 30% of calories or less.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1836037

  1. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of oil...... palms. The main aim of the paper is, however, to present a quantitative overview of the extent of land transformations related to the global oil palm production....

  2. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    2012-01-01

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of oil palms. The main aim of the paper is, however, to present a quantitative overview of the extent of land transformations related to the global oil palm production.

  3. Dioxin/ Furan Level in the Malaysian Oil Palm Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental samples collected from oil palm premises were evaluated for dioxins/ furans contamination. The samplings were carried out at oil palm premises located in Banting (Premise A) and in Teluk Intan (Premise B), involving two environmental matrices namely ambient air and soil. The soil samples were collected in the plantations while ambient air samples were collected in the vicinity of the mills and refineries. The results of the analyses showed that the level of dioxins/ furans in ambient air were generally higher in oil palm premise located adjacent to industrial establishments. The concentration levels at premise A mill and refinery located adjacent to industrial establishments, ranged from 64.14 WHO-TEQ fg m-3 to 131.87 WHO-TEQ fg m-3, while for premise B mill and refinery located in the rural area, ranged from 9.93 WHO-TEQ fg m-3 to 16.66 WHO-TEQ fg m-3. Meanwhile for soil samples, the highest concentrations were recorded in soil collected near roads used heavily by vehicles. The concentration levels of soil samples collected at premise A and premise B plantations ranged from 1.910 WHO-TEQ pg g-1 dry weight to 3.305 WHO-TEQ pg g-1 dry weight. (author)

  4. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  5. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  6. A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

    2011-09-01

    A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural. PMID:25214353

  7. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  8. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Jundika C. Kurnia; Sachin V. Jangam; Saad Akhtar; Sasmito, Agus P.; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet) which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further...

  9. Sustainability of Palm Oil Industries: An Innovative Treatment via Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is the largest producer of palm oil, the processing of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB has resulted large amount Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. The highly polluting POME is identified as the major stumbling block to the development of palm oil industry in Malaysia. Hence, an integrated membrane process with physical-chemical treatment had been successfully achieved for treatment of POME. The role of membrane was explored significantly; where the chemical treated POME was further treated using ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membrane. The concept of sustainable development in palm oil industries is achieved by recovering and recycling the crystal clear water and sludge as organic fertilizer from POME back to its process and plantations using the innovative membrane treatment. Consequently, zero discharge is achieved by eliminating the discharge of POME into the rivers.

  10. Utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumathi, S.; Chai, S.P.; Mohamed, A.R. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2008-12-15

    Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia produces about 47% of the world's supply of palm oil. Malaysia also accounts the highest percentage of global vegetable oils and fats trade in year 2005. Besides producing oils and fats, at present there is a continuous increasing interest concerning oil palm renewable energy. One of the major attentions is bio-diesel from palm oil. Bio-diesel implementation in Malaysia is important because of environmental protection and energy supply security reasons. This palm oil bio-diesel is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has significantly fewer emissions than petroleum-based diesel (petro-diesel) when burned. In addition to this oil, palm is also a well-known plant for its other sources of renewable energy, for example huge quantities of biomass by-products are developed to produce value added products such as methane gas, bio-plastic, organic acids, bio-compost, ply-wood, activated carbon, and animal feedstock. Even waste effluent; palm oil mill effluent (POME) has been converted to produce energy. Oil palm has created many opportunities and social benefits for the locals. In the above perspective, the objective of the present work is to give a concise and up-to-date picture of the present status of oil palm industry enhancing sustainable and renewable energy. This work also aims to identify the prospects of Malaysian oil palm industry towards utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy. (author)

  11. Techno-economic Analysis of Electricity Generation from Biogas Using Palm Oil Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Firdaus M. Saad; Shahida Begum

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, nearly 80 million tons of fresh fruit bunches are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tons of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). This POME is known to generate biogas consisting of methane-a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. The amount of methane gas generated annually is equivalent to 19 million tons of carbon dioxide. To meet the regulatory requirement, more than 85% of the mills use solely the lagoon system...

  12. Potential reduction of carbon emissions from Crude Palm Oil production based on energy and carbon balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy and carbon equivalence from CPO production based on a CBM. ► Energy spent and produced via carbon movement from palm oil mill was determined. ► Scenarios were formulated to evaluate the potential reduction of carbon emission. ► Utilization of biomass from palm oil mill shows the high potential of C-reduction. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate energy and carbon equivalences (CE) associated with palm oil milling and to evaluate sustainability alternatives for energy consumption. Appropriate ways to reduce carbon emissions were also evaluated. A field survey was carried out to quantify the input and output of energy and materials following the conceptual framework of a carbon-balanced model (CBM), which exclude other non-CO2 greenhouse gases. Survey results indicate that the electrical energy consumption for daily mill start-up averaged 18.7 ± 5.4 kWh/ton Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFBs). This energy is equivalent to 114.4 ± 33.2 kWh/ton Crude Palm Oil (CPO) which was found to be offset by that generated in the mills using palm fiber as a solid fuel. Currently, organic residues contained in the wastewater are anaerobically converted to methane. The methane is used as fuel to generate electricity and sold to an outside grid network at a generation rate of 8.1 ± 2.1 kWh/ton FFB. Based on the CBM approach, carbon emissions observed from the use of fossil energy in palm oil milling were very small; however, total carbon emission from oil palm plantation and palm oil milling were found to be 12.3 kg CE/ton FFB, resulting in the net carbon reduction in CPO production of 2.8 kg CE/ton FFB or 53.7 kg CE/ha-y. Overall, the sum of C-reduction was found 1.2 times greater than that of C-emission. This figure can be increased up to 5.5, if all biomass by-products are used as fuel to generate electricity only. The full potential for carbon reduction from palm oil milling is estimated at 0.94 kW of electric power for every hectare of plantation. This equates to a quantity of 68 kg CE reduced per ton of FFB. Thus, utilization of palm oil biomass can have a significantly high potential as a resource to be used for climate change mitigation by reducing carbon emissions. The findings of this work can be used as a template for policy makers to use in assessing and planning their energy programs.

  13. Boron toxicity in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaratnam, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    Potted oil palms were treated with fertilizer of borate-46 at several concentrations and the plants were observed for boron toxicity effects. Toxicity symptoms were apparent at high rates but not at rates equivalent to typical Malaysian soils.

  14. Rainforests for palm oil?; Regenwaldopfer fuer Palmoel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, C.

    2007-07-02

    Environmentalists are all fired up as rainforests are cut down for palm oil production in south eastern Asia. An international certification system is to ensure sustainable production and save the rainforests. (orig.)

  15. Powered by palm oil?; Power mit Palmoel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.

    2007-04-15

    The oil palm is used worldwide as an energy crop, even in moderate climates. Environmentalists are campaigning against it as indigenous forests are cut down. The contribution presents an outline. (orig.)

  16. Palm oil and the heart: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using k...

  17. Comparison Study of Thermal Insulation Characteristics from Oil Palm Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, investigation was conducted to study the use of solid biomass from palm oil mill as insulation material. The experimental study concentrates on using oil palm fiber to determine the unidirectional thermal conductivity, k. The experiment was conducted at different temperature ranges and packing density. The values of k obtained were found to be 0.2 W/m.K to 0.069 W/m.K for a packing density between 66 kg/m3 to 110 kg/m3, and at a temperature between 40ºC to 70ºC. Comparisons were made with others common insulating materials, and it was found that the experimental k values for oil palm waste insulation was lower by between 4 to 56 times for rockwool and between 7 to 57 times for glass fiber at low temperatures. The value k of oil palm fiber however showed an increase at higher temperatures and was lower at lower packing densities. Although not being able to match the k values of common insulators at higher temperatures, other factors such as cost and environmental benefits of using waste material should be taken into consideration and hence encouraging its use as at least a supplement to existing insulation materials

  18. Design and Development of Laboratory Scale Updraft Gasifier for Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    OpenAIRE

    Ramzy E. Konda; Shaharin A. Sulaiman; Bambang Ariwahjoedi

    2014-01-01

    The huge amount of wasted Oil Palm Fronds (OPF) produced annually provides a very good opportunity for the oil palm industry in Malaysia to use it for power generation, especially in mill boilers. Recently, gasification technology is receiving more attention as it can be used to convert wasted biomass into gaseous fuel for power generation and thermal applications as well as it can be used as a fuel source for the production of other chemicals. This study addresses the design, fabrication and...

  19. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimov Abdulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encourage more downstream investments and production of refined palm oil products. Under the revised export duty structure, crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil are cheaper for downstream activities in Indonesia. The new structure is expected to reduce Malaysia’s competitiveness in the world market as its export duty is relatively higher. A high export duty results in high price of crude palm oil which is the raw material for processed palm oil. The research questions are: (i What are the likely future trends of crude palm oil exports under the new crude palm oil export duties? Will it increase, reduce or stabilize? (ii What are the likely future trends of processed palm oil exports? Will it increase exponentially, stabilize or reduce? To answer these questions, a system dynamics model was developed for the Malaysian palm oil. Application of the system dynamics model provides a framework to understand the feedback structure and how changes in variables impact the behavior of the palm oil industry. This research suggests that with low crude palm oil export duties crude palm oil domestic price, profitability of plantation owners, immature crop, mature crop, total planted area, production and exports of crude palm oil increase, however exports of processed palm oil decrease.

  20. An experimental investigation to evaluate the heating value of palm oil waste by calorimetry. Paper no. IGEC-1-040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A palm oil mill produces palm oil and kernel palm oil as main products and biomass residue (fiber and shell). This excess biomass residue can be used as fuel in boilers to meet energy and process heat demand in the industries. Quality of the palm oil waste (POW) is characterized by low fixed carbon and relatively high moisture content which may affect the heating value (HV). By applying the principle of calorimetry, a bomb calorimeter is utilized to evaluate the heating value of POW. From the experimental results, it is found that higher heating value (HHV) varies with the moisture content (MC) and it is observed as a function of MC. (author)

  1. Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthusamy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA which is a by-product from palm oil mill has initiated research to incorporate this waste in Oil Palm Shell (OPS lightweight aggregate concrete production. The current study investigates the effect of palm oil fuel ash content as partial cement replacement towards compressive strength OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Several OPS lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced by replacing various percentage of POFA ranging from 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively by weight of cement. All the mixes were cast in form of cubes and then subjected to water curing until the testing date. The compressive strength test is conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390 (2009 at 7 and 28 days. From the results, it was observed that the combination of appropriate POFA content would enhance the compressive strength of OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Specimen produced using 20% POFA as partial cement replacement exhibit higher value of compressive strength than that of control OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. However, mixes consisting POFA up to 50% is also suitable for structural application.

  2. European Policies towards Palm Oil - Sorting Out some Facts

    OpenAIRE

    Pehnelt, Gernot; Vietze, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of palm oil and its sustainability from different perspectives. We consider the role of palm oil within the GHG context. We discuss the impact of palm oil on biodiversity and analyse how palm oil can contribute to economic growth and development in tropical countries. Finally, based on this analysis, we assess the current concerns about and politics towards palm oil with special focus on the EU. Palm oil is a low-energy and low-fertilizer crop that offers much hig...

  3. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF ENZYMES PRODUCED BY EUPENICILLIUM JAVANICUM AND ASPERGILLUS NIGER NRRL 337 ON PALM OIL FACTORY WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    TRESNAWATI PURWADARIA; YANTYATI WIDYASTUTI; PIUS P. KETAREN; DYAH ISWANTINI PRADONO; NONI NIRWANA

    2003-01-01

    The use of palm kernel cake (PKC) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), substances from palm oil factory wastes, for monogastric is limited by their high cellulose and mannan contents. Hydrolytic enzymes have been supplemented to increase the nutrient digestibility. The maximal digestibility was obtained in the synergistic action of all enzyme components including B-D-endoglucanase (CMCase), B-D-glucosidase, B-D-mannanase, p-D-mannosidase, and oc-D-galactosidase. Two kinds of enzymes produced by...

  4. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Sérgio Y. Motoike; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current variet...

  5. Effect of Palm Oil on Serum Lipid Profile in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karaji-Bani, M.; Montazeri, F.; Hashemi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil is considered as plant oil in which two types of cooking oil, palm seed oil and palm oil are derived. Palm oil has almost 50% saturated fatty acid and 50% poly unsaturated fatty acid. It is considered to be useful due to metabolites products such as prostacycline and antithrombois in cardiovascular disease (C.V.D) and variation in lipoprotein. In the present study we examined the effect of 12% palm oil on 30 days old male rats (149.3±10.7 g) for 60 days. The changes of weight ...

  6. Factors Affecting Palm Oil Price Based on Extremes Value Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kantaporn Chuangchid; Aree Wiboonpongse; Songsak Sriboonchitta; Chukiat Chaiboonsri

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the dependence structure of extreme realization of growth rate between palm oil prices and factors affecting, which are soybean oil and crude oil prices. We employ the Bivariate Extreme Value methods for daily palm oil, soybean oil and crude oil prices ranging from July 1988 to January 2012. The results provide that the growth rate of palm oil and soybean oil prices has some dependence in extremes, but the growth rate of palm oil and crude oil prices has fairly weak depend...

  7. Bio-oils from Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad A. Sukiran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the mesocarp fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB, frond, trunk and palm oil mill effluent (POME. For 80 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch (FFB processed last year, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 25 million tones. The objectives of this study were to: (i Determine the effect of various pyrolysis parameters on product yields and (ii Characterise liquid product obtained under different condition. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB was investigated using quartz fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures, particle sizes and heating rates on the yield of the products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis and heating rate were varied in the range 300-700 °C and 10-100 °C min1 respectively. The particle size was varied in the range of Results: Under the experimental conditions, the maximum bio-oil yield was 42.28% obtained at 500 ºC, with a heating rate of 100 ºC min-1 and particle size of 91-106 µm. The calorific values of bio-oil ranged from 20-21 MJ kg-1. A great range of functional groups of phenol, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids were indicated in FTIR spectrum. Conclusion: The chemical characterisation results showed that the bio-oil obtained from oil palm EFB maybe a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks.

  8. Application of Extreme Value Copulas to Palm Oil Prices Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kantaporn Chuangchid; Aree Wiboonpongse; Songsak Sriboonchitta; Chukiat Chaiboonsri

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the tail behavior of the palm oil future markets using the Extreme Value Theory and focusing on the dependence structure between the returns on palm oil future price in three palm oil futures markets, namely Malaysian futures markets (KLSE), Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE) and Singapore Exchange Derivatives Trading Limited (SGX-DT) by using the Extreme Value Copulas. The results demonstrated that the returns on palm oil future price among KLSE and SGX-DT have dependence...

  9. Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Oil

    OpenAIRE

    MUSA, JOHN JIYA

    2010-01-01

    There has been an increase in effort to reduce the reliance on petroleum fuels for energy generation and transportation throughout the world. Among the proposed alternative fuels is biodiesel. Over the years, a little attention was paid to the industrial use of palm oil. Laboratory tests such as viscosity, fire point, flash point, pour point and densities were conducted on raw palm oil and bleached palm oil using standard procedures. The flash points of palm oil and the bleached sample are 25...

  10. Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Ng M. Han; Choo Y. May

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the...

  11. Noise exposure in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL was measured at operator′s ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL and noise spectrum at each reading was obtained. Noise survey map of equivalent SPL was drawn for each oil mill by drawing contour lines on the sketch of the oil mill between the points of equal SPL. The floor area in the oil mill where SPL exceeded 85 dBA was identified from the noise survey map of each oil mill to determine the causes of high level of noise. Subjective assessment was done during the rest period of workers and it was assessed with personal interview with each worker separately. Demographic information, nature of work, working hours, rest period, experience of working in the mill, degree of noise annoyance, activity interference, and psychological and physiological effects of machine noise on the worker were asked during the interview. These details were noted in a structured form. Statistical Analysis Used: Nil. Results: The noise survey conducted in three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India revealed that about 26% of the total workers were exposed to noise level of more than 85 dBA. Further, 10% to 30% floor areas of workrooms, where oil expellers are provided have the SPL of more than 85 dBA. The noise in the oil mills was dominated by low frequency noise. The predominant noise sources in the oil mills were seed cleaner and power transmission system to oil expellers. Poor maintenance of machines and use of bamboo stick to prevent the fall of belt from misaligned pulleys were the main reason of high noise. Noise emitted by the electric motor, table ghani and oil expellers in all the oil mills was well within 85 dBA. Subjective response indicated that about 63% of the total workers felt that noise interfered with their conversation. About 16% each were of the opinion that noise interfered in their work and harmed their hearing. About 5% of workers stated that the workroom noise gave them headaches. Conclusions: The workers engaged in the workrooms of the oil mills are exposed to high noise, which will have detrimental effect on their health. The poor maintenance of drive system was found to be the main reason for high noise level.

  12. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; DRIRA, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript ...

  13. Irradiation effect on chemical components of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm press fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical properties of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm press fibre (PPF), which are major by-products of the oil palm industries, were studied for upgrading their utilisation as animal feed by radiation-fermentation process. Comparative analyses of raw EFB and PPF from 3 different mills showed significant variations in some of their chemical components. Significant differences were also observed between the chemical components of EFB and PPF samples. The water holding capacities (WHC) of both EFB and PPF suggested their suitability for use as fermentation media. Gamma irradiation of up to 50 kGy have little effect on the components of both EFB and PPF. Irradiation dose of 25 kGy appeared to produce enhancement effect on cellulase hydrolysis of holocellulose and alpha-cellulose of EFB but a retarding effect on hydrolysis of PPF

  14. UV curable palm oil based ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  15. UV curable palm oil based inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

  16. Analysis on Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO:A Qualitative Assessment the Success Factors for ISPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Harsono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ISPO (Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil serves as the baseline of sustainability standards for palm oil industry and is expected to improve the competitive advantage of Indonesian palm oil industry. ISPO was introduced by the government in March 2011 and currently most of plantations are in process of applying ISPO. The objective of this research is to analyze success factors affecting implementation of ISPO. Using qualitative method of in-depth interview on 20 selected experts representing actors mapped in the value chain of palm oil industry. The results depicted that; very little companies apply sustainable principles hence ISPO is needed for industrial standards, success factors affecting ISPO implementation, and necessary conditions for ISPO implementation. SWOT technique resulting 8 recommended strategies to be applied for ISPO implementation. Acknowledging ISPO applies to upstream industry (plantations and mills only, managerial implication for this research is the need to develop of a grand master plan for Indonesian palm oil Industry by developing integrated policies complementing ISPO aiming for sustainability, growing and developing downstream industry to add value to CPO product, and for upstream industry to be developed by farmers and cooperatives while big investors to develop mills and downstream industry.Keywords: Palm Oil, ISPO, Sustainable Certification, Success Factors, Qualitative

  17. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

    This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

  18. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meftah Salem M. Alfatni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

  19. Exploratory Study of Oil Palm Shell as Partial Sand Replacement in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthusamy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers has been disposing oil palm shell, which is a by-product from palm oil mill thus causing negative impact to the environment. At the same time, extensive mining of natural river sand in large amount to meet the increasing demand of concrete production for the use in rapidly developing construction industry has posed the risk of natural aggregate depletion and ecological imbalance in future. The effect of finely Crushed Oil Palm Shell (COPS as partial sand replacement material in concrete mix towards density and compressive strength was investigated in this study. Total of five mixes consisting various content of crushed oil palm shell as partial sand replacement ranging from 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were prepared in form of cubes. All the specimens were water cured before tested at 7, 14 and 28 days. Compressive strength was conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390. Generally, the compressive strength and density decrease with the increase in the crushed oil palm shell replacement level. Between 50 to 75% replacement, the mix produced possess lower density enabling it to be categorized as lightweight concrete and has the potential to be used as non-load bearing structure. The application in structural concrete material is suited for mix consisting around 25% of crushed oil palm shell.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Palm Oil as Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday A. LAWAL; Ahmed BABAKANO

    2011-01-01

    This work involved the production of diesel from most commonly available palm fruits oil Pisifera elaeis guineensis and testing for the brake power, torque of an engine and specific fuel consumption of a conventional diesel engine utilizing the produced diesel from palm oil. The obtained results were compared with those for fossil diesel fuel. The results show that the value of brake power was 6927.21W for fossil diesel while that of biodiesel was 7135.02W. Similarly the value for brake torqu...

  1. Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

  2. Export Competitiveness of Indonesia’s Palm Oil Product

    OpenAIRE

    Amzul Rifin

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the export competitiveness of Indonesia’s palm oil product as compared to Malaysia’s in three regions: Asia, Africa and Europe. Two palm oil products are analyzed: Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and refined palm oil. Market share is utilized as the measurement of competitiveness. The results indicate that Indonesia’s palm oil export has increased significantly over the period from 1999-2001 and 2005-2007. The reasons for the increase in Indonesia’s export are the increase in demand ...

  3. Cogeneration potential in the Columbian palm oil industry: Three case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, F.N.; Lora, E. [Federal University of Itajuba/Excellence Group in Thermal and Distributed Generation, Itajuba-MG (Brazil); Yanez, E. [CENIPALMA (Colombia); Castillo, E. [UIS, (Colombia); Arrieta, F.R.P.

