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Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

A. C. Er

2011-01-01

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Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development  

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Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation o...

Er, A. C.; Nor, Abd R. M.; Katiman Rostam

2011-01-01

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Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as we...

2008-01-01

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Electrocoagulation of palm oil mill effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME. PMID:19139537

Agustin, Melissa B; Sengpracha, Waya P; Phutdhawong, Weerachai

2008-09-01

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Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available Electrocoagulation (EC is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME.

Weerachai Phutdhawong

2008-09-01

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Aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent.  

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In this study treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated using aerobic oxidation based on an activated sludge process. The effects of sludge volume index, scum index and mixed liquor suspended solids during the acclimatizing phase and biomass build-up phase were investigated in order to ascertain the reactor stability. The efficiency of the activated sludge process was evaluated by treating anaerobically digested and diluted raw POME obtained from Golden Hope Plantations, Malaysia. The treatment of POME was carried out at a fixed biomass concentration of 3900+/-200mg/L, whereas the corresponding sludge volume index was found to be around 105+/-5mL/g. The initial studies on the efficiency of the activated sludge reactor were carried out using diluted raw POME for varying the hydraulic retention time, viz: 18, 24, 30 and 36h and influent COD concentration, viz: 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000mg/L, respectively. The results showed that at the end of 36h of hydraulic retention time for the above said influent COD, the COD removal efficiencies were found to be 83%, 72%, 64%, 54% and 42% whereas at 24h hydraulic retention time they were 57%, 45%, 38%, 30% and 27%, respectively. The effectiveness of aerobic oxidation was also compared between anaerobically digested and diluted raw POME having corresponding CODs of 3908 and 3925mg/L, for varying hydraulic retention time, viz: 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54 and 60h. The dissolved oxygen concentration and pH in the activated sludge reactor were found to be 1.8-2.2mg/L and 7-8.5, respectively. The scum index was found to rise from 0.5% to 1.9% during the acclimatizing phase and biomass build-up phase. PMID:16584834

Vijayaraghavan, K; Ahmad, Desa; Ezani Bin Abdul Aziz, Mohd

2007-01-01

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PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT  

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The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of...

Chiew Wei Puah; Yuen May Choo; Soon Hock Ong

2013-01-01

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A Study of Biomass Fuel Briquettes from Oil Palm Mill Residues  

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This study presents a systematic approach in utilizing the large amount of oil palm mill residues that are loosely-bounded and have low energy density. The rate of waste materials (palm kernel shell, palm fiber and empty fruit bunches) generated by oil palm mills amounted to about 34 million tonnes in 2010. Efforts have been made to increase the energy density of the loosely-bounded waste materials, in which solid fuel briquettes made of densified oil palm residues would contribute towa...

Chin Yee Sing; Shiraz Aris, M.

2013-01-01

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PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT  

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Full Text Available The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG such as methane and carbon dioxide emissions by avoiding the formation of liquid biomass in the form of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. The attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA shows the improved milling process contributes to significant reduction of GHG emission from palm oil mills as compared to the process of capturing biogas from POME. The palm based food source contains phytonutrients, namely carotenoids, tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienols and water soluble polyphenols.

Chiew Wei Puah

2013-01-01

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Co-Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge-Sawdust  

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Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge (POMS) with sawdust was conducted in natural aerated reactor. Composting using natural aerated reactor is cheap and simple. The goal of this study is to observe the potential of composting process and utilizing compost as media for growing Cymbopogun citratus, one of Malaysia herbal plant. The highest maximum temperature achieved is about 40°C and to increase temperature bed, more biodegradable substrate needs to be added. The pH value decrease along...

Abu Zahrim Yaser; Rakmi Abd Rahman; Mohd Sahaid Kalil

2007-01-01

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A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel cake, oleo-chemicals and finished products, equivalent to RM 49.59 billion of export revenue. However, cost of production for Crude Palm Oil (CPO varies in a big gap. Therefore, it is essential to identify the major cost influencing factors in the production of CPO. Approach: The study system started with collection of Fresh Fruits Bunches (FFB from oil palm plantation to the production of CPO at palm oil mills. Two palm oil mills of different production capacity were chosen for this study. Statistical analysis was done to identify the major cost influencing factors of production cost for CPO. Results: The production cost of CPO for small scale palm oil mills preferably lied between RM 45 to RM 50 per metric tons while large scale palm oil mills lied below RM 45 per metric tons. Conclusion: Palm oil mills with higher production capacity were efficient in producing CPO than lower production capacity palm oil mills. Thus, the production cost of CPO was lower compared to that of small scale palm oil mills.

Elaine L.Y. Man

2011-01-01

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A Study on Zeolite Performance in Waste Treating Ponds for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Oil palm currently occupies the largest acreage of farm land in Malaysia. In 2011, the production of palm oil in Malaysia was recorded as 19.8 million tons which has led to a huge amount of wastewater known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). This work focuses on the ponding system which acts as wastewater treatment plant in order to treat POME. The conventional ponding system applied in mills consists...

Halim Shah Ismail, M.; Shazryenna Dalang; Syafiie Syam; Shamsul Izhar

2013-01-01

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The possibility of palm oil mill effluent for biogas production  

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Full Text Available The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Indonesia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil (Elaeis guiinensis Jacq.. The aims of the research were to (i characterize palm oil mill effluent which will be used as source of biogas production, (ii know the biotic and abiotic factors which effect POME substrate for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in bulk system. The results show that POME sludge generated from PT Pinago Utama mill is viscous, brown or grey and has an average total solid (TS content of, 26.5-45.4, BOD is 23.5-29.3, COD is 49.0-63.6 and SS is 17.1-35.9 g/L, respectively. This substrate is a potential source of environmental pollutants. The biotic factors were kind and concentration of the inoculums, i.e. seed sludge of anaerobic lagoon II and 20% (w/v respectively. Both physical and chemical factors such as pre-treated POME pH, pH neutralizer matter Ca (OH2, temperature ?40oC, agitation effect to increase biogas production, but in both coagulant concentration, FeCl2 were not.

EDWI MAHAJOENO

2008-01-01

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Environmental Performance of the Milling Process Of Malaysian Palm Oil Using The Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

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Malaysia is currently the world leader in the production and export of palm oil. This study has a gate to gate system boundary. The inventory data collection starts at the oil palm fresh fruit bunch hoppers when the fresh fruit bunch is received at the mill up till the production of the crude palm oil in the storage tanks at the mill. The plantation phase and land use for the production of oil palm fresh fruit bunch is not included in this system boundary. This gate to gate case study of 12 m...

Vijaya Subramaniam; Ngan, Ma A.; May, Choo Y.; Sulaiman, Nik M. K.

2008-01-01

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Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills  

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Full Text Available Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm oil mills operators on current advance POME treatment technology (PTT in relation to achieving zero discharge concepts. The survey attempted to identify the key issues about the PTT in respect to feasibility of zero discharge concepts in palm oil mills. The results shows that, although palm oil mills generate a lot of different types of wastes during processing of Fresh Fruit Bunches, according to the operators and available literature, POME is the most difficult waste to manage. The results also shows that, palm oil mills cannot meet up with the new discharge limits of 20ppm of BOD and zero emission using only conventional open or closed pounding system

Yahaya S. Madaki

2013-10-01

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Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder  

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A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Ma...

Ahmad, A. L.; Bhatia, S.; Ibrahim, N.; Sumathi, S.

2005-01-01

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Adsorption Chromatography of Carotenes from Extracted Oil of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Carotenes is one of the most important vitamin A precursor in human nutrition which has numerous advantages. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is wastewater which consists of carotenes in the oil and grease content. Therefore, adsorption chromatography is used to separate the carotenes from the oil and grease in POME. Several types of adsorbents, temperatures and mass loading were studied in the experiments. The 40°C and oil:adsorbent ratio of 1:5 was recommended to be the most suitable temperat...

2010-01-01

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Phytoremediations of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) by Using Aquatic Plants and Microalge for Biomass Production  

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Phytoremediation by using aquatic plants and microalgae was evaluated in study to reduce waste load of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). This study was aimed to utilize the aquatic plants i.e. water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lily (Nymphaea sp.) and alga Spriulina sp. to reduce COD and nutrients content in palm oil mill effluent. The phytoremediation was conducted in a sequence process. The aquatic plants were used in the first stage of remediation by varying ...

Hadiyanto; Marcelinus Christwardana; Danny Soetrisnanto

2013-01-01

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Co-Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge-Sawdust  

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Full Text Available Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge (POMS with sawdust was conducted in natural aerated reactor. Composting using natural aerated reactor is cheap and simple. The goal of this study is to observe the potential of composting process and utilizing compost as media for growing Cymbopogun citratus, one of Malaysia herbal plant. The highest maximum temperature achieved is about 40°C and to increase temperature bed, more biodegradable substrate needs to be added. The pH value decrease along the process with final pH compost is acidic (pH 5.7. The highest maximum organic losses are about 50% with final C/N ratio of the compost is about 19. Final compost also showed some fertilizing value but need to be adjusted to obtain an ideal substrate. Addition of about 70% sandy soil causes highest yield and excellent root development for C. citratus in potted media. Beside that, compost from POMS-sawdust also found to have fertilizer value and easy to handle. Composting of POMS with sawdust shows potential as an alternative treatment to dispose and recycle waste components.

Abu Zahrim Yaser

2007-01-01

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A Study of Biomass Fuel Briquettes from Oil Palm Mill Residues  

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Full Text Available This study presents a systematic approach in utilizing the large amount of oil palm mill residues that are loosely-bounded and have low energy density. The rate of waste materials (palm kernel shell, palm fiber and empty fruit bunches generated by oil palm mills amounted to about 34 million tonnes in 2010. Efforts have been made to increase the energy density of the loosely-bounded waste materials, in which solid fuel briquettes made of densified oil palm residues would contribute towards a more efficient utilization of the waste material. This work focused on determining a fuel briquette with an optimum ratio of waste materials mixtures that has considerably high heating value and good mechanical properties. As part of the densification process, the waste material was pulverized and then compacted using a 200 kN force into 40 mm diameter briquettes. The heating values, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and burning profile of the briquettes were studied. The end result was an optimised solid fuel with relatively high energy content made from a suitable mixing ratio of the different palm oil mill residues and an appropriate binder to ensure acceptable mechanical strength.

M. Shiraz Aris

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan  

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Full Text Available By-product produced from plantation and palm oil mill can be utilized for energy and protein source of ruminant feed. Thus, it still has potency for further exploration. The objective of the research was to investigate the nutrient value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product used to formulate ruminant feed. The research located in 66,118.5 ha of palm oil plantation in Paser regency, East Kalimantan province. The research was carried out in palm oil plantation and mill of PTPN XIII comprising productive plants (TM in +14,000 ha arranged in 9 divisions (afdeling. Measured variables consisted of: 1 dry mass production (mass of midrib every cutting and frond (kg;                        2 Centrosema sp mass production (kg; 3 mass of empty fruit bunches (kg; palm pressed fiber (PPF (kg, palm kernel cake (PKC (kg dan palm oil sludge (POS (kg; 4 nutrient content analyzed under proximate analysis in accordance with the procedure of Ruminant Feed Nutrient Laboratory, Faculty of Livestock, Diponegoro University. The result showed that total dry matter (DM production was 14.82 ton/ha/year, consisting: midrib 29.09% (crude protein (CP 3.16% and crude fiber (CF 37.85%, frond 10.31% (CP 6.53% dan CF 30.39%, Centrosema sp. 2.48% (CP 22.58% and CF 35.12, EFB 24.31% (CP 7.01% and CF 40.22%, PPF 1.23% (CP 5.56% and CF 50.36%, PKC 1.29% (CP 15.49% and CF10.45 and POS 1.20% (CP 17.86% and CF 45.99%. This could be concluded that palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product was recommended for ruminant feed as it had huge amount and appropriate nutrient contentDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60 [How to cite this article: Mayulu, H., Sunarso, C. I. Sutrisno, Sumarsono, M. Christiyanto, K. Isharyudono. (2013.  Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan, 5(2,56-60. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60

Hamdi Mayulu

2013-10-01

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Screening of thermotolerant microorganisms and application for oil separation from palm oil mill wastewater  

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Full Text Available The characteristics of palm oil mill wastewater (POMW were brown color, pH 3.8-4.3, temperature 48-55oC, total solids 68.2-82.1 g/l, suspended solids 26.2-65.6 g/l, oil and grease 19.1-25.1 g/l, COD 49.9-160.7g/l and BOD 32.5-75.3 g/l. After centrifugation (3,184 xg of 50 ml POMW for 10 min, the POMW was separated into 3 layers: top (oil, middle (supernatant and bottom layer (sediment. The sediment containeddry weight 1.19 g and oil and grease 1.07 g. In order to release oil and grease trapped in palm fiber debris in the POMW, cellulase- and/or xylanase-enzyme-producing and thermotolerant microorganisms wereisolated. The isolates SO1 and SO2 were isolated from soil near the first anaerobic pond of the palm oil mill. They were aerobic, Gram positive, rod shaped, thermotolerant microorganisms and produced cellulase 12.11 U/ml (3 days and 7.2 U/ml (4 days, and xylanase 50.98 U/ml (4 days and 20.42 U/ml (4 days, respectivelyin synthetic medium containing carboxymethycellulose as a carbon source. When these 2 isolates were added into the steriled POMW under shaking condition for 7 days, after centrifugation at 3,184 xg the isolate SO1gave the better % reduction of dry weight (64.66 % and of oil and grease in the bottom layer (85.32 % of the POMW.

Aran H-Kittikun

2007-05-01

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Trends and Effective Use of Energy Input in the Palm Kernel Oil Mills  

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This work aims at studying the importance and the efficiency of energy use in a few palm kernel oil mills selected for their representativity. Pattern of energy use, the cost of energy per unit product, energy intensity and normalized performance indicator (NPI) were determined. Results show that the medium and the large mills depend largely on fossil fuel; while the small mill depends on electricity. It was found out that the large mill has the most effective use of energy with high energy i...

Bamgboye, Ai; Jekanyinfa, So

2007-01-01

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Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing o [...] f sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Malaysian Department of Environment. A bench-scale study of the adsorption of residual oil in POME using synthetic rubber powder was conducted using a jar test apparatus. The adsorption process was studied by varying parameters affecting the process. The parameters were adsorbent dosage, mixing speed, mixing time and pH. The optimum values of the parameters were obtained. It was found that almost 88% removal of residual oil was obtained with an adsorbent dosage of 30 mg dm-3 and mixing speed of 150 rpm for 3 hr at a pH 7. Adsorption equilibrium was also studied, and it was found that the adsorption process on the synthetic rubber powder fit the Freundlich isotherm model.

Ahmad, A.L.; Bhatia, S.; Ibrahim, N.; Sumathi, S..

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Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder  

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Full Text Available A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Malaysian Department of Environment. A bench-scale study of the adsorption of residual oil in POME using synthetic rubber powder was conducted using a jar test apparatus. The adsorption process was studied by varying parameters affecting the process. The parameters were adsorbent dosage, mixing speed, mixing time and pH. The optimum values of the parameters were obtained. It was found that almost 88% removal of residual oil was obtained with an adsorbent dosage of 30 mg dm-3 and mixing speed of 150 rpm for 3 hr at a pH 7. Adsorption equilibrium was also studied, and it was found that the adsorption process on the synthetic rubber powder fit the Freundlich isotherm model.

A.L. Ahmad

2005-09-01

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Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m{sup 2}. Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping. (author)

Yacob, Shahrakbah; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato [Department of Biological Functions and Engineering, Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 808-0196 (Japan); Ali Hassan, Mohd [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Subash, Sunderaj [Felda Palm Industries Sdn. Bhd., Balai Felda, Jalan Gurney Satu, 54000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2006-07-31

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Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping. PMID:16125215

Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

2006-07-31

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A Review of Biofilm Treatment Systems in Treating Downstream Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME  

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Full Text Available The palm oil industry is a vital economic backbone of Malaysia since it is one of the world’s largest producer and exporter of palm oil despite creating enormous environmental problems, one being the huge generation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME during the oil extraction process. This highly polluting wastewater contains high concentrations of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD. Due to the high organic content of POME, biological treatment method seems to be a preferable solution. Therefore, a series of treatment comprising of fermentation, algae, biofilm and membrane system is proposed as one of the possible option to treat POME. This paper also reviews few configurations and modes of operation of several biofilm treatment systems as well as focusing on the application of a Fluidized Bed Biofilm Reactor (FBBR in treating POME further down the proposed treatment chain.

M.S. Takriff

2014-01-01

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High-rate anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent  

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Full Text Available Palm oil mil effluent (POME contains high amount of organic matter, oil & grease, total solids and suspended solids. Anaerobic treatment of POME was conducted at room temperature (30±2ºC and high temperature (50±0.5ºC. The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT, organic loading rate (OLR, COD:N ratio and temperature on the anaerobic digestion of POME were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be 10 days HRT, OLR of 9.50 kg COD m-3d-1, COD:N ratio of 65 and the optimum temperature at 50ºC. The highest COD reduction of 81.1% was achieved. Biogas production in general was greater than 0.30 m3/kg COD/d. Comparison on anaerobic treatment using POME and POME treated by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi Rhizopus sp. ST4 revealed that the biopretreated POME gave higher COD removal (72.6% but lower biogas production (0.97 m3/m3/d or 0.27 m3/kg COD/d than the POME without pretreatment (56.1% and 1.16 m3/m3/d or 0.37 m3/kg COD/d, respectively.

Masao Ukita

2001-11-01

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Environmental Performance of the Milling Process Of Malaysian Palm Oil Using The Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

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Full Text Available Malaysia is currently the world leader in the production and export of palm oil. This study has a gate to gate system boundary. The inventory data collection starts at the oil palm fresh fruit bunch hoppers when the fresh fruit bunch is received at the mill up till the production of the crude palm oil in the storage tanks at the mill. The plantation phase and land use for the production of oil palm fresh fruit bunch is not included in this system boundary. This gate to gate case study of 12 mills identifies the potential impacts associated with the production of palm oil using the life cycle assessment approach and evaluates opportunities to overcome the potential impacts. Most of the impact categories show savings rather than impact. Within the system boundary there are only two main parameters that are causing the potential impacts to the environment; they are the Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME followed by the boiler ash. The impact categories that the POME contributes to are under the Respiratory Organics and Climate Change. Both these impact categories are related to air emissions. The main air emission from the POME ponds during the anaerobic digestion is the biogas which consists of methane, carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen sulfide. An alternate scenario was conducted to see how the impact will be if the biogas was harvested and used as energy and the results shows that when the biogas is harvested, the impact from the POME is removed. The other significant impact is the boiler ash. This is the ash that is produced when the biomass is burnt in the boiler. This potential impact contributes to the ecotoxicity impact category. This is mainly because of the disposal of this ash which in most cases was used for land application in the roads leading to the mil or in the plantations. If the parameters causing these two potential impacts are curbed, then this will be a further plus point for the Malaysian oil palm industry which is already avoiding fossil fuel based energy and chemical use for processing.

Vijaya Subramaniam

2008-01-01

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An Experimental Investigation on the Handling and Storage Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquettes Made from Oil Palm Mill Residues  

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This study is about experimental investigation on solid fuel briquettes made of oil palm mill residues that exhibit optimum handling and storage properties. One of the major technical challenges in utilizing biomass waste material as a solid fuel is the handling and storage issues of loose and wet waste material. The solid biomass fuel briquettes made from different types and combinations of palm oil mill residues were explored for optimum storage and handling features. A solution to im...

Chin Yee Sing; Mohd. Shiraz Aris

2012-01-01

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Adsorption isotherm studies of BOD, TSS and colour reduction from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using boiler fly ash  

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Palm oil is one of the two most important vegetable oils in the world's oil and fats market. The extraction and purification processes generate different kinds of waste generally known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). Earlier studies had indicated the possibility of using boiler fly ash to adsorb impurities and colour in POME treatment. The adsorption treatment of POME using boiler fly ash was further investigated in detail in this work with regards to the reduction of BOD, colour and TSS fr...

Igwe, J. C.; Onyegbado, C. O.; Abia, A. A.

2010-01-01

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Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia  

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Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on the effect of concentration of sedimented POME, the effect of initial culture pH and the use of immobilized cells for ABE production. It was found that C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 grown in ...

Mohd Sahaid Kalil; Pang Wey Kit; Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff; Yoshino Sadazo; Rakmi Abdul Rahman

2003-01-01

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Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor  

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Full Text Available As the issue of global warming draws increasing concern, many studies to reduce CO2 and CH4 gases (greenhouse gases, GHG have been implemented in several countries, including in Indonesia. Considering that Indonesia has a huge numbers of palm oil mills, no doubt if their waste water treatment as one of the major sources in GHG.  This paper presents the results from a research project between Metawater Co., Ltd.-Japan and University of Sumatera Utara-Indonesia. The objective of the research is to study the methane emission of thermophilic fermentation in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME on a laboratory scale. Anaerobic digestion was performed in two-litre water jacketed biodigester type continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and operated at a thermophilic temperature (55 oC. As raw material, a real liquid waste (POME from palm oil mill was used. Fresh POME was obtained from seeding pond of PTPN II waste water treatment facility which has concentration of 39.7 g of VS/L and COD value of 59,000 mg/L. To gain precise results, complete recording and reliable equipment of reactor was employed. As the experimental results, for hydraulic retention time (HRT 8 days, VS decomposition rate of 63.5% and gas generation of 6.05-9.82 L/day were obtained, while for HRT 6 and 4 days, VS decomposition rate of 61.2, 53.3% and gas generation of  6.93-8.94  and  13.95-16.14 L/day were obtained respectively. Keywords—methane (CH4, palm oil mill effluent (POME, anaerobic digestion, thermophilic, green house gases (GHG

Vivian Wongistani

2012-04-01

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Optimization of Electricity Generation and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment from Microbial Fuel Cell  

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Natural micro-flora of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) sludge was grown in dual-chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC) to produce electricity by providing glucose at different concentration. A greater strength of Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) was observed with optimal biomass metabolism activity, as increasing glucose concentrations. The time Response Constant (RC) of OCV was taken everyday to estimate the total time needed to achieve steady state voltage at zero current. The lower value of RC indicat...

Swee Su Lim; Jamaliah Md. Jahim; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Manal Ismail; Nurina Anuar; Siti Kartom Kamarudin; Siti Norhana Shari

2010-01-01

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Inverstigation of the Viability of Selected Microorganisms on the Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POMRE)  

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Biodegradation of palm oil mill effluents (POME) by three microorganisms namely Trichoderma viride, (Tv), Candida cylindricea (Cd) and Phaneaochaete chrysospium (Pc), were conducted in batch aerobic reactors. The autoclaved and un-autoclaved raw POME samples were agitated at 150rpm, incubated for 5days and the activities of the microorganisms were terminated at -200C. The supernatant of the digested POME were investigated for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen dem...

2012-01-01

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Mesophilic co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent and empty fruit bunches.  

Science.gov (United States)

The palm oil mill industry generates palm oil mill effluent (POME) and empty fruit bunches (EFB) as by-products. This study reports the mesophilic co-digestion of POME with EFB. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of POME and EFB was 0.397 L CH4/g volatile solids (VS) and 0.264 L CH4/g VS, respectively. In a series of batch tests at various EFB to POME ratios, the maximum methane production rate was achieved at an EFB:POME ratio of 0.25-0.31:1. Performance data from lab-scale digesters confirmed the positive synergism by the addition of EFB to POME, which was attributed to the balanced chemical composition, for example the chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio. The EFB addition enhanced the acceptable organic loading rate, methane production, COD removal, and microbial activity. The mesophilic co-digestion of POME and EFB promises to be a viable recycling method to alleviate pollution problems and recover renewable energy in the palm oil mill industry. PMID:24350470

Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Choi, Seon-Mi; Ju, Hyun-Jun; Jung, Jin-Young

2013-01-01

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Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME and 98% biodegradability. Meanwhile, the maximum methane potential of EFB was 202mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 79.1m3 CH4/ton EFB with 38% biodegradability. Co-digestion of EFB with POME enhanced microbial biodegradability and resulted in 25â??32% higher methane production at mixing ratios of 0.4:1, 0.8:1 and 2.3:1 on VS basis than digesting EFB alone. The methane yield was 276â??340mL CH4/gVS-added for co-digestion of EFB with POME at mixing ratios of 0.4:1â??2.3:1, while minor improvement was observed at mixing ratios of 6.8:1 and 11:1 (175â??197mL CH4/gVS-added). The best improved was achieved from co-digestion of treated EFB by NaOH presoaking and hydrothermal treatment with POME, which resulted in 98% improvement inmethane yield comparing with co-digesting untreated EFB. The maximum methane production of co-digestion treated EFB with POME was 82.7m3 CH4/ton of mixed treated EFB and POME (6.8:1), corresponding to methane yield of 392mL CH4/gVS-added. The electricity production of 1ton mixture of treated EFB and POME would be 1190MJ or 330kWh of electricity. The study shows that there is a great potential to co-digestion treated EFB with POME for bioenergy production.

O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan

2012-01-01

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Enzymatic saccharification of hemicellulose extracted from palm oil mill wastes  

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Full Text Available Various parameters affecting the extraction of hemicellulose from palm cake by alkali method and sterilizer condensate by solvent method were investigated. For extraction of hemicellulose from palm cake, the optimal ratio of palm cake to sodium hydroxide (NaOH (1.5% conc. was 1:10. However, potassium hydroxide (KOH was a better source of alkali than NaOH and the optimum ratio of palm cake to 12% KOH was 1:50 (w/v. Temperature over 100ºC (100 and 121ºC extracted significantly higher hemicellulose than at 80ºC after 20 min treatment. The addition of ethanol to the extracted solution in the ratio of 1:1 (v/v gave the highest hemicellulose yield of 8.67 g/100 g palm cake. For extraction of hemicellulose from sterilizer condensate, the optimum ratio of ethanol to the condensate was 2:1 (v/v, which gave a hemicellulose yield of 6.42 g/100 ml. The enzymatic saccharification of the hemicelllulose extracted from palm cake (HEPC and from sterilizer condensate (HESC was 3-10 times lower than that of xylan. The enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 and Meicellase gave higher saccharification rates than that of Sumyzyme. The contents of reducing sugars in xylan, HEPC and HESC were 96.4, 36.2 and 20.6%, respectively and 75.3, 67.9 and 97.6% of these values could be hydrolysed by the enzymes. Hence, palm cake was a better source of substrate for extraction of hemicellulose while hemicellulose extracted from sterilizer condensate gave higher percentage of enzymatic saccharification.

Poonsuk Prasertsan

2001-11-01

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Integrated palm oil processing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Use of Palm Oil for Power Generation  

…gross calorific value basis GHG emissions from palm oil production Fresh fruit branches from palm trees are taken to a crude palm oil mill where the fruits are crushed to produce crude palm oil. This is then taken to a refinery where it is fractionated into a lighter liquid fraction called palm oil olein…

42

Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi  

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Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45ºC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

Masao Ukita

2001-11-01

43

Reduction of Methane Released from Palm Oil Mill Lagoon in Malaysia and Its Countermeasures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palm oil industry in Malaysia is one of the potential candidates for the CDM project because large amount of methane is emitted from the lagoons and open digesting tank of the wastewater treatment system. Therefore the first objective of the project is to investigate the actual GHG emission from the lagoons and open digesting tank in palm oil mills in order to establish the baseline for CDM project. Results indicated that methane contribution to biogas released from the open digesting tank and lagoon systems were 35% and 45%, respectively. These values are much lower than the reported value of 65% obtained by complete anaerobic condition of lab-scale experiments. Based on actual methane release measurement and information gathered from palm oil mill about wastewater treatment, significant amount of methane emission to the atmosphere can be reduced with the installation of new closed digesting tank system converted from the open digesting tank such as just by covering it with applying CDM. It is estimated that a total of RM2.6 million could be obtained from the selling of electricity generated from biogas generation and Certified Emission Reduction (CER)

Shirai, Y.; Wakisaka, M.; Yacob, S. [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, 808-0196 Kitakyushu-shi (Japan); Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor (Malaysia); Suzuki, S. [EX Corporation, 17-22, Takada 2 chome, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-0033 (Japan)

2003-07-01

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Evaluation of Technological Content of Wastewater Treatment of Palm Oil Mill in Lampung Province, Indonesia  

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Full Text Available Palm oil industry is the most important economic sector in Lampung Province, Indonesia. There are 13 units of palm oil mills (POMs operating in Lampung, producing about 1,094,586 tons of palm oil mill effluent (POME a year. So far, the POME has been treated by the ponding system. However, the system has still caused environmental problems due to greenhouse gas emissions. Methane capture technology of which methane is converted to electrical energy is thus proposed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the conditions of POME treatment technology of POMs in Lampung. Technological content analysis was performed to identify the conditions of technoware, humanware, infoware and orgaware (THIO being applied at POMs. The results showed that: (1 technological condition of POME treatment at 13 POM's in Lampung was almost equal among state-owned enterprises (SOE' s, non-public companies, and public companies, (2 the value of technology contribution coefficient of PTPN V Tandun, as a reference POM unit,was higher than that of the technology contribution coefficient of the POMs in Lampung, and (3 enhancing performance technology elements of technoware, humanware, infoware, and orgaware to apply methane capture technology are absolutely needed by all the POMs in Lampung.

Sarono

2014-01-01

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A Study on Zeolite Performance in Waste Treating Ponds for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available Oil palm currently occupies the largest acreage of farm land in Malaysia. In 2011, the production of palm oil in Malaysia was recorded as 19.8 million tons which has led to a huge amount of wastewater known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. This work focuses on the ponding system which acts as wastewater treatment plant in order to treat POME. The conventional ponding system applied in mills consists of a series of seven ponds. The maintenance costs of the pond are expensive thus study of alternative methods is needed. POME treatment using zeolite shows a potential to overcome the problem. Samples collected from selected ponds are tested and analyzed using water analyzer method. Result from adsorption by zeolite shows a significant reduction of COD, BOD, Fe, Zn, Mn and turbidity. This shows that zeolite is highly potential to be applied as adsorbent in the POME treatment plants. The results here may lead to lower maintenance cost, lower quantity of treatment ponds and lesser land occupied for the treatment of POME in Malaysia.

Shamsul Izhar

2013-07-01

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Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor  

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As the issue of global warming draws increasing concern, many studies to reduce CO2 and CH4 gases (greenhouse gases, GHG) have been implemented in several countries, including in Indonesia. Considering that Indonesia has a huge numbers of palm oil mills, no doubt if their waste water treatment as one of the major sources in GHG. This paper presents the results from a research project between Metawater Co., Ltd.-Japan and University of Sumatera Utara-Indonesia. The objective of the research i...

2012-01-01

47

A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil  

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Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products incl...

Man, Elaine L. Y.; Adam Baharum

2011-01-01

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Evaluation of Hybrid Membrane Bioreactor (MBR For Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME Treatment  

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Full Text Available The pollution load of palm oil mill effluent (POME is in the range of 50,000 mg COD/L. With more than 500 palm oil mills, Malaysia produces some 13.9 million tonnes of crude palm oil annually and generates around 35 x 106 m3 POME. Typically, raw POME is difficult to degrade because it contains significant amounts of oil (tryacylglycerols and degradative products such as di-and monoacylglycerols and fatty acids. The fatty acids composition (C12 – C20 of each of this fraction are different from one another and contribute to the high value of pollution load in POME. Thus POME has to be treated, usually in a series of anaerobic and aerobic treatment steps, for the organic matter to be degraded before the effluent is allowed to be discharged into public waterways. The objective of this study was to observe the performance of a hybrid membrane bioreactor (MBR for POME. The raw POME was introduced into sequencing processes of anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic in order to achieve biological nutrient removal and the membrane modules were submerged into the aerobic zone. The critical flux of MBR using the flux-step method based on transmembrane pressure (TMP was conducted as well as flux and permeability studies for assessing fouling in a membrane bioreactor operating at constant flux. The reactor was operated at a mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS concentration of 4000 to 8000 mg/l. The removal efficiency of COD, SS, TN and TP achieved were 94%, 98%, 83% and 64% respectively. The hybrid MBR was found to be able to degrade POME significantly and high quality effluent could be reused for various other applications.Keywords:

Z. Ahmad

2009-12-01

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Screening and application of thermotolerant microorganisms and their flocculant for treatment of palm oil mill effluent  

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Full Text Available Among fifteen thermotolerant polymer-producing isolates, three strains SM 29, WD 90, and SM 38 produced polymer posessing very high flocculating activities (24.81, 14.63 and 10.84, respectively and flocculation rates (94.29, 90.69 and 87.84, respectively. These three strains were identified to be Bacillus subtilis WD90, Bacillus subtilis SM 29, and Enterobacter agglomerans SM 38. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME by these three selected strains under aerobic condition at 45ºC for 48 h revealed that neither oil separation nor flocculation of solids was observed. However, all three strains were able to decolorize the POME from dark brown to very light yellow. Flocculant produced from the three selected isolates could not separate the suspended solids and oil from the POME.