    2007-07-15

    The palm oil mills are characterized by the availability of considerable amounts of by-products of high-energy value such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), fibers, shells and liquid effluents with high content of organics called palm oil mill effluent (POME). A palm oil mill produces residues equivalent to almost three times the amount of oil produced by biomass, showing a huge potential for increasing the power efficiency of the plants and installed power, mainly by the use of by-products in cogeneration plants with high steam parameters and by reducing steam consumption in process. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the study about the cogeneration potential for three representative palm oil mills located in two important palm oil producing regions in Colombia (South-America), fifth palm oil producers of the world. The sizing of the cogeneration system was made assuming it operation during the greatest possible number of hours throughout the year (based on the seasonal availability of fruit) considering parameters for the steam at 2 MPa and 350 C, using a condensing-extraction turbine. The balance of mass and energy was made by using the Gate Cycle Enter Software, version 5.51, to estimate the potential of electricity generation. The results showed that for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processing capacities between 18 and 60 t FFB h{sup -1}, it is possible to have surplus power ranging between 1 and 7 MW, if the plants are self-sufficient in electric energy and steam for process. With an average Capacity Factor (approximately 0.4), it is possible to expect a generation index of 75 and 160 kWh t{sup -1} FFB when the processing plant is operating or shutdown, respectively, 3 or 4 times better than when a traditional system with a back-pressure steam turbines is used. This analysis used up to 60% of EFB produced in plant as fuel, considering its value as fertilizer for the palm crop. Several economic conditions were considered to estimate the economic and technical feasibility of cogeneration systems in palm oil mill for Colombian palm oil sector. (author)

  4. Role of H2O2 in the fluctuating patterns of COD (chemical oxygen demand) during the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using pilot scale triple frequency ultrasound cavitation reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Sivakumar; Abidin, Norhaida binti Zainal; Parthasarathy, Shridharan; Alzorqi, Ibrahim; Ng, Ern Huay; Tiong, Timm Joyce; Gomes, Rachel L; Ali, Asgar

    2014-07-01

    Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a highly contaminating wastewater due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Conventional treatment methods require longer residence time (10-15 days) and higher operating cost. Owing to this, finding a suitable and efficient method for the treatment of POME is crucial. In this investigation, ultrasound cavitation technology has been used as an alternative technique to treat POME. Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation, growth and collapse of bubbles in a liquid. The end process of collapse leads to intense conditions of temperature and pressure and shock waves which assist various physical and chemical transformations. Two different ultrasound systems i.e. ultrasonic bath (37 kHz) and a hexagonal triple frequency ultrasonic reactor (28, 40 and 70 kHz) of 15 L have been used. The results showed a fluctuating COD pattern (in between 45,000 and 60,000 mg/L) while using ultrasound bath alone, whereas a non-fluctuating COD pattern with a final COD of 27,000 mg/L was achieved when hydrogen peroxide was introduced. Similarly for the triple frequency ultrasound reactor, coupling all the three frequencies resulted into a final COD of 41,300 mg/L compared to any other individual or combination of two frequencies. With the possibility of larger and continuous ultrasonic cavitational reactors, it is believed that this could be a promising and a fruitful green process engineering technique for the treatment of POME. PMID:24485395

  5. Comparison Study On Oil Palm Trunk And Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Fibre Reinforced Laterite Bricks

    OpenAIRE

    Noorsaidi Mahat; Zaiton Yaacob; Nadia Fatihah Mastan; Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid; Zainab Zainordin; Mohamad Rohaidzat Mohamed Rashid; Husrul Nizam Husin; Natasha Khalil; Mohamat Najib Mat Noor; Wan Faizal Iskandar Wan Abdullah; Nurul Asra Abd Rahman; Suryani Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the physical properties and mechanical properties of Oil Palm Trunk (OPT) fibre and Oil Palm Fruit Bunches (OPFB) fibre reinforced laterite bricks. For comparison purposes, the properties such as dimension, density, water absorption and the compressive strength of both types of bricks were determined. The effects of the incorporation of various amounts of fibres on the above properties were analysed. The tests were carried out according to BS 3821: 19...

  6. Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira P. Olaniyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out on palm kernel oil (Adin and the following results were obtained: Saponification value; 280.5±56.1 mgKOH/g, acid value; 2.7±0.3 mg KOH/g, Free Fatty Acid (FFA; 1.35±0.15 KOH/g, ester value; 277.8±56.4 mgKOH/g, peroxide value; 14.3±0.8 mEq/kg; iodine value; 15.86±4.02 mgKOH/g, Specific Gravity (S.G value; 0.904, refractive index; 1.412 and inorganic materials; 1.05%. Its odour and colour were heavy burnt smell and burnt brown, respectively. These values were compared with those obtained for groundnut and coconut oils. It was found that the physico-chemical properties of palm kernel oil are comparable to those of groundnut and coconut oils except for the peroxide value (i.e., 14.3±0.8 mEq which was not detectable in groundnut and coconut oils. Also the odour of both groundnut and coconut oils were pleasant while that of the palm kernel oil was not as pleasant (i.e., heavy burnt smell.

  7. Greenhouse gas intensity of palm oil produced in Colombia addressing alternative land use change and fertilization scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A comprehensive evaluation of alternative LUC and fertilization schemes. • The GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. • Colombian palm area expansion resulted in negative or low palm oil GHG intensity. • GHG emissions from plantation vary significantly with N2O emission parameters. - Abstract: The main goal of this article is to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of palm oil produced in a specific plantation and mill in Colombia. A comprehensive evaluation of the implications of alternative land use change (LUC) scenarios (forest, shrubland, savanna and cropland conversion) and fertilization schemes (four synthetic and one organic nitrogen-fertilizer) was performed. A sensitivity analysis to field nitrous oxide emission calculation, biogas management options at mill, time horizon considered for global warming and multifunctionality approach were also performed. The results showed that the GHG intensity of palm oil greatly depends on the LUC scenario. Significant differences were observed between the LUC scenarios (−3.0 to 5.3 kg CO2eq kg−1 palm oil). The highest result is obtained if tropical rainforest is converted and the lowest if palm is planted on previous cropland, savanna and shrubland, in which almost all LUC from Colombian oil palm area expansion occurred between 1990 and 2009. Concerning plantation and oil extraction, it was shown that field nitrous oxide emissions and biogas management options have a high influence on GHG emissions

  8. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  9. Palm oil. Addressing issues and towards sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K.T.; Lee, K.T.; Mohamed, A.R.; Bhatia, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2009-02-15

    The quest for renewable energy has intensified since the escalating price of crude petroleum in the recent years. Renewable energy such as biodiesel has the potential to replace petroleum-derived transportation fuel in the future. Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils such palm oil, rapeseed and soybean. Currently, more than 80% of the world biodiesel productions are from rapeseed oil. However, the cost of palm oil which is at least US$ 200 per tonne cheaper than rapeseed oil indicates that palm oil could be a more suitable and attractive candidate as the source of biodiesel compared to other vegetable oils. Although palm oil is known to be a multi-purpose vegetable oil with products ranging from food to biodiesel, there are a lot of issues surrounding palm oil production. Nevertheless, some of these issues reported in the literature were found to be misleading and are thus confusing the public perception on palm oil. Thus, the aim of this paper is to highlight and clarify the negative issues reported in the literature surrounding palm oil production. Apart from that, various policies or/and strategies that will lead to a more sustainable production and development of palm oil industries will also be proposed. Hence, palm oil will be able to become the leading vegetable oil in terms of food and non-food production, especially as the main source of renewable energy, biodiesel. (author)

  10. Oil palm and its clonal propagation by tissue culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.H.

    1983-09-01

    Until recently there has been no known method of vegetative propagation for the oil palm. Now tissue culture techniques make it possible to produce uniform clones of high - yielding top quality oil palms. This article reviews the clonal propagation of the oil palm by tissue culture - the development of which will allow oil palm breeders to combine germ plasm from a wider genetic base than hitherto, removing the pressure to breed for uniformity and the consequent increase of homozygosity of parent palms. (Refs. 15).

  11. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  12. Techno-economic Analysis of Electricity Generation from Biogas Using Palm Oil Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Firdaus M. Saad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, nearly 80 million tons of fresh fruit bunches are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tons of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. This POME is known to generate biogas consisting of methane-a Green House Gas (GHG identifiable to cause global warming. The amount of methane gas generated annually is equivalent to 19 million tons of carbon dioxide. To meet the regulatory requirement, more than 85% of the mills use solely the lagoon systems in waste water treatment, typically anaerobic first stage followed by facultative treatment. However, these two major palm oil wastes are a viable Renewable Energy (RE source for production of electricity. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to study the technological parameters for different capacity digester to produce electricity. The cost related data are collected from Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. Net present worth, internal rate of return and payback period were calculated. On the basis of the calculated values it has been found that the application of biogas plant for generation of electricity is economically viable in Malaysian perspective and this viability or economic attractiveness increase with the increase of plant size. The findings of this study should be useful to give some directions and guidelines for future planning and implementation of biogas plants in Malaysia.

  13. Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah I. Ohimain

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF, Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, Crude Palm Oil (CPO, chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012, 8 of the mills processed 90-400 bunches of Dura variety, while the remaining 2 mills processed 65-200 bunches of Tenera variety. During the batch processing of Dura variety, the proportion of the intermediate products computed in relation to the weight of the FFB (100% are as follows; TFF (66.0-75.0%, mesocarp (44.8-51.1%, nuts (19.0-27.5%, kernel (5.7-7.2%, water in mesocarp (9.0-12.1% and water in nut (2.4-3.4%, EFB (23.7-32.4%, chaff (0.8-2.4%, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS (10.0-18.8%, Palm Press Fibre (PPF (23.2-28.1% and Crude Palm Oil (CPO (9.4-12.8%. For the Tenera varieties, the compositions are as follows; TFF (70.9-72.9%, mesocarp (56.4-58.0%, nuts (14.5-14.9%, kernel (5.5-5.6%, water in mesocarp (10.1-10.4% and water in the nut (1.9-2.1%, EFB (25.7-28.2%, chaff (0.9-1.4%, PKS (6.8-7.5%, (19.1-20.3% and CPO (26.0-28.2%. This result shows that Tenera produces more oil and less wastes compared to the Dura variety. The solid wastes fractions are used as energy sources during the processing of oil palm and as filling materials for upgrading access roads to palm plantations. Except the huge volume of wastes (71.8-90.6% generated by smallholder oil palm processors is effectively utilized, the process will be unsustainable.

  14. Combustion of oil palm solid wastes in fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsuddin, A.H. [Univ. Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering; Sopian, K. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). College of Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The palm oil industry of Malaysia is the largest in the world producing about 55% of the world production. The industry has approximately 270 mills throughout the country with processing sizes ranging from 10 tonnes/hour to 120 tonnes/hour. All mills produce solid wastes, about 50% of the fresh fruit bunches in terms of weight. The solid wastes produced are in the form of empty fruit bunches, fibers and shells. These wastes have high energy value, ranging from 14 to 18 MJ/kg. The industry is currently self-sufficient in terms of energy. Fibers and shell wastes are being used as boiler fuel to raise steam for electrical power production and process steam. However, the combustion technology currently being employed is obsolete with low efficiency and polluting. A fluidized bed combustor pilot plant is designed and constructed at Combustion Research Laboratory, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The combustor is made up of 600 mm {times} 900 mm rectangular bed filled with sand up to 400 mm height, static. A bank of heat transfer tubes is imbedded in the bed, designed to absorb 50% of heat released by the fuel in the bed. The remaining heat is transferred in tubes placed on the wall of the freeboard area. Experimental studies were carried out in the pilot plant using palm oil solid wastes. The combustion temperatures were maintained in the range 800--900 C. The performance of the combustor was evaluated in terms of combustion and boiler efficiencies and flue gas emissions monitored.

  15. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions. PMID:25017207

  16. CRACKING OF PALM OIL TO PRODUCE OLEOCHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokedi I.C.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The FTIR and GC - MS tests are necessary for identification of oleochemicals produced via cracking. In this research, thermal cracking (without catalyst and catalytic cracking of palm oil were carried out in a batch reactor. The thermal cracking was performed at temperatures of 700 o C to 900 o C at a time of 30 to 150 minutes while the catalytic cracking was done at temperatures of 100 o C to 400 o C, time of 30 to 150 minutes and catalyst weight of 10 to 50 grams. The evaluation of products involved FTIR, GC - MS, and Effects of process parameters (Temperature, Time and catalyst weight on acid value, density and kinematic viscosity. Viscosity, acid value and density of the liquid condensates fall within the accepted limit of the oleochemical standard, and this showed that triglyceride molecules in the palm oil were broken down to light molecules. The research also showed that Catalytic cracking of palm oil (at a much lower temperature levels with the aid of clay cata lyst yielded better oleochemicals to that obtained from thermal cracking of oil at a very high temperature. This work showed that it is a good process that can be used industrially in obtaining oleochemicals that can serve for different purposes.

  17. Storage Stability and Sensory Evaluation of Taro Chips Fried in Palm Oil, Palm Olein Oil, Groundnut Oil, Soybean Oil and Their Blends

    OpenAIRE

    C.A. Emmanuel-Ikpeme; C. A. Eneji; U. Essiet

    2007-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) chips fried in Palm Oil (PO), Soybean Oil (SBO), Palm Olein Oil (POO), Groundnut Oil (GO) and in 40:60 w/w blend ratio of palm oil: POO; SBO; GO were stored for 0-5 weeks in dark and in fluorescent light. Chips were subjected to weekly chemical and sensory analysis. Results showed that significant (p<0.05) differences occurred in the organoleptic properties of taro chips fried in the different oil types during storage. Chips fried in palm oil and groundnut...

  18. Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W. H.; Mol, A.P.J.; Khaodhair, S.

    2006-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the output sides of its activities. On the input side, crude palm oil mills use large quantities of water and energy in the production process. On the output side, manufacturing processes generate large qu...

  19. Characterization of Activated Carbons from Oil-Palm Shell by CO2 Activation with No Holding Carbonization Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Herawan; Hadi, M. S.; Ayob, Md. R.; Putra, A.

    2013-01-01

    Activated carbons can be produced from different precursors, including coals of different ranks, and lignocellulosic materials, by physical or chemical activation processes. The objective of this paper is to characterize oil-palm shells, as a biomass byproduct from palm-oil mills which were converted into activated carbons by nitrogen pyrolysis followed by CO2 activation. The effects of no holding peak pyrolysis temperature on the physical characteristics of the activated carbons are studied....

  20. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, en...

  1. Life cycle assessment of a palm oil system with simultaneous production of biodiesel and cooking oil in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achten, Wouter M J; Vandenbempt, Pieter; Almeida, Joana; Mathijs, Erik; Muys, Bart

    2010-06-15

    The use of palm oil as a biofuel has been heavily debated for its land-use conflict with nature and its competition with food production, being the number one cooking oil worldwide. In that context, we present a life cycle assessment of a palm oil production process yielding both biodiesel and cooking oil, incorporating the land-use impact and evaluating the effect of treating the palm oil mill effluent (POME) prior to disposal. The results show that the nonrenewable energy requirement, global warming potential (GWP; exclusive land-use change), and acidification potential are lower than those of the fossil alternative. However, the system triggers an increase in eutrophication potential (EP) compared to the fossil fuel reference. This system shows less energy requirement, global warming and acidification reduction, and less eutrophication increase compared to the reference than the same system converting all palm oil into biodiesel (no cooking oil production). The land occupation of palm oil triggers ecosystem quality (EQ) loss of 30-45% compared to the potential natural vegetation. Furthermore, such land-use change triggers a carbon debt neutralizing the GWP reduction for 45-53 years. The POME treatment scenarios reveal a trade-off between GWP and EP. PMID:20496929

  2. Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng M. Han

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Conclusion: This study is thus conducted to trace the availability of these antioxidants in the leaves of the oil palm of the Elaeis guineensis variety.

  3. Oil palm deserves government attention in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, José R.; Goldemberg, José

    2015-07-01

    Englund et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044002) have recently analyzed biodiesel production from oil palm plantations as one possible way to mitigate climate change while providing cost effective results. They show that data for detailed quantification of biological carbon sequestration is available allowing a high confidence evaluation of positive impacts when oil palm plantation for food and biodiesel production is carried out in degraded, cultivated soil, and also with some varieties of natural vegetation in the Amazon. Nevertheless, economic risk associated with the future price of fossil fuels and uncertainties related with carbon subsidy are barriers. Here we discuss the assumptions under which such controversial proposal is based and suggest further analysis for Brazilian decision makers.

  4. Simulation of oil palm growth and yield.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraalingen, D.W.G., van; Breure, C.J.; Spitters, C.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented to simulate growth and yield formation of oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) in dependence of weather data and plant characteristics. From incoming amounts of light, light interception of the foliage and photosynthetic characteristics of individual leaflets, daily rates of crop photosynthesis are calculated. After subtraction of respiration requirements, remaining assimilates are allocated to the various plant tissues. The demand for vegetative growth is met first...

  5. Neural Network in Modeling Malaysian Oil Palm Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhaimy Ismail; Azme Khamis

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Forecasting of palm oil yield has become an important element in the management of oil palm industry for proper planning and decision making. The importance of yield forecasting has led us to explore modeling of palm oil yield for Malaysia using the most recent development of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The main issue in yield forecasting is to predict the future value with the minimum error. Approach: Artificial neural networks are computing systems containing many in...

  6. Polygon Sawing: An Optimum Sawing Pattern for Oil Palm Stems

    OpenAIRE

    Edi Suhaimi Bakar; Fauzi Febrianto; Imam Wahyudi; Zaidon Ashaari

    2006-01-01

    The shortage in wood supply makes the effort to find alternative for wood material become more and more important. It was reported that the outer parts of oil palm stems could be used as solid wood after being properly treated. Being a monocotyledon, oil palm stems have a contradictory characteristic to the conventional hardwoods and softwoods and thus the sawing patterns suitable for hardwoods and softwoods should not be suitable for the oil palm stems. Two modified sawing patterns (polygon ...

  7. Poor Prospects for Avian Biodiversity in Amazonian Oil Palm

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Alexander C.; Moura, Nárgila G.; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome’s biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we inve...

  8. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for cleaner production in crude palm oil industry, and to provide recommendations for overcoming these barriers. As such the overall aim was to generate ideas for moving the crude palm oil industry towards sustainability.In order to fulfill these research aimsdetailed case studies have be...

  9. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  10. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  11. A Gate to Gate Assessment of Environmental Performance for Production of Crude Palm Kernel Oil Using Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vijaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry is an export orientated industry which heavily relies on the world market. In 2007 alone the total export earnings reached RM 45.1 billion. It is essential that the oil palm industry is ready to meet the higher expectation of its overseas customers on the environmental performance of the industry. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is a tool to evaluate the environmental impacts of a product or process throughout its entire life cycle. To identify the potential environmental impacts associated with the production of CPKO and to use this assessment for evaluating opportunities to overcome the potential impacts. Approach: This study had a gate to gate system boundary that starts with the collection and transportation of the palm kernel from the palm oil mills to the production of Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO at the kernel crushing plants. Six kernel crushing plants were selected to collect inventory data which consists of inputs of raw materials and energy; outputs of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Five crushing plants used electricity directly from the grid while one crushing plant used the electricity generated at the neighboring palm oil mill for processing. This study compared the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA of two scenarios namely; when the crushing plants uses electricity from the grid versus the crushing plant which uses electricity generated from the palm oil mill. The LCIA was conducted using the Simapro software and the Eco-Indicator 99 methodology. Results: For scenario one there was two potential impacts mainly from the electricity consumption from the grid for processing and diesel consumption for transporting the palm kernel from the mills. For scenario two, the potential impact from the electricity consumption from the grid was reduced due to the use of renewable energy from the palm oil mill and the impact from diesel consumption was reduced due to the short distance for transporting the palm kernel. Conclusion: It was recommended that more kernel crushing plants should be integrated with the palm oil mills to over come these impacts.

  12. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  13. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia?s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world?s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encoura...

  14. Growth Performance and Nutrient Uptake of Oil Palm Seedling in Prenursery Stage as Influenced by Oil Palm Waste Compost in Growing Media

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenani, A.B.; R. Rovica; P. M. Cheah; Lim, C. T.

    2016-01-01

    The use of composted oil palm wastes in the oil palm nursery as an organic component of growing medium for oil palm seedlings seems promising in sustainable oil palm seedling production. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of six oil palm waste compost rates (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) on the growth performance of oil palm seedling and nutrient uptake in the prenursery stage (0–3 months). The addition of oil palm compost reduced the soil bulk density (1.32 to 0.53 g cm−3) an...

  15. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle

    2011-01-01

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken by the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one based on scientific evidence is more likely to lead to greater opportunities for sustainable palm oil.

  16. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  17. Production of methyl ester from oil in the wastewater pond of a palm oil factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongurai, C.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the suitable technique for the production of methyl ester from waste palm oil in the water pond of a palm oil mill. The composition of the waste palm oil was 73.82% fatty acid, 5.07% triglyceride, 3.39% diglyceride and 17.76% unknown compounds. The unknown compounds were separated via simple distillation carried out at a temperature range of 300-350oC.First, the experiments were carried out in screw capped bottles using filtrated as-received waste oil as the reactant. The esterification and transesterification process were conducted using sulfuric acid catalyst in a methanol solution. The key parameters studied were mole ratio of waste oil to methanol (1:1 to 1:72, amount of catalyst from 0.1-20 v/w% of the reactant, temperature range of 60-98oC and reaction time range of 15-180 minutes. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC analysis showed 85-90% purity of methyl ester with 4-5% of mono-, di-, and triglycerides and fatty acids and about 5-10% of the unknown compounds for the best condition. The resulting yield of biodiesel was 84-88%. Eradication of contaminants by distillation gave about a 75% distillate yield. Distilled waste palm oil was esterified and transesterified using the previous optimum condition of as-received waste oil, but the reaction time and temperature were varied. The optimal result was obtained by using distilled waste palm oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:8, sulfuric acid of 1 v/w% of reactant, reaction temperature of 70oC and reaction time of 1 hour. TLC analysis indicated a biodiesel composition of methyl ester, free fatty acid, diglyceride and monoglyceride of 96.39%, 3.20%, 0.24% and 0.17%, respectively. The yield of biodiesel was 96-98% having physical fuel properties according to Thailand standard for methyl esterFinally, the distilled waste palm oil was esterified using a 3 liters continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR. Using the suitable condition for the batch process and an hour retention time, the resulting biodiesel contained methyl ester, free fatty acid, diglyceride and monoglyceride at compositions of 94.34%, 3.22%, 1.60% and 0.84%, respectively, which were very close to the qualities from the batch process.