Saithong Kaewchai

2002-07-01

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Fed batch production of hydrogen from palm oil mill effluent using anaerobic microflora  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic production of hydrogen from palm oil mill effluent (POME) by microflora was investigated in 5-l bioreactor at 60{sup o}C and pH 5.5. POME sludge was collected from the anaerobic pond of a POME treatment plant at a palm oil mill and used as a source of inocula. A batch reactor was found to yield a total of 4708ml H{sub 2}/(l POME) and the maximum evolution rate was 454ml-H{sub 2}/(l POMEh). A fed batch process was conducted after 50h. Two liters of reaction medium was removed and 2l of fresh POME was added to the reactor every 24h (15 times). The reproducibility of the fed batch process checked by changing the feeding time every 8h (10 times). A yield of 2382ml H{sub 2}/(l POME) and 2419ml H{sub 2}/(l POME) at maximum evolution rate of 313ml H{sub 2}/(l POMEh) and 436ml H{sub 2}/(l POMEh) were obtained, respectively. Throughout the study, methane gas was not observed in the evolved gas mixture. (author)

Atif, A.A.Y.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ngan, M.A.; Morimoto, M. [Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), No. 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Iyuke, S.E. [School of Process and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, Witwaterstand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa); Veziroglu, N.T. [Clean Energy Research Institute, College of Engineering, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FI 33124 (United States)

2005-11-01

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Thermophilic biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using suspended mixed culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A batch study was conducted to determine the fate of carbohydrate and oil that are present in palm oil mill effluent (POME) during the biohydrogen fermentation process. Sucrose and crude palm oil (CPO) were chosen as substrates and the kinetic profile indicated that mainly sucrose was metabolised by the mixed sludge. The hydrogen yield based on the COD of sucrose added was 146 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} which is equivalent to a hydrogen to hexose mole ratio of 2.5. The free fatty acids from hydrolysed CPO were not metabolised further which render insignificant generation of hydrogen and volatile fatty acids from oil-based substrate. The average continuous biohydrogen production rate (HPR) from a unit volume of POME under thermophilic condition at 55 C was 2.64 m{sup 3} m{sup -3} d{sup -1} at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days. Hydrogen constitutes up to 52% of the total biogas and methane was not detected over the 60 day continuous operation. The hydrogen yield (i.e. based on mole ratio of hydrogen to hexose) was 1.72 with an average carbohydrate conversion efficiency of 58%. These limit the potential of recovering more hydrogen energy from POME under current operating conditions. (author)

Ismail, Isnazunita [Environment and Bioprocess Technology Centre, SIRIM Berhad, 40911 Shah Alam, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Hassan, Mohd. Ali; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini [Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Soon, Chen Sau [Environment and Bioprocess Technology Centre, SIRIM Berhad, 40911 Shah Alam, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

2010-01-15

52

An Experimental Investigation on the Handling and Storage Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquettes Made from Oil Palm Mill Residues  

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Full Text Available This study is about experimental investigation on solid fuel briquettes made of oil palm mill residues that exhibit optimum handling and storage properties. One of the major technical challenges in utilizing biomass waste material as a solid fuel is the handling and storage issues of loose and wet waste material. The solid biomass fuel briquettes made from different types and combinations of palm oil mill residues were explored for optimum storage and handling features. A solution to improving the handling and storage properties of loosely-bound oil palm mill residues is proposed in this work via a densification process known as fuel briquetting. Raw oil palm waste material was pulverized and compacted with a 159 MPa pressing pressure to form 40 mm diameter solid fuel briquettes. It was found that a fuel briquette with a 60:40 palm kernel shell to mesocarp fiber ratio using waste paper as its binding agent gave the best mechanical properties without sacrificing the combustion properties of the solid fuel.

Mohd. Shiraz Aris

2012-01-01

53

Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90 days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40 days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified. PMID:24012093

Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

2013-11-01

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Biohydrogen generation from palm oil mill effluent using anaerobic contact filter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study treatment of palm oil mill effluent was carried out with the intention to produce hydrogen during the anaerobic degradation process. The hydrogen generating microflora was isolated from the cow dung based on pH adjustment (pH 5) coupled with heat treatment (2h). The microflora was initially tested for its hydrogen generating capability for varying fermentation pH of 4, 5, 6 and 7 while degrading palm oil mill effluent. The results showed that the biogas generation and its hydrogen content decreased in the following order of pH 5, 6, 7 and 4. Further treatment of palm oil mill effluent was carried out at an optimized fermentation pH value of 5, for varying influent COD concentration of 5,000; 10,000; 20,000; 30,000; 40,000 and 59,300mg/L at a hydraulic retention time of 3; 5 and 7d, respectively. The average biogas generation was found to be 0.42L/g COD destroyed, with a hydrogen content of 57+/-2% at 7d HRT. The generated biogas was free from methane. As the hydraulic retention time increased the biogas generation also increased, with a marginal increase in the hydrogen content. For example at an initial COD concentration of 59,300mg/L for a hydraulic retention time of 3; 5 and 7d, the hydrogen generation were found to be 52.2; 72.4 and 102.6mL respectively. The average volatile fatty acid content in the reactor was found to be in the range 1215+/-130mg/L when the influent COD concentrations were in the range 20,000-59,300mg/L. In the case of influent COD concentration ranging between 5,000 and 10,000mg/L, the average volatile fatty acid was found to be 830+/-90mg/L. (author)

Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Ahmad, Desa [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2006-08-15

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Enumeration, identification and decontamination of microorganisms on empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm press fibre (PPF) from selected palm oil mills in the Peninsular Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PPF and EFB temporarily disposed into the environment at the mill are heavily contaminated with micro-organisms, therefore require decontamination prior to utilisation. The current methods for decontaminating PPF and EFB has been briefly reviewed (Mat Rasol et. al.,1987). They suggested that these by-products can be effectively decontaminated by gamma-irradiation and the resulting sterilised by-products could subsequently be used for conversion into animals feeds by fermentation with fungi or chemical stock. The primary objectives of the investigation are: a) to enumerate contaminating microorganisms on PPF and EFB collected from various oil palm mills in the Peninsular Malaysia, and b) to establish the inactivation curves of the PPF and EFB from the selected palm oil mills

1998-01-01

56

Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in palm oil mill effluent by soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method has been developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from palm oil mill effluent based on gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Extraction of spiked PAHs (napthalene, fluorene phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) in palm oil waste was carried out by Soxhlet extraction using hexane-dichloromethane (60:40 v/v) as the solvent. Excellent separations were achieved using temperature programmed GC on Ultra-1 fused-silica capillary column (30 m x 250 ?m ID), carrier gas helium at a flow rate of 1 mL/ min. (author)

2008-01-01

57

Biological kinetics evaluation of anaerobic stabilization pond treatment of palm oil mill effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological kinetic (bio-kinetic) study of the anaerobic stabilization pond treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out in a laboratory anaerobic bench scale reactor (ABSR). The reactor was operated at different feed flow-rates of 0.63, 0.76, 0.95, 1.27, 1.9 and 3.8l of raw POME for a day. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) as influent substrates was selected for bio-kinetic study. The investigation showed that the growth yield (Y(G)), specific biomass decay (b), maximum specific biomass growth rate (mu(max)), saturation constant (K(s)) and critical retention time (Theta(c)) were in the range of 0.990 g VSS/g COD(removed) day, 0.024 day(-1), 0.524 day(-1), 203.433 g COD l(-1) and 1.908 day, respectively. PMID:19560338

Wong, Yee Shian; Kadir, Mohd Omar A B; Teng, Tjoon Tow

2009-11-01

58

Concurrent bioelectricity generation and palm oil mill effluent treatment using microbial fuel cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) provides promising microbial environmental technology to generate bio energy while treating organic wastewaters at the same time. In this study, a dual-chamber MFC system was developed to evaluate the continuous bioelectricity production while treating palm oil mill effluent (POME). A maximum power density of 622 mW/ m2 was generated with continuous feeding of 200 ppm POME. Meanwhile, a COD removal efficiency of 23% and coulombic efficiency of 32 % was recorded. Direct 16S rDNA analyses showed predomination by Geobacter-related sequences at the MFC anode electrode. It is shown that electrochemically-active bacteria originated from POME can be enriched to concurrently generate electricity and treat POME. (author)

2010-07-26

59

Comparison on decolorization of palm oil mill effluent by biological, chemical and physical methods  

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Full Text Available Decolorization of palm oil mill effluent pretreated by enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 was investigated. The culture filtrate after separation of suspended solids was used for decolorization by biological, chemical and physical methods. Results indicated that the chemical method (using coagulant was more effective than the biological method (using commercial peroxidase, two strains of white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus versicolor and physical method (using activated carbon, pararubber seed and sand filter. Studies on the effect of coagulant concentrations on decolorization revealed that using the combination of 10 ml/l polyferric sulphate and 10 g/l calcium oxide gave the highest color removal of 84.5% and organic matter (in term of chemical oxygen demand, COD removal of 86.5%.

Chantaphaso, S.

2001-11-01

60

Kinetic studies of controlled-release formulations of diuron containing palm oil mill effluent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Controlled-release formulations of diuron herbicide containing sodium alginate as binder and kaolin or palm oil mill effluent (POME) as fillers were studied. Small ratios of alginates to kaolin or POME in the formulation produce less spherical granular products. The kinetic of release in static water was studied spectrophotometrically at 248nm. Both products with two different fillers showed good first order plots with rate constants about ax10"-"1 day"-"1. Preliminary screening on several species of weeds in one square meter boxes in glasshouse showed good effectiveness of the slow release products. Further studies are being carried out especially with the POME formulations which contain quite high major nutrients. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

1994-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation  

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Full Text Available Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1 and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1 was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation rate, with maximum kLa (124.2 h-1 attained at 300 rpm and 1.5 vvm.

M.D. Mashitah

2010-01-01

62

Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME  

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Full Text Available Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water. The proposed treatment will also ensure the industry to meet a more stringent discharge standard in terms of the BOD, COD and nitrogen values. In this study membrane ultrafiltration is used as the tertiary treatment method. Before the actual membrane operation was conducted, the samples were pre-treated using three separate method namely filtration, centrifugation and coagulation. It was found that the combination of filtrationultrafiltration treatment POME produced the best-treated sample quality in terms of pollutant contents elimination, namely % BOD, % COD and % nitrogen removal.

Wong Pui Wah

2002-11-01

63

Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME  

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Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

2011-07-01

64

Performance comparison between mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic reactors for treatment of palm oil mill effluent.  

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The anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out under mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions without long-time POME storage in order to compare the performance of each condition in the field of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The anaerobic treatment system was composed of anaerobic hybrid reactor and anaerobic baffled filter. Raw POME was pretreated by screw decanter to reduce suspended solids and residual oil. The total COD removal rate of 90-95% was achieved in both conditions at the OLR of 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d. The COD removal in thermophilic conditions was slightly better, however the biogas production was much higher than that in the mesophilic one at high OLR. The organic contents in pretreated POME were highly biodegradable in mesophilic under the lower OLRs. The biogas production was 13.5-20.0l/d at the 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d OLR, and the average content of carbon dioxide was 5-35% in both conditions. PMID:24797939

Jeong, Joo-Young; Son, Sung-Min; Pyon, Jun-Hyeon; Park, Joo-Yang

2014-08-01

65

Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME  

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Full Text Available Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME, this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%. The objective of the research is to determine growth rate and biomass productivity in Chlorella Sp cultured in POME. Chlorella Sp was cultured in 20%, 50%, 70% POME using urea concentration 0.1gr/L (low nitrogen source and 1gr/l (high nitrogen source at flask disk, pH 6.8-7.2; aerated using aquarium pump and fluorescence lamp 3000-6000 lux as light. Medium was measured using spectrophotometer Optima Sp-300 OD at 680 wave length in 15 days to calculate specific growth rate. At end of cultivation, Chlorella sp was filtered and measured as dry weight. Result indicated that Chlorella sp at 50% POME 1gr/L urea showed higher specific growth rate (0.066/day. Factor affecting growth rate of microalgae is CNP ratio, POME concentration, and urea concentration.

Ganang Dwi Hartanto

2012-07-01

66

Comparison of treatment methods for palm oil mill effluent (POME) wastes  

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A study of the operational variables involved in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out. These included the acidic or alkaline nature of the POME discharged from the oil mills, the efficiency of the decay (or digestion) of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) contents of the POME, the economic benefits that could arise from the digested sludge and biogas and finally the net economic recovery abilities of the various treatment methods available. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) contents of the POME must be reduced to an acceptable level of 2000-3000 mg/solids dm/sup 3/ of sludge before the latter can be used a fertiliser material. In 10 days of operation periods various anaerobic digestion treatment methods gave COD reduction efficiencies of 76-96%, the batch pond anaerobic digestion mode gave an efficiency of 76.5%, the continuous pond modes 92.5-95.5% and the tank digester 93.8%. In all anaerobic operations the optimal pH value of the POME media were in the range 7.1-7.6 and a ratio of the volatile acids to the total alkalinity of the media (VA/TA) of 0.3 or less was found to enhance the performance of these digesters. Economic analyses carried out on all modes of treatment gave the following economic recovery abilities: the decanter/drier system gave a break-even situation of 3 years, the tank digester system, 2 years, and the single stage anaerobic pond system, 6 years. The batch pond system appeared not to give a break-even situation. Of the treatment methods examined the decanter/deier and tank digester systems were concluded to be optimal.

Edewor, J.O.

1986-05-01

67

Decolorization of palm oil mill effluent using growing cultures of Curvularia clavata.  

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Agricultural wastewater that produces color are of environmental and health concern as colored effluent can produce toxic and carcinogenic by-products. From this study, batch culture optimization using response surface methods indicated that the fungus isolated from the pineapple solid waste, Curvularia clavata was able to decolorize sterile palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is mainly associated with polyphenol and lignin. Results showed successful decolorization of POME up to 80 % (initial ADMI [American Dye Manufacturing Index] of 3,793) with 54 % contributed by biosorption and 46 % by biodegradation after 5 days of treatment. Analysis using HPLC and GC-MS showed the degradation of color causing compound such as 3-methoxyphenyl isothiocynate and the production of new metabolites. Ecotoxicity test indicated that the decolorized effluent is safe for discharge. To determine the longevity of the fungus for a prolonged decolorization period, sequential batch decolorization studies were carried out. The results showed that lignin peroxidase and laccase were the main ligninolytic enzymes involved in the degradation of color. Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) and xylanase activities were also detected suggesting possible roles of the enzymes in promoting growth of the fungus which consequently contributed to improved decolorization of POME. In conclusion, the ability of C. clavata in treating color of POME indicated that C. clavata is of potential use for decolorization and degradation of agricultural wastewater containing polyphenolic compounds. PMID:24327114

Neoh, Chin Hong; Lam, Chi Yong; Lim, Chi Kim; Yahya, Adibah; Ibrahim, Zaharah

2014-03-01

68

Screening of Aspergillus for Citric Acid Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available In this study, screening of potential microbes, especially Aspergillus, for citric acid production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME is carried out to improve the product yield. The fermentation of the raw material POME for the production of citric acid was conducted by the liquid state fermentation process. A total of ten strains of Aspergillus were selected for the screening test of which six strains were isolated from Sewage Treatment Plant Sludge (STP Sludge, purified and identified up to genus level and four strains of Aspergillus were from lab stock. All strains were screened under controlled fermentation conditions such as pH range of 2-3, temperature 30?C and agitation 150 rpm, using 1% (w/w of substrate (POME, 2% (w/w co-substrate (wheat flour with inoculum size of 2% (106 spore mL 1. These strains were examined in terms of maximum citric acid production, biosolid production (TSS% and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal. The strain Aspergillus (A103 produced the highest concentration of citric acid (0.28 g L 1, TSS (12.7 g L 1 and COD removal (72% followed by A1020, A-SS106 and others on 2-4 days of fermentation.

Parveen Jamal

2005-01-01

69

Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent using combined high-rate anaerobic reactors.  

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Combined system of high-rate anaerobic reactors for treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) was developed and investigated in this study. The system composed of one common primary hybrid reactor which was shared by two different secondary filter reactors. An overall COD removal efficiency of 93.5% was achieved in both systems. The secondary reactors contributed not only in enhancing the COD removal efficiency, but also ensured the performance stability of the entire system. Biomass remained intact in the secondary reactor in contrast to the primary reactor in which occasional washout of biomass was observed. The pH of POME was adjusted at the beginning of the operation, as the process continued POME did not require the external pH adjustment as the pH was maintained in desired range. The biogas was produced up to 110 l/d with the yield of 0.171-0.269 l [CH?]/g [COD removed] and 59.5-78.2% content of methane. PMID:23489567

Choi, Won-Ho; Shin, Chang-Ha; Son, Sung-Min; Ghorpade, Praveen A; Kim, Jeong-Joo; Park, Joo-Yang

2013-08-01

70

Comparative mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of organic loading rate and operating temperature on the microbial diversity and performances of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) were investigated. The following two UASB reactors were run in parallel for comparison: (1) under a mesophilic condition (37 degrees C) and (2) under a mesophilic condition in transition to a thermophilic condition (57 degrees C). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the microbial population profiles significantly changed with the organic loading rate (OLR) and the temperature transition from the mesophilic to the thermophilic condition. Significant biomass washout was observed for the mesophilic UASB when operating at a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.5 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L.d. In contrast, the thermophilic UASB can be operated at this OLR and at a temperature of 57 degrees C with satisfactory COD removal and biogas production. The PCR-based DGGE analysis suggested that the thermophilic temperature of 57 degrees C was suitable for a number of hydrolytic, acidogenic, and acetogenic bacteria. PMID:22876480

Khemkhao, Maneerat; Nuntakumjorn, Boonyarit; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

2012-07-01

71

Biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum EB6 from palm oil mill effluent  

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A hydrogen producer was successfully isolated from anaerobic digested palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge. The strain, designated as Clostridium butyricum EB6, efficiently produced hydrogen concurrently with cell growth. A controlled study was done on a synthetic medium at an initial pH value of 6.0 with 10 g/L glucose with the maximum hydrogen production at 948 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium and the volumetric hydrogen production rate at 172 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium/h. The supplementation of yeast extract was shown to have a significant effect with a maximum hydrogen production of 992 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium at 4 g/L of yeast extract added. The effect of pH on hydrogen production from POME was investigated. Experimental results showed that the optimum hydrogen production ability occurred at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen production and maximum volumetric hydrogen production rate were at 3195 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium and 1034 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium/h, respectively. The hydrogen content in the biogas produced was in the range of 60-70%. (author)

Chong, Mei-Ling; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shirai, Yoshihito [Graduate School of Life Sciences and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 808-0196 Hibikimo 2-4, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

2009-01-15

72

The particulate matter dispersion studies from a local palm oil mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The appearance of industrial emissions and the degradation of scenic vistas are two characteristics of air pollution that humans object. Reduction in visibility suggests worsening pollution levels. The emissions from mobile source and stationary source are the major source of air pollutions contribution in Malaysia. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). The consequence of increasing the particulate concentrations, the particulate matter dissolves with vapour and grows into droplets when the humidity exceeds approximately 70% and causing opaque situation know as haze. This work focuses on the dispersion particulate matter from palm oil mill. The data obtained serves the purpose of modeling the transport of particulate matter for obtaining permits and prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) to the environment. Gaussian Plume Model from a point source, subject to various atmospheric conditions is used to calculate particulate matter concentration then display the distribution of plume dispersion using geographic information system (GIS). The calculated particulate matter concentration is evaluated using Transilient Matrice function. Atmospheric Stability, mixing height, wind direction, wind speed, natural and artificial features play an important role in dispersion process. High concentration area exhibits immediately under prevailing wind direction. (Author)

2006-12-01

73

Lipase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent by Aspergillus terreus Immobilized on Luffa Sponge  

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Full Text Available An integrated treatment and valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME by Aspergillus terreus IMI 282743 immobilized on Luffa sponge was investigated. Effects of POME concentrations and nitrogen supplementation on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD reduction, microbial lipase and biomass production were evaluated in batch cultures. A 50% POME promoted the highest lipolytic activities in both immobilized and free cell cultures. In the former, the maximum lipase activity was 5.14 U mL-1 but in the non-immobilized batch, it was only 2.10 U mL-1. Lipase activities were low in the 25 and 100% POME due to overdilution and presence of inhibitory compounds, respectively. The pH was unchanged in the 100% POME but in other cultures, there were significant increase in the pH values. The pH of the 75% POME increased after a 48 h lag but in the 25 and 50% POME, the pH rose from 4-6.43 within a period of 96 h. COD did not change in the 100% POME but in the 75% POME, a 60.7% reduction was achieved. The COD of both the 50 and 25% POME decreased by 45% respectively. The immobilized biomass concentration was highest in the 75% POME (0.83 g L-1 but in the 25 and 100% POME, it was 0.27 and 0.63 g L-1, respectively. Supplementation of the 50% POME with a mixture of ammonium sulphate and yeast extract increased lipase production to10.6 U mL-1, biomass concentration to 3.7 g L-1 while the COD decreased by 80%. Lipase production from POME could be economically competitive to present industrial processes and provides additional incentive of treatment that is cheap and sustainable.

Charles O. Nwuche

2013-01-01

74

Techno-economic Evaluation on Enhancing Cogeneration Plant Capacity: Case Study of Palm Oil Mill Cogeneration Plant  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study is to apply techno-economic evaluation for selecting a feasible alternative to enhance a co-generation power generation capacity of a palm oil mill. The co-generation plant is using Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB as fuel. The basis of the technical evaluation is to compare three alternatives on increasing the co-generation power generation capacity. Alternative 1 is to consider installing a new high capacity boiler to the current cogeneration system and maintaining the current turbine. Alternative 2 is to install a new high efficiency back pressure steam turbine and maintain the current boiler. While Alternative 3, is to install high capacity an extraction steam turbine and maintain the current boiler. Present worth analysis is used for economic evaluation. Both the capital and operational expenditures are taken into account in assessing the present worth of the alternatives. Results from the technical and economic analysis have identified Alternative 2 as the most feasible alternative. Since substantial quantity EFB are available in Malaysia and being used as fuel for power generation at the palm oil mills, the approach could be useful for enhancement of co-generation capacity of the mills.

Mohd Amin Abd Majid

2014-01-01

75

Biosynthesis and Characterization of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Copolymers Produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 Isolated from Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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The biosynthesis and characterization of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. The biosynthesis of mcl-PHA in this newly isolated microorganism follows a growth-associated trend. Mcl-PHA accumulation ranging from 49.7 to 68.9% on cell dry weight (CDW) basis were observed when fatty acids ranging from octanoic acid (C8?0) to oleic acid (C18?1) were used as sole carbon and energy source....

Gumel, Ahmad Mohammed; Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Heidelberg, Thorsten

2012-01-01

76

Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost  

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Full Text Available Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile at day 7 treatment were 58.3, 8.1 and 65.5°C, respectively. The morphological analysis of the isolated microbes was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Gram stain method. The congo red test was conducted in order to detect 1% CMC agar degradation activities. Total genomic DNAs were extracted from approximately 1.0 g of mixed compost and amplified by using PCR primers. The PCR product was sequent to identify the nearest relatives of 16S rRNA genes. The localization of bacteria chromosomes was determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis. Results: Single isolated bacteria species was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME compost at thermophilic stage. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs with the phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated bacteria from EFB-POME thermophilic compost gave the highest homology (99% with similarity to Geobacillus pallidus. The strain was spore forming bacteria and able to grow at 60°C with pH 7. Conclusion: Thermophilic bacteria strain, Geobacillus pallidus was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mil Effluent (POME compost and characterized.

Azhari S. Baharuddin

2010-01-01

77

Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78°C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5–99.2%. Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Results Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70°C and was also stable up to 60°C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T. Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T. Conclusion Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular thermostable lipase into culture medium. The strain T1T was identified as Geobacillus zalihae T1T as it differs from its type strains Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T and Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T on some physiological studies, cellular fatty acids composition, RiboPrint analysis, length of lipase gene and protein profile.

Salleh Abu

2007-08-01

78

Optimization of Electricity Generation and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME Treatment from Microbial Fuel Cell  

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Full Text Available Natural micro-flora of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME sludge was grown in dual-chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC to produce electricity by providing glucose at different concentration. A greater strength of Open Circuit Voltage (OCV was observed with optimal biomass metabolism activity, as increasing glucose concentrations. The time Response Constant (RC of OCV was taken everyday to estimate the total time needed to achieve steady state voltage at zero current. The lower value of RC indicates that the strength of OCV value is high and the biomass attached to the anode could be active in producing electrons. At 3 750 mg-COD L-1 with 10% added POME and 10 000 mg-COD L-1 synthetic wastewater, the values of RC for each medium were found as 3.36 and 1.95 h, respectively. The removal efficiency of COD was achieved 72.2% for 10% POME and 89.9% for synthetic wastewater. The initial COD level was found proportionally to the COD removal and maximum power density in the MFC system. However, the results shown that relation between RC value and initial COD level were inversely proportional. The highest power density (with present current density in POME added and synthetic medium were 3.155 mW m-2 (9.322 mA m-2 and 1.780 mW m-2 (3.996 mA m-2, respectively. The optimal power density that conducted in different level of COD was occurred at day 2 before its start decrease at next consecutive day. The effects of electrochemical parameters to power densities at different initial COD level were also studied using polarization model. From the simulated data, averaged power densities (with present current densities that could achieved at COD 3750 and 10000 mg L-1 were estimated 2.61 mW m-2 (4.5 and 1.38 mA m-2 (3.5 mA m-2, respectively. The total losses due to current limitation were eliminated about 15-55 % at high initial COD level based on results mention above. The end of study showed that the maximum power density kept on increased although COD value had reached to the lower level and this could be due to the hydrolysis of inactive of the living cells undergone lysis, has contributed to COD level in the system.

Siti Norhana Shari

2010-01-01

79

Influence of palm oil mill effluent as inoculum on anaerobic digestion of cattle manure for biogas production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic digestion for palm oil mill effluent (POME) is widely known for its potential in biogass production. In this study, the potential of using cattle manure for biogas production in complete mix anaerobic bioreactor was investigated using POME at unregulated pH and temperature. Two identical bioreactors were used in this study; namely R1 and R2 fed with cattle manure without and with POME as inoculum, respectively. Both bioreactors were allowed for five days to run in batch mode followed by semi continuous operations at HRT of 20 days. R2 produced 41% methane content compared to 18% produced in R1. A better COD percentage reduction of 45% was found in R2 which was operated with POME as inoculum compared to R1 with 35%. These results indicated that POME as inoculum has an influence on the start-up time and the rate of biogas produced.This findings will help in waste reduction. PMID:23588120

Saidu, Mohammed; Yuzir, Ali; Salim, Mohd Razman; Salmiati; Azman, Shamila; Abdullah, Norhayati

2013-08-01

80

Effect of inoculum size on production of compost and enzymes from palm oil mill biogas sludge mixed with shredded palm empty fruit bunches and decanter cake  

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Full Text Available The effect of inoculum size on production of compost and enzymes from palm oil mill biogas sludge (POMS mixed with shredded palm empty fruit bunches (PEFB and decanter cake (DC was studied using the mixed culture LDD1 as an inoculum. Three piles of 50 kg mixture (POMS:PEFB:DC = 2:1:1 with different inoculum sizes of 0.0075% (treatment A, 0.015% (treatment B, and 0.030% (treatment C were set up. The physicochemical parameters were measured during the composting. All the compost appeared dark brown in color, crumbly, attained an ambient temperature and had the C/N ratio of 11:1 after 40 days fermentation, indicating the maturity of the compost. The optimal inoculum size was found to be 0.030% (w/w. For enzyme production, the highest carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase activity was 3.23 Unit/g substrates at 12 days incubation whereas the highest xylanase activity was 3.11 Unit/g substrates at 6 days incubation. At the end of 60 days fermentation, the compost (treatment C had a TN-P2O5 -K2O of 3.10-1.29-2.01% (dry basis. Therefore, the compost quality complied with the national compost standard set by the Ministry of Agriculture, Thailand.

Tanawut Nutongkaew

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Maintenance Management Performance - An Overview towards Evaluating Malaysian Palm Oil Mill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deficient maintenance management can severely affect competitiveness of an organization byreducing throughput, increasing inventory, and leading to poor performance. Performancecannot be managed without measurement: it provides the required information to themanagement for effective decision making; and is used by industries to assess progressagainst set goals and objectives in a quantifiable way for effectiveness and efficiency. For thepalm oil mills to stay competitive, it is imperative that they elevate the maintenancemanagement role; from a cost center to the strategic partner in business. This paperhighlights how measuring maintenance performance helps us identify the factors causing poorperformance, and provides an opportunity to improve company’s profits.

Nazim Baluch

2010-06-01

82

Co-Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Refined Glycerin Wash Water for Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal and Methane Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Refined Glycerin Wash Water (RGWW) from the oleochemical industry contains high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and requires proper treatment before disposal. Unfortunately the wash water also contains high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) that could cause inhibition to the normal biological treatment process. However, there is feasibility of co-digesting the RGWW and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for its treatment and methane recovery. Approach: A large 5...

Sulaiman, A.; Zakaria, M. R.; Hassan, M. A.; Shirai, Y.; Busu, Z.

2009-01-01

83

Waste to Wealth: Hidden Treasures in the Oil Palm Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)

2010-07-26

84

Integrated Palm Oil Processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: th...

A. L. Compere W. L. Griffith J. M. Googin

1983-01-01

85

Comparative studies on the adsorption properties of powdered activated carbon and propenoic acid modified sawdust in the treatment of secondary palm oil mill effluent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Propenoic acid monomer was used to modify pulped cellulosic materials (sawdust). The sorption properties of the propenoic acid modified sawdust (PAMS) were compared with those of powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the tertiary treatment of palm oil mill effluent, previously clarified with iron (III) chloride plus lime (secondary effluent). The adsorption processes were effected in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at a pressure of 80 kilo Newton per meter square (kNm/sup -2/). Optimum amount of PAC and PAMS used for the fluidized adsorption of contaminants from the secondary palm oil mill effluent (POME) were 2.5 g/1 and 4.0 g/1, respectively. These sorption processes were found to be optimum at 10 min and 50 min for PAC and PAMS, respectively. At optimum sorption conditions, removal differentials of 28.6%/g chemical oxygen demand, 19.1%/g suspended solids, and 19.3%/g colour in favour of PAC were established. The application of optimum conditions for adsorption, for both adsorbents, to the bulk treatment of the palm oil mill effluent yielded a clear effluent with wider reuse applicability. (author)

2006-01-01

86

Present and future position of palm oil industry in Malasia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces the present and future problems on the palm oil industry in Malaysia. The author was dispatched as an expert to the Malaysia Palm Oil Laboratory which is a governmental investigation organization. The cultivation area of oil palms were increased with the production of palm oil in 1990 - 1985. The oil mills produce average 20,000 tons/year of raw palm oil. 38 refining factories of the approved 75 factories are in work. The treatment capability of raw palm oil is 8.86 million tons/year. The palm oil is a solid vegetable oil at room temperature. For use the palm oil is fractionated into liquid palm olein, solid palm stearin, and palm oil with an intermediate melting point. About 90% of palm oil is edible. The leaves contain about 0.49% of alpha-tocopherol. The future problems to be solved lie in that the palm oil is improved to have a high liquid content, the production cost is reduced, and new uses for the palm oil are developed. (15 tabs, 37 refs)

Kato, Akio

1988-04-20

87

Utilization of palm oil mill effluent as a novel and promising substrate for biosurfactant production by Nevskia ramosa NA3  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces palm oil mill effluent as a promising substrate for biosurfactant production. Potential strains ofbacteria were isolated from various hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and screened for biosurfactant production with the helpof the drop collapse method and surface tension measurements. Out of 26 isolates of bacteria, the strain NA3 showed thehighest bacterial growth with the highest surface tension reduction of 27.2 mN/m. It was then identified as Nevskia ramosaNA3 by biochemical and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to determinethe important nutritional requirements for biosurfactant production by N. ramosa NA3 under controlled conditions. Six outof 11 factors of the production medium were found to significantly affect the production of biosurfactant. FeCl2 and NaNO3had a direct proportional correlation with the biosurfactant production. Commercial sugar, glucose, K2HPO4 and MgCl2showed inversely proportional relationship with biosurfactant production in the selected experimental range.

Benjamas Cheirsilp

2013-04-01

88

Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH4/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH4/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH4/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

2011-05-15

89

UASB performance and microbial adaptation during a transition from mesophilic to thermophilic treatment of palm oil mill effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) at organic loading rates (OLR) between 2.2 and 9.5 g COD l(-1) day(-1) was achieved by acclimatizing the mesophilic (37 °C) microbial seed to the thermophilic temperature (57 °C) by a series of stepwise temperature shifts. The UASB produced up to 13.2 l biogas d(-1) with methane content on an average of 76%. The COD removal efficiency ranged between 76 and 86%. Microbial diversity of granules from the UASB reactor was also investigated. The PCR-based DGGE analysis showed that the bacterial population profiles significantly changed with the temperature transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. In addition, the results suggested that even though the thermophilic temperature of 57 °C was suitable for a number of hydrolytic, acidogenic and acetogenic bacteria, it may not be suitable for some Methanosaeta species acclimatized from 37 °C. Specifically, the bands associated with Methanosaeta thermophila PT and Methanosaeta harundinacea can be detected during the four consecutive operation phases of 37 °C, 42 °C, 47 °C and 52 °C, but their corresponding bands were found to fade out at 57 °C. The DGGE analysis predicted that the temperature transition can result in significant methanogenic biomass washout at 57 °C. PMID:22466006

Khemkhao, Maneerat; Nuntakumjorn, Boonyarit; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

2012-07-30

90

Synthetic Polyelectrolytes Based on Acrylamide and Their Application as a Flocculent in the Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available Five cationic polyacrylamides of varying molecular weights but similar charge density were synthesized using free radical polymerization and Mannich reaction, characterized by different methods (infra red (IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, viscosity measurements and conductometric titration and applied as flocculants to palm oil mill effluents (POME. Flocculent performance was assessed by determining the polyelectrolyte dosage and the removal efficiency of the resulting supernatants using turbidity, suspended solids (SS and chemical oxygen demand (COD as indicators. It was found that varying in the molecular weight of the cationic polyacrylamide from 20X103 to 1.5X106 g mol-1 affects flocculent performance significantly. Polyelectrolyte adsorption increased as the molecular weight of the polyelectrolyte increased. High molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (1.5X106 g mol-1 is the most effective polymer as it obtains a high removal efficiency (% with a dosage as low as 60 mg L-1 at pH 3 of POME. The very high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (over 5 million g mol-1 produced very poor floc formation this is because polyelectrolytes having very high molecular weights do not dissolve readily but tend to form gel lumps.

A. Ariffin

2004-01-01

91

Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610mL-CH4/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436â??438mL-CH4/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555mL-CH4/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong

2011-01-01

92

Optimization of decolorization of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by growing cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus using response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conventional treatment process of palm oil mill effluent (POME) produces a highly colored effluent. Colored compounds in POME cause reduction in photosynthetic activities, produce carcinogenic by-products in drinking water, chelate with metal ions, and are toxic to aquatic biota. Thus, failure of conventional treatment methods to decolorize POME has become an important problem to be addressed as color has emerged as a critical water quality parameter for many countries such as Malaysia. Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from POME sludge was successfully grown in POME supplemented with glucose. Statistical optimization studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of the types and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature, and size of the inoculum. Characterization of the fungus was performed using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller surface area analysis. Optimum conditions using response surface methods at pH 5.7, 35 °C, and 0.57 % w/v glucose with 2.5 % v/v inoculum size resulted in a successful removal of 71 % of the color (initial ADMI of 3,260); chemical oxygen demand, 71 %; ammoniacal nitrogen, 35 %; total polyphenolic compounds, 50 %; and lignin, 54 % after 5 days of treatment. The decolorization process was contributed mainly by biosorption involving pseudo-first-order kinetics. FTIR analysis revealed that the presence of hydroxyl, C-H alkane, amide carbonyl, nitro, and amine groups could combine intensively with the colored compounds in POME. This is the first reported work on the application of A. fumigatus for the decolorization of POME. The present investigation suggested that growing cultures of A. fumigatus has potential applications for the decolorization of POME through the biosorption and biodegradation processes. PMID:23054764

Neoh, Chin Hong; Yahya, Adibah; Adnan, Robiah; Abdul Majid, Zaiton; Ibrahim, Zaharah

2013-05-01

93

Bio-oils from Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem Statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the mesocarp fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB), frond, trunk and palm oil mill effluent (POME). For 80 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processed last year, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 25 million tones. The objectives of this study were to: (i) Determine the effect of various pyrolysis parameters on product yields and (ii) Characterise liquid product obtained under ...

Sukiran, Mohamad A.; Chin, Chow M.; Bakar, Nor K. A.

2009-01-01

94

A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) reactor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organi...

S A Habeeb, Ab Aziz Abdul Latiff

2011-01-01

95

Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was base...

Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff; Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

2008-01-01

96

Use of Palm Oil for Power Generation  

…Crude palm oil 1165 29.9 Palm oil stearin 961 24.6 Palm oil olein 1345 34.5 Palm oil biodiesel 1745 46.9 1) based on GCV for palm oil of 39 GJ/t (Giga joules per tonne) Production 25% Transport 6% Crushing 40% Refining 2% Shipping 27% Figure 2 GHG emissions associated with electricity generation from…

97

Palm Oil Prospects for 2005.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last two decades, palm oil has emerged as the most traded edible oil and a major component of global oil consumption and production. The increase in palm oil's importance is due primarily to changes in the economics underlying the highly complex ed...

J. Castaneda M. Giordano

1995-01-01

98

Air Quality Impacts of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Air emissions during palm oil processing by smallholders are issues of public health concern demanding urgent intervention by environmentalist. In this study, six smallholder oil palm processing mills were studied inElele,Nigeria. Air emission parameters (NO2, NH3

Ohimain, Elijah I.; Izah, Sylvester C.; Abah, Stephen O.

2013-01-01

99

Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2012-11-01

100

Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO-CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main objective was to determine the influent CaO-CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 Degree-Sign C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m{sup 3} d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased significantly after long-term operation due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the granules. Granulation and methanogenesis decreased with an increase in the influent CaO-CKD concentration.

Ahmad, Anwar, E-mail: anwarak218@yahoo.co.uk [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abd. [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

2011-12-30

 
 
 
 
101

Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: ? Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO–CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. ? The main objective was to determine the influent CaO–CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. ? The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. ? SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO–CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO–CKD at doses of 1.5–20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 °C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO–CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5–65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5–12.5 kg-COD/m3 d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased significantly after long-term operation due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the granules. Granulation and methanogenesis decreased with an increase in the influent CaO–CKD concentration.

2011-12-30

102

Characteristics of granular sludge developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge fixed-film bioreactor treating palm oil mill effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, characteristics of the granular sludge (including physical characteristics under stable conditions and process shocks arising from suspended solid overload, soluble organic overload, and high temperature; biological activity; and sludge kinetic evaluation in a batch experiment) developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed-film reactor for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment was investigated. The main aim of this work was to provide suitable understanding of POME anaerobic digestion using such a granular sludge reactor, particularly with respect to granule structure at various operating conditions. The morphological changes in granular sludge resulting from various operational conditions was studied using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. It was shown that the developed granules consisted of densely packed rod- (Methanosaeta-like microorganism; predominant) and cocci- (Methanosarsina) shaped microorganisms. Methanosaeta aggregates functioned as nucleation centers that initiated granule development of POME-degrading granules. Under the suspended solid overload condition, most of the granules were covered with a thin layer of fiberlike suspended solids, so that the granule color changed to brown and the sludge volume index also increased to 24.5 from 12 to 15 mL/g, which caused a large amount of sludge washout. Some of the granules were disintegrated because of an acidified environment, which originated from acidogenesis of high influent organic load (29 g chemical oxygen demand [COD]/L d). At 60 degrees C, the rate of biomass washout increased, as a result of disintegration of the outer layer of the granules. In the biological activity test, approximately 95% COD removal was achieved within 72 hours, with an initial COD removal rate of 3.5 g COD/L d. During POME digestion, 275 mg calcium carbonate/L bicarbonate alkalinity was produced per 1000 mg COD(removed)/ L. A consecutive reaction kinetic model was used to simulate the data obtained from the sludge activity in the batch experiment. The mathematical model gave a good fit with the experimental results (R2 > 0.93). The slowest step was modeled to be the acidification step, with a rate constant between 0.015 and 0.083 hours(-1), while the rate constant for the methanogenic step was obtained to be between 0.218 and 0.361 hours(-1). PMID:17824529

Zinatizadeh, A A L; Mohamed, A R; Mashitah, M D; Abdullah, A Z; Hasnain Isa, M

2007-08-01

103

Study the Growth of Microalgae in Palm Oil Mill Effluent Waste Water  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper emphasizes mainly on the biomass productivity and lipids content of two microalgae strains known by their high lipids content namely: Botryoccoccus sudeticus and Chlorella vulgaris. These strains were first screened for the highest biomass and lipids content, then Plackett-Burman design was used to evaluate the significant media for the growth when using POME waste water as culture medium. Results show that Botryoccocus sudeticus contains high content of biomass and lipids yield. Moreover, all the three factors have positive effect on the biomass productivity, while using one nutrient factor gives much lower biomass. These results can be used further as an insight for optimizing the biomass and the oil productivity of the microalgae.

Selmani, Nabila; Mirghani, Mohamed E. S.; Zahangir Alam, Md

2013-06-01

104

Study the Growth of Microalgae in Palm Oil Mill Effluent Waste Water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper emphasizes mainly on the biomass productivity and lipids content of two microalgae strains known by their high lipids content namely: Botryoccoccus sudeticus and Chlorella vulgaris. These strains were first screened for the highest biomass and lipids content, then Plackett–Burman design was used to evaluate the significant media for the growth when using POME waste water as culture medium. Results show that Botryoccocus sudeticus contains high content of biomass and lipids yield. Moreover, all the three factors have positive effect on the biomass productivity, while using one nutrient factor gives much lower biomass. These results can be used further as an insight for optimizing the biomass and the oil productivity of the microalgae.

2013-06-17

105

A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME. This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB. Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28±2°C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37±1°C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

S. A. Habeeb, AB. Aziz Abdul Latiff, Zawawi Daud, Zulkifli Ahmad

2011-07-01

106

A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28{+-}2 C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37{+-}1 C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, AB. Aziz Abdul; Daud, Zawawi; Ahmad, Zulkifli [Faculty of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn (Malaysia)

2011-07-01

107

Use of Palm Oil for Power Generation  

…called W4B. It examines the generating technologies in which palm oil could be used, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with palm oil production and the GHG savings it may offer compared to gas fired generation. Palm oil as a fuel Palm oil can be used as a fuel oil, but is likely to require…

108

Exploratory Study of Oil Palm Shell as Partial Sand Replacement in Concrete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers has been disposing oil palm shell, which is a by-product from palm oil mill thus causing negative impact to the environment. At the same time, extensive mining of natural river sand in large amount to meet the increasing demand of concrete production for the use in rapidly developing construction industry has posed the risk of natural aggregate depletion and ecological imbalance in future. The effect of finely Crushed Oil Palm Shell (...

2013-01-01

109

Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: ? We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. ? Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. ? Co-composting of EFB and POME reduces greenhouse gas emission significantly. ? Flue gas cleaning would abate the eutrophication and human toxicity potential.

2011-10-01

110

Use of Palm Oil for Power Generation  

…per GJ1 Crude palm oil 1165 29.9 Palm oil stearin 961 24.6 Palm oil olein 1345 34.5 Palm oil biodiesel 1745 46.9 1) based on GCV for palm oil of 39 GJ/t (Giga joules per tonne) Production 25% Transport 6% Crushing 40% Refining 2% Shipping 27% Figure 2 GHG emissions associated with electricity generation…

111

Use of Palm Oil for Power Generation  

…1 Emissions by stage for stearin Product kg of CO2 equivalent per tonne of product kg of CO2 per GJ1 Crude palm oil 1165 29.9 Palm oil stearin 961 24.6 Palm oil olein 1345 34.5 Palm oil biodiesel 1745 46.9 1) based on GCV for palm oil of 39 GJ/t (Giga joules per tonne) Production 25% Transport 6% Crushing…

112

Briquetting of palm fibre and shell from the processing of palm nuts to palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 million tonnes per year (8.5x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}) of palm oil from 38.6x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1} of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residues such as fibre (5.4x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}), shell (2.3x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}), and empty fruit bunches (8.8x10{sup 6} ty{sup -1}). A large fraction of the fibre and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity in the palm processing mill itself. However, much is wasted by pile burning in the open air with attendant air pollution, dumped in areas adjacent to the mill, or utilized as manure in the palm oil plantation. In this paper, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid fuel. The palm shell and fibre is densified into briquettes of diameter 40, 50 and 60mm under moderate pressure of 5-13.5 MPa in a hydraulic press. Experiments are carried out to determine density, durability, impact and compressive strength of the briquettes. The heating value, burning characteristics, ash and moisture content are other objects of the study. A relationship between press pressure and the briquette density has been established. The produced briquettes have densities between 1100 and 1200 kgm{sup -3}. The briquettes properties are quite good with good resistance to mechanical disintegration, and will withstand wetting. The gross calorific value is about 16.4 MJkg{sup -1} (maf), and the ash content is about 6% and the equilibrium moisture content is about 12%. Further work is required to acquire complete understanding of the densification process before good quality and durable briquettes could be made free from cracks. (Author)

Husain, Z.; Zainac, Z.; Abdullah, Z. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia). School of Mechanical Engineering

2002-06-01

113

Industrial ecosystems in the crude palm oil industry in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in Thai economic development and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it contributes to environmental degradation from both input and output sides of its activities. On the input side, crude palm oil mill uses much water in production process and consumes high energy. On the output side , manufacturing process generates large quantity of wastewater, solid waste/ by-pro...

Chavalparit, O.

2003-01-01

114

Range of Choice in Palm Oil Processing Technologies for Cameroon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report discusses the ecological, agronomic, and industrial factors affecting the economics of palm oil production. It begins by describing the characteristics of palm oil and palm kernel oils, and the cultivation and harvesting of oil palm. The curren...

E. L. Hyman

1988-01-01

115

Biodiesel production from palm oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methyl ester was produced from many sources of oil palm products, namely used frying oil, RBD palm oil, degummed and deacidified palm oil, palm stearin and superhard palm stearin. Production process was a conventional transesterification batch process using methanol as reactant and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Production procedure consisted of oil preparation, solvent preparation, reaction step, glycerol separation, washing step and finishing step. Thin layer chromatograph was used to determine the composition of product and nearly 100% methyl ester was obtained at a suitable condition. Molar ratio of oil: methanol was about 1:6, which equal to 20% by weight of methanol. Sodium hydroxide was 0.5-1 %wt. of oil. The production temperature was 60-80ºC, mixing time was only 15-30 minutes and reaction time was 3-4 hours. Many fuel properties of methyl ester were very close to high-speed diesel such as viscosity, density, heating value and boiling point range. Pour point of methyl ester was higher than diesel owing to the high composition of saturated methyl ester that has a high melting point.

Kiatsimkul, P.

2001-11-01

116

Use of Palm Oil for Power Generation  

…compared to gas fired generation. Palm oil as a fuel Palm oil can be used as a fuel oil, but is likely to require some pre-treatment to remove any fatty acids present in order to reduce the wear on engine seals and bearings. In addition, palm oil is a highly viscous fluid at ambient UK temperatures and…

117

Soft energy from palm oil and its wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A time series analysis of energy sources showed that about 90% of the present energy needs of Malaysia come from petroleum. However, the photosynthetic conversion of sunlight to plant matter has been supplying energy to man for a long time. Traditionally firewood has been the direct source of photosynthetic energy, but this study proposes that energy can be obtained from the oil palm through the use of its product: the bunches, the fiber, the oil and the mill effluent. A scheme for the bioconversion of palm oil mill effluent through anaerobic digestion is presented. It was found that biogas generated from this process has an energy content of about 24.1 MJ/cubic meters of gas. The energy equivalent of this for a 60 ton/h mill was calculated at about 180 barrels of oil per day. An energy evaluation of all the wastes from the palm oil fruit was made and it revealed that this can satisfy approximately 17% of Malaysia's energy requirements, thus reducing her dependence upon petroleum. This study also suggests that with rising oil prices it will be appropriate to consider palm oil itself as an alternative fuel in our search for soft energy paths as it can account for about 20% of Malaysia's energy consumption. Developing countries in the tropics which depend heavily on imported petroleum can thus turn to bioconversion energy from the palm oil tree. (Refs. 13).

Wong, K.K.

1981-07-01

118

Isolation of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria from Songkhla Lake for use in a two-staged biohydrogen production process from palm oil mill effluent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We are developing a process to produce biohydrogen from palm oil mill effluent. Part of this process will involve photohydrogen production from volatile fatty acids under low light conditions. We sought to isolate suitable bacteria for this purpose from Songkhla Lake in Southern Thailand. Enrichment for phototrophic bacteria from 34 samples was conducted providing acetate as a major carbon source and applying culturing conditions of anaerobic-low light (3000 lux) at 30 C. Among the independent isolates from these enrichments 19 evolved hydrogen with productivities between 4 and 326 ml l{sup -1} d{sup -1}. Isolate TN1 was the most efficient producer at a rate of 1.85 mol H{sub 2} mol acetate{sup -1} with a light conversion efficiency of 1.07%. The maximum hydrogen production rate for TN1 was determined to be 43 ml l{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Environmentally desirable features of photohydrogen production by TN1 included the absence of pH change in the cultures and no detectable residual CO{sub 2}. (author)

Suwansaard, Maneewan; Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Choorit, Wanna [School of Agricultural Technology, Walailak University, Nakhonsithammarat 80160 (Thailand); Zeilstra-Ryalls, Jill H. [Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403 (United States)

2009-09-15

119

Effect of temperature and initial pH on biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent: long-term evaluation and microbial community analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Anaerobic sludge from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment plant was used as a source of inocula for the conversion of POME into hydrogen. Optimization of temperature and initial pH for biohydrogen production from POME was investigated by response surface methodology. Temperature of 60ºC and init [...] ial pHof 5.5 was optimized for anaerobic microflora which gave a maximum hydrogen production of 4820 ml H2/l-POME corresponding to hydrogen yield of 243 ml H2/g-sugar. Total sugar consumption and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were 98.7% and 46%, respectively. Long-term hydrogen production in continuous reactor at HRT of 2 days, 1 day and 12 hrs were 4850 ± 90, 4660 ± 99 and 2590 ± 120 ml H2/l-POME, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the mixed culture revealed that members involved hydrogen producers in both batch and continuous reactors were phylogenetically related to the Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum. Batch reactor showed more diversity of microorganisms than continuous reactor. Microbial community structure of batch reactor was comprised of T. thermosaccharolyticum, T. bryantii, Thermoanaerobacterium sp., Clostridium thermopalmarium and Clostridium NS5-4, while continuous reactor was comprised of T. thermosaccharolyticum, T. bryantii and Thermoanaerobacterium sp. POME is good substrate for biohydrogen production under thermophilic condition with Thermoanaerobacterium species play an important role in hydrogen fermentation.

Sompong, O-Thong; Chonticha, Mamimin; Poonsuk, Prasertsan.

2011-09-15

120

Use of Palm Oil for Power Generation  

…than crude palm oil despite the extra refining stage as it is a lower value product than palm oil olein. This is important because the emissions from crude palm oil production are split between the two end products based on their price, which means more are allocated to the olein. This is an accepted lifecycle…

 
 
 
 
121

Palm oil problems; Palmen-Geister  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indonesia plans a massive expansion of palm oil production for biodiesel production. The locals are opposed to this. The contribution describes a visit to the island of Kalimantan, where the world's biggest palm plantation is planned. (orig.)

Schott, C.; Kurniasih, F.D.

2007-04-15

122

The Effect of Higher Sludge Recycling Rate on Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in a Semi-Commercial Closed Digester for Renewable Energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: A 500 m3 semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester was constructed for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME treatment and methane gas capture for renewable energy. During the start-up operation period, the Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation could not be controlled and caused instability on the system. Approach: A settling tank was installed and sludge was recycled as to provide a balanced microorganisms population for the treatment of POME and methane gas production. The effect of sludge recycling rate was studied by applying Organic Loading Rates (OLR (between 1.0 and 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 at different sludge recycling rates (6, 12 and 18 m3 day-1. Results: At sludge recycling rate of 18 m3 day-1, the maximum OLR was 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 with biogas and methane productivity of 1.5 and 0.9 m3 m-3 day-1, respectively. By increasing the sludge recycling rate the VFA concentration was controlled below its inhibitory limit (1000 mg L-1 and the COD removal efficiency recorded was above 95% which indicated good treatment performance for the digester. Two methanogens species (Methanosarcina sp. and Methanosaeta concilii had been identified from sludge samples obtained from the digester and recycled stream. Conclusion: By increasing the sludge recycling rate upon higher application of OLR, the treatment process was kept stable with high COD removal efficiency. The biogas and methane productivity were initially improved but reduced once OLR and recycling rate were increased to 10.0 kg COD m3 day-1 and 18 m3 day-1 respectively.

Alawi Sulaiman

2009-01-01

123

Co-Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Refined Glycerin Wash Water for Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal and Methane Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Refined Glycerin Wash Water (RGWW from the oleochemical industry contains high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and requires proper treatment before disposal. Unfortunately the wash water also contains high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl that could cause inhibition to the normal biological treatment process. However, there is feasibility of co-digesting the RGWW and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for its treatment and methane recovery. Approach: A large 500 m3 semi-commercial closed digester tank was used to study the effect of co-digesting POME and RGWW under mesophilic condition at different RGWW percentage. The digester performance in terms of COD removal efficiency and methane production rate and stability based on total Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation, Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solid (MLVSS and pH were evaluated. Results: At 1.0% of RGWW co-digested, both COD removal efficiency and methane production rate showed satisfactory results with higher than 90% and 505 m3 day-1, respectively. However, once the percentage was increased to a maximum of 5.25%, COD removal efficiency remains high but the methane production rate reduced significantly down to 307 m3 day-1. At this stage, the digester was already unstable with high total VFA recorded of 913 mg L-1 and low cells concentration of 8.58 g L-1. This was probably due to the effect of plasmolysis on the methanogens at high concentration of NaCl in the digester of nearly 4000 mg L-1. Conclusion: Co-digesting of RGWW with high NaCl content and POME is satisfactory for COD removal but not for increasing the methane production.

A. Sulaiman

2009-01-01

124

Sustainable biogas and biomass utilization in Malaysian palm oil industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palm oil industry in Malaysia is producing palm oil more than 12 million tones every year, while yielding more than 14 million of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and 25 million tones of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the POME treatment, huge anaerobic ponds (lagoon) are adopted, generating large amount of methane, more than 20 times global warming effect than CO{sub 2}. The objective of this research is to estimate actual methane emission from the POME treatment and to find out any possibility to utilize generated methane as an energy source under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Methane emission of 0.238 kg CH{sub 4} per kg COD removed or 12.36 kg CH{sub 4} per tone POME are obtained from actual mill operation throughout annual measurement. This indicates that more than 200,000 tones of methane, which is equivalent to 4 million tones of carbon dioxide, are estimated to be emitted from whole Malaysia. 500 tones of methane fermentor installed to palm oil mill to prevent GHG emission under the CDM. By this, lagoon system as major source of local environment pollution necessary no more, thus obtaining another 3 to 4 times large land area than mill. Our proposal is to establish novel industry utilizing biogas energy for value added material or energy conversion of excess biomass, thus enabling reduction of GHG and local environment pollution and sustainable development of local community. (orig.)

Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito (Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Yacob, Shahrakbah (Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn Bhd, Selangor (Malaysia)); Ali Hassan, M. (Dept. of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia))

2007-07-01

125

Use of Palm Oil for Power Generation  

oil for power generation March 2010 Palm oil is a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, used widely in many food and non-food applications (for example soap, oleo chemicals) and as a feedstock for biodiesel. Recently there have been a number of proposals in the UK to use palm oil as a fuel for power plants…

126

21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. 172...Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The...cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils,...

2009-04-01

127

21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

...butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. 172.861...substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive...substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be...

2009-04-01

128

21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils... Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils...cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both...

2009-04-01

129

Value-added Products from Palm Sludge Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The very short chain fatty acid has been recovered from palm sludge oils, a by-product of palm oil mills using vacuum distillation method. The recovered very short chain fatty acid contains mainly C6 fatty acid which is a valuable fine chemical in perfume industry. The very short chain fatty acid perfume esters were then synthesised using ethanol with sulphuric acid as catalyst. The reaction conditions were alcohol- very short chain fatty acid volume ratio of 2:1, 1.5% wt of sulphuric acid at...

Nursulihatimarsyila Abd. Wafti; Harrison Lau Lik Nang; Choo Yuen May

2012-01-01

130

Sourcing palm oil from sustainable sources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our world is confronted with increasing concerns about global warming and security of energy supply. Renewable energy is promoted as one of the solutions to these challenges. One source of renewable energy is palm oil (derivatives). Crude palm oil and its derivatives can be used to produce biodiesel as well as to produce electricity and heat. Essent, a Dutch electricity producer, has co-fired palm oil for the generation of electricity from renewable sources. However, there has been an increasing concern about the sustainability of palm oil production. It is feared that the large-scale consumption of palm oil by the energy sector may have negative effects, e.g. on the environment in producing countries. In a reaction to this concern Essent suspended its sourcing of palm oil and asked a commission of experts to advise her on the possibilities of sourcing palm oil from verified sustainable sources. This report is the result of the Commission's work and documents the advice of the Commission to Essent. The assignment to the Commission is to determine whether it is possible to implement a certification system for palm oil products in the short term that enables sourcing of palm oil from verified sustainable sources.

Blok, K. (ed.) [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2007-05-15

131

Evaluation of the Quality of Palm Oil Produced by Different Methods of Processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five palm oil samples obtained by different methods of processing were evaluated for quality. The palm oil samples evaluated were oils produced by traditional aqueous palm oil extraction method, palm oil press, fibre extract, Adapalm mechanized extraction method and adulterated palm oil extract. The physical quality indices analyzed were moisture content, impurities, density, smoke point, flash point and fire point, while the chemical quality indices analyzed were Free Fatty Acids (FFA, saponification value, peroxide value, iodine value, unsaponifiable matter and potash content. The Adapalm oil ( from the standard industrial oil mill had significantly(p<0.05 lower values of FFA (0.97%, moisture content (0.23%, peroxide value (07.0 mEq kg-1 and the other quality parameters showed that it is of higher quality than the rest. It was closely followed by palm oil from press extract and traditional aqueous palm oil with FFA of 3.3% and 2.6%, respectively. These were then followed by palm oil from fibre extract with FFA (2.9%, moisture content (9.3%, impurities (1.6%, peroxide value (7.4 mEq kg -1. The adulterated palm oil extract was found to have significantly higher values of moisture content (26.4%, FFA (3.9%, impurities (1.89%, potash content (3.96% and other quality indices showed that it is of the poorest quality among all the oil samples.

2006-01-01

132

Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were reduced to 3 mg/L and 5 mg/L respectively, satisfying the discharge requirement by Malaysia Department of Environment (DOE). The modeling study shows that the adsorption isotherm of boron onto POMB bottom ash conformed to the Freundlich Isotherm. The proposed method is suitable for boron removal in ceramic wastewater especially in regions where POMB bottom ash is abundant. PMID:19487007

Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

2009-07-01

133

Sterilization of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Using Microwave Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dramatically increasing rate of free fatty acid (FFA in long storage oil palm fruit is one of the most crucial problems of oil palm mill industries. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of oil palm fruits sterilization by using microwave irradiation in order of halting enzymatic lipolysis reaction which caused of FFA production. The results indicate that microwave heating can be interrupted the FFA produced reaction and the optimum condition heating temperature of the fruits mesocarp is 50 °C but not exceed to 80 °C, and the fruits can be storage for 7 days at ambient condition without FFA significantly generation. Conclude that heating from irradiation of microwave is capacitating for dry and clean sterilization system.

I. Umudee

2013-06-01

134

Evaluation of palm oil esters as diesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laboratory and mini-pilot plant preparation of Me esters from crude palm oil and crude stearin was successfully studied. Preliminary evaluation of palm oil Me esters was initiated based on laboratory analyses, testing on stationary engine, and field testing on vehicle. Preliminary technical and economic evaluation was carried out.

Ong, A.S.H.; Choo, Y.M.; Hitam, H.J.A.; Muthurajah, R.N.; Goh, S.H.; Toh, H.T.

1984-01-01

135

Value-added Products from Palm Sludge Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The very short chain fatty acid has been recovered from palm sludge oils, a by-product of palm oil mills using vacuum distillation method. The recovered very short chain fatty acid contains mainly C6 fatty acid which is a valuable fine chemical in perfume industry. The very short chain fatty acid perfume esters were then synthesised using ethanol with sulphuric acid as catalyst. The reaction conditions were alcohol- very short chain fatty acid volume ratio of 2:1, 1.5% wt of sulphuric acid at temperature of 120°C for 20 min. The yield of very short chain fatty acid esters after distillation and purification processes was 50 to 60% wt. The treated palm sludge oils, after recovering of very short chain fatty acid was subjected to esterification using solid acid catalyst followed by conventional transesterification for biodiesel production. The free fatty acid in palm sludge oils was successfully reduced from 65% to less than 2% prior to transesterification. The conversion of free fatty acid to methyl ester and final yield of biodiesel were 98 and 83%, respectively. This paper demonstrates total utilisation of palm sludge oils by producing valuable very short chain fatty acid before converting it into biodiesel.

Choo Yuen May

2012-01-01

136

Bio-oils from Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the mesocarp fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB, frond, trunk and palm oil mill effluent (POME. For 80 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch (FFB processed last year, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 25 million tones. The objectives of this study were to: (i Determine the effect of various pyrolysis parameters on product yields and (ii Characterise liquid product obtained under different condition. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB was investigated using quartz fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures, particle sizes and heating rates on the yield of the products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis and heating rate were varied in the range 300-700 °C and 10-100 °C min1 respectively. The particle size was varied in the range of Results: Under the experimental conditions, the maximum bio-oil yield was 42.28% obtained at 500 ºC, with a heating rate of 100 ºC min-1 and particle size of 91-106 µm. The calorific values of bio-oil ranged from 20-21 MJ kg-1. A great range of functional groups of phenol, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids were indicated in FTIR spectrum. Conclusion: The chemical characterisation results showed that the bio-oil obtained from oil palm EFB maybe a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks.