  18. Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2012-03-01

    This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill. PMID:22482288

  19. A choice of renewable or upgraded material from oil palm solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysian palm oil industries are producing a large amount of solid wastes from the palm oil mills. Malaysia generates around 1.10 million tons of oil palm shells in year 1980 but this amount increased up to 4.11 million tons in year 2002 as wastes. Disposal of these wastes created environmental problems. Thus, a process was designed to reuse and recycle these wastes into value added products. This research used oil palm shells as a renewable material resource by thermo-chemical process to produce pyrolysis oil. The oil could be utilized as fuel or converted to valued added products. Since it contain a significant amount of phenols, it was extracted using solvent extraction technique to gain the useful phenol and phenolic compounds. The extracted oil-palm-shell-based phenol was used in the manufacturing of phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. Then the capability of wood bonding was tested comparing with the petroleum-based phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. For the commercial values of this research, the total global consumption of phenol in 2000 was 11.3 million metric ton that worth USD 10.0 billions. Thus, the commercial potentiality of this research is very high as the oil-palm-shell-based phenol could replace the petroleum-based phenol. The methods and products utilize low manufacturing cost from relatively simple technology and locally abundant raw material, comparable performances in wood bonding and competitive in price. It is estimated that around USD 900 / ton for petroleum-based, but just USD 250 / ton for palm-shell-based phenol

  20. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber. PMID:26868709

  1. Minimizing the biodiversity impact of Neotropical oil palm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Prescott, Graham W; Cardenas, Johann S; Castañeda, Pamela González del Pliego; Sánchez, Andrés; Rojas-Murcia, Luis E; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding in the Neotropics, at the expense of a range of natural and seminatural habitats. A key question is how this expansion should be managed to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity. Focusing on the Llanos of Colombia, a mixed grassland-forest system identified as a priority zone for future oil palm development, we survey communities of ants, dung beetles, birds and herpetofauna occurring in oil palm plantations and the other principal form of agriculture in the region--improved cattle pasture--together with those of surrounding natural forests. We show that oil palm plantations have similar or higher species richness across all four taxonomic groups than improved pasture. For dung beetles, species richness in oil palm was equal to that of forest, whereas the other three taxa had highest species richness in forests. Hierarchical modelling of species occupancy probabilities indicated that oil palm plantations supported a higher proportion of species characteristic of forests than did cattle pastures. Across the bird community, occupancy probabilities within oil palm were positively influenced by increasing forest cover in a surrounding 250 m radius, whereas surrounding forest cover did not strongly influence the occurrence of other taxonomic groups in oil palm. Overall, our results suggest that the conversion of existing improved pastures to oil palm has limited negative impacts on biodiversity. As such, existing cattle pastures of the Colombian Llanos could offer a key opportunity to meet governmental targets for oil palm development without incurring significant biodiversity costs. Our results also highlight the value of preserving remnant forests within these agricultural landscapes, protecting high biodiversity and exporting avian 'spill-over' effects into oil palm plantations. PMID:25175402

  2. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products. PMID:12492637

  3. Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil is known as an important source of edible oil with significant values of renewable energy. Depletion of petroleum had captured much attention on producing biodiesel from the palm oil. Approach: The most concerning methods for the production of biodiesel were discussed, namely transesterification (alkali and acid, enzymetic approach and supercritical alcohol. Results: The results showed the vis-a-vis of the methods for possible consideration of research. Conclusion: Concerning the importance of this vegetable oil, the contribution of palm oil towards diminution of fossil fuel, possible methods for the production of biodiesel and the opportunity for the futures is very much important.

  4. Functional palm oil-based margarine by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme was a...

  5. OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Kwei Nam Law

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

  6. OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

  7. Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

  8. Environmental impacts and improvement prospects for environmental hotspots in the production of palm oil derived biodiesel in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle

    2012-01-01

    Palm oil is the largest and fastest growing vegetable oil on the world market and the prospects of biodiesel production will further spur the expansion. In order to contribute to the knowledge base on current environmental impacts and potential improvements in the palm oil industry this study sets out to generate LCI data for central, yet underexplored elements in the production of biodiesel with a focus on greenhouse gasses (GHG). The research follows an attributional modelling framework, but does include system expansion to account for the use of residues from the palm oil production. The reference flow of the study is 1 MJ palm oil derived biodiesel, which has been chosen to facilitate comparisons of the results to fossil diesel and other biodiesels. The impact focus is on global warming potential with extensive quantification of GHG emissions and potential reduction. Other impact categories are included mainly with the purpose of documenting whether the proposed GHG reduction initiatives result in problem shifting. Land use changes (LUC) are the most controversial aspect of palm oil production with large potential GHG emissions and impacts on biodiversity. With global warming and extinction of animals and plants in tropical areas being easily communicated to the public, palm oil has been the target of numerous scare campaigns. Conversely, the palm oil industry is adamant that palm oil and oil palm plantations are sequestering carbon and supporting a wide range of flora and fauna. Through critical selection of literature data, field studies and application of state-of-the-art LCA methodology, this study is quantifying the GHG emissions from palm oil related LUC for the two most common previous land uses in Malaysia, namely logged-over forest and rubber plantations. In order to be able to assess the impacts from average palm oil production in Malaysia, a Malaysian average LUC scenario was set up and assessed. Solid residues from the production of palm oil constitute two tons dry weight organic matter per ton palm oil produced. Current use of this potential resource is limited to mulching of plantation residues and empty fruit bunches (EFB) from the mills and use of press fibre and kernel shells in the mill boilers. The mill wastewater called palm oil mill effluent (POME) is treated anaerobically in open lagoons emitting large amounts of methane. In recent years it is becoming more popular to sell kernel shells for use in industrial boilers, and biogas plants with methane capture for the POME treatment are slowly making their entry, but the potential uses and environmental benefits of such uses have only been sporadically explored. Residue energy recovery for substitution of fossil fuels is explored here through application of biomass power plants, pyrolysis and biogas production. Modelling the results of the LUC study and the residue use study into a GaBi model, various scenarios were set up to test the environmental potentials of management decisions in respect to LUC choices, yield optimization and residue use. The study also includes an assessment of the management practices of corporations and smallholders and an economic feasibility study to assess financial aspect of environmental improvements. The results show that biodiesel production from conventionally produced palm oil with national average LUC emissions emits only marginally less GHG than the life cycle emissions of fossil diesel. This study, however, shows that significant environmental improvements are available with currently available technologies to bring the impacts well below the fossil diesel emissions, and do so with economic profitability. Residue use shows a big potential for improvement. The conventional residue management causes net GHG emissions where the prospective fossil fuel substitutions through residue energy recovery alone is so significant that net GHG emissions from the PME production process can become close to CO2 neutral when not including LUC. An added bonus for the palm oil industry is that such improvements are likely to result

  9. Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Ni Fong Fong; Jumat Salimon

    2013-01-01

    Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the conversion of iodine v...

  10. Re-esterified Palm Oils, Compared to Native Palm Oil, do not Alter Fat Absorption, Postprandial Lipemia or Growth Performance in Broiler Chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Vilarrasa, E.; Tres, A.; Bayés-García, L.; Parella, T.; Esteve-Garcia, E.; Barroeta, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Re-esterified palm oils are obtained from the chemical esterification of palm acid oils (rich in free fatty acids) with glycerol, both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively. Thus, re-esterified palm oils could be an economically interesting alternative to native palm oil in broiler chick diets. However, because they may have different physicochemical properties than have their corresponding native oil, we assessed the effect of fatty aci...

  11. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production of palm oil derived biodiesel can be almost carbon neutral.

  12. Effects of Chemical Inter esterification on the Physicochemical Properties of Palm Stearin, Palm Kernel Oil and Soybean Oil Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) blends were formulated according to Design Expert 8.0.4 (2010). All the sixteen oil blends were subjected to chemical inter esterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The effects of chemical inter esterification on the slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and polymorphism were investigated. Palm based trans-free table margarine containing PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31, (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple ternary phase diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profiles as compared with commercial table margarine. This study has shown that blending and chemical inter esterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their blends. (author)

  13. Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 106 ty-1) of palm oil from 38.6 x 106 ty-1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 106 ty-1), shell (2.3 x 106 ty-1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 106 ty-1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

  14. Cellulase Production by Pycnoporus sanguineus on Oil Palm Residues through Pretreatment and Optimization Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.D. Mashitah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever expanding trend of the palm oil industries in Malaysia brings about environmental concern with various parties calling for global practice of sustainable palm oil production. In as much as researches in processing technologies are ongoing, utilization of palm oil industries’ residues as a substrate for cellulases production has received little attention. This study addressed on the effect of pressed pericarp fibers sterilization on cellulase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus grown in shake flask culture using a statistical approach. Optimum condition was obtained in 70% (v/v palm oil mill effluent supplemented with 6 g L-1 sterilized palm pressed fibers at pH 6.77 and 350 rpm with CMCase, FPase and β-glucosidase activities and net changes of biomass and suspended solid at 50.11, 29.01, 5.58 IU mL-1 and 2.49 g L-1, respectively. Under such conditions, the predicted maximum growth and cellulolytic enzyme production were in good agreement with the experimental data with 0.016-0.358% error.

  15. Molecular defense response of oil palm to Ganoderma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C

    2015-06-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed. PMID:25457484

  16. Cellulose nanocrystals isolated from oil palm trunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaming, Junidah; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Leh, Cheu Peng; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Nordin, Noor Afeefah

    2015-08-20

    In this study cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from oil palm trunk (Elaeis guineensis) using acid hydrolysis method. The morphology and size of the nanocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the nanocrystals isolated from raw oil palm trunk (OPT) fibers and hot water treated OPT fibers had an average diameter of 7.67 nm and 7.97 nm and length of 397.03 nm and 361.70 nm, respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy indicated that lignin and hemicellulose contents decreased. It seems that lignin was completely removed from the samples during chemical treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that cellulose nanocrystals after acid hydrolysis had higher thermal stability compared to the raw and hot water treated OPT fibers. The X-ray diffraction analysis increased crystallinity of the samples due to chemical treatment. The crystalline nature of the isolated nanocrystals from raw and hot water treated OPT ranged from 68 to 70%. PMID:25965475

  17. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Hasmiza Harun; Norhisam Misron; Roslina Mohd Sidek; Ishak Aris; Hiroyuki Wakiwaka; Kunihisa Tashiro

    2014-01-01

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 ...

  18. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher; Papargyropoulou, Effie

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental...... scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken by...... the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative...

  19. Oil palm waste for the production of bio-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San H' ng, P.; Ling Chin, K.; Ti Tey, B.; Tahir Paridah, M. (Univ. of Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia). Inst. of Tropical Forestry and Forest Product), Email: ngpaiksan@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Malaysia, as one of the top producers of palm oil in the world, is well positioned to take advantage of its enormous output of lignocellulosic biomass, the oil palm residues. It is a potential source that can be used as a raw material for the production of bio-ethanol by fermentation of glucose obtained from the hydrolysis process. There were two main objectives for this study; to determine the effect of sulfuric acid concentration and reaction period on the glucose yields from hydrolysis of oil palm trunk and to determine the effect of temperature and pH on the ethanol yields from fermentation of oil palm trunk hydrolysates using Saccharomyces cerevisae. Oil palm trunk was prepared in 40 mesh sizes and dried to 5 % moisture content prior to chemical analysis and hydrolysis. The two stage concentrated acid sulfuric hydrolysis process with different acid concentration and time were performed on oil palm trunk samples. The hydrolysates obtained were used in the fermentation process with different temperature and pH. Results showed that highest glucose yields for oil palm trunk could be achieved by using 60 % acid concentration reacted for 60 minutes during 1st stage hydrolysis and subsequently followed by 30 % acid concentration reacted 60 minutes during 2nd stage hydrolysis. While the highest ethanol yields were obtained with the temperature of 30 deg C and pH6 from the fermentation process. (orig.)

  20. The hidden carbon liability of Indonesian palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-05-15

    This report highlights the urgent need for global palm oil consumers and investors to support Unilever's call for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance in Indonesia. This report focuses on Unilever, which shares major institutional investors with other leading corporations including Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft. Not only do these corporations share investors, they also share growing carbon liability within their raw material supply chains through the expansion in the palm oil sector in Indonesia. Unilever has recognised the global problems associated with palm oil expansion and the need for drastic reform to this sector. Unilever has taken a bold move in calling for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance. While Unilever's position is strengthened by its status as the largest palm oil consumer in the world, this report shows how, unless companies like Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft support its call for a halt to deforestation, the palm oil industry will continue to present a massive carbon liability over the coming years. This report uses Unilever's palm oil supply chains as a case study to help quantify the carbon liability and collateral risks associated with the Indonesian palm oil sector. It shows how, by buying palm oil from suppliers who account for more than one-third of Indonesia's palm oil production, Unilever and its competitors are increasing their potential carbon liability and thus leaving investors exposed to potentially significant levels of hidden risk, compromising long-term financial and brand stability.

  1. Industrial utilization of oil palm by-products III. Thermomechanical pulping of oil palm fronds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamishima, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Ryukichi; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Akamatsu, Isao; Kobayashi, Yoshinari; Husin, M.B. Miswan, O.B.; Hassan, H.A.H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Shikoku Kagawa, (Japan))

    1989-02-28

    With a view to utilizing oil palm fronds, TM (Thermomechanical)- and CTM (Chemi-Thermomechanical)- pulpings of alkali pretreated and untreated fronds have been carried out. Pretreatment of raw materials with alkali gave pulps with higher yield and excellent properties. The addition of NaOH and/or NaSO{sup 3} increased the strength properties up to the level of softwood TMPs, but presented a lower brightness than that of frond TMP. TMPs from untreated fronds showed lighter brightness than those from alkali pretreated fronds, but weaker strength than the pretreated fronds. The possibility of using TMPs from oil palm fronds for the production of corrugating medium and liner board, was discussed. Fiber length distribution, chemical properties and carbohydrate compositions verified the higher qualities of CTMPs. 16 refs., 1 fig, 13 tabs.

  2. An experimental investigation on feeding of oil palm shell (OPS) and oil palm fronds (OPF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2013-05-01

    Interest in producing energy to reduce green house gas emissions using biomass as a feedstock is increasing worldwide. In a fluidized bed reactor, the feeding of the feedstock plays an important role in the burning process. In this study, feeding tests were carried out using gravitational method for oil palm shell (OPS) and oil palm fronds (OPF). The design of the feeder of 150 g/h is also presented. The objective of this paper is to study the feed rate of the samples used and to find the relationship between the physical characteristic of the samples (the shape of the samples, particle size and moisture content) and the feed rate. The result shows that the feed rate of OPS and OPF was around 120 g/h and 90 g/h, respectively. After grinding and sieving, OPS appeared to be more granular compared to OPF making it easier to feed. Other characteristics and results are also discussed in this paper.

  3. Liquid fuel from fast pyrolysis of oil palm solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ani, F.N.; Zailani, R. [Technology Univ. of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1995-12-31

    An investigation was conducted on the potential of producing liquid fuel from oil palm solid waste, particularly the palm fruit shell, by fast pyrolysis. For this purpose, a continuous fluidized bed fast pyrolysis system has been constructed. Fast pyrolysis was performed by feeding oil palm solid waste directly into the bubbling hot sand bed at a temperature ranging from 400 to 600 degrees centigrade in an inert atmosphere. The condensed liquid product was analysed for its properties as potential fuel and compared to petroleum fuel. The fuel characteristics compared were the physical properties, heating value, elemental analysis and chemical composition. The influence of some of the process conditions on the relative proportions of the liquid product and its properties and characteristics are presented. The results show the high potential of fast pyrolysis of oil palm solid waste particularly palm shell as an attractive source of a renewable energy in the form of liquid fuel. (author). 2 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs.

  4. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  5. Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel blends

    OpenAIRE

    C.M.A.O. Martins; V.O. Ajibola; V.I.E. Ajiwe

    2003-01-01

    Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace metal composition in relation to corrosion. Also the bond structure/stability of the samples in relation to diesel were monitored with a Fourier transform infrared s...

  6. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  7. Optimising the operational parameters of a spherical steriliser for the treatment of oil palm fresh fruit bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaradevan, D.; Chuah, K. H.; Moey, L. K.; Mohan, V.; Wan, W. T.

    2015-09-01

    The extraction of crude palm oil (CPO) begins with the sterilization of oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) in a pressurized, saturated-steam chamber. Sterilization loosens the palm fruits from the stalks and deactivates the free fatty acid (FFA)-producing enzymes. Operational parameters affecting the quality and yield of CPO from an industrial spherical sterilizer are studied at a palm oil mill. The factors are the ripeness of FFB, the number of days before treatment of FFB, and the number of pressure peaks applied in the sterilization process. The results indicate that the degree of ripeness of FFB is the most important parameter affecting the quality and yield of CPO. Ripeness is graded based on the fruits’ colour and the presence of loose fruits. Over ripe FFB that goes for the sterilization process has higher FFA content in CPO and more oil loss to the condensate chamber. The spontaneous reaction on FFB due to accumulation at the loading ramp also gives rise to higher FFA content. Oil loss to condensate chamber is reduced using a two-peak sterilization technique for over ripe FFB; the peak refers to the pressure level of stream after a flushing and refilling cycle. Overall, the generated solution improves the quality and yield of the palm oil mill.

  8. PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products

    OpenAIRE

    Bessou, Cécile; Chase, Laurence; Henson, Ian; Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.; Milà-I-Canals, Llorenç; Agus, Fahmuddin; Sharma, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) is a non-profit association promoting sustainable palm oil through a voluntary certi-fication scheme. Two successive science-based working groups on greenhouse gas (GHG) have been active in RSPO between 2009-2011, with the aim of identifying ways leading to meaningful and verifiable reduction of GHG emissions. One of the outputs is PalmGHG, a GHG calculator using the LCA approach to quantify the major sources of emission and sequestration for a mi...

  9. 77 FR 4300 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... to the RFS2 final rule preamble (75 FR 14670) or the RFS2 Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA).\\2\\ These... Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Do not... Indonesia and Malaysia 5. Analysis of Palm Oil Mills B. Results of Lifecycle Analysis for Biodiesel...

  10. Comparison of Acoustic Characteristics of Date Palm Fibre and Oil Palm Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyaa Abd ALRahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and compared the acoustic characteristics of two natural organic fibres: date palm fibre and oil palm fibre, these materials eligible for acoustical absorption. During the processing stage, both fibre sheets are treated with latex. The two fibres are compressed after latex treatment Circular samples (100 mm in diameter and 28 mm, based on the measurement tube requirements are cut out of the sheets. The density of the date palm fibre sheet is 150 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 130 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. In contrast, the density of oil palm fibre is 75 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 65 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. An impedance tube was used to test the thicknesses of both samples based on international standards. The results show that the date palm fibre exhibits two Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC peaks: 0.93 at 1356 Hz and 0.99 at 4200-4353 Hz for the 50-mm-thick sample. In contrast, the 30-mm-thick sample has a single AAC peak of 0.83 at 2381.38-2809.38 Hz. However, the 50-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an AAC peak of 0.75 at 1946.88-2178.13 Hz and the 30-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an acoustic absorption coefficient peak 0.59 at 3225-3712.5 Hz. Thus, the date palm fibre has a higher acoustic absorption coefficient for high and low frequencies than does oil palm fibre. Both fibres are promising for use as sound absorber materials to protect against environmental noise pollution.

  11. Physicochemical characterizations of nano-palm oil fuel ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajak, Mohd Azrul Abdul; Majid, Zaiton Abdul; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) is known as a good supplementary cementing material due to its siliceous-rich content. The application of nanotechnology in the pozzolanic materials could invent new functions in the efficiency of physical and chemical properties of materials. Thus, the present study aims to generate nano-sized POFA and characterize the physicochemical properties of nano-palm oil fuel ash (nPOFA). The nPOFA was prepared by mechanically grinding micro POFA using a high intensity ball milling for 6 hours. The physicochemical properties of nPOFA were characterized via X-Ray Fluoresence (XRF), Scanning Emission microscopy- Energy Dispersive X-Ray (SEM-EDX), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The particle size of nPOFA acquired from TEM analysis was in the range of 20 nm to 90 nm, while the average crystallite size calculated from XRD diffractogram was 61.5 nm. The resulting nPOFA has a BET surface area of 145.35 m2/g, which is more than 85% increment in surface area compared to micro-sized POFA. The morphology and elemental studies showed the presence of spherical as well as irregularly shaped and fine nPOFA particles contains with high silicon content. The presence of α-quartz as the major phase of the nPOFA was identified through XRD analysis. The study concludes that nPOFA has the potential as a supplementary cementing material due to the high silica content, high surface area and the unique behaviors of nano-structured particles.

  12. Oil Palm Tree Detection with High Resolution Multi-Spectral Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Srestasathiern; Preesan Rakwatin

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm tree is an important cash crop in Thailand. To maximize the productivity from planting, oil palm plantation managers need to know the number of oil palm trees in the plantation area. In order to obtain this information, an approach for palm tree detection using high resolution satellite images is proposed. This approach makes it possible to count the number of oil palm trees in a plantation. The process begins with the selection of the vegetation index having the highest discriminati...

  13. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Palm Oil with Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the isothermal crystallization kinetics of palm oil with additives by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The induction time of nucleation and crystallization are obtained by simulating the crystal process using the Gompertz model. The equilibrium melting temperature is obtained via the Hoffman-Weeks methods. The Gibbs free energy of nucleation was calculated by using the Fisher-Turnbull equation and the equilibrium melting temperature. The results indicate that the span 85 has an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of palm oil. The span 85 can raise the equilibrium melting temperature of palm oil. The span 85 can obviously delay the induction time of nucleation and crystallization at 0.01 and 0.1% level. Although span 85 at 0.05% concentration level also can delay the induction time, it exhibits an effect of promoting nucleation. However, the crystal is uncomplicated in the system containing additives compared to the pure palm oil.