Mohamad A. Sukiran

2009-01-01

137

Palm oil waste treatment study in Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discharges of raw or partially treated palm oil wastewater from the 149 mills in Malaysia have contributed an estimated BOD load which is equivalent to that of nearly 6 million persons. Anaerobic pond and digestion proved to be an effective 1st step in the treatment process. At detention times of 15-20 days, more than 95% of BOD and COD were removed. Various aerobic biological unit processes were attempted to further treat the anerobically treated effluent. Generally, aerobic processes were successful in removing 86-94% of BOD, but only 60-68% of COD. Environmental conditions in Malaysia would favor the adaption of a system comprised of an anaerobic pond with recirculation of its effluent followed by an aerated lagoon.

Hum, K.S.; Thanh, N.C.; Lee, T.L.

1981-01-01

138

Numerical analysis of emission component from incineration of palm oil wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the last decade, there has been an increasing awareness of the use of by-products and wastes from palm oil mills with the dual objective of reducing their environmental impacts and enhancing the economic viability of the crop. The recycling aspects of palm oil cultivation and palm oil processing have been reviewed and have provided an indication of the present and future use of palm oil biomass current applications being mainly for organic fertilizers and fuel. In the present work, the emissions from incineration of two types of palm oil wastes (POW) fibre and shell are considered, and compared to fuel oil. The results, which indicate less pollutant emission from incineration of POW compared to that of fuel oil, have been presented graphically. (author)

Harimi, M. [Universiti Malaysia Sabah (Malaysia). School of Engineering and Information Technology; Megat Ahmad, M.M.H.; Sapuan, S.M. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Darul Ehsan (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Idris, A. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Darul Ehsan (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

2005-03-01

139

Sustainability of palm oil production and opportunities for Finnish technology and know-how transfer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The global demand for palm oil is growing, thus prompting an increase in the global production particularly in Malaysia and Indonesia. Such increasing demand for palm oil is due to palm oil's relatively cheap price and versatile advantage both in edible and non-edible applications. Along with the increasing demand for palm oil, particularly for the production of biofuel, is a heated debate on its sustainability. Ecological degradation, climate change and social issues are among the main sustainability issues pressing the whole palm oil industry today. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects fulfilling the imperatives of the Kyoto Protocol are starting to gain momentum in Malaysia as reflected by the increasing registration of CDM projects in the palm oil mills. Most CDM projects in palm oil mills are on waste-to-energy, cocomposting, and methane recovery with the latter being the most common. The study on greenhouse gases (GHG) in the milling process points that biogas collection and energy utilisation has the greatest positive effect on GHG balance. On the other hand, empty fruit bunches (EFB) end-use as energy and high energy efficiency of the mill have the least effect on GHG balance of the mill. The range of direct GHG emissions from the palm oil mill is from 2.5 to 27 gCO{sub 2}e/MJ{sub CPO}, while the range of GHG emissions with all indirect and avoided emissions included is from -9 to 29 gCO{sub 2}e/MJ{sub CPO}. Comparing this GHG balance result with that of the EU RES-Directive suggests a further check on the values and emissions consideration of the latter. (orig.)

Panapanaan, V.; Helin, T.; Kujanpaeae, M.; Soukka, R.; Heinimoe, R.; Linnanen, L.

2009-07-01

140

Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of oil palms. The main aim of the paper is, however, to present a quantitative overview of the extent of land transformations related to the global oil palm production.

Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

2006-09-01

142

Use of Palm Oil for Power Generation  

…kilogram). The emissions from combusting unrefined palm oil will have elevated levels of NOx (oxides of nitrogen) compounds because of the presence of proteins in the palm tree fruit and so large combustion plant will probably have to include NOx abatement equipment. Generating technologies Table 1 lists…

143

Air Quality Impacts of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air emissions during palm oil processing by smallholders are issues of public health concern demanding urgent intervention by environmentalist. In this study, six smallholder oil palm processing mills were studied inElele,Nigeria. Air emission parameters (NO2, NH3, CO, H2S, SO2, VOC, noise and meteorology (wind speed, temperature, relative humidity and pressure were determined at three distances (10 ft,25 ftand50 ft in both wind ward and lee ward directions from the mills covering boiling and digestion activities. The emissions from biomass were found to be significantly higher than that from fossil diesel, while noise was higher during digestion. The health implications of air emissions were discussed. The study concluded by directing attentions of regulatory agencies to monitor the activities of smallholder oil palm processing to ensure the environmental sustainability of their operations. In summary, evidence during boiling activity revealed that: ·      H2S ranged from - 2.400 ppm at10 ft, - 2.067 ppm at25 ftand - 0.833 ppm at50 ftfrom the mills in the wind ward direction, and - 1.167 ppm at10 ft, - 0.567 ppm at25 ftand - 0.367 ppm at50ftdistance from the mills in lee ward direction and was significantly lower during digestion. ·      SPM ranged from 1634 - 7853 ?g/m3 at10 ft, 657 - 1110 ?g/m3 at25 ftand 81 - 854 ?g/m3 at50 ftfrom the mills in the wind ward direction, and 46 - 236 ?g/m3 at10 ft, 44 - 120 ?g/m3 at25 ftand 30 - 58 ?g/m3 at50 ftfrom the mills in lee ward direction. SPM was significantly lower during digestion. ·      VOC ranged from 67 - 13.933 ppm at10 ft, 1.033 - 13.133 ppm at25ftand 0.500 -

Elijah I. Ohimain

2013-07-01

144

Sustainability of Palm Oil Industries: An Innovative Treatment via Membrane Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysia is the largest producer of palm oil, the processing of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB has resulted large amount Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. The highly polluting POME is identified as the major stumbling block to the development of palm oil industry in Malaysia. Hence, an integrated membrane process with physical-chemical treatment had been successfully achieved for treatment of POME. The role of membrane was explored significantly; where the chemical treated POME was further treated using ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membrane. The concept of sustainable development in palm oil industries is achieved by recovering and recycling the crystal clear water and sludge as organic fertilizer from POME back to its process and plantations using the innovative membrane treatment. Consequently, zero discharge is achieved by eliminating the discharge of POME into the rivers.

A.L. Ahmad

2009-01-01

145

Techno-economic Analysis of Electricity Generation from Biogas Using Palm Oil Waste  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Malaysia, nearly 80 million tons of fresh fruit bunches are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tons of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). This POME is known to generate biogas consisting of methane-a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. The amount of methane gas generated annually is equivalent to 19 million tons of carbon dioxide. To meet the regulatory requirement, more than 85% of the mills use solely the lagoon system...

2013-01-01

146

Potential reduction of carbon emissions from Crude Palm Oil production based on energy and carbon balances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We evaluate energy and carbon equivalence from CPO production based on a CBM. ? Energy spent and produced via carbon movement from palm oil mill was determined. ? Scenarios were formulated to evaluate the potential reduction of carbon emission. ? Utilization of biomass from palm oil mill shows the high potential of C-reduction. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate energy and carbon equivalences (CE) associated with palm oil milling and to evaluate sustainability alternatives for energy consumption. Appropriate ways to reduce carbon emissions were also evaluated. A field survey was carried out to quantify the input and output of energy and materials following the conceptual framework of a carbon-balanced model (CBM), which exclude other non-CO2 greenhouse gases. Survey results indicate that the electrical energy consumption for daily mill start-up averaged 18.7 ± 5.4 kWh/ton Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFBs). This energy is equivalent to 114.4 ± 33.2 kWh/ton Crude Palm Oil (CPO) which was found to be offset by that generated in the mills using palm fiber as a solid fuel. Currently, organic residues contained in the wastewater are anaerobically converted to methane. The methane is used as fuel to generate electricity and sold to an outside grid network at a generation rate of 8.1 ± 2.1 kWh/ton FFB. Based on the CBM approach, carbon emissions observed from the use of fossil energy in palm oil milling were very small; however, total carbon emission from oil palm plantation and palm oil milling were found to be 12.3 kg CE/ton FFB, resulting in the net carbon reduction in CPO production of 2.8 kg CE/ton FFB or 53.7 kg CE/ha-y. Overall, the sum of C-reduction was found 1.2 times greater than that of C-emission. This figure can be increased up to 5.5, if all biomass by-products are used as fuel to generate electricity only. The full potential for carbon reduction from palm oil milling is estimated at 0.94 kW of electric power for every hectare of plantation. This equates to a quantity of 68 kg CE reduced per ton of FFB. Thus, utilization of palm oil biomass can have a significantly high potential as a resource to be used for climate change mitigation by reducing carbon emissions. The findings of this work can be used as a template for policy makers to use in assessing and planning their energy programs.

2013-02-01

147

Rainforests for palm oil?; Regenwaldopfer fuer Palmoel?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmentalists are all fired up as rainforests are cut down for palm oil production in south eastern Asia. An international certification system is to ensure sustainable production and save the rainforests. (orig.)

Dany, C.

2007-07-02

148

Comparison Study of Thermal Insulation Characteristics from Oil Palm Fibre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, investigation was conducted to study the use of solid biomass from palm oil mill as insulation material. The experimental study concentrates on using oil palm fiber to determine the unidirectional thermal conductivity, k. The experiment was conducted at different temperature ranges and packing density. The values of k obtained were found to be 0.2 W/m.K to 0.069 W/m.K for a packing density between 66 kg/m3 to 110 kg/m3, and at a temperature between 40ºC to 70ºC. Comparisons were made with others common insulating materials, and it was found that the experimental k values for oil palm waste insulation was lower by between 4 to 56 times for rockwool and between 7 to 57 times for glass fiber at low temperatures. The value k of oil palm fiber however showed an increase at higher temperatures and was lower at lower packing densities. Although not being able to match the k values of common insulators at higher temperatures, other factors such as cost and environmental benefits of using waste material should be taken into consideration and hence encouraging its use as at least a supplement to existing insulation materials

Hassan S.

2014-07-01

149

IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesiaâ??s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the worldâ??s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encourage more downstream investments and production of refined palm oil products. Under the revised export duty structure, crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil are cheaper for downstream activities in Indonesia. The new structure is expected to reduce Malaysiaâ??s competitiveness in the world market as its export duty is relatively higher. A high export duty results in high price of crude palm oil which is the raw material for processed palm oil. The research questions are: (i What are the likely future trends of crude palm oil exports under the new crude palm oil export duties? Will it increase, reduce or stabilize? (ii What are the likely future trends of processed palm oil exports? Will it increase exponentially, stabilize or reduce? To answer these questions, a system dynamics model was developed for the Malaysian palm oil. Application of the system dynamics model provides a framework to understand the feedback structure and how changes in variables impact the behavior of the palm oil industry. This research suggests that with low crude palm oil export duties crude palm oil domestic price, profitability of plantation owners, immature crop, mature crop, total planted area, production and exports of crude palm oil increase, however exports of processed palm oil decrease.

Ibragimov Abdulla

2014-01-01

150

An experimental investigation to evaluate the heating value of palm oil waste by calorimetry. Paper no. IGEC-1-040  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A palm oil mill produces palm oil and kernel palm oil as main products and biomass residue (fiber and shell). This excess biomass residue can be used as fuel in boilers to meet energy and process heat demand in the industries. Quality of the palm oil waste (POW) is characterized by low fixed carbon and relatively high moisture content which may affect the heating value (HV). By applying the principle of calorimetry, a bomb calorimeter is utilized to evaluate the heating value of POW. From the experimental results, it is found that higher heating value (HHV) varies with the moisture content (MC) and it is observed as a function of MC. (author)

2005-06-12

151

European Policies towards Palm Oil - Sorting Out some Facts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses the role of palm oil and its sustainability from different perspectives. We consider the role of palm oil within the GHG context. We discuss the impact of palm oil on biodiversity and analyse how palm oil can contribute to economic growth and development in tropical countries. Finally, based on this analysis, we assess the current concerns about and politics towards palm oil with special focus on the EU. Palm oil is a low-energy and low-fertilizer crop that offers much hig...

Pehnelt, Gernot; Vietze, Christoph

2009-01-01

152

Export Competitiveness of Indonesia’s Palm Oil Product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzes the export competitiveness of Indonesia’s palm oil product as compared to Malaysia’s in three regions: Asia, Africa and Europe. Two palm oil products are analyzed: Crude Palm Oil (CPO and refined palm oil. Market share is utilized as the measurement of competitiveness. The results indicate that Indonesia’s palm oil export has increased significantly over the period from 1999-2001 and 2005-2007. The reasons for the increase in Indonesia’s export are the increase in demand and the increase in export competitiveness of Indonesia’s palm oil product compared to Malaysia’s product.c

Amzul Rifin

2010-01-01

153

Fuel conversional aspects of palm oil and sunflower oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are great differences between palm oil and palm kernel oil in physical and chemical characteristics. Palm oil contains mainly palmitic (16:0) and oleic (18:1) acids, the 2 common fatty acids and about 50% saturated, while palm kernel oil contains mainly lauric acid (12:0) and is more than 89% saturated. Palm is widely grown in Southeast Asia, and 90% of the palm oil produced is used for food, while the remaining 10% is used for nonfood consumption, such as production of oleo-chemicals. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages among other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. Compared to No. 2 diesel fuel, all of the vegetable oils are much more viscous, while methyl esters of vegetable oils are slightly more viscous. The methyl esters are more volatile than the vegetable oils. The soaps obtained from the vegetable oils can be pyrolyzed into hydrocarbon-rich products. The yield of conversion of the sunflower oil reached the maximum 78.3% at 660 K over ZnCl{sub 2} catalyst. (Author)

Demi-Rbas, A. [PK 216, Trabzon (Turkey)

2003-05-15

154

Effect of Palm Oil on Serum Lipid Profile in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil is considered as plant oil in which two types of cooking oil, palm seed oil and palm oil are derived. Palm oil has almost 50% saturated fatty acid and 50% poly unsaturated fatty acid. It is considered to be useful due to metabolites products such as prostacycline and antithrombois in cardiovascular disease (C.V.D) and variation in lipoprotein. In the present study we examined the effect of 12% palm oil on 30 days old male rats (149.3±10.7 g) for 60 days. The changes of weight...

Karaji-bani, M.; Montazeri, F.; Hashemi, M.

2006-01-01

155

Factors Affecting Palm Oil Price Based on Extremes Value Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the dependence structure of extreme realization of growth rate between palm oil prices and factors affecting, which are soybean oil and crude oil prices. We employ the Bivariate Extreme Value methods for daily palm oil, soybean oil and crude oil prices ranging from July 1988 to January 2012. The results provide that the growth rate of palm oil and soybean oil prices has some dependence in extremes, but the growth rate of palm oil and crude oil prices has fairly we...

Kantaporn Chuangchid; Aree Wiboonpongse; Songsak Sriboonchitta; Chukiat Chaiboonsri

2012-01-01

156

Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showe...

Han, Ng M.; May, Choo Y.

2010-01-01

157

Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There has been an increase in effort to reduce the reliance on petroleum fuels for energy generation and transportation throughout the world. Among the proposed alternative fuels is biodiesel. Over the years, a little attention was paid to the industrial use of palm oil. Laboratory tests such as viscosity, fire point, flash point, pour point and densities were conducted on raw palm oil and bleached palm oil using standard procedures. The flash points of palm oil and the bleached sample are 25...

Musa, John Jiya

2010-01-01

158

Irradiation effect on chemical components of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm press fibre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physico-chemical properties of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm press fibre (PPF), which are major by-products of the oil palm industries, were studied for upgrading their utilisation as animal feed by radiation-fermentation process. Comparative analyses of raw EFB and PPF from 3 different mills showed significant variations in some of their chemical components. Significant differences were also observed between the chemical components of EFB and PPF samples. The water holding capacities (WHC) of both EFB and PPF suggested their suitability for use as fermentation media. Gamma irradiation of up to 50 kGy have little effect on the components of both EFB and PPF. Irradiation dose of 25 kGy appeared to produce enhancement effect on cellulase hydrolysis of holocellulose and alpha-cellulose of EFB but a retarding effect on hydrolysis of PPF

1998-01-01

159

UV curable palm oil based inks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

2002-06-25

160

UV curable palm oil based ink  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

2002-10-15

 
 
 
 
161

Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

Meftah Salem M. Alfatni

2008-01-01

162

Exploratory Study of Oil Palm Shell as Partial Sand Replacement in Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers has been disposing oil palm shell, which is a by-product from palm oil mill thus causing negative impact to the environment. At the same time, extensive mining of natural river sand in large amount to meet the increasing demand of concrete production for the use in rapidly developing construction industry has posed the risk of natural aggregate depletion and ecological imbalance in future. The effect of finely Crushed Oil Palm Shell (COPS as partial sand replacement material in concrete mix towards density and compressive strength was investigated in this study. Total of five mixes consisting various content of crushed oil palm shell as partial sand replacement ranging from 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were prepared in form of cubes. All the specimens were water cured before tested at 7, 14 and 28 days. Compressive strength was conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390. Generally, the compressive strength and density decrease with the increase in the crushed oil palm shell replacement level. Between 50 to 75% replacement, the mix produced possess lower density enabling it to be categorized as lightweight concrete and has the potential to be used as non-load bearing structure. The application in structural concrete material is suited for mix consisting around 25% of crushed oil palm shell.

K. Muthusamy

2013-03-01

163

Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

2007-08-01

164

Performance Evaluation of Palm Oil as Biodiesel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work involved the production of diesel from most commonly available palm fruits oil Pisifera elaeis guineensis and testing for the brake power, torque of an engine and specific fuel consumption of a conventional diesel engine utilizing the produced diesel from palm oil. The obtained results were compared with those for fossil diesel fuel. The results show that the value of brake power was 6927.21W for fossil diesel while that of biodiesel was 7135.02W. Similarly the value for brake torqu...

Lawal, Sunday A.; Babakano, Ahmed

2011-01-01

165

Effect of replacing calcium salts of palm oil distillate with incremental amounts of conventional or high oleic acid milled rapeseed on milk fatty acid composition in cows fed maize silage-based diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on potential benefits to human health, there is increasing interest in altering the composition of ruminant-derived foods. Including rapeseeds in the dairy cow diet is an effective strategy for replacing medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) with cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in bovine milk, but there is limited information on the optimum level of supplementation. Decreases in SFA due to plant oils are also accompanied by increases in milk trans fatty acid (FA) content and it is possible that high oleic acid rapeseeds may result in a higher enrichment of cis-9 18:1 and lower increases in trans FAs in milk compared with conventional varieties. Seven multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were allocated to one of seven treatments in an incomplete Latin square design with five 28-day experimental periods, to evaluate the effect of replacing calcium salts of palm oil distillate (CPO; 41 g/kg diet dry matter, DM) with 128, 168 or 207 g/kg diet DM of conventional (COR) or a high oleic acid (HOR) rapeseed fed as a supplement milled with wheat. Rapeseed variety and inclusion level had no effect (P > 0.05) on DM intake, milk yield and composition. Both rapeseed varieties decreased linearly (P milk fat SFA content, which was partially compensated for by a linear increase (P milk SFA were also associated with increases (P 0.05) between rapeseed varieties. Replacing CPO in the diet with milled rapeseeds had no effect (P > 0.05) on total milk conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration. Relative to a COR, inclusion of a high oleic acid variant in the diet increased (P = 0.01) the ratio of trans-MUFA : trans-polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk that may have implications with respect to cardiovascular disease risk in humans. In conclusion, data indicated that replacing CPO with milled rapeseeds at levels up to 1150 g oil/day could be used as a nutritional strategy to lower milk SFA content without inducing adverse effects on DM intake and milk production. HOR reduced milk fat SFA content to a greater extent than a conventional variety, but did not minimise associated increases in trans FA concentrations. However, the high oleic acid variant did alter the relative abundance of specific trans 18:1, CLA and trans 18:2 isomers compared with conventional rapeseeds. PMID:22440184

Kliem, K E; Shingfield, K J; Humphries, D J; Givens, D I

2011-06-01

166

Export Competitiveness of Indonesia’s Palm Oil Product  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyzes the export competitiveness of Indonesia’s palm oil product as compared to Malaysia’s in three regions: Asia, Africa and Europe. Two palm oil products are analyzed: Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and refined palm oil. Market share is utilized as the measurement of competitiveness. The results indicate that Indonesia’s palm oil export has increased significantly over the period from 1999-2001 and 2005-2007. The reasons for the increase in Indonesia’s export are the increase in...

Amzul Rifin

2010-01-01

167

Performance of a diesel generator fuelled with palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pure palm oil may be employed in diesel engines as an alternative fuel. Engine performance and emissions were influenced by basic differences between diesel fuel and palm oils such as mass based heating values, viscosity, density and molecular oxygen content. The high viscosity of palm oil resulted in poor atomisation, carbon deposits, clogging of fuel lines and starting difficulties in low temperatures. When heated at 100{degree}C palm oil presented lower viscosity, better combustion and less deposits. Tests were conducted in a naturally aspirated MWM 229 direct injection four-stroke 70 kW diesel-generator fuelled with 100% palm oil. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

de Almeida, S.C.A.; Belchior, C.R.; Nascimento, M.V.G.; dos S.R. Vieira, L.; Guilherme Fleury, G. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Department of Mechanical Engineering

2002-11-01

168

Biomass residues from plam oil mills in Thailand: an overview on quantity and potential usage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palm oil production is one of the major industries in the south of Thailand. A study of the quantity and potential usage of palm oil mill wastes was carried out. Sixteen palm oil mills in the region generate 386,930 tons/yr, 165,830 tons/yr and 110,550 tons/yr of empty fruit bunches, palm press fiber and palm kernel shell, respectively. In addition, 1,202,260 tons/yr of waste water is being treated anaerobically. Only the pericarp fiber is used for boiler feed. Empty fruit bunches and the shell are disposed of by the land filling method, which is very costly. In some factories the empty fruit bunches are burnt in the furnaces, which cause air pollution. The study suggests potential usages of the solid and liquid wastes. (author)

Prasertsan, S.; Prasertsan, P. [Prince of Songkla Univ., Hat Yai (Thailand)

1996-12-31

169

Factors Affecting Palm Oil Price Based on Extremes Value Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the dependence structure of extreme realization of growth rate between palm oil prices and factors affecting, which are soybean oil and crude oil prices. We employ the Bivariate Extreme Value methods for daily palm oil, soybean oil and crude oil prices ranging from July 1988 to January 2012. The results provide that the growth rate of palm oil and soybean oil prices has some dependence in extremes, but the growth rate of palm oil and crude oil prices has fairly weak dependence or even independence in extremes. Therefore, the authors of this study hoped that these findings not only have made a contribution to our understanding of what drives palm oil price movement of soybean oil and change in crude oil prices, but also for the practitioner who want to devise an updated model to enhance a further comprehension of the prices that drive these article of trade.

Kantaporn Chuangchid

2012-11-01

170

Analyses of Hypomethylated Oil Palm Gene Space  

Science.gov (United States)

Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ?8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm.

Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J.; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

2014-01-01

171

Analyses of hypomethylated oil palm gene space.  

Science.gov (United States)

Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ?8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

Low, Eng-Ti L; Rosli, Rozana; Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

2014-01-01

172

Use of Palm Oil for Power Generation  

…although only the steam turbine offers the opportunity to vary the heat and power ratio. 1 Choo, Y. M. et al. (2005) Key fuel properties of palm oil alkyl esters, Fuel, 84, (12-13), 1717-1720 and Phyllis database (www.ecn.nl/phyllis/) accessed February 2010. Technology Size Efficiency* Pros Cons MWe Range…

173

Microwave induced pyrolysis of oil palm biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper was to carry out microwave induced pyrolysis of oil palm biomass (shell and fibers) with the help of char as microwave absorber (MA). Rapid heating and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as bio-oil, char, and gas was found to depend on the ratio of biomass to microwave absorber. Temperature profiles revealed the heating characteristics of the biomass materials which can rapidly heat-up to high temperature within seconds in presence of MA. Some characterization of pyrolysis products was also presented. The advantage of this technique includes substantial reduction in consumption of energy, time and cost in order to produce bio-oil from biomass materials. Large biomass particle size can be used directly in microwave heating, thus saving grinding as well as moisture removal cost. A synergistic effect was found in using MA with oil palm biomass. PMID:20970995

Salema, Arshad Adam; Ani, Farid Nasir

2011-02-01

174

Palm oil. Addressing issues and towards sustainable development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The quest for renewable energy has intensified since the escalating price of crude petroleum in the recent years. Renewable energy such as biodiesel has the potential to replace petroleum-derived transportation fuel in the future. Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils such palm oil, rapeseed and soybean. Currently, more than 80% of the world biodiesel productions are from rapeseed oil. However, the cost of palm oil which is at least US$ 200 per tonne cheaper than rapeseed oil indicates that palm oil could be a more suitable and attractive candidate as the source of biodiesel compared to other vegetable oils. Although palm oil is known to be a multi-purpose vegetable oil with products ranging from food to biodiesel, there are a lot of issues surrounding palm oil production. Nevertheless, some of these issues reported in the literature were found to be misleading and are thus confusing the public perception on palm oil. Thus, the aim of this paper is to highlight and clarify the negative issues reported in the literature surrounding palm oil production. Apart from that, various policies or/and strategies that will lead to a more sustainable production and development of palm oil industries will also be proposed. Hence, palm oil will be able to become the leading vegetable oil in terms of food and non-food production, especially as the main source of renewable energy, biodiesel. (author)

Tan, K.T.; Lee, K.T.; Mohamed, A.R.; Bhatia, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

2009-02-15

175

Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF, Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, Crude Palm Oil (CPO, chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012, 8 of the mills processed 90-400 bunches of Dura variety, while the remaining 2 mills processed 65-200 bunches of Tenera variety. During the batch processing of Dura variety, the proportion of the intermediate products computed in relation to the weight of the FFB (100% are as follows; TFF (66.0-75.0%, mesocarp (44.8-51.1%, nuts (19.0-27.5%, kernel (5.7-7.2%, water in mesocarp (9.0-12.1% and water in nut (2.4-3.4%, EFB (23.7-32.4%, chaff (0.8-2.4%, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS (10.0-18.8%, Palm Press Fibre (PPF (23.2-28.1% and Crude Palm Oil (CPO (9.4-12.8%. For the Tenera varieties, the compositions are as follows; TFF (70.9-72.9%, mesocarp (56.4-58.0%, nuts (14.5-14.9%, kernel (5.5-5.6%, water in mesocarp (10.1-10.4% and water in the nut (1.9-2.1%, EFB (25.7-28.2%, chaff (0.9-1.4%, PKS (6.8-7.5%, (19.1-20.3% and CPO (26.0-28.2%. This result shows that Tenera produces more oil and less wastes compared to the Dura variety. The solid wastes fractions are used as energy sources during the processing of oil palm and as filling materials for upgrading access roads to palm plantations. Except the huge volume of wastes (71.8-90.6% generated by smallholder oil palm processors is effectively utilized, the process will be unsustainable.

Elijah I. Ohimain

2013-03-01

176

Combustion of oil palm solid wastes in fluidized bed combustor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The palm oil industry of Malaysia is the largest in the world producing about 55% of the world production. The industry has approximately 270 mills throughout the country with processing sizes ranging from 10 tonnes/hour to 120 tonnes/hour. All mills produce solid wastes, about 50% of the fresh fruit bunches in terms of weight. The solid wastes produced are in the form of empty fruit bunches, fibers and shells. These wastes have high energy value, ranging from 14 to 18 MJ/kg. The industry is currently self-sufficient in terms of energy. Fibers and shell wastes are being used as boiler fuel to raise steam for electrical power production and process steam. However, the combustion technology currently being employed is obsolete with low efficiency and polluting. A fluidized bed combustor pilot plant is designed and constructed at Combustion Research Laboratory, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The combustor is made up of 600 mm {times} 900 mm rectangular bed filled with sand up to 400 mm height, static. A bank of heat transfer tubes is imbedded in the bed, designed to absorb 50% of heat released by the fuel in the bed. The remaining heat is transferred in tubes placed on the wall of the freeboard area. Experimental studies were carried out in the pilot plant using palm oil solid wastes. The combustion temperatures were maintained in the range 800--900 C. The performance of the combustor was evaluated in terms of combustion and boiler efficiencies and flue gas emissions monitored.

Shamsuddin, A.H. [Univ. Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering; Sopian, K. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). College of Engineering

1995-12-31

177

Effect of Ni and Co as Trace Metals on Digestion Performance and Biogas Produced from The Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Macro and micro nutrients are important ingredients for successful anaerobic digestion. The presence or lack of nutrients can enhance or limit the functioning of the fermentation process. Micro-nutrients most often reported as stimulatory are trace metals such as nickel, cobalt, iron, and zinc. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nickel and cobalt as trace metals on digestion performance and biogas produced from the fermentation of palm o...

2012-01-01

178

An experimental investigation to evaluate the heating value of palm oil waste by calorimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malaysia is one of the world's largest palm oil producing countries, accounting for nearly 50 per cent of the total world production. Palm oil mills produce palm oil and kernel palm oil as the main products. Excess biomass residue in the form of fiber and shell is also produced, which can be used as fuel in boilers to meet energy and process heat demand in the industries. The total biomass energy potential is estimated to be equivalent to 2 to 3 per cent of the total power produced in the country. In order to evaluate the potential of biomass solid as a fuel in the combustion system, it is necessary to know the heating value of the biomass solid. This parameter is typically a function of the fuel composition. The key parameter that influences the thermal efficiency of palm oil waste (POW) is moisture content when it is burned. This paper described how the higher heating value (HHV) of POW is determined using a calorimeter. HHV was correlated as a function of moisture content (MC) for palm oil fibre and shells. In this study, the quality of the POW was characterized by low fixed carbon and relatively high moisture content that could influence the heating value. Experimental results indicate that HHV varies with MC. A linear correlation was made between HHV and MC. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

Suspeni, E.E.; Megat, M.M.H.; Sapuan, M.S.; Nor Maria, A. [Putra Malaysia Univ., Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Chuah, T.G. [Putra Malaysia Univ., Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

2005-07-01

179

Price Forecasting Methodology of the Malaysian Palm Oil Market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaysia is the second largest producer of palm oil in the world and the price of palm oil depends so much on the world oils and fat market. The study presents several numbers of econometric models that are being used to forecast a short term ex-ante spot palm oil price in future prices of the Malaysian palm oil market from July 2011 to December 2011. These models include Vector Error Correction Method (VECM) equation econometric model, Multivariate Autoregressive-Moving-Average (MARMA) model...

Aye Aye Khin; Zainalabidin Mohamed; Chinnasamy Agamudai Nambhi Malarvizhi; Seethaletchumy Thambiah

2013-01-01

180

Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, en...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the output sides of its activities. On the input side, crude palm oil mills use large quantities of water and energy in the production process. On the output side, manufacturing processes generate large qu...

2006-01-01

182

Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Conclusion: This study is thus conducted to trace the availability of these antioxidants in the leaves of the oil palm of the Elaeis guineensis variety.

Ng M. Han

2010-01-01

183

Application of Extreme Value Copulas to Palm Oil Prices Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we study the tail behavior of the palm oil future markets using the Extreme Value Theory and focusing on the dependence structure between the returns on palm oil future price in three palm oil futures markets, namely Malaysian futures markets (KLSE, Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE and Singapore Exchange Derivatives Trading Limited (SGX-DT by using the Extreme Value Copulas. The results demonstrated that the returns on palm oil future price among KLSE and SGX-DT have dependence in extreme, whereas the returns on palm oil future price among KLSE and DCE, SGX-DT and DCE do not have any dependence. The results could be beneficial for any person or company wishing to be engaged in the commerce of trading palm oil.

Kantaporn Chuangchid

2012-07-01

184

Storage Stability and Sensory Evaluation of Taro Chips Fried in Palm Oil, Palm Olein Oil, Groundnut Oil, Soybean Oil and Their Blends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taro (Colocasia esculenta) chips fried in Palm Oil (PO), Soybean Oil (SBO), Palm Olein Oil (POO), Groundnut Oil (GO) and in 40:60 w/w blend ratio of palm oil: POO; SBO; GO were stored for 0-5 weeks in dark and in fluorescent light. Chips were subjected to weekly chemical and sensory analysis. Results showed that significant (p<0.05) differences occurred in the organoleptic properties of taro chips fried in the different oil types during storage. Chips fried in palm oil and gr...

Emmanuel-ikpeme, C. A.; Eneji, C. A.; Essiet, U.

2007-01-01

185

Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

2013-03-01

186

Price Forecasting Methodology of the Malaysian Palm Oil Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysia is the second largest producer of palm oil in the world and the price of palm oil depends so much on the world oils and fat market. The study presents several numbers of econometric models that are being used to forecast a short term ex-ante spot palm oil price in future prices of the Malaysian palm oil market from July 2011 to December 2011. These models include Vector Error Correction Method (VECM equation econometric model, Multivariate Autoregressive-Moving-Average (MARMA model (composite model and the univariate model of Autoregressive-Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA (Box-Jenkins model. The objective is to determine the forecasting model in terms of the comparative forecasting models’ accuracy of the monthly spot palm oil price. Monthly data of palm oil price from January 1980 to June 2011 were being used as an estimation periods to forecast palm oil spot price from July 2011 to December 2011. Comparative forecasting models accuracy between VECM equation econometric model, MARMA model and univariate model of ARIMA were made in terms of their estimation accuracy based on RMSE, MAE, RMPE and (U-Theil criteria. The results revealed that MARMA model (composite model is more accurate and efficient measured in terms of its statistical criteria than VECM equation econometric model and ARIMA model (Box-Jenkins model in forecasting the spot palm oil price of the Malaysian palm oil market.

Chinnasamy Agamudai Nambhi Malarvizhi

2013-01-01

187

Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the conversion of iodine value. The formation of epoxide adduct of palm kernel oil fatty acids (FAPKO was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral analysis showed the disappearance of double bonds and replaced by epoxy group in the EFAPKO.

Michelle Ni Fong Fong

2013-02-01

188

Neural Network in Modeling Malaysian Oil Palm Yield  

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Problem statement: Forecasting of palm oil yield has become an important element in the management of oil palm industry for proper planning and decision making. The importance of yield forecasting has led us to explore modeling of palm oil yield for Malaysia using the most recent development of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The main issue in yield forecasting is to predict the future value with the minimum error. Approach: Artificial neural networks are co...

Zuhaimy Ismail; Azme Khamis

2011-01-01

189

Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for cleaner production in crude palm oil industry, and to provide recommendations for overcoming these barriers. As such the overall aim was to generate ideas for moving the crude palm oil ...

2006-01-01

190

Feasibility Study of Performing an Life cycle Assessment on Crude Palm Oil Production in Malaysia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background, Goal and Scope. The palm oil industry is one of the leading industries in Malaysia. With a yearly production of more than 13 million tons of crude palm oil (CPO) and plantations covering 11% of the Malaysian land area it is an industry to be reckoned with, also when it comes to environmental impacts. One way to describe and present the environmental impacts is through a life cycle assessment, LCA. This assessment aims to introduce the concept of LCA and perform a screening LCA on crude palm oil production in Malaysia including the stages of plantation, transport and milling. The assessment is largely based on general data and is thus meant to function as an indication of the environmental threads posed by CPO production and as a guideline to CPO producers and local universities on how to perform an LCA on a palm oil scenario. Due to the general data background the results of this report should not be quoted directly for decision making. The Functional Unit, to which all masses and emissions in this assessment have been adjusted, is the production of 1000 kg of CPO in Malaysia. Method. Initially an overview of palm oil production was obtained and the outlines and borders of the assessment were determined along with the specific goal and scope of the assessment. The data for the assessment was collected from three different sources: 1. Earlier studies and statistics on palm oil production in Malaysia 2. Studies on similar processes, when palm oil related processes were not available 3. General data from the SimaPro 5 database The European Eco-Indicator 99 method and European databases included in the LCA software SimaPro 5 have been used for the impact calculations. Results and Discussion. The impact processes related to the plantation are the on-site energy use (mainly diesel) and the production of artificial fertilizer. Pesticide use contributes a minor impact due to widely used integrated biological poet management. For transportation the only impact is from combustion of diesel and at the mill theboiler is the sole significant contributor â?? positively through electricity production and negatively by emissions from the boiler. Impacts from POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) are not dealt with in the main assessment, but touched upon in alternative scenarios. The results clearly show that fertilizer production is the most polluting process in the system followed by transportation and the boiler emissions at a tie. The most significant impacts from the system are respiratory inorganics and depletion of fossil fuels, of which the boiler emis-sion is the main responsible for the prior and fertilizer production and transportation are responsible for the latter. It is also evident from the results that crude palm oil production is a significant environmental impact generator in Malaysia due to the vast production quantities. Alternative scenarios revealed that there are significant impact savings to be made by introduction of environmental investments, both regarding the overall impacts and in particularly regarding CO2 emissions. Conclusion. A screening LCA was successfully conducted on the Malaysian crude palm oil production thus promising potentials for the palm oil industry to conduct their own inventories and assessments using specific company data. Crude palm oil production in Malaysia is responsible for app. 3.5% of the total environmental impacts in the country and must thus be given attention to reduce impacts. Alternatives such as optimized use of organic fertilizer, environmentally friendlier artificial fertilizer production, rail transport, approved filters at the mill boiler stack and biogas harvest from POME digestion must thus be promoted in the industry. Recommendations. The Malaysian palm oil industry should take steps towards introducing LCA. Exhaustive inventories are likely to open the eyes of many companies towards implementing environmental investments and improve the international competitiveness. In order to retrieve results with a greater accuracy in the future, databases must be created c

Yusoff, Sumiani; Hansen, Sune Balle

2007-01-01

191

A Gate to Gate Assessment of Environmental Performance for Production of Crude Palm Kernel Oil Using Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry is an export orientated industry which heavily relies on the world market. In 2007 alone the total export earnings reached RM 45.1 billion. It is essential that the oil palm industry is ready to meet the higher expectation of its overseas customers on the environmental performance of the industry. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is a tool to evaluate the environmental impacts of a product or process throughout its entire life cycle. To identify the potential environmental impacts associated with the production of CPKO and to use this assessment for evaluating opportunities to overcome the potential impacts. Approach: This study had a gate to gate system boundary that starts with the collection and transportation of the palm kernel from the palm oil mills to the production of Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO at the kernel crushing plants. Six kernel crushing plants were selected to collect inventory data which consists of inputs of raw materials and energy; outputs of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Five crushing plants used electricity directly from the grid while one crushing plant used the electricity generated at the neighboring palm oil mill for processing. This study compared the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA of two scenarios namely; when the crushing plants uses electricity from the grid versus the crushing plant which uses electricity generated from the palm oil mill. The LCIA was conducted using the Simapro software and the Eco-Indicator 99 methodology. Results: For scenario one there was two potential impacts mainly from the electricity consumption from the grid for processing and diesel consumption for transporting the palm kernel from the mills. For scenario two, the potential impact from the electricity consumption from the grid was reduced due to the use of renewable energy from the palm oil mill and the impact from diesel consumption was reduced due to the short distance for transporting the palm kernel. Conclusion: It was recommended that more kernel crushing plants should be integrated with the palm oil mills to over come these impacts.

S. Vijaya

2009-01-01

192

Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market â?? and the main recipient of environmental scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken by the hydropower industry â?? an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector â?? it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one based on scientific evidence is more likely to lead to greater opportunities for sustainable palm oil.

Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle

2011-01-01

193

Production of methyl ester from oil in the wastewater pond of a palm oil factory  

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Full Text Available This research studied the suitable technique for the production of methyl ester from waste palm oil in the water pond of a palm oil mill. The composition of the waste palm oil was 73.82% fatty acid, 5.07% triglyceride, 3.39% diglyceride and 17.76% unknown compounds. The unknown compounds were separated via simple distillation carried out at a temperature range of 300-350oC.First, the experiments were carried out in screw capped bottles using filtrated as-received waste oil as the reactant. The esterification and transesterification process were conducted using sulfuric acid catalyst in a methanol solution. The key parameters studied were mole ratio of waste oil to methanol (1:1 to 1:72, amount of catalyst from 0.1-20 v/w% of the reactant, temperature range of 60-98oC and reaction time range of 15-180 minutes. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC analysis showed 85-90% purity of methyl ester with 4-5% of mono-, di-, and triglycerides and fatty acids and about 5-10% of the unknown compounds for the best condition. The resulting yield of biodiesel was 84-88%. Eradication of contaminants by distillation gave about a 75% distillate yield. Distilled waste palm oil was esterified and transesterified using the previous optimum condition of as-received waste oil, but the reaction time and temperature were varied. The optimal result was obtained by using distilled waste palm oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:8, sulfuric acid of 1 v/w% of reactant, reaction temperature of 70oC and reaction time of 1 hour. TLC analysis indicated a biodiesel composition of methyl ester, free fatty acid, diglyceride and monoglyceride of 96.39%, 3.20%, 0.24% and 0.17%, respectively. The yield of biodiesel was 96-98% having physical fuel properties according to Thailand standard for methyl esterFinally, the distilled waste palm oil was esterified using a 3 liters continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR. Using the suitable condition for the batch process and an hour retention time, the resulting biodiesel contained methyl ester, free fatty acid, diglyceride and monoglyceride at compositions of 94.34%, 3.22%, 1.60% and 0.84%, respectively, which were very close to the qualities from the batch process.

Tongurai, C.

2007-11-01

194

Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill. PMID:22482288

Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

2012-03-01

195

A choice of renewable or upgraded material from oil palm solid wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaysian palm oil industries are producing a large amount of solid wastes from the palm oil mills. Malaysia generates around 1.10 million tons of oil palm shells in year 1980 but this amount increased up to 4.11 million tons in year 2002 as wastes. Disposal of these wastes created environmental problems. Thus, a process was designed to reuse and recycle these wastes into value added products. This research used oil palm shells as a renewable material resource by thermo-chemical process to produce pyrolysis oil. The oil could be utilized as fuel or converted to valued added products. Since it contain a significant amount of phenols, it was extracted using solvent extraction technique to gain the useful phenol and phenolic compounds. The extracted oil-palm-shell-based phenol was used in the manufacturing of phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. Then the capability of wood bonding was tested comparing with the petroleum-based phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. For the commercial values of this research, the total global consumption of phenol in 2000 was 11.3 million metric ton that worth USD 10.0 billions. Thus, the commercial potentiality of this research is very high as the oil-palm-shell-based phenol could replace the petroleum-based phenol. The methods and products utilize low manufacturing cost from relatively simple technology and locally abundant raw material, comparable performances in wood bonding and competitive in price. It is estimated that around USD 900 / ton for petroleum-based, but just USD 250 / ton for palm-shell-based phenol

2006-12-01

196

Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been an increase in effort to reduce the reliance on petroleum fuels for energy generation and transportation throughout the world. Among the proposed alternative fuels is biodiesel. Over the years, a little attention was paid to the industrial use of palm oil. Laboratory tests such as viscosity, fire point, flash point, pour point and densities were conducted on raw palm oil and bleached palm oil using standard procedures. The flash points of palm oil and the bleached sample are 250 and 301°C while their fire points are 260 and 308°C while the flash and fire points of the SAE 40 and SAE 30 are 260/300(°C and 243/290(°C respectively. It was discovered that palm oil has a better prospect as lubricating oil if necessary improvements are made.

John Jiya MUSA

2010-12-01

197

OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

Wan Rosli Wan Daud

2011-02-01

198

Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil is known as an important source of edible oil with significant values of renewable energy. Depletion of petroleum had captured much attention on producing biodiesel from the palm oil. Approach: The most concerning methods for the production of biodiesel were discussed, namely transesterification (alkali and acid, enzymetic approach and supercritical alcohol. Results: The results showed the vis-a-vis of the methods for possible consideration of research. Conclusion: Concerning the importance of this vegetable oil, the contribution of palm oil towards diminution of fossil fuel, possible methods for the production of biodiesel and the opportunity for the futures is very much important.

Khalizani Khalid

2011-01-01

199

Gas Exchange Responses of Oil Palm to Ganoderma boninense Infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparison of physiological parameters was carried out between healthy and Ganoderma infected 17-year old oil palms grown under the same field conditions. Results from gas exchange measurements indicate that stomatal conductance was significantly reduced in infected palms. This led to significant reductions in transpiration rate and intercellular CO2 concentration in the infected palms. The relative leaf chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of PS II were also significantly reduced in the infected palms. The results indicate that infected palms were under water stress that was induced by injury to their root and vascular transport system and not related to soil water deficits.

M.H. Haniff

2005-01-01

200

Environmental impacts and improvement prospects for environmental hotspots in the production of palm oil derived biodiesel in Malaysia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Palm oil is the largest and fastest growing vegetable oil on the world market and the prospects of biodiesel production will further spur the expansion. In order to contribute to the knowledge base on current environmental impacts and potential improvements in the palm oil industry this study sets out to generate LCI data for central, yet underexplored elements in the production of biodiesel with a focus on greenhouse gasses (GHG). The research follows an attributional modelling framework, but does include system expansion to account for the use of residues from the palm oil production. The reference flow of the study is 1 MJ palm oil derived biodiesel, which has been chosen to facilitate comparisons of the results to fossil diesel and other biodiesels. The impact focus is on global warming potential with extensive quantification of GHG emissions and potential reduction. Other impact categories are included mainly with the purpose of documenting whether the proposed GHG reduction initiatives result in problem shifting. Land use changes (LUC) are the most controversial aspect of palm oil production with large potential GHG emissions and impacts on biodiversity. With global warming and extinction of animals and plants in tropical areas being easily communicated to the public, palm oil has been the target of numerous scare campaigns. Conversely, the palm oil industry is adamant that palm oil and oil palm plantations are sequestering carbon and supporting a wide range of flora and fauna. Through critical selection of literature data, field studies and application of state-of-the-art LCA methodology, this study is quantifying the GHG emissions from palm oil related LUC for the two most common previous land uses in Malaysia, namely logged-over forest and rubber plantations. In order to be able to assess the impacts from average palm oil production in Malaysia, a Malaysian average LUC scenario was set up and assessed. Solid residues from the production of palm oil constitute two tons dry weight organic matter per ton palm oil produced. Current use of this potential resource is limited to mulching of plantation residues and empty fruit bunches (EFB) from the mills and use of press fibre and kernel shells in the mill boilers. The mill wastewater called palm oil mill effluent (POME) is treated anaerobically in open lagoons emitting large amounts of methane. In recent years it is becoming more popular to sell kernel shells for use in industrial boilers, and biogas plants with methane capture for the POME treatment are slowly making their entry, but the potential uses and environmental benefits of such uses have only been sporadically explored. Residue energy recovery for substitution of fossil fuels is explored here through application of biomass power plants, pyrolysis and biogas production. Modelling the results of the LUC study and the residue use study into a GaBi model, various scenarios were set up to test the environmental potentials of management decisions in respect to LUC choices, yield optimization and residue use. The study also includes an assessment of the management practices of corporations and smallholders and an economic feasibility study to assess financial aspect of environmental improvements. The results show that biodiesel production from conventionally produced palm oil with national average LUC emissions emits only marginally less GHG than the life cycle emissions of fossil diesel. This study, however, shows that significant environmental improvements are available with currently available technologies to bring the impacts well below the fossil diesel emissions, and do so with economic profitability. Residue use shows a big potential for improvement. The conventional residue management causes net GHG emissions where the prospective fossil fuel substitutions through residue energy recovery alone is so significant that net GHG emissions from the PME production process can become close to CO2 neutral when not including LUC. An added bonus for the palm oil industry is that such improvements are likely to result

Hansen, Sune Balle

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the con...

Michelle Ni Fong Fong; Jumat Salimon

2013-01-01

202

Exploring Opportunities for Enhancing Innovation in Agriculture: The Case of Oil Palm Production in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We carried out a study using key informant interviews, focus group discussions and individual interviews to explore opportunities to enhance innovation in the oil palm sector in Ghana. Current technical innovations at the farm level are insufficient to promote sustainable oil palm production and to alleviate poverty because of overriding institutional constraints at the larger-than-farm level. Oil palm was selected for the study for three main reasons: (1 It is considered a national priority crop because of its potential for reducing poverty, (2 It has a wide geographical coverage and (3 It is considered as both food and cash crop. Oil palm has evolved in the past 40 years from a public-sector to a private-sector crop. The study identified the following main actors in oil palm production: small private farms that produce about 80% of the crop; large-scale industrial estates with their network of smallholder and out-grower farmers who produce to supply their large-scale mechanized processing mills; small-scale semi-mechanized processing mills, medium-scale mechanized mills and secondary processors. Opportunities that will make it rational for farmers to invest in increased production and improved sustainability include: (1 creating institutional conditions that will enable small-scale processors to be integrated into the value chain; (2 organising farmers to be able to negotiate for better deals for themselves; (3 improve system of distribution of improved planting material in regions where accessibility to seedlings of the high-yielding tenera hybrid variety is difficult; and (4 developing new tenancy rules and arrangements that improve the income of tenant farmers and encourage them to invest in increased productivity.

S. Adjei-Nsiah

2012-08-01

203

Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production of palm oil derived biodiesel can be almost carbon neutral.

Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving

2012-01-01

204

Storage Stability and Sensory Evaluation of Taro Chips Fried in Palm Oil, Palm Olein Oil, Groundnut Oil, Soybean Oil and Their Blends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taro (Colocasia esculenta chips fried in Palm Oil (PO, Soybean Oil (SBO, Palm Olein Oil (POO, Groundnut Oil (GO and in 40:60 w/w blend ratio of palm oil: POO; SBO; GO were stored for 0-5 weeks in dark and in fluorescent light. Chips were subjected to weekly chemical and sensory analysis. Results showed that significant (p<0.05 differences occurred in the organoleptic properties of taro chips fried in the different oil types during storage. Chips fried in palm oil and groundnut oil blend had the most desired flavour, taste and stability. The highest off-flavour rating was for chips fried in soybean oil while chips fried in palm oil: groundnut oil blend had the least rating (p<0.05. The overall acceptability of chips was not significantly (p>0.05 affected by dark storage. Peroxide Value (PV was highest in soybean oil fried chips (p>0.05 during storage. Peroxide Value (PV increased at a slower rate in chips fried in palm oil, palm olein oil/blends.

C.A. Emmanuel-Ikpeme

2007-01-01

205

Evaluation of the Quality of Palm Oil Produced by Different Methods of Processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five palm oil samples obtained by different methods of processing were evaluated for quality. The palm oil samples evaluated were oils produced by traditional aqueous palm oil extraction method, palm oil press, fibre extract, Adapalm mechanized extraction method and adulterated palm oil extract. The physical quality indices analyzed were moisture content, impurities, density, smoke point, flash point and fire point, while the chemical quality indices analyzed were Free Fatty Acids (FFA), sapo...

Onwuka, G. I.; Akaerue, B. I.

2006-01-01

206

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Palm Kernel Oil from Palm Kernel Cake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure 19.8 MPa and temperature 51C with different amount of ethanol (0-100 mL) was studied the extraction of palm kernel oil from palm kernel cake. The amount of oil produced from SFE and Modified ethanol-CO2 are proportional to the amount of ethanol. It was found that a-tocopherol, a-tocotrienol, sterols and fatty acid such lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid were present in all of the palm kernel oil sample.

Duduku Krishnaiah; Awang Bono; Rosalam Sarbatly; Siti Fadhilah

2012-01-01

207

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Palm Kernel Oil from Palm Kernel Cake  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 at pressure 19.8 MPa and temperature 51C with different amount of ethanol (0-100 mL was studied the extraction of palm kernel oil from palm kernel cake. The amount of oil produced from SFE and Modified ethanol-CO2 are proportional to the amount of ethanol. It was found that a-tocopherol, a-tocotrienol, sterols and fatty acid such lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid were present in all of the palm kernel oil sample.

Rosalam Sarbatly

2012-01-01

208

Study on effective utilization of palm oil (Part 2). Extraction of carotenes from palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a part of the result of an international cooperation project with Malaysia Palm Oil Research Institute. Extraction of carotenes from palm oil was carried out by means of molecular distillation or adsorption method. High recovery and enrichment of carotene was obtained from the sample treated with phosphoric acid or polyphosphoric acid. However, even the maximum enrichment was only 3.8 times of carotene concentration of the sample, which was far remote from the target value of 10. The yield of recovery was also as low as 40%. Adsorption of carotenes was found to be chemisorptive in nature. The highest enrichment and recovery were obtained in the caseof oil pretreated with the phosphorous pentoxide, the recovery was 34.3% and enrichment was 11.3 which exceeded the target of 10. This adsorption process may be commercialized if the demand for carotene will grow to justify it. (2 figs, 7 tabs, 18 refs)

Mamuro, Hideo; Kubota, Yasuhiko; Shiina, Hisako; Nakasato, Satoshi

1987-01-08

209

Using of mucilage palm oil in the toilet soap production.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mucilage palm oil (M.P.O.) was obtained from physical refining step for crude palm oil. The components of M.P.O. were high content of free fatty acids (82.2%) with simple amount of neutral oil (11.9%), while the residual content (unsaponifiable matter and impurities) was 2.1% and in addition to 3.8% water. The results indicated that the colours of M.P.O., tallow and palm kemel oil improved after bleaching. Eight soap samples (n.os 1-8) were prepared from bleached fatty ...

Girgis, Adel Y.

1999-01-01

210

Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 106 ty-1) of palm oil from 38.6 x 106 ty- 1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 106 ty- 1), shell (2.3 x 106 ty- 1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 106 ty- 1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

2006-12-01

211

Cellulase Production by Pycnoporus sanguineus on Oil Palm Residues through Pretreatment and Optimization Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ever expanding trend of the palm oil industries in Malaysia brings about environmental concern with various parties calling for global practice of sustainable palm oil production. In as much as researches in processing technologies are ongoing, utilization of palm oil industries’ residues as a substrate for cellulases production has received little attention. This study addressed on the effect of pressed pericarp fibers sterilization on cellulase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus grown in shake flask culture using a statistical approach. Optimum condition was obtained in 70% (v/v palm oil mill effluent supplemented with 6 g L-1 sterilized palm pressed fibers at pH 6.77 and 350 rpm with CMCase, FPase and ?-glucosidase activities and net changes of biomass and suspended solid at 50.11, 29.01, 5.58 IU mL-1 and 2.49 g L-1, respectively. Under such conditions, the predicted maximum growth and cellulolytic enzyme production were in good agreement with the experimental data with 0.016-0.358% error.

M.D. Mashitah

2010-01-01

212

Performance Evaluation of Palm Oil as Biodiesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work involved the production of diesel from most commonly available palm fruits oil Pisifera elaeis guineensis and testing for the brake power, torque of an engine and specific fuel consumption of a conventional diesel engine utilizing the produced diesel from palm oil. The obtained results were compared with those for fossil diesel fuel. The results show that the value of brake power was 6927.21W for fossil diesel while that of biodiesel was 7135.02W. Similarly the value for brake torque for fossil diesel was 44.1Nm and that of biodiesel was 45.42Nm. The average value obtained for the specific fuel consumption in the three experiments conducted for fossil diesel and biodiesel were 69.09 and 129.21 l/kWh respectively. It was discovered that the values of brake power, torque power and specific fuel consumption for bio diesel fuel were higher than those of fossil diesel fuel.

Sunday A. LAWAL

2011-06-01

213

Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Palm oil is known as an important source of edible oil with significant values of renewable energy. Depletion of petroleum had captured much attention on producing biodiesel from the palm oil. Approach: The most concerning methods for the production of biodiesel were discussed, namely transesterification (alkali and acid), enzymetic approach and supercritical alcohol. Results: The results showed the vis-a-vis of the methods...

Khalizani Khalid; Khalisanni Khalid

2011-01-01

214

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products annually. This aqueous stream is rich in phenolic antioxidants, which were investigated for their composition and potential in vitro biological activity. We have identified three isomers of caffeoylshikimic acid as major components of oil palm phenolics (OPP). The 2,2-diphenyl-...

Sambandan, T. G.; Rha, Chokyun; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yewai; Sundram, Kalyana; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Sinskey, Anthony J.; Subramaniam, Krishnan; Leow, Soon-sen; Hayes, Kenneth C.; Wahid, Mohd Basri

2011-01-01

215

Liquid fuel from fast pyrolysis of oil palm solid wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation was conducted on the potential of producing liquid fuel from oil palm solid waste, particularly the palm fruit shell, by fast pyrolysis. For this purpose, a continuous fluidized bed fast pyrolysis system has been constructed. Fast pyrolysis was performed by feeding oil palm solid waste directly into the bubbling hot sand bed at a temperature ranging from 400 to 600 degrees centigrade in an inert atmosphere. The condensed liquid product was analysed for its properties as potential fuel and compared to petroleum fuel. The fuel characteristics compared were the physical properties, heating value, elemental analysis and chemical composition. The influence of some of the process conditions on the relative proportions of the liquid product and its properties and characteristics are presented. The results show the high potential of fast pyrolysis of oil palm solid waste particularly palm shell as an attractive source of a renewable energy in the form of liquid fuel. (author). 2 tabs., 4 figs., 7 refs.

Ani, F.N.; Zailani, R. [Technology Univ. of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

1995-12-31

216

The oil Palm tree: A renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper highlights the role of the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) as a renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries. Many uses of the oil palm are known. This paper describes the processing of palm oil fruits for the extraction of both palm oil and palm kernel oil at the small-scale level. Palm oil and palm kernel ...

Omokaro Obire, And Ramesh R. Putheti

2010-01-01

217

Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

2002-10-15

218

Effect of Palm Oil on Serum Lipid Profile in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm oil is considered as plant oil in which two types of cooking oil, palm seed oil and palm oil are derived. Palm oil has almost 50% saturated fatty acid and 50% poly unsaturated fatty acid. It is considered to be useful due to metabolites products such as prostacycline and antithrombois in cardiovascular disease (C.V.D and variation in lipoprotein. In the present study we examined the effect of 12% palm oil on 30 days old male rats (149.3±10.7 g for 60 days. The changes of weight and food intake were recorded. The result showed that the mean value of rats weight was increased with energy intake in diet (p< 0.05. The serum levels of cholesterol, and HDL-C were increased significantly (p< 0.05, while the levels of triglyceride and LDL-C were decreased but statistically not significant. In conclusion, using palm oil can be useful for prevent of cardiovascular disease.

Karaji-Bani, M.

2006-01-01

219

Optimum stearin adulteration in palm oil crystallization  

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Full Text Available Stearin adulteration in refined palm oil crystallization was investigated for industrial separation of stearin and olein. The important standard properties of olein are the iodine value which must be higher than 55-57, and the cloud point which must be lower than 9ºC. The crystallization temperature is the most important parameter of the process to obtain the standard olein properties and should not exceed 20ºC. Longer crystallization time is possibly the cause of lower yields but higher quality. The stearin adulteration at the ratio of 1:9 leads to higher yields, but the quality of stearin adulteration shows unimportant effects. The uniformity of heat and mass transfer in the crystallization process are important factors in obtaining higher yields and quality of olein.

Inthamanee, C.

2001-11-01

220

How Unilever palm oil suppliers are burning up Borneo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New evidence shows expansion by Unilever palm oil suppliers is driving species extinction in Central Kalimantan, and fuelling climate change. In November 2007, Greenpeace released 'Cooking the Climate', an 82-page report summarizing the findings of a two-year investigation that revealed how the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel companies were driving the wholesale destruction of Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands through growing palm oil consumption. This follow-up report provides further evidence of the expansion of the palm oil sector in Indonesia into remaining rainforests, orang-utan habitat and peatlands in Kalimantan. It links the majority of the largest producers in Indonesia to Unilever, probably the largest palm oil corporate consumer in the world.

NONE

2008-04-15

 
 
 
 
221

Screening for lipase activity in the oil palm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oil palm mesocarp contains an endogenous lipase which is strongly activated at low temperature. Lipase activity is thus very conveniently assayed by prior exposure of the fruits to low temperature. More than 100 oil palm samples from the germplasm collection of the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (now known as the Malaysian Palm Oil Board) were screened for non-esterified fatty acid activity using both the low-temperature activation assay and a radioactivity assay. The results showed good correlation between assay procedures. The different samples had a very wide range of lipase activity. Elaeis oleifera samples had significantly lower lipase activity compared with E. guineensis (var. tenera) samples. Even within E. guineensis (var. tenera), there was a wide range of activity. The results confirmed that lipase activity is genotype-dependent. Selection for lipase genotypes is thus possible and this will have obvious commercial value. PMID:11171201

Sambanthamurthi, R; Rajanaidu, N; Hasnah Parman, S

2000-12-01

222

Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 153.2 g/bag. (B.E. = 46.1% From the above results it is suggested that oil palm residues can be used as an alternative substrate for P. ostreatus production.

Tongwised, A.

2001-11-01

223

The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan

2006-01-01

224

The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan.

Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2006-04-15

225

Biodiesel Production from Crude Palm Oil by Transesterification Process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An overflow system for batch esterification of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) to obtain Palm Oil Biodiesel (POB) was developed using a batch reactor (shake flask). The alkali catalyst of potassium hydroxide had been used to carry the transestrication process with methanol; ultimately, 2 layers were form from the reaction-the lower layer of glycerol and the upper layer of methyl esters; the later layer is the targeted biodiesel. Optimization of the process was held for determining of the best possible y...

Alkabbashi, A. N.; Alam, Md Z.; Mirghani, M. E. S.; Al-fusaiel, A. M. A.

2009-01-01

226

How will climate change affect oil palm fungal diseases?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil is a very important commodity. It is added to numerous products and is a biofuel. However, oil palms (OP) are subjected to fungal diseases of which Fusarium wilt and Ganoderma rots are the most important. Considerations of how climate change (CC) affects tropical economic plants are limited and for OP are even fewer. The margin for adapting to higher temperatures and changing humidity is reduced in tropical OP. Land will become increasingly unsuitable for growing OP and t...

Paterson, R. R. M.; Sariah, M.; Lima, Nelson

2013-01-01

227

Preliminary Study of Moulded Laminated Veneer Oil Palm (MLVOP)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research was undertaken to study the suitability of oil palm trunk to be utilized as a raw material for moulded laminated veneer oil palm (MLVOP).  The trunks were converted into veneers by rotary peeling machine.  The veneers were segregated into two veneer qualities namely superior (S) and inferior (I). The methods of segregating veneers quality were defined. The superior veneers were obtained by peeling the billets until their diameters left approximately 12 inches, meanwhi...

Izran Bin Kamal; Abdul Hamid Saleh; Noor Azrieda Abdul Rashid; Abdul Khalil, H. P. S.; Ahmad Shakri bin Mat Seman; Siti Zalifah Mahmud

2011-01-01

228

Predicting fresh fruit bunch yield of oil palm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to develop the simulation model for predicting fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield of oil palm through multiple linear regression analysis. Two experiments were conducted at the oil palm plantation of Agricultural and Technology College, Krabi province. Six-year-old Tenera hybrid palms were used for the experiments. These palms were planted in Tha-sae soil series (Typic Paleudults; Fine loamy mixedwith spacing of 9x9x9 m. In the first experiment, 151 Tenera palms were selected and marked randomly throughout an area of plantation about 16 ha. For each selected palm, FFB yield and yield component characters (FFB number and bunch weight were recorded at every harvesting time for four consecutive years (June 1993 to May 1997. The results showed that the FFB number and bunch weight could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield. In the second experiment, nine plots of Tenera hybrid palms were arranged. The plot size was 0.48 ha and had twenty palms per plot for data collection for three consecutive years (January 1994 to December 1996. These data included leaf nutrient (N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the 17th frond, the fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield and the amount of rainfall. The results showed that N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves, the amount of rainfall and FFB yield in the previous year, together with the N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves (in the predicting year could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield.

Nilnond, C.