  14. How Unilever palm oil suppliers are burning up Borneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    New evidence shows expansion by Unilever palm oil suppliers is driving species extinction in Central Kalimantan, and fuelling climate change. In November 2007, Greenpeace released 'Cooking the Climate', an 82-page report summarizing the findings of a two-year investigation that revealed how the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel companies were driving the wholesale destruction of Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands through growing palm oil consumption. This follow-up report provides further evidence of the expansion of the palm oil sector in Indonesia into remaining rainforests, orang-utan habitat and peatlands in Kalimantan. It links the majority of the largest producers in Indonesia to Unilever, probably the largest palm oil corporate consumer in the world.

  15. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwised, A.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 153.2 g/bag. (B.E. = 46.1% From the above results it is suggested that oil palm residues can be used as an alternative substrate for P. ostreatus production.

  16. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan

  17. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan.

  18. Biodiesel Production from Crude Palm Oil by Transesterification Process

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Alkabbashi; Md Z. Alam; M.E.S. Mirghani; A.M.A. Al-Fusaiel

    2009-01-01

    An overflow system for batch esterification of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) to obtain Palm Oil Biodiesel (POB) was developed using a batch reactor (shake flask). The alkali catalyst of potassium hydroxide had been used to carry the transestrication process with methanol; ultimately, 2 layers were form from the reaction-the lower layer of glycerol and the upper layer of methyl esters; the later layer is the targeted biodiesel. Optimization of the process was held for determining of the best possible y...

  19. CELLULOSE PHOSPHATE FROM OIL PALM BIOMASS AS POTENTIAL BIOMATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Mohamad Haafiz Mohamah Kassim; Md. Azman Seeni Mohamded

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates cellulose phosphate from oil palm biomass (OPEFB-CP) as a potential biomaterial. To this effect, oil palm biomass microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) was phosphorylated using the H3PO4/ P2O5/ Et3PO4/ hexanol method. Characterization of OPEFB-CP was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cytotoxicity evaluation of ...

  20. SYNGAS FOR METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM PALM OIL BIOMASS RESIDUES GASIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Bula, Antonio Jose

    2012-01-01

    In Colombia, Biodiesel is produced from palm oil and methanol; this methanol could be obtained from gasification of the raw palm oil residuals. The complete process includes: pre-treatment of the biomass, gasification, the cleaning and conditioning of the gas and finally the synthesis of methanol. In this article, a review of the gasification stage is carried out, a classification of the existent gasification reactors is presented and the characteristics of three types of gasifiers are detail...

  1. How will climate change affect oil palm fungal diseases?

    OpenAIRE

    Paterson, R. R. M.; Sariah, M.; Lima, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Palm oil is a very important commodity. It is added to numerous products and is a biofuel. However, oil palms (OP) are subjected to fungal diseases of which Fusarium wilt and Ganoderma rots are the most important. Considerations of how climate change (CC) affects tropical economic plants are limited and for OP are even fewer. The margin for adapting to higher temperatures and changing humidity is reduced in tropical OP. Land will become increasingly unsuitable for growing OP and t...

  2. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  3. Polygon Sawing: An Optimum Sawing Pattern for Oil Palm Stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Suhaimi Bakar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortage in wood supply makes the effort to find alternative for wood material become more and more important. It was reported that the outer parts of oil palm stems could be used as solid wood after being properly treated. Being a monocotyledon, oil palm stems have a contradictory characteristic to the conventional hardwoods and softwoods and thus the sawing patterns suitable for hardwoods and softwoods should not be suitable for the oil palm stems. Two modified sawing patterns (polygon sawing and cobweb sawing plus one ordinary sawing pattern (life sawing were compared in the sawing of oil palm stems. The purpose of this study was to find the most suitable sawing pattern for oil palm stems. The cobweb sawing provided the highest outer lumber recovery (35% followed by polygon sawing (27% and life sawing (23%. The polygon sawing provided the highest occurrence of wide lumbers, followed by the cobweb sawing and life sawing. The cobweb sawing need more than twice effective sawing time (15.4 min than the life sawing and polygon sawing. In overall, the polygon sawing was the most suitable pattern for the sawing of oil palm stem.

  4. Oil palm for biodiesel in Brazil—risks and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Oskar; Berndes, Göran; Persson, U. Martin; Sparovek, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    Although mainly used for other purposes, and historically mainly established at the expense of tropical forests, oil palm can be the most land efficient feedstock for biodiesel. Large parts of Brazil are suitable for oil palm cultivation and a series of policy initiatives have recently been launched to promote oil palm production. These initiatives are however highly debated both in the parliament and in academia. Here we present results of a high resolution modelling study of opportunities and risks associated with oil palm production for biodiesel in Brazil, under different energy, policy, and infrastructure scenarios. Oil palm was found to be profitable on extensive areas, including areas under native vegetation where establishment would cause large land use change (LUC) emissions. However, some 40-60 Mha could support profitable biodiesel production corresponding to approximately 10% of the global diesel demand, without causing direct LUC emissions or impinging on protected areas. Pricing of LUC emissions could make oil palm production unprofitable on most lands where conversion would impact on native ecosystems and carbon stocks, if the carbon price is at the level 125/tC, or higher.

  5. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ngoot-Chin Ting; Noorhariza Mohd Zaki; Rozana Rosli; Eng-Ti Leslie Low; Maizura Ithnin; Suan-Choo Cheah; Soon-Guan Tan; Rajinder Singh

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification.

  6. Curing reactions of palm oil alkyd enamels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amino resins are the most popularly used cross-linking agents for thermosetting coatings. The most common amino resins are those derived from melamine, 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine and formaldehyde. They are attractive for developing high performance and low cost coatings to improve performances of other film-forming resins with reactive functional groups such as hydroxyl, carboxylic, and amide groups. Alkyds modified with melamine are mainly used in industrial baking enamels for metal surfaces. Short-oil alkyds containing 38-45% phthalic anhydride and a high proportion of hydroxyl values in the alkyd resins render good compatibility with melamine-formaldehyde resins. However, the actual mechanisms and pathways of the curing reactions involved are still not fully understood. This paper describes three palm oil alkyds, synthesized with high hydroxyl values. Clear coating enamels were made by mixing 4 parts; of alkyd resin with 1 part of a methylated melamine resin. The complex curing reactions of the clear enamel can be illustrated qualitatively by using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to set suitable curing temperatures without degradation. The dry hard time with various curing temperatures was examined. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to follow the changes in functional group concentrations as a function of time and temperature. (author)

  7. Ethyl ester production from (RBD palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mauricio Martínez Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a methodology for obtaining ethyl esters from RBD (refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil by evaluating the oil’s transesterification and separation. Two catalysts were first tested (KOH and NaOH by studying the effect of water presence on the reaction. The separation process was then evaluated by using water and water-salt and water-acid mixtures, establishing the agent offering the best results and carrying out the purification stage. Raw materials and products were characterised for comparing the latter with those obtained by traditional means and verifying the quality of the esters so produced; minimum differences were found bet-ween both. The proposed methodology thus allows esters to be used as raw material in petrochemical industry applications. A more profitable process can be obtained compared to those used today, given the amounts of separation agent so established (1% H3PO4 solution, in water. The overall process achieved 74.4% yield, based on the oil being used.

  8. Catalytic processes towards the production of biofuels in a palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Thiam Leng; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-11-01

    In Malaysia, there has been interest in the utilization of palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of environmental friendly biofuels. A biorefinery based on palm oil and oil palm biomass for the production of biofuels has been proposed. The catalytic technology plays major role in the different processing stages in a biorefinery for the production of liquid as well as gaseous biofuels. There are number of challenges to find suitable catalytic technology to be used in a typical biorefinery. These challenges include (1) economic barriers, (2) catalysts that facilitate highly selective conversion of substrate to desired products and (3) the issues related to design, operation and control of catalytic reactor. Therefore, the catalytic technology is one of the critical factors that control the successful operation of biorefinery. There are number of catalytic processes in a biorefinery which convert the renewable feedstocks into the desired biofuels. These include biodiesel production from palm oil, catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels, the production of hydrogen as well as syngas from biomass gasification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) for the conversion of syngas into liquid fuels and upgrading of liquid/gas fuels obtained from liquefaction/pyrolysis of biomass. The selection of catalysts for these processes is essential in determining the product distribution (olefins, paraffins and oxygenated products). The integration of catalytic technology with compatible separation processes is a key challenge for biorefinery operation from the economic point of view. This paper focuses on different types of catalysts and their role in the catalytic processes for the production of biofuels in a typical palm oil and oil palm biomass-based biorefinery. PMID:18434141

  9. Palm oil boom in Indonesia: from plantation to downstream products and biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Indonesia has been the biggest producer of palm oil (PO) in the world since 2005. The total production in 2007 was 17.0 and 1.9 million tons of crude palm oil (CPO) and crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), respectively. More than 70% of the CPO was exported and 87% of the domestic consumption was used for food. The production and subsequent refining and fractionation of CPO and CPKO generated biomass by-products that consists of trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fiber, shell, and palm kernel meal (PKM), and discharged wastes of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as well as palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). The amount of by-products and wastes produced has been growing very rapidly and efforts to diversify and improve their utilization are a great challenge. As claimed in many research reports, the by-products and wastes could be potentially utilized as sources of energy, animal feed, chemicals, paper pulp, advanced materials, medicines and food ingredients. A more important role may be played by PO as the Indonesian Government took further steps in 2006 to become the world's largest producer of biodiesel. As a starting point, Presidential Instruction No. 1/2006 for the Production and Use of Biofuel as Alternative Fuel was issued in January 2006. Responding to this Presidential Instruction, at least 15 companies are planning to establish new larger biodiesel refineries to enhance the currently produced 82.5 million L of biodiesel. It is planned to start production in 2008/2009 with two new refineries that have a total capacity of ca. 1,600 million L/year. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium

    OpenAIRE

    Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens’ feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yea...

  11. Potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon for transesterification of palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon was developed for transesterification of palm oil. The Central Composite Design (CCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst loading and methanol to oil molar ratio on the production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst. The highest yield was obtained at 64.1 C reaction temperature, 30.3 wt.% catalyst loading and 24:1 methanol to oil molar ratio. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel met the standard specifications. This study proves that activated carbon supported potassium hydroxide is an effective catalyst for transesterification of palm oil. (author)

  12. Comparison of Acoustic Characteristics of Date Palm Fibre and Oil Palm Fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Lamyaa Abd ALRahman; Raja Ishak Raja; Roslan Abdul Rahman; Zawawi Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated and compared the acoustic characteristics of two natural organic fibres: date palm fibre and oil palm fibre, these materials eligible for acoustical absorption. During the processing stage, both fibre sheets are treated with latex. The two fibres are compressed after latex treatment Circular samples (100 mm in diameter and 28 mm, based on the measurement tube requirements) are cut out of the sheets. The density of the date palm fibre sheet is 150 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thic...

  13. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pioch Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significantly from sample to sample. A methodology set up at Cirad allowed to investigate separately natural triacylglycerols alone and the effect of minor components. In addition to these laboratory experiments, engine test at bench and field trials performed in palm oil producing countries, show that this oil is among the best oils as fuel; palm kernel oil whose chemical and physical properties are very close to those of the best of the series investigated, namely copra oil, should display also very interesting properties as Diesel biofuel. Both oils do require external adaptation of the engine when using an indirect injection type engine but even heavier adaptations for a direct injection model. Thus for use as Diesel fuel palm and palm kernel oils are suitable for captive fleets or for engine gensets, to balance the adaptation cost by a scale-up effect either on the number of identical engines or on the nominal vegetable oil consumption per set. Direct use of palm et palm kernel oils fits very well with technical and economical conditions encountered in remote areas. It is also possible to mix palm oil to Diesel fuel either as simple blend or as micro-emulsion. Out of the direct use, palm oil methyl or ethyl ester, often referred to as biodiesel, displays properties similar to those of petroleum Diesel fuel. This technical solution which is suitable to feed all kinds of standard compression ignited engines requires a chemical plant for carrying out the alcoholysis reaction and processing of the crude glycerin by-product. Economical outputs depend also on market price of this last commodity. The last technique opening a way for using palm oil as fuel involves catalytic cracking, then allowing to feed any kind of engine –either spark or compression ignited- although a few results are available only from laboratory or small pilot scale experiments. If the economic viability would be favored by scale-up effect for large national or international markets assuming palm oil producing cost would become and remain competitive is spite of lack of harvest mechanization, and oils would remain available for large non food markets, as this is presently the case, there is a lack of technical and economical data. This is especially the case regarding the minimum size required for applying these more sophisticated chemical transformations –alcoholysis and cracking- for supplying energy under most critical conditions found in remote areas where millions of people are facing difficult access to both electric power and transportation fuels. Today large scale production and marketing of palm oil methyl or ethyl ester is under development in oil palm cropping countries like Malaysia, Thailand or Brazil. The follow-up depends on many parameters on environment, social and economic sides.

  14. Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO? refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO?) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO?) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries. PMID:22328076

  15. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  16. Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Nik, W.B. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Kolej Universiti Sains dan Teknologi Malaysia, Mengabang Telipot, 21030 Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia)]. E-mail: niksani@kustem.edu.my; Ani, F.N. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2005-08-15

    The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid.

  17. Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid

  18. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil using thermal neutron moderation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditional methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron detector was used in the investigation. The equipment was originally designed for detection of liquid levels in petrochemical and other process industries. Standards in the form of liquid hydrocarbons were used to obtain calibration lines for thermal neutron reflection parameter as a function of hydrogen content. Measured reflection parameters with respective hydrogen content with or without heat treatment of the three edible palm oils available on the market were compared with a brand cooking oil (frytol). The average total hydrogen content in the local oil samples prior to heating was measured to be 11.62 w% which compared well with acceptable value of 12 w% for palm oils in the sub-region. After heat treatment, the frytol oil (produced through bleaching process) had the least loss of hydrogen content of 0.26% in comparison with palm kernel oil of 0.44% followed by dzomi of 1.96% and by amidze of 3.22%. (author)

  19. Avian species diversity in oil palm plantations of Agusan Del Sur and Compostela Valley, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Beverly M. Cagod; Olga M. Nuñeza

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm trees have become the most expanding equatorial crops in the world and theirproduct, palm oil, is produced, traded and used more than any other vegetable oil worldwide. Theexpansion of oil palm cultivation, however, is frequently cited as a major factor causing deforestationthat may result in biodiversity losses in tropical countries. In this study, an assessment of the avifaunain oil palm plantations in Agusan del Sur and Compostela Valley, Mindanao, Philippines was done fromApril 2...

  20. Spatial undergrowth species composition in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Germer, Jörn Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The area planted to oil palm expanded during the last decades substantially, making it become the world's second most important oil crop. Despite its economic significance the oil palm remains remarkably unknown. Little attention is paid also to the oil palm undergrowth, though important in stabilizing the agro-ecosystem in plantations. Comprehensive knowledge of undergrowth species adapted to specific ecological niches in oil palm plantations is essential to investigate their function in ...

  1. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment will ...

  2. Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhisam Misron

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced.

  3. Improvement in sensitivity of an inductive oil palm fruit sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-01-01

    Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced. PMID:24496313

  4. Sustainability of smallholder palm oil production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Bertule, Maija; Degn, Lasse Twiggs

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil is a widely used commodity and is part of a number of daily products. It is the most used vegetable oil, not just for food consumption, but also for soap and cosmetics. Recently the search for co2 neutral fuels have spurred demand for palm oil to be used in diesel cars. The large demand have led to a dramatic increase in production in Malaysia and Indonesia, and those two producers make up over total production. This dramatic increase in plantations have led to severe environmental p...

  5. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments...... on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas...... energy extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the...

  6. Neutron Backscattered Technique for Quantification of Oil Palm Fruit Oil Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive and real time method becomes a well-liked method to researchers in the oil palm industry since 2000. This method has the ability to detect oil content in order to increase the production of oil palm for better profit. Hence, this research investigates the potential of neutron source to estimate oil content in palm oil fruit since oil palm contains hydrogen with chemical formula C55H96O6. For this paper, oil palm loose fruit was being used and divided into three groups. These three groups are ripe, under-ripe and bruised fruit. A total of 21 loose fruit for each group were collected from a private plantation in Malaysia. Each sample was scanned using neutron backscattered technique. The higher neutron count, the more hydrogen content, and the more oil content in palm oil fruit. The best correlation result came from the ripe fruits with r2=0.98. This research proves that neutron backscattered technique can be used as a non-destructive and real time grading system for palm oil. (author)

  7. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm ?, 18 000 rpm, with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  8. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm ?, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  9. Oil palm adoption, household welfare and nutrition among smallholder farmers in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Euler, Michael; Krishna, Vijesh; Schwarze, Stefan; Siregar, Hermanto; Qaim, Matin

    2015-01-01

    The recent expansion of oil palm in Indonesia is largely smallholder-driven. However, its socio-economic implications are under-examined. Analyzing farm-household data from Jambi Province, Sumatra, oil palm adoption is found to have positive consumption and nutrition effects. However, these effects are largely due to farm size expansion that is associated with oil palm adoption. Potential heterogeneity of effects among oil palm adopters is examined using quantile regressions. While nutrition ...

  10. The Role of Markets, Technology, and Policy in Generating Palm-Oil Demand in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskell, Joanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia produces more palm oil and consumes more palm oil per capita than any country in the world. This article examines the processes through which Indonesia has promoted palm-oil consumption and some of the consequences of that promotion. Partial equilibrium modelling shows that Indonesia's remarkable increase in palm-oil consumption since 1985 is not largely attributable to population and income growth. Instead, much of this consumption growth has resulted from substitution away from co...

  11. Palm oil - towards a sustainable future? : Challanges and opportunites for the Swedish food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The food industry faces problems relating to the sustainability of palm oil as a food commodity. These problem areas include social, environmental, economic and health issues. The food industry also competes with increasing palm oil demands from the energy sector. This case study identifies and analyzes different perspectives regarding sustainable palm oil as a food commodity in Sweden through interviews with palm oil experts in different businesses and organizations. This study focuses on ho...

  12. Way to Measure the Concept Precarious Working Conditions in Oil Palm Plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Dileep Kumar M.; Noor Azizi Ismail; Normala S Govindarajo

    2014-01-01

    Oil palm plantations are the backbone of the Malaysian economy, since day immemorial. When you look intothe past, the workers in the oil palm plantations were dominated by Indian and Chinese communities. Later dueto the sigma associate with oil palm plantations jobs viz., dirty, dangerous and distance, the Indians and Chineseworkers moved away from the oil palm work and they were replaced by Indonesians and Philippines. Theseforeign workers whom having the legal and illegal status under enfor...

  13. Determinants of Indonesian Palm Oil Export: Price and Income Elasticity Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Ambiyah Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    For Indonesian economy, palm oil is considered as one of important commodities. It provides a large amount of export revenue and job opportunities. From year 2000 to 2009, palm oil production in Indonesia has increased every year. In , 2008 about 70% of its production was exported. Recently, Indonesia has become the largest palm oil exporter and has 48% of the worlds market share. The aim of present study was to estimate the determinants of both crude palm oil exports (HS = 151110) and refine...

  14. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid profile and nutrition in palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Koushki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion in world production of palm oil over the last three decades has attracted the attention of the oils and fats industry. Oil palm gives the highest yield of oil per unit of any crop. Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. Throughout the world, 90% of palm oil is used for edible purposes (e.g., margarine, deep fat frying, shortening, ice creams, and cocoa butter substitutes in chocolate; the remaining 10% is used for soap and oleo chemical manufacturing (fatty acids, methyl esters, fatty nitrogenous derivatives, surfactants and detergents. Two distinct oils are produced by oil palms (palm kernel oil and palm oil, both of which are important in world trade. Palm oil contains 50% saturated fatty acids. The saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid ratio of palm oil is close to unity and it contains a high amount of the antioxidants, β-carotene, and vitamin E. Palm oil contains a high proportion of palmitic acid as well as considerable quantities of oleic and linoleic acids. The physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and nutrition in palm oils are reviewed.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  16. Sulfonation of phenols extracted from the pyrolysis oil of oil palm shells for enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Mariyamni; Seng, Goh Meng

    2008-01-01

    The cost of chemicals prohibits many technically feasible enhanced oil recovery methods to be applied in oil fields. It is shown that by-products from oil palm processing can be a source of valuable chemicals. Analysis of the pyrolysis oil from oil palm shells, a by-product of the palm oil industry, reveals a complex mixture of mainly phenolic compounds, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The phenolic compounds were extracted from the pyrolysis oil by liquid-liquid extraction using alkali and an organic solvent and analyzed, indicating the presence of over 93% phenols and phenolic compounds. Simultaneous sulfonation and alkylation of the pyrolysis oil was carried out to produce surfactants for application in oil fields. The lowest measured surface tension and critical micelle concentration was 30.2 mNm(-1) and 0.22 wt%, respectively. Displacement tests showed that 7-14% of the original oil in place was recovered by using a combination of surfactants and xanthan (polymer) as additives. PMID:18605208

  17. Characterization of adsorbent prepared from oil-palm shell by CO{sub 2} activation for removal of gaseous pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jia; Lua, Aik Chong [School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore)

    2002-08-01

    Characterization of activated carbon prepared from oil-palm shell, an abundant agricultural solid waste from palm-oil processing mills in some tropical countries, by carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) activation was carried out in this paper. The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbon were studied. It was found that significant weight losses occurred during the activation process due to continual release of volatile matter and carbon burn-off through weak carbon-CO{sub 2} oxidation, resulting in an increase of solid density and a decrease of apparent density. Hence, the activated carbons prepared from oil-palm shells possessed well-developed porosities and predominant microporosities, which were verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), respectively. The development of microporosity for the oil-palm-shell activated carbon would lead to potential applications in gas-phase adsorption for the removal of air pollutants. Adsorption test results showed a linear relationship between the BET surface area and the adsorptive capacity for both nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gases. This could be elucidated by the neutral surface functional groups of the oil-palm-shell activated carbon, as detected by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

  18. Energy balance of oil palm growing. An approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.

    1981-06-01

    Because the average calorific value of palm and palm kernel oils is close to that of diesel oil, the industrial plantations can produce a significant energy equivalent of about 4.7 TPE/ha. In relation to this potential an attempt has been made by an appraisal of its biomass and of the energy spent to produce it to estimate the degree of efficiency of this crop and to determine the influence of the main parameters on its energy management. A priori, with a degree of efficiency of 3.7, the balance is satisfactory. Many elements, not well known at present, remain to be studied if the oil palm's energy potential is to be better known and used. (Refs. 20).