2001-11-01

229

Polygon Sawing: An Optimum Sawing Pattern for Oil Palm Stems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The shortage in wood supply makes the effort to find alternative for wood material become more and more important. It was reported that the outer parts of oil palm stems could be used as solid wood after being properly treated. Being a monocotyledon, oil palm stems have a contradictory characteristic to the conventional hardwoods and softwoods and thus the sawing patterns suitable for hardwoods and softwoods should not be suitable for the oil palm stems. Two modified sawing patterns (polygon sawing and cobweb sawing plus one ordinary sawing pattern (life sawing were compared in the sawing of oil palm stems. The purpose of this study was to find the most suitable sawing pattern for oil palm stems. The cobweb sawing provided the highest outer lumber recovery (35% followed by polygon sawing (27% and life sawing (23%. The polygon sawing provided the highest occurrence of wide lumbers, followed by the cobweb sawing and life sawing. The cobweb sawing need more than twice effective sawing time (15.4 min than the life sawing and polygon sawing. In overall, the polygon sawing was the most suitable pattern for the sawing of oil palm stem.

Edi Suhaimi Bakar

2006-01-01

230

77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a...

2012-04-02

231

77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a...

2012-02-14

232

Palm oil boom in Indonesia: from plantation to downstream products and biodiesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indonesia has been the biggest producer of palm oil (PO) in the world since 2005. The total production in 2007 was 17.0 and 1.9 million tons of crude palm oil (CPO) and crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), respectively. More than 70% of the CPO was exported and 87% of the domestic consumption was used for food. The production and subsequent refining and fractionation of CPO and CPKO generated biomass by-products that consists of trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fiber, shell, and palm kernel meal (PKM), and discharged wastes of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as well as palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). The amount of by-products and wastes produced has been growing very rapidly and efforts to diversify and improve their utilization are a great challenge. As claimed in many research reports, the by-products and wastes could be potentially utilized as sources of energy, animal feed, chemicals, paper pulp, advanced materials, medicines and food ingredients. A more important role may be played by PO as the Indonesian Government took further steps in 2006 to become the world's largest producer of biodiesel. As a starting point, Presidential Instruction No. 1/2006 for the Production and Use of Biofuel as Alternative Fuel was issued in January 2006. Responding to this Presidential Instruction, at least 15 companies are planning to establish new larger biodiesel refineries to enhance the currently produced 82.5 million L of biodiesel. It is planned to start production in 2008/2009 with two new refineries that have a total capacity of ca. 1,600 million L/year. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

2008-06-15

233

Potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon for transesterification of palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon was developed for transesterification of palm oil. The Central Composite Design (CCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst loading and methanol to oil molar ratio on the production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst. The highest yield was obtained at 64.1 C reaction temperature, 30.3 wt.% catalyst loading and 24:1 methanol to oil molar ratio. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel met the standard specifications. This study proves that activated carbon supported potassium hydroxide is an effective catalyst for transesterification of palm oil. (author)

Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2010-11-15

234

Curing reactions of palm oil alkyd enamels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amino resins are the most popularly used cross-linking agents for thermosetting coatings. The most common amino resins are those derived from melamine, 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine and formaldehyde. They are attractive for developing high performance and low cost coatings to improve performances of other film-forming resins with reactive functional groups such as hydroxyl, carboxylic, and amide groups. Alkyds modified with melamine are mainly used in industrial baking enamels for metal surfaces. Short-oil alkyds containing 38-45% phthalic anhydride and a high proportion of hydroxyl values in the alkyd resins render good compatibility with melamine-formaldehyde resins. However, the actual mechanisms and pathways of the curing reactions involved are still not fully understood. This paper describes three palm oil alkyds, synthesized with high hydroxyl values. Clear coating enamels were made by mixing 4 parts; of alkyd resin with 1 part of a methylated melamine resin. The complex curing reactions of the clear enamel can be illustrated qualitatively by using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to set suitable curing temperatures without degradation. The dry hard time with various curing temperatures was examined. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to follow the changes in functional group concentrations as a function of time and temperature. (author)

1999-10-25

235

Feasibility Study of Performing an Life Cycle Assessment on Crude Palm Oil Production in Malaysia (9 pp)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The palm oil industry is one of the leading industries in Malaysia. With a yearly production of more than 13 million tons of crude palm oil (CPO) and plantations covering 11% of the Malaysian land area it is an industry to be reckoned with, also when it comes to environmental impacts. One way to describe and present the environmental impacts is through a life cycle assessment, LCA. This assessment aims to introduce the concept of LCA and perform a screening LCA on crude palm oil production in Malaysia including the stages of plantation, transport and milling. The assessment is largely based on general data and is thus meant to function as an indication of the environmental threads posed by CPO production and as a guideline to CPO producers and local universities on how to perform an LCA on a palm oil scenario. Due to the general data background the results of this report should not be quoted directly for decision making. The Functional Unit, to which all masses and emissions in this assessment have been adjusted, is the production of 1000 kg of CPO in Malaysia. Initially an overview of palm oil production was obtained and the outlines and borders of the assessment were determined along with the specific goal and scope of the assessment. The data for the assessment was collected from three different sources:1. Earlier studies and statistics on palm oil production in Malaysia2. Studies on similar processes, when palm oil related processes were not available3. General data from the SimaPro 5 databaseThe European Eco-Indicator 99 method and European databases included in the LCA software SimaPro 5 have been used for the impact calculations. The impact processes related to the plantation are the on-site energy use (mainly diesel) and the production of artificial fertilizer. Pesticide use contributes a minor impact due to widely used integrated biological poet management. For transportation the only impact is from combustion of diesel and at the mill the boiler is the sole significant contributor â?? positively through electricity production and negatively by emissions from the boiler. Impacts from POME (Palm Oil Mill Effluent) are not dealt with in the main assessment, but touched upon in alternative scenarios. The results clearly show that fertilizer production is the most polluting process in the system followed by transportation and the boiler emissions at a tie. The most significant impacts from the system are respiratory inorganics and depletion of fossil fuels, of which the boiler emission is the main responsible for the prior and fertilizer production and transportation are responsible for the latter. It is also evident from the results that crude palm oil production is a significant environmental impact generator in Malaysia due to the vast production quantities. Alternative scenarios revealed that there are significant impact savings to be made by introduction of environmental investments, both regarding the overall impacts and in particularly regarding CO2 emissions. A screening LCA was successfully conducted on the Malaysian crude palm oil production thus promising potentials for the palm oil industry to conduct their own inventories and assessments using specific company data. Crude palm oil production in Malaysia is responsible for app. 3.5% of the total environmental impacts in the country and must thus be given attention to reduce impacts. Alternatives such as optimized use of organic fertilizer, environmentally friendlier artificial fertilizer production, rail transport, approved filters at the mill boiler stack and biogas harvest from POME digestion must thus be promoted in the industry. . The Malaysian palm oil industry should take steps towards introducing LCA. Exhaustive inventories are likely to open the eyes of many companies towards implementing environmental investments and improve the international competitiveness. In order to retrieve results with a greater accuracy in the future, databases must be created containing life cycle data from Malaysian scenarios and normalization and weighting factors

Yusoff, Sumiani; Hansen, Sune Balle

2007-01-01

236

Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid

2005-08-01

237

Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid.

Wan Nik, W.B. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Kolej Universiti Sains dan Teknologi Malaysia, Mengabang Telipot, 21030 Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia)]. E-mail: niksani@kustem.edu.my; Ani, F.N. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2005-08-15

238

Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

2012-02-01

239

Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil using thermal neutron moderation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditional methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron detector was used in the investigation. The equipment was originally designed for detection of liquid levels in petrochemical and other process industries. Standards in the form of liquid hydrocarbons were used to obtain calibration lines for thermal neutron reflection parameter as a function of hydrogen content. Measured reflection parameters with respective hydrogen content with or without heat treatment of the three edible palm oils available on the market were compared with a brand cooking oil (frytol). The average total hydrogen content in the local oil samples prior to heating was measured to be 11.62 w% which compared well with acceptable value of 12 w% for palm oils in the sub-region. After heat treatment, the frytol oil (produced through bleaching process) had the least loss of hydrogen content of 0.26% in comparison with palm kernel oil of 0.44% followed by dzomi of 1.96% and by amidze of 3.22%. (author)

2001-06-01

240

Avian species diversity in oil palm plantations of Agusan Del Sur and Compostela Valley, Philippines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil palm trees have become the most expanding equatorial crops in the world and theirproduct, palm oil, is produced, traded and used more than any other vegetable oil worldwide. Theexpansion of oil palm cultivation, however, is frequently cited as a major factor causing deforestationthat may result in biodiversity losses in tropical countries. In this study, an assessment of the avifaunain oil palm plantations in Agusan del Sur and Compostela Valley, Mindanao, Philippines was done fromApril 2...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effects of Fires in Juvenile Oil Palm Fields on Yield and Oil Palm Breeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fires in juvenile oil palm (Elaeis guinenesis Jacq.) fields cause the death and/or reduce the yield. The magnitude of the loss of yield in subsequent years has been assessed for the first time on four of the 25 progenies that composed the 20th genetic trial laid out at La Dibamba (Cameroon) in 1993 which was accidentally victim of fires in 1996. Records of bunch production during the first five years of harvesting (1996-2000) showed that in...

Claude Bakoumé; Madi Galdima; Sylvain Rafflegeau; Albert Flori

2011-01-01

242

Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced.

Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

2014-01-01

243

Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced.

Norhisam Misron

2014-02-01

244

Improvement in sensitivity of an inductive oil palm fruit sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced. PMID:24496313

Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

2014-01-01

245

Effect of Red Palm Oil and Refined Palm Olein on Nutrient Digestion in the Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A nutritional evaluation was carried out to determine the effects of red palm oil and refined palm olein on digestion of nutrients in animals. Four-week-old Wistar albino rats (n = 8 per group were maintained for 28 days on standard dry rat food supplemented (10, 20 and 30% by weight with red palm oil (RPO and refined palm olein (REFPO. The digestion of nutrients (measured from the differences between nutrient intake and fecal nutrient by rats fed 10% oil-supplemented diets was comparable to that of the control (p>0.01. There were inverse dose-effect relationships between the level of dietary fat and digestion of protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, manganese and copper. In comparison with other experimental groups, animals fed 30% oil diets exhibited the lowest digestion of proximate nutrients (p<0.01 and minerals (p<0.001 in addition to exhibiting the poorest feed utilization (p<0.01. In general, no significant variations were observed (among the parameters measured between RPO-fed and REFPO-fed rats, for each level of test dietary fat (p>0.01. The above findings suggest that consumption of palm in moderate amounts may impact growth and development through effects on nutrient retention.

D.O. Edem

2003-01-01

246

Catalytic conversion of palm oil to fuels and chemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conversion of palm oil to hydrocarbons using a selective zeolite catalyst was studied. The palm oil was passed over HZMS-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed micro-reactor, operated at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range of 360-420 degrees C, and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 2-4 h{sub 1}. The main objective was to study the effect of reaction variables such as temperature and oil space velocity on the conversion of palm oil to fuels and chemicals, and to find the optimum value of palm oil conversion and yield of organic liquid products, especially gasoline range hydrocarbons. Results showed maximum conversion of palm oil to a mixture of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons of 67 weight-per cent. The amount of gas in the converted material increased with an increase in the reaction temperature. The maximum gasoline-range hydrocarbons yield of 40 weight-per cent of the total product was obtained at 400 degrees C and 2h{sub 1} space velocity. Formation of kerosene and diesel range hydrocarbons was the minimum where formation of gasoline was maximum. Calcined HZSM-5 showed the highest rate of cracking or reaction. It also enhanced the formation of aromatic and alcohol compounds compared to uncalcined HZSM-5. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs.

Leng, T. L.; Mohamed, A. R.; Bhatia, S. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Perak Branch Campus, School of Chemical Engineering, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

1999-02-01

247

Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. II – Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil (PO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100) were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100ºC). The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by Polarized Light Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Results showed the effect of various factors on the form and width of crystals. The mean area of crystals revealed the ...

Simo?es, Ilka S.; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Guaraldo Gonc?alves, Lireny Aparecida; Grimaldi, Renato

2001-01-01

248

Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. I-Solid fat content and consistency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil (PO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100) were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100oC). The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by solid fat content (SFC) and consistency. Results showed a presence of eutectic system at PO and PKO compositions, mainly at 80/20, 60/40 and 50/50 fractions, proved through isosolids and isocons...

Grimaldi, Renato; Guaraldo Gon Alves, Lireny Aparecida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Sim Es, Ilka S.

2001-01-01

249

Major components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Native palm trees belong to the Arecaceae family and are among the most useful plant resources in the Amazons. Despite its great diversity and various uses, few species have been study in detail, which makes it necessary to perform more comprehensive studies on the quality and composition of species not yet explored. This study deals with the characterization of the major compounds in the oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, ...

Santos, M. F. G.; Marmesat, S.; Brito, E. S.; Alves, R. E.; Dobarganes, M. C.

2013-01-01

250

An Econometric Analysis of the Link between Biodiesel Demand and Malaysian Palm Oil Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe the important factors affecting Malaysian palm oil industry especiallybiodiesel demand. To that end a market model representing palm oil production, import, world excess demand,domestic consumption, export demand, rest of the world excess supply and palm oil prices is formulated. Asystem of equations of eight structural equations and four identities is estimated by two stage least squaresmethod using annual data for the period 1976-2008. The domestic price equation is formed to investigate the linkbetween biodiesel demand and the Malaysian palm oil market. The domestic price is significantly affected byMalaysian ending stock, world palm oil price, biodiesel demand and lagged domestic price. The elasticity ofMalaysian palm oil domestic price with respect to biodiesel demand is then obtained. Results suggest thatbiodiesel demand has a positive impact on the Malaysian palm oil domestic price. Thus, significant growth inbiodiesel demand is important in explaining Malaysian palm oil price determination.

Shri Dewi AP Applanaidu

2011-01-01

251

The effects of moisture content, particle size and binding agent content on oil palm shell pellet quality parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Waste-to-energy represents a challenge for the oil palm industry worldwide. Bio-pellet production is an alternative way of adding value to oil palm biomass. This would mean that a product having major energy density becomes more mechanically stable and achieves better performance during combustion. This paper deals with oil palm shell pelleting; using binding agents having up to 25% mass keeping average particle size less than 1mm and moisture content up to 18.7% (d.b. were evaluated. An experimental factorial design used binding agent mass percentage, milled shell particle size and moisture content as factors. Pellet density response surfaces and durability index were obtained. Pellet performance during thermal-chemical transformation was also evaluated by using thermogravimetry equipment. The results led to technical evaluation of scale-up at industrial production level.

Nelson Arzola

2012-04-01

252

Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm ?, 18 000 rpm, with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam

2008-01-01

253

Penentuan Kadar Asam Lemak Bebas Dari Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO) Dan Crude Coconut Oil (CNO)  

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Telah dilakukan penentuan kadar asam lemak bebas dari Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO) dan Crude Coconut Oil (CNO) yang diperoleh dari daerah Dumai dan Sumatera Utara. Pengambilan CPKO dan CNO dilakukan dengan cara acak sederhana.

2009-01-01

254

Palm oil - towards a sustainable future? : Challanges and opportunites for the Swedish food industry  

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The food industry faces problems relating to the sustainability of palm oil as a food commodity. These problem areas include social, environmental, economic and health issues. The food industry also competes with increasing palm oil demands from the energy sector. This case study identifies and analyzes different perspectives regarding sustainable palm oil as a food commodity in Sweden through interviews with palm oil experts in different businesses and organizations. This study focuses on ho...

Nilsson, Sara

2013-01-01

255

Determinants of Indonesian Palm Oil Export: Price and Income Elasticity Estimation  

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For Indonesian economy, palm oil is considered as one of important commodities. It provides a large amount of export revenue and job opportunities. From year 2000 to 2009, palm oil production in Indonesia has increased every year. In , 2008 about 70% of its production was exported. Recently, Indonesia has become the largest palm oil exporter and has 48% of the worlds market share. The aim of present study was to estimate the determinants of both crude palm oil exports (HS = 151110) and refine...

Ambiyah Abdullah

2011-01-01

256

Metabolites Profiling of Heat Treated Whole Palm Oil Extract  

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Full Text Available The chemically complex and diverse nature of the plant metabolome require several platform technologies to profile the entire range of metabolites. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS technique was used to profile and identify a set of small-molecule metabolites found in heat treated whole palm oil extract. An investigation was carried out on the effect of heat treatment on the yield, quality and metabolites profile for whole palm oil extract. Palm fruits were collected, cleaned and sterilized for 0, 20, 40 and 60 min. The pulps were then stripped from the sterilized fruits and later was pressed using laboratory scale expeller. The resulting puree was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20 min. The result shows that there was a significantly difference between sterilization time of 0 and 40 min in yield and quality. Of all, the highest oil yield of 19.90.21% (w/w was obtained at 40 min of sterilization with DOBI value of 5.950.08 and FFA of 1.440.22%. The MarkerView software version 1.2.0.1 analysis of the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS preliminary experimental data demonstrated the distribution and identity of several compounds in the whole palm oil extract for 40 min sterilization and 0 min sterilization. This study have demonstrated the potential of UPLC-ESI-MS/MS to identify, characterize and profile the metabolites in heat treated whole palm oil extract for further research in developing health application of phytochemicals from palm oil.

M.R. Sarmidi

2011-01-01

257

SYNGAS FOR METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM PALM OIL BIOMASS RESIDUES GASIFICATION  

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In Colombia, Biodiesel is produced from palm oil and methanol; this methanol could be obtained from gasification of the raw palm oil residuals. The complete process includes: pre-treatment of the biomass, gasification, the cleaning and conditioning of the gas and finally the synthesis of methanol. In this article, a review of the gasification stage is carried...

Antonio Jose Bula

2012-01-01

258

Spatial Variability of Orange Spotting Disease in Oil Palm  

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Orange Spotting (OS) disease which is caused by Cadang-Cadang Coconut Viroid (CCCVd) is an emerging problem in oil palm. This study was aimed at quantifying the spatial variability of OS disease severity as an effort to augment the effectiveness of OS phytopathometry appraisal. A 4.2 ha study plot was established in a commercial oil palm plantation at Sungai Buloh, Selangor. A total of 587 geo-referenced trees were visually observed for OS disease symptoms. OS disease severity data were...

Selvaraja, S.; Balasundram, S. K.; Vadamalai, G.; Husni, M. H. A.

2012-01-01

259

Palm oil transesterified by metanolysis as diesel engine biofuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews a general background of biodiesel and its potentialities and possibilities as automotive fuel. The paper also compares the colombian production capacity in the world context, and shows its advantages and disadvantages as diesel engine biofuel. The paper discusses some relevant processing techniques of crude palm oil, the methanol transesterification technique being found to be the most suitable one. Finally it shows the results of some important physicochemical characterization of a crude palm oil transesterificated with methanol at the Universidad de Antioquia

2001-12-01

260

PROPERTIES OF BINDERLESS PARTICLEBOARD PANELS MANUFACTURED FROM OIL PALM BIOMASS  

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The objective of the study was to investigate physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboard panels manufactured from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) biomass without using any adhesives. Different parts of oil palm, including the core and mid sections of trunks, fronds, bark, and leaves, were used to make the panels with an average target density of 0.80g/cm3. Based on the test results, it seems that panels made from bark and leaves did not have satisfactory strength and dimens...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens’ feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma. 204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition. Red palm oil decreased total chicken plasma cholesterol, confirming the cholesterol reducing effect of this dietary oil.

2013-01-01

262

Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2011-02-15

263

Separation of Coenzyme Q10 in Palm Oil by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography  

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Palm oil is known to host a variety of phytonutrients; some having antioxidant property such as the carotenes and vitamin E. These antioxidants are also present in the oil recovered from the palm-pressed fibre. Study was carried out to investigate the presence of coenzyme Q10, yet another non-glyceride compound which possesses antioxidant property in crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fibre oil. Separation of coenzyme Q10 in CPO and palm fibre oil was carried out using supercritical fluid chromato...

Han, Ng M.; May, Choo Y.; Ngan, Ma A.; Hock, Chuah C.; Hashim, Mohd A.

2006-01-01

264

The Modulating Effects of Red Palm Oil (?-Carotene) on Aflatoxin ?1-induced Toxicity in Weaning rats. H. C. C.  

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Palm oil (?-Carotene) was evaluated for its ability to inhibit/ ameliorate the aflatoxin ?1-induced toxicity in six groups of experimental rats thus (water control, aflatoxin ?1-treated, palm oil treated, palm oil and aflatoxin ?1-alternate group, palm oil and aflatoxin ?1 and aflatoxin ?, and palm oil treated groups). Palm oil (1.4 ?g ?-carotene as Palm oil) was given orally while aflatoxin ?1 (2 mg kg?1 body...

2001-01-01

265

Enzymatic Destruction Kinetics of Oil Palm Fruits by Microwave Sterilization  

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Full Text Available Microwave sterilization of oil palm fruit is carried out to deactivate lipase and soften the fruits. This study is aims to determine enzymatic destruction kinetics from microwave sterilization of oil palm fruits such as decimal reduction time (D-value, temperature sensitivity (z-value, kinetic constant (k and activation energy (Ea. Three power levels (medium, medium high and high of the microwave oven were used and lipase assayed was conducted to determine the lipase activity. Microwave sterilization of oil palm fruits depends on the destruction kinetic parameters such as D-value, z-value and Ea. It required only 8.333 to 16.949 minutes to deactivate the lipase, and the process is not temperature sensitive which is indicated by z-value. The z-value indicated requirement to increase temperature up to 71.5, 77.0 and 83.0oC respectively from initial maximum temperature to reduce the D-value. Minimum energy required to start the destruction process of lipase was 13.927 to 14.049 kJ/mole obtained from microwave sterilization of 1 kg oil palm fruits at all power levels. Oil quality observed from free fatty acid (FFA concentration that indicated FFA below 3.5%.

Maya Sarah

2013-06-01

266

Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD from Several Palm Oil Refineries  

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Full Text Available This research studied the characteristics of Palm Fatty Acids Distillates (PFADs from several palm oil refineries. It was aimed to know the potency of PFAD as bioactive compounds source, including vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols, phytosterols, squalene and possibly co-enzyme Q10 and polycosanol. Sampling was conducted at 6 palm oil refineries. The results showed that PFAD was dominated by free fatty acids of 85-95% with low oxidation level indicated by peroxide value of 1-10 meq/kg and anisidin value of 6-31. Bioactive compounds found were vitamin E 60-200 ppm, phytosterols 400-7500 ppm and squalene 400-2800 ppm, meanwhile polycosanol and co-enzyme Q10 were not found. Vitamin E was dominated by tocotrienols and ? tocotrienol was the major vitamin E, followed by ? and ? tocotrienols. Phytosterols in PFADs from several palm oil refineries had variety in quantity and composition. Generally it was dominated by &beta sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol

Teti Estiasih

2013-09-01

267

Investigation on the Use of Palm Olein as Lubrication Oil  

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Full Text Available The research work is on the possibility of producing lubricating oil from vegetable oil with palm olein as a case study. The sample analysed was obtained from Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State. Some of the physical and chemical properties such as viscosity, flash/fire point, pour point and specific gravity were analysed. This sample was bleached to remove the red colour (carotene and gummy materials. The bleached sample was tested to determine the above mentioned properties. Comparison of the crude palm olein and the bleached sample with the conventional lubricants obtained from Elf Plc, Kaduna and Unipetrol Plc, Kaduna was made. Finally, it was discovered that the crude palm olein and the bleached sample exhibit a good base as a lubricant.

U. RATCHEL

2006-01-01

268

Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo  

Science.gov (United States)

During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

269

Bio ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The oil palm industry has an abundance of oil palm biomass. The type of biomass generated includes empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm trunk (OPT), kernel, shell and fronds. Generally, ligno celluloses biomass derived from oil palm has great potential to be converted into various forms of renewable energy. In this study, EFB in pulverized form was used as a feedstock for bio ethanol production. EFB contains lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose which can be converted into fermentable sugar and bio ethanol. The EFB was initially pre-treated with 1% NaOH followed by acid hydrolysis with 0.7% sulfuric acid and enzyme prior to fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisea. The various process parameters for bio ethanol production was optimized i.e. pH, temperature, rate of agitation and initial feedstock concentration. The fermentation of EFB hydrolysate was at pH 4, 30 degree Celsius and 100 rpm within 72 hours of incubation yielded 10.48 g/L of bio ethanol from 50 g/L of EFB. The bio ethanol production in a 6-L bioreactor showed 36% conversion of fermentable sugar from EFB into bio ethanol. (author)

2010-07-26

270

Nonlinear Growth Models for Modeling Oil Palm Yield Growth  

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Full Text Available This study provided the basic needs of parameters estimation for nonlinear growth model such as partial derivatives of each model, determination of initial values for each parameter and statistical tests of industrial usage. Twelve nonlinear growth models and its partial derivatives for oil palm yield growth are presented in this study. The parameters are estimated using the Marquardt iterative method of nonlinear regression relating oil palm yield growth data. The best model was selected based on the model performance and it can be used to estimate the oil palm yield at any age of oil palm. This study found that the Gompertz, logistic, log-logistic, Morgan-Mercer-Flodin and Chapman-Richard growth models have the ability for quantifying a growth phenomenon that exhibit a sigmoid pattern over time. Based on the statistical testing and goodness of fit, the best model is the Logistic model and followed by the Gompertz model, Morgan-Mercer-Flodin, Chapman-Richard (with initial stage and Log-logistic growth models.

Azme Khamiz

2005-01-01

271

Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H and doubled haploid (DH palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.

Croxford Adam E

2010-10-01

272

Design and Development of Laboratory Scale Updraft Gasifier for Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds  

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Full Text Available The huge amount of wasted Oil Palm Fronds (OPF produced annually provides a very good opportunity for the oil palm industry in Malaysia to use it for power generation, especially in mill boilers. Recently, gasification technology is receiving more attention as it can be used to convert wasted biomass into gaseous fuel for power generation and thermal applications as well as it can be used as a fuel source for the production of other chemicals. This study addresses the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of an updraft fixed-bed-gasifier. A 50 kW updraft gasifier is designed and fabricated for gasification of Malaysian oil palm fronds. The gasifier is designed using the empirical data from literature and derived quantities. The gasifier was modified to be very flexible allowing the gasification air to be fed through several locations. The air gasification results of OPF showed volumetric percentage of 22.61-23.36% of CO, 6.48-6.68% of H2, 1.2-1.5% of CH4, 9.51-9.65% of CO2 and 59.20-58.1% of N2. The heating value of the product gas mixture varied between 4.1-4.4 MJ Nm-3 while the cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency and specific gasification rate of the gasifier was in the range of 57-59 and 95-97% and 103-109 kg m-2 h-1, respectively. The study has demonstrated that the oil palm frond waste is suitable for the designed and fabricated updraft gasifier and the produced gas from the gasification of OPF was successfully used in a domestic cooking stove.

Ramzy E. Konda

2014-01-01

273

Recovering renewable energy from palm oil waste and biogas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malaysia is endowed with abundant supplies of non-renewable energy resources, especially oil and gas. However, its current oil and gas reserves are expected to be depleted within 17 and 37 years, respectively. With the future prospect of energy prices likely to soar when the level of use of these non-renewable fossil fuel resources exceeds their threshold capacity, there is an urgent need for Malaysia to optimize the use of its huge quantities of palm oil biomass wastes as a renewable energy source. Against this background, this article aims to empirically and quantitatively analyze the potential of recovering renewable energy from palm oil wastes, which contributes substantially to harnessing a sustainable resource management system in Malaysia (Author)

Keong, Choy [Keio Univ., Graduate School of Economics Mita, Tokyo (Japan)

2005-05-15

274

Use of calcium oxide in palm oil methyl ester production  

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Full Text Available Introducing an untreated calcium oxide (CaO as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil by transesterification was studied in this work. The four studied parameters were methanol to oil molar ratio, CaO catalyst concentration, reaction time, and water content. The results for palm oil show that when the water content is higher than 3%wt and the amount of CaO greater than 7%wt soap formation from saponification occurs. A higher methanol to oil molar ratio requires a higher amount of CaO catalyst to provide the higher product purity. The appropriate methanol to CaO catalyst ratio is about 1.56. Commercial grade CaO gives almost the same results as AR grade CaO. In addition, reusing commercial grade CaO for about 5 to 10 repetitions without catalyst regeneration drops the percentage of methyl ester purity approximately 5 to 10%, respectively.

Kulchanat Prasertsit

2014-04-01

275

Process integration possibilities for biodiesel production from palm oil using ethanol obtained from lignocellulosic residues of oil palm industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, integration possibilities for production of biodiesel and bioethanol using a single source of biomass as a feedstock (oil palm) were explored through process simulation. The oil extracted from Fresh Fruit Bunches was considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production. An extractive reaction process is proposed for transesterification reaction using in situ produced ethanol, which is obtained from two types of lignocellulosic residues of palm industry (Empty Fruit Bunches and Palm Press Fiber). Several ways of integration were analyzed. The integration of material flows between ethanol and biodiesel production lines allowed a reduction in unit energy costs down to 3.4%, whereas the material and energy integration leaded to 39.8% decrease of those costs. The proposed integrated configuration is an important option when the technology for ethanol production from biomass reaches such a degree of maturity that its production costs be comparable with those of grain or cane ethanol. PMID:18930392

Gutiérrez, Luis F; Sánchez, Oscar J; Cardona, Carlos A

2009-02-01

276

Mutation induction in oil palm cultures using gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutations have played an important role in the improvement of wide range of food crops, ornamental plants and oil crops such as sesame and sunflower. Based on these successes an attempt was made to employ the mutagenesis techniques to broaden the genetic variation in breeding materials of oil palm. Traits of interest are high yield, dwarfness and disease resistance. Embryogenic callus initiated from several high yielding clones were exposed to gamma irradiation for optimum dose determination. (Author)

2002-10-15

277

Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel blends  

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Full Text Available Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace metal composition in relation to corrosion. Also the bond structure/stability of the samples in relation to diesel were monitored with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Results confirmed that most methylester blends with diesel fell within the grade 2D while the oil, methylester and 90:10 blend fell into 4D grade diesel fuels. From bond structure/stability comparison, all the samples were stable at 28 oC and had similarity in structure with diesel. All samples are commercializable. The trace metal composition of most samples was below that of the diesel with exception of Mn, Pb and Zn. The total acid numbers of all samples were below that of diesel and would not cause corrosion. It is recommended that processing of these samples should be done to conserve fossil fuel and as alternative diesel fuels in diesel engines.

C.M.A.O. Martins

2003-06-01

278

Relationships among rat numbers, abundance of oil palm fruit and damage levels to fruit in an oil palm plantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships between vertebrate pests and crop damage are often complex and difficult to study. In palm oil plantations rodents remain the major pests, causing substantial monetary losses. The present study examined the numerical and functional responses of rodents to changes in the availability of oil palm fruit and the damage associated with that response. For the study, 200 traps were set in pairs on a 10 × 10 trapping grid for 3 consecutive nights in each of 6 study plots at 8-week intervals in a 2569 ha oil palm plantation at Labu, Negeri Sembilan state in Peninsular Malaysia over 14 months. A total of 1292 individual rats were captured over 25 200 trap-nights. Animals were identified, aged, sexed, weighed and measured. An index of the relative abundance of rats was calculated based on trapping success. Damage to infructescences was assessed at each trap point. Regardless of the age of palms, there were positive and significant relationships between the relative abundance of rats and numbers of infructescences. The levels of damage to infructescences were significantly correlated with the relative abundance of rats. A steep increase in damage was observed with an increase in mature infructescences, indicating a feeding preference of rats for mature infructescences. For both males and females of all rat species, there were weak and non-significant correlations between body condition and infructescence numbers. These results indicated that there was a numerical and a functional response by rats to the availability of palm fruit and a resulting increase in depredation of oil palm fruits. The ways in which this information might aid in future pest control are discussed. PMID:21645277

Puan, Chong Leong; Goldizen, Anne W; Zakaria, Mohamed; Hafidzi, Mohd N; Baxter, Greg S

2011-06-01

279

The Modulating Effects of Red Palm Oil (?-Carotene on Aflatoxin ?1-induced Toxicity in Weaning rats. H. C. C.  