  19. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

  20. Torrefaction of Pelletized Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan; Johari, Anwar; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Oladokun, Olagoke

    2015-01-01

    The torrefaction of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) briquettes was examined in this study. The results indicate that temperature significantly influenced the mass yield, energy yield and heating value of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) briquettes during torrefaction. The solid uniform compact nature of EFB briquettes ensured a slow rate of pyrolysis or devolatization which enhanced torrefaction. The mass yield decreased from 79.70 % to 43.03 %, energy yield from 89.44 % to 64.27 % during torrefaction from 250 {\\deg}C to 300 {\\deg}C. The heating value (HHV) of OPEFB briquettes improved significantly from 17.57 MJ/kg to 26.24 MJ/kg after torrefaction at 300 {\\deg}C for 1 hour. Fundamentally, the study has highlighted the effects of pelletization and torrefaction on solid fuel properties of oil palm EFB briquettes and its potential as a solid fuel for future thermal applications.

  1. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  2. Shear strength of palm oil clinker concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Palm oil clinker can be used as lightweight aggregate for the production of structural concrete. ► The palm oil clinker concrete can be classified as lightweight concrete. ► Full scale reinforced palm oil clinker concrete beams without shear reinforcement were tested. ► The CSA based design equation can be used for the prediction of shear capacity with a limit. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental results on the shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams made of palm oil clinker concrete (POCC). Palm oil clinker (POC) is a by-product of palm oil industry and its utilization in concrete production not only solves the problem of disposing this solid waste but also helps to conserve natural resources. Seven reinforced POCC beams without shear reinforcement were fabricated and their shear behavior was tested. POCC has been classified as a lightweight structural concrete with air dry density less than 1850 kg/m3 and a 28-day compressive strength more than 20 MPa. The experimental variables which have been considered in this study were the POCC compressive strength, shear span–depth ratio (a/d) and the ratio of tensile reinforcement (ρ). The results show that the failure mode of the reinforced POCC beam is similar to that of conventional reinforced concrete beam. In addition, the shear equation of the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) can be used in designing reinforced POCC beam with ρ ⩾ 1. However, a 0.5 safety factor should be included in the formula for ρ < 1

  3. DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Ng Mei Han; Choo Yuen May

    2012-01-01

    The oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) undergoes sterilization before being threshed to separate the fruits from the bunch. Upon threshing, the fruits were pressed for its oil while the now Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) will be discarded or used as biomass. It is believed that the EFB contains small amount of oil as well as phytonutrients which contain antioxidative property. This study reports on the extraction and analyses of various types of phenolic compounds, which have been known to exhibit a...

  4. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species. PMID:25897618

  5. PROPERTIES OF BINDERLESS PARTICLEBOARD PANELS MANUFACTURED FROM OIL PALM BIOMASS

    OpenAIRE

    Rokiah Hashim,; Wan Noor Aidawati Wan Nadhari,; Othman Sulaiman; Masatoshi Sato,; Salim Hiziroglu,; Fumio Kawamura,; Tomoko Sugimoto,; Tay Guan Seng; ,Ryohei Tanaka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboard panels manufactured from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) biomass without using any adhesives. Different parts of oil palm, including the core and mid sections of trunks, fronds, bark, and leaves, were used to make the panels with an average target density of 0.80g/cm3. Based on the test results, it seems that panels made from bark and leaves did not have satisfactory strength and dimens...

  6. SYNGAS FOR METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM PALM OIL BIOMASS RESIDUES GASIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Jose Bula

    2012-01-01

    In Colombia, Biodiesel is produced from palm oil and methanol; this methanol could be obtained from gasification of the raw palm oil residuals. The complete process includes: pre-treatment of the biomass, gasification, the cleaning and conditioning of the gas and finally the synthesis of methanol. In this article, a review of the gasification stage is carried...

  7. Palm oil transesterified by metanolysis as diesel engine biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews a general background of biodiesel and its potentialities and possibilities as automotive fuel. The paper also compares the colombian production capacity in the world context, and shows its advantages and disadvantages as diesel engine biofuel. The paper discusses some relevant processing techniques of crude palm oil, the methanol transesterification technique being found to be the most suitable one. Finally it shows the results of some important physicochemical characterization of a crude palm oil transesterificated with methanol at the Universidad de Antioquia

  8. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-01-01

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ?880,000 ha) of...

  9. Palm oil industry in Ecuador. Good business for small farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley P. Potter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have been criticized for causing deforestation and worsening work conditions. However, government sectors see the oil palm companies as a source of employment and development for poor regions. This fieldwork shows that there is a difference in perception among small farmers. Farmers from Quinindé-La Concordia were satisfied with the income they earn and the rising prices of land planted with palm. Farmers in San Lorenzo, in contrast, are not happy since the survey shows that a disease devastated trees and as a result, land prices have fallen in San Lorenzo.

  10. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  11. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... types of biofuel shows that biodiesel and renewable diesel produced from palm oil have estimated... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil...

  12. Preliminary studies of epoxidized palm oil as sizing chemical for carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epoxidized palm oil is derived from palm oil through chemical reaction with peracetic acid. Preliminary studies to coat carbon fibers have shown promising result towards applying natural product in carbon fibre composites. Mechanical studies of sized carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil showed significant increase in tensile and interfacial shear strength. Surface morphology of sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil reveals clear increase in root means square-roughness (RMS). This indicates the change of the surface topography due to sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil. (author)

  13. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used in design of crude palm oil settlers and in determining the optimum operating conditions.Key Words:  Crude palm oil, apparent viscosity, shear rate, modelling, separation 

  14. Investigation on the Use of Palm Olein as Lubrication Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. RATCHEL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work is on the possibility of producing lubricating oil from vegetable oil with palm olein as a case study. The sample analysed was obtained from Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State. Some of the physical and chemical properties such as viscosity, flash/fire point, pour point and specific gravity were analysed. This sample was bleached to remove the red colour (carotene and gummy materials. The bleached sample was tested to determine the above mentioned properties. Comparison of the crude palm olein and the bleached sample with the conventional lubricants obtained from Elf Plc, Kaduna and Unipetrol Plc, Kaduna was made. Finally, it was discovered that the crude palm olein and the bleached sample exhibit a good base as a lubricant.

  15. The oil palm Shell gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rajinder; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Chin, Ting Ngoot; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Rosli, Rozana; Abdul Manaf, Mohamad Arif; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W

    2013-01-01

    A key event in the domestication and breeding of the oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, was loss of the thick coconut-like shell surrounding the kernel. Modern E. guineensis has three fruit forms, dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), a hybrid between dura and pisifera1–4. The pisifera palm is usually female-sterile but the tenera yields far more oil than dura, and is the basis for commercial palm oil production in all of Southeast Asia5. Here, we describe the mappi...

  16. Magnetic composite prepared from palm shell-based carbon and application for recovery of residual oil from POME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngarmkam, Worawan; Sirisathitkul, Chitnarong; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic separation combined with adsorption by activated carbon has been found to be a useful method for removing pollutants. In this paper, the use of palm shell as a source of activated carbon for the removal and recovery of oil from palm oil mill effluent (POME) is studied. In the first part of the study, the properties of samples of activated carbon prepared from palm shell under a variety of different conditions were characterized for their hydrophobicity, surface areas and pore size distribution. The most effective of the activated carbon samples was prepared by impregnation with ZnCl(2) followed by combined physical/chemical activation under carbon dioxide flow at 800 °C. Four grams of these samples adsorbed 90% of the oil from 50 mL POME. In the second part, the palm shell-based carbon samples were given magnetic properties by the technique of iron oxide deposition. Ninety-four percent of the activated carbon/iron oxide composite containing the adsorbed oil could be extracted from the POME by a magnetic bar of 0.15 T. Four grams of the composite can remove 85% of oil from 50 mL POME and a total of 67% of the initial oil can then be recovered by hexane extraction. Powder X-ray diffractometry showed the presence of magnetite and maghemite in the activated carbon/iron oxide composite. PMID:20932635

  17. Physico-chemical properties, fatty acid profile and nutrition in palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Koushki; Masoomeh Nahidi; Fatemeh Cheraghali

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion in world production of palm oil over the last three decades has attracted the attention of the oils and fats industry. Oil palm gives the highest yield of oil per unit of any crop. Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. Throughout the world, 90% of palm oil is used for edible purposes (e.g., margarine, deep fat frying, shortening, ice creams, and cocoa butter substitutes in chocolate); the remaining 10% is used for ...

  18. The gene MT3-B can differentiate palm oil from other oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Gang; Wu, Yuhua; Cao, Yinglong; Xiao, Ling; Lu, Changming

    2009-08-26

    The practice of blending cheap palm oil with more expensive oils is currently rampant owing to the increased global price of oil and the price gap between types of oils. This adulteration poses a serious threat to the trade of edible oil and negatively affects consumers. The aim of this study was to identify the presence of palm oil as an additive in more expensive oils using a PCR-based technique. A taxon-specific gene, MT3-B, was found by searching the GenBank database. MT3-B showed high oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) specificity, low intraspecies variability, and a low copy number. On the basis of the MT3-B sequence, conventional and real-time PCR assays were established to detect palm oil contamination by amplifying an amplicon of 109 bp. The lowest copy number that the conventional PCR method could detect was five haploid copies; the limit of detection (LOD) for the real-time PCR assay was estimated to be five haploid copies. Experimental results demonstrated that the PCR-based methods were specific, sensitive, and reliable and could successfully detect the palm oil component of mixed oil samples. PMID:19627088

  19. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

  20. Bio ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The oil palm industry has an abundance of oil palm biomass. The type of biomass generated includes empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm trunk (OPT), kernel, shell and fronds. Generally, ligno celluloses biomass derived from oil palm has great potential to be converted into various forms of renewable energy. In this study, EFB in pulverized form was used as a feedstock for bio ethanol production. EFB contains lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose which can be converted into fermentable sugar and bio ethanol. The EFB was initially pre-treated with 1% NaOH followed by acid hydrolysis with 0.7% sulfuric acid and enzyme prior to fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisea. The various process parameters for bio ethanol production was optimized i.e. pH, temperature, rate of agitation and initial feedstock concentration. The fermentation of EFB hydrolysate was at pH 4, 30 degree Celsius and 100 rpm within 72 hours of incubation yielded 10.48 g/L of bio ethanol from 50 g/L of EFB. The bio ethanol production in a 6-L bioreactor showed 36% conversion of fermentable sugar from EFB into bio ethanol. (author)

  1. Economic optimisation potentials of the energetic utilisation of palm oil; Oekologische Optimierungspotenziale der energetischen Nutzung von Palmoel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, G.A.; Rettenmaier, N.; Muench, J. [Ifeu - Inst. fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Aim and background: The use of palm oil for bioenergy has become increasingly important for Europe in the last years because of its favourable proportion of yield to area under cultivation. Thus, palm oil presents a low-priced alternative to other energy sources, e.g. rapeseed oil. Currently, however, palm oil gets a bad press due to new studies about the negative environmental consequences of cultivation practices. Due to the high demand for palm oil, land is becoming scarce. This results in the clearing of primary forests and consequently in the loss of biodiversity and in an increase of greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce the latter, not only the process of oil palm cultivation has to be optimised but also the practice of establishing new plantations by clearing natural forests has to be questioned. The aim of this article is to disclose potentials for greenhouse gas reductions in existing as well as in newly-planned oil palm plantations. Results and discussion: For existing oil palm plantations, two main fields for possible optimisation can be identified: one is improving the plantation management, the other is increasing the efficiency of the utilisation of waste products such as fibres and husks or oil mill effluents. For newly-planned oil palm plantations alternative land use scenarios have to be considered. The results show a big potential for optimisation. Thus, the greenhouse gas balance improves slightly if plantations are run more efficiently. If the waste products are used to generate energy, there are significantly positive effects on the greenhouse gas balance, especially through the reduction of methane emissions. By running a plantation in a professional best-practice way, 4.8 t of greenhouse gases can be saved annually per hectare cultivation area, expressed as CO{sub 2} equivalents. If newly-planned oil palm plantations are established on fallow land, greenhouse gas emissions can be further reduced by an additional 4.8 t of CO{sub 2} equivalents per hectare and year. From an economic perspective, this may be more costly than clearing primary forest but it is advantageous for both the greenhouse gas balance and the biodiversity of the concerned areas. All in all, exploiting the whole potential for optimisation could result in the saving of 10.2 t CO{sub 2} equivalents per hectare and year more than it is the case in the existing mode of cultivation. Conclusions and perspectives: Due to the high demand of palm oil by the world market, cultivation areas for oil palms are becoming increasingly scarce. Thus, it is vital to exploit the fuel potential of oil palm cultivation in an environmentally and economically sustainable way. The management of plantations has to be optimised and a generally valid waste management system must be implemented in existing and future plantations. New plantations should preferably be established on fallow land, not by the clearing of primary forests. It is essential for a sustainable palm oil production to tap the full potential for optimisation. This, however, is currently not happening due to the high start-up investments. It is thus recommended to introduce an internationally valid certification system which may provide an incentive for more sustainable and effective production methods. (orig.)

  2. Use of calcium oxide in palm oil methyl ester production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an untreated calcium oxide (CaO as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil by transesterification was studied in this work. The four studied parameters were methanol to oil molar ratio, CaO catalyst concentration, reaction time, and water content. The results for palm oil show that when the water content is higher than 3%wt and the amount of CaO greater than 7%wt soap formation from saponification occurs. A higher methanol to oil molar ratio requires a higher amount of CaO catalyst to provide the higher product purity. The appropriate methanol to CaO catalyst ratio is about 1.56. Commercial grade CaO gives almost the same results as AR grade CaO. In addition, reusing commercial grade CaO for about 5 to 10 repetitions without catalyst regeneration drops the percentage of methyl ester purity approximately 5 to 10%, respectively.

  3. Biodiesel production from palm oil via heterogeneous transesterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansedo, Jibrail; Lee, Keat Teong; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents the study of the transesterification of palm oil via heterogeneous process using montmorillonite KSF as heterogeneous catalyst. This study was carried out using a design of experiment (DOE), specifically response surface methodology (RSM) based on four-variable central composite design (CCD) with {alpha} (alpha) = 2. The transesterification process variables were reaction temperature, x{sub 1} (50-190 C), reaction period, x{sub 2} (60-300 min), methanol/oil ratio, x{sub 3} (4-12 mol mol{sup -1}) and amount of catalyst, x{sub 4} (1-5 wt%). It was found that the yield of palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) could reach up to 79.6% using the following reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 190 C, reaction period at 180 min, ratio of methanol/oil at 8:1 mol mol{sup -1} and amount of catalyst at 3%. (author)

  4. Design and Development of Laboratory Scale Updraft Gasifier for Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzy E. Konda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of wasted Oil Palm Fronds (OPF produced annually provides a very good opportunity for the oil palm industry in Malaysia to use it for power generation, especially in mill boilers. Recently, gasification technology is receiving more attention as it can be used to convert wasted biomass into gaseous fuel for power generation and thermal applications as well as it can be used as a fuel source for the production of other chemicals. This study addresses the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of an updraft fixed-bed-gasifier. A 50 kW updraft gasifier is designed and fabricated for gasification of Malaysian oil palm fronds. The gasifier is designed using the empirical data from literature and derived quantities. The gasifier was modified to be very flexible allowing the gasification air to be fed through several locations. The air gasification results of OPF showed volumetric percentage of 22.61-23.36% of CO, 6.48-6.68% of H2, 1.2-1.5% of CH4, 9.51-9.65% of CO2 and 59.20-58.1% of N2. The heating value of the product gas mixture varied between 4.1-4.4 MJ Nm-3 while the cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency and specific gasification rate of the gasifier was in the range of 57-59 and 95-97% and 103-109 kg m-2 h-1, respectively. The study has demonstrated that the oil palm frond waste is suitable for the designed and fabricated updraft gasifier and the produced gas from the gasification of OPF was successfully used in a domestic cooking stove.

  5. Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croxford Adam E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H and doubled haploid (DH palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.

  6. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m?2 h?1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y?1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m?2 h?1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been accounted for in models and could become more important in the future due to expansion of the areas of oil palm plantation.

  7. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a combination of a modified G06 algorithm for emission and a canopy resistance approach for deposition. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been accounted for in models and could become more important in the future due to expansion of the areas of oil palm plantation.

  8. Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The advantages that oil palm biomass has includes the following:available and exists in abundance, appears to be effective technically, and can be integrated into existing processes. Despite these advantages, oil palm biomasses have disadvantages such as low adsorption capacity, increased COD, BOD and TOC. These disadvantages can be overcome by modifying the biomass either chemically or thermally. Such modification creates a charged surface and increases the heavy metal ion binding capacity of the adsorbent. PMID:24984835

  9. Mutation induction in oil palm cultures using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutations have played an important role in the improvement of wide range of food crops, ornamental plants and oil crops such as sesame and sunflower. Based on these successes an attempt was made to employ the mutagenesis techniques to broaden the genetic variation in breeding materials of oil palm. Traits of interest are high yield, dwarfness and disease resistance. Embryogenic callus initiated from several high yielding clones were exposed to gamma irradiation for optimum dose determination. (Author)

  10. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Pioch Daniel; Vaitilingom Gilles

    2005-01-01

    Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significant...

  11. Investigation on the Use of Palm Olein as Lubrication Oil

    OpenAIRE

    U. RATCHEL; Nasir, A; M.S. Abolarin; Hassan, A B

    2006-01-01

    The research work is on the possibility of producing lubricating oil from vegetable oil with palm olein as a case study. The sample analysed was obtained from Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State. Some of the physical and chemical properties such as viscosity, flash/fire point, pour point and specific gravity were analysed. This sample was bleached to remove the red colour (carotene) and gummy materials. The bleached sample was tested to determine the above mentioned properties. Com...

  12. Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.A.O. Martins

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace metal composition in relation to corrosion. Also the bond structure/stability of the samples in relation to diesel were monitored with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Results confirmed that most methylester blends with diesel fell within the grade 2D while the oil, methylester and 90:10 blend fell into 4D grade diesel fuels. From bond structure/stability comparison, all the samples were stable at 28 oC and had similarity in structure with diesel. All samples are commercializable. The trace metal composition of most samples was below that of the diesel with exception of Mn, Pb and Zn. The total acid numbers of all samples were below that of diesel and would not cause corrosion. It is recommended that processing of these samples should be done to conserve fossil fuel and as alternative diesel fuels in diesel engines.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL JUSTIFICATION OF IDENTITY FEATURE CHOICE OF PALM OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. V. Kadolich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The method of thermally activated current spectroscopy was used for identification of two popular types of palm oils. The spectrum of thermally stimulated currents represents sufficiently intensive (up to 10-11 А current peaks conditioned by differences in fatty-acid composition of oils. Introduction of representation on unstable associates, in which coordination bonds connect molecules of fat acid’s glycerides, allow interpret the experimental data about the current response at oil specimens heating. The current’s peaks location in a certain temperature range of TSC spectrum can be considered as an identify feature of investigated vegetable oils. 