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Full Text Available Palm oil (?-Carotene was evaluated for its ability to inhibit/ ameliorate the aflatoxin ?1-induced toxicity in six groups of experimental rats thus (water control, aflatoxin ?1-treated, palm oil treated, palm oil and aflatoxin ?1-alternate group, palm oil and aflatoxin ?1 and aflatoxin ?, and palm oil treated groups. Palm oil (1.4 ?g ?-carotene as Palm oil was given orally while aflatoxin ?1 (2 mg kg?1 body weight was given up to eight days and ?-glutamyl transferase (E. C. 2.3.2.2 activities were assayed in the liver and sera samples. The treatment with the palm oil caused a significant decrease in ?-glutamyl transferase activities in the palm oil treated groups compared with aflatoxin-treated controls in both liver and sera samples suggesting that palm oil contains antioxidant principles. Also treatment with palm oil ameliorated the histopathological lesion like fatty degeneration and necrosis induced by aflatoxin ?1 thus suggesting that palm oil was cytoprotective. It is concluded that pretreatment with palm oil was necessary for maximum inhibition of aflatoxin ?1-induced toxicity. The mechanism of inhibition by palm oil appeared to be inhibition of propagation of free radicals. Also administering palm oil and aflatoxin ?1 alternately appeared to be necessary for maximum inhibition of toxicity.

Maduka

2001-01-01

280

Phenology of the oil palm interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis  

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Oil palm is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Because of its high productivity and perennial nature, it has been expanding quickly. Commercial plantations consist mostly of the African palm E. guineensis Jacq. However, producers in Latin America are increasingly planting the O × G interspecific hybrid, a cross between African palm (E. guineensis) and the American palm (E. oleifera (Kunth) Cortés). This interspecific hybrid has emerged as a promising solution to diseases such...

Paola Hormaza; Eloina Mesa Fuquen; Hernán Mauricio Romero

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Effect of steam pretreatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch for the production of sugars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lignocellulose into fuel ethanol is the most feasible conversion route strategy in terms of sustainability. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) generated from palm oil production is a huge source of cellulosic material and represents a cheap renewable feedstock which awaits further commercial exploitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using steam at 0.28 MPa and 140 °C generated from the palm oil mill boiler as a pretreatment to enhance the digestibility of EFB for sugars production. The effects of steam pretreatment or autohydrolysis on chemical composition changes, polysaccharide conversion, sugar production and morphology alterations of four different types of EFB namely fresh EFB (EFB1), sterilized EFB (EFB2), shredded EFB (EFB3) and ground EFB (EFB4) were evaluated. In this study, the effects of steam pretreatment showed major alterations in the morphology of EFB as observed under the scanning electron microscope. Steam pretreated EFB2 was found to have the highest total conversion of 30% to sugars with 209 g kg?1 EFB. This production was 10.5 fold higher than for EFB1 and 1.6 fold and 1.7 fold higher than EFB3 and EFB4, respectively. The results suggested that pretreatment of EFB by autohydrolysis using steam from the mill boiler could be considered as being a suitable pretreatment process for the production of sugars. These sugars can be utilized as potential substrates for the production of various products such as fuel ethanol. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the feasibility of steam pretreatment to enhance digestibility of EFB. ? Steam pretreatment increased sugars to 3.4 fold and caused major alteration in EFB morphology under SEM. ? Autohydrolysis which does not require the addition of chemicals is an attractive pretreatment approach to EFB.

2012-01-01

282

Intelligent Color Vision System for Ripeness Classification of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Ne...

Norasyikin Fadilah; Junita Mohamad-Saleh; Zaini Abdul Halim; Haidi Ibrahim; Syed Salim Syed Ali

2012-01-01

283

Enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel via alcoholysis of palm oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzymatic alcoholysis of crude palm oil with methanol and ethanol was investigated using commercial immobilized lipases (Lipozyme RM IM, Lipozyme TL IM). The effect of alcohol (methanol or ethanol), molar ratio of alcohol to crude palm oil, and temperature on biodiesel production was determined. The best ethyl ester yield was about 25 wt.% and was obtained with ethanol/oil molar ratio of 3.0, temperature of 50 degrees C, enzyme concentration of 3.0 wt.%, and stepwise addition of the alcohol after 4 h of reaction. Experiments with 1 and 3 wt.% of KOH and 3 wt.% of MgO were carried out to compare their catalytic behavior with the enzymatic transesterification results. The commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme TL IM, showed the best catalytic performance. PMID:19023524

Matassoli, André L F; Corrêa, Igor N S; Portilho, Márcio F; Veloso, Cláudia O; Langone, Marta A P

2009-05-01

284

Enzymatic catalyzed palm oil hydrolysis under ultrasound irradiation: diacylglycerol synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diacylglycerol (DAG) rich oils have an organoleptic property like that of regular edible oils, but these oils do not tend to be accumulated as fat. Palm oil ranks first in the world in terms of edible oil production owing to its low cost. The aim of this study was to propose a new methodology to produce diacylglycerol by hydrolysis of palm oil using Lipozyme RM IM commercial lipase as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation. The reactions were carried out at 55 °C with two different methods. First, the reaction system was exposed to ultrasonic waves for the whole reaction time, which led to enzymatic inactivation and water evaporation. Ultrasound was then used to promote emulsification of the water/oil system before the hydrolysis reaction, avoiding contact between the probe and the enzymes. An experimental design was used to optimize the ultrasound-related parameters and maximize the hydrolysis rate, and in these conditions, with a change in equilibrium, DAG production was evaluated. Better reaction conditions were achieved for the second method: 11.20 wt.% (water+oil mass) water content, 1.36 wt.% (water+oil mass) enzyme load, 12 h of reaction time, 1.2 min and 200 W of exposure to ultrasound. In these conditions diacylglycerol yield was 34.17 wt.%. PMID:23402907

Awadallak, Jamal A; Voll, Fernando; Ribas, Marielen C; da Silva, Camila; Filho, Lucio Cardozo; da Silva, Edson A

2013-07-01

285

Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis based on the information provided by other authors resulted in 2406 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, on average. The Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13] study does not report emissions. When compared to diesel on a energy basis, avoided emissions due to the use of biodiesel account for 80 g CO{sub 2}e/MJ. Thus, avoided life cycle emissions associated with the use of biodiesel yield a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We also assessed the carbon balance between a palm tree plantation, including displaced emissions from diesel, and a natural ecosystem. Considering the carbon balance outcome plus life cycle emissions the payback time for a tropical forest is 39 years. The result published by Gibbs et al. (2008) [Gibbs HK, Johnston M, Foley JA, Holloway T, Monfreda C, Ramankutty N, et al., Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield and technology. Environmental Research Letters 2008;3:10], which ignores life cycle emissions, determined a payback range for biodiesel production between 30 and 120 years. (author)

de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

2010-11-15

286

Comprehensive analysis of lipid composition in crude palm oil using multiple lipidomic approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palm oil is currently the leading edible oil consumed worldwide. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are the dominant lipid classes in palm oil. Other lipid classes present in crude palm oil, such as phospholipids and galactolipids, are very low in abundance. These low-abundance lipids constitute key intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we applied multiple lipidomic approaches, including high-sensitivity and high-specificity multiple reaction monitoring, to comprehensively quantify individual lipid species in crude palm oil. We also established a new liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry method that allows direct quantification of low-abundance galactolipids in palm oil without the need for sample pretreatment. As crude palm oil contains large amounts of neutral lipids, our direct-detection method circumvents many of the challenges encountered with conventional lipid quantification methods. This approach allows direct measurement of lipids with no hassle during sample preparation and is more accurate and precise compared with other methods. PMID:24894356

Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R; Shui, Guanghou

2014-05-20

287

Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane - a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

2013-06-01

288

Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane – a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

2013-06-17

289

Oil palm BVOC emissions and their potential for aerosol formation  

Science.gov (United States)

During ambient measurements at oil palm plantation (OP3/ACES projects) which took place from May to June 2008 we recorded by direct eddy covariance technique with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) large emission fluxes of isoprene (mid-day mean 8.6 mg m-2 h-1), estragole (0.81 mg m-2 h-1), acetone (0.1 mg m-2 h-1), hexanals (0.05 mg m-2 h-1) and remaining compounds (~ 1 mg m-2 h-1). However, secondary products of isoprene oxidation such as MVK+MACR exhibited high deposition rates (1 cm s-1) which were close to maximal theoretical values. In addition, methanol and, to some extent, other VOC compounds exhibited negative fluxes during the day. Despite several times higher emissions of isoprene from oil palm than from a nearby rainforest, it is uncertain how these differences would impact on the formation of aerosols. There have been recently many speculations about actual contribution of isoprene emissions to aerosol formation, for example whether they could inhibit the creation of aerosols due to scavenging of hydroxyl radicals, in contradiction to an earlier OH-radical recycling hypothesis. Regardless, mass aerosol yields from isoprene have been thought low (up to ~2%), which can however make up significant overall loading at large emissions such as encountered at oil palm. Although oil palm was not found to be a monoterpene emitter, it appears that the largest contributor to aerosol production from oil palms might be floral emissions of estragole with its aerosol yield from photooxidation of this compound being similar to that of monoterpenes (~40%). In addition, other VOCs might have also an effect. We show the parameterisation for emission and deposition of particular VOCs and relate them to aerosol yields found in literature. Overall, it seems that the net aerosol formation potential with regards to VOCs emitted from oil palm may not be much different to that of rainforest, despite differences in the VOC mix emitted by these land uses.

Misztal, Pawel K.; Nemitz, Eiko; Cape, J. Neil; Langford, Ben; Phillips, Gavin J.; Dimarco, Chiara; Coyle, Mhairi; Owen, Susan; Heal, Mathew R.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas

2010-05-01

290

Effect of hydraulic press parameters on crude palm oil yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on the effect of hydraulic press parameters such as press cage diameter (D (80, 120, and 150 mm and wall pore diameter (H (4, 6, and 10 mm and expression pressure (P on crude palm oil yield. The oil yield was found to increase with increase in cage diameter from 80 to 120 mm, after which it decreased as the cage diameter was increased to 150 mm. The volumetric oil flow followed the same pattern. The oil yield and volumetric flow increased with increase in pore size from 4 to 6 mm and decreased as the pore size increases to 10 mm. Increase in pressure form 0.5 to 1.5 MPa was observed to increase oil yield. Statistical analysis of the effect of the processing factors on oil yield indicates that the effect of all the factors were significant at 99%. It was observed that oil yield can be represented by the regression equation: Y=27.76-0.07D+0.33H+5.82P. The results of this study are useful in optimising the design of presses for palm oil extraction.

B.E. Oyebamiji

2007-09-01

291

Biodiesel’s characteristics preparation from palm oil  

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Full Text Available Using vegetable oils directly as an alternative diesel fuel has presented engine problems. The problems have been attributed to high viscosity of vegetable oil that causes the poor atomization of fuel in the injector system and pruduces uncomplete combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the vegetable oil into ester (metil ester by tranesterification process to decrease its viscosity. In this research has made biodiesel by reaction of palm oil and methanol using lye (NaOH as catalyst with operation conditions: constant temperature at 60 oC in atmosferic pressure, palm oil : methanol volume ratio = 5 : 1, amount of NaOH used as catalyst = 3.5 gr, 4.5 gr, 5 gr and 5.5 gr and it takes about one hour time reaction. The ester (metil ester produced are separatedfrom glycerin and washed until it takes normal pH (6-7 where more amount of catalyst used will decrease the ester (biodiesel produced. The results show that biodiesels’ properties made by using 3.5 (M3.5 gr, 4.5 gr (M4.5 and 5 (M5.0 gr catalyst close to industrial diesel oil and the other (M5.5 closes to automotive diesel oil, while blending diesel oil with 20 % biodiesel (B20 is able to improve the diesel engine performances.

Rachman Yusuf

2002-06-01

292

Improvement potential for net energy balance of biodiesel derived from palm oil: A case study from Indonesian practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel derived from palm oil has been recognized as a high-productivity oil crop among the first generation of biofuels. This study evaluated and discussed the net energy balance for biodiesel in Indonesia by calculating the net energy ratio (NER) and net energy production (NEP) form the total energy input and output. The results of the calculation of energy input for the default scenario demonstrated that the primary energy inputs in the biodiesel production lifecycle were the methanol feedstock, energy input during the biodiesel production process, and urea production. These three items amounted to 85% of the total energy input. Next, we considered and evaluated ways to potentially improve the energy balance by utilizing by-products and biogas from wastewater treatment in the palm oil mill. This result emphasized the importance of utilizing the biomass residue and by-products. Finally, we discussed the need to be aware of energy balance issues between countries when biofuels are transported internationally. (author)

Kamahara, Hirotsugu [Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Hasanudin, Udin [Department of Agroindustrial Technology, University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Widiyanto, Anugerah [International Cooperation Center for Engineering Education Development, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Tachibana, Ryuichi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Atsuta, Yoichi; Goto, Naohiro; Daimon, Hiroyuki [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujie, Koichi [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

2010-12-15

293

Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.  

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Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002. The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera. In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

Chaumongkol, Y.

2001-11-01

294

Neural Network in Modeling Malaysian Oil Palm Yield  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Forecasting of palm oil yield has become an important element in the management of oil palm industry for proper planning and decision making. The importance of yield forecasting has led us to explore modeling of palm oil yield for Malaysia using the most recent development of Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The main issue in yield forecasting is to predict the future value with the minimum error. Approach: Artificial neural networks are computing systems containing many interconnected nonlinear neurons, capable of extracting linear and nonlinear regularity in a given data set. It is an artificial intelligence model originally designed to replicate the human brains learning process, a network with many elements or neurons that are connected by communications channels or connectors. The ANN can perform a particular function when certain values are assigned to the connections or weights between elements. In this study, a secondary data set from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB on the foliar nutrient composition, fertilizer trials and Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB yield were taken and analyzed. The foliar nutrient composition variables are the nitrogen N, phosphorus P, potassium K, calcium Ca and magnesium Mg concentration, while the fertilizer trials data are the N, P, K and Mg fertilizers and are measured in kg per palm per year. The foliar composition data was presented in the form of measured values whiles the fertilizer data in ordinal levels, from zero to three. Results: Two experiments were conducted to demonstrate the implementation ANN and for both experiment, the result demonstrated that the number of hidden nodes produces an effect to the overall forecast performance of the ANN architecture. From the first experiment, it shows that the number of runs does not affect the ANN performance, but changing the momentum to learning rates, due to shows a significant improvement in the forecast result. The experimental result will be in the form of statistical analysis, the best neural network performance, the residual analysis and the effect on the learning rate on the NN performance. Conclusion: This study showed that modeling of oil palm yield using neural network requires data to be prepared or modified to satisfy the requirement of the parameters involved. This analysis yields the conclusion that only the number of hidden nodes has a significant influence on the NN performance and there is no effect resulting from the number of runs or the momentum term value on the neural networks performance.

Zuhaimy Ismail

2011-01-01

295

The Growth of One Year-Old Oil Palms Intercropped with Soybean and Groundnut  

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Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine appropriate annual food crops in the areas of a year-old oil palm. Field trials were arranged in a single factor of randomized completely block design. A factor to be tested was the species of annual food crops, namely, soybeans and groundnuts. Controls in this study were monocultures of oil palm, soybean and groundnuts. The results showed that soybean and groundnut could give high yields when planted between rows of one year-old oil palms, which were similar to the yield of those crops in the monoculture system. In addition, the presence of soybean and groundnut between the rows of one year-old oil palms was found not inhibiting the growth rate and development of oil palms as the main crop. On the contrary, there was a tendency that the oil palms planted with soybeans and groundnut to grow faster than those planted in monoculture.

Eka Tarwaca Susila Putra

2012-03-01

296

THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD  

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Full Text Available Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to review the current status of oil palm biomass, including the availability of this tree, in order to illustrate the potential of oil palm biomass as an alternative source for compressed wood. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of compressed wood from oil palm trunk. This paper will cover the background of compressed wood and the possibilities of producing compressed wood using oil palm trunk as a raw material.

Othman Sulaiman,

2012-06-01

297

Separation of Coenzyme Q10 in Palm Oil by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography  

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Full Text Available Palm oil is known to host a variety of phytonutrients; some having antioxidant property such as the carotenes and vitamin E. These antioxidants are also present in the oil recovered from the palm-pressed fibre. Study was carried out to investigate the presence of coenzyme Q10, yet another non-glyceride compound which possesses antioxidant property in crude palm oil (CPO and palm fibre oil. Separation of coenzyme Q10 in CPO and palm fibre oil was carried out using supercritical fluid chromatography with ultra violet detection. 1H and 13C NMR were used for its characterisation. Calibration with authentic standard shows that there are 10-80 ppm coenzyme Q10 in CPO while its concentration in palm fibre oil is 1000-1500 ppm.

Ng M. Han

2006-01-01

298

Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author)

1991-11-05

299

Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author).

Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Othman, Z.BT.; Awang, M.R.

1992-01-01

300

Physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil  

Science.gov (United States)

The physicochemical properties of phosphate ester from palm kernel oil have been studied. The phosphate ester was synthesized via ring-opening of epoxidized palm kernel oil with phosphoric acid. The amount of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) was varied at 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 wt%. Acid values of PKO and EPKO were 1.85 and 1.87 mg KOH/g respectively. However, the acid values increased with increasing amount of H3PO4 with values of 10.62 mg KOH/g, 31.34 mg KOH/g and 110.95 mg KOH/g respectively. The hydrolysis of the EPKO has successfully converted it to PEPKO with hydroxyl value of 16.16 mg KOH/g, 26.90 and 35.33 mg KOH/g at H3PO4 of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5wt%.

Adawiyah Norzali, Nor Rabbi'atul; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Ahmad, Ishak

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER  

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Full Text Available Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%, good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g, and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; CODCr=8140 mg/L. The SEP pulp from oil palm EFB fiber was very suitable for packaging paper when combined with American OCC pulp.

Xiwen Wang,

2012-01-01

302

Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fattythioic acids from palm oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work focuses on the synthesis of fattythioic acids (FTAs) by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction of palm oil with carbonothioic S,S-acid using Lipozyme. The product was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The effects of various reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, amount of enzyme, molar ratio of substrates, and various organic solvents of the reaction system were investigated. The optimum conditions to produce FTAs were respectively, incubation time, 20 h, temperature, 40°C, amount of enzyme, 0.05 g and molar ratio of carbonothioic S,S-acid to palm oil, 5.0:1.0. Hexane was the best solvent for this reaction. The conversion of the products at optimum conditions was around 91%. PMID:21178316

Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar

2011-01-01

303

Biofuel production from catalytic cracking of palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palm oil, a renewable source, has been cracked at atmospheric pressure, a reaction temperature of 450{sup o}C, and a weight hourly space velocity of 2.5 h{sup -1} to produce biofuel in a fixed-bed microreactor. The reaction was carried out over microporous HZSM-5 zeolite, mesoporous MCM-41, and composite micromesoporous zeolite as catalysts in order to study the influence of catalyst pore size and acidity over biofuel production. The products obtained were gas, organic liquid product, water, and coke. The organic liquid product was composed of hydrocarbons corresponding to gasoline, kerosene, and diesel boiling point range. The maximum conversion of palm oil, 99 wt%, and gasoline yield of 48 wt% was obtained with composite micromesoporous zeolite. (author)

Sang, O.Y. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (Malaysia). School of Chemical Engineering

2003-09-01

304

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY  

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Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefore.establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil plywood is essential. Data from this study on the environmental impact for the production of palm plywood would help to develop sustainable palm plywood product. The results will provide information to identify ways and measures to reduce the environmental impacts. Most foreground data were collected directly from numbers oil palm plywood factories which represent 40% of the palm plywood industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Data gaps were filled by information obtained through questionnaires which were developed specifically for data collection, literature, public database or further calculated from obtained data. The outputs and inputs from production activities were quantified on the basis of functional unit of production of 1 m3from different types of oil palm based plywood i.e., Moisture Resistant (MR, Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 1 and Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 2. The life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 7.1 software and the eco-indicator 99 methodology. The weighting results of LCA for the production of 1 cubic meter of oil palm based plywood showed significant impact in descending order i.e., fossil fuel, respiratory inorganic and climate change. The most significant process contributing to these environmental impacts came from the production and usage of adhesives, transportation of oil palm trunks from plantation to factory and generation and usage of electricity from the grid. The ways to mitigate the environmental impacts are by using substitutes for inorganic chemical adhesives such as groundnut shell lignin adhesive, modified phenol formaldehyde adhesive and developing wood adhesive made from pyrolisis oil of oil palm biomass, establishing a collecting centre for oil palm trunk transportation and efficient use of oil palm biomass as an energy source. The study helped establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil industry from cradle to grave which starts at the oil palm germinated seeds to the production of palm plywood.

M. Shamim Ahmad

2014-01-01

305

Spatial-Temporal Yield Trend of Oil Palm as Influenced by Nitrogen Fertilizer Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the major challenges in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations today is proper interpretation of yield maps for site-specific management and identification and understanding of the causal factors influencing the variability of oil palm yields. A study was conducted to examine the structural yield variation in order to assess the spatial and temporal yield trends so as to interpret multi-year yield maps of oil palm as influenced by the long-term N fertilizer applications ...

Anuar, Abdul R.; Goh, Kah J.; Heoh, Tee B.; Ahmed, Osumanu H.

2008-01-01

306

Development of a protoplast-based transformation system for genetic engineering of oil palm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The major aim of the thesis was to develop the prerequisites for efficient genetic engineering of oil palm by DNA microinjection with the long-term objective to generate transgenic oil palm producing recombinant proteins, PIPP (a chimeric antibody against human chorionic gonadotropin; hCG), D12 (a human antibody against dental carries) and HSA (human serum albumin). The products will be synthesized in the leaf, mesocarp and kernel tissues of oil palm with the respects of plants must be stable...

Mat Yunus, Abdul Masani

2013-01-01

307

A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seed system in Benin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A participatory diagnostic study of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed system (OPSS) was conducted along a gradient of rainfall and distance to the oil palm research centre across the oil palm growing belt of Benin. The objective was to identify, jointly with key actors, the constraints in the OPSS and to assess the performance of the OPSS from a farmers’ perspective. The methodology included introductory community meetings, group discussions, individual in-depth interviews, field ...

2012-01-01

308

Sustainable Management of a Matured Oil Palm Plantation in UPM Campus, Malaysia Using Airborne Remote Sensing  

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Full Text Available Accurate and reliable near-real time information is needed for a sustainable oil palm plantation management, especially on plant quality and health. Airborne remote sensing provides the effective recent agricultural crop information for the oil palm plantation industry planning, management and sustainable development. A study on the characteristic of a matured oil palm plantation in UPM campus was conducted using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing technique. Airborne hyperspectral remote sensing can be used as an effective tool in monitoring the characteristic of oil palm plantation in order to predict and manage the oil palm production. The general objective of this study is to assess the capability and usefulness of UPM-APSB’s AISA airborne hyperspectral sensor to determine the characteristic of a matured oil palm plantation for its sustainable development while the specific objective is to identify, classify and produce the thematic map of matured oil palm plantation in the study site. The age of the oil palm plantation used in this study is 27 years old. Sobel filtering was used to enhance the image. Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM analysis was then used to classify the characteristic of the plantation within the study area. A thematic map of 27 years old matured oil palm plantation was produced and the characteristic of the oil palm plantation in the study site was identified as 173 healthy, 7 dead, 9 stressed oil palm trees and open areas in the plantation with a mapping accuracy of 93.33%. This has shown that UPM-APSB’s AISA airborne hyperspectral sensor is capable of mapping a matured oil palm plantation with such characteristics for its sustainable management and future development.

Kamaruzaman Jusoff

2009-10-01

309

EFFECT OF CHEMICAL TREATMENT ON THE CONSTITUENTS AND TENSILE PROPERTIES OF OIL PALM LEAF FIBRE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of chemical treatment on the constituents and tensile properties of oil palm leaf fiber was investigated. Oil palm leaves were cut and buried underground close to the stream, and wereregularly wetted with water to ensure proper fermentation for 20 days. The fermented leaves were washed and sun dried. The dried oil palm leaf fibers obtained were mechanically treated with chemicals, while some were left as control (untreated). The fibers were then characterized in terms of their perc...

2012-01-01

310

Forecasting on Crude Palm Oil Prices Using Artificial Intelligence Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An accurate prediction of crude palm oil (CPO) prices is important especially when investors deal with ever-increasing risks and uncertainties in the future. Therefore, the applicability of the forecasting approaches in predicting the CPO prices is becoming the matter into concerns. In this study, two artificial intelligence approaches, has been used namely artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). We employed i...

Abdul Aziz Karia; Imbarine Bujang; Ismail Ahmad

2013-01-01

311

Energy Contribution of Oil Cakes Used as Fuel in Waste Boilers: Case of an Oil Mill in Cote D’ivoire  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cote d’Ivoire is the second palm oil producer country in Africa. The oil mills are generally located near the farms which are in rural areas. In fact, Côte d’Ivoire is self-sufficient in electricity; but the electric distribution network is not wide enough. So that it is difficult to access public electricity for most of rural areas. Therefore, to produce electricity traditional fuels group are used. Moreover, the cost of electricity production by turbo-alternators using traditiona...

Guessan, R. K. N.; Koffi, B. K.; Tanoh, A.

2010-01-01

312

Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time....

1992-01-01

313

How the palm oil industry is cooking the climate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Every year, 1.8 billion tonnes (Gt) of climate changing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are released by the degradation and burning of Indonesia's peatlands, which is 4% of global GHG emissions from less than 0.1% of the land on earth. This report shows how, through growing demand for palm oil, the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel industries are driving the wholesale destruction of peatlands and rainforests. These companies include Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, who between them account for a significant volume of global palm oil use, mainly from Indonesia and Malaysia. Overlaying satellite imagery of forest fires with maps indicating the locations of the densest carbon stores in Indonesia, Greenpeace researchers have been able to pinpoint carbon 'hotspots'. Our research has taken us to the Indonesian province of Riau on the island of Sumatra, to document the current activities of those involved in the expansion of palm oil. These are the producers who trade with Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, as well as many of the other top names in the food, cosmetic and biofuel industries. The area of peatland in Riau is tiny: just 4 million hectares, about the size of Taiwan or Switzerland. Yet Riau's peatlands store 14.6Gt of carbon. If these peatlands were destroyed, the resulting GHG emissions would be equivalent to one year's total global emissions. Unless efforts are made to halt forest and peatland destruction, emissions from these peatlands may trigger a 'climate bomb'

2007-01-01

314

Development and characterization of liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride with palm oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox). The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV) were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453?nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about -31 and -32?mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with Caelyx(R) on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes. PMID:24795894

Sabeti, Bahareh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohd, Shaharuddin; Hashim, Rosnani; Dahlan, Afendi; Javar, Hamid Akbari

2014-01-01

315

Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA. PMID:23575803

Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

2013-07-01

316

PROPERTIES OF BINDERLESS PARTICLEBOARD PANELS MANUFACTURED FROM OIL PALM BIOMASS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboard panels manufactured from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis biomass without using any adhesives. Different parts of oil palm, including the core and mid sections of trunks, fronds, bark, and leaves, were used to make the panels with an average target density of 0.80g/cm3. Based on the test results, it seems that panels made from bark and leaves did not have satisfactory strength and dimensional stability. However, the panels having particles from the core portion of the trunks exhibited the highest modulus of rupture and internal bond strength but lowest in thickness swelling and water absorption values among the samples. The panels made with particles of mid-section of trunks and fronds followed the samples having core portion trunks material. Three types of raw material, namely fronds, mid-, and core-parts of the trunks appeared as though they could have potential to manufacture particleboard panels with acceptable properties based on requirements stated in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS. Similar to the above findings, surface quality of the samples were also found acceptable for the panels made from three types of particles. Based on the results of this work, oil palm in the form of biomass could be considered as an environmentally friendly alternative raw material to manufacture binderless particleboard panels.

Rokiah Hashim,

2012-01-01

317

Development and Characterization of Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride with Palm Oil  

Science.gov (United States)

The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox). The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV) were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453?nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about ?31 and ?32?mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with CaelyxR on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes.

Sabeti, Bahareh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohd, Shaharuddin; Hashim, Rosnani; Akbari Javar, Hamid

2014-01-01

318

Palm oil based biofuel using blended crude palm oil/medium fuel oil : physical and thermal properties studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of Malaysia's national energy plan, the country has set a target to obtain 5 per cent of its energy needs from renewable energy by 2005. Palm oil is considered to be the main source of renewable biofuel in Malaysia because it is planted all over the country and is one of the greatest contributors to Malaysia's economy. Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is an attractive alternative fuel which can be blended with petroleum distillates as a fuel in mobile engines and industrial processes to help offset increasing energy demands. The feasibility of blending CPO with Medium Fuel Oil (MFO) as an alternative environmentally sound boiler fuel was discussed. In particular, a preliminary study was conducted to analyze the heating values of the blended fuel and to compare the emissions between CPO-MFO blended fuel and MFO. An oxygen bomb calorimeter was used to measure the heating values of the blended fuels. The combustion performance of a blend containing 50 per cent CPO in MFO fuel was studied using a commercial boiler. The blend burned adequately without significant modification to the appliance and fuel delivery system. Emissions of sulphur dioxide were found to be 51.67 per cent lower. In addition, emissions of hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen oxides were reduced by 55.61 and 18.67 per cent respectively. It was concluded that although the CPO-MFO blend has good properties to reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions, more studies are needed before the blend can be fully commercialized. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

Chuah, T.G.; Zakiah, M.; Fakhrul-Razi, A.; Robiah, Y.; Choong, T.S.Y.; Yip, Y.F. [Putra Malaysia Univ., Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering; Wan Hasamuddin, W.H.; Ahmad, H. [Malaysia Palm Oil Board, Selangor (Malaysia). Engineering and Processing Div.

2005-07-01

319

Determination of Specific Leaf Area and Leaf Area-leaf Mass Relationship in Oil Palm Plantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Specific leaf area (SLA), the ratio of leaf area to leaf mass is the most important determinant of oil palm growth, which is used in growth monitoring of oil palm and many crop simulation models to estimate total leaf area. Leaf dry weight and leaf area were determined by destructive methods in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study was to obtain suitable linear model for estimation of leaf area and calculation SLA of oil palm plantation with less error of estimation. The SLA was pl...

2004-01-01

320

The use of 32P and 15N to estimate fertilizer efficiency in oil palm  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improving efficiency of use of fertilizers has attracted a great deal of interest on oil-palm estates because of increasing input costs. It is assumed that higher efficiency of use of fertilizers for estate crops, including oil palm, would result in significant savings and less environmental pollution. One way to enhance efficiency of use of fertilizers by oil palm is to apply them where the most active roots are located. Previous work has indicated the possibility of determining the most active roots of tea and chinchona by using 32P. In this experiment, 32P was again used, to determine the locations of the most active roots of oil palm trees

2002-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

The addition of palm oil biodiesel and coal derived FT distillate to GHGenius  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The GHGenius model is suitable for analyzing pollutants emitted during the processing and use of transportation fuels. This study covers work on the addition of coal to the FT distillate pathway in the model. The production of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel and light duty diesel applications have been added, as well. FT distillate from coal is described with regard to coal production, process description and parameters, energy balance, upstream greenhouse gases emissions, lifecycles emissions, and cost effectiveness. Palm production, land use issues, oil extraction process, palm oil biodiesel production, energy balance, upstream and lifecycles emissions, and cost effectiveness are described. 13 refs., 8 figs., 34 tabs.

NONE

2006-05-15

322

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) tissue culture ESTs: Identifying genes associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing unifor...

2008-01-01

323

Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB), in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE) and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its phys...

Nasrin, A. B.; Ma, A. N.; Choo, Y. M.; Mohamad, S.; Rohaya, M. H.; Azali, A.; Zainal, Z.