  14. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-03-22

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ?880,000 ha) of tropical peatlands in the region had been converted to oil-palm plantations by the early 2000s. Conversion of peatswamp forests to oil palm led to biodiversity declines of 1% in Borneo (equivalent to four species of forest-dwelling birds), 3.4% in Sumatra (16 species), and 12.1% in Peninsular Malaysia (46 species). This land-use change also contributed to the loss of ?140 million Mg of aboveground biomass carbon, and annual emissions of ?4.6 million Mg of belowground carbon from peat oxidation. Additionally, the loss of peatswamp forests implies the loss of carbon sequestration service through peat accumulation, which amounts to ?660,000 Mg of carbon annually. By 2010, 2.3 million ha of peatswamp forests were clear-felled, and currently occur as degraded lands. Reforestation of these clearings could enhance biodiversity by up to ?20%, whereas oil-palm establishment would exacerbate species losses by up to ?12%. To safeguard the region's biodiversity and carbon stocks, conservation and reforestation efforts should target Central Kalimantan, Riau, and West Kalimantan, which retain three-quarters (3.9 million ha) of the remaining peatswamp forests in Southeast Asia. PMID:21383161

  15. Thermal characterization of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal behavior of biomass in torrefaction plays an important role in the operation of pretreatment. To understand the endothermic and/or exothermic characteristics of biomass in the course of torrefaction, an experimental system is conducted and two kinds of biomass (oil palm fiber and eucalyptus) are investigated. The results indicate that the thermal behavior is significantly influenced by the lignocellulosic composition in biomass and the torrefaction temperature. The thermal decomposition of hemicellulose is the dominant mechanism for oil palm fiber torrefied at 200 and 250 °C, whereas the thermal degradation of cellulose is crucial when the biomass is torrefied at 300 °C. Therefore, the heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. The torrefaction of eucalyptus is always endothermic, as a consequence of high cellulose contained in the biomass. It is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases, presumably due to the char formation from cellulose thermal degradation and the exothermic lignin decomposition. As a whole, the values of the heat of reaction of the two samples are between −3.50 and 2.23 MJ/kg. The obtained results have provided a useful insight into the control of torrefaction operation and the design of torrefaction reactor. - Highlights: • Thermal behavior of oil palm fiber and eucalyptus in torrefaction is studied. • Thermal characteristic of biomass in torrefaction depends on lignocellulosic composition. • Heat of reaction of oil palm fiber increases with increasing torrefaction temperature. • Eucalyptus torrefaction is always endothermic because of high cellulose contained. • Torrefaction of eucalyptus is less endothermic when the torrefaction temperature increases

  16. Palm oil and soybean oil as fry fats: sensory acceptability of a deep-fat fried Nigerian snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edionwe, A O; Kies, C

    1993-09-01

    The objective of the project was to compare the acceptability of a African snack product, chin-chin, when fried in soybean, palm, palm olein and palm stearin oils. Forty complete responses were obtained from volunteer judges who were attending an agricultural exposition sponsored by the University of Nebraska. After tasting all products, the judges gave slightly better rating scores to the palm stearin fried chin-chin than to the soybean oil fried products (p palm olein and palm oil fried products being given intermediate scores. The forced ranking evaluation gave directionally similar results but, because of smaller variation among scores, these differences were significantly different at the p oil (soybean oil) may be worth the slight decline in taste/odor acceptability in comparison to a more highly saturated fry fat (palm olein oil). PMID:8378268

  17. Effect of steam pretreatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch for the production of sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignocellulose into fuel ethanol is the most feasible conversion route strategy in terms of sustainability. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) generated from palm oil production is a huge source of cellulosic material and represents a cheap renewable feedstock which awaits further commercial exploitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using steam at 0.28 MPa and 140 °C generated from the palm oil mill boiler as a pretreatment to enhance the digestibility of EFB for sugars production. The effects of steam pretreatment or autohydrolysis on chemical composition changes, polysaccharide conversion, sugar production and morphology alterations of four different types of EFB namely fresh EFB (EFB1), sterilized EFB (EFB2), shredded EFB (EFB3) and ground EFB (EFB4) were evaluated. In this study, the effects of steam pretreatment showed major alterations in the morphology of EFB as observed under the scanning electron microscope. Steam pretreated EFB2 was found to have the highest total conversion of 30% to sugars with 209 g kg−1 EFB. This production was 10.5 fold higher than for EFB1 and 1.6 fold and 1.7 fold higher than EFB3 and EFB4, respectively. The results suggested that pretreatment of EFB by autohydrolysis using steam from the mill boiler could be considered as being a suitable pretreatment process for the production of sugars. These sugars can be utilized as potential substrates for the production of various products such as fuel ethanol. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the feasibility of steam pretreatment to enhance digestibility of EFB. ► Steam pretreatment increased sugars to 3.4 fold and caused major alteration in EFB morphology under SEM. ► Autohydrolysis which does not require the addition of chemicals is an attractive pretreatment approach to EFB.

  18. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shamim Ahmad; Vijaya Subramaniam; Halimah Mohammad; Anis Mokhtar; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefor...

  19. Intelligent Color Vision System for Ripeness Classification of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch

    OpenAIRE

    Haidi Ibrahim; Syed Salim Syed Ali; Junita Mohamad-Saleh; Zaini Abdul Halim; Norasyikin Fadilah

    2012-01-01

    Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Ne...

  20. Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tres, A.; Ruiz-Samblas, C.; Veer, G.; van Ruth, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been applied to verify the geographical origin of crude palm oil (continental scale). For this purpose 94 crude palm oil samples were collected from South East Asia (55), South America (11) and Africa (28)....

  1. Simulation of thin-film deodorizers in palm oil refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    As the need for healthier fats and oils (natural vitamin and trans fat contents) and interest in biofuels are growing, many changes in the world's vegetable oil market are driving the oil industry to developing new technologies and recycling traditional ones. Computational simulation is widely used...... equipment could be found in the open literature. This paper tries to fill this gap by presenting results from the study of the effect of processing variables, such as temperature, pressure and percentage of stripping steam, in the final quality of product (deacidified palm oil) in terms of final oil acidity...... in the chemical and petrochemical industries as a tool for optimization and design of (new) processes, but that is not the case for the edible oil industry. Thin-film deodorizers are novel equipment developed for steam deacidification of vegetable oils, and no work on the simulation of this type of...

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis based on the information provided by other authors resulted in 2406 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, on average. The Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13] study does not report emissions. When compared to diesel on a energy basis, avoided emissions due to the use of biodiesel account for 80 g CO{sub 2}e/MJ. Thus, avoided life cycle emissions associated with the use of biodiesel yield a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We also assessed the carbon balance between a palm tree plantation, including displaced emissions from diesel, and a natural ecosystem. Considering the carbon balance outcome plus life cycle emissions the payback time for a tropical forest is 39 years. The result published by Gibbs et al. (2008) [Gibbs HK, Johnston M, Foley JA, Holloway T, Monfreda C, Ramankutty N, et al., Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield and technology. Environmental Research Letters 2008;3:10], which ignores life cycle emissions, determined a payback range for biodiesel production between 30 and 120 years. (author)

  3. Comprehensive analysis of lipid composition in crude palm oil using multiple lipidomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-05-20

    Palm oil is currently the leading edible oil consumed worldwide. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are the dominant lipid classes in palm oil. Other lipid classes present in crude palm oil, such as phospholipids and galactolipids, are very low in abundance. These low-abundance lipids constitute key intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we applied multiple lipidomic approaches, including high-sensitivity and high-specificity multiple reaction monitoring, to comprehensively quantify individual lipid species in crude palm oil. We also established a new liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry method that allows direct quantification of low-abundance galactolipids in palm oil without the need for sample pretreatment. As crude palm oil contains large amounts of neutral lipids, our direct-detection method circumvents many of the challenges encountered with conventional lipid quantification methods. This approach allows direct measurement of lipids with no hassle during sample preparation and is more accurate and precise compared with other methods. PMID:24894356

  4. Re-esterified palm oils, compared to native palm oil, do not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia or growth performance in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa, E; Tres, A; Bayés-García, L; Parella, T; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2014-08-01

    Re-esterified palm oils are obtained from the chemical esterification of palm acid oils (rich in free fatty acids) with glycerol, both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively. Thus, re-esterified palm oils could be an economically interesting alternative to native palm oil in broiler chick diets. However, because they may have different physicochemical properties than have their corresponding native oil, we assessed the effect of fatty acid (FA) positional distribution within acylglycerol molecules and the effect of acylglycerol composition on FA apparent absorption, and their possible consequences on the evolution of postprandial lipemia and growth performance in broiler chicks. Seventy-two 1-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 18 cages. The three treatments used were the result of a basal diet supplemented with 6 wt% of native palm oil (N-TAG), re-esterified palm oil (E-TAG), or re-esterified palm oil high in mono- and diacylglycerols (E-MDAG). Chemical esterification raised the fraction of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position from 9.63 mol% in N-TAG oil to 17.9 mol% in E-TAG oil. Furthermore, E-MDAG oil presented a high proportion of mono- (23.1 wt%) and diacylglycerols (51.2 wt%), with FA mainly located at the sn-1,3 positions, which resulted in a lower gross-energy content and an increased solid-fat index at the chicken's body temperature. However, re-esterified palm oils did not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia, or growth performance, compared to native palm oil, so they can be used as alternative fat sources in broiler chick diets. PMID:24934588

  5. Biodiesel’s characteristics preparation from palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachman Yusuf

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Using vegetable oils directly as an alternative diesel fuel has presented engine problems. The problems have been attributed to high viscosity of vegetable oil that causes the poor atomization of fuel in the injector system and pruduces uncomplete combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the vegetable oil into ester (metil ester by tranesterification process to decrease its viscosity. In this research has made biodiesel by reaction of palm oil and methanol using lye (NaOH as catalyst with operation conditions: constant temperature at 60 oC in atmosferic pressure, palm oil : methanol volume ratio = 5 : 1, amount of NaOH used as catalyst = 3.5 gr, 4.5 gr, 5 gr and 5.5 gr and it takes about one hour time reaction. The ester (metil ester produced are separatedfrom glycerin and washed until it takes normal pH (6-7 where more amount of catalyst used will decrease the ester (biodiesel produced. The results show that biodiesels’ properties made by using 3.5 (M3.5 gr, 4.5 gr (M4.5 and 5 (M5.0 gr catalyst close to industrial diesel oil and the other (M5.5 closes to automotive diesel oil, while blending diesel oil with 20 % biodiesel (B20 is able to improve the diesel engine performances.

  6. Experimental Investigation on Usage of Palm Oil as a Lubricant to Substitute Mineral Oil in CI Engines

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. V. Krishna Reddy; Naval Kabra; Umesh Kunchum; Vijayakumar, T.

    2014-01-01

    Due to growing environmental concerns, vegetable oils are finding their way into lubricants for industrial and transportation applications. The substitution of mineral oil with vegetable oil as a base stock for an environment friendly lubricant in a CI engine is explored in this study without adding any additives. The experiments have been conducted with a mixture of palm oil and mineral oil, at different compositions. Blends of palm oil and mineral oil in different compositions, 0, 25, and 5...

  7. Improvement potential for net energy balance of biodiesel derived from palm oil: A case study from Indonesian practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamahara, Hirotsugu [Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Hasanudin, Udin [Department of Agroindustrial Technology, University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Widiyanto, Anugerah [International Cooperation Center for Engineering Education Development, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Tachibana, Ryuichi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Atsuta, Yoichi; Goto, Naohiro; Daimon, Hiroyuki [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujie, Koichi [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Biodiesel derived from palm oil has been recognized as a high-productivity oil crop among the first generation of biofuels. This study evaluated and discussed the net energy balance for biodiesel in Indonesia by calculating the net energy ratio (NER) and net energy production (NEP) form the total energy input and output. The results of the calculation of energy input for the default scenario demonstrated that the primary energy inputs in the biodiesel production lifecycle were the methanol feedstock, energy input during the biodiesel production process, and urea production. These three items amounted to 85% of the total energy input. Next, we considered and evaluated ways to potentially improve the energy balance by utilizing by-products and biogas from wastewater treatment in the palm oil mill. This result emphasized the importance of utilizing the biomass residue and by-products. Finally, we discussed the need to be aware of energy balance issues between countries when biofuels are transported internationally. (author)

  8. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

    2013-06-01

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane - a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  9. Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane – a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

  10. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ?49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver. PMID:25393932

  11. The oil palm SHELL gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Rosli, Rozana; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; Budiman, Muhammad A; Hogan, Michael; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Ordway, Jared M; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Martienssen, Robert A

    2013-08-15

    A key event in the domestication and breeding of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis was loss of the thick coconut-like shell surrounding the kernel. Modern E. guineensis has three fruit forms, dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), a hybrid between dura and pisifera. The pisifera palm is usually female-sterile. The tenera palm yields far more oil than dura, and is the basis for commercial palm oil production in all of southeast Asia. Here we describe the mapping and identification of the SHELL gene responsible for the different fruit forms. Using homozygosity mapping by sequencing, we found two independent mutations in the DNA-binding domain of a homologue of the MADS-box gene SEEDSTICK (STK, also known as AGAMOUS-LIKE 11), which controls ovule identity and seed development in Arabidopsis. The SHELL gene is responsible for the tenera phenotype in both cultivated and wild palms from sub-Saharan Africa, and our findings provide a genetic explanation for the single gene hybrid vigour (or heterosis) attributed to SHELL, via heterodimerization. This gene mutation explains the single most important economic trait in oil palm, and has implications for the competing interests of global edible oil production, biofuels and rainforest conservation. PMID:23883930

  12. Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in old and new worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew–Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Planted on only 5% of the total vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil, and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8 gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at le...

  13. Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater With Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    YE??LADA, Özer

    1999-01-01

    : Olive oil mills produce a liquid waste called olive black water in the olive oil production process. In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) was analysed and then treated aerobically with fungi. Consequently, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenol and color reduction were obtained. High biomass yields and laccase enzyme activities were also determined.

  14. Neural Network in Modeling Malaysian Oil Palm Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaimy Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Forecasting of palm oil yield has become an important element in the management of oil palm industry for proper planning and decision making. The importance of yield forecasting has led us to explore modeling of palm oil yield for Malaysia using the most recent development of Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The main issue in yield forecasting is to predict the future value with the minimum error. Approach: Artificial neural networks are computing systems containing many interconnected nonlinear neurons, capable of extracting linear and nonlinear regularity in a given data set. It is an artificial intelligence model originally designed to replicate the human brains learning process, a network with many elements or neurons that are connected by communications channels or connectors. The ANN can perform a particular function when certain values are assigned to the connections or weights between elements. In this study, a secondary data set from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB on the foliar nutrient composition, fertilizer trials and Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB yield were taken and analyzed. The foliar nutrient composition variables are the nitrogen N, phosphorus P, potassium K, calcium Ca and magnesium Mg concentration, while the fertilizer trials data are the N, P, K and Mg fertilizers and are measured in kg per palm per year. The foliar composition data was presented in the form of measured values whiles the fertilizer data in ordinal levels, from zero to three. Results: Two experiments were conducted to demonstrate the implementation ANN and for both experiment, the result demonstrated that the number of hidden nodes produces an effect to the overall forecast performance of the ANN architecture. From the first experiment, it shows that the number of runs does not affect the ANN performance, but changing the momentum to learning rates, due to shows a significant improvement in the forecast result. The experimental result will be in the form of statistical analysis, the best neural network performance, the residual analysis and the effect on the learning rate on the NN performance. Conclusion: This study showed that modeling of oil palm yield using neural network requires data to be prepared or modified to satisfy the requirement of the parameters involved. This analysis yields the conclusion that only the number of hidden nodes has a significant influence on the NN performance and there is no effect resulting from the number of runs or the momentum term value on the neural networks performance.

  15. THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Sulaiman,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to review the current status of oil palm biomass, including the availability of this tree, in order to illustrate the potential of oil palm biomass as an alternative source for compressed wood. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of compressed wood from oil palm trunk. This paper will cover the background of compressed wood and the possibilities of producing compressed wood using oil palm trunk as a raw material.

  16. Oil Palm Tree Detection with High Resolution Multi-Spectral Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Srestasathiern

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm tree is an important cash crop in Thailand. To maximize the productivity from planting, oil palm plantation managers need to know the number of oil palm trees in the plantation area. In order to obtain this information, an approach for palm tree detection using high resolution satellite images is proposed. This approach makes it possible to count the number of oil palm trees in a plantation. The process begins with the selection of the vegetation index having the highest discriminating power between oil palm trees and background. The index having highest discriminating power is then used as the primary feature for palm tree detection. We hypothesize that oil palm trees are located at the local peak within the oil palm area. To enhance the separability between oil palm tree crowns and background, the rank transformation is applied to the index image. The local peak on the enhanced index image is then detected by using the non-maximal suppression algorithm. Since both rank transformation and non-maximal suppression are window based, semi-variogram analysis is used to determine the appropriate window size. The performance of the proposed method was tested on high resolution satellite images. In general, our approach uses produced very accurate results, e.g., about 90 percent detection rate when compared with manual labeling.

  17. Chars pyrolyzed from oil palm wastes for activated carbon preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lua, A.C.; Guo, J. [Nanyang Technological Univ., Singapore (Singapore)

    1999-01-01

    Chars pyrolyzed from extracted oil palm fibers for the preparation of activated carbons were studied. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and hold time on density, porosity, yield, BET and micropore surface areas, total pore volume, and pore size distributions of chars were investigated. The optimum conditions for pyrolysis were found to be at a pyrolysis temperature of 850 C for a hold time of 3.5 h. Scanning electron micrographs of the char surfaces verified the presence of porosities. The experimental results showed that it was feasible to produce chars with high BET and micropore surface areas from extracted oil palm fibers. The resulting chars will be subjected to steam or carbon dioxide activation to prepare activated carbons for use as gas adsorbents for air pollution control.

  18. STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%, good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g, and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; CODCr=8140 mg/L. The SEP pulp from oil palm EFB fiber was very suitable for packaging paper when combined with American OCC pulp.

  19. Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Othman, Z.BT.; Awang, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author).

  20. Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author)

  1. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shamim Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefore.establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil plywood is essential. Data from this study on the environmental impact for the production of palm plywood would help to develop sustainable palm plywood product. The results will provide information to identify ways and measures to reduce the environmental impacts. Most foreground data were collected directly from numbers oil palm plywood factories which represent 40% of the palm plywood industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Data gaps were filled by information obtained through questionnaires which were developed specifically for data collection, literature, public database or further calculated from obtained data. The outputs and inputs from production activities were quantified on the basis of functional unit of production of 1 m3from different types of oil palm based plywood i.e., Moisture Resistant (MR, Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 1 and Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 2. The life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 7.1 software and the eco-indicator 99 methodology. The weighting results of LCA for the production of 1 cubic meter of oil palm based plywood showed significant impact in descending order i.e., fossil fuel, respiratory inorganic and climate change. The most significant process contributing to these environmental impacts came from the production and usage of adhesives, transportation of oil palm trunks from plantation to factory and generation and usage of electricity from the grid. The ways to mitigate the environmental impacts are by using substitutes for inorganic chemical adhesives such as groundnut shell lignin adhesive, modified phenol formaldehyde adhesive and developing wood adhesive made from pyrolisis oil of oil palm biomass, establishing a collecting centre for oil palm trunk transportation and efficient use of oil palm biomass as an energy source. The study helped establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil industry from cradle to grave which starts at the oil palm germinated seeds to the production of palm plywood.

  2. A full body mathematical model of an oil palm harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumit, NP; Rambely, A. S.; BMT, Shamsul; Shahriman A., B.; Ng Y., G.; Deros, B. M.; Zailina, H.; Goh Y., M.; Arumugam, Manohar; Ismail I., A.; Abdul Hafiz A., R.

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of this article is to develop a mathematical model of human body during harvesting via Kane's method. This paper is an extension model of previous biomechanical model representing a harvester movement during harvesting a Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) from a palm oil tree. The ten segment model consists of foot, leg, trunk, the head and the arms segment. Finally, the inverse dynamic equations are represented in a matrix form.

  3. Forecasting on Crude Palm Oil Prices Using Artificial Intelligence Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Aziz Karia; Ismail Ahmad; Imbarine Bujang

    2013-01-01

    An accurate prediction of crude palm oil (CPO) prices is important especially when investors deal with ever-increasing risks and uncertainties in the future. Therefore, the applicability of the forecasting approaches in predicting the CPO prices is becoming the matter into concerns. In this study, two artificial intelligence approaches, has been used namely artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). We employed in-sample forecasting on daily free-on-bo...

  4. Auto Guided Oil Palm Planter by using multi-GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Aini, I.; W, Aimrun; Amin, M. S. M.; Ezrin, M. H.; Shafri, H. Z.

    2014-06-01

    Planting is one of the most important operations in plantation because it could affect the total area of productivity since it is the starting point in cultivation. In oil palm plantation, lining and spacing of oil palm shall be laid out and coincided with the topographic area and a system of drains. Conventionally, planting of oil palm will require the polarization process in order to prevent and overcome the lack of influence of the sun rise and get a regular crop row. Polarization is done after the completion of the opening area by using the spike wood with 1 m length painted at the top and 100 m length of wire. This process will generally require at least five persons at a time to pull the wire and carry the spikes while the other two persons will act as observer and spikes craftsmen respectively with the ability of the team is 3ha/day. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop the oil palm planting technique by using multi- GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). Generally, this project will involve five main steps mainly; design of planting pattern by using SOLIDWORKS software, determine the boundary coordinate of planting area, georeference process with ArcGIS, stakeout process with Tracy software and finally marking up the location with the wooden spikes. The results proved that the multi- GNSS is capable to provide the high accuracy with less than 1 m in precise positioning system without augmentation data. With the ability of one person, time taken to complete 70 m × 50 m planting area is 290 min, which is 25 min faster than using GPS (Global Positioning System) only.

  5. Syngas production from downdraft gasification of oil palm fronds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on gasification of OPF (oil palm fronds) is scarce although the biomass constitutes more than 24% of the total oil palm waste. The lack of research related to gasification of oil palm fronds calls for a study on gasification behaviour of the fuel. In this paper the effects of reactor temperature and ER (equivalence ratio) on gas composition, calorific value and gasification efficiency of downdraft gasification of OPF were investigated. The heating value of syngas and the values of cold gas and carbon conversion efficiencies of gasification obtained were found to be comparable with woody biomass. The study showed that oxidation zone temperature above 850 °C is favourable for high concentration of the fuel components of syngas CO, H2 and CH4. Average syngas lower heating value of 5.2 MJ/Nm3 was obtained for operation with oxidation zone temperatures above 1000 °C, while no significant change in heating value was observed for temperature higher than 1100 °C. The average and peak heating values of 4.8 MJ/Nm3 and 5.5 MJ/Nm3, and cold gas efficiency of 70.2% at optimum equivalence ratio of 0.37 showed that OPF have a high potential as a fuel for gasification. - Highlights: • Kinetic study of pyrolysis and combustion of OPF (oil palm fronds) was done. • Experimental study on syngas production utilizing OPF and parametric study was done. • OPF was found to have a comparable performance with wood in downdraft gasification

  6. OIL PALM TRUNK POLYMER COMPOSITE: MORPHOLOGY, WATER ABSORPTION, AND THICKNESS SWELLING BEHAVIOURS

    OpenAIRE

    C. K. Abdullah,; M. Jawaid,; H. P. S. Abdul Khalil,; A. Zaidon,; A. Hadiyane

    2012-01-01

    In this research, impregnated oil palm trunks (OPT) and polymer composites were prepared from a combination of dried oil palm trunks with phenol formaldehyde (PF) and urea formaldehyde (UF) resin in different resin percentages using an impregnation method. Time of impregnation was a parameter used to control the percentage of resin content in the oil palm trunks. These studies investigated the effect of resin content and types of resin on the physical properties of impregnated OPT. Water abso...

  7. Sustainable Management of a Matured Oil Palm Plantation in UPM Campus, Malaysia Using Airborne Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaruzaman Jusoff

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and reliable near-real time information is needed for a sustainable oil palm plantation management, especially on plant quality and health. Airborne remote sensing provides the effective recent agricultural crop information for the oil palm plantation industry planning, management and sustainable development. A study on the characteristic of a matured oil palm plantation in UPM campus was conducted using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing technique. Airborne hyperspectral remote s...

  8. Financial assessment of oil palm cultivation on peatland in Selangor, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    M.N. Noormahayu; A.R. Khalid; M.A. Elsadig

    2009-01-01

    Oil palm plantations on peat soils are generally believed to have greater environmental impacts than those on other soil types. Nonetheless, Malaysia operates substantial incentives to maximise palm oil production, which in practice encourage the establishment of plantations on peatland. This paper explores the social and economic basis of oil palm cultivation on one peatland estate at Sungai Panjang in the state of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. Data were obtained by conducting a questionnai...

  9. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peat Soils Cultivated to Rice Field, Oil Palm and Vegetable

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenani Abu Bakar; Kazuyuki Inubushi; Dedi Nursyamsi Affandi; Abdullah, , S.; Syaifuddin; Luthfi Fatah; Abdul Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Presently, about 20% of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) fields in Indonesia are on peat soil, in addition to that otherarea of peat soil has been conventionally used for rice field and vegetables. To elucidate the global warmingpotentials of peat soils cultivated to oil palm, vegetable or rice field, field experiment has been carried out in SouthKalimantan. Air samples were taken from rice field, oil palm and vegetable fields in weekly basis for six month periodand analyzed for concentratio...

  10. An Econometric Analysis of the Link between Biodiesel Demand and Malaysian Palm Oil Market

    OpenAIRE

    Shri Dewi AP Applanaidu; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; Mad Nasir Shamsudin; Amna Awad Abdel Hameed

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the important factors affecting Malaysian palm oil industry especiallybiodiesel demand. To that end a market model representing palm oil production, import, world excess demand,domestic consumption, export demand, rest of the world excess supply and palm oil prices is formulated. Asystem of equations of eight structural equations and four identities is estimated by two stage least squaresmethod using annual data for the period 1976-2008. The domestic...

  11. Spatial-Temporal Yield Trend of Oil Palm as Influenced by Nitrogen Fertilizer Management

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul R. Anuar; Kah J. Goh; Tee B. Heoh; Osumanu H. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    One of the major challenges in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations today is proper interpretation of yield maps for site-specific management and identification and understanding of the causal factors influencing the variability of oil palm yields. A study was conducted to examine the structural yield variation in order to assess the spatial and temporal yield trends so as to interpret multi-year yield maps of oil palm as influenced by the long-term N fertilizer applications in the ...

  12. A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seed system in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Akpo, E.; Vissoh, P.V.; Tossou, R.C.; Crane, T.; Kossou, D.K.; Richards, P; Stomph, T.J.; Struik, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed system (OPSS) was conducted along a gradient of rainfall and distance to the oil palm research centre across the oil palm growing belt of Benin. The objective was to identify, jointly with key actors, the constraints in the OPSS and to assess the performance of the OPSS from a farmers’ perspective. The methodology included introductory community meetings, group discussions, individual in-depth interviews, field vi...

  13. Development of a protoplast-based transformation system for genetic engineering of oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Yunus, Abdul Masani

    2013-01-01

    The major aim of the thesis was to develop the prerequisites for efficient genetic engineering of oil palm by DNA microinjection with the long-term objective to generate transgenic oil palm producing recombinant proteins, PIPP (a chimeric antibody against human chorionic gonadotropin; hCG), D12 (a human antibody against dental carries) and HSA (human serum albumin). The products will be synthesized in the leaf, mesocarp and kernel tissues of oil palm with the respects of plants must be stable...

  14. Oil palm plantations in Indonesia: The implications for migration, settlement/resettlement and local economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Budidarsono, Suseno; Susanti, Ari; Zoomers, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    5. Concluding remarks It is not difficult for policy makers to show that oil palms are an economically rentable crop with a huge potential for further economic growth. In addition to national demands, the growing worldwide interest in biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels will increase demand for its feedstock and lead to the expansion of oil palm plantations in climatically suitable regions. On the basis of a cost–benefit analysis of various crops, oil palm will probably contin...

  15. The development of epoxidised palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics are discussed briefly. Acrylated palm oil is prepared through acrylation process, whereby, acrylic acid is introduced into oxirane group of the EPOP (epoxidised palm oil products), EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) was found curable when subjected to UV (ultrviolet) light giving soft coatings. EPOLA is used as radiation curable filler/sealer, radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives and satisfactorily be coated on wood substrates (rubberwood parquets)

  16. Production of Xylitol from Oil Palm Empty Friuts Bunch: A Case Study on Bioefinery Concept

    OpenAIRE

    MTAP Kresnowati; Efri Mardawati; Tjandra Setiadi

    2015-01-01

    The concept of biorefinery offers the utilization of biomass, in particular agricultural waste, to be converted intoenergy, chemicals, materials, and food. In 2013 Indonesia produced about 27.4 thousand tons of crude palm oil(CPO) which corresponds to approximately 30 thousand tons of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB), the biomasswaste from palm oil industries. The huge availability of EFB in Indonesia may serve as a good starting point toimplement the concept of biorefinery. EFB mainly comp...

  17. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hasmiza Harun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB. Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB. A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA. To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  18. Dual resonant frequencies effects on an induction-based oil palm fruit sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Mohd Sidek, Roslina; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-01-01

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept. PMID:25414970

  19. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used...

  20. PALM AND PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED SOYBEAN OILS ADVERSELY ALTER LIPOPROTEIN PROFILES COMPARED WITH SOYBEAN AND CANOLA OILS IN MODERATELY HYPERLIPIDEMIC SUBJECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Partially-hydrogenated fat has an unfavorable effect on cardiovascular disease risk. Palm oil has reemerged as a potential substitute due to favorable physical characteristics. Objective: To assess the effect of palm oil relative to both partially-hydrogenated fat and oils high in mon...

  1. Catalytic Cracking of Palm Oil Over Zeolite Catalysts: Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. A. Twaiq and S. Bhatia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic cracking of palm oil was conducted in a fixed bed micro-reactor over HZSM-5, zeolite ? and ultrastable Y (USY zeolite catalysts. The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of cracking reaction variables such as temperature, weight hourly space velocity, catalyst pore size and type of palm oil feed of different molecular weight on the conversion, yield of hydrocarbons in gasoline boiling range and BTX aromatics in the organic liquid product.  Statistical Design of Experiment (DOE with 24 full factorial design was used in experimentation at the first stage.  The nonlinear model and Response Surface Methodology (RSM were utilized in the second stage of experimentation to obtain the optimum values of the variables for maximum yields of hydrocarbons in gasoline boiling range and aromatics.  The HZSM-5 showed the best performance amongst the three catalysts tested.  At 623 K and WHSV of 1 h-1, the highest experimental yields of gasoline and aromatics were 28.3 wt.% and 27 wt.%, respectively over the HZSM-5 catalyst.  For the same catalyst, the statistical model predicted that the optimum yield of gasoline was 28.1 wt.% at WHSV of 1.75 h-1 and 623 K.  The predicted optimum yield of gasoline was 25.5 wt.% at 623 K and WHSV of 1 h-1.KEY WORDS: Catalytic Cracking, Palm Oil, Zeolite, Design Of Experiment, Response Surface Methodology.

  2. Development and characterization of liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride with palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Bahareh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohd, Shaharuddin; Hashim, Rosnani; Dahlan, Afendi; Javar, Hamid Akbari

    2014-01-01

    The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox). The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV) were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453?nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about -31 and -32?mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with Caelyx(R) on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes. PMID:24795894

  3. PROPERTIES OF BINDERLESS PARTICLEBOARD PANELS MANUFACTURED FROM OIL PALM BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokiah Hashim,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboard panels manufactured from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis biomass without using any adhesives. Different parts of oil palm, including the core and mid sections of trunks, fronds, bark, and leaves, were used to make the panels with an average target density of 0.80g/cm3. Based on the test results, it seems that panels made from bark and leaves did not have satisfactory strength and dimensional stability. However, the panels having particles from the core portion of the trunks exhibited the highest modulus of rupture and internal bond strength but lowest in thickness swelling and water absorption values among the samples. The panels made with particles of mid-section of trunks and fronds followed the samples having core portion trunks material. Three types of raw material, namely fronds, mid-, and core-parts of the trunks appeared as though they could have potential to manufacture particleboard panels with acceptable properties based on requirements stated in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS. Similar to the above findings, surface quality of the samples were also found acceptable for the panels made from three types of particles. Based on the results of this work, oil palm in the form of biomass could be considered as an environmentally friendly alternative raw material to manufacture binderless particleboard panels.

  4. How the palm oil industry is cooking the climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every year, 1.8 billion tonnes (Gt) of climate changing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are released by the degradation and burning of Indonesia's peatlands, which is 4% of global GHG emissions from less than 0.1% of the land on earth. This report shows how, through growing demand for palm oil, the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel industries are driving the wholesale destruction of peatlands and rainforests. These companies include Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, who between them account for a significant volume of global palm oil use, mainly from Indonesia and Malaysia. Overlaying satellite imagery of forest fires with maps indicating the locations of the densest carbon stores in Indonesia, Greenpeace researchers have been able to pinpoint carbon 'hotspots'. Our research has taken us to the Indonesian province of Riau on the island of Sumatra, to document the current activities of those involved in the expansion of palm oil. These are the producers who trade with Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, as well as many of the other top names in the food, cosmetic and biofuel industries. The area of peatland in Riau is tiny: just 4 million hectares, about the size of Taiwan or Switzerland. Yet Riau's peatlands store 14.6Gt of carbon. If these peatlands were destroyed, the resulting GHG emissions would be equivalent to one year's total global emissions. Unless efforts are made to halt forest and peatland destruction, emissions from these peatlands may trigger a 'climate bomb'

  5. Biomethane potential of the POME generated in the palm oil industry in Ghana from 2002 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Richard; Glover, Kwasi

    2012-05-01

    The palm oil industry experienced significant improvement in its production level from 2002 to 2009 from the established companies, medium scale mills (MSM), small scale and other private holdings (SS and OPH) groups. However, the same cannot be said for treatment of the palm oil mill effluent (POME) produced. The quantity of crude palm oil (CPO) produced in Ghana from 2002 to 2009 and IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, specifically on industrial wastewater were used in this study. During this period about 10 million cubic metres of POME was produced translating into biomethane potential of 38.5 million m(3) with equivalent of 388.29 GW h of energy. A linear growth model developed to predict the equivalent carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions indicates that if the biomethane is not harnessed then by 2015 the untreated POME could produce 0.58 million tCO(2)-eq and is expected to increase to 0.70 million tCO(2)-eq by 2020. PMID:22406099

  6. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this study was 16 species belongs to six families.

  7. The use of 32P and 15N to estimate fertilizer efficiency in oil palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving efficiency of use of fertilizers has attracted a great deal of interest on oil-palm estates because of increasing input costs. It is assumed that higher efficiency of use of fertilizers for estate crops, including oil palm, would result in significant savings and less environmental pollution. One way to enhance efficiency of use of fertilizers by oil palm is to apply them where the most active roots are located. Previous work has indicated the possibility of determining the most active roots of tea and chinchona by using 32P. In this experiment, 32P was again used, to determine the locations of the most active roots of oil palm trees

  8. The addition of palm oil biodiesel and coal derived FT distillate to GHGenius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    The GHGenius model is suitable for analyzing pollutants emitted during the processing and use of transportation fuels. This study covers work on the addition of coal to the FT distillate pathway in the model. The production of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel and light duty diesel applications have been added, as well. FT distillate from coal is described with regard to coal production, process description and parameters, energy balance, upstream greenhouse gases emissions, lifecycles emissions, and cost effectiveness. Palm production, land use issues, oil extraction process, palm oil biodiesel production, energy balance, upstream and lifecycles emissions, and cost effectiveness are described. 13 refs., 8 figs., 34 tabs.

  9. Estimating Aboveground Biomass of Oil Palm Trees by Using the Destructive Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sunaryathy, Putri Ida; Suhasman; Kanniah, Kasturi Devi; Tan, Kian Pang

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil is one of the important commodities in Indonesia. Estimating the aboveground biomass of oil palms is one of the most important oil palm carbon studies. The objective of this study was to estimate the aboveground biomass of oil palm trees at plot scale for three age classes namely, class 1 (1 to 3 years), class 2 (4 to 10 years) and class 3 (11 to 20 years) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia using destructive method. The AGB for each age class: class 1, class 2, and class 3 they are 5.84 kg...

  10. Determination of Specific Leaf Area and Leaf Area-leaf Mass Relationship in Oil Palm Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Awal; Wan Ishak; J. Endan; M. Haniff

    2004-01-01

    Specific leaf area (SLA), the ratio of leaf area to leaf mass is the most important determinant of oil palm growth, which is used in growth monitoring of oil palm and many crop simulation models to estimate total leaf area. Leaf dry weight and leaf area were determined by destructive methods in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study was to obtain suitable linear model for estimation of leaf area and calculation SLA of oil palm plantation with less error of estimation. The SLA was pl...

  11. Potential Development of Bioindustry in Cattle and Oil Palm Integration System

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan; Chalid Talib

    2014-01-01

    An integrated system between cattle and oil palm plantation has a great potency for development of bioindustry, either in the form of animal feed or organic fertilizer bioindustry. Bioindustry of cattle feed is developed from biomass of plantations, such as stem and leaves of palm, palm kernel and solid. Bioindustry of organic fertilizer is developed from cattle manure. The targets of development of bioindustry are palm plantations in Sumatera and Kalimantan regions, covering 9.25 million hec...

  12. Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Nasrin; A. N. Ma; Y. M. Choo; Mohamad, S.; M. H. Rohaya; A. Azali; Z. Zainal

    2008-01-01

    Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB), in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE) and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its phys...

  13. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  14. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol and palm oil biodiesel joint production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and palm tree (Elaeis guianeensis) are crops with high biofuel yields, 7.6 m3 ha−1 y−1 of ethanol and 4 Mg ha−1 y−1 of oil, respectively. The joint production of these crops enhances the sustainability of ethanol. The objective of this work was comparing a traditional sugarcane ethanol production system (TSES) with a joint production system (JSEB), in which ethanol and biodiesel are produced at the same biorefinery but only ethanol is traded. The comparison is based on ISO 14.040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006, and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado (typical savannah), Cerradão (woody savannah) and pastureland ecosystems were considered. Energy and carbon balances, and land use change impacts were evaluated. The joint system includes 100% substitution of biodiesel for diesel, which is all consumed in different cropping stages. Data were collected by direct field observation methods, and questionnaires applied to Brazilian facilities. Three sugarcane mills situated in São Paulo State and one palm oil refinery located in Para State were surveyed. The information was supplemented by secondary sources. Results demonstrated that fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions decreased, whereas energy efficiency increased when JSEB was compared to TSES. In comparison with TSES, the energy balance of JSEB was 1.7 greater. In addition, JSEB released 23% fewer GHG emissions than TSES. The ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradão, and Degraded Grassland of JSEB was respectively 4, 7.7 and −7.6 years. These are typical land use types of the Brazilian Cerrado region for which JSEB was conceived. -- Highlights: ► LCA of ethanol and biodiesel joint production system. ► Sugarcane based biorefinery assessment in Brazil. ► Original Brazilian LCI data on ethanol and palm oil biodiesel production. ► Biofuel LCA with LUC sensitivity analisis for the Brazilian Cerrado Region.

  15. Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J MUSA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The search for renewable energy resources continues to attract attention in recent times as fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, which are been used to meet the energy needs of man are associated with negative environmental impacts such as global warming. Biodiesel offered reduced exhaust emissions, improved biodegradability, reduced toxicity and higher carotene rating which can improve performance and clean up emissions. Standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil, which includes the Density, Viscosity, flash/fire point, carbon residue, volatility and Specific Gravity were determined by chemical experimental analysis. The flash/fire points of the Heavy duty oil (SAE 40 and Light duty oil (SAE 30 is 260/300(°C and 243/290(°C respectively while the pour points of the samples are 22°C for palm kernel oil while 9°C and 21°C for SAE 40and SAE 30 respectively.

  16. Organoleptic Study of Deacidified and Deodourised Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of vitamin A has long been identified as a serious and preventable nutritional disorder, associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity amongst children. The present study was conducted with the objectives (i to perform organoleptic testing of food products cooked in Deacidified and Deodourised Palm oil (DDPO, by sensory evaluation method and (ii to compare the characteristics of these food products with the same products cooled in routinely used oil. Eleven commonly used weaning food items were prepared with routinely used oil (Group a. The same recipes were also prepared with DDPO (Group B. A food testing panel conducted with sensory evaluation for assessing the acceptability of the various food items. It was observed that with respect to all characteristics there was no significant difference in the recipes made with the two types of oil. Results indicated that DDPO can be used in India for preparation of weaning foods which are routinely given to young children.

  17. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (<10 years old), as young oil palm trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  18. Way to Measure the Concept Precarious Working Conditions in Oil Palm Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Kumar M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm plantations are the backbone of the Malaysian economy, since day immemorial. When you look intothe past, the workers in the oil palm plantations were dominated by Indian and Chinese communities. Later dueto the sigma associate with oil palm plantations jobs viz., dirty, dangerous and distance, the Indians and Chineseworkers moved away from the oil palm work and they were replaced by Indonesians and Philippines. Theseforeign workers whom having the legal and illegal status under enforcement in Malaysia, have been living inremotely located inhabitations engaging in ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ wise oil palm plantations. Though thelarger oil palm plantation companies ensure minimum living and working conditions for the foreign workers,vastly located small holding plantations never follow such minimum and fair working environment. Theseconditions to be correlated with the term “precarious working conditions’ in small holding oil palm plantations.Due to lack of availability of the locals to engage in oil palm work, the plantations have to depend on foreignworkers do all these ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ workers in oil palm plantations. Except a few literatureavailable from Amnesty international and local NGOs, there is less evidence to prove the existence of suchexploitative working conditions in oil palm plantations. In order to explore precarious working conditions in oilpalm plantations thus a qualitative research study is conducted in the Sabah region of the Eastern Part ofMalaysia. The study followed, triangulation method through interviews with the migrated foreign workers, (legaland illegal, focus group discussions and Delphi technique with the identification of experts in the field to arriveat the factors and categories related to the theme ‘precarious working conditions’ in oil palm plantations. Theoutcome of the study fixes the variables that need to be concentrated for a higher level research throughquantitative research.

  19. Effects of linseed oil and palm oil on growth performance, tibia fatty acid and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, X; Gao, S; Wang, J J; Dong, L; Huang, J; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

    2014-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary fat sources on growth performance, tibia fatty acids and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers. 2. One-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were fed with a maize-soya bean basal diet for 42 d, supplemented with oils according to the following 5 treatments: lard (lard group); linseed oil (linseed oil group); palm oil (palm oil group); linseed oil + palm oil (60:40 or 40:60 w/w, LP-1 group and LP-2 group, respectively). 3. No significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and gain/feed ratio were observed between the lard and linseed oil groups. Birds fed on palm oil had significantly greater weight gain and feed intake than those fed on lard or linseed oil. Growth performance in LP-1 and LP-2 was significantly greater than that of single-oil groups. 4. Tibia growth and bone characteristics were not influenced by supplementation with lard, linseed oil, or palm oil alone, but broilers fed on a mixture of fats had significantly greater tibia weight and length compared to broilers fed on linseed oil. Bone mineral density in tibia was significantly increased in LP-1 and LP-2 groups. 5. Supplementation of linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil enhanced apparent digestibility of calcium, reduced serum calcium and increased tibia calcium concentrations. Moreover, supplementation with linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil had a positive effect on biomarkers of bone growth. 6. The combination of linseed and palm oils was beneficial for growth performance, tibia growth and biomarkers of bone metabolism. PMID:24641587

  20. Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri; Eldrainy, Yehia A; Mat Ali, Muhammad Faiser; Wan Omar, W Z; Mohd Hizam, Mohd Faizi Arif

    2012-02-21

    The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber. PMID:22296110

  1. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions. PMID:26276276

  2. Improving palm oil quality through identification and mapping of the lipase gene causing oil deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Morcillo, F.; Cros, D; Billotte, N.; Ngando-Ebongue, G.-F.; Domonhédo, H.; Pizot, M.; Cuéllar, T.; Espéout, S.; Dhouib, R.; Bourgis, F.; Claverol, S.; Tranbarger, T. J.; Nouy, B.; Arondel, V.

    2013-01-01

    The oil palm fruit mesocarp contains high lipase activity that increases free fatty acids and necessitates post-harvest inactivation by heat treatment of fruit bunches. Even before heat treatment the mesocarp lipase activity causes consequential oil losses and requires costly measures to limit free fatty acids quantities. Here we demonstrate that elite low-lipase lines yield oil with substantially less free fatty acids than standard genotypes, allowing more flexibility for post-harvest fruit ...

  3. Least cost energy planning in Thailand:A case of biogas upgrading in palm oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artite Pattanapongchai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is currently the world’s fourth largest producer of crude palm oil. The palm oil mill effluent is proposed to beused for biogas production. A value added option is then proposed by increasing thermal efficiency of the biogas by removingCO2 content and increasing the percentage of methane, consequently turning the biogas in to green gas. In this study, thebiogas and upgrading process for electricity generation with the subsidy or adder in the long term planning is presented. Thisanalysis uses the MARKAL-based least-cost energy system as an analytical tool. The objective of this study is to investigateupgrading biogas with a selected water scrubbing technique featuring least-cost energy planning. The co-benefit aspect ofbiogas and biogas upgrading project is analyzed by given an adder of 0.3 Baht/kWh. The target of total electricity generationfrom biogas is 60 MW in 2012. The result shows that green gas will account for approximately 44.91 million m3 in 2012 andincrease to 238.89 million m3 in 2030. The cumulative CO2 emission during 2012-2030 is 2,354.92 thousand tonnes of CO2.Results show that under the given adders the upgrading project is competitive with the conventional technologies in electricitygeneration planning.

  4. Investigations on a Novel Inductive Concept Frequency Technique for the Grading of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches

    OpenAIRE

    Kunihisa Tashiro; Hiroyuki Wakiwaka; Desa Ahmad; Roslina Mohd Sidek; Noor Hasmiza Harun; Norhisam Misron; Ishak Aris

    2013-01-01

    From the Malaysian harvester’s perspective, the determination of the ripeness of the oil palm (FFB) is a critical factor to maximize palm oil production. A preliminary study of a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is presented. To optimize the functionality of the sensor, the frequency characteristics of air coils of various diameters are investigated to determine their inductance and resonant characteristics. Sixteen samples from two categories, name...

  5. Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Trunk as a Resource of Starch and Other Sugars

    OpenAIRE

    B.T. Tey; S.E. Tan; E.S. Tor; K.L. Chin; L.J. Wong; P.S. H`ng; M. Maminski

    2011-01-01

    Large quantities of oil palm trunks are available annually during the replanting activities when the oil palm tree passed their economic age, on an average after 25 years are replace with young trees. Basically the oil palm trunks contains about 18- 21% of lignin, 65-80% of holocellulose (a-cellulose and hemicellulose) and quite significant amount starch. This work is aimed to determine the total extractable starch and sugars content from oil palm trunks by using steeping method and dilute ac...

  6. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Di Carlo, P; Di Marco, C.F.; Dorsey, J.R.; Evans, M.; Fowler, D; Gallagher, M.W.; Hopkins, J.R.; Jones, C. E.; Langford, B.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A C; Lim, S. F.; McQuaid, J.

    2009-01-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is p...

  7. An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents an overview of EFB as a feedstock for bio-oil production. The fundamental characteristics of EFB in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and chemical composition, as well as the recent advances in EFB conversion processes for bio-oil production like pyrolysis and solvolysis are outlined and discussed. A comparison of properties in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and fuel properties between the bio-oil from EFB and petroleum fuel oil is included. The major challenges and future prospects towards the utilization of EFB as a useful resource for bio-oil production are also addressed. - Highlights: • Palm EFB has high heating value and low greenhouse gas emissions during combustion. • Conversion of EFB to bio-oil is mainly by fast pyrolysis without and with catalyst. • Bio-oil from EFB is lower in heating value, heavier and more acidic than fuel oil. • The viscosity of bio-oil from EFB is between those of light and heavy fuel oils. • The flash and pour points of bio-oil from EFB are close to those of light fuel oil

  8. Simulation of thin-film deodorizers in palm oil refining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceriani, Roberta; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.

    2010-01-01

    As the need for healthier fats and oils (natural vitamin and trans fat contents) and interest in biofuels are growing, many changes in the world's vegetable oil market are driving the oil industry to developing new technologies and recycling traditional ones. Computational simulation is widely used in the chemical and petrochemical industries as a tool for optimization and design of (new) processes, but that is not the case for the edible oil industry. Thin-film deodorizers are novel equipment developed for steam deacidification of vegetable oils, and no work on the simulation of this type of equipment could be found in the open literature. This paper tries to fill this gap by presenting results from the study of the effect of processing variables, such as temperature, pressure and percentage of stripping steam, in the final quality of product (deacidified palm oil) in terms of final oil acidity, the tocopherol content and neutral oil loss. The simulation results have been evaluated by using the response surface methodology. The model generated by the statistical analysis for tocopherol retention has been validated by matching its results with industrial data published in the open literature.

  9. Stability of Silica- and Enzyme-Treated Palm Oil Under Deep Frying Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Nur Azwani Ab; Noor, Ahmadilfitri Md; Lee, Yee-Ying; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The oxidative and thermal stability of low diglycerides palm oil produced via silica treatment (sPO) and enzymatic treatment (ePO) compared with standard quality palm oil (SQ) and premium quality palm oil (PQ) was investigated. Both of the oils displayed better oxidative stability compared with SQ as well as significantly higher (P oils showed slower drops in their IP values. The darkening effect after frying was significantly (P 0.05 in the rate of FFA formation between sPO and PQ. The anisidine value and peroxide values were lowest in sPO, followed by ePO, PQ, and SQ. PMID:26523850

  10. In Vitro Digestibility of Ration Containing Different Level of Palm Oil Frond Fermented with Phanerochaetae chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Imsya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phanerochaete chrysosporium was widely used to delignify agricultural waste product and improve biodegradation of the substrate as animal feed. The experiment was carried out to increase the use of palm oil fronds as a substitute material for napier grass through biodegradation process with P. chysosporium. A completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications was used. The treatments were ration containing 60% napier grass (R1, ration containing 40% napier grass and 20% fermented palm oil frond (R2, ration containing 20% napier grass and 40% fermented palm oil frond (R3, ration containing 60% fermented palm oil frond (R4. Fourty percent concentrate was included in all treatment rations. Parameters measured were in vitro digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, NH3, TVFA, and ruminal cellulolitic bacteria. Results showed that increasing level of fermented palm oil frond in the ration reduced (P<0.05 digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, N-NH3, TVFA concentration and number of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria. It is concluded that fermentation of palm oil frond with P. chysosporium decrease lignin content by 47.79%, but increasing the fermented palm oil frond in the ration reduces nutrient digestibilities, N-NH3 and TVFA concentrations and rumen cellulolytic bacteria counts. Fermented palm oil frond up to 40% could be used as a substitute for forages in ruminant rations.

  11. Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Trunk as a Resource of Starch and Other Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Tey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of oil palm trunks are available annually during the replanting activities when the oil palm tree passed their economic age, on an average after 25 years are replace with young trees. Basically the oil palm trunks contains about 18- 21% of lignin, 65-80% of holocellulose (a-cellulose and hemicellulose and quite significant amount starch. This work is aimed to determine the total extractable starch and sugars content from oil palm trunks by using steeping method and dilute acid hydrolysis. The effect of different oil palm trunk powder size on starch, xylose and glucose yield was evaluated. The effect of extraction parameter for each extraction method on the yield of starch and sugars were studied. The highest starch yield was obtained when steeped in the presence of lactic acid, while the highest xylose yield was obtained by 60 min hydrolysis of 60 mesh of oil palm powder with 2% sulfuric acid. For glucose yield, hydrolysis efficiency of 82% was obtained for conversion of oil palm trunk to glucose using two-stage concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Conclusively oil palm trunk can be considered as a resource of substantial amounts of starch and sugars.

  12. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA..., 2012 (77 FR 4300). The public comment period was to end on February 27, 2012--30 days after...

  13. Effects of land applications waste water of crude palm oil factory on some nutrient available in soil and nutrient content in palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was aimed to study effect of waste water of crude palm oil (CPO factory on some nutrient available in soil and nutrient content in palm oil. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized block design with six levels of waste water treatments (0, 250, 500, 750, 1.000, and 1.250 L tree-1 palm oil in three replications. The result showed that the level 750 L tree-1 of waste water treatment have significant effects on increased of nutrient available in soil (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg including soil pH, but not significant with level 1000 and 1250 L tree-1 except P. On the other hand, nutrient content in palm oil (N, P, and K were not significantly influenced by waste water treatments.

  14. Utilization of palm oil sludge through pyrolysis for bio-oil and bio-char production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Al-Nadheri, Wail Mohammed Ahmed; Jegarajan, Dinesh; Sahu, J N; Mubarak, N M; Nizamuddin, S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, pyrolysis technique was utilized for converting palm oil sludge to value added materials: bio-oil (liquid fuel) and bio-char (soil amendment). The bio-oil yield obtained was 27.4±1.7 wt.% having a heating value of 22.2±3.7 MJ/kg and a negligible ash content of 0.23±0.01 wt.%. The pH of bio-oil was in alkaline region. The bio-char yielded 49.9±0.3 wt.%, which was further investigated for sorption efficiency by adsorbing metal (Cd(2+) ions) from water. The removal efficiency of Cd(2+) was 89.4±2%, which was almost similar to the removal efficiency of a commercial activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir model. Therefore, pyrolysis is proved as an efficient tool for palm oil sludge management, where the waste was converted into valuable products. PMID:25278112

  15. Analysis of quality of the biogasoils of palm oil and castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is a fuel made from raw materials of renewable origin such as vegetable oils. The objective of this work is to make a quality analysis of two types of biodiesel made from raw materials available in Colombia such as palm oil and castor oil. Biodiesel from palm oil complies with the majority of technical requirements specified by ASTM standards D-975 y D-6751. A high cloud point is the main drawback of this kind of biodiesel. This is a consequence of its highly saturated chemical nature. On the other hand, biodiesel from castor oil presents more difficulties in order to be used in diesel engines because of having a low cetane index and a high viscosity

  16. Biodegradation of oil palm empty fruit bunch by composite micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison study on the comparative biodegradation ability on EFB by five groups of composite micro-organisms [Organomine, Thomas, Ohres C, Ohres II and micro-organisms from POME (palm oil mill effluent)] has been performed with the aim of producing a compost at a faster rate than that by natural biodegradation. The experiment was carried out by mixing 50 gram EFB (dry weight basis) with 3% ammonium sulphate to which was added 1% composite micro-organisms and water to produce a composting media of moisture content about 60%. Respiration of composite micro-organisms as well as from decomposition of EFB releasing CO sub 2. The choice of useful micro-organisms was based on its ability to degrade EFB as reflected by higher evolution rate of CO sub 2 released and retaining higher percentage of nitrogen in the final product

  17. Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author)

  18. Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1994-01-01

    A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author).

  19. How the palm oil industry is cooking the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    Every year, 1.8 billion tonnes (Gt) of climate changing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are released by the degradation and burning of Indonesia's peatlands, which is 4% of global GHG emissions from less than 0.1% of the land on earth. This report shows how, through growing demand for palm oil, the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel industries are driving the wholesale destruction of peatlands and rainforests. These companies include Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, who between them account for a significant volume of global palm oil use, mainly from Indonesia and Malaysia. Overlaying satellite imagery of forest fires with maps indicating the locations of the densest carbon stores in Indonesia, Greenpeace researchers have been able to pinpoint carbon 'hotspots'. Our research has taken us to the Indonesian province of Riau on the island of Sumatra, to document the current activities of those involved in the expansion of palm oil. These are the producers who trade with Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, as well as many of the other top names in the food, cosmetic and biofuel industries. The area of peatland in Riau is tiny: just 4 million hectares, about the size of Taiwan or Switzerland. Yet Riau's peatlands store 14.6Gt of carbon. If these peatlands were destroyed, the resulting GHG emissions would be equivalent to one year's total global emissions. Unless efforts are made to halt forest and peatland destruction, emissions from these peatlands may trigger a 'climate bomb'.

  20. Expression Comparison of Oil Biosynthesis Genes in Oil Palm Mesocarp Tissue Using Custom Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yick Ching Wong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression changes that occur during mesocarp development are a major research focus in oil palm research due to the economic importance of this tissue and the relatively rapid increase in lipid content to very high levels at fruit ripeness. Here, we report the development of a transcriptome-based 105,000-probe oil palm mesocarp microarray. The expression of genes involved in fatty acid (FA and triacylglycerol (TAG assembly, along with the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA and glycolysis pathway at 16 Weeks After Anthesis (WAA exhibited significantly higher signals compared to those obtained from a cross-species hybridization to the Arabidopsis (p-value < 0.01, and rice (p-value < 0.01 arrays. The oil palm microarray data also showed comparable correlation of expression (r2 = 0.569, p < 0.01 throughout mesocarp development to transcriptome (RNA sequencing data, and improved correlation over quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR (r2 = 0.721, p < 0.01 of the same RNA samples. The results confirm the advantage of the custom microarray over commercially available arrays derived from model species. We demonstrate the utility of this custom microarray to gain a better understanding of gene expression patterns in the oil palm mesocarp that may lead to increasing future oil yield.

  1. Biodiesel Production from Crude Palm Oil by Transesterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Alkabbashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An overflow system for batch esterification of Crude Palm Oil (CPO to obtain Palm Oil Biodiesel (POB was developed using a batch reactor (shake flask. The alkali catalyst of potassium hydroxide had been used to carry the transestrication process with methanol; ultimately, 2 layers were form from the reaction-the lower layer of glycerol and the upper layer of methyl esters; the later layer is the targeted biodiesel. Optimization of the process was held for determining of the best possible yield of biodiesel at the end of the reaction which was 93.6%. This was carried by finding the optimal values of reaction time of 60 min, reaction temperature of 60°C, agitation speed of 250 rpm, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 10:1 (m/m and dosage of the catalyst of 1.4 (%wt. Other experimental design and analytical tests were conducted including: density of POB at room temperature, 0.8498 kg L-1, surface tension at STP of 26.96 mN m-1, with Huh-Mason correction of 0.1 and finally free fatty acid percentage of 0.12% (equivalent to acid value of 0.26 mg KOH g-1.

  2. Palm oil industry: A review of the literature on the modelling approaches and potential solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabid, M. Faeid M.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-01

    Palm oil industry plays an important role as a backbone to the economy of a country, especially in many developing countries. Various issues related to the palm oil context have been studied rigorously by previous researchers using appropriate modeling approaches. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of existing modeling approaches used by researchers in studying several issues in the palm oil industry. However, there are still limited numbers of researches that focus to determine the impact of strategy policies on palm oil studies. Furthermore, this paper introduces an improved system dynamics and genetic algorithm technique to facilitate the policy design process in palm oil industry. The proposed method is expected to become a framework for structured policy design process to assist the policy maker in evaluating and designing appropriate policies.

  3. Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

  4. Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, D.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

  5. Effect of Sterilization Process on Deterioration of Bleachability Index (DOBI) of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Extracted from Different Degree of Oil Palm Ripeness

    OpenAIRE

    Junaidah Mat Jusoh; Norizzah Abd Rashid; Zaliha Omar

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) sterilization process was studied using different degree of FFB ripeness (i.e. underripe, ripe, overripe) and loose fruits. The experimental runs were conducted using laboratory scale sterilizer at varied process condition. With application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the obtained results were used for analyzing interrelation between heating parameters and Deterioration of Bleachability Index (DOBI) of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and performing sterilizati...

  6. Concrete using waste oil palm shells as aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basri, H.B.; Mannan, M.A.; Zain, M.F.M. [Univ. Kebangsaan Malaysia, Ukm Bangi (Malaysia). Dept. of Civil and Structural Engineering

    1999-04-01

    Concrete with oil palm shells (OPS) as coarse aggregate was investigated for its workability, density, and compressive strength development over 56 days under three curing conditions. The effect of fly ash as partial cement replacement was also studied. Fresh OPS concrete was found to have better workability while its 28-day air-dry density was 19--20% lower than ordinary concrete. Compressive strength after 56 days was found to be 41--50% lower than ordinary concrete. These results were still within the normal range for structural lightweight concrete. Fly ash was found to lower the compressive strength of OPS concrete, which was the opposite of its effect on normal concrete.

  7. Development of Oil Palm Tissue Culture Weight Measurement System

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Bakar Hasan; Rozita Mustafa; Ahmad Jais Alias; Ahmad Tarmizi Hashim; Khairil Anuar; Shahrul Ahmad; Jamaludin omar

    2012-01-01

    The base to grow the oil palm tissue culture is jelly like liquid, added with certain composition of nutrition, fertilizer and soil components in order to propel the growth of the plant tissue cells. It is assumed that the base liquid composition will definitely changes as the cells growth, since the cells will consume the nutrition in it, and also excrete toxic and waste to it. This can be recognized from the chan...

  8. STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER

    OpenAIRE

    Xiwen Wang,; Jian Hu,; Jingshan Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%), good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g), and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; C...

  9. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    OpenAIRE

    Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam; Tee Chew Tek; Saied Reza Farrokhpayam

    2008-01-01

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm ?, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along ...

  10. Palm Oil Factory Wastewater Treatment Using Electrochemical Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to determine the suitability of palm oil factory wastewater treatment using electrochemical technique with stainless steel as both working and counter electrode in 0.1 M NaCl. Treated liquid samples were later analysed using UV-Vis and COD determination. While solid samples formed during the electrolysis process were analyse using FTIR and CHNS analyser. Results obtained showed than electrochemical technique with the above condition able to reduced color and COD level of the wastewater up to 50 % and 80 % respectively after 3 hour electrolysis time with 10 V applied voltage. (author)

  11. Acetic acid based oil palm biomass refining process

    OpenAIRE

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Lips, S.J.J.; Dam, J.E.G. van; Engelen-Smit, N.P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for refining a biomass from empty fruit bunches of oil palm with a dry matter content of 5-95 wt.%, based on the total wt. of the biomass, where the process comprises the subsequent stages of (a) water extn. under atm. pressure conditions and at pH of 5-7, (b) pre hydrolysis with water, steam or a their mixt. at 100°- 200°, and (c) hydrolysis at a pH of < 7. In a further aspect of the invention, one or more valuable byproducts such as for example, vegetable ...

  12. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  13. UV-curable acrylated coating from epoxidized palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurliyana Abd; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

    2014-09-01

    The properties of coating film prepared from the incorporation of acrylated palm oil (EPOLA) in commercial epoxy acrylate have been studied. A series of different amount of EPOLA was mixed with commercial epoxy acrylate. The blended acrylates passed through UV light to produce a non-tacky film. The conversion of acrylate double bond was monitored by FTIR. The effect of EPOLA concentration onto coated films were investigated by determination of the pendulum hardness and gel content. The higher the amount of EPOLA, the lower the pendulum hardness and the gel content but to a level acceptable for usage in the high-end applications.

  14. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodiesel and the associated GHG emissions are also studied. This study follows the methodology suggested by the Dutch Commission on Sustainable Biomass (Cramer Commission). The results demonstrate that land use change is the most decisive factor in overall GHG emissions and that palm oil energy chains based on land that was previously natural rainforest or peatland have such large emissions that they cannot meet the 50-70% GHG emission reduction target set by the Cramer Commission. However, if CPO production takes place on degraded land, management of CPO production is improved, or if the by-product PFAD is used for electricity production, the emission reduction criteria can be met, and palm-oil-based electricity can be considered sustainable from a GHG emission point of view. Even though the biodiesel base case on logged-over forest meets the Cramer Commission's emission reduction target for biofuels of 30%, other cases, such as oil palm plantations on degraded land and improved management, can achieve emissions reductions of more than 150%, turning oil palm plantations into carbon sinks. In order for bioenergy to be sustainably produced from palm oil and its derivatives, degraded land should be used for palm oil production and management should be improved

  15. Effects of Enzymatic Interesterification on the Physicochemical, Polymorphism and Textural Properties of Palm Stearin, Palm Kernel Oil and Soybean Oil Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Hazirah Mohamad Fauzi; Norizzah Abd Rashid; Zaliha Omar

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of enzymatic interesterification (EIE) using Lipozyme TL IM on palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO), soybean oil (SBO) and their constituent blends formulated according to a Design Expert 8.0.4 (2010). The effects of EIE on slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol composition (TAG), polymorphism and textural properties were investigated. Palm-based trans-free table margarine containing ternary mixture of PS/PKO/SBO [50/22/28 (w/w)...

  16. Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in Old and New worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; He, Dong; Hogan, Michael; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lee, Ernest K; DeSalle, Rob; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wing, Rod A; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Robert S; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2013-08-15

    Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535 Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30 tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop. PMID:23883927

  17. Biodiversity of Termite (Insecta: Isoptera) in Tropical Peat Land Cultivated with Oil Palms

    OpenAIRE

    Jie-Hung P. King; Choon-Fah J. Bong; Thian-Woei Kon; Chan-Teck S. Leong

    2012-01-01

    Termites are the major decomposers in tropical region but yet their occurrences in oil palm plantation especially in peat soil are generally treated as pest. Study of termite species in peat land was conducted in selected oil palm plantations in North Sarawak with 5-7 years old palms and South Sarawak with 13-15 years old palms with two sites in each area. Results of quadrate (25x25x30 cm) sampling showed termite was significantly higher in relative density with increasing depth of soil (0-10...

  18. Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. I-Solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Ilka S.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100oC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by solid fat content (SFC and consistency. Results showed a presence of eutectic system at PO and PKO compositions, mainly at 80/20, 60/40 and 50/50 fractions, proved through isosolids and isoconsistency diagrams. The incompatibility among the oils was decreased after reaction and improved the composition plasticity, demonstrated by the increment of solids value and yield value at room temperature.Se interesterificaron, en el laboratorio, mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO: 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 en condiciones predefinidas (0.4% metóxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100oC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por su contenido de grasa sólida (SFC y su consistencia. Los resultados mostraron la presencia de un sistema eutéctico en las mezclas de PO y PKO, principalmente en las proporciones 80/20, 60/40 y 50/50, demostrado por los diagramas de isosólidos y de isoconsistencia. La incompatibilidad entre los aceites disminuyó después de la interesterificación y la plasticidad de las mezclas mejoró, hecho demostrado por el incremento del contenido de sólidos y del límite de fluidez a temperatura ambiente.

  19. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  20. Oil Palm Boom and Land-Use Dynamics in Indonesia: The Role of Policies and Socioeconomic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Marcel; Wollni, Meike; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate land-use dynamics in Jambi, Sumatra, one of the hotspots of Indonesia’ recent oil palm boom. Data from a structured village survey are used to analyze the role of socioeconomic and policy factors. Oil palm is partly grown on large plantations, but smallholders are also involved significantly. We find that, in spite of significant oil palm expansion, rubber remains the dominant crop. Most of the oil palm growth takes place on previous fallow and rubber land. Oil palm has not bee...