2008-01-01

324

Effect of Different Vegetable Oils (Red Palm Olein, Palm Olein, Corn Oil and Coconut Oil on Lipid Profile in Rat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of different vegetable oils [red palm olein (RPO, palm olein (PO, corn oil (CO and coconut oil (COC] on lipid profile in rat. Sixty six Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into eleven groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15% concentrations of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. Rats in control group were given normal rat pellet only while in treated groups 15% of additional vegetable oils were given. The results at 4 weeks showed a decline in Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C values at RPO and PO groups whereas in CO and COC groups the LDL-C were increased compared to the control group. The High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C values increased in RPO and PO groups whereas it was declined in CO and COC groups compared to the control group. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference (P ? 0.05 in HDL-C of rats treated with vegetable oils compared to the control group. However, the LDL-C in RPO and PO was significantly decreased (P ? 0.05 in the LDL-C and there was no significant difference (P?0.05 for CO and COC groups compared to the control groups. The mean value of the LDL-C after 8 weeks in the control group, RPO, PO, CO, and COC groups were 66.1 mg/dl, 31.9 mg/dl, 41.1 mg/dl, 50.41 mg/dl and 54.31 mg/dl respectively. There was significant decreased (P ? 0.05 in the total cholesterol (TC in RPO group for 4 weeks compared to the control group while the TC in PO, CO and COC were within the normal range. The results of TC in all treated rats for 8 weeks were within the normal range. There was no significant difference in TC of rats treated with vegetable oils compared to the control group. Triglycerides (TG in all treated rats for 4 weeks were within the normal range whereas the TG in RPO, PO and CO groups for 8 weeks were significant increase (P ? 0.05 compared to the control group but there was no significant difference between the control group and COC group.

Aminah Abdullah

2011-06-01

325

BIO-OIL FROM FAST PYROLYSIS OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is an investigation on fast pyrolysis technology of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) to bio-oil. EFB is one of the solid wastes that are rapidly increasing in the palm oil industry. The composition and particle size distribution of the unwashed feedstock and washed feedstock were determined and its thermal degradation behaviour was analysed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). A 150 g/h fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis unit was used to study the impact of key variables: r...

2007-01-01

326

Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

2012-11-01

327

Kinetics of palm kernel oil and ethanol transesterification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, there are no available data on the kinetics and mechanisms of transesterification of local vegetable oils. The need for local production of biodiesel necessitates that the mechanism and kinetics of the process is well understood, since the properties of the biodiesel depends on the type of oil use for the transesterification process. The objective of this work is to evaluate the appropriate kinetics mechanism and to find out the reaction rate constants for palm kernel oil transesterification with ethanol when KOH was used as a catalyst. In this present work, 16 biodiesel samples were prepared at specified times based on reported optimal conditions and the samples analysed by gas chromatography. The experimental mass fractions were calibrated and fitted to mathematical models of different proposed mechanisms in previous works.The rate data fitted well to second-order kinetics without shunt mechanism. It was also observed that, although transesterification reaction of crude palm kernel oil is a reversible reaction, the reaction rate constants indicated that the forward reactions were the most prominent.

Ahiekpor, Julius C. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (CEESD), P.O. Box FN 793, Kumasi (Ghana); Kuwornoo, David K. [Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana)

2010-07-01

328

Kinetics of palm kernel oil and ethanol transesterification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, there are no available data on the kinetics and mechanisms of transesterification of local vegetable oils. The need for local production of biodiesel necessitates that the mechanism and kinetics of the process is well understood, since the properties of the biodiesel depends on the type of oil use for the transesterification process. The objective of this work is to evaluate the appropriate kinetics mechanism and to find out the reaction rate constants for palm kernel oil transesterification with ethanol when KOH was used as a catalyst. In this present work, 16 biodiesel samples were prepared at specified times based on reported optimal conditions and the samples analysed by gas chromatography. The experimental mass fractions were calibrated and fitted to mathematical models of different proposed mechanisms in previous works.The rate data fitted well to second-order kinetics without shunt mechanism. It was also observed that, although transesterification reaction of crude palm kernel oil is a reversible reaction, the reaction rate constants indicated that the forward reactions were the most prominent.

Julius C. Ahiekpor, David K. Kuwornoo

2010-11-01

329

Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol and palm oil biodiesel joint production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and palm tree (Elaeis guianeensis) are crops with high biofuel yields, 7.6 m3 ha?1 y?1 of ethanol and 4 Mg ha?1 y?1 of oil, respectively. The joint production of these crops enhances the sustainability of ethanol. The objective of this work was comparing a traditional sugarcane ethanol production system (TSES) with a joint production system (JSEB), in which ethanol and biodiesel are produced at the same biorefinery but only ethanol is traded. The comparison is based on ISO 14.040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006, and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado (typical savannah), Cerradão (woody savannah) and pastureland ecosystems were considered. Energy and carbon balances, and land use change impacts were evaluated. The joint system includes 100% substitution of biodiesel for diesel, which is all consumed in different cropping stages. Data were collected by direct field observation methods, and questionnaires applied to Brazilian facilities. Three sugarcane mills situated in São Paulo State and one palm oil refinery located in Para State were surveyed. The information was supplemented by secondary sources. Results demonstrated that fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions decreased, whereas energy efficiency increased when JSEB was compared to TSES. In comparison with TSES, the energy balance of JSEB was 1.7 greater. In addition, JSEB released 23% fewer GHG emissions than TSES. The ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradão, and Degraded Grassland of JSEB was respectively 4, 7.7 and ?7.6 years. These are typical land use types of the Brazilian Cerrado region for which JSEB was conceived. -- Highlights: ? LCA of ethanol and biodiesel joint production system. ? Sugarcane based biorefinery assessment in Brazil. ? Original Brazilian LCI data on ethanol and palm oil biodiesel production. ? Biofuel LCA with LUC sensitivity analisis for the Brazilian Cerrado Region.

2012-09-01

330

Effects of Mixing Canola and Palm Oils with Sunflower Oil on the Formation of Trans Fatty Acids during Frying  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available GLC analysis was conducted to indicate the formation of trans- C18 fatty acids of sunflower, canola and palm oils during frying. Blends of sunflower oil and palm oil or canola oil were obtained by mixing sunflower oil with palm or canola oils at the volume ratios of 60: 40, 40: 60 and 20: 80 (v/v, then heated at 180?C ± 5?C for 5, 10, 15 and 20 h in the atmospheric oxygen. GLC results demonstrate that the formation of trans C18-fatty acids was generally dependent upon the frying time and oil mixing ratios. Furthermore, mixing sunflower oil with oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (palm or canola oils lowered the formation of trans-C18 fatty acids during frying.

Bothaina S. Abd El Hakeem

2010-07-01

331

Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Kernel Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The search for renewable energy resources continues to attract attention in recent times as fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, which are been used to meet the energy needs of man are associated with negative environmental impacts such as global warming. Biodiesel offered reduced exhaust emissions, improved biodegradability, reduced toxicity and higher carotene rating which can improve performance and clean up emissions. Standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil, which includes the Density, Viscosity, flash/fire point, carbon residue, volatility and Specific Gravity were determined by chemical experimental analysis. The flash/fire points of the Heavy duty oil (SAE 40 and Light duty oil (SAE 30 is 260/300(°C and 243/290(°C respectively while the pour points of the samples are 22°C for palm kernel oil while 9°C and 21°C for SAE 40and SAE 30 respectively.

John J MUSA

2009-07-01

332

Gas Exchange of Excised Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Fronds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gas exchange and leaf water relations were studied on attached and excised oil palm fronds. Excised palm fronds experienced water stress and responded by closing their stomata in an attempt to avoid water loss through transpiration. This inhibited the diffusion of CO2 into the leaf, decreased the intercellular CO2 level and resulted in a reduction in photosynthetic rate. Water deficit develops in the excised tissue as the demand by transpiration exceeds the supply of water. The leaf water potential (?l, leaf osmotic potential (?s and leaf turgor potential (?p were reduced in response to the disruption in water supply. Results show that gas exchange measurements on excised fronds must be carried out immediately after excision in order to avoid water stress effects.

M.H. Haniff

2006-01-01

333

Effects of Mixing Canola and Palm Oils with Sunflower Oil on the Formation of Trans Fatty Acids during Frying  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

GLC analysis was conducted to indicate the formation of trans- C18 fatty acids of sunflower, canola and palm oils during frying. Blends of sunflower oil and palm oil or canola oil were obtained by mixing sunflower oil with palm or canola oils at the volume ratios of 60: 40, 40: 60 and 20: 80 (v/v), then heated at 180?C ± 5?C for 5, 10, 15 and 20 h in the atmospheric oxygen. GLC results demonstrate that the formation of trans C18-fatty acids was generally dependent upon the frying time and oi...

Farag, Radwan S.; El-agaimy, Magdy A. S.; Abd El Hakeem, Bothaina S.

2010-01-01

334

Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.  

Science.gov (United States)

The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber. PMID:22296110

Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri; Eldrainy, Yehia A; Mat Ali, Muhammad Faiser; Wan Omar, W Z; Mohd Hizam, Mohd Faizi Arif

2012-02-21

335

Investigations on a Novel Inductive Concept Frequency Technique for the Grading of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From the Malaysian harvester’s perspective, the determination of the ripeness of the oil palm (FFB) is a critical factor to maximize palm oil production. A preliminary study of a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is presented. To optimize the functionality of the sensor, the frequency characteristics of air coils of various diameters are investigated to determine their inductance and resonant characteristics. Sixteen samples from two categories, na...

Noor Hasmiza Harun; Norhisam Misron; Roslina Mohd Sidek; Ishak Aris; Desa Ahmad; Hiroyuki Wakiwaka; Kunihisa Tashiro

2013-01-01

336

Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Trunk as a Resource of Starch and Other Sugars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large quantities of oil palm trunks are available annually during the replanting activities when the oil palm tree passed their economic age, on an average after 25 years are replace with young trees. Basically the oil palm trunks contains about 18- 21% of lignin, 65-80% of holocellulose (a-cellulose and hemicellulose) and quite significant amount starch. This work is aimed to determine the total extractable starch and sugars content from oil palm trunks by using steeping method and dilute ac...

Ng, P. S. H.; Wong, L. J.; Chin, K. L.; Tor, E. S.; Tan, S. E.; Tey, B. T.; Maminski, M.

2011-01-01

337

Quality evaluation of noble mixed oil blended with palm and canola oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noble blended oils (canola: palm oil = 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 and 7:3) were prepared and their frying qualities were evaluated. Frying qualities such as fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value, viscosity, smoke point, color, antioxidant activity, and sensory evaluation were measured to elucidate the optimum blend ratio of canola and palm oil. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid of the blended oils was higher than that of palm oil after frying 50 times. The blended oil (3:7, Ca: Pa) had a relatively high oxidative stability and its peroxide values were 44.2-70.7 meq/kg after frying. The 3:7 (Ca: Pa) blended oil had excellent flavor, taste, and texture compared to those of the other frying oils as a result of a sensory evaluation of raw and fried potatoes. The results suggest that the 3:7 (Ca: Pa) blended oil is a good alternative oil for frying potatoes. PMID:24976612

Choi, Hyesook; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Kwang-Geun

2014-01-01

338

Effects of linseed oil and palm oil on growth performance, tibia fatty acid and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract 1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary fat sources on growth performance, tibia fatty acids and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers. 2. One-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were fed with a maize-soya bean basal diet for 42 d, supplemented with oils according to the following 5 treatments: lard (lard group); linseed oil (linseed oil group); palm oil (palm oil group); linseed oil + palm oil (60:40 or 40:60 w/w, LP-1 group and LP-2 group, respectively). 3. No significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and gain/feed ratio were observed between the lard and linseed oil groups. Birds fed on palm oil had significantly greater weight gain and feed intake than those fed on lard or linseed oil. Growth performance in LP-1 and LP-2 was significantly greater than that of single-oil groups. 4. Tibia growth and bone characteristics were not influenced by supplementation with lard, linseed oil, or palm oil alone, but broilers fed on a mixture of fats had significantly greater tibia weight and length compared to broilers fed on linseed oil. Bone mineral density in tibia was significantly increased in LP-1 and LP-2 groups. 5. Supplementation of linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil enhanced apparent digestibility of calcium, reduced serum calcium and increased tibia calcium concentrations. Moreover, supplementation with linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil had a positive effect on biomarkers of bone growth. 6. The combination of linseed and palm oils was beneficial for growth performance, tibia growth and biomarkers of bone metabolism. PMID:24641587

Zhong, X; Gao, S; Wang, J J; Dong, L; Huang, J; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

2014-06-01

339

Development of pressure sensitive adhesives from palm oil acrylated resins by irradiation - a preliminary study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives, PSA, has been developed from various palm oil resins synthesised at MINT Laboratory namely epoxidised palm oil acrylates/methacrylates, EPOLA/EPOMA. The performances of these resins are compared in term of their curing rates and physical properties of cured products

1995-12-01

340

Efficient Transformation of Oil Palm Protoplasts by PEG-Mediated Transfection and DNA Microinjection  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Genetic engineering remains a major challenge in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) because particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation are laborious and/or inefficient in this species, often producing chimeric plants and escapes. Protoplasts are beneficial as a starting material for genetic engineering because they are totipotent, and chimeras are avoided by regenerating transgenic plants from single cells. Novel approaches for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts could therefore offer a new and efficient strategy for the development of transgenic oil palm plants. Methodology/Principal Findings We recently achieved the regeneration of healthy and fertile oil palms from protoplasts. Therefore, we focused on the development of a reliable PEG-mediated transformation protocol for oil palm protoplasts by establishing and validating optimal heat shock conditions, concentrations of DNA, PEG and magnesium chloride, and the transfection procedure. We also investigated the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by DNA microinjection and successfully regenerated transgenic microcalli expressing green fluorescent protein as a visible marker to determine the efficiency of transformation. Conclusions/Significance We have established the first successful protocols for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by PEG-mediated transfection and DNA microinjection. These novel protocols allow the rapid and efficient generation of non-chimeric transgenic callus and represent a significant milestone in the use of protoplasts as a starting material for the development of genetically-engineered oil palm plants.

Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Noll, Gundula A.; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Prufer, Dirk

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

In Vitro Digestibility of Ration Containing Different Level of Palm Oil Frond Fermented with Phanerochaetae chrysosporium  

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Full Text Available Phanerochaete chrysosporium was widely used to delignify agricultural waste product and improve biodegradation of the substrate as animal feed. The experiment was carried out to increase the use of palm oil fronds as a substitute material for napier grass through biodegradation process with P. chysosporium. A completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications was used. The treatments were ration containing 60% napier grass (R1, ration containing 40% napier grass and 20% fermented palm oil frond (R2, ration containing 20% napier grass and 40% fermented palm oil frond (R3, ration containing 60% fermented palm oil frond (R4. Fourty percent concentrate was included in all treatment rations. Parameters measured were in vitro digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, NH3, TVFA, and ruminal cellulolitic bacteria. Results showed that increasing level of fermented palm oil frond in the ration reduced (P<0.05 digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, N-NH3, TVFA concentration and number of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria. It is concluded that fermentation of palm oil frond with P. chysosporium decrease lignin content by 47.79%, but increasing the fermented palm oil frond in the ration reduces nutrient digestibilities, N-NH3 and TVFA concentrations and rumen cellulolytic bacteria counts. Fermented palm oil frond up to 40% could be used as a substitute for forages in ruminant rations.

A. Imsya

2013-08-01

342

Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Trunk as a Resource of Starch and Other Sugars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of oil palm trunks are available annually during the replanting activities when the oil palm tree passed their economic age, on an average after 25 years are replace with young trees. Basically the oil palm trunks contains about 18- 21% of lignin, 65-80% of holocellulose (a-cellulose and hemicellulose and quite significant amount starch. This work is aimed to determine the total extractable starch and sugars content from oil palm trunks by using steeping method and dilute acid hydrolysis. The effect of different oil palm trunk powder size on starch, xylose and glucose yield was evaluated. The effect of extraction parameter for each extraction method on the yield of starch and sugars were studied. The highest starch yield was obtained when steeped in the presence of lactic acid, while the highest xylose yield was obtained by 60 min hydrolysis of 60 mesh of oil palm powder with 2% sulfuric acid. For glucose yield, hydrolysis efficiency of 82% was obtained for conversion of oil palm trunk to glucose using two-stage concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Conclusively oil palm trunk can be considered as a resource of substantial amounts of starch and sugars.

B.T. Tey

2011-01-01

343

A Review of Extraction Technology for Carotenoids and Vitamin E Recovery from Palm Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carotenoids and vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols) are among the 1% minor valuable components in crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis). These components have different nutritional functions and benefits to human health. Various technologies have been developed in order to recover these components from being destroyed in commercial refining of palm oil. These include saponification, selective solvent extraction, transesterification followed by molecular distillation and further purifica...

2010-01-01

344

Simulation of thin-film deodorizers in palm oil refining  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As the need for healthier fats and oils (natural vitamin and trans fat contents) and interest in biofuels are growing, many changes in the world's vegetable oil market are driving the oil industry to developing new technologies and recycling traditional ones. Computational simulation is widely used in the chemical and petrochemical industries as a tool for optimization and design of (new) processes, but that is not the case for the edible oil industry. Thin-film deodorizers are novel equipment developed for steam deacidification of vegetable oils, and no work on the simulation of this type of equipment could be found in the open literature. This paper tries to fill this gap by presenting results from the study of the effect of processing variables, such as temperature, pressure and percentage of stripping steam, in the final quality of product (deacidified palm oil) in terms of final oil acidity, the tocopherol content and neutral oil loss. The simulation results have been evaluated by using the response surface methodology. The model generated by the statistical analysis for tocopherol retention has been validated by matching its results with industrial data published in the open literature.

Ceriani, Roberta; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.

2010-01-01

345

Effects of land applications waste water of crude palm oil factory on some nutrient available in soil and nutrient content in palm oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was aimed to study effect of waste water of crude palm oil (CPO factory on some nutrient available in soil and nutrient content in palm oil. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized block design with six levels of waste water treatments (0, 250, 500, 750, 1.000, and 1.250 L tree-1 palm oil in three replications. The result showed that the level 750 L tree-1 of waste water treatment have significant effects on increased of nutrient available in soil (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg including soil pH, but not significant with level 1000 and 1250 L tree-1 except P. On the other hand, nutrient content in palm oil (N, P, and K were not significantly influenced by waste water treatments.

Irwan Sukri Banuwa

2008-01-01

346

Technological and Financial Assessment of Small Scale Palm Oil Production in Kwaebibrem District, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out in the Kwaebibrim District of the Eastern Region of Ghana to study the production practices and the profitability of palm oil production among small scale processors using focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews and participant observations. Three categories of processing equipment namely digester screw press combined, digester with separate hand operated hydraulic press and digester with separate hand operated screw press were found in the district with the latter constituting about 80% of the processing equipment used by the processors. The major activities involved in the processing of fruits into oil are removal of the fruit containing spikelets from the fresh fruit bunches, fruit loosening and storage, boiling and digestion of fruits and pressing and clarifying of the oil produced. Fruits are usually stored for a period ranging from one to four weeks before processing leading often to high levels of free fatty acids in the oil produced. Due to scarcity of firewood in the district, waste lorry tyres and mesocarp fibres are used in place of firewood generating a lot of smoke with serious health risk to processors and other mill workers and the environment. Constraints in the small scale processing industry include inaccessibility to remunerative market especially during the peak fruit production period of February to May, lack of credit and skills and knowledge in good processing practices. The financial appraisal of palm oil production shows that in the peak fruit production period of April-May, processors make a loss of 38% of every cedi in sale in their operations and that the production of palm oil can be a profitable venture only during the lean fruit production season (from September – December when oil is relatively scarce. The study suggests that to improve the income of small scale processors, there is the need to help the processors change their practices through research but at the same time it also requires work to create entry into the existing value chains through policy (e.g. bye-laws.  

S. Adjei-Nsiah

2012-05-01

347

DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB undergoes sterilization before being threshed to separate the fruits from the bunch. Upon threshing, the fruits were pressed for its oil while the now Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB will be discarded or used as biomass. It is believed that the EFB contains small amount of oil as well as phytonutrients which contain antioxidative property. This study reports on the extraction and analyses of various types of phenolic compounds, which have been known to exhibit antioxidant property, from the EFB. Different methods were employed in order to extract the Soluble Free (SF, Insoluble Bound (ISB and Esterified Free (EF phenolics in the EFB. Analyses of these phenolics were carried out spectrophotometricaly. The concentrations of the SF, ISB and EF phenolics varies among the wet and dried EFB extracts. All the extracts from both wet and dried EFB exhibit radical scavenging activities.

Ng Mei Han

2012-01-01

348

Fermentation assisted byproduct recovery in the palm oil industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is a leading natural product industry in Malaysia, giving rise to a number of residues, including a rich, fruity liquor from the pulp. The liquor, of which 7-10 million tonnes a year are currently produced, has some 6% organic solids, including 0.7-1.0% or more of oil which physical processing has failed to extract. Present anaerobic digestion processes exploit only the energy and fertiliser value. Methods are described in this paper for thermophilic, microbially assisted digestion for component separation and recovery, exploiting the widely used techniques for fruit juice extraction involving enzymic breakdown of starch, pectin and other cell components. Anaerobiosis and acidogenesis help protect and release residual oil, concomitantly preserving the solids against rancidity and spoilage by ensilage. The separated wet solids are nutritive (17% protein on dry matter), biologically safe and attractive to livestock. Downstream use of the liquor is aided by the thermophilic digestion. (Refs. 33).

Stanton, W.R.

1983-05-01

349

Biodegradation of oil palm empty fruit bunch by composite micro-organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison study on the comparative biodegradation ability on EFB by five groups of composite micro-organisms [Organomine, Thomas, Ohres C, Ohres II and micro-organisms from POME (palm oil mill effluent)] has been performed with the aim of producing a compost at a faster rate than that by natural biodegradation. The experiment was carried out by mixing 50 gram EFB (dry weight basis) with 3% ammonium sulphate to which was added 1% composite micro-organisms and water to produce a composting media of moisture content about 60%. Respiration of composite micro-organisms as well as from decomposition of EFB releasing CO sub 2. The choice of useful micro-organisms was based on its ability to degrade EFB as reflected by higher evolution rate of CO sub 2 released and retaining higher percentage of nitrogen in the final product

1998-01-01

350

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author)

1994-02-02

351

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author).

Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

1994-01-01

352

Catalytic cracking of palm oil for the production of biofuels: optimization studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm is widely grown in Malaysia. Palm oil has attracted the attention of researchers to develop an 'environmentally friendly' and high quality fuel, free of nitrogen and sulfur. In the present study, the catalytic cracking of palm oil to biofuel was studied over REY catalyst in a transport riser reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of reaction temperature (400-500 degrees C), catalyst/palm oil ratio (5-10) and residence time (10-30s) was studied over the yield of bio-gasoline and gas as fuel. Design of experiments was used to study the effect of operating variables over conversion of palm oil and yield of hydrocarbon fuel. The response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum value of the operating variables for maximum yield of bio-gasoline fraction in the liquid product obtained. PMID:17208441

Tamunaidu, Pramila; Bhatia, Subhash

2007-12-01

353

Palm Oil and Animal Fats for Increasing Dietary Energy in Rearing Pullets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 300 Nera chicks at 8 weeks of age were randomized into five experimental rearing diets containing 170g/kg crude protein and 2800Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy to determine the comparative advantage of palm oil and animal fat as sources of increasing dietary energy in pullets. Five diets were supplemented with 2.5% and 5.0% palm oil or broiler offal fat at the expense of maize. Birds on diets with palm oil tended to retard attainment of sexual maturity, but egg production was significantly (P< 0.05 increased at 5% broiler offal fat or palm oil, and the latter additionally resulted in higher egg mass. It is concluded that 5% broiler offal fat or palm oil comparably promoted higher egg production; the latter also supported heavier egg mass of the domestic fowl. Broiler offal fat holds great potential as energy source in pullets rearing.

M.A. Isika

2006-01-01

354

The use of response surface analysis in obtaining maximum profit in oil palm industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to show how to use Response Surface Analysis in obtaining the optimum level of fertilizer needs by oil palm. The ridge analysis was proposed to overcome the saddle point problem. Data from Malaysian Palm Oil Board database was analyzed. The fertilizers considered are N, P, K and Mg. The results from ridge analysis provided several alternatives of the fertilizer combination. Profit analysis was then applied to determine the best combination of fertilizers needed by the oil palm in order to generate maximum profit. It is found that N and K fertilizers were the important fertilizers required by the oil palm. It is also found that the N and K nutrient concentrations of the foliar nutrient composition were higher compared to other nutrients. Three different stations were considered and it was found that the fertilizersneeded by the oil palm and foliar nutrient composition were different at the different type of soil series.

Ahmad Tarmizi Mohammed

2006-03-01

355

Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

Daud, D.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

2013-06-01

356

Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

2013-06-17

357

Biodiesel Production from Crude Palm Oil by Transesterification Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An overflow system for batch esterification of Crude Palm Oil (CPO to obtain Palm Oil Biodiesel (POB was developed using a batch reactor (shake flask. The alkali catalyst of potassium hydroxide had been used to carry the transestrication process with methanol; ultimately, 2 layers were form from the reaction-the lower layer of glycerol and the upper layer of methyl esters; the later layer is the targeted biodiesel. Optimization of the process was held for determining of the best possible yield of biodiesel at the end of the reaction which was 93.6%. This was carried by finding the optimal values of reaction time of 60 min, reaction temperature of 60°C, agitation speed of 250 rpm, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 10:1 (m/m and dosage of the catalyst of 1.4 (%wt. Other experimental design and analytical tests were conducted including: density of POB at room temperature, 0.8498 kg L-1, surface tension at STP of 26.96 mN m-1, with Huh-Mason correction of 0.1 and finally free fatty acid percentage of 0.12% (equivalent to acid value of 0.26 mg KOH g-1.

A.N. Alkabbashi

2009-01-01

358

Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m?2 h?1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Es...

Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

2010-01-01

359

Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m?2 h?1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole...

Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

2010-01-01

360

Chemical Analyses of Palm Kernel Oil-Based Polyurethane Prepolymer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polyurethane (PU) was prepared from palm kernel oil-based monoester polyol (PKO-p) via prepolymerization method at NCO/OH ratio of 200/100, 150/100, 100/100, and 75/100 at ambient temperature under nitrogen gas atmosphere. The structure of the synthesized prepolymerized PKO-p PU was determined using FTIR and 13C NMR. The disapperance of NCO peak in the FTIR spectrum at 2270 cm–1 - 2250 cm–1 cm showed that MDI has complet...

Chee Sien Wong; Khairiah Haji Badri

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Synthesis of hyper branched polyol from palm oil oleic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hyper branched polyol from oleic acid of palm oil has been synthesized by a two-step reaction. Dipentaerythritol was initially reacted with 2, 2-bis (hydroxymethyl) propionic acid in a solution medium aided by p-toluene sulfonic acid as a catalyst. This mixture was then used as core and reacted with the oleic acid. Optimization parameters such as processing temperature and reaction time, and chemical analysis (for example OHV, AV, FTIR, NMR and GPC) of the macromolecule synthesized is presented in this paper. (author)

2010-10-12

362

Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm ?, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, ...

Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam; Tee Chew Tek; Saied Reza Farrokhpayam

2008-01-01

363

Development of Oil Palm Tissue Culture Weight Measurement System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The base to grow the oil palm tissue culture is jelly like liquid, added with certain composition of nutrition, fertilizer and soil components in order to propel the growth of the plant tissue cells. It is assumed that the base liquid composition will definitely changes as the cells growth, since the cells will consume the nutrition in it, and also excrete toxic and waste to it. This can be recognized from the chan...

Abu Bakar Hasan; Rozita Mustafa; Ahmad Jais Alias; Ahmad Tarmizi Hashim; Khairil Anuar; Shahrul Ahmad; Jamaludin omar

2012-01-01

364

Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil (olein) was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV), saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting p...

2010-01-01

365

Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodiesel and the associated GHG emissions are also studied. This study follows the methodology suggested by the Dutch Commission on Sustainable Biomass (Cramer Commission). The results demonstrate that land use change is the most decisive factor in overall GHG emissions and that palm oil energy chains based on land that was previously natural rainforest or peatland have such large emissions that they cannot meet the 50-70% GHG emission reduction target set by the Cramer Commission. However, if CPO production takes place on degraded land, management of CPO production is improved, or if the by-product PFAD is used for electricity production, the emission reduction criteria can be met, and palm-oil-based electricity can be considered sustainable from a GHG emission point of view. Even though the biodiesel base case on logged-over forest meets the Cramer Commission's emission reduction target for biofuels of 30%, other cases, such as oil palm plantations on degraded land and improved management, can achieve emissions reductions of more than 150%, turning oil palm plantations into carbon sinks. In order for bioenergy to be sustainably produced from palm oil and its derivatives, degraded land should be used for palm oil production and management should be improved

2008-12-01

366

Analysis of quality of the biogasoils of palm oil and castor oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biodiesel is a fuel made from raw materials of renewable origin such as vegetable oils. The objective of this work is to make a quality analysis of two types of biodiesel made from raw materials available in Colombia such as palm oil and castor oil. Biodiesel from palm oil complies with the majority of technical requirements specified by ASTM standards D-975 y D-6751. A high cloud point is the main drawback of this kind of biodiesel. This is a consequence of its highly saturated chemical nature. On the other hand, biodiesel from castor oil presents more difficulties in order to be used in diesel engines because of having a low cetane index and a high viscosity

2004-07-01

367

World Oilseed Situation and U.S. Export Opportunities, April 1985: Reference Tables on the Major Producing, Consuming, and Trading Countries of Palm Kernel Meal, and Palm Kernel Oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This publication presents, for the first time, the data base on palm kernels, palm kernel meal, and palm kernel oil. Statistical sources include Agricultural Counselor and Attache reports, official statistics released by foreign governments, and trade pub...

1985-01-01

368

An outlook of Malaysian energy, oil palm industry and its utilization of wastes as useful resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. The largest non-renewable energy resource found in Malaysia is oil, and second, is natural gas, primarily liquefied natural gas. The production and consumption of oil, gas and coal in Malaysia are given in this paper. The energy demand and supply by source are also shown in relation to the country's fuel diversification policy. In order to reduce the overall dependence on a single source of energy, efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources. Forest residue and oil palm biomass are found to be potentially of highest energy value and considered as the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. The total oil palm planted area in Malaysia has increased significantly in recent years. This paper gives a detailed representation of oil palm planted and produced together with its yield from the year 1976 onwards. The large amounts of available forest and palm oil residues resulting from the harvest can be utilized for energy generation and other by-products in a manner that also addresses environmental concerns related to current waste disposal methods. -- Highlights: ?Palm oil and related products represent the second largest export of Malaysia. ?Malaysia has an abundance of energy resources, both renewable and non-renewable. ?Forest and oil palm residues are the main renewable energy option for Malaysia. ?Efforts were undertaken to encourage the utilization of renewable resources.

2011-10-01

369

Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in Old and New worlds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535?Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30?tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop. PMID:23883927

Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; He, Dong; Hogan, Michael; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lee, Ernest K; DeSalle, Rob; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wing, Rod A; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Robert S; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

2013-08-15

370

Energy Contribution of Oil Cakes Used as Fuel in Waste Boilers: Case of an Oil Mill in Cote D’ivoire  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cote d’Ivoire is the second palm oil producer country in Africa. The oil mills are generally located near the farms which are in rural areas. In fact, Côte d’Ivoire is self-sufficient in electricity; but the electric distribution network is not wide enough. So that it is difficult to access public electricity for most of rural areas. Therefore, to produce electricity traditional fuels group are used. Moreover, the cost of electricity production by turbo-alternators using traditional fuel such as DDO is higher than the cost of electricity produced by the national electrical company. The principal aim of this study is to show that the use of the waste produced by the oil mill can be used as fuel for the production of electricity in order to satisfy the energy needs. Solid waste from a palm oil mill is used as fuel for boilers. Three types of composition are carried out: solid waste only (Fuel 1, oil cake only (Fuel 2, a mixture of solid waste and oil cake (Fuel 3. Physicochemical and energy studies of these fuels have been made. And that allows giving the contribution of oil cake in energy production (superheated steam, electric power in agro industrial unit.

R.K. N Guessan

2010-01-01

371

Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil