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Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as we...

Weerachai Phutdhawong; Sengpracha, Waya P.; Agustin, Melissa B.

2008-01-01

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Electrocoagulation of palm oil mill effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME. PMID:19139537

Agustin, Melissa B; Sengpracha, Waya P; Phutdhawong, Weerachai

2008-09-01

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PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT  

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The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of...

Soon Hock Ong; Yuen May Choo; Chiew Wei Puah

2013-01-01

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A Study of Biomass Fuel Briquettes from Oil Palm Mill Residues  

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This study presents a systematic approach in utilizing the large amount of oil palm mill residues that are loosely-bounded and have low energy density. The rate of waste materials (palm kernel shell, palm fiber and empty fruit bunches) generated by oil palm mills amounted to about 34 million tonnes in 2010. Efforts have been made to increase the energy density of the loosely-bounded waste materials, in which solid fuel briquettes made of densified oil palm residues would contribute towa...

Shiraz Aris, M.; Chin Yee Sing

2013-01-01

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Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills  

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Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm o...

Madaki, Yahaya S.

2013-01-01

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The development of a small-scale palm oil mill producing crude palm oil by the vacumm frying process  

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This study aims to design and develop a new dry palm oil milling process which yields a good quality Crude Palm Oil (CPO) without mixing of Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO) in the first extraction. The process uses vacuum fruit frying process with a twin screw press. The advantages of this process are (1) no waste water (2) a good quality crude palm oil in the first extraction (3) safety due to no pressure vessel and better working condition for workers since there is no smoke during the frying p...

Limworaphan, C.; Kooptanond, C.; Klinpikul, S.

2000-01-01

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Palm Oil Mill Biogas Producing Process Effluent Treatment: A Short Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biogas generation from palm oil mill effluent treatment plant is becoming the future trend for the palm oil millers. Therefore, the efficient treatment of biogas producing process effluent is equally important to minimize the detrimental effect towards human and environment. In addition, stricter regulations in the future, increasing in public awareness and towards water reuse also motivated investigation on this important topic. This study aims to discuss several treatment systems for palm oil mill biogas producing process effluent. Integrated treatment system is vital for treating palm oil mill biogas producing process effluent.

A.Y. Zahrim

2014-01-01

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The possibility of palm oil mill effluent for biogas production  

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Full Text Available The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Indonesia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil (Elaeis guiinensis Jacq.. The aims of the research were to (i characterize palm oil mill effluent which will be used as source of biogas production, (ii know the biotic and abiotic factors which effect POME substrate for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in bulk system. The results show that POME sludge generated from PT Pinago Utama mill is viscous, brown or grey and has an average total solid (TS content of, 26.5-45.4, BOD is 23.5-29.3, COD is 49.0-63.6 and SS is 17.1-35.9 g/L, respectively. This substrate is a potential source of environmental pollutants. The biotic factors were kind and concentration of the inoculums, i.e. seed sludge of anaerobic lagoon II and 20% (w/v respectively. Both physical and chemical factors such as pre-treated POME pH, pH neutralizer matter Ca (OH2, temperature ?40oC, agitation effect to increase biogas production, but in both coagulant concentration, FeCl2 were not.

EDWI MAHAJOENO

2008-01-01

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Environmental Performance of the Milling Process Of Malaysian Palm Oil Using The Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

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Malaysia is currently the world leader in the production and export of palm oil. This study has a gate to gate system boundary. The inventory data collection starts at the oil palm fresh fruit bunch hoppers when the fresh fruit bunch is received at the mill up till the production of the crude palm oil in the storage tanks at the mill. The plantation phase and land use for the production of oil palm fresh fruit bunch is not included in this system boundary. This gate to gate case study of 12 m...

Vijaya Subramaniam; Ngan, Ma A.; May, Choo Y.; Sulaiman, Nik M. K.

2008-01-01

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Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills  

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Full Text Available Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm oil mills operators on current advance POME treatment technology (PTT in relation to achieving zero discharge concepts. The survey attempted to identify the key issues about the PTT in respect to feasibility of zero discharge concepts in palm oil mills. The results shows that, although palm oil mills generate a lot of different types of wastes during processing of Fresh Fruit Bunches, according to the operators and available literature, POME is the most difficult waste to manage. The results also shows that, palm oil mills cannot meet up with the new discharge limits of 20ppm of BOD and zero emission using only conventional open or closed pounding system

Yahaya S. Madaki

2013-10-01

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Co-composting of palm oil mill sludge-sawdust.  

Science.gov (United States)

Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge (POMS) with sawdust was conducted in natural aerated reactor. Composting using natural aerated reactor is cheap and simple. The goal of this study is to observe the potential of composting process and utilizing compost as media for growing Cymbopogun citratus, one of Malaysia herbal plant. The highest maximum temperature achieved is about 40 degrees C and to increase temperature bed, more biodegradable substrate needs to be added. The pH value decrease along the process with final pH compost is acidic (pH 5.7). The highest maximum organic losses are about 50% with final C/N ratio of the compost is about 19. Final compost also showed some fertilizing value but need to be adjusted to obtain an ideal substrate. Addition of about 70% sandy soil causes highest yield and excellent root development for C. citratus in potted media. Beside that, compost from POMS-sawdust also found to have fertilizer value and easy to handle. Composting of POMS with sawdust shows potential as an alternative treatment to dispose and recycle waste components. PMID:19093514

Yaser, Abu Zahrim; Abd Rahman, Rakmi; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid

2007-12-15

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Co-Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge-Sawdust  

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Full Text Available Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge (POMS with sawdust was conducted in natural aerated reactor. Composting using natural aerated reactor is cheap and simple. The goal of this study is to observe the potential of composting process and utilizing compost as media for growing Cymbopogun citratus, one of Malaysia herbal plant. The highest maximum temperature achieved is about 40°C and to increase temperature bed, more biodegradable substrate needs to be added. The pH value decrease along the process with final pH compost is acidic (pH 5.7. The highest maximum organic losses are about 50% with final C/N ratio of the compost is about 19. Final compost also showed some fertilizing value but need to be adjusted to obtain an ideal substrate. Addition of about 70% sandy soil causes highest yield and excellent root development for C. citratus in potted media. Beside that, compost from POMS-sawdust also found to have fertilizer value and easy to handle. Composting of POMS with sawdust shows potential as an alternative treatment to dispose and recycle waste components.

Abu Zahrim Yaser

2007-01-01

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Adsorption Chromatography of Carotenes from Extracted Oil of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available Carotenes is one of the most important vitamin A precursor in human nutrition which has numerous advantages. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME is wastewater which consists of carotenes in the oil and grease content. Therefore, adsorption chromatography is used to separate the carotenes from the oil and grease in POME. Several types of adsorbents, temperatures and mass loading were studied in the experiments. The 40°C and oil:adsorbent ratio of 1:5 was recommended to be the most suitable temperature and mass loading for separation of carotenes by adsorption chromatography. Silica gel also shows better quality of adsorbent in separation of carotenes in hexane fractions.

M.D. Mashitah

2010-01-01

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Ball milling pretreatment of oil palm biomass for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm biomass, namely empty fruit bunch and frond fiber, were pretreated using a planetary ball mill. Particle sizes and crystallinity index values of the oil palm biomass were significantly reduced with extended ball mill processing time. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the generation of glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields from the pretreatment process compared to the amount of sugars from raw materials. Glucose and xylose contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. An increasing trend in glucose and xylose yield as well as total sugar conversion yield was observed with decreasing particle size and crystallinity index. Oil palm frond fiber exhibited the best material yields using ball milling pretreatment with generated glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields of 87.0, 81.6, and 85.4%, respectively. In contrast, oil palm empty fruit bunch afforded glucose and xylose of 70.0 and 82.3%, respectively. The results obtained in this study showed that ball mill-treated oil palm biomass is a suitable pretreatment method for high conversion of glucose and xylose. PMID:24908052

Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

2014-08-01

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A Study of Biomass Fuel Briquettes from Oil Palm Mill Residues  

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Full Text Available This study presents a systematic approach in utilizing the large amount of oil palm mill residues that are loosely-bounded and have low energy density. The rate of waste materials (palm kernel shell, palm fiber and empty fruit bunches generated by oil palm mills amounted to about 34 million tonnes in 2010. Efforts have been made to increase the energy density of the loosely-bounded waste materials, in which solid fuel briquettes made of densified oil palm residues would contribute towards a more efficient utilization of the waste material. This work focused on determining a fuel briquette with an optimum ratio of waste materials mixtures that has considerably high heating value and good mechanical properties. As part of the densification process, the waste material was pulverized and then compacted using a 200 kN force into 40 mm diameter briquettes. The heating values, proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and burning profile of the briquettes were studied. The end result was an optimised solid fuel with relatively high energy content made from a suitable mixing ratio of the different palm oil mill residues and an appropriate binder to ensure acceptable mechanical strength.

M. Shiraz Aris

2013-01-01

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Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan  

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Full Text Available By-product produced from plantation and palm oil mill can be utilized for energy and protein source of ruminant feed. Thus, it still has potency for further exploration. The objective of the research was to investigate the nutrient value of palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product used to formulate ruminant feed. The research located in 66,118.5 ha of palm oil plantation in Paser regency, East Kalimantan province. The research was carried out in palm oil plantation and mill of PTPN XIII comprising productive plants (TM in +14,000 ha arranged in 9 divisions (afdeling. Measured variables consisted of: 1 dry mass production (mass of midrib every cutting and frond (kg;                        2 Centrosema sp mass production (kg; 3 mass of empty fruit bunches (kg; palm pressed fiber (PPF (kg, palm kernel cake (PKC (kg dan palm oil sludge (POS (kg; 4 nutrient content analyzed under proximate analysis in accordance with the procedure of Ruminant Feed Nutrient Laboratory, Faculty of Livestock, Diponegoro University. The result showed that total dry matter (DM production was 14.82 ton/ha/year, consisting: midrib 29.09% (crude protein (CP 3.16% and crude fiber (CF 37.85%, frond 10.31% (CP 6.53% dan CF 30.39%, Centrosema sp. 2.48% (CP 22.58% and CF 35.12, EFB 24.31% (CP 7.01% and CF 40.22%, PPF 1.23% (CP 5.56% and CF 50.36%, PKC 1.29% (CP 15.49% and CF10.45 and POS 1.20% (CP 17.86% and CF 45.99%. This could be concluded that palm oil plantation and mill’s by-product was recommended for ruminant feed as it had huge amount and appropriate nutrient contentDoi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60 [How to cite this article: Mayulu, H., Sunarso, C. I. Sutrisno, Sumarsono, M. Christiyanto, K. Isharyudono. (2013.  Potency of Palm Oil Plantation and Mill Byproduct as Ruminant Feed in Paser Regency, East Kalimantan, 5(2,56-60. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.56-60

Hamdi Mayulu

2013-10-01

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High-rate anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent  

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Palm oil mil effluent (POME) contains high amount of organic matter, oil & grease, total solids and suspended solids. Anaerobic treatment of POME was conducted at room temperature (30±2ºC) and high temperature (50±0.5ºC). The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR), COD:N ratio and temperature on the anaerobic digestion of POME were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be 10 days HRT, OLR of 9.50 kg COD m-3d-1, COD:N ratio of 65 and the optimum ...

Masao Ukita; Poonsuk Prasertsan; Monticha Pechsuth

2001-01-01

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Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing o [...] f sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Malaysian Department of Environment. A bench-scale study of the adsorption of residual oil in POME using synthetic rubber powder was conducted using a jar test apparatus. The adsorption process was studied by varying parameters affecting the process. The parameters were adsorbent dosage, mixing speed, mixing time and pH. The optimum values of the parameters were obtained. It was found that almost 88% removal of residual oil was obtained with an adsorbent dosage of 30 mg dm-3 and mixing speed of 150 rpm for 3 hr at a pH 7. Adsorption equilibrium was also studied, and it was found that the adsorption process on the synthetic rubber powder fit the Freundlich isotherm model.

A.L., Ahmad; S., Bhatia; N., Ibrahim; S., Sumathi.

2005-09-01

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Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder  

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Full Text Available A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Malaysian Department of Environment. A bench-scale study of the adsorption of residual oil in POME using synthetic rubber powder was conducted using a jar test apparatus. The adsorption process was studied by varying parameters affecting the process. The parameters were adsorbent dosage, mixing speed, mixing time and pH. The optimum values of the parameters were obtained. It was found that almost 88% removal of residual oil was obtained with an adsorbent dosage of 30 mg dm-3 and mixing speed of 150 rpm for 3 hr at a pH 7. Adsorption equilibrium was also studied, and it was found that the adsorption process on the synthetic rubber powder fit the Freundlich isotherm model.

A.L. Ahmad

2005-09-01

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Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME)  

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Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water....

Wong Pui Wah; Nik Meriam Sulaiman; Meenakshisundaram Nachiappan; Balaraman Varadaraj

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Baseline study of methane emission from anaerobic ponds of palm oil mill effluent treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Malaysia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil. This paper will focus on palm oil mill effluent (POME) as the source of renewable energy from the generation of methane and establish the current methane emission from the anaerobic treatment facility. The emission was measured from two anaerobic ponds in Felda Serting Palm Oil Mill for 52 weeks. The results showed that the methane content was between 35.0% and 70.0% and biogas flow rate ranged between 0.5 and 2.4 L/min/m(2). Total methane emission per anaerobic pond was 1043.1 kg/day. The total methane emission calculated from the two equations derived from relationships between methane emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were comparable with field measurement. This study also revealed that anaerobic pond system is more efficient than open digesting tank system for POME treatment. Two main factors affecting the methane emission were mill activities and oil palm seasonal cropping. PMID:16125215

Yacob, Shahrakbah; Ali Hassan, Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito; Wakisaka, Minato; Subash, Sunderaj

2006-07-31

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Carbon Mobilization in Oil Palm Plantation and Milling Based on a Carbon-Balanced Model – A Case Study in Thailand  

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Damage to agricultural areas and household properties occurs more frequently all year round from extreme weather, which is believed to be due to climate change caused by the increase of greenhouse gases – particularly, CO2. In order to help reduce its concentration in the atmosphere, palm oil is a renewable energy which can be used for this purpose. In this study, the carbon mobilization of palm oil was investigated, from oil palm plantation process to the milling process, so as to determin...

Withida Patthanaissaranukool; Chongchin Polprasert

2011-01-01

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High-rate anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent  

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Full Text Available Palm oil mil effluent (POME contains high amount of organic matter, oil & grease, total solids and suspended solids. Anaerobic treatment of POME was conducted at room temperature (30±2ºC and high temperature (50±0.5ºC. The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT, organic loading rate (OLR, COD:N ratio and temperature on the anaerobic digestion of POME were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be 10 days HRT, OLR of 9.50 kg COD m-3d-1, COD:N ratio of 65 and the optimum temperature at 50ºC. The highest COD reduction of 81.1% was achieved. Biogas production in general was greater than 0.30 m3/kg COD/d. Comparison on anaerobic treatment using POME and POME treated by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi Rhizopus sp. ST4 revealed that the biopretreated POME gave higher COD removal (72.6% but lower biogas production (0.97 m3/m3/d or 0.27 m3/kg COD/d than the POME without pretreatment (56.1% and 1.16 m3/m3/d or 0.37 m3/kg COD/d, respectively.

Masao Ukita

2001-11-01

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Environmental Performance of the Milling Process Of Malaysian Palm Oil Using The Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

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Full Text Available Malaysia is currently the world leader in the production and export of palm oil. This study has a gate to gate system boundary. The inventory data collection starts at the oil palm fresh fruit bunch hoppers when the fresh fruit bunch is received at the mill up till the production of the crude palm oil in the storage tanks at the mill. The plantation phase and land use for the production of oil palm fresh fruit bunch is not included in this system boundary. This gate to gate case study of 12 mills identifies the potential impacts associated with the production of palm oil using the life cycle assessment approach and evaluates opportunities to overcome the potential impacts. Most of the impact categories show savings rather than impact. Within the system boundary there are only two main parameters that are causing the potential impacts to the environment; they are the Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME followed by the boiler ash. The impact categories that the POME contributes to are under the Respiratory Organics and Climate Change. Both these impact categories are related to air emissions. The main air emission from the POME ponds during the anaerobic digestion is the biogas which consists of methane, carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen sulfide. An alternate scenario was conducted to see how the impact will be if the biogas was harvested and used as energy and the results shows that when the biogas is harvested, the impact from the POME is removed. The other significant impact is the boiler ash. This is the ash that is produced when the biomass is burnt in the boiler. This potential impact contributes to the ecotoxicity impact category. This is mainly because of the disposal of this ash which in most cases was used for land application in the roads leading to the mil or in the plantations. If the parameters causing these two potential impacts are curbed, then this will be a further plus point for the Malaysian oil palm industry which is already avoiding fossil fuel based energy and chemical use for processing.

Vijaya Subramaniam

2008-01-01

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An Experimental Investigation on the Handling and Storage Properties of Biomass Fuel Briquettes Made from Oil Palm Mill Residues  

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This study is about experimental investigation on solid fuel briquettes made of oil palm mill residues that exhibit optimum handling and storage properties. One of the major technical challenges in utilizing biomass waste material as a solid fuel is the handling and storage issues of loose and wet waste material. The solid biomass fuel briquettes made from different types and combinations of palm oil mill residues were explored for optimum storage and handling features. A solution to im...

Mohd. Shiraz Aris; Chin Yee Sing

2012-01-01

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Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor  

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Full Text Available As the issue of global warming draws increasing concern, many studies to reduce CO2 and CH4 gases (greenhouse gases, GHG have been implemented in several countries, including in Indonesia. Considering that Indonesia has a huge numbers of palm oil mills, no doubt if their waste water treatment as one of the major sources in GHG.  This paper presents the results from a research project between Metawater Co., Ltd.-Japan and University of Sumatera Utara-Indonesia. The objective of the research is to study the methane emission of thermophilic fermentation in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME on a laboratory scale. Anaerobic digestion was performed in two-litre water jacketed biodigester type continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and operated at a thermophilic temperature (55 oC. As raw material, a real liquid waste (POME from palm oil mill was used. Fresh POME was obtained from seeding pond of PTPN II waste water treatment facility which has concentration of 39.7 g of VS/L and COD value of 59,000 mg/L. To gain precise results, complete recording and reliable equipment of reactor was employed. As the experimental results, for hydraulic retention time (HRT 8 days, VS decomposition rate of 63.5% and gas generation of 6.05-9.82 L/day were obtained, while for HRT 6 and 4 days, VS decomposition rate of 61.2, 53.3% and gas generation of  6.93-8.94  and  13.95-16.14 L/day were obtained respectively. Keywords—methane (CH4, palm oil mill effluent (POME, anaerobic digestion, thermophilic, green house gases (GHG

Vivian Wongistani

2012-04-01

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Mesophilic co-digestion of palm oil mill effluent and empty fruit bunches.  

Science.gov (United States)

The palm oil mill industry generates palm oil mill effluent (POME) and empty fruit bunches (EFB) as by-products. This study reports the mesophilic co-digestion of POME with EFB. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) of POME and EFB was 0.397 L CH4/g volatile solids (VS) and 0.264 L CH4/g VS, respectively. In a series of batch tests at various EFB to POME ratios, the maximum methane production rate was achieved at an EFB:POME ratio of 0.25-0.31:1. Performance data from lab-scale digesters confirmed the positive synergism by the addition of EFB to POME, which was attributed to the balanced chemical composition, for example the chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio. The EFB addition enhanced the acceptable organic loading rate, methane production, COD removal, and microbial activity. The mesophilic co-digestion of POME and EFB promises to be a viable recycling method to alleviate pollution problems and recover renewable energy in the palm oil mill industry. PMID:24350470

Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Choi, Seon-Mi; Ju, Hyun-Jun; Jung, Jin-Young

2013-01-01

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Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME and 98% biodegradability. Meanwhile, the maximum methane potential of EFB was 202mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 79.1m3 CH4/ton EFB with 38% biodegradability. Co-digestion of EFB with POME enhanced microbial biodegradability and resulted in 25–32% higher methane production at mixing ratios of 0.4:1, 0.8:1 and 2.3:1 on VS basis than digesting EFB alone. The methane yield was 276–340mL CH4/gVS-added for co-digestion of EFB with POME at mixing ratios of 0.4:1–2.3:1, while minor improvement was observed at mixing ratios of 6.8:1 and 11:1 (175–197mL CH4/gVS-added). The best improved was achieved from co-digestion of treated EFB by NaOH presoaking and hydrothermal treatment with POME, which resulted in 98% improvement inmethane yield comparing with co-digesting untreated EFB. The maximum methane production of co-digestion treated EFB with POME was 82.7m3 CH4/ton of mixed treated EFB and POME (6.8:1), corresponding to methane yield of 392mL CH4/gVS-added. The electricity production of 1ton mixture of treated EFB and POME would be 1190MJ or 330kWh of electricity. The study shows that there is a great potential to co-digestion treated EFB with POME for bioenergy production.

O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan

2012-01-01

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Enzymatic saccharification of hemicellulose extracted from palm oil mill wastes  

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Full Text Available Various parameters affecting the extraction of hemicellulose from palm cake by alkali method and sterilizer condensate by solvent method were investigated. For extraction of hemicellulose from palm cake, the optimal ratio of palm cake to sodium hydroxide (NaOH (1.5% conc. was 1:10. However, potassium hydroxide (KOH was a better source of alkali than NaOH and the optimum ratio of palm cake to 12% KOH was 1:50 (w/v. Temperature over 100ºC (100 and 121ºC extracted significantly higher hemicellulose than at 80ºC after 20 min treatment. The addition of ethanol to the extracted solution in the ratio of 1:1 (v/v gave the highest hemicellulose yield of 8.67 g/100 g palm cake. For extraction of hemicellulose from sterilizer condensate, the optimum ratio of ethanol to the condensate was 2:1 (v/v, which gave a hemicellulose yield of 6.42 g/100 ml. The enzymatic saccharification of the hemicelllulose extracted from palm cake (HEPC and from sterilizer condensate (HESC was 3-10 times lower than that of xylan. The enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 and Meicellase gave higher saccharification rates than that of Sumyzyme. The contents of reducing sugars in xylan, HEPC and HESC were 96.4, 36.2 and 20.6%, respectively and 75.3, 67.9 and 97.6% of these values could be hydrolysed by the enzymes. Hence, palm cake was a better source of substrate for extraction of hemicellulose while hemicellulose extracted from sterilizer condensate gave higher percentage of enzymatic saccharification.

Poonsuk Prasertsan

2001-11-01

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Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi  

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Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45ºC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

Masao Ukita

2001-11-01

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A Study on Zeolite Performance in Waste Treating Ponds for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available Oil palm currently occupies the largest acreage of farm land in Malaysia. In 2011, the production of palm oil in Malaysia was recorded as 19.8 million tons which has led to a huge amount of wastewater known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. This work focuses on the ponding system which acts as wastewater treatment plant in order to treat POME. The conventional ponding system applied in mills consists of a series of seven ponds. The maintenance costs of the pond are expensive thus study of alternative methods is needed. POME treatment using zeolite shows a potential to overcome the problem. Samples collected from selected ponds are tested and analyzed using water analyzer method. Result from adsorption by zeolite shows a significant reduction of COD, BOD, Fe, Zn, Mn and turbidity. This shows that zeolite is highly potential to be applied as adsorbent in the POME treatment plants. The results here may lead to lower maintenance cost, lower quantity of treatment ponds and lesser land occupied for the treatment of POME in Malaysia.

Shamsul Izhar

2013-07-01

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Evaluation of Technological Content of Wastewater Treatment of Palm Oil Mill in Lampung Province, Indonesia  

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Full Text Available Palm oil industry is the most important economic sector in Lampung Province, Indonesia. There are 13 units of palm oil mills (POMs operating in Lampung, producing about 1,094,586 tons of palm oil mill effluent (POME a year. So far, the POME has been treated by the ponding system. However, the system has still caused environmental problems due to greenhouse gas emissions. Methane capture technology of which methane is converted to electrical energy is thus proposed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the conditions of POME treatment technology of POMs in Lampung. Technological content analysis was performed to identify the conditions of technoware, humanware, infoware and orgaware (THIO being applied at POMs. The results showed that: (1 technological condition of POME treatment at 13 POM's in Lampung was almost equal among state-owned enterprises (SOE' s, non-public companies, and public companies, (2 the value of technology contribution coefficient of PTPN V Tandun, as a reference POM unit,was higher than that of the technology contribution coefficient of the POMs in Lampung, and (3 enhancing performance technology elements of technoware, humanware, infoware, and orgaware to apply methane capture technology are absolutely needed by all the POMs in Lampung.

Sarono

2014-01-01

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Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered [...] (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

Charles Ogugua, Nwuche; James Chukwuma, Ogbonna.

2011-02-01

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Evaluation of Hybrid Membrane Bioreactor (MBR For Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME Treatment  

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Full Text Available The pollution load of palm oil mill effluent (POME is in the range of 50,000 mg COD/L. With more than 500 palm oil mills, Malaysia produces some 13.9 million tonnes of crude palm oil annually and generates around 35 x 106 m3 POME. Typically, raw POME is difficult to degrade because it contains significant amounts of oil (tryacylglycerols and degradative products such as di-and monoacylglycerols and fatty acids. The fatty acids composition (C12 – C20 of each of this fraction are different from one another and contribute to the high value of pollution load in POME. Thus POME has to be treated, usually in a series of anaerobic and aerobic treatment steps, for the organic matter to be degraded before the effluent is allowed to be discharged into public waterways. The objective of this study was to observe the performance of a hybrid membrane bioreactor (MBR for POME. The raw POME was introduced into sequencing processes of anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic in order to achieve biological nutrient removal and the membrane modules were submerged into the aerobic zone. The critical flux of MBR using the flux-step method based on transmembrane pressure (TMP was conducted as well as flux and permeability studies for assessing fouling in a membrane bioreactor operating at constant flux. The reactor was operated at a mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS concentration of 4000 to 8000 mg/l. The removal efficiency of COD, SS, TN and TP achieved were 94%, 98%, 83% and 64% respectively. The hybrid MBR was found to be able to degrade POME significantly and high quality effluent could be reused for various other applications.Keywords:

Z. Ahmad

2009-12-01

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Screening and application of thermotolerant microorganisms and their flocculant for treatment of palm oil mill effluent  

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Full Text Available Among fifteen thermotolerant polymer-producing isolates, three strains SM 29, WD 90, and SM 38 produced polymer posessing very high flocculating activities (24.81, 14.63 and 10.84, respectively and flocculation rates (94.29, 90.69 and 87.84, respectively. These three strains were identified to be Bacillus subtilis WD90, Bacillus subtilis SM 29, and Enterobacter agglomerans SM 38. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME by these three selected strains under aerobic condition at 45ºC for 48 h revealed that neither oil separation nor flocculation of solids was observed. However, all three strains were able to decolorize the POME from dark brown to very light yellow. Flocculant produced from the three selected isolates could not separate the suspended solids and oil from the POME.

Saithong Kaewchai

2002-07-01

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Phytoremediations of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME by Using Aquatic Plants and Microalge for Biomass Production  

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Full Text Available Phytoremediation by using aquatic plants and microalgae was evaluated in study to reduce waste load of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. This study was aimed to utilize the aquatic plants i.e. water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes and water lily (Nymphaea sp. and alga Spriulina sp. to reduce COD and nutrients content in palm oil mill effluent. The phytoremediation was conducted in a sequence process. The aquatic plants were used in the first stage of remediation by varying height of culture (5-15 cm, length of remediation (3-8 days and type of plants (water hyacinth and water lily. The effluent of the first stage was then transferred to the second remediation where microalgae Spriulina use this effluent as medium growth for 15 days. The results showed that the aquatic plants was able to reduce COD, N, P up to 50, 88 and 64%, respectively, while microalgae could reduce the COD, N, P up to 50.79, 96.5 and 85.92%, respectively. The maximum growth rate of Spirulina platensis was 0.412 day-1, while the correlation between Optical Density (OD and dry weight-g L-1 was shown as dry weight (g L-1 = 0.782.OD. In conclusion, two stage phytoremediation process gives promising method to reduce waste load and producing high value able biomass of algae.

Danny Soetrisnanto

2013-01-01

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Phototreatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME over Cu/TiO2 Photocatalyst  

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Full Text Available The current work reported on the use of different formulations of Cu/TiO2 photocatalysts for the UV-irradiation of palm oil mills effluent (POME. Different copper loadings, viz. 2 wt%, 5 wt%, 10 wt%, 15 wt%, 20 wt% and 25 wt% were doped onto titania. XRD pattern confirmed the presence of anatase TiO2 as primary phase due to mild calcination temperature (573 K. Photo-decomposition of POME over 20 wt% Cu/TiO2 exhibited the highest conversion (27.0% attributed to its large pore diameter (20.0 nm. In addition, optimum loading was 0.83 g/l. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 5th January 2014; Revised: 8th April 2014; Accepted: 8th April 2014[How to Cite: Hoong, N.K., Deraman, M.R., Ang, C.H., Chong, S.K., Kong, Z.Y., Khan, M.R., Cheng, C.K., (2014. Phototreatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME over Cu/TiO2 Photocatalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (2: 121-127. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6011.121-127][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.2.6011.121-127

Kim Hoong Ng

2014-08-01

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Alternative technologies for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from palm oil mills in Thailand.  

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Alternative methodologies for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude palm oil (CPO) production by a wet extraction mill in Thailand were developed. The production of 1 t of CPO from mills with biogas capture (four mills) and without biogas capture (two mills) in 2010 produced GHG emissions of 935 kg carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq), on average. Wastewater treatment plants with and without biogas capture produced GHG emissions of 64 and 47% of total GHG emission, respectively. The rest of the emissions mostly originated from the acquisition of fresh fruit bunches. The establishment of a biogas recovery system must be the first step in the reduction of GHG emissions. It could reduce GHG emissions by 373 kgCO2eq/t of CPO. The main source of GHG emission of 163 kgCO2eq/t of CPO from the mills with biogas capture was the open pond used for cooling of wastewater before it enters the biogas recovery system. The reduction of GHG emissions could be accomplished by (i) using a wastewater-dispersed unit for cooling, (ii) using a covered pond, (iii) enhancing the performance of the biogas recovery system, and (iv) changing the stabilization pond to an aerated lagoon. By using options i-iv, reductions of GHG emissions of 216, 208, 92.2, and 87.6 kgCO2eq/t of CPO, respectively, can be achieved. PMID:24074024

Kaewmai, Roihatai; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Musikavong, Charongpun

2013-11-01

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Thermophilic biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using suspended mixed culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A batch study was conducted to determine the fate of carbohydrate and oil that are present in palm oil mill effluent (POME) during the biohydrogen fermentation process. Sucrose and crude palm oil (CPO) were chosen as substrates and the kinetic profile indicated that mainly sucrose was metabolised by the mixed sludge. The hydrogen yield based on the COD of sucrose added was 146 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} which is equivalent to a hydrogen to hexose mole ratio of 2.5. The free fatty acids from hydrolysed CPO were not metabolised further which render insignificant generation of hydrogen and volatile fatty acids from oil-based substrate. The average continuous biohydrogen production rate (HPR) from a unit volume of POME under thermophilic condition at 55 C was 2.64 m{sup 3} m{sup -3} d{sup -1} at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days. Hydrogen constitutes up to 52% of the total biogas and methane was not detected over the 60 day continuous operation. The hydrogen yield (i.e. based on mole ratio of hydrogen to hexose) was 1.72 with an average carbohydrate conversion efficiency of 58%. These limit the potential of recovering more hydrogen energy from POME under current operating conditions. (author)

Ismail, Isnazunita [Environment and Bioprocess Technology Centre, SIRIM Berhad, 40911 Shah Alam, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Hassan, Mohd. Ali; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini [Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Soon, Chen Sau [Environment and Bioprocess Technology Centre, SIRIM Berhad, 40911 Shah Alam, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

2010-01-15

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Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.  

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Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%). PMID:17141409

Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

2007-06-25

 
 
 
 
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Integration of biological method and membrane technology in treating palm oil mill effluent.  

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Palm oil industry is the most important agro-industry in Malaysia, but its by-product-palm oil mill effluent (POME), posed a great threat to water environment. In the past decades, several treatment and disposal methods have been proposed and investigated to solve this problem. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed and constructed for POME treatment. Anaerobic digestion and aerobic biodegradation constituted the first biological stage, while ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane units were combined as the second membrane separation stage. In the anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, about 43% organic matter in POME was converted into biogas, and COD reduction efficiency reached 93% and 22% in EGSB and the following aerobic reactor, respectively. With the treatment in the first biological stage, suspended solids and oil also decreased to a low degree. All these alleviated the membrane fouling and prolonged the membrane life. In the membrane process unit, almost all the suspended solids were captured by UF membranes, while RO membrane excluded most of the dissolved solids or inorganic salts from RO permeate. After the whole treatment processes, organic matter in POME expressed by BOD and COD was removed almost thoroughly. Suspended solids and color were not detectable in RO permeate any more, and mineral elements only existed in trace amount (except for K and Na). The high-quality effluent was crystal clear and could be used as the boiler feed water. PMID:18575108

Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Qiao, Xiangli; Chi, Lina; Niu, Xiangjun; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

2008-01-01

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Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.  

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The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90 days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40 days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified. PMID:24012093

Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

2013-11-01

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Particulate emission factor: A case study of a palm oil mill boiler  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study to investigate the particulate emission from a boiler of a palm oil mill plant equipped with a multi-cyclones particulate arrest or was performed and reported in this paper. The particulate emission concentration was measured at the outlet of a 8 mt/ hr capacity water-tube typed boiler of a palm oil mill plant processing 27mt/ hr of fresh fruit bunch (FFB). The particulate sample was collected iso-kinetically using the USEPA method 5 sampling train through a sampling port made at the duct of the exiting flue gas between the boiler and a multi-cyclones unit. Results showed that the particulate emission rates exiting the boiler varied from 0.09 to 0.60 g/s with an average of 0.29 + 0.18 g/ s. While the average particulate emission concentration exiting the boiler was 12.1 + 7.36 g/ Nm3 (corrected to 7 % oxygen concentration), ranging from 3.62 to 25.3 g/ Nm3 (at 7 % O2) of the flue gas during the measurement. Based on the 27 mt/ hr FFB processed and the capacity of the boiler of 8mt steam/ hr, the calculated particulate emission factor was 39 g particulate/ mt FFB processed or 131 g particulate/ mt boiler capacity, respectively. In addition, based on the finding and in order to comply with the emission limits of 0.4 g/ Nm3, the collection efficiency of any given particulate emission pollution control system to consider for the mill will be from 87 to 98 %, which is not easily achievable with the existing multi-cycloneschievable with the existing multi-cyclones unit. A considerable amount of efforts are still needed pertaining to the particulate emission control problem in the industry. (author)

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Enumeration, identification and decontamination of microorganisms on empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm press fibre (PPF) from selected palm oil mills in the Peninsular Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PPF and EFB temporarily disposed into the environment at the mill are heavily contaminated with micro-organisms, therefore require decontamination prior to utilisation. The current methods for decontaminating PPF and EFB has been briefly reviewed (Mat Rasol et. al.,1987). They suggested that these by-products can be effectively decontaminated by gamma-irradiation and the resulting sterilised by-products could subsequently be used for conversion into animals feeds by fermentation with fungi or chemical stock. The primary objectives of the investigation are: a) to enumerate contaminating microorganisms on PPF and EFB collected from various oil palm mills in the Peninsular Malaysia, and b) to establish the inactivation curves of the PPF and EFB from the selected palm oil mills

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Concurrent bioelectricity generation and palm oil mill effluent treatment using microbial fuel cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) provides promising microbial environmental technology to generate bio energy while treating organic wastewaters at the same time. In this study, a dual-chamber MFC system was developed to evaluate the continuous bioelectricity production while treating palm oil mill effluent (POME). A maximum power density of 622 mW/ m2 was generated with continuous feeding of 200 ppm POME. Meanwhile, a COD removal efficiency of 23% and coulombic efficiency of 32 % was recorded. Direct 16S rDNA analyses showed predomination by Geobacter-related sequences at the MFC anode electrode. It is shown that electrochemically-active bacteria originated from POME can be enriched to concurrently generate electricity and treat POME. (author)

46

Kinetic studies of controlled-release formulations of diuron containing palm oil mill effluent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Controlled-release formulations of diuron herbicide containing sodium alginate as binder and kaolin or palm oil mill effluent (POME) as fillers were studied. Small ratios of alginates to kaolin or POME in the formulation produce less spherical granular products. The kinetic of release in static water was studied spectrophotometrically at 248nm. Both products with two different fillers showed good first order plots with rate constants about ax10-1 day-1. Preliminary screening on several species of weeds in one square meter boxes in glasshouse showed good effectiveness of the slow release products. Further studies are being carried out especially with the POME formulations which contain quite high major nutrients. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

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Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia  

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Full Text Available Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on the effect of concentration of sedimented POME, the effect of initial culture pH and the use of immobilized cells for ABE production. It was found that C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 grown in 90% sedimented POME with initial pH 5.8 produced highest total ABE (4 g L-1. However, butanol production was maximum (1.82 gL-1 in the culture with the initial pH of 6.0. Results obtained from these experiment with immobilized cells of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 indicated that ABE production from POME could be improved when high concentrations of cells at solventogenic growth phase were used.

Mohd Sahaid Kalil

2003-01-01

48

Cellulases Production in Palm Oil Mill Effluent: Effect of Aeration and Agitation  

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Full Text Available Effect of aeration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm and agitation rate (100, 300 and 500 rpm on cellulase production in submerged culture of Pycnoporus sanguineus was studied in a 2.5 L stirred-tank bioreactor using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as a substrate. Maximum cell biomass (3.16 g L-1 and cellulase activity (0.1748 FPU mL-1 was obtained at aeration rate of 1.0 vvm and agitation speed of 300 rpm. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa was found to be dependent on aeration and agitation rate, with maximum kLa (124.2 h-1 attained at 300 rpm and 1.5 vvm.

M.D. Mashitah

2010-01-01

49

Production of a bioflocculant from Aspergillus niger using palm oil mill effluent as carbon source.  

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This study evaluated the potential of bioflocculant production from Aspergillus niger using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as carbon source. The bioflocculant named PM-5 produced by A. niger showed a good flocculating capability and flocculating rate of 76.8% to kaolin suspension could be achieved at 60h of culture time. Glutamic acid was the most favorable nitrogen source for A. niger in bioflocculant production at pH 6 and temperature 35°C. The chemical composition of purified PM-5 was mainly carbohydrate and protein with 66.8% and 31.4%, respectively. Results showed the novel bioflocculant (PM-5) had high potential to treat river water from colloids and 63% of turbidity removal with the present of Ca(2+) ion. PMID:25189510

Aljuboori, Ahmad H Rajab; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Osman, Noridah Binti; Yusup, Suzana

2014-11-01

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Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances. PMID:20231054

Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

2010-07-01

51

Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME  

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Full Text Available Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water. The proposed treatment will also ensure the industry to meet a more stringent discharge standard in terms of the BOD, COD and nitrogen values. In this study membrane ultrafiltration is used as the tertiary treatment method. Before the actual membrane operation was conducted, the samples were pre-treated using three separate method namely filtration, centrifugation and coagulation. It was found that the combination of filtrationultrafiltration treatment POME produced the best-treated sample quality in terms of pollutant contents elimination, namely % BOD, % COD and % nitrogen removal.

Wong Pui Wah

2002-11-01

52

Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME  

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Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

2011-07-01

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Morphological Characterization of Photosynthetic Microbial Granule from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presently, global warming is the most highlighted subjects in the environmental issues which relates closely to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assigns only methane (CH4) emissions to wastewater treatment rather than GHG emissions specifically carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from the aerobic treatment processes. Focusing on the palm oil industry in Malaysia, the most commonly used treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) which is the conventional pounding system, has caused excessive generation of GHG such as CH4 and CO2 gases. To develop a novel, innovative and environmental-friendly mitigation method, this study explores into the possibility of growing the photosynthetic bacteria in the form of granules via the aerobic granulation process with potential applications in reducing CO2 gases. The cultivation of photosynthetic microbial granules was investigated using POME as the substrate in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system via the sequencing cycle of feeding, reacting, settling and decanting. Evidence of the formation of granule was based on microscopic examination of the morphological changes during the development of the granule in the SBR system over a period of 90 days. It shows changes from dispersed loose structure of the sludge merging into small flocs of irregular shapes and finally into dense and compact granular form. The granule was formed by applying an organic loading rate (OLR) at 2.75 kg COD/ m3.day, hydraulic retention time (HRT) at 4 h and superficial air velocity of 2.07 cm/ s. The biomass concentration began to decreased first (initial sludge biomass = 16750 mg/ L) and then increased steadily to a constant value of 32000 mg/ L after 90 days. Besides, the results also demonstrated a good accumulation of biomass as the settleability between raw sludge and granule increased from 0.03 cm/ s to 0.94 cm/ s. The maximum settling velocity obtained in the reactor was approximately 2.0 cm/ s. (author)

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Performance comparison between mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic reactors for treatment of palm oil mill effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out under mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions without long-time POME storage in order to compare the performance of each condition in the field of Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The anaerobic treatment system was composed of anaerobic hybrid reactor and anaerobic baffled filter. Raw POME was pretreated by screw decanter to reduce suspended solids and residual oil. The total COD removal rate of 90-95% was achieved in both conditions at the OLR of 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d. The COD removal in thermophilic conditions was slightly better, however the biogas production was much higher than that in the mesophilic one at high OLR. The organic contents in pretreated POME were highly biodegradable in mesophilic under the lower OLRs. The biogas production was 13.5-20.0l/d at the 15kg[COD]/m(3)/d OLR, and the average content of carbon dioxide was 5-35% in both conditions. PMID:24797939

Jeong, Joo-Young; Son, Sung-Min; Pyon, Jun-Hyeon; Park, Joo-Yang

2014-08-01

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Utilization of palm oil mill effluent as a novel and promising substrate for biosurfactant production by Nevskia ramosa NA3  

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This paper introduces palm oil mill effluent as a promising substrate for biosurfactant production. Potential strains ofbacteria were isolated from various hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and screened for biosurfactant production with the helpof the drop collapse method and surface tension measurements. Out of 26 isolates of bacteria, the strain NA3 showed thehighest bacterial growth with the highest surface tension reduction of 27.2 mN/m. It was then identified as Nevskia ramosaNA3 by biochem...

Benjamas Cheirsilp; Sirirat Phertmean; Chanika Saenge Chooklin; Suppasil Maneerat; Atipan Saimmai

2013-01-01

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Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost  

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Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the co...

Baharuddin, Azhari S.; Razak, Mohamad N. A.; Hock, Lim S.; Ahmad, Mohd N.; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Rahman, Nor A. A.; Shah, Umi K. M.; Hassan, Mohd A.; Kenji Sakai; Yoshihito Shirai,

2010-01-01

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Effect of Microwave and Ultrasonic Pretreatments on Biogas Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effleunt  

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Full Text Available Problem Statement: Oil palm production is a major agricultural industry in Malaysia. In 2006, palm oil mills in Malaysia produced more than 58 million tonnes of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. Existing treatment in a series of open lagoons at high ambient temperatures, results in the uncontrolled production of methane and carbon dioxide, which are both green house gases (GHGs. With the increased worldwide concern on environmentally friendly production processes particularly the emission of methane, it is important to develop an alternative concept for POME treatment. This study elucidates the effects of pre-treatment of palm oil mill effluent by microwave irradiation and ultrasonic on anaerobic digestion. Approach: Effects of pre-treatment on sludge characterisation parameters were monitored. The Soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (SCOD/total COD ratio and biodegradability of soluble organic matter increased significantly after both the pre-treatments which indicated an increase in disintegration of the floc structure of the sludge. Three identical bioreactors with working volume of 5 litres were used as anaerobic digesters at 32-35°C. The reactors were separately fed with pre-treated sludge (microwave, ultrasonic and combination of microwave and ultrasonic and control sludge at different Hydraulic Retention Times (HRT to check for the production of methane. Results: The maximum SCOD/TCOD ratio reached almost 29% after 30 min of ultrasonic treatment, while it was 45% after 7 min of microwave irradiation. The BOD5/SCOD ratio also increased after the pre-treatments suggesting the biodegradability of the soluble organic material increased during the treatment. It was observed that TVFA released was increased after both the treatments, with microwave treatment showing a higher yield of TVFA. Greatest enhancement in methane production was shown by the 3 min microwave plus 10 min ultrasonic treatment. Conclusion: The microwave in combination with ultrasonic would be a rapid and economical method for sludge pre-treatment for enhancement of biogas production.

N. Saifuddin

2009-01-01

58

Screening of Aspergillus for Citric Acid Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available In this study, screening of potential microbes, especially Aspergillus, for citric acid production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME is carried out to improve the product yield. The fermentation of the raw material POME for the production of citric acid was conducted by the liquid state fermentation process. A total of ten strains of Aspergillus were selected for the screening test of which six strains were isolated from Sewage Treatment Plant Sludge (STP Sludge, purified and identified up to genus level and four strains of Aspergillus were from lab stock. All strains were screened under controlled fermentation conditions such as pH range of 2-3, temperature 30?C and agitation 150 rpm, using 1% (w/w of substrate (POME, 2% (w/w co-substrate (wheat flour with inoculum size of 2% (106 spore mL 1. These strains were examined in terms of maximum citric acid production, biosolid production (TSS% and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD removal. The strain Aspergillus (A103 produced the highest concentration of citric acid (0.28 g L 1, TSS (12.7 g L 1 and COD removal (72% followed by A1020, A-SS106 and others on 2-4 days of fermentation.

Parveen Jamal

2005-01-01

59

The particulate matter dispersion studies from a local palm oil mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The appearance of industrial emissions and the degradation of scenic vistas are two characteristics of air pollution that humans object. Reduction in visibility suggests worsening pollution levels. The emissions from mobile source and stationary source are the major source of air pollutions contribution in Malaysia. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). The consequence of increasing the particulate concentrations, the particulate matter dissolves with vapour and grows into droplets when the humidity exceeds approximately 70% and causing opaque situation know as haze. This work focuses on the dispersion particulate matter from palm oil mill. The data obtained serves the purpose of modeling the transport of particulate matter for obtaining permits and prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) to the environment. Gaussian Plume Model from a point source, subject to various atmospheric conditions is used to calculate particulate matter concentration then display the distribution of plume dispersion using geographic information system (GIS). The calculated particulate matter concentration is evaluated using Transilient Matrice function. Atmospheric Stability, mixing height, wind direction, wind speed, natural and artificial features play an important role in dispersion process. High concentration area exhibits immediately under prevailing wind direction. (Author)

60

Biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum EB6 from palm oil mill effluent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hydrogen producer was successfully isolated from anaerobic digested palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge. The strain, designated as Clostridium butyricum EB6, efficiently produced hydrogen concurrently with cell growth. A controlled study was done on a synthetic medium at an initial pH value of 6.0 with 10 g/L glucose with the maximum hydrogen production at 948 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium and the volumetric hydrogen production rate at 172 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium/h. The supplementation of yeast extract was shown to have a significant effect with a maximum hydrogen production of 992 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium at 4 g/L of yeast extract added. The effect of pH on hydrogen production from POME was investigated. Experimental results showed that the optimum hydrogen production ability occurred at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen production and maximum volumetric hydrogen production rate were at 3195 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium and 1034 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium/h, respectively. The hydrogen content in the biogas produced was in the range of 60-70%. (author)

Chong, Mei-Ling; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shirai, Yoshihito [Graduate School of Life Sciences and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 808-0196 Hibikimo 2-4, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

2009-01-15

 
 
 
 
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Startup and operation of anaerobic EGSB reactor treating palm oil mill effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bench-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was applied to the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The reactor had been operated continuously at 35 degrees C for 514 d, with organic loading rate (OLR) increased from 1.45 to 17.5 kg COD/(m3 x d). The results showed that the EGSB reactor had good performance in terms of COD removal on the one hand, high COD removal of 91% was obtained at two days' of hydraulic retention time (HRT), and the highest OLR of 17.5 kg COD/(m3 x d). On the other hand, only 46% COD in raw POME was transformed into biogas in which the methane content was about 70% (V/V). A 30-d intermittent experiment indicated that the maximum transformation potential of organic matter in raw POME into methane was 56%. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation was observed in the later operation stage, and this was settled by supplementing trace metal elements. On the whole, the system exhibited good stability in terms of acidity and alkalinity. Finally, the operational problems inherent in the laboratory scale experiment and the corresponding countermeasures were also discussed. PMID:18763558

Zhang, Yejian; Yan, Li; Chi, Lina; Long, Xiuhua; Mei, Zhijian; Zhang, Zhenjia

2008-01-01

62

Carbon Mobilization in Oil Palm Plantation and Milling Based on a Carbon-Balanced Model – A Case Study in Thailand  

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Full Text Available Damage to agricultural areas and household properties occurs more frequently all year round from extreme weather, which is believed to be due to climate change caused by the increase of greenhouse gases – particularly, CO2. In order to help reduce its concentration in the atmosphere, palm oil is a renewable energy which can be used for this purpose. In this study, the carbon mobilization of palm oil was investigated, from oil palm plantation process to the milling process, so as to determine the associated Carbon Equivalence (CE and the effects on human and land space. A carbon-balanced model (CBM is proposed herewith to indicate the main paths of carbon emission, fixation, and reduction. The net equivalent carbon emission was found to be 56 kg CE per ton of Crude Palm Oil (CPO produced, resulting in the emission flux of 175 kg CE/ha-y. The plantation activity that emits the highest CO2 levels is fertilizer application, accounting for about 84% of the total. All bio-residues produced from CPO production were found to be utilized for human use, thereby decreasing the carbon emission. Their use ranged from biogas and electricity generation to soil conditioning, and the utilization of the bio-residues resulted in total carbon reduction of 212 kg CE per ton of CPO. Carbon fixation as a main product (CPO was found to be an average of 812 kg CE per ton of CPO, equivalent to 2543 kg CE/ha-y. Overall, as the total fixation is 14 times higher than that of the total emissions, the production of CPO generates and introduces a very small amount of waste into the environment. To satisfy the need for palm oil as renewable energy and other end-user products the expansion of the plantation areas may result in competition of agricultural land with other cash crops.

Withida Patthanaissaranukool

2011-07-01

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Lipase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent by Aspergillus terreus Immobilized on Luffa Sponge  

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Full Text Available An integrated treatment and valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME by Aspergillus terreus IMI 282743 immobilized on Luffa sponge was investigated. Effects of POME concentrations and nitrogen supplementation on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD reduction, microbial lipase and biomass production were evaluated in batch cultures. A 50% POME promoted the highest lipolytic activities in both immobilized and free cell cultures. In the former, the maximum lipase activity was 5.14 U mL-1 but in the non-immobilized batch, it was only 2.10 U mL-1. Lipase activities were low in the 25 and 100% POME due to overdilution and presence of inhibitory compounds, respectively. The pH was unchanged in the 100% POME but in other cultures, there were significant increase in the pH values. The pH of the 75% POME increased after a 48 h lag but in the 25 and 50% POME, the pH rose from 4-6.43 within a period of 96 h. COD did not change in the 100% POME but in the 75% POME, a 60.7% reduction was achieved. The COD of both the 50 and 25% POME decreased by 45% respectively. The immobilized biomass concentration was highest in the 75% POME (0.83 g L-1 but in the 25 and 100% POME, it was 0.27 and 0.63 g L-1, respectively. Supplementation of the 50% POME with a mixture of ammonium sulphate and yeast extract increased lipase production to10.6 U mL-1, biomass concentration to 3.7 g L-1 while the COD decreased by 80%. Lipase production from POME could be economically competitive to present industrial processes and provides additional incentive of treatment that is cheap and sustainable.

Charles O. Nwuche

2013-01-01

64

Techno-economic Evaluation on Enhancing Cogeneration Plant Capacity: Case Study of Palm Oil Mill Cogeneration Plant  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study is to apply techno-economic evaluation for selecting a feasible alternative to enhance a co-generation power generation capacity of a palm oil mill. The co-generation plant is using Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB as fuel. The basis of the technical evaluation is to compare three alternatives on increasing the co-generation power generation capacity. Alternative 1 is to consider installing a new high capacity boiler to the current cogeneration system and maintaining the current turbine. Alternative 2 is to install a new high efficiency back pressure steam turbine and maintain the current boiler. While Alternative 3, is to install high capacity an extraction steam turbine and maintain the current boiler. Present worth analysis is used for economic evaluation. Both the capital and operational expenditures are taken into account in assessing the present worth of the alternatives. Results from the technical and economic analysis have identified Alternative 2 as the most feasible alternative. Since substantial quantity EFB are available in Malaysia and being used as fuel for power generation at the palm oil mills, the approach could be useful for enhancement of co-generation capacity of the mills.

Mohd Amin Abd Majid

2014-01-01

65

Adsorption isotherm studies of BOD, TSS and colour reduction from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using boiler fly ash  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Palm oil is one of the two most important vegetable oils in the world's oil and fats market. The extraction and purification processes generate different kinds of waste generally known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). Earlier studies had indicated the possibility of using boiler fly ash to adsorb i [...] mpurities and colour in POME treatment. The adsorption treatment of POME using boiler fly ash was further investigated in detail in this work with regards to the reduction of BOD, colour and TSS from palm oil mill effluent. The amount of BOD, colour and TSS adsorbed increased as the weight of the boiler fly ash used was increased. Also, the smaller particle size of 425µm adsorbed more than the 850µm size. Attempts were made to fit the experimental data with the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The R² values, which ranged from 0.8974-0.9898, 0.8848-0.9824 and 0.6235-0.9101 for Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms respectively, showed that Freundlich isotherm gave a better fit followed by Langmuir and then Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The sorption trend could be put as BOD > Colour > TSS. The apparent energy of adsorption was found to be 1.25, 0.58 and 0.97 (KJ/mol) for BOD, colour and TSS respectively, showing that sorption process occurs by physiosorption. Therefore, boiler fly ash is capable of reducing BOD, Colour and TSS from POME and hence could be used to develop a good adsorbent for POME treatment.

J.C, Igwe; C.O, Onyegbado; A.A, Abia.

66

Adsorption isotherm studies of BOD, TSS and colour reduction from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using boiler fly ash  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Palm oil is one of the two most important vegetable oils in the world's oil and fats market. The extraction and purification processes generate different kinds of waste generally known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). Earlier studies had indicated the possibility of using boiler fly ash to adsorb i [...] mpurities and colour in POME treatment. The adsorption treatment of POME using boiler fly ash was further investigated in detail in this work with regards to the reduction of BOD, colour and TSS from palm oil mill effluent. The amount of BOD, colour and TSS adsorbed increased as the weight of the boiler fly ash used was increased. Also, the smaller particle size of 425µm adsorbed more than the 850µm size. Attempts were made to fit the experimental data with the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The R² values, which ranged from 0.8974-0.9898, 0.8848-0.9824 and 0.6235-0.9101 for Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms respectively, showed that Freundlich isotherm gave a better fit followed by Langmuir and then Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The sorption trend could be put as BOD > Colour > TSS. The apparent energy of adsorption was found to be 1.25, 0.58 and 0.97 (KJ/mol) for BOD, colour and TSS respectively, showing that sorption process occurs by physiosorption. Therefore, boiler fly ash is capable of reducing BOD, Colour and TSS from POME and hence could be used to develop a good adsorbent for POME treatment.

J.C, Igwe; C.O, Onyegbado; A.A, Abia.

2010-09-01

67

Identification and growth conditions of purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria isolated from palm oil mill effluent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An indigenous strain of the purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterium, isolated from palm oil mill effluent was presumably identified as species of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Cultivation in synthetic medium under different conditions indicated that it gave maximum carotenoid and bacteriophyll synthesis under anaerobic conditions in the light with values of 12.6 and 108.1 mg/g dry cell weight respectively. These values were significantly higher than the pigment content obtained from aerobic cultivation. The specific growth rates in anaerobic was twice those in aerobic conditions in the light. Growth was not occurred in anaerobic or aerobic conditions in the dark. (Author)

68

Project Economics as a Tool for Evaluation of Viability of Projects, A Case of Palm Oil Milling Plant  

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Full Text Available In this research work, a case study of a proposed palm oil milling plant by an entrepreneur is looked into. This is with a view to ensuring its Viability, and also delving into the Risk, Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of vital parameters. At the end of all analyses, the entrepreneur is well guided to take a decision on whether or not to commit his or her scarce resources. Basic engineering economy methods for project evaluation are highlighted. With the added information from the sensitivity analysis the investor would be better informed about critical factor and therefore could take appropriate actions.

John Obukoeroro

2011-12-01

69

Project Economics as a Tool for Evaluation of Viability of Projects, A Case of Palm Oil Milling Plant  

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In this research work, a case study of a proposed palm oil milling plant by an entrepreneur is looked into. This is with a view to ensuring its Viability, and also delving into the Risk, Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of vital parameters. At the end of all analyses, the entrepreneur is well guided to take a decision on whether or not to commit his or her scarce resources. Basic engineering economy methods for project evaluation are highlighted. With the added information from the sensit...

John Obukoeroro

2011-01-01

70

Oil palm: domestication achieved?  

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The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms were not felled and in the subsequent regeneration period they obtained a favourable position resulting in semi-wild palm groves. Thinning of groves gave rise to semi-permanent or permanent intercrop...

Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

1997-01-01

71

Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost  

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Full Text Available Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile at day 7 treatment were 58.3, 8.1 and 65.5°C, respectively. The morphological analysis of the isolated microbes was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Gram stain method. The congo red test was conducted in order to detect 1% CMC agar degradation activities. Total genomic DNAs were extracted from approximately 1.0 g of mixed compost and amplified by using PCR primers. The PCR product was sequent to identify the nearest relatives of 16S rRNA genes. The localization of bacteria chromosomes was determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH analysis. Results: Single isolated bacteria species was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME compost at thermophilic stage. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs with the phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated bacteria from EFB-POME thermophilic compost gave the highest homology (99% with similarity to Geobacillus pallidus. The strain was spore forming bacteria and able to grow at 60°C with pH 7. Conclusion: Thermophilic bacteria strain, Geobacillus pallidus was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB and Palm Oil Mil Effluent (POME compost and characterized.

Azhari S. Baharuddin

2010-01-01

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Effect of temperature on the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Two continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) each fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME), operated at 37ºC and 55ºC, respectively, were investigated for their performance under varies organic loading rates (OLRs). The 37ºC reactor operated successfully at a maximum OLR of 12.25 g[COD]/L/day and a hy [...] draulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The 55ºC reactor operated successfully at the higher loading rate of 17.01 g[COD]/L/day and had a HRT of 5 days. The 37ºC reactor achieved a 71.10% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), a biogas production rate of 3.73 L of gas/L[reactor]/day containing 71.04% methane, whereas the 55ºC reactor achieved a 70.32% reduction of COD, a biogas production rate of 4.66 L of gas/L[reactor]/day containing 69.53% methane. An OLR of 9.68 g[COD]/L/day, at a HRT of 7 days, was used to study the effects of changing the temperature by 3ºC increments. The reactor processes were reasonably stable during the increase from 37ºC to 43ºC and the decrease from 55ºC to 43ºC. When the temperature was increased from 37ºC to 46ºC, the total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration and biogas production was 2,059 mg as acetic acid/L and 1.49 L of gas/L[reactor]/day at day 56, respectively. When the temperature was reduced from 55ºC to 40ºC, the TVFA concentration and biogas production was 2,368 mg as acetic acid/L and 2.01 L of gas/L[reactor]/day at day 102, respectively. By first reducing the OLR to 4.20 g[COD]/L/day then slowly increasing the OLR back to 9.68 g[COD]/L/day, both reactors were restored to stable conditions at 49ºC and 37ºC respectively. The initial 37ºC reactor became fully acclimatized at 55ºC with an efficiency similar to that when operated at the initial 37ºC whereas the 55ºC reactor also achieved stability at 37ºC but with a lower efficiency

Wanna, Choorit; Pornpan, Wisarnwan.

2007-07-15

73

Optimization of Electricity Generation and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME Treatment from Microbial Fuel Cell  

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Full Text Available Natural micro-flora of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME sludge was grown in dual-chamber Microbial Fuel Cells (MFC to produce electricity by providing glucose at different concentration. A greater strength of Open Circuit Voltage (OCV was observed with optimal biomass metabolism activity, as increasing glucose concentrations. The time Response Constant (RC of OCV was taken everyday to estimate the total time needed to achieve steady state voltage at zero current. The lower value of RC indicates that the strength of OCV value is high and the biomass attached to the anode could be active in producing electrons. At 3 750 mg-COD L-1 with 10% added POME and 10 000 mg-COD L-1 synthetic wastewater, the values of RC for each medium were found as 3.36 and 1.95 h, respectively. The removal efficiency of COD was achieved 72.2% for 10% POME and 89.9% for synthetic wastewater. The initial COD level was found proportionally to the COD removal and maximum power density in the MFC system. However, the results shown that relation between RC value and initial COD level were inversely proportional. The highest power density (with present current density in POME added and synthetic medium were 3.155 mW m-2 (9.322 mA m-2 and 1.780 mW m-2 (3.996 mA m-2, respectively. The optimal power density that conducted in different level of COD was occurred at day 2 before its start decrease at next consecutive day. The effects of electrochemical parameters to power densities at different initial COD level were also studied using polarization model. From the simulated data, averaged power densities (with present current densities that could achieved at COD 3750 and 10000 mg L-1 were estimated 2.61 mW m-2 (4.5 and 1.38 mA m-2 (3.5 mA m-2, respectively. The total losses due to current limitation were eliminated about 15-55 % at high initial COD level based on results mention above. The end of study showed that the maximum power density kept on increased although COD value had reached to the lower level and this could be due to the hydrolysis of inactive of the living cells undergone lysis, has contributed to COD level in the system.

Siti Norhana Shari

2010-01-01

74

Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78°C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5–99.2%. Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Results Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70°C and was also stable up to 60°C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T. Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T. Conclusion Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular thermostable lipase into culture medium. The strain T1T was identified as Geobacillus zalihae T1T as it differs from its type strains Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T and Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T on some physiological studies, cellular fatty acids composition, RiboPrint analysis, length of lipase gene and protein profile.

Salleh Abu

2007-08-01

75

Treatment and biotransformation of highly polluted agro-industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill into vermicompost using earthworms.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this laboratory-scale study, earthworms were introduced as biodegraders of palm oil mill effluent (POME), which is a wastewater produced from the wet process of palm oil milling. POME was absorbed into amendments (soil or rice straw) in different ratios as feedstocks for the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae. The presence of earthworms led to significant increases in pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient content but decreases in the C/N ratio (0.687-75.8%), soluble chemical oxygen demand (19.7-87.9%), and volatile solids (0.687-52.7%). However, earthworm growth was reduced in all treatments by the end of the treatment process. Rice straw was a better amendment/absorbent relative to soil, with a higher nutrient content and greater reduction in soluble chemical oxygen demand with a lower C/N ratio in the vermicompost. Among all treatments investigated, the treatment with 1 part rice straw and 3 parts POME (w/v) (RS1:3) produced the best quality vermicompost with high nutritional status. PMID:24372356

Lim, Su Lin; Wu, Ta Yeong; Clarke, Charles

2014-01-22

76

Biomethanation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME By Ultrasonic Membrane Anaerobic System (UMAS Using Pome as Substrate  

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Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME with average chemical oxygen demand (COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD of 70,000 and 30,000 mg/L, respectively, can cause serious environmental hazard if discharged untreated. There are conventional palm oil mill effluent (POME treatment systems that require large footprint, long HRT and fail to meet the Malaysia Department of Environment (DOE discharge limit. In this study, the potential of ultrasonic-assisted membrane anaerobic system (UMAS was evaluated as alternative and cost effective method for treating POME wastewater to avoid fouling. This study also is an initiative to implement concept waste to energy by capturing methane gas. Throughout the experiment, the removal efficiency of COD was 95.55% with HRT of 6 days. The BOD removal efficiency was 71.58% while TSS removal rate was from 91 to 99.5%.The methane gas production efficiency was 94.14%. The UMAS treatment efficiency was greatly improved by UMAS introduction. The membrane fouling and polarization at the membrane surface was significantly reduced.

Abdurahman.H.Nour*1,

2014-01-01

77

Effect of Ni and Co as Trace Metals on Digestion Performance and Biogas Produced from The Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available Macro and micro nutrients are important ingredients for successful anaerobic digestion. The presence or lack of nutrients can enhance or limit the functioning of the fermentation process. Micro-nutrients most often reported as stimulatory are trace metals such as nickel, cobalt, iron, and zinc. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nickel and cobalt as trace metals on digestion performance and biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Anaerobic digestion was performed in a two litres stirred tank reactor and operated at a thermophilic temperature (55 oC. As raw material, a real liquid waste (POME from palm oil mill was used. Fresh POME was obtained from a fat pit of palm oil mill’s waste water treatment facility belongs to one of the palm oil company in North Sumatera which has VS concentration of 26,300 mg/L and COD value of 42,000 mg/L. To gain precise results, complete recording and reliable equipment of digester were employed. Supporting materials were also needed such as sodium bicarbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, and hydrochloric acid solution. Variables observed were included M-alkalinity, total solid (TS, volatile solid (VS, and biogas production. Hydraulic retention time (HRT was maintained at 6 days. Experimental results concluded that the reduction of trace metals concentration did not affect the TS and VS concentration and M-alkalinity. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijwr.2.2.2012.16-19 [ How to cite this article: Irvan, M. (2012. Effect of Ni and Co as Trace Metals on Digestion Performance and Biogas Produced from The Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent. International Journal of Waste Resources (IJWR, 2(2, 16-19. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/ijwr.2.2.2012.16-19

Irvan Matseh

2012-10-01

78

Effect of inoculum size on production of compost and enzymes from palm oil mill biogas sludge mixed with shredded palm empty fruit bunches and decanter cake  

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Full Text Available The effect of inoculum size on production of compost and enzymes from palm oil mill biogas sludge (POMS mixed with shredded palm empty fruit bunches (PEFB and decanter cake (DC was studied using the mixed culture LDD1 as an inoculum. Three piles of 50 kg mixture (POMS:PEFB:DC = 2:1:1 with different inoculum sizes of 0.0075% (treatment A, 0.015% (treatment B, and 0.030% (treatment C were set up. The physicochemical parameters were measured during the composting. All the compost appeared dark brown in color, crumbly, attained an ambient temperature and had the C/N ratio of 11:1 after 40 days fermentation, indicating the maturity of the compost. The optimal inoculum size was found to be 0.030% (w/w. For enzyme production, the highest carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase activity was 3.23 Unit/g substrates at 12 days incubation whereas the highest xylanase activity was 3.11 Unit/g substrates at 6 days incubation. At the end of 60 days fermentation, the compost (treatment C had a TN-P2O5 -K2O of 3.10-1.29-2.01% (dry basis. Therefore, the compost quality complied with the national compost standard set by the Ministry of Agriculture, Thailand.

Tanawut Nutongkaew

2014-06-01

79

Maintenance Management Performance - An Overview towards Evaluating Malaysian Palm Oil Mill  

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Full Text Available Deficient maintenance management can severely affect competitiveness of an organization byreducing throughput, increasing inventory, and leading to poor performance. Performancecannot be managed without measurement: it provides the required information to themanagement for effective decision making; and is used by industries to assess progressagainst set goals and objectives in a quantifiable way for effectiveness and efficiency. For thepalm oil mills to stay competitive, it is imperative that they elevate the maintenancemanagement role; from a cost center to the strategic partner in business. This paperhighlights how measuring maintenance performance helps us identify the factors causing poorperformance, and provides an opportunity to improve company’s profits.

Nazim Baluch

2010-06-01

80

Waste to Wealth: Hidden Treasures in the Oil Palm Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemica for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors  

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Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF) reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane produc...

Sumate Chaiprapat; Poonsuk Prasertsan; Piyarat Boonsawang; Ronnachai Chaisri

2007-01-01

82

Comparative studies on the adsorption properties of powdered activated carbon and propenoic acid modified sawdust in the treatment of secondary palm oil mill effluent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Propenoic acid monomer was used to modify pulped cellulosic materials (sawdust). The sorption properties of the propenoic acid modified sawdust (PAMS) were compared with those of powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the tertiary treatment of palm oil mill effluent, previously clarified with iron (III) chloride plus lime (secondary effluent). The adsorption processes were effected in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at a pressure of 80 kilo Newton per meter square (kNm/sup -2/). Optimum amount of PAC and PAMS used for the fluidized adsorption of contaminants from the secondary palm oil mill effluent (POME) were 2.5 g/1 and 4.0 g/1, respectively. These sorption processes were found to be optimum at 10 min and 50 min for PAC and PAMS, respectively. At optimum sorption conditions, removal differentials of 28.6%/g chemical oxygen demand, 19.1%/g suspended solids, and 19.3%/g colour in favour of PAC were established. The application of optimum conditions for adsorption, for both adsorbents, to the bulk treatment of the palm oil mill effluent yielded a clear effluent with wider reuse applicability. (author)

83

Treatment and decolorization of biologically treated Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) using banana peel as novel biosorbent.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the potential of applying natural, chemically and thermally modified banana peel as sorbent for the treatment of biologically treated POME. Characteristics of these sorbents were analyzed with BET surface area and SEM. Batch adsorption studies were carried out to remove color, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), tannin and lignin, and biological oxygen demand (BOD) onto natural banana peel (NBP), methylated banana peel (MBP), and banana peel activated carbon (BPAC) respectively. The variables of pH, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were investigated in this study. Maximum percentage removal of color, TSS, COD, BOD, and tannin and lignin (95.96%, 100%, 100%, 97.41%, and 76.74% respectively) on BPAC were obtained at optimized pH of 2, contact time of 30 h and adsorbent dosage of 30 g/100 ml. The isotherm data were well described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm model with correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. Kinetic of adsorption was examined by Langergren pseudo first order, pseudo second order, and second order. The pseudo second order was identified to be the governing mechanism with high correlation coefficient of more than 0.99. PMID:24321284

Mohammed, Rafie Rushdy; Chong, Mei Fong

2014-01-01

84

Utilization of palm oil mill effluent as a novel and promising substrate for biosurfactant production by Nevskia ramosa NA3  

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Full Text Available This paper introduces palm oil mill effluent as a promising substrate for biosurfactant production. Potential strains ofbacteria were isolated from various hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and screened for biosurfactant production with the helpof the drop collapse method and surface tension measurements. Out of 26 isolates of bacteria, the strain NA3 showed thehighest bacterial growth with the highest surface tension reduction of 27.2 mN/m. It was then identified as Nevskia ramosaNA3 by biochemical and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to determinethe important nutritional requirements for biosurfactant production by N. ramosa NA3 under controlled conditions. Six outof 11 factors of the production medium were found to significantly affect the production of biosurfactant. FeCl2 and NaNO3had a direct proportional correlation with the biosurfactant production. Commercial sugar, glucose, K2HPO4 and MgCl2showed inversely proportional relationship with biosurfactant production in the selected experimental range.

Benjamas Cheirsilp

2013-04-01

85

Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610mL-CH4/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436–438mL-CH4/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555mL-CH4/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong

2011-01-01

86

Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH{sub 4}/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Angelidaki, Irini, E-mail: ria@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

2011-05-15

87

Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610 mL-CH4/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8 gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436-438 mL-CH4/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6 gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555 mL-CH4/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

88

Optimization of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum EB6 from palm oil mill effluent using response surface methodology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Clostridium butyricum EB6 successfully produced hydrogen gas from palm oil mill effluent (POME). In this study, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to determine the optimum conditions for hydrogen production (P{sub c}) and maximum hydrogen production rate (R{sub max}) from POME. Experimental results showed that the pH, temperature and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of POME affected both the hydrogen production and production rate, both individually and interactively. The optimum conditions for hydrogen production (P{sub c}) were pH 5.69, 36 C, and 92 g COD/l; with an estimated P{sub c} value of 306 ml H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate. The optimum conditions for maximum hydrogen production rate (R{sub max}) were pH 6.52, 41 C and 60 g COD/l; with an estimated R{sub max} value of 914 ml H{sub 2}/h. An overlay study was performed to obtain an overall model optimization. The optimized conditions for the overall model were pH 6.05, 36 C and 94 g COD/l. The hydrogen content in the biogas produced ranged from 60% to 75%. (author)

Chong, Mei-Ling; Abdul Rahman, Nor' Aini; Aziz, Suraini Abdul; Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Raha Abdul [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shirai, Yoshihito [Graduate School of Life Sciences and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 808-0196 Hibikino 2-4, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

2009-09-15

89

Pretreatment Evaluation and its Application on Palm Oil Mill Effluent for Bio-Hydrogen Enhancement and Methanogenic Activity Repression  

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Full Text Available Pretreatment evaluations of biological sludge were performed to observe the enhancement of hydrogen production and repression of methanogenic activity using anaerobic sludge and sucrose as substrate. The treatments include heating (H, ozonation (O, drug (D application using fluvastatin, Na2SO4(S dosing and their combinations to make up for the total of 9 pretreatment methods. Heat treatment at 95°C for 45 min provided a complete methanogen repression and good enhancement of hydrogen production activity. The remaining pretreatments were imperfect either for repression or enhancement based on the application conditions and concentration ranges. The order of methane repression was: H>HO>HD>HS>O>D>OD>OS>S while hydrogen production was: HO>H>HS>OD>HD>OS>D>O>S. Heat treatment at the specified condition was considered sufficient and suitable for pretreatment of anaerobic sludge. The practical application was explored using Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME containing different amounts of solid content (15.830 g VSS L-1, namely LPOME and 21.445 g VSS L-1, namely HPOME as substrate. Beside the difference in COD of nearly 16% which is higher for HPOME, a higher specific hydrogen production rate was obtained at 0.81 and 0.17 mL H2 g-1 COD h for LPOME and HPOME, respectively. It should also be noted that a prolonged lag-time during start-up was observed for HPOME as well as hydrogen suppression which may be associated with the solid content mainly lipids in wastewater. Thus, high solid content of wastewater may be of concerned for bio-hydrogen production.

Porntip Wimonsong

2009-01-01

90

Optimization of decolorization of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by growing cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus using response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conventional treatment process of palm oil mill effluent (POME) produces a highly colored effluent. Colored compounds in POME cause reduction in photosynthetic activities, produce carcinogenic by-products in drinking water, chelate with metal ions, and are toxic to aquatic biota. Thus, failure of conventional treatment methods to decolorize POME has become an important problem to be addressed as color has emerged as a critical water quality parameter for many countries such as Malaysia. Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from POME sludge was successfully grown in POME supplemented with glucose. Statistical optimization studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of the types and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature, and size of the inoculum. Characterization of the fungus was performed using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller surface area analysis. Optimum conditions using response surface methods at pH 5.7, 35 °C, and 0.57 % w/v glucose with 2.5 % v/v inoculum size resulted in a successful removal of 71 % of the color (initial ADMI of 3,260); chemical oxygen demand, 71 %; ammoniacal nitrogen, 35 %; total polyphenolic compounds, 50 %; and lignin, 54 % after 5 days of treatment. The decolorization process was contributed mainly by biosorption involving pseudo-first-order kinetics. FTIR analysis revealed that the presence of hydroxyl, C-H alkane, amide carbonyl, nitro, and amine groups could combine intensively with the colored compounds in POME. This is the first reported work on the application of A. fumigatus for the decolorization of POME. The present investigation suggested that growing cultures of A. fumigatus has potential applications for the decolorization of POME through the biosorption and biodegradation processes. PMID:23054764

Neoh, Chin Hong; Yahya, Adibah; Adnan, Robiah; Abdul Majid, Zaiton; Ibrahim, Zaharah

2013-05-01

91

Bio-oils from Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches  

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Problem Statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the mesocarp fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB), frond, trunk and palm oil mill effluent (POME). For 80 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processed last year, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 25 million tones. The objectives of this study were to: (i) Determine the effect of various pyrolysis parameters on product yields and (ii) Characterise liquid product obtained under ...

Sukiran, Mohamad A.; Chin, Chow M.; Bakar, Nor K. A.

2009-01-01

92

Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was base...

Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff; Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

2008-01-01

93

A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) reactor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organi...

S A Habeeb, Ab Aziz Abdul Latiff

2011-01-01

94

Sterilization of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Using Microwave Technique  

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Dramatically increasing rate of free fatty acid (FFA) in long storage oil palm fruit is one of the most crucial problems of oil palm mill industries. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of oil palm fruits sterilization by using microwave irradiation in order of halting enzymatic lipolysis reaction which caused of FFA production. The results indicate that microwave heating can be interrupted the FFA produced reaction and the optimum condition heating temperature of the fruits mes...

Umudee, I.; Chongcheawchamnan, M.; Kiatweerasakul, M.; Tongurai, C.

2013-01-01

95

Systematic approach for synthesis of palm oil-based biorefinery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various types of palm oil biomasses are generated from palm oil mill when crude palm oil (CPO) is produced from fresh fruit bunch (FFB). In the current practice, palm oil biomasses are used as the main source of energy input in the palm oil mill to produce steam and electricity. Moreover, those biomasses are regarded as by-products and can be reclaimed easily. Therefore, there is a continuous increasing interest concerning biomasses generated from the palm oil mill as a source of renewable energy. Although various technologies have been exploited to produce bio-fuel (i.e., briquette, pellet, etc.) as well as heat and power generation, however, no systematic approach which can analyse and optimise the synthesise biorefinery is presented. In this work, a systematic approach for synthesis and optimisation of palm oil-based biorefinery which including palm oil mill and refinery with maximum economic performance is developed. The optimised network configuration with achieves the maximum economic performance can also be determined. To illustrate the proposed approach, a case study is solved in this work.

NG, Rex T. L.; NG, Denny K. S.; LAM, Hon Loong [Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, Univ. of Nottingham, Selangor, (Malaysia); TAY, Douglas H. S.; LIM, Joseph H. E. [2GGS Eco Solutions Sdn Bhd, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2012-11-01

96

Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO-CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main objective was to determine the influent CaO-CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 Degree-Sign C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m{sup 3} d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased significantly after long-term operation due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the granules. Granulation and methanogenesis decreased with an increase in the influent CaO-CKD concentration.

Ahmad, Anwar, E-mail: anwarak218@yahoo.co.uk [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abd. [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Earth Resources, University Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

2011-12-30

97

Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: SEM micrograph of granules; Outer surface of the granule; Scanning electron micrographs of the granule: Archaea (Methanosarcina sp.) showing the arrangement of bacterial cells in granule surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), the seed sludge and granules sampled on day 150. Highlights: ? Examine the treatability of POME and effects of CaO–CKD on the granulation process in UASB reactors. ? The main objective was to determine the influent CaO–CKD concentration and the relationship between the CaO concentration in the feed and biomass accumulation, specific granulation, methanogenic activity, and the density and composition of granules. ? The biomass concentration profiles along the reactors and the size distribution of granules were also measured to track and to assess granulation, methanogenesis, and COD removal on levels at the industrial scale. ? SEM micrograph are showing smooth surface of granule with a large opening cavities likely for biogas escape. - Abstract: The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO–CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO–CKD at doses of 1.5–20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35 °C for 150 days to investigate150 days to investigate the effect of CaO–CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5–65.5 g-COD g/l at an OLR of 4.5–12.5 kg-COD/m3 d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased significantly after long-term operation due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the granules. Granulation and methanogenesis decreased with an increase in the influent CaO–CKD concentration.

98

The effect of operating parameters on ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis of palm oil mill effluent for reclamation and reuse of water  

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Full Text Available An attempt was made to reclaim and recover palm oil mill effluent (POME for water reuse using tubular ultrafiltration (UF and reverse osmosis (RO membranes. The reclaimed water was compared with the final discharged water of the local mill. The raw POME was first subjected to a physical pre-treatment process to remove the content of organic matter and suspended solids. The pre-treatment process was coupled with membrane technology (UF and RO to reclaim the clean water from POME. From the combined techniques of UF (5 bar and RO (30 bar the results showed that the turbidity and BOD5 were reduced by 99% and 98.9%, respectively. Compared to the final discharged POME, this suggested method gives a significant difference in BOD5 and turbidity. The final permeate of RO was found to comply with the standards for water reuse. Therefore, the combined UF and RO method is a viable alternative and has a great potential for use in the palm oil industry.

Nazatul Shima Azmi

2013-02-01

99

Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF), Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF), Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Crude Palm Oil (CPO), chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012), 8 of th...

Ohimain, Elijah I.; Izah, Sylvester C.; Obieze, Francis A. U.

2013-01-01

100

A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28{+-}2 C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37{+-}1 C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, AB. Aziz Abdul; Daud, Zawawi; Ahmad, Zulkifli [Faculty of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn (Malaysia)

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME. This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB. Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR and hydraulic retention time (HRT of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28±2°C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37±1°C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

S. A. Habeeb, AB. Aziz Abdul Latiff, Zawawi Daud, Zulkifli Ahmad

2011-07-01

102

The influenced of PAC, zeolite, and Moringa oleifera as biofouling reducer (BFR) on hybrid membrane bioreactor of palm oil mill effluent (POME).  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this work was to determine the effectiveness of various biofouling reducers (BFRs) to operational condition in hybrid membrane bioreactor (MBR) of palm oil mill effluent (POME). A series of tests involving three bench scale (100 L) hybrid MBR were operated at sludge retention times (SRTs) of 30 days with biofouling reducer (BFR). Three different biofouling reducers (BFRs) were powdered actived carbon (PAC), zeolite (Ze), and Moringa oleifera (Mo) with doses of 4, 8 and 12 g L(-1) respectively were used. Short-term filtration trials and critical flux tests were conducted. Results showed that, all BFRs successfully removed soluble microbial products (SMP), for PAC, Ze, and Mo at 58%, 42%, and 48%, respectively. At their optimum dosages, PAC provided above 70% reductions and 85% in fouling rates during the short-term filtration and critical flux tests. PMID:21251818

Damayanti, A; Ujang, Z; Salim, M R

2011-03-01

103

Life cycle assessment of two palm oil production systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2009 approx. 40 Mt of palm oil were produced globally. Growing demand for palm oil is driven by an increasing human population as well as subsidies for biodiesel and is likely to increase further in coming years. The production of 1 t crude palm oil requires 5 t of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). On average processing of 1 t FFB in palm oil mills generates 0.23 t empty fruit bunches (EFB) and 0.65 t palm oil mill effluents (POME) as residues. In this study it is assumed that land use change does not occur. In order to estimate the environmental impacts of palm oil production a worst and a best case scenario are assessed and compared in the present study using 1000 kg of FFB as functional unit. The production and treatment of one t FFB causes more than 460 kg CO2eq in the worst case scenario and 110 kg CO2eq in the best case scenario. The significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction is achieved by co-composting residues of the palm oil mill. Thus treating those residues appropriately is paramount for reducing environmental impacts particularly global warming potential (GWP) and eutrophication potential (EP). Another important contributor to the EP but also to the human toxicity potential (HTP) is the biomass powered combined heat and power (CHP) plant of palm oil mills. Frequently CHP plants of palm oil mills operate without flue gas cleaning. The CHP plant emits heavy metals and nitrogen oxides and these account for 93% of the HTP of the advanced palm oil production system, of which heavy metal emissions to air are responsible for 79%. The exact emission reduction potential from CHP plants could not be quantified due to existing data gaps, but it is apparent that cleaning the exhaust gas would reduce eutrophication, acidification and toxicity considerably. -- Highlights: ? We have estimated the environmental impacts of two palm oil production systems. ? Residues from palm oil mills are a wasted resource rather than waste. ? Co-composting of EFB and POME reduces greenhouse gas emission significantly. ? Flue gas cleaning would abate the eutrophication and human toxicity potential.

104

Sustainability of Palm Oil Industries: An Innovative Treatment via Membrane Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaysia is the largest producer of palm oil, the processing of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) has resulted large amount Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The highly polluting POME is identified as the major stumbling block to the development of palm oil industry in Malaysia. Hence, an integrated membrane process with physical-chemical treatment had been successfully achieved for treatment of POME. The role of membrane was explored significantly; where the chemical treated POME was further t...

Ahmad, A. L.; Chan, C. Y.

2009-01-01

105

Pengaruh Jumlah Palm Oil Fly Ash Terhadap Microstruktur Dan Sifat Mekanis Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) Dengan Metode Stir Casting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The processing of palm oil in the MCC source utilizing energy resource derived from palm oil shell and fiber in which the process of fuel shell and fiber combustion in the boiler combustion chamber producing the remaining results in the form of palm oil fly ash which are quite plenty . This palm oil fly ash is usually left alone in the area of oil palm mills that certainly can cause environmental pollution and inconvenience to workers . Therefore, this study aims to look int...

Daulay, Ramadhan

2014-01-01

106

Industrial ecosystems in the crude palm oil industry in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in Thai economic development and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it contributes to environmental degradation from both input and output sides of its activities. On the input side, crude palm oil mill uses much water in production process and consumes high energy. On the output side , manufacturing process generates large quantity of wastewater, solid waste/ by-pro...

Chavalparit, O.

2003-01-01

107

Greasy Palms. European buyers of Indonesian palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international trade in palm oil is a key driver of rain forest destruction and human rights abuses on a massive scale. This report is one of two research projects undertaken for Friends of the Earth in 2003 into the impacts of the palm oil industry in South East Asia, its links to the European market and the involvement of European companies in the palm oil trade. Chapters 1 - 3 of this report (examining the growth of the European market for oil palm and the Indonesian export market) are printed here. Chapters 4 - 6 (focusing on the palm oil market in UK, the Netherlands and Sweden) are available on request from Friends of the Earth. Research methodology into the impacts of palm oil included monitoring reports compiled by the Indonesian non-governmental organisation (NGO) SawitWatch and interviews with community members and local activists. The SawitWatch data had been gathered over a period of five years, based on field investigations, meetings with local community members, media reports and regular monitoring. The analysis of the European market focused particularly on the companies trading in palm oil in the UK, the Netherlands and Sweden as well as giving a general overview of the trade in oil palm and the growth of the European market. This research is available in two reports: (1) Greasy palms: the social and ecological impacts of large-scale oil palm plantation development in South East Asia; (2) Greasy palms: European buyers of Indonesian palm oil. A summary of the two research reports (Greasy Palms - palm oil, the environment and big business) is also available.

Van Gelder, J.W. [Profundo, Castricum (Netherlands)

2004-03-15

108

Biodiesel production from palm oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methyl ester was produced from many sources of oil palm products, namely used frying oil, RBD palm oil, degummed and deacidified palm oil, palm stearin and superhard palm stearin. Production process was a conventional transesterification batch process using methanol as reactant and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Production procedure consisted of oil preparation, solvent preparation, reaction step, glycerol separation, washing step and finishing step. Thin layer chromatograph was used to determine the composition of product and nearly 100% methyl ester was obtained at a suitable condition. Molar ratio of oil: methanol was about 1:6, which equal to 20% by weight of methanol. Sodium hydroxide was 0.5-1 %wt. of oil. The production temperature was 60-80ºC, mixing time was only 15-30 minutes and reaction time was 3-4 hours. Many fuel properties of methyl ester were very close to high-speed diesel such as viscosity, density, heating value and boiling point range. Pour point of methyl ester was higher than diesel owing to the high composition of saturated methyl ester that has a high melting point.

Kiatsimkul, P.

2001-11-01

109

BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER FROM PALM OIL MILL INDUSTRY / PRODUCCIÓN DE BIOGÁS MEDIANTE DIGESTIÓN ANAEROBIA DE AGUAS RESIDUALES PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA PALMERA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O impacto ambiental gerado pelo uso de combustíveis fósseis, incentiva à sociedade a procurar novas fontes de energia renováveis, tais como o biodiesel. Na Colômbia, a matéria-prima mais utilizada para produzir biodiesel é o óleo de palma, devido a isso a sua produção tem aumentado drasticamente nos [...] últimos anos, gerando efluentes com alta carga contaminante para o meio ambiente como consequência do processo. Dado que as características físico químicas destes efluentes são propícias para a produção de biogás mediante digestão anaeróbia, este trabalho avalia a produção de metano a partir de água residual de uma empresa extratora de óleo de palma colombiana. Foram realizados experimentos de digestão anaeróbia em modo batch para avaliar a influência do pH e a relação inoculo/substrato utilizando dois inóculos diferentes. Encontrou-se que a mistura 1:1 v/v lodo anaerobio de tratamento de águas residuais urbanas e esterco de porco usada como inóculo, gerou a maior produção de metano acumulado, atingindo 2740 mL de metano (0,343 m³ CH4/kg SV), usando uma relação de 2 g SV de inóculo/g SV de substrato, sem necessidade de neutralizar o pH do sistema. Abstract in spanish El impacto ambiental generado por el uso de combustibles fósiles, incentiva a la sociedad a buscar nuevas fuentes de energía renovables tales como el biodiesel. En Colombia, la materia prima más utilizada para producir biodiesel es el aceite de palma, con lo que su producción ha aumentado drásticame [...] nte en los últimos años, generando efluentes con alta carga contaminante para el medio ambiente como consecuencia del proceso. Dado que las características físico-químicas de estos efluentes son propicias para la producción de biogas mediante digestión anaerobia, este trabajo evalúa la producción de metano a partir de agua residual de una empresa extractora de aceite de palma colombiana. Se realizaron experimentos de digestión anaerobia en modo batch para evaluar la influencia del pH y la relación inóculo/ sustrato utilizando dos inóculos diferentes. Se encontró que la mezcla 1:1 v/v lodo anaerobio de planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas y estiércol de cerdo usada como inóculo, generó la mayor producción de metano acumulado, alcanzando 2740 mL de metano (0.343 m³ CH4/kg SV), usando una relación de 2 g SV de inóculo/g SV de sustrato, sin necesidad de neutralizar el pH del sistema. Abstract in english The environmental impact caused by the fossil fuel use encourages society to look for new sources of renewable energy, such as biodiesel. During the last years, palm oil production has dramatically increased in Colombia, since it is the main raw material for biodiesel production. As consequence of t [...] he process, palm oil mill effluents with high content of pollutants are released to the environment. Since these effluents have physicochemical characteristics that make them suitable for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion of residual water, this research evaluates the production of methane using wastewater as substrate from a Colombian palm oil mill. Anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted in batch mode to evaluate the influence of pH and inoculum to substrate ratio, by using two differents inoculums. It was found that the most suitable inoculum was a mixture of 1:1 v/v urban Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) anaerobic sludge/pig manure at a ratio 2 g Volatile Solids (VS) inoculum/g VS substrate, which presented the highest accumulated methane production, reaching 2740 mL methane (0.343 m³ CH4/kg VS) without neutralizing pH.

Debora-Alcida, Nabarlatz; Ligia-Patricia, Arenas-Beltrán; Diana-Milena, Herrera-Soracá; Diana-Andrea, Niño-Bonilla.

2013-01-01

110

BIOGAS PRODUCTION BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF WASTEWATER FROM PALM OIL MILL INDUSTRY / PRODUCCIÓN DE BIOGÁS MEDIANTE DIGESTIÓN ANAEROBIA DE AGUAS RESIDUALES PROVENIENTES DE LA INDUSTRIA PALMERA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O impacto ambiental gerado pelo uso de combustíveis fósseis, incentiva à sociedade a procurar novas fontes de energia renováveis, tais como o biodiesel. Na Colômbia, a matéria-prima mais utilizada para produzir biodiesel é o óleo de palma, devido a isso a sua produção tem aumentado drasticamente nos [...] últimos anos, gerando efluentes com alta carga contaminante para o meio ambiente como consequência do processo. Dado que as características físico químicas destes efluentes são propícias para a produção de biogás mediante digestão anaeróbia, este trabalho avalia a produção de metano a partir de água residual de uma empresa extratora de óleo de palma colombiana. Foram realizados experimentos de digestão anaeróbia em modo batch para avaliar a influência do pH e a relação inoculo/substrato utilizando dois inóculos diferentes. Encontrou-se que a mistura 1:1 v/v lodo anaerobio de tratamento de águas residuais urbanas e esterco de porco usada como inóculo, gerou a maior produção de metano acumulado, atingindo 2740 mL de metano (0,343 m³ CH4/kg SV), usando uma relação de 2 g SV de inóculo/g SV de substrato, sem necessidade de neutralizar o pH do sistema. Abstract in spanish El impacto ambiental generado por el uso de combustibles fósiles, incentiva a la sociedad a buscar nuevas fuentes de energía renovables tales como el biodiesel. En Colombia, la materia prima más utilizada para producir biodiesel es el aceite de palma, con lo que su producción ha aumentado drásticame [...] nte en los últimos años, generando efluentes con alta carga contaminante para el medio ambiente como consecuencia del proceso. Dado que las características físico-químicas de estos efluentes son propicias para la producción de biogas mediante digestión anaerobia, este trabajo evalúa la producción de metano a partir de agua residual de una empresa extractora de aceite de palma colombiana. Se realizaron experimentos de digestión anaerobia en modo batch para evaluar la influencia del pH y la relación inóculo/ sustrato utilizando dos inóculos diferentes. Se encontró que la mezcla 1:1 v/v lodo anaerobio de planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales urbanas y estiércol de cerdo usada como inóculo, generó la mayor producción de metano acumulado, alcanzando 2740 mL de metano (0.343 m³ CH4/kg SV), usando una relación de 2 g SV de inóculo/g SV de sustrato, sin necesidad de neutralizar el pH del sistema. Abstract in english The environmental impact caused by the fossil fuel use encourages society to look for new sources of renewable energy, such as biodiesel. During the last years, palm oil production has dramatically increased in Colombia, since it is the main raw material for biodiesel production. As consequence of t [...] he process, palm oil mill effluents with high content of pollutants are released to the environment. Since these effluents have physicochemical characteristics that make them suitable for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion of residual water, this research evaluates the production of methane using wastewater as substrate from a Colombian palm oil mill. Anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted in batch mode to evaluate the influence of pH and inoculum to substrate ratio, by using two differents inoculums. It was found that the most suitable inoculum was a mixture of 1:1 v/v urban Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) anaerobic sludge/pig manure at a ratio 2 g Volatile Solids (VS) inoculum/g VS substrate, which presented the highest accumulated methane production, reaching 2740 mL methane (0.343 m³ CH4/kg VS) without neutralizing pH.

Debora-Alcida, Nabarlatz; Ligia-Patricia, Arenas-Beltrán; Diana-Milena, Herrera-Soracá; Diana-Andrea, Niño-Bonilla.

111

Column dynamic studies and breakthrough curve analysis for Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions adsorption onto palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA).  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the adsorption characteristics of palm oil boiler mill fly ash (POFA) derived from an agricultural waste material in removing Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution via column studies. The performance of the study is described through the breakthrough curves concept under relevant operating conditions such as column bed depths (1, 1.5, and 2 cm) and influent metal concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg/L). The Cd(II) and Cu(II) uptake mechanism is particularly bed depth- and concentration-dependant, favoring higher bed depth and lower influent metal concentration. The highest bed capacity of 34.91 mg Cd(II)/g and 21.93 mg Cu(II)/g of POFA was achieved at 20 mg/L of influent metal concentrations, column bed depth of 2 cm, and flow rate of 5 mL/min. The whole breakthrough curve simulation for both metal ions were best described using the Thomas and Yoon–Nelson models, but it is apparent that the initial region of the breakthrough for Cd(II) was better described using the BDST model. The results illustrate that POFA could be utilized effectively for the removal of Cd(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution in a fixed-bed column system. PMID:24659435

Aziz, Abdul Shukor Abdul; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Man, Hasfalina Che; Kumar, Nadavala Siva

2014-07-01

112

Effect of temperature and initial pH on biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent: long-term evaluation and microbial community analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Anaerobic sludge from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment plant was used as a source of inocula for the conversion of POME into hydrogen. Optimization of temperature and initial pH for biohydrogen production from POME was investigated by response surface methodology. Temperature of 60ºC and init [...] ial pHof 5.5 was optimized for anaerobic microflora which gave a maximum hydrogen production of 4820 ml H2/l-POME corresponding to hydrogen yield of 243 ml H2/g-sugar. Total sugar consumption and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency were 98.7% and 46%, respectively. Long-term hydrogen production in continuous reactor at HRT of 2 days, 1 day and 12 hrs were 4850 ± 90, 4660 ± 99 and 2590 ± 120 ml H2/l-POME, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the mixed culture revealed that members involved hydrogen producers in both batch and continuous reactors were phylogenetically related to the Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum. Batch reactor showed more diversity of microorganisms than continuous reactor. Microbial community structure of batch reactor was comprised of T. thermosaccharolyticum, T. bryantii, Thermoanaerobacterium sp., Clostridium thermopalmarium and Clostridium NS5-4, while continuous reactor was comprised of T. thermosaccharolyticum, T. bryantii and Thermoanaerobacterium sp. POME is good substrate for biohydrogen production under thermophilic condition with Thermoanaerobacterium species play an important role in hydrogen fermentation.

Sompong, O-Thong; Chonticha, Mamimin; Poonsuk, Prasertsan.

2011-09-15

113

Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020. PMID:11171275

Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

2000-12-01

114

Mutu CPO (Crude Palm Oil) Sangat Ditentukan Oleh Kualitas Tandan Buah Segar (TBS) Yang Diolah  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of important factor in control quality of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is measure of Free Fatty Acid, measure of Water, and measure of waste. Where as has been done direct observation and do the analysis in South Aek nabara Palm Oil Mill. Where as quality of Crude Palm Oil influented by quality of palm while cropped and it will processed start to crop on time. Gatheres process and transportation, degree of ripe fruit and processing in mill. Analiysa Fresh Fruit Bunch doesn’t come yet to process...

Supiani

2011-01-01

115

Zeolite Utilization as a Catalyst and Nutrient Adsorbent of an Organic Fertilizer Process From Palm Oil Mill Effluent as Raw Material  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME cannot be directly used as an organic fertilizer source due to its high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD thus it is not environmentally safely. To increase the high quality of organic fertilizer obtained, the liquid wastes are needed to be processed in order to decrease the BOD to degrade both the soluble and suspension materials of organic materials. The altenative process to be conducted to make a better quality of POME is by adding the adsorbent. The aim of the research was to study the effect of zeolite utilization and duration of hydrolysis process in order to increase the nutrients content and to decrease the BOD of POME. The research was conducted at the PT Sumbertama Nusa Pertiwi Jambi, Indonesia in August 2012 until February 2013. The sample of POME was taken from the inlet of the factory’s acidulating pool. There were several doses of zeolite as treatments which were 0, 5, 10, 15% and several durations of hydrolysis process which were 1,2,3 and 4 weeks. Active zeolite was added to POME and then it was fermented with different hydrolysis duration times as mentioned above. The research showed that application of zeolite and duration of hydrolysis process significantly affected the pH, N, P, K, Al, Fe, BOD of POME and the adsorption of N, P, K, Al, Fe by zeolite. It can be concluded that 10% of zeolite incubated in two weeks duration of hydrolysis process produced higher nutrient of N, P, K with BOD, Al, Fe and pH matched with the waste quality standard. The highest efficiency of N, P and K adsorbent was show by the 15% of zeolite which was incubated for two weeks of hydrolysis process.

Ida Nursanti

2013-09-01

116

Co-Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Refined Glycerin Wash Water for Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal and Methane Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Refined Glycerin Wash Water (RGWW from the oleochemical industry contains high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD and requires proper treatment before disposal. Unfortunately the wash water also contains high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl that could cause inhibition to the normal biological treatment process. However, there is feasibility of co-digesting the RGWW and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME for its treatment and methane recovery. Approach: A large 500 m3 semi-commercial closed digester tank was used to study the effect of co-digesting POME and RGWW under mesophilic condition at different RGWW percentage. The digester performance in terms of COD removal efficiency and methane production rate and stability based on total Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation, Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solid (MLVSS and pH were evaluated. Results: At 1.0% of RGWW co-digested, both COD removal efficiency and methane production rate showed satisfactory results with higher than 90% and 505 m3 day-1, respectively. However, once the percentage was increased to a maximum of 5.25%, COD removal efficiency remains high but the methane production rate reduced significantly down to 307 m3 day-1. At this stage, the digester was already unstable with high total VFA recorded of 913 mg L-1 and low cells concentration of 8.58 g L-1. This was probably due to the effect of plasmolysis on the methanogens at high concentration of NaCl in the digester of nearly 4000 mg L-1. Conclusion: Co-digesting of RGWW with high NaCl content and POME is satisfactory for COD removal but not for increasing the methane production.

A. Sulaiman

2009-01-01

117

The Effect of Higher Sludge Recycling Rate on Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in a Semi-Commercial Closed Digester for Renewable Energy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: A 500 m3 semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester was constructed for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME treatment and methane gas capture for renewable energy. During the start-up operation period, the Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation could not be controlled and caused instability on the system. Approach: A settling tank was installed and sludge was recycled as to provide a balanced microorganisms population for the treatment of POME and methane gas production. The effect of sludge recycling rate was studied by applying Organic Loading Rates (OLR (between 1.0 and 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 at different sludge recycling rates (6, 12 and 18 m3 day-1. Results: At sludge recycling rate of 18 m3 day-1, the maximum OLR was 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 with biogas and methane productivity of 1.5 and 0.9 m3 m-3 day-1, respectively. By increasing the sludge recycling rate the VFA concentration was controlled below its inhibitory limit (1000 mg L-1 and the COD removal efficiency recorded was above 95% which indicated good treatment performance for the digester. Two methanogens species (Methanosarcina sp. and Methanosaeta concilii had been identified from sludge samples obtained from the digester and recycled stream. Conclusion: By increasing the sludge recycling rate upon higher application of OLR, the treatment process was kept stable with high COD removal efficiency. The biogas and methane productivity were initially improved but reduced once OLR and recycling rate were increased to 10.0 kg COD m3 day-1 and 18 m3 day-1 respectively.

Alawi Sulaiman

2009-01-01

118

21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. 172...Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The...cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils,...

2010-04-01

119

21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils... Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils...cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both...

2010-04-01

120

Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Science.gov (United States)

Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and agroforests, streams draining oil palm show greater biological activity, as indicated by elevated pH and reduced dissolved oxygen levels. Moreover, turbidity is elevated in young oil palm plantations watersheds compared to forest, agroforest, and old oil palm land covers. We discuss the implications of these findings for communities and ecosystems.

Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Removal of boron from ceramic industry wastewater by adsorption-flocculation mechanism using palm oil mill boiler (POMB) bottom ash and polymer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boron is extensively used in the ceramic industry for enhancing mechanical strength of the tiles. The discharge of boron containing wastewater to the environment causes severe pollution problems. Boron is also dangerous for human consumption and causes organisms' reproductive impediments if the safe intake level is exceeded. Current methods to remove boron include ion-exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation-coagulation, biological and chemical treatment. These methods are costly to remove boron from the wastewater and hence infeasible for industrial wastewater treatment. In the present research, adsorption-flocculation mechanism is proposed for boron removal from ceramic wastewater by using Palm Oil Mill Boiler (POMB) bottom ash and long chain polymer or flocculant. Ceramic wastewater is turbid and milky in color which contains 15 mg/L of boron and 2000 mg/L of suspended solids. The optimum operating conditions for boron adsorption on POMB bottom ash and flocculation using polymer were investigated in the present research. Adsorption isotherm of boron on bottom ash was also investigated to evaluate the adsorption capacity. Adsorption isotherm modeling was conducted based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The results show that coarse POMB bottom ash with particle size larger than 2 mm is a suitable adsorbent where boron is removed up to 80% under the optimum conditions (pH=8.0, dosage=40 g bottom ash/300 ml wastewater, residence time=1h). The results also show that KP 1200 B cationic polymer is effective in flocculating the suspended solids while AP 120 C anionic polymer is effective in flocculating the bottom ash. The combined cationic and anionic polymers are able to clarify the ceramic wastewater under the optimum conditions (dosage of KP 1200 B cationic polymer=100 mg/L, dosage of AP 120 C anionic polymer=50 mg/L, mixing speed=200 rpm). Under the optimum operating conditions, the boron and suspended solids concentration of the treated wastewater were reduced to 3 mg/L and 5 mg/L respectively, satisfying the discharge requirement by Malaysia Department of Environment (DOE). The modeling study shows that the adsorption isotherm of boron onto POMB bottom ash conformed to the Freundlich Isotherm. The proposed method is suitable for boron removal in ceramic wastewater especially in regions where POMB bottom ash is abundant. PMID:19487007

Chong, Mei Fong; Lee, Kah Peng; Chieng, Hui Jiun; Syazwani Binti Ramli, Ili Izyan

2009-07-01

122

Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors  

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Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane production. Therefore, POME without pH adjustment was used as influent for the UASB reactor. Moreover, the syntheticwastewater with pH adjustment to 6.00 was fed into the UFAF reactor. The inoculum source for both reactors was the combination of POME sludge collected from the CSTR of a POME treatment plant and granulesludge collected from the UASB reactor of a frozen sea food industry treatment plant. During experimental operation, the organic loading rate (OLR was gradually increased from 2.50 to 17.5 g COD/l/day in theUASB reactor and 1.10 to 10.0 g COD/l/day in the UFAF reactor. Consequently, hydraulic retention time (HRT ranged from 20.0 to 2.90 days in the UASB reactor and from 13.5 to 1.50 days in the UFAF reactor.The result showed that the COD removal efficiency from both reactors was greater than 60.0%. In addition, the total volatile fatty acids increased with the increasing OLR. The total volatile fatty acids and acetic acidproduction in the UASB reactor reached 5.50 g/l and 4.90 g/l, respectively at OLR of 17.5 g COD/l/day and HRT of 2.90 days before washout was observed. In the UFAF reactor, the methane and biogas productionincreased with increasing OLR until an OLR of 7.50 g COD/l/day. However, the methane and biogas production significantly decreased when OLR increased up to 10.0 g COD/l/day. Therefore, the optimum OLR inthe laboratory-scale UASB and UFAF reactors were concluded to be 15.5 and 7.50 g COD/l/day, respectively.

Sumate Chaiprapat

2007-05-01

123

Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate from palm oil and some new applications.  

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Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a potential substitute for some petrochemical-based plastics. This biodegradable plastic is derived from microbial fermentation using various carbon substrates. Since carbon source has been identified as one of the major cost-absorbing factors in PHA production, cheap and renewable substrates are currently being investigated as substitutes for existing sugar-based feedstock. Plant oils have been found to result in high-yield PHA production. Malaysia, being the world's second largest producer of palm oil, is able to ensure continuous supply of palm oil products for sustainable PHA production. The biosynthesis and characterization of various types of PHA using palm oil products have been described in detail in this review. Besides, by-products and waste stream from palm oil industry have also demonstrated promising results as carbon sources for PHA biosynthesis. Some new applications in cosmetic and wastewater treatment show the diversity of PHA usage. With proper management practices and efficient milling processes, it may be possible to supply enough palm oil-based raw materials for human consumption and other biotechnological applications such as production of PHA in a sustainable manner. PMID:21279347

Sudesh, Kumar; Bhubalan, Kesaven; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Kek, Yik-Kang; Kamilah, Hanisah; Sridewi, Nanthini; Lee, Yan-Fen

2011-03-01

124

Sterilization of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Using Microwave Technique  

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Full Text Available Dramatically increasing rate of free fatty acid (FFA in long storage oil palm fruit is one of the most crucial problems of oil palm mill industries. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of oil palm fruits sterilization by using microwave irradiation in order of halting enzymatic lipolysis reaction which caused of FFA production. The results indicate that microwave heating can be interrupted the FFA produced reaction and the optimum condition heating temperature of the fruits mesocarp is 50 °C but not exceed to 80 °C, and the fruits can be storage for 7 days at ambient condition without FFA significantly generation. Conclude that heating from irradiation of microwave is capacitating for dry and clean sterilization system.

I. Umudee

2013-06-01

125

Value-added Products from Palm Sludge Oil  

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Full Text Available The very short chain fatty acid has been recovered from palm sludge oils, a by-product of palm oil mills using vacuum distillation method. The recovered very short chain fatty acid contains mainly C6 fatty acid which is a valuable fine chemical in perfume industry. The very short chain fatty acid perfume esters were then synthesised using ethanol with sulphuric acid as catalyst. The reaction conditions were alcohol- very short chain fatty acid volume ratio of 2:1, 1.5% wt of sulphuric acid at temperature of 120°C for 20 min. The yield of very short chain fatty acid esters after distillation and purification processes was 50 to 60% wt. The treated palm sludge oils, after recovering of very short chain fatty acid was subjected to esterification using solid acid catalyst followed by conventional transesterification for biodiesel production. The free fatty acid in palm sludge oils was successfully reduced from 65% to less than 2% prior to transesterification. The conversion of free fatty acid to methyl ester and final yield of biodiesel were 98 and 83%, respectively. This paper demonstrates total utilisation of palm sludge oils by producing valuable very short chain fatty acid before converting it into biodiesel.

Choo Yuen May

2012-01-01

126

Bio-oils from Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches  

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Full Text Available Problem Statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the mesocarp fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB, frond, trunk and palm oil mill effluent (POME. For 80 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch (FFB processed last year, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 25 million tones. The objectives of this study were to: (i Determine the effect of various pyrolysis parameters on product yields and (ii Characterise liquid product obtained under different condition. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB was investigated using quartz fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures, particle sizes and heating rates on the yield of the products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis and heating rate were varied in the range 300-700 °C and 10-100 °C min1 respectively. The particle size was varied in the range of Results: Under the experimental conditions, the maximum bio-oil yield was 42.28% obtained at 500 ºC, with a heating rate of 100 ºC min-1 and particle size of 91-106 µm. The calorific values of bio-oil ranged from 20-21 MJ kg-1. A great range of functional groups of phenol, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids were indicated in FTIR spectrum. Conclusion: The chemical characterisation results showed that the bio-oil obtained from oil palm EFB maybe a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks.

Mohamad A. Sukiran

2009-01-01

127

A case study of pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia  

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Biomass seems to have a great potential as a source of renewable energy compared with other sources. The use of biomass as a source of energy could help to reduce the wastes and also to minimize the dependency on non-renewable energy, hence minimize environmental degradation. Among other types of biomass, oil palm wastes are the major contribution for energy production in Malaysia since Malaysia is one of the primary palm oil producers in the world. Currently, Malaysia's plantation area covers around 5 million hectares. In the oil palm mill, only 10% palm oil is produced and the other 90% is in the form of wastes such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm shells (OPS), oil palm fibre (OPFb) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). If these wastes are being used as a source of renewable energy, it is believed that it will help to increase the country's economy. Recently, the most potential and efficient thermal energy conversion technology is pyrolysis process. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia. The scope of this paper is to discuss on the types of pyrolysis process and its production. At present, most of the research conducted in this country is on EFB and OPS by fast, slow and microwave-assisted pyrolysis processes for fuel applications.

Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

2013-05-01

128

Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

129

Dioxin/ Furan Level in the Malaysian Oil Palm Environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental samples collected from oil palm premises were evaluated for dioxins/ furans contamination. The samplings were carried out at oil palm premises located in Banting (Premise A) and in Teluk Intan (Premise B), involving two environmental matrices namely ambient air and soil. The soil samples were collected in the plantations while ambient air samples were collected in the vicinity of the mills and refineries. The results of the analyses showed that the level of dioxins/ furans in ambient air were generally higher in oil palm premise located adjacent to industrial establishments. The concentration levels at premise A mill and refinery located adjacent to industrial establishments, ranged from 64.14 WHO-TEQ fg m-3 to 131.87 WHO-TEQ fg m-3, while for premise B mill and refinery located in the rural area, ranged from 9.93 WHO-TEQ fg m-3 to 16.66 WHO-TEQ fg m-3. Meanwhile for soil samples, the highest concentrations were recorded in soil collected near roads used heavily by vehicles. The concentration levels of soil samples collected at premise A and premise B plantations ranged from 1.910 WHO-TEQ pg g-1 dry weight to 3.305 WHO-TEQ pg g-1 dry weight. (author)

130

A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil.  

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A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural. PMID:25214353

Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis

2011-09-01

131

Sustainability of Palm Oil Industries: An Innovative Treatment via Membrane Technology  

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Full Text Available Malaysia is the largest producer of palm oil, the processing of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB has resulted large amount Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. The highly polluting POME is identified as the major stumbling block to the development of palm oil industry in Malaysia. Hence, an integrated membrane process with physical-chemical treatment had been successfully achieved for treatment of POME. The role of membrane was explored significantly; where the chemical treated POME was further treated using ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membrane. The concept of sustainable development in palm oil industries is achieved by recovering and recycling the crystal clear water and sludge as organic fertilizer from POME back to its process and plantations using the innovative membrane treatment. Consequently, zero discharge is achieved by eliminating the discharge of POME into the rivers.

A.L. Ahmad

2009-01-01

132

Comparison Study of Thermal Insulation Characteristics from Oil Palm Fibre  

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Full Text Available In this study, investigation was conducted to study the use of solid biomass from palm oil mill as insulation material. The experimental study concentrates on using oil palm fiber to determine the unidirectional thermal conductivity, k. The experiment was conducted at different temperature ranges and packing density. The values of k obtained were found to be 0.2 W/m.K to 0.069 W/m.K for a packing density between 66 kg/m3 to 110 kg/m3, and at a temperature between 40ºC to 70ºC. Comparisons were made with others common insulating materials, and it was found that the experimental k values for oil palm waste insulation was lower by between 4 to 56 times for rockwool and between 7 to 57 times for glass fiber at low temperatures. The value k of oil palm fiber however showed an increase at higher temperatures and was lower at lower packing densities. Although not being able to match the k values of common insulators at higher temperatures, other factors such as cost and environmental benefits of using waste material should be taken into consideration and hence encouraging its use as at least a supplement to existing insulation materials

Hassan S.

2014-07-01

133

Blending of palm oil, palm stearin and palm kernel oil in the preparation of table and pastry margarine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palm oil (PO ; iodin value = 52), palm stearin (POs1; i.v. = 32 and POs2; i.v. = 40) and palm kernel oil (PKO; i.v. = 17) were blended in ternary systems. The blends were then studied for their physical properties such as melting point (m.p.), solid fat content (SFC), and cooling curve. Results showed that palm stearin increased the blends melting point while palm kernel oil reduced it. To produce table margarine with melting point (m.p.) below 40 degrees C, the POs1 should be added at level of Tmin and Tmax values, while PKO reduced them. Blends which contained high amount of palm stearin showed melting point and cooling curves quite similar to that of pastry margarine. PMID:8616676

Norlida, H M; Md Ali, A R; Muhadhir, I

1996-01-01

134

Comparison Study On Oil Palm Trunk And Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Fibre Reinforced Laterite Bricks  

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The main aim of this study was to compare the physical properties and mechanical properties of Oil Palm Trunk (OPT) fibre and Oil Palm Fruit Bunches (OPFB) fibre reinforced laterite bricks. For comparison purposes, the properties such as dimension, density, water absorption and the co...

Noorsaidi Mahat; Zaiton Yaacob; Nadia Fatihah Mastan; Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid; Zainab Zainordin; Mohamad Rohaidzat Mohamed Rashid; Husrul Nizam Husin; Natasha Khalil; Mohamat Najib Mat Noor; Wan Faizal Iskandar Wan Abdullah; Nurul Asra Abd Rahman; Suryani Ahmad

2010-01-01

135

European Policies towards Palm Oil - Sorting Out some Facts  

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This paper analyses the role of palm oil and its sustainability from different perspectives. We consider the role of palm oil within the GHG context. We discuss the impact of palm oil on biodiversity and analyse how palm oil can contribute to economic growth and development in tropical countries. Finally, based on this analysis, we assess the current concerns about and politics towards palm oil with special focus on the EU. Palm oil is a low-energy and low-fertilizer crop that offers much hig...

Pehnelt, Gernot; Vietze, Christoph

2009-01-01

136

An experimental investigation to evaluate the heating value of palm oil waste by calorimetry. Paper no. IGEC-1-040  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A palm oil mill produces palm oil and kernel palm oil as main products and biomass residue (fiber and shell). This excess biomass residue can be used as fuel in boilers to meet energy and process heat demand in the industries. Quality of the palm oil waste (POW) is characterized by low fixed carbon and relatively high moisture content which may affect the heating value (HV). By applying the principle of calorimetry, a bomb calorimeter is utilized to evaluate the heating value of POW. From the experimental results, it is found that higher heating value (HHV) varies with the moisture content (MC) and it is observed as a function of MC. (author)

Supeni, E.E.; Megat Mohd, M.H.; Mohd Sapuan, S.; Nor Maria, A.; Ismail, M.Y.; Thoguluva, R.V. [Univ. Putra Malaysia, Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selangor D.E., (Malaysia)]. E-mail: eris@eng.upm.edu.my; Chuah, T.G. [Univ. Putra Malaysia, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selangor D.E., (Malaysia)

2005-07-01

137

Effect of Palm Oil on Serum Lipid Profile in Rats  

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Palm oil is considered as plant oil in which two types of cooking oil, palm seed oil and palm oil are derived. Palm oil has almost 50% saturated fatty acid and 50% poly unsaturated fatty acid. It is considered to be useful due to metabolites products such as prostacycline and antithrombois in cardiovascular disease (C.V.D) and variation in lipoprotein. In the present study we examined the effect of 12% palm oil on 30 days old male rats (149.3±10.7 g) for 60 days. The changes of weight...

Karaji-bani, M.; Montazeri, F.; Hashemi, M.

2006-01-01

138

Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Oil  

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There has been an increase in effort to reduce the reliance on petroleum fuels for energy generation and transportation throughout the world. Among the proposed alternative fuels is biodiesel. Over the years, a little attention was paid to the industrial use of palm oil. Laboratory tests such as viscosity, fire point, flash point, pour point and densities were conducted on raw palm oil and bleached palm oil using standard procedures. The flash points of palm oil and the bleached sample are 25...

Musa, John Jiya

2010-01-01

139

Application of Extreme Value Copulas to Palm Oil Prices Analysis  

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In this paper we study the tail behavior of the palm oil future markets using the Extreme Value Theory and focusing on the dependence structure between the returns on palm oil future price in three palm oil futures markets, namely Malaysian futures markets (KLSE), Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE) and Singapore Exchange Derivatives Trading Limited (SGX-DT) by using the Extreme Value Copulas. The results demonstrated that the returns on palm oil future price among KLSE and SGX-DT have dependence...

Kantaporn Chuangchid; Aree Wiboonpongse; Songsak Sriboonchitta; Chukiat Chaiboonsri

2012-01-01

140

Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor  

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Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed ...

Norhisam Misron; Noor Hasmiza Harun; Yeoh Kian Lee; Roslina Mohd Sidek; Ishak Aris; Hiroyuki Wakiwaka; Kunihisa Tashiro

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning  

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Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript ...

Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-ebongue, Georges-frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B.; Arondel, Vincent

2011-01-01

142

Irradiation effect on chemical components of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm press fibre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physico-chemical properties of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm press fibre (PPF), which are major by-products of the oil palm industries, were studied for upgrading their utilisation as animal feed by radiation-fermentation process. Comparative analyses of raw EFB and PPF from 3 different mills showed significant variations in some of their chemical components. Significant differences were also observed between the chemical components of EFB and PPF samples. The water holding capacities (WHC) of both EFB and PPF suggested their suitability for use as fermentation media. Gamma irradiation of up to 50 kGy have little effect on the components of both EFB and PPF. Irradiation dose of 25 kGy appeared to produce enhancement effect on cellulase hydrolysis of holocellulose and alpha-cellulose of EFB but a retarding effect on hydrolysis of PPF

143

UV curable palm oil based inks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

144

Transformation of oil palm using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transgenic oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantlets are regenerated after Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of embryogenic calli derived from young leaves of oil palm. The calli are transformed with an Agrobacterium strain, LBA4404, harboring the plasmid pUBA, which carries a selectable marker gene (bar) for resistance to the herbicide Basta and is driven by a maize ubiquitin promoter. Modifications of the transformation method, treatment of the target tissues using acetosyringone, exposure to a plasmolysis medium, and physical injury via biolistics are applied. The main reasons for such modifications are to activate the bacterial virulence system and, subsequently, to increase the transformation efficiency. Transgenic oil palm cells are selected and regenerated on a medium containing herbicide Basta. Molecular analyses revealed the presence and integration of the introduced bar gene into the genome of the transformants. PMID:22351008

Izawati, Abang Masli Dayang; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul

2012-01-01

145

Physico-chemical properties of various palm-based diacylglycerol oils in comparison with their corresponding palm-based oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palm-based diacylglycerol (P-DAG) oils were produced through enzymatic glycerolysis of palm kernel oil (PKO), palm oil (PO), palm olein (POL), palm mid fraction (PMF) and palm stearin (PS). High purity DAG (83-90%, w/w) was obtained and compared to palm-based oils (P-oil) had significantly (PSolid fat content (SFC) profiles of P-DAG oils as compared to P-oils had less steep curves with lower SFC at low temperature range (5-10°C) and the higher complete melting temperatures. Also, P-DAG oils in contrast with P-oils showed endothermic as well as exothermic peaks with higher transition temperatures and significantly (P<0.05) higher crystallisation onsets, heats of fusion, and heats of crystallisation. Crystal forms for P-DAG oils were mostly in the ? form. PMID:25214093

Saberi, Amir Hossein; Kee, Beh Boon; Oi-Ming, Lai; Miskandar, Mat Sahri

2011-08-01

146

Analysis on Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO:A Qualitative Assessment the Success Factors for ISPO  

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Full Text Available ISPO (Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil serves as the baseline of sustainability standards for palm oil industry and is expected to improve the competitive advantage of Indonesian palm oil industry. ISPO was introduced by the government in March 2011 and currently most of plantations are in process of applying ISPO. The objective of this research is to analyze success factors affecting implementation of ISPO. Using qualitative method of in-depth interview on 20 selected experts representing actors mapped in the value chain of palm oil industry. The results depicted that; very little companies apply sustainable principles hence ISPO is needed for industrial standards, success factors affecting ISPO implementation, and necessary conditions for ISPO implementation. SWOT technique resulting 8 recommended strategies to be applied for ISPO implementation. Acknowledging ISPO applies to upstream industry (plantations and mills only, managerial implication for this research is the need to develop of a grand master plan for Indonesian palm oil Industry by developing integrated policies complementing ISPO aiming for sustainability, growing and developing downstream industry to add value to CPO product, and for upstream industry to be developed by farmers and cooperatives while big investors to develop mills and downstream industry.Keywords: Palm Oil, ISPO, Sustainable Certification, Success Factors, Qualitative

Dina Harsono

2012-09-01

147

Radiation curing applications of palm oil acrylates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various palm oil based urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP) were prepared from palm oil based polyols, diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl terminated acrylate monomers by following procedure derived from established methods. The products were compared with each other in term of their molecular weights (MW), viscosities, curing speed by UV irradiation, gel contents and film hardness. The molecular structure of diisocyanate compounds and hydroxyl acrylate monomers were tend to determine the molecular weights and hence viscosities of the final products of urethan acrylate prepolymers (UP), whereas, the MW of the UP has no direct effects on the UV curing properties of the prepolymers. (author)

148

Performance Evaluation of Palm Oil as Biodiesel  

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This work involved the production of diesel from most commonly available palm fruits oil Pisifera elaeis guineensis and testing for the brake power, torque of an engine and specific fuel consumption of a conventional diesel engine utilizing the produced diesel from palm oil. The obtained results were compared with those for fossil diesel fuel. The results show that the value of brake power was 6927.21W for fossil diesel while that of biodiesel was 7135.02W. Similarly the value for brake torqu...

Lawal, Sunday A.; Babakano, Ahmed

2011-01-01

149

Exploratory Study of Oil Palm Shell as Partial Sand Replacement in Concrete  

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Full Text Available Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers has been disposing oil palm shell, which is a by-product from palm oil mill thus causing negative impact to the environment. At the same time, extensive mining of natural river sand in large amount to meet the increasing demand of concrete production for the use in rapidly developing construction industry has posed the risk of natural aggregate depletion and ecological imbalance in future. The effect of finely Crushed Oil Palm Shell (COPS as partial sand replacement material in concrete mix towards density and compressive strength was investigated in this study. Total of five mixes consisting various content of crushed oil palm shell as partial sand replacement ranging from 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were prepared in form of cubes. All the specimens were water cured before tested at 7, 14 and 28 days. Compressive strength was conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390. Generally, the compressive strength and density decrease with the increase in the crushed oil palm shell replacement level. Between 50 to 75% replacement, the mix produced possess lower density enabling it to be categorized as lightweight concrete and has the potential to be used as non-load bearing structure. The application in structural concrete material is suited for mix consisting around 25% of crushed oil palm shell.

K. Muthusamy

2013-03-01

150

Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number  

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Full Text Available This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

Meftah Salem M. Alfatni

2008-01-01

151

Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number  

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This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

152

Export Competitiveness of Indonesia’s Palm Oil Product  

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This study analyzes the export competitiveness of Indonesia’s palm oil product as compared to Malaysia’s in three regions: Asia, Africa and Europe. Two palm oil products are analyzed: Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and refined palm oil. Market share is utilized as the measurement of competitiveness. The results indicate that Indonesia’s palm oil export has increased significantly over the period from 1999-2001 and 2005-2007. The reasons for the increase in Indonesia’s export are the increase in...

Amzul Rifin

2010-01-01

153

Palm Oil Monocultures Will Never Be Sustainable - Climate &  

... Palm Oil Monocultures Will Never Be Sustainable - Climate & Capitalism Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book ...Monthly Review MR Press MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2010 / February / 03 / Palm Oil Monocultures Will Never Be Sustainable Posted on February 3, ... 2010 Palm Oil Monocultures Will Never Be Sustainable Pale green NGO supports destructive palm oil plantations in Asia, Africa and South America An Open ...Letter to the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RPSO) and the WWF, published November 2, 2009 One year ago, ...

154

Cogeneration potential in the Columbian palm oil industry: Three case studies  

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The palm oil mills are characterized by the availability of considerable amounts of by-products of high-energy value such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), fibers, shells and liquid effluents with high content of organics called palm oil mill effluent (POME). A palm oil mill produces residues equivalent to almost three times the amount of oil produced by biomass, showing a huge potential for increasing the power efficiency of the plants and installed power, mainly by the use of by-products in cogeneration plants with high steam parameters and by reducing steam consumption in process. The objective of this paper is to present the results of the study about the cogeneration potential for three representative palm oil mills located in two important palm oil producing regions in Colombia (South-America), fifth palm oil producers of the world. The sizing of the cogeneration system was made assuming it operation during the greatest possible number of hours throughout the year (based on the seasonal availability of fruit) considering parameters for the steam at 2 MPa and 350 C, using a condensing-extraction turbine. The balance of mass and energy was made by using the Gate Cycle Enter Software, version 5.51, to estimate the potential of electricity generation. The results showed that for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processing capacities between 18 and 60 t FFB h{sup -1}, it is possible to have surplus power ranging between 1 and 7 MW, if the plants are self-sufficient in electric energy and steam for process. With an average Capacity Factor (approximately 0.4), it is possible to expect a generation index of 75 and 160 kWh t{sup -1} FFB when the processing plant is operating or shutdown, respectively, 3 or 4 times better than when a traditional system with a back-pressure steam turbines is used. This analysis used up to 60% of EFB produced in plant as fuel, considering its value as fertilizer for the palm crop. Several economic conditions were considered to estimate the economic and technical feasibility of cogeneration systems in palm oil mill for Colombian palm oil sector. (author)

Teixeira, F.N.; Lora, E. [Federal University of Itajuba/Excellence Group in Thermal and Distributed Generation, Itajuba-MG (Brazil); Yanez, E. [CENIPALMA (Colombia); Castillo, E. [UIS, (Colombia); Arrieta, F.R.P.

2007-07-15

155

Analyses of hypomethylated oil palm gene space.  

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Demand for palm oil has been increasing by an average of ?8% the past decade and currently accounts for about 59% of the world's vegetable oil market. This drives the need to increase palm oil production. Nevertheless, due to the increasing need for sustainable production, it is imperative to increase productivity rather than the area cultivated. Studies on the oil palm genome are essential to help identify genes or markers that are associated with important processes or traits, such as flowering, yield and disease resistance. To achieve this, 294,115 and 150,744 sequences from the hypomethylated or gene-rich regions of Elaeis guineensis and E. oleifera genome were sequenced and assembled into contigs. An additional 16,427 shot-gun sequences and 176 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) were also generated to check the quality of libraries constructed. Comparison of these sequences revealed that although the methylation-filtered libraries were sequenced at low coverage, they still tagged at least 66% of the RefSeq supported genes in the BAC and had a filtration power of at least 2.0. A total 33,752 microsatellites and 40,820 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were identified. These represent the most comprehensive collection of microsatellites and SNPs to date and would be an important resource for genetic mapping and association studies. The gene models predicted from the assembled contigs were mined for genes of interest, and 242, 65 and 14 oil palm transcription factors, resistance genes and miRNAs were identified respectively. Examples of the transcriptional factors tagged include those associated with floral development and tissue culture, such as homeodomain proteins, MADS, Squamosa and Apetala2. The E. guineensis and E. oleifera hypomethylated sequences provide an important resource to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with important agronomic traits in oil palm. PMID:24497974

Low, Eng-Ti L; Rosli, Rozana; Jayanthi, Nagappan; Mohd-Amin, Ab Halim; Azizi, Norazah; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Maqbool, Nauman J; Maclean, Paul; Brauning, Rudi; McCulloch, Alan; Moraga, Roger; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Singh, Rajinder

2014-01-01

156

21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

... true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils...172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils...additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both...

2010-04-01

157

Palm oil. Addressing issues and towards sustainable development  

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The quest for renewable energy has intensified since the escalating price of crude petroleum in the recent years. Renewable energy such as biodiesel has the potential to replace petroleum-derived transportation fuel in the future. Biodiesel is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils such palm oil, rapeseed and soybean. Currently, more than 80% of the world biodiesel productions are from rapeseed oil. However, the cost of palm oil which is at least US$ 200 per tonne cheaper than rapeseed oil indicates that palm oil could be a more suitable and attractive candidate as the source of biodiesel compared to other vegetable oils. Although palm oil is known to be a multi-purpose vegetable oil with products ranging from food to biodiesel, there are a lot of issues surrounding palm oil production. Nevertheless, some of these issues reported in the literature were found to be misleading and are thus confusing the public perception on palm oil. Thus, the aim of this paper is to highlight and clarify the negative issues reported in the literature surrounding palm oil production. Apart from that, various policies or/and strategies that will lead to a more sustainable production and development of palm oil industries will also be proposed. Hence, palm oil will be able to become the leading vegetable oil in terms of food and non-food production, especially as the main source of renewable energy, biodiesel. (author)

Tan, K.T.; Lee, K.T.; Mohamed, A.R.; Bhatia, S. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

2009-02-15

158

Role of H2O2 in the fluctuating patterns of COD (chemical oxygen demand) during the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using pilot scale triple frequency ultrasound cavitation reactor.  

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Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a highly contaminating wastewater due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Conventional treatment methods require longer residence time (10-15 days) and higher operating cost. Owing to this, finding a suitable and efficient method for the treatment of POME is crucial. In this investigation, ultrasound cavitation technology has been used as an alternative technique to treat POME. Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation, growth and collapse of bubbles in a liquid. The end process of collapse leads to intense conditions of temperature and pressure and shock waves which assist various physical and chemical transformations. Two different ultrasound systems i.e. ultrasonic bath (37 kHz) and a hexagonal triple frequency ultrasonic reactor (28, 40 and 70 kHz) of 15 L have been used. The results showed a fluctuating COD pattern (in between 45,000 and 60,000 mg/L) while using ultrasound bath alone, whereas a non-fluctuating COD pattern with a final COD of 27,000 mg/L was achieved when hydrogen peroxide was introduced. Similarly for the triple frequency ultrasound reactor, coupling all the three frequencies resulted into a final COD of 41,300 mg/L compared to any other individual or combination of two frequencies. With the possibility of larger and continuous ultrasonic cavitational reactors, it is believed that this could be a promising and a fruitful green process engineering technique for the treatment of POME. PMID:24485395

Manickam, Sivakumar; Abidin, Norhaida binti Zainal; Parthasarathy, Shridharan; Alzorqi, Ibrahim; Ng, Ern Huay; Tiong, Timm Joyce; Gomes, Rachel L; Ali, Asgar

2014-07-01

159

Techno-economic Analysis of Electricity Generation from Biogas Using Palm Oil Waste  

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Full Text Available In Malaysia, nearly 80 million tons of fresh fruit bunches are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tons of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. This POME is known to generate biogas consisting of methane-a Green House Gas (GHG identifiable to cause global warming. The amount of methane gas generated annually is equivalent to 19 million tons of carbon dioxide. To meet the regulatory requirement, more than 85% of the mills use solely the lagoon systems in waste water treatment, typically anaerobic first stage followed by facultative treatment. However, these two major palm oil wastes are a viable Renewable Energy (RE source for production of electricity. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to study the technological parameters for different capacity digester to produce electricity. The cost related data are collected from Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. Net present worth, internal rate of return and payback period were calculated. On the basis of the calculated values it has been found that the application of biogas plant for generation of electricity is economically viable in Malaysian perspective and this viability or economic attractiveness increase with the increase of plant size. The findings of this study should be useful to give some directions and guidelines for future planning and implementation of biogas plants in Malaysia.

Mohd Firdaus M. Saad

2013-01-01

160

Material-mass Balance of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in the Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study evaluates the material-mass balance of smallholder oil palm processing in Niger Delta Nigeria. Ten smallholder oil palm processing mills were randomly sampled. Measuring scale was used to measure the weight of the Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB and all the processing intermediates/products including Threshed Fresh Fruit (TFF, Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB, Crude Palm Oil (CPO, chaff and nut. During the study period (13-22 April 2012, 8 of the mills processed 90-400 bunches of Dura variety, while the remaining 2 mills processed 65-200 bunches of Tenera variety. During the batch processing of Dura variety, the proportion of the intermediate products computed in relation to the weight of the FFB (100% are as follows; TFF (66.0-75.0%, mesocarp (44.8-51.1%, nuts (19.0-27.5%, kernel (5.7-7.2%, water in mesocarp (9.0-12.1% and water in nut (2.4-3.4%, EFB (23.7-32.4%, chaff (0.8-2.4%, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS (10.0-18.8%, Palm Press Fibre (PPF (23.2-28.1% and Crude Palm Oil (CPO (9.4-12.8%. For the Tenera varieties, the compositions are as follows; TFF (70.9-72.9%, mesocarp (56.4-58.0%, nuts (14.5-14.9%, kernel (5.5-5.6%, water in mesocarp (10.1-10.4% and water in the nut (1.9-2.1%, EFB (25.7-28.2%, chaff (0.9-1.4%, PKS (6.8-7.5%, (19.1-20.3% and CPO (26.0-28.2%. This result shows that Tenera produces more oil and less wastes compared to the Dura variety. The solid wastes fractions are used as energy sources during the processing of oil palm and as filling materials for upgrading access roads to palm plantations. Except the huge volume of wastes (71.8-90.6% generated by smallholder oil palm processors is effectively utilized, the process will be unsustainable.

Elijah I. Ohimain

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

An experimental investigation to evaluate the heating value of palm oil waste by calorimetry  

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Malaysia is one of the world's largest palm oil producing countries, accounting for nearly 50 per cent of the total world production. Palm oil mills produce palm oil and kernel palm oil as the main products. Excess biomass residue in the form of fiber and shell is also produced, which can be used as fuel in boilers to meet energy and process heat demand in the industries. The total biomass energy potential is estimated to be equivalent to 2 to 3 per cent of the total power produced in the country. In order to evaluate the potential of biomass solid as a fuel in the combustion system, it is necessary to know the heating value of the biomass solid. This parameter is typically a function of the fuel composition. The key parameter that influences the thermal efficiency of palm oil waste (POW) is moisture content when it is burned. This paper described how the higher heating value (HHV) of POW is determined using a calorimeter. HHV was correlated as a function of moisture content (MC) for palm oil fibre and shells. In this study, the quality of the POW was characterized by low fixed carbon and relatively high moisture content that could influence the heating value. Experimental results indicate that HHV varies with MC. A linear correlation was made between HHV and MC. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

Suspeni, E.E.; Megat, M.M.H.; Sapuan, M.S.; Nor Maria, A. [Putra Malaysia Univ., Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Chuah, T.G. [Putra Malaysia Univ., Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

2005-07-01

162

Price Forecasting Methodology of the Malaysian Palm Oil Market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaysia is the second largest producer of palm oil in the world and the price of palm oil depends so much on the world oils and fat market. The study presents several numbers of econometric models that are being used to forecast a short term ex-ante spot palm oil price in future prices of the Malaysian palm oil market from July 2011 to December 2011. These models include Vector Error Correction Method (VECM) equation econometric model, Multivariate Autoregressive-Moving-Average (MARMA) model...

Chinnasamy Agamudai Nambhi Malarvizhi; Zainalabidin Mohamed; Aye Aye Khin; Seethaletchumy Thambiah

2013-01-01

163

Storage Stability and Sensory Evaluation of Taro Chips Fried in Palm Oil, Palm Olein Oil, Groundnut Oil, Soybean Oil and Their Blends  

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Taro (Colocasia esculenta) chips fried in Palm Oil (PO), Soybean Oil (SBO), Palm Olein Oil (POO), Groundnut Oil (GO) and in 40:60 w/w blend ratio of palm oil: POO; SBO; GO were stored for 0-5 weeks in dark and in fluorescent light. Chips were subjected to weekly chemical and sensory analysis. Results showed that significant (p<0.05) differences occurred in the organoleptic properties of taro chips fried in the different oil types during storage. Chips fried in palm oil and gr...

Emmanuel-ikpeme, C. A.; Eneji, C. A.; Essiet, U.

2007-01-01

164

Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids  

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Full Text Available Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the conversion of iodine value. The formation of epoxide adduct of palm kernel oil fatty acids (FAPKO was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral analysis showed the disappearance of double bonds and replaced by epoxy group in the EFAPKO.

Michelle Ni Fong Fong

2013-02-01

165

Characterization of Activated Carbons from Oil-Palm Shell by CO2 Activation with No Holding Carbonization Temperature  

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Activated carbons can be produced from different precursors, including coals of different ranks, and lignocellulosic materials, by physical or chemical activation processes. The objective of this paper is to characterize oil-palm shells, as a biomass byproduct from palm-oil mills which were converted into activated carbons by nitrogen pyrolysis followed by CO2 activation. The effects of no holding peak pyrolysis temperature on the physical characteristics of the activated carbons are studied....

Herawan, S. G.; Hadi, M. S.; Ayob, Md R.; Putra, A.

2013-01-01

166

Land-Use Implications to Energy Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Biodiesel from Palm Oil Production in Indonesia  

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The objectives of this study are to identify the energy balance of Indonesian palm oil biodiesel production, including the stages of land use change, transport and milling and biodiesel processing, and to estimate the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from different production systems, including large and small holder plantations either dependent or independent, located in Kalimantan and in Sumatra. Results show that the accompanied implications of palm oil biodiesel produced in Kalimantan a...

Harsono, Soni; Subronto, Bronto

2013-01-01

167

Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems  

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The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the output sides of its activities. On the input side, crude palm oil mills use large quantities of water and energy in the production process. On the output side, manufacturing processes generate large qu...

Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W. H.; Mol, A. P. J.; Khaodhair, S.

2006-01-01

168

Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel  

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This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, en...

Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

2012-01-01

169

Neural Network in Modeling Malaysian Oil Palm Yield  

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Problem statement: Forecasting of palm oil yield has become an important element in the management of oil palm industry for proper planning and decision making. The importance of yield forecasting has led us to explore modeling of palm oil yield for Malaysia using the most recent development of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The main issue in yield forecasting is to predict the future value with the minimum error. Approach: Artificial neural networks are co...

Zuhaimy Ismail; Azme Khamis

2011-01-01

170

Polygon Sawing: An Optimum Sawing Pattern for Oil Palm Stems  

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The shortage in wood supply makes the effort to find alternative for wood material become more and more important. It was reported that the outer parts of oil palm stems could be used as solid wood after being properly treated. Being a monocotyledon, oil palm stems have a contradictory characteristic to the conventional hardwoods and softwoods and thus the sawing patterns suitable for hardwoods and softwoods should not be suitable for the oil palm stems. Two modified sawing patterns (polygon ...

Edi Suhaimi Bakar; Fauzi Febrianto; Imam Wahyudi; Zaidon Ashaari,

2006-01-01

171

Effects of Fires in Juvenile Oil Palm Fields on Yield and Oil Palm Breeding  

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Full Text Available Fires in juvenile oil palm (Elaeis guinenesis Jacq. fields cause the death and/or reduce the yield. The magnitude of the loss of yield in subsequent years has been assessed for the first time on four of the 25 progenies that composed the 20th genetic trial laid out at La Dibamba (Cameroon in 1993 which was accidentally victim of fires in 1996. Records of bunch production during the first five years of harvesting (1996-2000 showed that in the first two years after fires, total bunch weight was reduced by 35%, bunch number by 26% and average bunch weight by 23%. From two years after the fires onwards, burnt oil palms reacted by producing a high number of bunches, which compensated for the small average bunch weight. Fire damage to juvenile oil palms disrupted the selection of precocious progenies that helps procure for the plantations an early financial return on their investment.

Claude Bakoumé

2011-09-01

172

Predicting fresh fruit bunch yield of oil palm  

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This study aimed to develop the simulation model for predicting fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield of oil palm through multiple linear regression analysis. Two experiments were conducted at the oil palm plantation of Agricultural and Technology College, Krabi province. Six-year-old Tenera hybrid palms were used for the experiments. These palms were planted in Tha-sae soil series (Typic Paleudults; Fine loamy mixed)with spacing of 9x9x9 m. In the first experiment, 151 Tenera palms were selected and...

Nilnond, C.; Tongkum, P.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Eksomtramage, T.

2001-01-01

173

A Gate to Gate Assessment of Environmental Performance for Production of Crude Palm Kernel Oil Using Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry is an export orientated industry which heavily relies on the world market. In 2007 alone the total export earnings reached RM 45.1 billion. It is essential that the oil palm industry is ready to meet the higher expectation of its overseas customers on the environmental performance of the industry. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is a tool to evaluate the environmental impacts of a product or process throughout its entire life cycle. To identify the potential environmental impacts associated with the production of CPKO and to use this assessment for evaluating opportunities to overcome the potential impacts. Approach: This study had a gate to gate system boundary that starts with the collection and transportation of the palm kernel from the palm oil mills to the production of Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO at the kernel crushing plants. Six kernel crushing plants were selected to collect inventory data which consists of inputs of raw materials and energy; outputs of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Five crushing plants used electricity directly from the grid while one crushing plant used the electricity generated at the neighboring palm oil mill for processing. This study compared the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA of two scenarios namely; when the crushing plants uses electricity from the grid versus the crushing plant which uses electricity generated from the palm oil mill. The LCIA was conducted using the Simapro software and the Eco-Indicator 99 methodology. Results: For scenario one there was two potential impacts mainly from the electricity consumption from the grid for processing and diesel consumption for transporting the palm kernel from the mills. For scenario two, the potential impact from the electricity consumption from the grid was reduced due to the use of renewable energy from the palm oil mill and the impact from diesel consumption was reduced due to the short distance for transporting the palm kernel. Conclusion: It was recommended that more kernel crushing plants should be integrated with the palm oil mills to over come these impacts.

S. Vijaya

2009-01-01

174

Production of methyl ester from oil in the wastewater pond of a palm oil factory  

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Full Text Available This research studied the suitable technique for the production of methyl ester from waste palm oil in the water pond of a palm oil mill. The composition of the waste palm oil was 73.82% fatty acid, 5.07% triglyceride, 3.39% diglyceride and 17.76% unknown compounds. The unknown compounds were separated via simple distillation carried out at a temperature range of 300-350oC.First, the experiments were carried out in screw capped bottles using filtrated as-received waste oil as the reactant. The esterification and transesterification process were conducted using sulfuric acid catalyst in a methanol solution. The key parameters studied were mole ratio of waste oil to methanol (1:1 to 1:72, amount of catalyst from 0.1-20 v/w% of the reactant, temperature range of 60-98oC and reaction time range of 15-180 minutes. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC analysis showed 85-90% purity of methyl ester with 4-5% of mono-, di-, and triglycerides and fatty acids and about 5-10% of the unknown compounds for the best condition. The resulting yield of biodiesel was 84-88%. Eradication of contaminants by distillation gave about a 75% distillate yield. Distilled waste palm oil was esterified and transesterified using the previous optimum condition of as-received waste oil, but the reaction time and temperature were varied. The optimal result was obtained by using distilled waste palm oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:8, sulfuric acid of 1 v/w% of reactant, reaction temperature of 70oC and reaction time of 1 hour. TLC analysis indicated a biodiesel composition of methyl ester, free fatty acid, diglyceride and monoglyceride of 96.39%, 3.20%, 0.24% and 0.17%, respectively. The yield of biodiesel was 96-98% having physical fuel properties according to Thailand standard for methyl esterFinally, the distilled waste palm oil was esterified using a 3 liters continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR. Using the suitable condition for the batch process and an hour retention time, the resulting biodiesel contained methyl ester, free fatty acid, diglyceride and monoglyceride at compositions of 94.34%, 3.22%, 1.60% and 0.84%, respectively, which were very close to the qualities from the batch process.

Tongurai, C.

2007-11-01

175

A choice of renewable or upgraded material from oil palm solid wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaysian palm oil industries are producing a large amount of solid wastes from the palm oil mills. Malaysia generates around 1.10 million tons of oil palm shells in year 1980 but this amount increased up to 4.11 million tons in year 2002 as wastes. Disposal of these wastes created environmental problems. Thus, a process was designed to reuse and recycle these wastes into value added products. This research used oil palm shells as a renewable material resource by thermo-chemical process to produce pyrolysis oil. The oil could be utilized as fuel or converted to valued added products. Since it contain a significant amount of phenols, it was extracted using solvent extraction technique to gain the useful phenol and phenolic compounds. The extracted oil-palm-shell-based phenol was used in the manufacturing of phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. Then the capability of wood bonding was tested comparing with the petroleum-based phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. For the commercial values of this research, the total global consumption of phenol in 2000 was 11.3 million metric ton that worth USD 10.0 billions. Thus, the commercial potentiality of this research is very high as the oil-palm-shell-based phenol could replace the petroleum-based phenol. The methods and products utilize low manufacturing cost from relatively simple technology and locally abundant raw material, comparable performances in wood bonding and competitive in price. It is estimated that around USD 900 / ton for petroleum-based, but just USD 250 / ton for palm-shell-based phenol

176

Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products. PMID:12492637

Ng, Wing-Keong

2002-01-01

177

Benefits of clean development mechanism application on the life cycle assessment perspective: a case study in the palm oil industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study performed an assessment on the beneficial of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) application on waste treatment system in a local palm oil industry in Malaysia. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to assess the environmental impacts of the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction from the CDM application. Calculations on the emission reduction used the methodology based on AM002 (Avoided Wastewater and On-site Energy Use Emissions in the Industrial Sector) Version 4 published by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC). The results from the studies showed that the introduction of CDM in the palm oil mill through conversion of the captured biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment into power generation were able to reduce approximate 0.12 tonnes CO2 equivalent concentration (tCO2e) emission and 30 kW x hr power generation per 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunch processed. Thus, the application of CDM methodology on palm oil mill wastewater treatment was able to reduce up to 1/4 of the overall environment impact generated in palm oil mill. PMID:22482288

Chuen, Onn Chiu; Yusoff, Sumiani

2012-03-01

178

OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

Wan Rosli Wan Daud

2011-02-01

179

Gas Exchange Responses of Oil Palm to Ganoderma boninense Infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparison of physiological parameters was carried out between healthy and Ganoderma infected 17-year old oil palms grown under the same field conditions. Results from gas exchange measurements indicate that stomatal conductance was significantly reduced in infected palms. This led to significant reductions in transpiration rate and intercellular CO2 concentration in the infected palms. The relative leaf chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of PS II were also significantly reduced in the infected palms. The results indicate that infected palms were under water stress that was induced by injury to their root and vascular transport system and not related to soil water deficits.

M.H. Haniff

2005-01-01

180

The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

d doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan

 
 
 
 
181

Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

182

Environmental impacts and improvement prospects for environmental hotspots in the production of palm oil derived biodiesel in Malaysia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Palm oil is the largest and fastest growing vegetable oil on the world market and the prospects of biodiesel production will further spur the expansion. In order to contribute to the knowledge base on current environmental impacts and potential improvements in the palm oil industry this study sets out to generate LCI data for central, yet underexplored elements in the production of biodiesel with a focus on greenhouse gasses (GHG). The research follows an attributional modelling framework, but does include system expansion to account for the use of residues from the palm oil production. The reference flow of the study is 1 MJ palm oil derived biodiesel, which has been chosen to facilitate comparisons of the results to fossil diesel and other biodiesels. The impact focus is on global warming potential with extensive quantification of GHG emissions and potential reduction. Other impact categories are included mainly with the purpose of documenting whether the proposed GHG reduction initiatives result in problem shifting. Land use changes (LUC) are the most controversial aspect of palm oil production with large potential GHG emissions and impacts on biodiversity. With global warming and extinction of animals and plants in tropical areas being easily communicated to the public, palm oil has been the target of numerous scare campaigns. Conversely, the palm oil industry is adamant that palm oil and oil palm plantations are sequestering carbon and supporting a wide range of flora and fauna. Through critical selection of literature data, field studies and application of state-of-the-art LCA methodology, this study is quantifying the GHG emissions from palm oil related LUC for the two most common previous land uses in Malaysia, namely logged-over forest and rubber plantations. In order to be able to assess the impacts from average palm oil production in Malaysia, a Malaysian average LUC scenario was set up and assessed. Solid residues from the production of palm oil constitute two tons dry weight organic matter per ton palm oil produced. Current use of this potential resource is limited to mulching of plantation residues and empty fruit bunches (EFB) from the mills and use of press fibre and kernel shells in the mill boilers. The mill wastewater called palm oil mill effluent (POME) is treated anaerobically in open lagoons emitting large amounts of methane. In recent years it is becoming more popular to sell kernel shells for use in industrial boilers, and biogas plants with methane capture for the POME treatment are slowly making their entry, but the potential uses and environmental benefits of such uses have only been sporadically explored. Residue energy recovery for substitution of fossil fuels is explored here through application of biomass power plants, pyrolysis and biogas production. Modelling the results of the LUC study and the residue use study into a GaBi model, various scenarios were set up to test the environmental potentials of management decisions in respect to LUC choices, yield optimization and residue use. The study also includes an assessment of the management practices of corporations and smallholders and an economic feasibility study to assess financial aspect of environmental improvements. The results show that biodiesel production from conventionally produced palm oil with national average LUC emissions emits only marginally less GHG than the life cycle emissions of fossil diesel. This study, however, shows that significant environmental improvements are available with currently available technologies to bring the impacts well below the fossil diesel emissions, and do so with economic profitability. Residue use shows a big potential for improvement. The conventional residue management causes net GHG emissions where the prospective fossil fuel substitutions through residue energy recovery alone is so significant that net GHG emissions from the PME production process can become close to CO2 neutral when not including LUC. An added bonus for the palm oil industry is that such improvements are likely to result

Hansen, Sune Balle

2012-01-01

183

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Palm Kernel Oil from Palm Kernel Cake  

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Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) at pressure 19.8 MPa and temperature 51C with different amount of ethanol (0-100 mL) was studied the extraction of palm kernel oil from palm kernel cake. The amount of oil produced from SFE and Modified ethanol-CO2 are proportional to the amount of ethanol. It was found that a-tocopherol, a-tocotrienol, sterols and fatty acid such lauric acid, myristic acid and oleic acid were present in all of the palm kernel oil sample.

Rosalam Sarbatly; Awang Bono; Duduku Krishnaiah; Siti Fadhilah

2012-01-01

184

Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production of palm oil derived biodiesel can be almost carbon neutral. PMID:22137753

Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

2012-01-01

185

Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production of palm oil derived biodiesel can be almost carbon neutral.

Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving

2012-01-01

186

Characteristic of oil palm residue for energy conversion system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malaysia is the major producer of palm oil in the world. It produces 8.5 tones per year (8.5 x 106 ty-1) of palm oil from 38.6 x 106 ty- 1 of fresh fruit bunches. Palm oil production generates large amounts of process residue such as fiber (5.4 x 106 ty- 1), shell (2.3 x 106 ty- 1 ), and empty fruit bunches (8.8 x 106 ty- 1 ). A large fraction of the fiber and much of the shell are used as fuel to generate process steam and electricity. The appropriate energy conversion system depends on the characteristic of the oil palm residue. In this paper, a description of characteristic of the oil palm residue is presented. The types of the energy conversion system presented are stoker type combustor and gasified. The paper focuses on the pulverized biomass material and the use of fluidized bed gasified. In the fluidized bed gasified, the palm shell and fiber has to be pulverized before feeding into gasified. For downdraft gasified and furnace, the palm shell and fiber can be used directly into the reactor for energy conversion. The heating value, burning characteristic, ash and moisture content of the oil palm residue are other parameters of the study

187

Performance Evaluation of Palm Oil as Biodiesel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work involved the production of diesel from most commonly available palm fruits oil Pisifera elaeis guineensis and testing for the brake power, torque of an engine and specific fuel consumption of a conventional diesel engine utilizing the produced diesel from palm oil. The obtained results were compared with those for fossil diesel fuel. The results show that the value of brake power was 6927.21W for fossil diesel while that of biodiesel was 7135.02W. Similarly the value for brake torque for fossil diesel was 44.1Nm and that of biodiesel was 45.42Nm. The average value obtained for the specific fuel consumption in the three experiments conducted for fossil diesel and biodiesel were 69.09 and 129.21 l/kWh respectively. It was discovered that the values of brake power, torque power and specific fuel consumption for bio diesel fuel were higher than those of fossil diesel fuel.

Sunday A. LAWAL

2011-06-01

188

Pulsating combustion of palm oil fruit bark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the characteristics of palm oil fruit bark pulsating combustion. The fruit is abundant in the Brazilian state of Bahia and its bark is a residue available from the process of palm oil extraction. The residue is a potential alternative fuel for small energy generating units. A Rijke type pulsating combustor with a 200 mm internal diameter was tested in the burning of the material. Two combustor lengths were investigated (2400 and 3200 mm). The combustor wall was refrigerated by a water jacket. The pulsating combustion of the bark produced a maximum power output of 1.9 MW m{sup -2}. The maximum combustion efficiency was 96% which was obtained with an excess of air of 10%. The frequencies ranged between 65 Hz and 70 Hz in the longer configuration and between 85 Hz and 90 Hz in the shorter configuration. The acoustic pressure amplitude in the combustor mid section reached 4kPa. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Torres, E.A.; Victorio, J.R.S.; Ferreira, M.A.; Carvalho, J.A. Jr. (Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento, Camacari (Brazil))

1991-03-01

189

Cellulase Production by Pycnoporus sanguineus on Oil Palm Residues through Pretreatment and Optimization Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ever expanding trend of the palm oil industries in Malaysia brings about environmental concern with various parties calling for global practice of sustainable palm oil production. In as much as researches in processing technologies are ongoing, utilization of palm oil industries’ residues as a substrate for cellulases production has received little attention. This study addressed on the effect of pressed pericarp fibers sterilization on cellulase production by Pycnoporus sanguineus grown in shake flask culture using a statistical approach. Optimum condition was obtained in 70% (v/v palm oil mill effluent supplemented with 6 g L-1 sterilized palm pressed fibers at pH 6.77 and 350 rpm with CMCase, FPase and ?-glucosidase activities and net changes of biomass and suspended solid at 50.11, 29.01, 5.58 IU mL-1 and 2.49 g L-1, respectively. Under such conditions, the predicted maximum growth and cellulolytic enzyme production were in good agreement with the experimental data with 0.016-0.358% error.

M.D. Mashitah

2010-01-01

190

Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Palm oil is known as an important source of edible oil with significant values of renewable energy. Depletion of petroleum had captured much attention on producing biodiesel from the palm oil. Approach: The most concerning methods for the production of biodiesel were discussed, namely transesterification (alkali and acid), enzymetic approach and supercritical alcohol. Results: The results showed the vis-a-vis of the methods...

Khalizani Khalid; Khalisanni Khalid

2011-01-01

191

An experimental investigation on feeding of oil palm shell (OPS) and oil palm fronds (OPF)  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in producing energy to reduce green house gas emissions using biomass as a feedstock is increasing worldwide. In a fluidized bed reactor, the feeding of the feedstock plays an important role in the burning process. In this study, feeding tests were carried out using gravitational method for oil palm shell (OPS) and oil palm fronds (OPF). The design of the feeder of 150 g/h is also presented. The objective of this paper is to study the feed rate of the samples used and to find the relationship between the physical characteristic of the samples (the shape of the samples, particle size and moisture content) and the feed rate. The result shows that the feed rate of OPS and OPF was around 120 g/h and 90 g/h, respectively. After grinding and sieving, OPS appeared to be more granular compared to OPF making it easier to feed. Other characteristics and results are also discussed in this paper.

Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

2013-05-01

192

Industrial utilization of oil palm by-products III. Thermomechanical pulping of oil palm fronds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With a view to utilizing oil palm fronds, TM (Thermomechanical)- and CTM (Chemi-Thermomechanical)- pulpings of alkali pretreated and untreated fronds have been carried out. Pretreatment of raw materials with alkali gave pulps with higher yield and excellent properties. The addition of NaOH and/or NaSO{sup 3} increased the strength properties up to the level of softwood TMPs, but presented a lower brightness than that of frond TMP. TMPs from untreated fronds showed lighter brightness than those from alkali pretreated fronds, but weaker strength than the pretreated fronds. The possibility of using TMPs from oil palm fronds for the production of corrugating medium and liner board, was discussed. Fiber length distribution, chemical properties and carbohydrate compositions verified the higher qualities of CTMPs. 16 refs., 1 fig, 13 tabs.

Kamishima, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Ryukichi; Fukuoka, Satoshi; Akamatsu, Isao; Kobayashi, Yoshinari; Husin, M.B. Miswan, O.B.; Hassan, H.A.H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Shikoku Kagawa, (Japan))

1989-02-28

193

Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel blends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace metal composition in relation to corrosion. Also the bond structure/stability of the samples in relation to diesel were monitored with a Fourier transform infrared s...

Martins, C. M. A. O.; Ajibola, V. O.; Ajiwe, V. I. E.

2003-01-01

194

Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

195

Ethyl ester production from (RBD palm oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work develops a methodology for obtaining ethyl esters from RBD (refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil by evaluating the oil’s transesterification and separation. Two catalysts were first tested (KOH and NaOH by studying the effect of water presence on the reaction. The separation process was then evaluated by using water and water-salt and water-acid mixtures, establishing the agent offering the best results and carrying out the purification stage. Raw materials and products were characterised for comparing the latter with those obtained by traditional means and verifying the quality of the esters so produced; minimum differences were found bet-ween both. The proposed methodology thus allows esters to be used as raw material in petrochemical industry applications. A more profitable process can be obtained compared to those used today, given the amounts of separation agent so established (1% H3PO4 solution, in water. The overall process achieved 74.4% yield, based on the oil being used.

Oscar Mauricio Martínez Ávila

2010-07-01

196

Comparison of Acoustic Characteristics of Date Palm Fibre and Oil Palm Fibre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated and compared the acoustic characteristics of two natural organic fibres: date palm fibre and oil palm fibre, these materials eligible for acoustical absorption. During the processing stage, both fibre sheets are treated with latex. The two fibres are compressed after latex treatment Circular samples (100 mm in diameter and 28 mm, based on the measurement tube requirements are cut out of the sheets. The density of the date palm fibre sheet is 150 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 130 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. In contrast, the density of oil palm fibre is 75 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 65 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. An impedance tube was used to test the thicknesses of both samples based on international standards. The results show that the date palm fibre exhibits two Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC peaks: 0.93 at 1356 Hz and 0.99 at 4200-4353 Hz for the 50-mm-thick sample. In contrast, the 30-mm-thick sample has a single AAC peak of 0.83 at 2381.38-2809.38 Hz. However, the 50-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an AAC peak of 0.75 at 1946.88-2178.13 Hz and the 30-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an acoustic absorption coefficient peak 0.59 at 3225-3712.5 Hz. Thus, the date palm fibre has a higher acoustic absorption coefficient for high and low frequencies than does oil palm fibre. Both fibres are promising for use as sound absorber materials to protect against environmental noise pollution.

Lamyaa Abd ALRahman

2014-02-01

197

Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palm oil is an excellent choice for food manufacturers because of its nutritional benefits and versatility. The oil is highly structured to contain predominantly oleic acid at the sn2-position in the major triacylglycerols to account for the beneficial effects described in numerous nutritional studies. Oil quality and nutritional benefits have been assured for the variety of foods that can be manufactured from the oil directly or from blends with other oils while remaining trans-free. The oxidative stability coupled with the cost-effectiveness is unparalleled among cholesterol-free oils, and these values can be extended to blends of polyunsaturated oils to provide long shelf-life. Presently the supply of genetic-modification-free palm oil is assured at economic prices, since the oil palm is a perennial crop with unparalleled productivity. Numerous studies have confirmed the nutritional value of palm oil as a result of the high monounsaturation at the crucial 2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, making the oil as healthful as olive oil. It is now recognized that the contribution of dietary fats to blood lipids and cholesterol modulation is a consequence of the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of the fats. Lipolytic hydrolysis of palm oil glycerides containing predominantly oleic acid at the 2 position and palmitic and stearic acids at the 1 and 3 positions allows for the ready absorption of the 2-monoacrylglycerols while the saturated free fatty acids remain poorly absorbed. Dietary palm oil in balanced diets generally reduced blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides while raising the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Improved lipoprotein(a) and apo-A1 levels were also demonstrated from palm oil diets; an important benefits also comes from the lowering of blood triglycerides (or reduced fat storage) as compared with those from polyunsaturated fat diets. Virgin palm oil also provides carotenes apart from tocotrienols and tocopherols that have been shown to be powerful antioxidants and potential mediators of cellular functions. These compounds can be antithrombotic, cause an increase of the prostacyclin/thromboxane ratio, reduce restenosis, and inhibit HMG-CoA-reductase (thus reducing) cholesterol biosynthesis). Red palm oil is a rich source of beta-carotene as well as of alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienols. PMID:11975364

Ong, A S H; Goh, S H

2002-03-01

198

How Unilever palm oil suppliers are burning up Borneo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New evidence shows expansion by Unilever palm oil suppliers is driving species extinction in Central Kalimantan, and fuelling climate change. In November 2007, Greenpeace released 'Cooking the Climate', an 82-page report summarizing the findings of a two-year investigation that revealed how the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel companies were driving the wholesale destruction of Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands through growing palm oil consumption. This follow-up report provides further evidence of the expansion of the palm oil sector in Indonesia into remaining rainforests, orang-utan habitat and peatlands in Kalimantan. It links the majority of the largest producers in Indonesia to Unilever, probably the largest palm oil corporate consumer in the world.

NONE

2008-04-15

199

The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil society organizations, palm oil buyers, investors and government bodies outside Indonesia about the undiminished threats to the tropical rainforests and indigenous peoples related to Indonesia's oil palm expansion plans and the government's overall development agenda for Kalimantan.

Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2006-04-15

200

Oxygen enriched air using membrane for palm oil wastewater treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A research aimed to explore new method of aeration using oxygen enriched air performance on BOD reduction of palm oil wastewater was conducted. The oxygen enriched air was obtained from an Oxygen Enriched System (OES) developed using asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membrane with composition consisting of PSF: 22%, DMAc: 31.8%, THF: 31.8%, EtOH: 14.4%. Palm oil wastewater samples were taken from facultative pond effluent. These samples were tested for its initial biochemical oxygen demand ...

Ramlah Mohd Tajuddin; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Mohd Razman Salim

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

How will climate change affect oil palm fungal diseases?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil is a very important commodity. It is added to numerous products and is a biofuel. However, oil palms (OP) are subjected to fungal diseases of which Fusarium wilt and Ganoderma rots are the most important. Considerations of how climate change (CC) affects tropical economic plants are limited and for OP are even fewer. The margin for adapting to higher temperatures and changing humidity is reduced in tropical OP. Land will become increasingly unsuitable for growing OP and t...

Paterson, R. R. M.; Sariah, M.; Lima, Nelson

2013-01-01

202

Biodiesel Production from Crude Palm Oil by Transesterification Process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An overflow system for batch esterification of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) to obtain Palm Oil Biodiesel (POB) was developed using a batch reactor (shake flask). The alkali catalyst of potassium hydroxide had been used to carry the transestrication process with methanol; ultimately, 2 layers were form from the reaction-the lower layer of glycerol and the upper layer of methyl esters; the later layer is the targeted biodiesel. Optimization of the process was held for determining of the best possible y...

Alkabbashi, A. N.; Alam, Md Z.; Mirghani, M. E. S.; Al-fusaiel, A. M. A.

2009-01-01

203

Enzymatic Destruction Kinetics of Oil Palm Fruits by Microwave Sterilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microwave sterilization of oil palm fruit is carried out to deactivate lipase and soften the fruits. This study is aims to determine enzymatic destruction kinetics from microwave sterilization of oil palm fruits such as decimal reduction time (D-value), temperature sensitivity (z-value), kinetic constant (k) and activation energy (Ea). Three power levels (medium, medium high and high) of the microwave oven were used and lipase assayed was conducted to determine the lipase activity. Microwave ...

Maya Sarah; Mohd. Rozainee Taib

2013-01-01

204

Predicting fresh fruit bunch yield of oil palm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to develop the simulation model for predicting fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield of oil palm through multiple linear regression analysis. Two experiments were conducted at the oil palm plantation of Agricultural and Technology College, Krabi province. Six-year-old Tenera hybrid palms were used for the experiments. These palms were planted in Tha-sae soil series (Typic Paleudults; Fine loamy mixedwith spacing of 9x9x9 m. In the first experiment, 151 Tenera palms were selected and marked randomly throughout an area of plantation about 16 ha. For each selected palm, FFB yield and yield component characters (FFB number and bunch weight were recorded at every harvesting time for four consecutive years (June 1993 to May 1997. The results showed that the FFB number and bunch weight could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield. In the second experiment, nine plots of Tenera hybrid palms were arranged. The plot size was 0.48 ha and had twenty palms per plot for data collection for three consecutive years (January 1994 to December 1996. These data included leaf nutrient (N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the 17th frond, the fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield and the amount of rainfall. The results showed that N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves, the amount of rainfall and FFB yield in the previous year, together with the N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves (in the predicting year could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield.

Nilnond, C.

2001-11-01

205

Curing reactions of palm oil alkyd enamels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amino resins are the most popularly used cross-linking agents for thermosetting coatings. The most common amino resins are those derived from melamine, 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine and formaldehyde. They are attractive for developing high performance and low cost coatings to improve performances of other film-forming resins with reactive functional groups such as hydroxyl, carboxylic, and amide groups. Alkyds modified with melamine are mainly used in industrial baking enamels for metal surfaces. Short-oil alkyds containing 38-45% phthalic anhydride and a high proportion of hydroxyl values in the alkyd resins render good compatibility with melamine-formaldehyde resins. However, the actual mechanisms and pathways of the curing reactions involved are still not fully understood. This paper describes three palm oil alkyds, synthesized with high hydroxyl values. Clear coating enamels were made by mixing 4 parts; of alkyd resin with 1 part of a methylated melamine resin. The complex curing reactions of the clear enamel can be illustrated qualitatively by using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to set suitable curing temperatures without degradation. The dry hard time with various curing temperatures was examined. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to follow the changes in functional group concentrations as a function of time and temperature. (author)

206

Potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon for transesterification of palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon was developed for transesterification of palm oil. The Central Composite Design (CCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst loading and methanol to oil molar ratio on the production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst. The highest yield was obtained at 64.1 C reaction temperature, 30.3 wt.% catalyst loading and 24:1 methanol to oil molar ratio. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel met the standard specifications. This study proves that activated carbon supported potassium hydroxide is an effective catalyst for transesterification of palm oil. (author)

Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2010-11-15

207

Palm oil boom in Indonesia: from plantation to downstream products and biodiesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indonesia has been the biggest producer of palm oil (PO) in the world since 2005. The total production in 2007 was 17.0 and 1.9 million tons of crude palm oil (CPO) and crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), respectively. More than 70% of the CPO was exported and 87% of the domestic consumption was used for food. The production and subsequent refining and fractionation of CPO and CPKO generated biomass by-products that consists of trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fiber, shell, and palm kernel meal (PKM), and discharged wastes of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as well as palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). The amount of by-products and wastes produced has been growing very rapidly and efforts to diversify and improve their utilization are a great challenge. As claimed in many research reports, the by-products and wastes could be potentially utilized as sources of energy, animal feed, chemicals, paper pulp, advanced materials, medicines and food ingredients. A more important role may be played by PO as the Indonesian Government took further steps in 2006 to become the world's largest producer of biodiesel. As a starting point, Presidential Instruction No. 1/2006 for the Production and Use of Biofuel as Alternative Fuel was issued in January 2006. Responding to this Presidential Instruction, at least 15 companies are planning to establish new larger biodiesel refineries to enhance the currently produced 82.5 million L of biodiesel. It is planned to start production in 2008/2009 with two new refineries that have a total capacity of ca. 1,600 million L/year. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

2008-06-15

208

Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens’ feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched y...

Nyquist, Nicole F.; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

2013-01-01

209

Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid.

Wan Nik, W.B. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Kolej Universiti Sains dan Teknologi Malaysia, Mengabang Telipot, 21030 Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia)]. E-mail: niksani@kustem.edu.my; Ani, F.N. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2005-08-15

210

Effects of Fires in Juvenile Oil Palm Fields on Yield and Oil Palm Breeding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fires in juvenile oil palm (Elaeis guinenesis Jacq.) fields cause the death and/or reduce the yield. The magnitude of the loss of yield in subsequent years has been assessed for the first time on four of the 25 progenies that composed the 20th genetic trial laid out at La Dibamba (Cameroon) in 1993 which was accidentally victim of fires in 1996. Records of bunch production during the first five years of harvesting (1996-2000) showed that in the first two years after fir...

Claude Bakoumé; Madi Galdima; Sylvain Rafflegeau; Albert Flori

2011-01-01

211

Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO? refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO?) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO?) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries. PMID:22328076

Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

2012-01-01

212

Improvement in sensitivity of an inductive oil palm fruit sensor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced. PMID:24496313

Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

2014-01-01

213

Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced.

Norhisam Misron

2014-02-01

214

Comparison Study On Oil Palm Trunk And Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Fibre Reinforced Laterite Bricks  

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Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to compare the physical properties and mechanical properties of Oil Palm Trunk (OPT fibre and Oil Palm Fruit Bunches (OPFB fibre reinforced laterite bricks. For comparison purposes, the properties such as dimension, density, water absorption and the compressive strength of both types of bricks were determined. The effects of the incorporation of various amounts of fibres on the above properties were analysed. The tests were carried out according to BS 3821: 1985 for clay bricks.The samples were pressed at the factory Majpadu Bricks Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia and tested at the Material Testing Laboratory, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia.The findings of this research were, firstly, the dimension of bricks content with OPFB fibres were less accurate than bricks with OPT fibres. Secondly, the density of bricks with OPFB fibres was higher than the density of bricks with OPT fibres. Thirdly, in compressive strength of the bricks with OPFB fibres was higher than bricks with OPT fibres, with the maximum fibre content identified as 3 percent fibres. Finally, the water absorption of bricks with OPFB fibres was lower than the water absorption of bricks with OPT fibres. It can be concluded that the bricks with OPFB fibres had better physical and mechanical properties than bricks with OPT fibres.

Noorsaidi Mahat

2010-06-01

215

Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. I-Solid fat content and consistency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil (PO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100) were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100oC). The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by solid fat content (SFC) and consistency. Results showed a presence of eutectic system at PO and PKO compositions, mainly at 80/20, 60/40 and 50/50 fractions, proved through isosolids and isocons...

Sim Es, Ilka S.; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Guaraldo Gon Alves, Lireny Aparecida; Grimaldi, Renato

2001-01-01

216

Malaysia's Production of Palm Oil with Projections to Year 2000.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaysian palm oil will continue to compete strongly in world markets with soybean and other vegetable oils for the rest of this century. Production could reach 6 million tons in 1990 and 8 million tons in 2000 under the best possible conditions. In more ...

G. Ender

1985-01-01

217

Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm ?, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

218

Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm ?, 18 000 rpm, with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam

2008-01-01

219

The effects of moisture content, particle size and binding agent content on oil palm shell pellet quality parameters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Waste-to-energy represents a challenge for the oil palm industry worldwide. Bio-pellet production is an alternative way of adding value to oil palm biomass. This would mean that a product having major energy density becomes more mechanically stable and achieves better performance during combustion. This paper deals with oil palm shell pelleting; using binding agents having up to 25% mass keeping average particle size less than 1mm and moisture content up to 18.7% (d.b. were evaluated. An experimental factorial design used binding agent mass percentage, milled shell particle size and moisture content as factors. Pellet density response surfaces and durability index were obtained. Pellet performance during thermal-chemical transformation was also evaluated by using thermogravimetry equipment. The results led to technical evaluation of scale-up at industrial production level.

Nelson Arzola

2012-04-01

220

Neutron Backscattered Technique for Quantification of Oil Palm Fruit Oil Content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-destructive and real time method becomes a well-liked method to researchers in the oil palm industry since 2000. This method has the ability to detect oil content in order to increase the production of oil palm for better profit. Hence, this research investigates the potential of neutron source to estimate oil content in palm oil fruit since oil palm contains hydrogen with chemical formula C55H96O6. For this paper, oil palm loose fruit was being used and divided into three groups. These three groups are ripe, under-ripe and bruised fruit. A total of 21 loose fruit for each group were collected from a private plantation in Malaysia. Each sample was scanned using neutron backscattered technique. The higher neutron count, the more hydrogen content, and the more oil content in palm oil fruit. The best correlation result came from the ripe fruits with r2=0.98. This research proves that neutron backscattered technique can be used as a non-destructive and real time grading system for palm oil. (author)

 
 
 
 
221

Palm oil - towards a sustainable future? : Challanges and opportunites for the Swedish food industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The food industry faces problems relating to the sustainability of palm oil as a food commodity. These problem areas include social, environmental, economic and health issues. The food industry also competes with increasing palm oil demands from the energy sector. This case study identifies and analyzes different perspectives regarding sustainable palm oil as a food commodity in Sweden through interviews with palm oil experts in different businesses and organizations. This study focuses on ho...

Nilsson, Sara

2013-01-01

222

Collection of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Germplasm in the Northern Regions of Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil palm germplasm collection was carried out in the Northern Regions of Ghana for evaluation, screening for drought tolerance and further incorporation into breeding programmes of Ghana’s Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R)-Oil Palm Research Institute (O.P.R.I). The study highlights the collection of 22 oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) accessions from 5 locations in the Northern Regions of Ghana. The Northern Regions are not suitable for oil palm cultivation due to unfavou...

Sapey, E.; Adusei-fosu, K.; Agyei-dwarko, D.; Okyere-boateng, G.

2012-01-01

223

BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of greenhouse gases and pollutants by decreasing OH budgets. Global models predicting atmospheric changes and bottom-up estimates from the tropics must be constrained by direct measurements such as presented here, taking separate account of these major contributions from oil palm plantations and tropical rainforests. References: Guenther, A., C.N. Hewitt, D. Erickson, R. Fall, C. Geron, T.E. Graedel, P. Harley, L. Klinger, M. Lerdau, W.A. McKay, T. Pierce, B. Scholes, R. Steinbrecher, R. Tallamraju, J. Taylor and P. Zimmerman, 1995: A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research 100, 8873-8892. Guenther, A., T. Karl, P. Harley, C. Wiedinmyer, P. I. Palmer, and C. Geron, 2006: Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 6, 107-173. Karl, T., A. Guenther, R. J. Yokelson, J. Greenberg, M. Potosnak, D. R. Blake, and P. Artaxo, 2007: The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Emission, chemistry, and transport of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the lower atmosphere over Amazonia. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, D18302. Wilkinson, M. J., S. M. Owen, M. Possell, J. Hartwell, P. Gould, A. Hall, C. Vickers, and C. N. Hewitt, 2006: Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Plant Journal 47, 960-968.

Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

2009-04-01

224

Palm oil transesterified by metanolysis as diesel engine biofuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews a general background of biodiesel and its potentialities and possibilities as automotive fuel. The paper also compares the colombian production capacity in the world context, and shows its advantages and disadvantages as diesel engine biofuel. The paper discusses some relevant processing techniques of crude palm oil, the methanol transesterification technique being found to be the most suitable one. Finally it shows the results of some important physicochemical characterization of a crude palm oil transesterificated with methanol at the Universidad de Antioquia

225

Enzymatic Destruction Kinetics of Oil Palm Fruits by Microwave Sterilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microwave sterilization of oil palm fruit is carried out to deactivate lipase and soften the fruits. This study is aims to determine enzymatic destruction kinetics from microwave sterilization of oil palm fruits such as decimal reduction time (D-value, temperature sensitivity (z-value, kinetic constant (k and activation energy (Ea. Three power levels (medium, medium high and high of the microwave oven were used and lipase assayed was conducted to determine the lipase activity. Microwave sterilization of oil palm fruits depends on the destruction kinetic parameters such as D-value, z-value and Ea. It required only 8.333 to 16.949 minutes to deactivate the lipase, and the process is not temperature sensitive which is indicated by z-value. The z-value indicated requirement to increase temperature up to 71.5, 77.0 and 83.0oC respectively from initial maximum temperature to reduce the D-value. Minimum energy required to start the destruction process of lipase was 13.927 to 14.049 kJ/mole obtained from microwave sterilization of 1 kg oil palm fruits at all power levels. Oil quality observed from free fatty acid (FFA concentration that indicated FFA below 3.5%.

Maya Sarah

2013-06-01

226

Preliminary studies of epoxidized palm oil as sizing chemical for carbon fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epoxidized palm oil is derived from palm oil through chemical reaction with peracetic acid. Preliminary studies to coat carbon fibers have shown promising result towards applying natural product in carbon fibre composites. Mechanical studies of sized carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil showed significant increase in tensile and interfacial shear strength. Surface morphology of sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil reveals clear increase in root means square-roughness (RMS). This indicates the change of the surface topography due to sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil. (author)

227

Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD from Several Palm Oil Refineries  

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Full Text Available This research studied the characteristics of Palm Fatty Acids Distillates (PFADs from several palm oil refineries. It was aimed to know the potency of PFAD as bioactive compounds source, including vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols, phytosterols, squalene and possibly co-enzyme Q10 and polycosanol. Sampling was conducted at 6 palm oil refineries. The results showed that PFAD was dominated by free fatty acids of 85-95% with low oxidation level indicated by peroxide value of 1-10 meq/kg and anisidin value of 6-31. Bioactive compounds found were vitamin E 60-200 ppm, phytosterols 400-7500 ppm and squalene 400-2800 ppm, meanwhile polycosanol and co-enzyme Q10 were not found. Vitamin E was dominated by tocotrienols and ? tocotrienol was the major vitamin E, followed by ? and ? tocotrienols. Phytosterols in PFADs from several palm oil refineries had variety in quantity and composition. Generally it was dominated by &beta sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol

Teti Estiasih

2013-09-01

228

The Modulating Effects of Red Palm Oil (?-Carotene) on Aflatoxin ?1-induced Toxicity in Weaning rats. H. C. C.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil (?-Carotene) was evaluated for its ability to inhibit/ ameliorate the aflatoxin ?1-induced toxicity in six groups of experimental rats thus (water control, aflatoxin ?1-treated, palm oil treated, palm oil and aflatoxin ?1-alternate group, palm oil and aflatoxin ?1 and aflatoxin ?, and palm oil treated groups). Palm oil (1.4 ?g ?-carotene as Palm oil) was given orally while aflatoxin ?1 (2 mg kg?1 body...

Maduka; Uwaifo, A. O.; Nwankwo, J. O.

2001-01-01

229

Oil Palm Fruit Classifications by using Near Infrared Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-destructive assessment on oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB variability provides information for convenient oil palm field management practices. In this study a destructive assessment, using a microstrip sensor technique was firstly used to determine oil palm FFB maturity stages. A sample of FFB fruitlets was taken from 50 oil palm trees. The statistical data of insertion loss obtained from microstrip sensor was then been compared with moisture content in wet basis that was obtained from oven drying to correlate with the FFB maturity stages. The images of the above FFB samples were taken at the field by using multispectral camera. These images were processed and Near Infrared (NIR hue value was extracted as the maturity feature. A relationship between images data of NIR and microstrip sensor data was developed to determine the maturity stages. The maturity stages data was plotted in the GIS map. Farmers will be able to go to specific location of FFB that has the optimum maturity and carried out the harvesting operation efficiently.

Muhamad Saufi Mohd Kassim

2014-03-01

230

Magnetic composite prepared from palm shell-based carbon and application for recovery of residual oil from POME.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic separation combined with adsorption by activated carbon has been found to be a useful method for removing pollutants. In this paper, the use of palm shell as a source of activated carbon for the removal and recovery of oil from palm oil mill effluent (POME) is studied. In the first part of the study, the properties of samples of activated carbon prepared from palm shell under a variety of different conditions were characterized for their hydrophobicity, surface areas and pore size distribution. The most effective of the activated carbon samples was prepared by impregnation with ZnCl(2) followed by combined physical/chemical activation under carbon dioxide flow at 800 °C. Four grams of these samples adsorbed 90% of the oil from 50 mL POME. In the second part, the palm shell-based carbon samples were given magnetic properties by the technique of iron oxide deposition. Ninety-four percent of the activated carbon/iron oxide composite containing the adsorbed oil could be extracted from the POME by a magnetic bar of 0.15 T. Four grams of the composite can remove 85% of oil from 50 mL POME and a total of 67% of the initial oil can then be recovered by hexane extraction. Powder X-ray diffractometry showed the presence of magnetite and maghemite in the activated carbon/iron oxide composite. PMID:20932635

Ngarmkam, Worawan; Sirisathitkul, Chitnarong; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

2011-03-01

231

Use of calcium oxide in palm oil methyl ester production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducing an untreated calcium oxide (CaO as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil by transesterification was studied in this work. The four studied parameters were methanol to oil molar ratio, CaO catalyst concentration, reaction time, and water content. The results for palm oil show that when the water content is higher than 3%wt and the amount of CaO greater than 7%wt soap formation from saponification occurs. A higher methanol to oil molar ratio requires a higher amount of CaO catalyst to provide the higher product purity. The appropriate methanol to CaO catalyst ratio is about 1.56. Commercial grade CaO gives almost the same results as AR grade CaO. In addition, reusing commercial grade CaO for about 5 to 10 repetitions without catalyst regeneration drops the percentage of methyl ester purity approximately 5 to 10%, respectively.

Kulchanat Prasertsit

2014-04-01

232

Biodiesel production from palm oil via heterogeneous transesterification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the study of the transesterification of palm oil via heterogeneous process using montmorillonite KSF as heterogeneous catalyst. This study was carried out using a design of experiment (DOE), specifically response surface methodology (RSM) based on four-variable central composite design (CCD) with {alpha} (alpha) = 2. The transesterification process variables were reaction temperature, x{sub 1} (50-190 C), reaction period, x{sub 2} (60-300 min), methanol/oil ratio, x{sub 3} (4-12 mol mol{sup -1}) and amount of catalyst, x{sub 4} (1-5 wt%). It was found that the yield of palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) could reach up to 79.6% using the following reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 190 C, reaction period at 180 min, ratio of methanol/oil at 8:1 mol mol{sup -1} and amount of catalyst at 3%. (author)

Kansedo, Jibrail; Lee, Keat Teong; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

2009-02-15

233

Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The advantages that oil palm biomass has includes the following:available and exists in abundance, appears to be effective technically, and can be integrated into existing processes. Despite these advantages, oil palm biomasses have disadvantages such as low adsorption capacity, increased COD, BOD and TOC. These disadvantages can be overcome by modifying the biomass either chemically or thermally. Such modification creates a charged surface and increases the heavy metal ion binding capacity of the adsorbent. PMID:24984835

Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

2014-01-01

234

Design and Development of Laboratory Scale Updraft Gasifier for Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The huge amount of wasted Oil Palm Fronds (OPF produced annually provides a very good opportunity for the oil palm industry in Malaysia to use it for power generation, especially in mill boilers. Recently, gasification technology is receiving more attention as it can be used to convert wasted biomass into gaseous fuel for power generation and thermal applications as well as it can be used as a fuel source for the production of other chemicals. This study addresses the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of an updraft fixed-bed-gasifier. A 50 kW updraft gasifier is designed and fabricated for gasification of Malaysian oil palm fronds. The gasifier is designed using the empirical data from literature and derived quantities. The gasifier was modified to be very flexible allowing the gasification air to be fed through several locations. The air gasification results of OPF showed volumetric percentage of 22.61-23.36% of CO, 6.48-6.68% of H2, 1.2-1.5% of CH4, 9.51-9.65% of CO2 and 59.20-58.1% of N2. The heating value of the product gas mixture varied between 4.1-4.4 MJ Nm-3 while the cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency and specific gasification rate of the gasifier was in the range of 57-59 and 95-97% and 103-109 kg m-2 h-1, respectively. The study has demonstrated that the oil palm frond waste is suitable for the designed and fabricated updraft gasifier and the produced gas from the gasification of OPF was successfully used in a domestic cooking stove.

Ramzy E. Konda

2014-01-01

235

Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel blends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace metal composition in relation to corrosion. Also the bond structure/stability of the samples in relation to diesel were monitored with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Results confirmed that most methylester blends with diesel fell within the grade 2D while the oil, methylester and 90:10 blend fell into 4D grade diesel fuels. From bond structure/stability comparison, all the samples were stable at 28 oC and had similarity in structure with diesel. All samples are commercializable. The trace metal composition of most samples was below that of the diesel with exception of Mn, Pb and Zn. The total acid numbers of all samples were below that of diesel and would not cause corrosion. It is recommended that processing of these samples should be done to conserve fossil fuel and as alternative diesel fuels in diesel engines.

C.M.A.O. Martins

2003-06-01

236

Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm  

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Abstract Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H...

Croxford Adam E; Alfiko Yuzer; Mienanti Devi; Sitorus Andrew C; Wening Sri; Nelson Stephen; Wilkinson Mike J; Dunwell Jim M; Ford Caroline S; Forster Brian P; Ds, Caligari Peter

2010-01-01

237

Mutation induction in oil palm cultures using gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutations have played an important role in the improvement of wide range of food crops, ornamental plants and oil crops such as sesame and sunflower. Based on these successes an attempt was made to employ the mutagenesis techniques to broaden the genetic variation in breeding materials of oil palm. Traits of interest are high yield, dwarfness and disease resistance. Embryogenic callus initiated from several high yielding clones were exposed to gamma irradiation for optimum dose determination. (Author)

238

The Modulating Effects of Red Palm Oil (?-Carotene on Aflatoxin ?1-induced Toxicity in Weaning rats. H. C. C.  

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Full Text Available Palm oil (?-Carotene was evaluated for its ability to inhibit/ ameliorate the aflatoxin ?1-induced toxicity in six groups of experimental rats thus (water control, aflatoxin ?1-treated, palm oil treated, palm oil and aflatoxin ?1-alternate group, palm oil and aflatoxin ?1 and aflatoxin ?, and palm oil treated groups. Palm oil (1.4 ?g ?-carotene as Palm oil was given orally while aflatoxin ?1 (2 mg kg?1 body weight was given up to eight days and ?-glutamyl transferase (E. C. 2.3.2.2 activities were assayed in the liver and sera samples. The treatment with the palm oil caused a significant decrease in ?-glutamyl transferase activities in the palm oil treated groups compared with aflatoxin-treated controls in both liver and sera samples suggesting that palm oil contains antioxidant principles. Also treatment with palm oil ameliorated the histopathological lesion like fatty degeneration and necrosis induced by aflatoxin ?1 thus suggesting that palm oil was cytoprotective. It is concluded that pretreatment with palm oil was necessary for maximum inhibition of aflatoxin ?1-induced toxicity. The mechanism of inhibition by palm oil appeared to be inhibition of propagation of free radicals. Also administering palm oil and aflatoxin ?1 alternately appeared to be necessary for maximum inhibition of toxicity.

Maduka

2001-01-01

239

Processing of fresh palm fruits using microwaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microwave heating was determined in this study to be suitable for the detachment and drying of palm fruits from whole bunches, cut bunches and spikelets. Microwave treatment of the palm fruits was able to attain the objectives of conventional fresh palm fruits sterilization processeses such as fruit softening, nut conditioning and halting of enzymatic lipolysis. Palm oil and kernel oil solvent extracted respectively from the microwave treated whole fruits and kernel were found to have a good quality of low free fatty acid content. This technology, together with the solvent extraction of the dehydrated fruits, may have the potential to be a continuous, dry and clean technology for palm oil milling. PMID:17645207

Chow, Mee Chin; Ma, Ah Ngan

2007-01-01

240

Enzymatic catalyzed palm oil hydrolysis under ultrasound irradiation: diacylglycerol synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diacylglycerol (DAG) rich oils have an organoleptic property like that of regular edible oils, but these oils do not tend to be accumulated as fat. Palm oil ranks first in the world in terms of edible oil production owing to its low cost. The aim of this study was to propose a new methodology to produce diacylglycerol by hydrolysis of palm oil using Lipozyme RM IM commercial lipase as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation. The reactions were carried out at 55 °C with two different methods. First, the reaction system was exposed to ultrasonic waves for the whole reaction time, which led to enzymatic inactivation and water evaporation. Ultrasound was then used to promote emulsification of the water/oil system before the hydrolysis reaction, avoiding contact between the probe and the enzymes. An experimental design was used to optimize the ultrasound-related parameters and maximize the hydrolysis rate, and in these conditions, with a change in equilibrium, DAG production was evaluated. Better reaction conditions were achieved for the second method: 11.20 wt.% (water+oil mass) water content, 1.36 wt.% (water+oil mass) enzyme load, 12 h of reaction time, 1.2 min and 200 W of exposure to ultrasound. In these conditions diacylglycerol yield was 34.17 wt.%. PMID:23402907

Awadallak, Jamal A; Voll, Fernando; Ribas, Marielen C; da Silva, Camila; Filho, Lucio Cardozo; da Silva, Edson A

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel via alcoholysis of palm oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzymatic alcoholysis of crude palm oil with methanol and ethanol was investigated using commercial immobilized lipases (Lipozyme RM IM, Lipozyme TL IM). The effect of alcohol (methanol or ethanol), molar ratio of alcohol to crude palm oil, and temperature on biodiesel production was determined. The best ethyl ester yield was about 25 wt.% and was obtained with ethanol/oil molar ratio of 3.0, temperature of 50 degrees C, enzyme concentration of 3.0 wt.%, and stepwise addition of the alcohol after 4 h of reaction. Experiments with 1 and 3 wt.% of KOH and 3 wt.% of MgO were carried out to compare their catalytic behavior with the enzymatic transesterification results. The commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme TL IM, showed the best catalytic performance. PMID:19023524

Matassoli, André L F; Corrêa, Igor N S; Portilho, Márcio F; Veloso, Cláudia O; Langone, Marta A P

2009-05-01

242

Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis based on the information provided by other authors resulted in 2406 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, on average. The Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13] study does not report emissions. When compared to diesel on a energy basis, avoided emissions due to the use of biodiesel account for 80 g CO{sub 2}e/MJ. Thus, avoided life cycle emissions associated with the use of biodiesel yield a net reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We also assessed the carbon balance between a palm tree plantation, including displaced emissions from diesel, and a natural ecosystem. Considering the carbon balance outcome plus life cycle emissions the payback time for a tropical forest is 39 years. The result published by Gibbs et al. (2008) [Gibbs HK, Johnston M, Foley JA, Holloway T, Monfreda C, Ramankutty N, et al., Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield and technology. Environmental Research Letters 2008;3:10], which ignores life cycle emissions, determined a payback range for biodiesel production between 30 and 120 years. (author)

de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

2010-11-15

243

Intelligent Color Vision System for Ripeness Classification of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch  

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Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Ne...

Haidi Ibrahim; Syed Salim Syed Ali; Junita Mohamad-Saleh; Zaini Abdul Halim; Norasyikin Fadilah

2012-01-01

244

Palm oil and soybean oil as fry fats: sensory acceptability of a deep-fat fried Nigerian snack food.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the project was to compare the acceptability of a African snack product, chin-chin, when fried in soybean, palm, palm olein and palm stearin oils. Forty complete responses were obtained from volunteer judges who were attending an agricultural exposition sponsored by the University of Nebraska. After tasting all products, the judges gave slightly better rating scores to the palm stearin fried chin-chin than to the soybean oil fried products (p taste/odor acceptability in comparison to a more highly saturated fry fat (palm olein oil). PMID:8378268

Edionwe, A O; Kies, C

1993-09-01

245

Improvement potential for net energy balance of biodiesel derived from palm oil: A case study from Indonesian practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel derived from palm oil has been recognized as a high-productivity oil crop among the first generation of biofuels. This study evaluated and discussed the net energy balance for biodiesel in Indonesia by calculating the net energy ratio (NER) and net energy production (NEP) form the total energy input and output. The results of the calculation of energy input for the default scenario demonstrated that the primary energy inputs in the biodiesel production lifecycle were the methanol feedstock, energy input during the biodiesel production process, and urea production. These three items amounted to 85% of the total energy input. Next, we considered and evaluated ways to potentially improve the energy balance by utilizing by-products and biogas from wastewater treatment in the palm oil mill. This result emphasized the importance of utilizing the biomass residue and by-products. Finally, we discussed the need to be aware of energy balance issues between countries when biofuels are transported internationally. (author)

Kamahara, Hirotsugu [Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Hasanudin, Udin [Department of Agroindustrial Technology, University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Widiyanto, Anugerah [International Cooperation Center for Engineering Education Development, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Tachibana, Ryuichi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Atsuta, Yoichi; Goto, Naohiro; Daimon, Hiroyuki [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujie, Koichi [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

2010-12-15

246

Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane – a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

247

The oil palm SHELL gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key event in the domestication and breeding of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis was loss of the thick coconut-like shell surrounding the kernel. Modern E. guineensis has three fruit forms, dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), a hybrid between dura and pisifera. The pisifera palm is usually female-sterile. The tenera palm yields far more oil than dura, and is the basis for commercial palm oil production in all of southeast Asia. Here we describe the mapping and identification of the SHELL gene responsible for the different fruit forms. Using homozygosity mapping by sequencing, we found two independent mutations in the DNA-binding domain of a homologue of the MADS-box gene SEEDSTICK (STK, also known as AGAMOUS-LIKE 11), which controls ovule identity and seed development in Arabidopsis. The SHELL gene is responsible for the tenera phenotype in both cultivated and wild palms from sub-Saharan Africa, and our findings provide a genetic explanation for the single gene hybrid vigour (or heterosis) attributed to SHELL, via heterodimerization. This gene mutation explains the single most important economic trait in oil palm, and has implications for the competing interests of global edible oil production, biofuels and rainforest conservation. PMID:23883930

Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Rosli, Rozana; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; Budiman, Muhammad A; Hogan, Michael; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Ordway, Jared M; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Martienssen, Robert A

2013-08-15

248

Neural Network in Modeling Malaysian Oil Palm Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Forecasting of palm oil yield has become an important element in the management of oil palm industry for proper planning and decision making. The importance of yield forecasting has led us to explore modeling of palm oil yield for Malaysia using the most recent development of Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The main issue in yield forecasting is to predict the future value with the minimum error. Approach: Artificial neural networks are computing systems containing many interconnected nonlinear neurons, capable of extracting linear and nonlinear regularity in a given data set. It is an artificial intelligence model originally designed to replicate the human brains learning process, a network with many elements or neurons that are connected by communications channels or connectors. The ANN can perform a particular function when certain values are assigned to the connections or weights between elements. In this study, a secondary data set from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB on the foliar nutrient composition, fertilizer trials and Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB yield were taken and analyzed. The foliar nutrient composition variables are the nitrogen N, phosphorus P, potassium K, calcium Ca and magnesium Mg concentration, while the fertilizer trials data are the N, P, K and Mg fertilizers and are measured in kg per palm per year. The foliar composition data was presented in the form of measured values whiles the fertilizer data in ordinal levels, from zero to three. Results: Two experiments were conducted to demonstrate the implementation ANN and for both experiment, the result demonstrated that the number of hidden nodes produces an effect to the overall forecast performance of the ANN architecture. From the first experiment, it shows that the number of runs does not affect the ANN performance, but changing the momentum to learning rates, due to shows a significant improvement in the forecast result. The experimental result will be in the form of statistical analysis, the best neural network performance, the residual analysis and the effect on the learning rate on the NN performance. Conclusion: This study showed that modeling of oil palm yield using neural network requires data to be prepared or modified to satisfy the requirement of the parameters involved. This analysis yields the conclusion that only the number of hidden nodes has a significant influence on the NN performance and there is no effect resulting from the number of runs or the momentum term value on the neural networks performance.

Zuhaimy Ismail

2011-01-01

249

Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002. The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera. In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

Chaumongkol, Y.

2001-11-01

250

Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author).

Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Othman, Z.BT.; Awang, M.R.

1992-01-01

251

Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author)

252

Oil Palm Tree Detection with High Resolution Multi-Spectral Satellite Imagery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil palm tree is an important cash crop in Thailand. To maximize the productivity from planting, oil palm plantation managers need to know the number of oil palm trees in the plantation area. In order to obtain this information, an approach for palm tree detection using high resolution satellite images is proposed. This approach makes it possible to count the number of oil palm trees in a plantation. The process begins with the selection of the vegetation index having the highest discriminating power between oil palm trees and background. The index having highest discriminating power is then used as the primary feature for palm tree detection. We hypothesize that oil palm trees are located at the local peak within the oil palm area. To enhance the separability between oil palm tree crowns and background, the rank transformation is applied to the index image. The local peak on the enhanced index image is then detected by using the non-maximal suppression algorithm. Since both rank transformation and non-maximal suppression are window based, semi-variogram analysis is used to determine the appropriate window size. The performance of the proposed method was tested on high resolution satellite images. In general, our approach uses produced very accurate results, e.g., about 90 percent detection rate when compared with manual labeling.

Panu Srestasathiern

2014-10-01

253

STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER  

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Full Text Available Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%, good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g, and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; CODCr=8140 mg/L. The SEP pulp from oil palm EFB fiber was very suitable for packaging paper when combined with American OCC pulp.

Xiwen Wang,

2012-01-01

254

Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fattythioic acids from palm oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work focuses on the synthesis of fattythioic acids (FTAs) by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction of palm oil with carbonothioic S,S-acid using Lipozyme. The product was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The effects of various reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, amount of enzyme, molar ratio of substrates, and various organic solvents of the reaction system were investigated. The optimum conditions to produce FTAs were respectively, incubation time, 20 h, temperature, 40°C, amount of enzyme, 0.05 g and molar ratio of carbonothioic S,S-acid to palm oil, 5.0:1.0. Hexane was the best solvent for this reaction. The conversion of the products at optimum conditions was around 91%. PMID:21178316

Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar

2011-01-01

255

Forecasting on Crude Palm Oil Prices Using Artificial Intelligence Approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An accurate prediction of crude palm oil (CPO) prices is important especially when investors deal with ever-increasing risks and uncertainties in the future. Therefore, the applicability of the forecasting approaches in predicting the CPO prices is becoming the matter into concerns. In this study, two artificial intelligence approaches, has been used namely artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). We employed i...

Abdul Aziz Karia; Ismail Ahmad; Imbarine Bujang

2013-01-01

256

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY  

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Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefore.establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil plywood is essential. Data from this study on the environmental impact for the production of palm plywood would help to develop sustainable palm plywood product. The results will provide information to identify ways and measures to reduce the environmental impacts. Most foreground data were collected directly from numbers oil palm plywood factories which represent 40% of the palm plywood industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Data gaps were filled by information obtained through questionnaires which were developed specifically for data collection, literature, public database or further calculated from obtained data. The outputs and inputs from production activities were quantified on the basis of functional unit of production of 1 m3from different types of oil palm based plywood i.e., Moisture Resistant (MR, Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 1 and Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 2. The life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 7.1 software and the eco-indicator 99 methodology. The weighting results of LCA for the production of 1 cubic meter of oil palm based plywood showed significant impact in descending order i.e., fossil fuel, respiratory inorganic and climate change. The most significant process contributing to these environmental impacts came from the production and usage of adhesives, transportation of oil palm trunks from plantation to factory and generation and usage of electricity from the grid. The ways to mitigate the environmental impacts are by using substitutes for inorganic chemical adhesives such as groundnut shell lignin adhesive, modified phenol formaldehyde adhesive and developing wood adhesive made from pyrolisis oil of oil palm biomass, establishing a collecting centre for oil palm trunk transportation and efficient use of oil palm biomass as an energy source. The study helped establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil industry from cradle to grave which starts at the oil palm germinated seeds to the production of palm plywood.

M. Shamim Ahmad

2014-01-01

257

Exploring opportunities for enhancing innovation in agriculture: The case of oil palm production in Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We carried out a study using key informant interviews, focus group discussions and individual interviews to explore opportunities to enhance innovation in the oil palm sector in Ghana. Current technical innovations at the farm level are insufficient to promote sustainable oil palm production and to alleviate poverty because of overriding institutional constraints at the larger-than-farm level. Oil palm was selected for the study for three main reasons: (1) It is considered a national prior...

Adjei-nsiah, S.; Sakyi-dawson, O.; Kuyper, T. W.

2012-01-01

258

OIL PALM TRUNK POLYMER COMPOSITE: MORPHOLOGY, WATER ABSORPTION, AND THICKNESS SWELLING BEHAVIOURS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research, impregnated oil palm trunks (OPT) and polymer composites were prepared from a combination of dried oil palm trunks with phenol formaldehyde (PF) and urea formaldehyde (UF) resin in different resin percentages using an impregnation method. Time of impregnation was a parameter used to control the percentage of resin content in the oil palm trunks. These studies investigated the effect of resin content and types of resin on the physical properties of impregnated OPT. Water abso...

C. K. Abdullah,; M. Jawaid,; H. P. S. Abdul Khalil,; A. Zaidon,; Hadiyane, A.

2012-01-01

259

The development of epoxidised palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and its applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The topics are discussed briefly. Acrylated palm oil is prepared through acrylation process, whereby, acrylic acid is introduced into oxirane group of the EPOP (epoxidised palm oil products), EPOLA (epoxidised palm oil products acrylate) was found curable when subjected to UV (ultrviolet) light giving soft coatings. EPOLA is used as radiation curable filler/sealer, radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives and satisfactorily be coated on wood substrates (rubberwood parquets)

260

Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor  

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Full Text Available As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB. Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB. A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA. To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

Noor Hasmiza Harun

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
261

Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)  

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A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell) was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand th...

Chaumongkol, Y.; Nilnond, C.; Tongkum, P.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Songsri, N.; Eksomtramage, T.

2001-01-01

262

Effect of Different Vegetable Oils (Red Palm Olein, Palm Olein, Corn Oil and Coconut Oil on Lipid Profile in Rat  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of different vegetable oils [red palm olein (RPO, palm olein (PO, corn oil (CO and coconut oil (COC] on lipid profile in rat. Sixty six Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into eleven groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15% concentrations of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. Rats in control group were given normal rat pellet only while in treated groups 15% of additional vegetable oils were given. The results at 4 weeks showed a decline in Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C values at RPO and PO groups whereas in CO and COC groups the LDL-C were increased compared to the control group. The High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C values increased in RPO and PO groups whereas it was declined in CO and COC groups compared to the control group. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference (P ? 0.05 in HDL-C of rats treated with vegetable oils compared to the control group. However, the LDL-C in RPO and PO was significantly decreased (P ? 0.05 in the LDL-C and there was no significant difference (P?0.05 for CO and COC groups compared to the control groups. The mean value of the LDL-C after 8 weeks in the control group, RPO, PO, CO, and COC groups were 66.1 mg/dl, 31.9 mg/dl, 41.1 mg/dl, 50.41 mg/dl and 54.31 mg/dl respectively. There was significant decreased (P ? 0.05 in the total cholesterol (TC in RPO group for 4 weeks compared to the control group while the TC in PO, CO and COC were within the normal range. The results of TC in all treated rats for 8 weeks were within the normal range. There was no significant difference in TC of rats treated with vegetable oils compared to the control group. Triglycerides (TG in all treated rats for 4 weeks were within the normal range whereas the TG in RPO, PO and CO groups for 8 weeks were significant increase (P ? 0.05 compared to the control group but there was no significant difference between the control group and COC group.

Aminah Abdullah

2011-06-01

263

Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters  

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Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time....

Ranalli, A.

1992-01-01

264

Biomethane potential of the POME generated in the palm oil industry in Ghana from 2002 to 2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

The palm oil industry experienced significant improvement in its production level from 2002 to 2009 from the established companies, medium scale mills (MSM), small scale and other private holdings (SS and OPH) groups. However, the same cannot be said for treatment of the palm oil mill effluent (POME) produced. The quantity of crude palm oil (CPO) produced in Ghana from 2002 to 2009 and IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, specifically on industrial wastewater were used in this study. During this period about 10 million cubic metres of POME was produced translating into biomethane potential of 38.5 million m(3) with equivalent of 388.29 GW h of energy. A linear growth model developed to predict the equivalent carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions indicates that if the biomethane is not harnessed then by 2015 the untreated POME could produce 0.58 million tCO(2)-eq and is expected to increase to 0.70 million tCO(2)-eq by 2020. PMID:22406099

Arthur, Richard; Glover, Kwasi

2012-05-01

265

Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production  

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Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB), in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE) and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its phys...

Nasrin, A. B.; Ma, A. N.; Choo, Y. M.; Mohamad, S.; Rohaya, M. H.; Azali, A.; Zainal, Z.

2008-01-01

266

The Susceptibility of Some Oil Palm Elaeis guineensis Jacq Progenies to Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti and Mariau, (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)  

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Damage by the oil palm leaf miner C. lam eensis has been observed in all oil palm growing countriesin Africa causing wide spread defoliation and result to considerable reduction in the yield of fresh fruit bunches(ffb). The understanding of the susceptibility levels of different oil palm progenies to the oil palm leaf minerC. lameensis become highly imperative in the development and incorporation of host plant resistance in theintegrated pest management strategy for the management of the oil ...

Dimkpa, S. O. N.

2010-01-01

267

Recycled palm oil is better than soy oil in maintaining bone properties in a menopausal syndrome model of ovariectomized rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palm oil is shown to have antioxidant, anticancer and cholesterol lowering effects. It is resistant to oxidation when heated compared to other frying oils such as soy oil. When a frying oil is heated repeatedly, it forms toxic degradation products, such as aldehydes which when consumed, may be absorbed into the systemic circulation. We have studied the effects of taking soy or palm oil that were mixed with rat chow on the bone histomorphometric parameters of ovariectomised rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: (1) normal control group; (2) ovariectomised-control group; (3) ovariectomised and fresh soy oil; (4) ovariectomised and soy oil heated once; (5) ovariectomised and soy oil heated five times; (6) ovariectomised and fresh palm oil; (7) ovariectomised and palm oil heated once; (8) ovariectomised and palm oil heated five times. These oils were mixed with rat chow at weight ratio of 15:100 and were given to the rats daily for six months. Ovariectomy had caused negative effects on the bone histomorphometric parameters. Ingestion of both fresh and once-heated oils, were able to offer protections against the negative effects of ovariectomy, but these protections were lost when the oils were heated five times. Soy oil that was heated five times actually worsens the histomorphometric parameters of ovariectomised rats. Therefore, it may be better for postmenopausal who are at risk of osteoporosis to use palm oil as frying oil especially if they practice recycling of frying oils. PMID:17704019

Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Chuan, Loh Hong; Mohamed, Norazlina; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Fong, Yew Su; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

2007-01-01

268

Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

2012-11-01

269

Organoleptic Study of Deacidified and Deodourised Palm Oil  

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Full Text Available Deficiency of vitamin A has long been identified as a serious and preventable nutritional disorder, associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity amongst children. The present study was conducted with the objectives (i to perform organoleptic testing of food products cooked in Deacidified and Deodourised Palm oil (DDPO, by sensory evaluation method and (ii to compare the characteristics of these food products with the same products cooled in routinely used oil. Eleven commonly used weaning food items were prepared with routinely used oil (Group a. The same recipes were also prepared with DDPO (Group B. A food testing panel conducted with sensory evaluation for assessing the acceptability of the various food items. It was observed that with respect to all characteristics there was no significant difference in the recipes made with the two types of oil. Results indicated that DDPO can be used in India for preparation of weaning foods which are routinely given to young children.

Umesh Kapil

2014-11-01

270

Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Kernel Oil  

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Full Text Available The search for renewable energy resources continues to attract attention in recent times as fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, which are been used to meet the energy needs of man are associated with negative environmental impacts such as global warming. Biodiesel offered reduced exhaust emissions, improved biodegradability, reduced toxicity and higher carotene rating which can improve performance and clean up emissions. Standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil, which includes the Density, Viscosity, flash/fire point, carbon residue, volatility and Specific Gravity were determined by chemical experimental analysis. The flash/fire points of the Heavy duty oil (SAE 40 and Light duty oil (SAE 30 is 260/300(°C and 243/290(°C respectively while the pour points of the samples are 22°C for palm kernel oil while 9°C and 21°C for SAE 40and SAE 30 respectively.

John J MUSA

2009-07-01

271

Way to Measure the Concept Precarious Working Conditions in Oil Palm Plantations  

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Full Text Available Oil palm plantations are the backbone of the Malaysian economy, since day immemorial. When you look intothe past, the workers in the oil palm plantations were dominated by Indian and Chinese communities. Later dueto the sigma associate with oil palm plantations jobs viz., dirty, dangerous and distance, the Indians and Chineseworkers moved away from the oil palm work and they were replaced by Indonesians and Philippines. Theseforeign workers whom having the legal and illegal status under enforcement in Malaysia, have been living inremotely located inhabitations engaging in ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ wise oil palm plantations. Though thelarger oil palm plantation companies ensure minimum living and working conditions for the foreign workers,vastly located small holding plantations never follow such minimum and fair working environment. Theseconditions to be correlated with the term “precarious working conditions’ in small holding oil palm plantations.Due to lack of availability of the locals to engage in oil palm work, the plantations have to depend on foreignworkers do all these ‘dirty, dangerous and distance’ workers in oil palm plantations. Except a few literatureavailable from Amnesty international and local NGOs, there is less evidence to prove the existence of suchexploitative working conditions in oil palm plantations. In order to explore precarious working conditions in oilpalm plantations thus a qualitative research study is conducted in the Sabah region of the Eastern Part ofMalaysia. The study followed, triangulation method through interviews with the migrated foreign workers, (legaland illegal, focus group discussions and Delphi technique with the identification of experts in the field to arriveat the factors and categories related to the theme ‘precarious working conditions’ in oil palm plantations. Theoutcome of the study fixes the variables that need to be concentrated for a higher level research throughquantitative research.

Dileep Kumar M.

2014-10-01

272

Segregation, correlation and heritability of agronomic characters in F2 progenies of oil palm  

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This study aimed at evaluating the segregation, correlation and heritability of certain agronomic characters in F2 plants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) which were collected and planted in 1989 at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Southern Thailand. The 1,038 palms collected at the age of thirteen-years derived from F1 Tenera hybrid plants were selected from oil palm plantations in different areas in Southern Thailan...

Chaumongkol, Y.; Nilnond, C.; Tongkum, P.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Songsri, N.; Eksomtramage, T.

2001-01-01

273

In vitro growth of Ganoderma boninense isolates on novel palm extract medium and virulence on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seedlings  

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Aims: Basal stem rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma pathogenic fungi, especially Ganoderma boninense is thriving rapidly in both areas with coastal and inland soils. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize Ganoderma isolates collected from various locations in Peninsular Malaysia through the comparison of their growth rate in vitroly on conventional and novel palm extract media, and to determine the degree of virulence caused by the isolatesin oil palm seedlings. Meth...

Kok, S. M.; Wong, W. C.; Tung, H. J.; Goh, K. J.; Goh, Y. K.

2013-01-01

274

Least cost energy planning in Thailand:A case of biogas upgrading in palm oil industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thailand is currently the world’s fourth largest producer of crude palm oil. The palm oil mill effluent is proposed to beused for biogas production. A value added option is then proposed by increasing thermal efficiency of the biogas by removingCO2 content and increasing the percentage of methane, consequently turning the biogas in to green gas. In this study, thebiogas and upgrading process for electricity generation with the subsidy or adder in the long term planning is presented. Thisanalysis uses the MARKAL-based least-cost energy system as an analytical tool. The objective of this study is to investigateupgrading biogas with a selected water scrubbing technique featuring least-cost energy planning. The co-benefit aspect ofbiogas and biogas upgrading project is analyzed by given an adder of 0.3 Baht/kWh. The target of total electricity generationfrom biogas is 60 MW in 2012. The result shows that green gas will account for approximately 44.91 million m3 in 2012 andincrease to 238.89 million m3 in 2030. The cumulative CO2 emission during 2012-2030 is 2,354.92 thousand tonnes of CO2.Results show that under the given adders the upgrading project is competitive with the conventional technologies in electricitygeneration planning.

Artite Pattanapongchai

2011-12-01

275

Production of bacterial endoglucanase from pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch by bacillus pumilus EB3.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, endoglucanase was produced from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by a locally isolated aerobic bacterium, Bacillus pumilus EB3. The effects of the fermentation parameters such as initial pH, temperature, and nitrogen source on the endoglucanase production were studied using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the carbon source. Endoglucanase from B. pumilus EB3 was maximally secreted at 37 degrees C, initial pH 7.0 with 10 g/l of CMC as carbon source, and 2 g/l of yeast extract as organic nitrogen source. The activity recorded during the fermentation was 0.076 U/ml. The productivity of the enzyme increased twofold when 2 g/l of yeast extract was used as the organic nitrogen supplement as compared to the non-supplemented medium. An interesting finding from this study is that pretreated OPEFB medium showed comparable results to CMC medium in terms of enzyme production with an activity of 0.063 U/ml. As OPEFB is an abundant solid waste at palm oil mills, it has the potential of acting as a substrate in cellulase production. PMID:18929997

Ariffin, Hidayah; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shah, Umi Kalsom Md; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohd; Shirai, Yoshihito

2008-09-01

276

Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Trunk as a Resource of Starch and Other Sugars  

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Large quantities of oil palm trunks are available annually during the replanting activities when the oil palm tree passed their economic age, on an average after 25 years are replace with young trees. Basically the oil palm trunks contains about 18- 21% of lignin, 65-80% of holocellulose (a-cellulose and hemicellulose) and quite significant amount starch. This work is aimed to determine the total extractable starch and sugars content from oil palm trunks by using steeping method and dilute ac...

Tey, B. T.; Tan, S. E.; Tor, E. S.; Chin, K. L.; Wong, L. J.; Ng, P. S. H.; Maminski, M.

2011-01-01

277

Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is p...

Hewitt, C. N.; Mackenzie, A. R.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Marco, C. F.; Dorsey, J. R.; Evans, M.; Fowler, D.; Gallagher, M. W.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; Langford, B.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Lim, S. F.; Mcquaid, J.

2009-01-01

278

Investigations on a Novel Inductive Concept Frequency Technique for the Grading of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From the Malaysian harvester’s perspective, the determination of the ripeness of the oil palm (FFB) is a critical factor to maximize palm oil production. A preliminary study of a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is presented. To optimize the functionality of the sensor, the frequency characteristics of air coils of various diameters are investigated to determine their inductance and resonant characteristics. Sixteen samples from two categories, na...

Kunihisa Tashiro; Hiroyuki Wakiwaka; Desa Ahmad; Roslina Mohd Sidek; Noor Hasmiza Harun; Norhisam Misron; Ishak Aris

2013-01-01

279

Effects of linseed oil and palm oil on growth performance, tibia fatty acid and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary fat sources on growth performance, tibia fatty acids and biomarkers of bone metabolism in broilers. 2. One-d-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were fed with a maize-soya bean basal diet for 42 d, supplemented with oils according to the following 5 treatments: lard (lard group); linseed oil (linseed oil group); palm oil (palm oil group); linseed oil + palm oil (60:40 or 40:60 w/w, LP-1 group and LP-2 group, respectively). 3. No significant differences in weight gain, feed intake and gain/feed ratio were observed between the lard and linseed oil groups. Birds fed on palm oil had significantly greater weight gain and feed intake than those fed on lard or linseed oil. Growth performance in LP-1 and LP-2 was significantly greater than that of single-oil groups. 4. Tibia growth and bone characteristics were not influenced by supplementation with lard, linseed oil, or palm oil alone, but broilers fed on a mixture of fats had significantly greater tibia weight and length compared to broilers fed on linseed oil. Bone mineral density in tibia was significantly increased in LP-1 and LP-2 groups. 5. Supplementation of linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil enhanced apparent digestibility of calcium, reduced serum calcium and increased tibia calcium concentrations. Moreover, supplementation with linseed oil alone or in combination with palm oil had a positive effect on biomarkers of bone growth. 6. The combination of linseed and palm oils was beneficial for growth performance, tibia growth and biomarkers of bone metabolism. PMID:24641587

Zhong, X; Gao, S; Wang, J J; Dong, L; Huang, J; Zhang, L L; Wang, T

2014-01-01

280

Production of clavulanic acid and cephamycin C by Streptomyces clavuligerus in palm-oil medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palm and palm-kernel oils and their olein and stearin fractions were suitable as the main carbon sources for growth and production of clavulanic acid by Streptomyces clavuligerus. However, oleic and lauric acids were not utilized for growth. A spontaneous mutant, which was selected for higher cephamycin C production, also produced more clavulanic acid with these oils in the medium. PMID:24415093

Lee, P C; Ho, C C

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Development of pressure sensitive adhesives from palm oil acrylated resins by irradiation - a preliminary study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives, PSA, has been developed from various palm oil resins synthesised at MINT Laboratory namely epoxidised palm oil acrylates/methacrylates, EPOLA/EPOMA. The performances of these resins are compared in term of their curing rates and physical properties of cured products

282

DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB undergoes sterilization before being threshed to separate the fruits from the bunch. Upon threshing, the fruits were pressed for its oil while the now Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB will be discarded or used as biomass. It is believed that the EFB contains small amount of oil as well as phytonutrients which contain antioxidative property. This study reports on the extraction and analyses of various types of phenolic compounds, which have been known to exhibit antioxidant property, from the EFB. Different methods were employed in order to extract the Soluble Free (SF, Insoluble Bound (ISB and Esterified Free (EF phenolics in the EFB. Analyses of these phenolics were carried out spectrophotometricaly. The concentrations of the SF, ISB and EF phenolics varies among the wet and dried EFB extracts. All the extracts from both wet and dried EFB exhibit radical scavenging activities.

Ng Mei Han

2012-01-01

283

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author).

Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

1994-01-01

284

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author)

285

Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

286

Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

Daud, D.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

2013-06-01

287

Technological and Financial Assessment of Small Scale Palm Oil Production in Kwaebibrem District, Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was carried out in the Kwaebibrim District of the Eastern Region of Ghana to study the production practices and the profitability of palm oil production among small scale processors using focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews and participant observations. Three categories of processing equipment namely digester screw press combined, digester with separate hand operated hydraulic press and digester with separate hand operated screw press were found in the district with the latter constituting about 80% of the processing equipment used by the processors. The major activities involved in the processing of fruits into oil are removal of the fruit containing spikelets from the fresh fruit bunches, fruit loosening and storage, boiling and digestion of fruits and pressing and clarifying of the oil produced. Fruits are usually stored for a period ranging from one to four weeks before processing leading often to high levels of free fatty acids in the oil produced. Due to scarcity of firewood in the district, waste lorry tyres and mesocarp fibres are used in place of firewood generating a lot of smoke with serious health risk to processors and other mill workers and the environment. Constraints in the small scale processing industry include inaccessibility to remunerative market especially during the peak fruit production period of February to May, lack of credit and skills and knowledge in good processing practices. The financial appraisal of palm oil production shows that in the peak fruit production period of April-May, processors make a loss of 38% of every cedi in sale in their operations and that the production of palm oil can be a profitable venture only during the lean fruit production season (from September – December when oil is relatively scarce. The study suggests that to improve the income of small scale processors, there is the need to help the processors change their practices through research but at the same time it also requires work to create entry into the existing value chains through policy (e.g. bye-laws.  

S. Adjei-Nsiah

2012-05-01

288

Biodiesel Production from Crude Palm Oil by Transesterification Process  

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Full Text Available An overflow system for batch esterification of Crude Palm Oil (CPO to obtain Palm Oil Biodiesel (POB was developed using a batch reactor (shake flask. The alkali catalyst of potassium hydroxide had been used to carry the transestrication process with methanol; ultimately, 2 layers were form from the reaction-the lower layer of glycerol and the upper layer of methyl esters; the later layer is the targeted biodiesel. Optimization of the process was held for determining of the best possible yield of biodiesel at the end of the reaction which was 93.6%. This was carried by finding the optimal values of reaction time of 60 min, reaction temperature of 60°C, agitation speed of 250 rpm, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 10:1 (m/m and dosage of the catalyst of 1.4 (%wt. Other experimental design and analytical tests were conducted including: density of POB at room temperature, 0.8498 kg L-1, surface tension at STP of 26.96 mN m-1, with Huh-Mason correction of 0.1 and finally free fatty acid percentage of 0.12% (equivalent to acid value of 0.26 mg KOH g-1.

A.N. Alkabbashi

2009-01-01

289

Biodegradation of oil palm empty fruit bunch by composite micro-organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison study on the comparative biodegradation ability on EFB by five groups of composite micro-organisms [Organomine, Thomas, Ohres C, Ohres II and micro-organisms from POME (palm oil mill effluent)] has been performed with the aim of producing a compost at a faster rate than that by natural biodegradation. The experiment was carried out by mixing 50 gram EFB (dry weight basis) with 3% ammonium sulphate to which was added 1% composite micro-organisms and water to produce a composting media of moisture content about 60%. Respiration of composite micro-organisms as well as from decomposition of EFB releasing CO sub 2. The choice of useful micro-organisms was based on its ability to degrade EFB as reflected by higher evolution rate of CO sub 2 released and retaining higher percentage of nitrogen in the final product

290

Synthesis of hyper branched polyol from palm oil oleic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hyper branched polyol from oleic acid of palm oil has been synthesized by a two-step reaction. Dipentaerythritol was initially reacted with 2, 2-bis (hydroxymethyl) propionic acid in a solution medium aided by p-toluene sulfonic acid as a catalyst. This mixture was then used as core and reacted with the oleic acid. Optimization parameters such as processing temperature and reaction time, and chemical analysis (for example OHV, AV, FTIR, NMR and GPC) of the macromolecule synthesized is presented in this paper. (author)

291

UV-curable acrylated coating from epoxidized palm oil  

Science.gov (United States)

The properties of coating film prepared from the incorporation of acrylated palm oil (EPOLA) in commercial epoxy acrylate have been studied. A series of different amount of EPOLA was mixed with commercial epoxy acrylate. The blended acrylates passed through UV light to produce a non-tacky film. The conversion of acrylate double bond was monitored by FTIR. The effect of EPOLA concentration onto coated films were investigated by determination of the pendulum hardness and gel content. The higher the amount of EPOLA, the lower the pendulum hardness and the gel content but to a level acceptable for usage in the high-end applications.

Rahman, Nurliyana Abd; Badri, Khairiah Haji; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik

2014-09-01

292

Palm Oil Factory Wastewater Treatment Using Electrochemical Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was carried out to determine the suitability of palm oil factory wastewater treatment using electrochemical technique with stainless steel as both working and counter electrode in 0.1 M NaCl. Treated liquid samples were later analysed using UV-Vis and COD determination. While solid samples formed during the electrolysis process were analyse using FTIR and CHNS analyser. Results obtained showed than electrochemical technique with the above condition able to reduced color and COD level of the wastewater up to 50 % and 80 % respectively after 3 hour electrolysis time with 10 V applied voltage. (author)

293

STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER  

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Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%), good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g), and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L;...

Xiwen Wang,; Jian Hu,; Jingshan Zeng

2012-01-01

294

Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard  

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A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm ?, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, ...

Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam; Tee Chew Tek; Saied Reza Farrokhpayam

2008-01-01

295

Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

296

Acetic acid based oil palm biomass refining process  

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The invention relates to a process for refining a biomass from empty fruit bunches of oil palm with a dry matter content of 5-95 wt.%, based on the total wt. of the biomass, where the process comprises the subsequent stages of (a) water extn. under atm. pressure conditions and at pH of 5-7, (b) pre hydrolysis with water, steam or a their mixt. at 100°- 200°, and (c) hydrolysis at a pH of < 7. In a further aspect of the invention, one or more valuable byproducts such as for example, vegetabl...

Harmsen, P. F. H.; Keijsers, E. R. P.; Lips, S. J. J.; Dam, J. E. G.; Engelen-smit, N. P. E.

2011-01-01

297

Effect of Sterilization Process on Deterioration of Bleachability Index (DOBI) of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Extracted from Different Degree of Oil Palm Ripeness  

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Oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) sterilization process was studied using different degree of FFB ripeness (i.e. underripe, ripe, overripe) and loose fruits. The experimental runs were conducted using laboratory scale sterilizer at varied process condition. With application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the obtained results were used for analyzing interrelation between heating parameters and Deterioration of Bleachability Index (DOBI) of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and performing sterilizati...

Junaidah Mat Jusoh; Norizzah Abd Rashid; Zaliha Omar

2013-01-01

298

Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil  

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Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term perfor...

Teerawat Apichato; Gumpon Prateepchaikul1

2003-01-01

299

Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in Old and New worlds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535?Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30?tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop. PMID:23883927

Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; He, Dong; Hogan, Michael; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lee, Ernest K; DeSalle, Rob; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wing, Rod A; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Robert S; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

2013-08-15

300

Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. I-Solid fat content and consistency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100oC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by solid fat content (SFC and consistency. Results showed a presence of eutectic system at PO and PKO compositions, mainly at 80/20, 60/40 and 50/50 fractions, proved through isosolids and isoconsistency diagrams. The incompatibility among the oils was decreased after reaction and improved the composition plasticity, demonstrated by the increment of solids value and yield value at room temperature.Se interesterificaron, en el laboratorio, mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO: 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 en condiciones predefinidas (0.4% metóxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100oC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por su contenido de grasa sólida (SFC y su consistencia. Los resultados mostraron la presencia de un sistema eutéctico en las mezclas de PO y PKO, principalmente en las proporciones 80/20, 60/40 y 50/50, demostrado por los diagramas de isosólidos y de isoconsistencia. La incompatibilidad entre los aceites disminuyó después de la interesterificación y la plasticidad de las mezclas mejoró, hecho demostrado por el incremento del contenido de sólidos y del límite de fluidez a temperatura ambiente.

Simões, Ilka S.

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

2013-11-01

302

The Relationship Between Palm Oil Index Development and Mechanical Properties in the Ripening Process of Tenera Variety Fresh Fruit Bunches  

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This research has done to determine of the relationship between palm oil development in mesocarp and kernel and Mechanical properties of fresh fruit bunches during the ripening process. For this purpose, Tenera oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera) on 8 year- old palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) research station were selected. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested and were divided into three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom) where the...

Afshin Keshvadi; Johari Bin Endan, Haniff Harun

2011-01-01

303

Post harvest ripening of oil palm fruit is accelerated by application of exogenous ethylene  

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Full Text Available Experiments were conducted with fresh fully mature fruit bunches of Tenera variety oil-palm. Palm fruit bunches were exposed to 0, 250, 500 or 1000 mlL-1 ethylene for 24 hours. Each fruit bunch was evaluated in three separate sections: the bottom, the middle, and the top. The exogenous ethylene treatments significantly hastened palm fruit ripening, quantified by an increase in the fruit peel coloring that turns from black to reddish orange. Ethylene treatments also significantly eased detaching the fruit, by reducing the tension force required. Total oil contents of fruit increased with 1000 mlL-1 ethylene treatment. Free fatty acids (FFA in untreated palm fruit, especially in the bottom section, were at their highest levels 2 days after harvest, and the FFA levels were lowered by ethylene treatments. In summary, exogenous ethylene fumigation accelerated the ripening of oil palm fruit, increased oil yield, and decreased the FFA levels.

Narumol Nualwijit

2014-06-01

304

Spatial Variability of Orange Spotting Disease in Oil Palm  

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Full Text Available Orange Spotting (OS disease which is caused by Cadang-Cadang Coconut Viroid (CCCVd is an emerging problem in oil palm. This study was aimed at quantifying the spatial variability of OS disease severity as an effort to augment the effectiveness of OS phytopathometry appraisal. A 4.2 ha study plot was established in a commercial oil palm plantation at Sungai Buloh, Selangor. A total of 587 geo-referenced trees were visually observed for OS disease symptoms. OS disease severity data were first subjected to exploratory analysis and followed by variography and interpolation analyses to assess spatial variability. The incidence OS disease in the study area was 74.3%. Measured OS disease severity ranged from 0-92.3%. The spatial structure of OS disease severity was described by an exponential model with an effective range of 29.1 m. OS disease severity exhibited a strong spatial dependence with a nugget to sill ratio of 0.15. The spatial variability map of OS disease severity revealed spatial clustering of kriged values, where 73% of the study area showed low severity (1-30%, 25% showed moderate severity (30-60% and approximately 2% showed high severity (> 60%. This study demonstrates the utility of geo-spatial information in understanding the OS disease severity scale which could assist in site-specific disease monitoring and intervention.

M.H.A. Husni

2012-01-01

305

Neural Network Model for Oil Palm Yield Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research presents a study on the development of a model for oil palm yield using neural network approach. The structure of this neural network requires the identification of the input variables and the output. We identified that the percentages of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in leave were used as input variables and fresh fruit bunch was used as the target variable. An investigation of the combinations of activation function in the input layer to the hidden layer and the hidden layer to the output layer found that each combination also affects the neural network performance. The effect of the learning rate, momentum term, number of runs and number of hidden nodes was also investigated. The number of hidden nodes was found to significantly affect the neural network performance. However, the learning rate, momentum term and number of runs were found to have an insignificant effect on the neural network performance. Using R2 values the suitability of the models were measured. Results demonstrate that the neural network model outperformed regression analysis, which can be considered as alternative in modeling of oil palm yield.

Azme Khamis

2006-01-01

306

Chemical interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil: physicochemical properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

trans-Free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a margarine. Palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil were used as substrates for chemical interesterification. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil submitted to chemical interesterification using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The original and interesterified blends were examined for fatty acid composition, softening and melting points, solid fat content, and consistency. Chemical interesterification reduced softening and melting points, consistency, and solid fat content. The interesterified fats showed desirable physicochemical properties for possible use as a margarine. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans-fatty acids could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat. PMID:22229347

Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schäfer De Martini; da Silva, Roberta Claro; Hazzan, Márcia; Capacla, Isabele Renata; Viccola, Elise Raduan; Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio

2012-02-15

307

Catalytic Cracking of Used Palm Oil using Composite Zeolite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rapid expansion of human society implies greater energy demand and environmental issues. In face of depletion energy resources, research is being carried out widely in order to convert the plant oil into biofuel. In this research, the production of liquid biofuels via catalytic cracking of used palm oil in the presence of composite zeolite was studied. The performance of composite zeolite of different properties in the reaction has been evaluated. The catalytic cracking reactions were carried out in a batch reactor at reaction temperature of 350 degree Celsius for an hour. In the present study, adjusting the ratio of meso porous coating to microporous zeolite and magnesium loading on composite zeolite catalyst were found to be able to increase the gasoline fraction and overall conversion of the reaction. (author)

308

RED PALM OIL - HEALTH BENEFITS AND THEIR MOLECULAR EXECUTORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Red palm oil (RPO has been a nutritional vantage amidst mankind since ancient times, but the dietary and healing benefits are now being rediscovered in various aspects of human health. Owing to its compositional richness, RPO is even being recommended as vitamin supplement besides being used as healthy cooking oil loaded with micronutrients and antioxidants. Recent research studies have dissected the molecular mechanisms underlying biological actions of RPO as well as its tocotrienols rich fraction (TRF in cardiovascular health, vitamin deficiency, reproductive health and cerebral health. The present review elaborates on nutritional composition and health benefits of RPO, with a focus on the molecular executors of these actions. We include the documented as well as potential usages, of RPO for human wellbeing. This shall invoke the researchers working in the area of human nutrition to take up research programs for exploring the benefits of RPO in newer and unexplored pathological indications.

Sonam Chawla and Shweta Saxena*

2013-09-01

309

Virgin Coconut Oil Prevents Blood Pressure Elevation and Improves Endothelial Functions in Rats Fed with Repeatedly Heated Palm Oil  

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This study was performed to explore the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) in male rats that were fed with repeatedly heated palm oil on blood pressure, plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control (basal diet), (ii) VCO (1.42?mL/kg, oral), (iii) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) (5HPO), and (iv) five-times-heated palm oil (15%) and VCO (1.42?mL/kg, oral) (5HPO + VCO). Blood pressure was significantly in...

Hj Mohd Saad Qodriyah; Kamsiah Jaarin; Yusof Kamisah; Badlishah Sham Nurul-Iman

2013-01-01

310

Oil palm fresh fruit bunch ripeness classification based on rule- based expert system of ROI image processing technique results  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a processing need for a fast, easy and accurate classification system for oil palm fruit ripeness. Such a system will be invaluable to farmers and plantation managers who need to sell their oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) for the mill as this will avoid disputes. In this paper,a new approach was developed under the name of expert rules-based systembased on the image processing techniques results of thethree different oil palm FFB region of interests (ROIs), namely; ROI1 (300x300 pixels), ROI2 (50x50 pixels) and ROI3 (100x100 pixels). The results show that the best rule-based ROIs for statistical colour feature extraction with k-nearest neighbors (KNN) classifier at 94% were chosen as well as the ROIs that indicated results higher than the rule-based outcome, such as the ROIs of statistical colour feature extraction with artificial neural network (ANN) classifier at 94%, were selected for further FFB ripeness inspection system.

Alfatni, M. S. M.; Shariff, A. R. M.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Marhaban, M. H.; Shafie, S. B.; Bamiruddin, M. D.; Saaed, O. M. B.

2014-06-01

311

Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources  

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Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be ext...

Mohd Omar Ab Kadir; Sahena Ferdosh; Mohd Yazid Abdul Manap; Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman; Mohammed Jahurul Haque Akanda; Mohammed Zaidul Islam Sarker

2012-01-01

312

Penentuan Kadar Asam Lemak Bebas Dari Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO) Dan Crude Coconut Oil (CNO)  

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Telah dilakukan penentuan kadar asam lemak bebas dari Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO) dan Crude Coconut Oil (CNO) yang diperoleh dari daerah Dumai dan Sumatera Utara. Pengambilan CPKO dan CNO dilakukan dengan cara acak sederhana. Salah satu standart mutu dari CPKO dan CNO adalah asam lemak bebas. Asam lemak bebas disebabkan oleh adanya reaksi hidrolisa minyak yang menyebabkan minyak berbau tengik. Penentuan kadar asam lemak bebas dari CPKO dan CNO dilakukan dengan metode volumetri. Dari ana...

Risa Tania Lubis

2009-01-01

313

The political ecology of land management in the oil palm based cropping system on the Adja Plateau in Benin. NJAS - Wageningen  

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The Adja plateau (Benin) is densely populated by tenant and landowner farmers engaged in oil palm based cropping. Landowners use oil palm sap for the production of sodabi (a local spirit), and an oil palm fallow (if no crops are grown beneath the palms) to restore soil fertility. In this area, growing oil palm for its oil is uncommon. Tenants access the land under specific contracts but are not allowed to plant oil palm. They grow food crops beneath the oil palm and extend the cropping period...

Yemadje, H. R. M.; Crane, T. A.; Vissoh, V. P.; Mongbo, R. L.; Richards, P.; Kossou, D. K.; Kuyper, T. W.

2012-01-01

314

Financial assessment of oil palm cultivation on peatland in Selangor, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil palm plantations on peat soils are generally believed to have greater environmental impacts than those on other soil types. Nonetheless, Malaysia operates substantial incentives to maximise palm oil production, which in practice encourage the establishment of plantations on peatland. This paper explores the social and economic basis of oil palm cultivation on one peatland estate at Sungai Panjang in the state of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. Data were obtained by conducting a questionnaire survey of 200 farmers who cultivate oil palm on peat soil. Some of the data were cross-tabulated against farmers’ ages in order to identify any age-related trends in education level, the area of land farmed, annual income and knowledge about oil palm cultivation. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to model the financial output from oil palm in terms of the costs of chemical inputs and labour. The results indicated that cultivation of this crop gives decreasing returns to scale on peatland in Sungai Panjang, and that chemical inputs are more important than labour cost in determining the level of financial output. Finally, the financial viability of oil palm cultivation for farmers was assessed by calculating three financial indicators (NPV, BCR and IRR. This can be a profitable investment so long as growth conditions, costs, selling price and interest rate do not fluctuate substantially. Greater annual returns can be achieved over 20–25 years than over shorter periods, especially of less than 10 years.

M.N. Noormahayu

2009-02-01

315

Prospects for Inhibition of lignin degrading enzymes to control ganoderma white rot of oil palm  

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Oil palm (OP) is prone to a rot by the fungus Ganoderma which may be capable of being controlled by enzyme inhibitors. Palm oil is used in the production of vegetable oil for foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and, most recently, biodiesel. However, the fundamental process of the disease as “white rot” has been ignored by researchers. White rot fungi are capable of degrading lignin ultimately to carbon dioxide and water: Celluloses become available as nutrients for the fungus. One potentia...

Paterson, R. R. M.; Meon, Sariah; Abidin, M. A. Zainal; Lima, Nelson

2008-01-01

316

Sustainable Management in Crop Monocultures: The Impact of Retaining Forest on Oil Palm Yield  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ?23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture. PMID:24638038

Edwards, Felicity A.; Edwards, David P.; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C.

2014-01-01

317

Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ?23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture. PMID:24638038

Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

2014-01-01

318

A Study on Torrefaction of Oil Palm Biomass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermal pre-treatment process to pre-treat biomass at temperature range of 200-300°C under an inert atmosphere. It was known that torrefaction process strongly depended on the decomposition temperature of the lignocellulosic constituents in biomass namely hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. In this study, the torrefaction behaviour of Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB, Palm Mesocarp Fiber (PMF and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS were investigated. The study focuses on the relation between the lignocellulosic constituents with torrefaction process. Two different size ranges of 250-355 ?m and 355-500 ?m were used and then submitted to six final torrefaction temperatures of 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300°C. The process was carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS. The results implied that torrefaction was strongly depended on the thermal decomposition behaviour and composition of lignocellulosic constituents. The ultimate analysis showed that torrefaction increased the carbon content of torrefied solid, whilst decreased the hydrogen and oxygen content. Based on decomposition temperature, the TGA curves indicated that hemicellulose was more significantly decomposed than cellulose and lignin during torrefaction. Due to higher content of hemicellulose in EFB compared to others, EFB had been decomposed almost completely by torrefaction. From the mass spectrometry study, the percentile compositions of CO, CH4, CO2 and H2 in the gases product were found to be 29-33, 20-23, 1.3-1.9 and 1.7-2.1%, respectively. It can be concluded that torrefaction of oil palm biomass affected by the chemical composition and decomposition temperature of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin.

Yoshimitsu Uemura

2012-01-01

319

Proteomic analysis of the oil palm fruit mesocarp reveals elevated oxidative phosphorylation activity is critical for increased storage oil production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palm oil is a highly versatile commodity with wide applications in the food, cosmetics, and biofuel industries. Storage oil in the oil palm mesocarp can make up a remarkable 80% of its dry mass, making it the oil crop with the richest oil content in the world. As such, there has been an ongoing interest in understanding the mechanism of oil production in oil palm fruits. To identify the proteome changes during oil palm fruit maturation and factors affecting oil yield in oil palm fruits, we examined the proteomic profiles of oil palm mesocarps at four developing stages--12, 16, 18, and 22 weeks after pollination--by 8-plex iTRAQ labeling coupled to 2D-LC and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. It was found that proteins from several important metabolic processes, including starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, fatty acid biosynthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation, were differentially expressed in a concerted manner. These increases led to an increase in carbon flux and a diversion of resources such as ATP and NADH that are required for lipid biosynthesis. The temporal proteome profiles between the high-oil-yielding (HY) and low-oil-yielding (LY) fruits also showed significant differences in the levels of proteins involved in the regulation of the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In particular, the expression level of the ? subunit of the ATP synthase complex (complex IV of the electron transport chain) was found to be increased during fruit maturation in HY but decreased in the LY during the fruit maturation. These results suggested that increased energy supply is necessary for augmented oil yield in the HY oil palm trees. PMID:24083564

Loei, Hendrick; Lim, Justin; Tan, Melvin; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lin, Qing Song; Chew, Fook Tim; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Chung, Maxey C M

2013-11-01

320

The feasibility of producing oil palm with altered lignin content to control Ganoderma disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil palm is a major crop which is grown for the production of vegetable oil used in foods, cosmetics and biodiesel. The palm is of major economic importance in southeast Asia where it is grown extensively in Malaysia and Indonesia. There is concern about Ganoderma rots of oil palm which need to be controlled to prevent major infection. However, the basic mechanism of white-rot infection has been ignored. White rot implies that fungi attack the lignin component of woody tissue leaving the whit...

Paterson, R. R. M.; Moen, Sariah; Lima, Nelson

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Strategic environmental assessment for sustainable expansion of palm oil biofuels in Brazilian north region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biofuels development in Brazil is a key factor for the environment and sustainable development of the country. Brazil has great potential of available areas and has favourable climate and geography for biofuel production, such as palm oil, soy, sugar cane, etc. This research aims to evaluate palm oil production and expansion in Para state, in the north of Brazil and also Amazonian territory. Degraded land will be evaluated through remote sensing, because palm oil crops should be placed in these lands, and secondly, expansion scenarios would be created. This PhD research will be a decision support tool for public policies.

Carvalho, Carolina

2010-09-15

322

Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Frond: Effects of Temperature and Operation Time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The last years saw a sharp increment in the interest laid on the renewable and the alternative energy sector, mainly due to the depletion of fossil fuel throughout the world for industrial and commercial use. Malaysia is the second largest producer of palm oil, currently holding up to 4.5 million hectares of palm oil plantation in its land. Currently produced at more than 40 million tons a year, only a small portion of Oil Palm Frond (OPF) is used as domestic animals forage and as raw m...

Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Moni, M. N. Z.

2012-01-01

323

Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Frond: Effects of Temperature and Operation Time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Currently produced more than 40 million tons a year, only a small portion of oil palm frond is used as domestic animals forage and as raw material in small-scale furniture industry, while the rest is left at the plantation floor to naturally decompose. This study introduces oil palm frond as a solid biomass fuel for gasification to produce synthesis gas that can be utilized for heat and energy generation in a cleaner and more efficient manner than direct combustion. Oil palm frond was g...

Sulaiman, Shaharin A.; Moni, M. N. Z.

2013-01-01

324

Fungal degradation of oil palm cellulosic wastes after radiation pasteurisation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fungal degradation ability was appreciated for upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes. In this work, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm press Fiber (PPF) were fermented in an attempt to upgrade to animal feed. However, the heavy contamination of microorganisms in EFB and PPF was observed, and they consist of largely spore forming bacteria and toxigenic moulds of Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus and etc. Therefore, pasteurisation was necessary to be carried out before fermentation, and gamma-irradiation of ca. 10 kGy was employed. Solid-state culture media from EFB and PPF for cultivation of cellulolytic fungi were prepared by addition of some inorganic salts as nitrogen source. The degradation of crude fibre by Coprinus cinereus, Pleurotus species, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, and T. viride was obtained in the range between 18 to 76 % after 18 to 20 days cultivation on non-alkali treated cellulosic wastes. C. cinereus could degradate crude fiber more than 50 %, and which resulted in reduction of crude fibre content to 20{approx}28 % and giving to 10-13 % crude protein content. Release of reducing sugars was obtained as 40 to 145 mg glucose/g after saccharification of precultivated alkali-treated EFB by C. cinereus, A. niger, T. knoningi and T. viride. (author).

Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Mat Rasol Awang; Fajah Bt Ali

1990-10-01

325

Fungal degradation of oil palm cellulosic wastes after radiation pasteurisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fungal degradation ability was appreciated for upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes. In this work, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm press Fiber (PPF) were fermented in an attempt to upgrade to animal feed. However, the heavy contamination of microorganisms in EFB and PPF was observed, and they consist of largely spore forming bacteria and toxigenic moulds of Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus and etc. Therefore, pasteurisation was necessary to be carried out before fermentation, and gamma-irradiation of ca. 10 kGy was employed. Solid-state culture media from EFB and PPF for cultivation of cellulolytic fungi were prepared by addition of some inorganic salts as nitrogen source. The degradation of crude fibre by Coprinus cinereus, Pleurotus species, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, and T. viride was obtained in the range between 18 to 76 % after 18 to 20 days cultivation on non-alkali treated cellulosic wastes. C. cinereus could degradate crude fiber more than 50 %, and which resulted in reduction of crude fibre content to 20?28 % and giving to 10-13 % crude protein content. Release of reducing sugars was obtained as 40 to 145 mg glucose/g after saccharification of precultivated alkali-treated EFB by C. cinereus, A. niger, T. knoningi and T. viride. (author)

326

Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodiesel and the associated GHG emissions are also studied. This study follows the methodology suggested by the Dutch Commission on Sustainable Biomass (Cramer Commission). The results demonstrate that land use change is the most decisive factor in overall GHG emissions and that palm oil energy chains based on land that was previously natural rainforest or peatland have such large emissions that they cannot meet the 50-70% GHG emission reduction target set by the Cramer Commission. However, if CPO production takes place on degraded land, management of CPO production is improved, or if the by-product PFAD is used for electricity production, the emission reduction criteria can be met, and palm-oil-based electricity can be considered sustainable from a GHG emission point of view. Even though the biodiesel base case on logged-over forest meets the Cramer Commission's emission reduction target for biofuels of 30%, other cases, such as oil palm plantations on degraded land and improved management, can achieve emissions reductions of more than 150%, turning oil palm plantations into carbon sinks. In order for bioenergy to be sustainably produced from palm oil and its derivatives, degrad from palm oil and its derivatives, degraded land should be used for palm oil production and management should be improved

327

Using of mucilage palm oil in the toilet soap production.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mucilage palm oil (M.P.O. was obtained from physical refining step for crude palm oil. The components of M.P.O. were high content of free fatty acids (82.2% with simple amount of neutral oil (11.9%, while the residual content (unsaponifiable matter and impurities was 2.1% and in addition to 3.8% water. The results indicated that the colours of M.P.O., tallow and palm kemel oil improved after bleaching. Eight soap samples (n.os 1-8 were prepared from bleached fatty blends of mucilage palm oil, tallow and palm kernel oil at different ratios. The results showed that the moisture contents of soap samples n.os 2,7 and 8 were high compared with the standard soap (sample n.os 1, subsequently their total fatty matters became lower than that found in the control soap (sample n.os 1. The findings marked that the unsaponifiable matter of soaps nos 2,7 and 8 were higher compared with the other soaps. No high differences were observed in the free alkali of all soaps (range from 0.06 to 0.09%. On the other hand, high differences were found in the free oil of all soap samples (n.os2-8 compared with the standard soap (sample nos 1, except soap samples n.os2,7 and 8, which record very high. The best soap samples in the colour were in the following increasing order: n.os1 > 3 > 4 > 5 > 6 > 7 > 8 > 2, respectively. The results showed that the better soap samples in the physical properties were in the following increasing order: soap nos 3> soap nos 4> soap n.os 5> soap n.os 6 compared with the standard soap (sample nos 1, where from firm structure with high foam, while the other soap samples (n.os 2,7 and 8 were poor quality (i.e., low lathering properties with deep colours. Therefore, it could be concluded that mucilage palm oil can be used as a new fatty material for toilet soap manufacturing at ratio of 40% from the fatty blend.

Mucilagos de aceite de palma (M.P.O. fueron obtenidos mediante la etapa de refinación física del aceite de palma crudo. Los componentes de M.RO. tuvieron un alto contenido en ácidos grasos libres (82.2% con cantidades pequeñas de aceites neutros (11.9%, mientras que el contenido residual (materia insaponificable e impurezas fue del 2.1% además del 3.8% de agua. Los resultados indicaron que los colores de M.RO., sebo y aceite de almendra de palma mejoraron después de la decoloración. Ocho muestras de jabón (n.os 1-8 fueron preparadas a partir de mezclas grasas decoloradas de mucilagos de aceite de palma, sebo y aceite de almendra de palma en diferentes proporciones. Los resultados mostraron que los contenidos de humedad de muestras de jabones n.os 2,7 y 8 fueron altos comparados con el jabón control (muestra n.° 1, y por tanto su materia grasa total fueron menores que la encontrada en el jabón control (muestra n.° 1. Los resultados señalaron que la materia insaponificable de los jabones n.os 2,7 y 8 fueron mayores que las obtenidas de los otros jabones. No se observaron grandes diferencias en el álcali libre de todos los jabones preparados (rango de 0.06 a 0.09%. Por otra parte, se encontraron grandes variaciones en el aceite libre de todas las muestras de jabones (n.os 2-8 comparadas con el del jabón control (muestra n.° 1, excepto las muestras de jabones n.os 2, 7 y 8, las cuales registraron valores muy altos. Las mejores muestras de jabón en cuanto al color siguieron el siguiente orden creciente: n.os 1>3>4>5>6>7>8>2. Los resultados mostraron que las mejores muestras de jabón en cuanto a las propiedades físicas siguieron el sigui

Girgis, Adel Y.

1999-06-01

328

Hormones, polyamines, and cell wall metabolism during oil palm fruit mesocarp development and ripening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm is one of the most productive oil-producing crops and can store up to 90% oil in its fruit mesocarp. Oil palm fruit is a sessile drupe consisting of a fleshy mesocarp from which palm oil is extracted. Biochemical changes in the mesocarp cell walls, polyamines, and hormones at different ripening stages of oil palm fruits were studied, and the relationship between the structural and the biochemical metabolism of oil palm fruits during ripening is discussed. Time-course analysis of the changes in expression of polyamines, hormones, and cell-wall-related genes and metabolites provided insights into the complex processes and interactions involved in fruit development. Overall, a strong reduction in auxin-responsive gene expression was observed from 18 to 22 weeks after pollination. High polyamine concentrations coincided with fruit enlargement during lipid accumulation and latter stages of maturation. The trend of abscisic acid (ABA) concentration was concordant with GA4 but opposite to the GA3 profile such that as ABA levels increase the resulting elevated ABA/GA3 ratio clearly coincides with maturation. Polygalacturonase, expansin, and actin gene expressions were also observed to increase during fruit maturation. The identification of the master regulators of these coordinated processes may allow screening for oil palm variants with altered ripening profiles. PMID:25032485

Teh, Huey Fang; Neoh, Bee Keat; Wong, Yick Ching; Kwong, Qi Bin; Ooi, Tony Eng Keong; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Tiong, Soon Huat; Low, Jaime Yoke Sum; Danial, Asma Dazni; Ersad, Mohd Amiron; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David R

2014-08-13

329

Biogasoline Production from Palm Oil Via Catalytic Hydrocracking over Gamma-Alumina Catalyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bio gasoline conversion from palm oil is an alternative energy resources method which can be substituted fossil fuel base energy utilization. Previous research resulted that palm oil can be converted into hydrocarbon by catalytic cracking reaction with ?-alumina catalyst. In this research, catalytic cracking reaction of palm oil by ?-alumina catalyst is done in a stirrer batch reactor with the oil/catalyst weight ratio variation of 100:1, 75:1, and 50:1; at suhue variation of 260 to 340oC and reaction time variation of 1 to 2 hour. Post cracking reaction, bio gasoline yield could be obtained after 2 steps batch distillation. Physical property test result such as density and viscosity of this cracking reaction product and commercial gasoline tended a closed similarity. According to result of the cracking product's density, viscosity and FTIR, it can conclude that optimum yield of the palm oil catalytic cracking reaction could be occurred when oil/catalyst weight ratio 100:1 at 340 oC in 1.5 hour and base on this bio gasoline's FTIR, GC and GC-MS identification results, its hydrocarbons content was resembled to the commercial gasoline. This palm oil catalytic cracking reaction shown 11.8% (v/v in yield and 28.0% (v/v in conversion concern to feed palm oil base and produced a 61.0 octane number's bio gasoline.

Anondho Wijanarko

2006-11-01

330

Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

Teerawat Apichato

2003-05-01

331

Utilisation of Oil Palm Ash in Foamed Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is a part of an on-going research examining the properties of foam concrete when replacing the cement with semi-processed Oil Palm Ash (OPA. Replacements range from 25% to 65% were used for a mix having the mix ratio of (1:2:0.45 and having the target density of 1300kg/m3. All mixes were tested for their strength using the compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths up to the age of 28 days. Results show that a 25% replacement level exhibited higher compressive and splitting tensile strength than that of the control mix at the age of 28 days. However, the same replacement level exhibited a close strength to that of the control mix when tested for the flexural strength at the same age.

Awang H.

2014-01-01

332

Radiation curable coatings from palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation (ultra-violet, UV) curable coatings were prepared by using palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer (PEPP-1) in combination with different reactive diluents in the presence of photoinitiator Irgacure 184 (Irg184). The effects of viscosity of coating materials, radiation dose and curing behavior were investigated. The UV cured polymeric films properties such as pendulum hardness, wettability (contact angle), gel ,content, swelling character, tensile strength, elongation at break, and deformation stability were then determined. The optimum formulations were also coated on wood substrates after which the gloss and hardness of the cured film on the wood substrate were measured. Some formulations showed promising coatings properties and has a good potential application for the wood coating industry. (Author)

333

Utilization of palm oil fuel ash in aerated concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examined experimentally the use of PO FA (palm Oil Fuel Ash) as cementitious material in aerated concrete. The POFA used in different cement replacement amounts. The effect of POFA was studied in terms of compressive strength, overall weight (density). The POFA adopted as cement replacement during this study was ranging from 0-50% with affincrement of 10%. The influence of curing period on compressive strength and density of the selected mix with 20% of POFA was also investigated. Microstructure and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) analysis was also performed. The study was conducted by adopting standard size and test procedures specified by the standards. The results of the study reveals that a cement replacement with POFA of the order of 30% produces the lightweight aerated concrete of greater strength than OPC aerated concrete and POFA may be a potential cementitious material to produce lightweight aerated concrete. (author)

334

Chemical Analyses of Palm Kernel Oil-Based Polyurethane Prepolymer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU was prepared from palm kernel oil-based monoester polyol (PKO-p via prepolymerization method at NCO/OH ratio of 200/100, 150/100, 100/100, and 75/100 at ambient temperature under nitrogen gas atmosphere. The structure of the synthesized prepolymerized PKO-p PU was determined using FTIR and 13C NMR. The disapperance of NCO peak in the FTIR spectrum at 2270 cm–1 - 2250 cm–1 cm showed that MDI has completely reacted to form PU. The appearance of C=O peak at 1700 cm–1 indicated that hydrogen bonding was formed between the soft segmented chain of the PKO-p and the hard segmented MDI. Hence, urethane bond was the main polymeric chain in the PU.

Khairiah Haji Badri

2012-02-01

335

The palm oil supply chain, deforestation and peat clearing  

Science.gov (United States)

The palm oil industry has expanded rapidly in the last two decades, particularly in Indonesia. A considerable amount of this expansion has been at the expense of forests and peatlands, resulting in considerable greenhouse gas emissions. Now the industry is faced with two new challenges. There is a possible oversupply on the global market due to recent expansion and the time lag between clearing and new production coming on line, which may depress prices considerably. Furthermore, there is increasing pressure to reduce the industry's impact on climate and biodiversity, exemplified by the commitment by the businesses of the Consumer Goods Forum to eliminate deforestation from their supply chains by 2020. This presentation will examine the interaction between these two challenges and its implications for the industry, in both southeast Asia and new regions of expansion, and how this interaction could transform the industry's mode of expansion in the coming decade.

Boucher, D. H.

2013-12-01

336

The study of palm oil methyl ester and its corrosiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

The present aim of this study is to determine the corrosion effect of palm oil methyl ester (POME) on aluminium alloy 5083 (AA5083). The static immersion test was carried out at 60°C for 68 days according to ASTM G-31-72. The corrosion analysis was done by using weight loss method and electrochemical test. The POME was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) to determine its functional group. The result from weight loss method shows the decreasing in weight loss of AA5083 which signifies the ability of POME to reduce corrosion rate. The electrochemical test shows the decreasing in polarization resistance, Rp while the corrosion current densities, icorr increase. The corrosion rate reduces from 2.250mpy to 0.1946mpy. The low concentration of fatty acid C18:2 and high anti oxidant element contributes to the reduction of corrosion rate of AA5083 in POME.

Sani, W. B. Wan; Samo, K. B.; Da, T. H.; Zulkifli, M. F. R.

2012-06-01

337

Shear strength of oil palm shell foamed concrete beams  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four reinforced oil palm shell foamed concrete (OPSFC) beams were fabricated, and their shear behaviour was tested. The OPSFC has a target density of approximately 1600 kg/m3 and a 28-day compressive strength of about 20 MPa. Two beams were cast with shear reinforcements while the other two were cast without such reinforcements. For comparison, four reinforced normal weight concrete (NWC) beams were also cast. The beams that contained shear links failed in flexure mode, while those without links failed in shear mode. The experimental results indicated that the shear capacities of OPSFC beams without shear links are higher than those of the NWC beams and exhibit more flexural and shear cracks.

338

Combustion of palm oil solid waste in fluidized bed combustor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experimental investigations of fluidized bed combustion of palm oil wastes consisting of shell, fibre and empty fruit bunches high heating value of 17450 kJ/kg and low heating value of 14500 kJ/kg. The fluidized bed combuster used has a vessel size of 486 x 106 mm3, surface area of evaporation tubes and distribution air pipes of 500 mm2 and 320 mm2 respectively. It was found that a fuel feeding rate 160 kg/h is required to achieve a steam flow rate of 600 kg/h, with the combustion efficiency 96% and boiler efficiency of 72%, emission level of flue gas NOx at less than 180 ppm, SO2 at less than 20 ppm are measured in the flue gas. (Author)

339

LIPASE-CATALYZED TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM KERNEL OIL WITH DIALKYLCARBONATES  

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Full Text Available Lipase-catalyzed transesterifications-especially in a solvent-free medium-are important for industrial applications because such systems would have an enormous advantage by avoiding the problem of separation, toxicity and flammability of organic solvents. However, the organic solvent-free alcoholysis, especially methanolysis, does not give high conversions. The same problem also occurs when ethyl or methyl acetate are used as acyl acceptors. The main problems of lipase-catalyzed organic solvent-free alcoholysis are first, the solubility of the plant oil in the substrate or solvent and second, the fact that transesterification is an equilibrium reaction. Dialkyl carbonates, versatile compounds due to their chemical reactivity and physical properties, may provide an alternative to solve both problems. Using dialkyl carbonates transesterification is not an equilibrium reaction, because the intermediate compound immediately decomposes to carbon dioxide and an alcohol. Moreover, dialkyl carbonates (especially dimethyl carbonate are cheap and widely available. For single step lipase-catalyzed transesterification of palm kernel oil, diakyl carbonates (in this case dimethyl and diethyl carbonate gave better yields compared to those of short chain alcohols. The rate of ester formation with dialkyl carbonates as substrate was about 6-7 times higher than that obtained with short chain alcohols. The formation of esters was gradually increased by a higher enzyme amount from 5-20% (w/w of oil for 8 h reaction time. However from the economic point of view, an enzyme amount of 10% on the weight base of oil was proposed for further reaction. Generally, the highest ester formation was observed when a temperature of 60°C was used. However, in the case of dimethyl carbonate little difference was observed at reaction temperatures of 60 and 70oC and the reactions proceeded nearly identically. The esters formation increased drastically up to more than 70% when water was added up to 0.2%. However, ester formation extremely decreased when more than 0.4% water was added. Formation of ester was lower when a hydrocarbon solvent was added to the system compared to that of when dialkyl carbonates were used as substrate and solvent. Candida antarctica in the immobilized was found to be effective for transesterifying palm ker nel oil with short-chain dialkyl carbonates with or without any added organic solvents.

Tjahjono Herawan

2014-01-01

340

Use of waste ash from palm oil industry in concrete.  

Science.gov (United States)

Palm oil fuel ash (POFA), a by-product from the palm oil industry, is disposed of as waste in landfills. In this study, POFA was utilized as a pozzolan in concrete. The original size POFA (termed OP) was ground until the median particle sizes were 15.9 microm (termed MP) and 7.4 microm (termed SP). Portland cement Type I was replaced by OP, MP, and SP of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of binder. The properties of concrete, such as setting time, compressive strength, and expansion due to magnesium sulfate attack were investigated. The results revealed that the use of POFA in concretes caused delay in both initial and final setting times, depending on the fineness and degree of replacement of POFA. The compressive strength of concrete containing OP was much lower than that of Portland cement Type I concrete. Thus, OP is not suitable to be used as a pozzolanic material in concrete. However, the replacement of Portland cement Type I by 10% of MP and 20% of SP gave the compressive strengths of concrete at 90 days higher than that of concrete made from Portland cement Type I. After being immersed in 5% of magnesium sulfate solution for 364 days, the concrete bar mixed with 30% of SP had the same expansion level as that of the concrete bar made from Portland cement Type V. The above results suggest that ground POFA is an excellent pozzolanic material and can be used as a cement replacement in concrete. It is recommended that the optimum replacement levels of Portland cement Type I by MP and SP are 20% and 30%, respectively. PMID:16497498

Tangchirapat, Weerachart; Saeting, Tirasit; Jaturapitakkul, Chai; Kiattikomol, Kraiwood; Siripanichgorn, Anek

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

SYNGAS FOR METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM PALM OIL BIOMASS RESIDUES GASIFICATION  

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In Colombia, Biodiesel is produced from palm oil and methanol; this methanol could be obtained from gasification of the raw palm oil residuals. The complete process includes: pre-treatment of the biomass, gasification, the cleaning and conditioning of the gas and finally the synthesis of methanol. In this article, a review of the gasification stage is carried out, a classification of the existent gasification reactors is presented and the characteristics of three types of gasifiers are detailed. Furthermore, a summary of certain chemical and physical requirements of the gas obtained by the gasification process are introduced. Some conditions are highlighted: the ratio hydrogen to carbon monoxide (H2/CO must be close to two and, the quantities of diluted nitrogen, sulphur and water in the gas must be low. Keeping in mind these characteristics we proceeded to recommend the gasifier and gasification medium convenient for the results preferred. Finally, a chemical equilibrium – fluid dynamic model is introduced to estimate the composition of the gas produced and to study the effect of the temperature and operation pressure in the quality of the gas produced. The gasification process considers a fluidized bed gasifier and the simulated results are compared with experimental data. The results showed that the simulation approach accurately represents the gasification process and allows considering the simulation for some other biomass residues.

Antonio Jose Bula

2012-06-01

342

CELLULOSE PHOSPHATE FROM OIL PALM BIOMASS AS POTENTIAL BIOMATERIALS  

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Full Text Available The present study investigates cellulose phosphate from oil palm biomass (OPEFB-CP as a potential biomaterial. To this effect, oil palm biomass microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC was phosphorylated using the H3PO4/ P2O5/ Et3PO4/ hexanol method. Characterization of OPEFB-CP was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The cytotoxicity evaluation of OPEFB-CP was conducted on mouse connective tissue fibroblast cells (L929 using MTS Assay analysis, and the proliferation rate of OPEFB-CP on L929 was assessed by the indirect extraction method, whilst mineralization assessment was carried out by immersion of the material in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF for 30 days. Disruption of the crystalline structure of OPEFB-MCC, changes in surface morphology of OPEFB-CP, the presence of new FTIR peaks on OPEFB-CP at 2380 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1, and a smaller rate of mass loss of OPEFB-CP are indications of a successful grafting of phosphate groups. OPEFB-CP showed non-cytotoxic in vitro biocompatibility after 72h exposure with an IC-50 value 45mg/mL and a proliferation rate of up to 8 days with no change in cells morphology below the IC-50 concentration. Apatite formation was observed on OPEFB-CP surfaces after 30 days in SBF with a Ca:P ratio of 1.85.

Wan Rosli Wan Daud

2011-03-01

343

Effect of dietary palm olein oil on oxidative stress associated with ischemic-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart  

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Abstract Background Palm olein oil (PO), obtained from refining of palm oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acid and antioxidant vitamins and is widely used as oil in diet in many parts of the world including India. Palm oil has been reported to have beneficial effects in oxidative stress associated with hypertension and arterial thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the etiopathology of myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury (IRI) which is a common sequel of is...

Sood Subeena; Narang Deepak

2004-01-01

344

Effect of fertilizer application on yield of oil palm  

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Full Text Available The effects of fertilizer application rates on leaf nutrient contents and yield of oil palm were investigated at the Agricultural and Technological College Plantation in Trang province during May 1998 - June 2001. A five-year-old oil palm plantation, planted on the Na Tham soil series (Fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults with spacing 9x9x9 m, was selected for study. A randomized complete block designwith three replications with 20 palms/replication was used. The treatments included six different rates of fertilizer application. The rates of fertilizer were as follows: T1 (farmer practice, T2 (40% of application rate in T4, T3 (70% of application rate in T4, T4 (urea 2,750 g/plant; triple super phosphate 1,500 g/plant; potassium chloride 4,000 g/plant; kieserite 1,000 g/plant; borate 80 g/plant, T5 (130% of application rate in T4 and T6 (170% of application rate in T4. The high leaf nutrient contents of N, P and K at the range of 2.6-2.8%, 0.16-0.18% and 1.13-1.18%, respectively, were found in the high nutrient application rate treatments (T5, T6. However, the amounts of leaf Ca and Mg in T5 and T6 decreased from 0.75-0.80% and 0.33- 0.37% at the beginning of experiment to 0.65-0.70% and 0.22-0.24%, respectively, at the end of the experiment. Small increases of leaf sulphur and boron up to about 0.20-0.22% and 16-19 mg/kg were also found in the high rate of fertilizer treatments. Accumulated fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB increased according to increasing rate of fertilizer application. Accumulated FFB yield of 268.4 kg/plant in the low fertilizer rate (T1 (farmer practice and 278.8 kg/plant in T2 were found compared with the highest yield of 370.2 kg/plant in the highest fertilizer application treatment (T6 for the 3 years experiment. Regarding the economic return, the medium rate of fertilizer application (T3 which achieved an accumulated FFB yield of 338.0 kg/ plant gave the highest profit with the VCR (Value: Cost ratio of 2.53.

Eksomtramage, T.

2001-11-01

345

Land-Use Implications to Energy Balances and Greenhouse Gas Emissions on Biodiesel from Palm Oil Production in Indonesia  

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Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to identify the energy balance of Indonesian palm oil biodiesel production, including the stages of land use change, transport and milling and biodiesel processing, and to estimate the amount of greenhouse gas emissions from different production systems, including large and small holder plantations either dependent or independent, located in Kalimantan and in Sumatra. Results show that the accompanied implications of palm oil biodiesel produced in Kalimantan and Sumatra are different: energy input in Sumatra is higher than in Kalimantan, except for transport processes; the input/output ratios are positive in both regions and all production systems. The findings demonstrate that there are considerable differences between the farming systems and the locations in net energy yields (43.6 to 49.2 GJ t-1 biodiesel yr-1 as well as greenhouse gas emissions (1969.6 to 5626.4 kg CO2eq t-1 biodiesel yr-1. The output to input ratios are positive in all cases. The largest greenhouse gas emissions result from land use change effects, followed by the transesterification, fertilizer production, agricultural production processes, milling and transportation. Ecosystem carbon payback times range from 11 to 42 years.

Soni HARSONO

2013-06-01

346

Formulation and characterization of palm oil esters based nano-cream for topical delivery of piroxicam  

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Palm oil esters are high molecular weight esters oil that has been newly synthesized by University Putra Malaysia researchers. It has received a lot of attention for its pharmaceutical and chemical application. Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic and antipyretic activity. It has low solubility in water as well as in oil with Log P value of 1.8. Generally, drugs with Log P value of more than 0.5 are needed to be formulated into a modified dosage form. One of these formulations is nano sized cream. Hence, the ability of formulating of these tricky drugs into dispersed system is questionable. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of palm oil esters to be the oil phase for formulation of piroxicam into O/W nano-cream. Three points were selected from prepared pseudoternary diagram of palm oil esters and different Tween and Span mixtures. Piroxicam solubility and partition coefficient in oil and external phase was detected. Rheological properties, droplet size, structural properties and zeta potential of the dispersion system containing piroxicam were measured. O/W cream was formed with droplet size measurement by TEM of less than 100 nm. It could be concluded that palm oil esters is suitable oil for the formulation of suitable nano-cream containing piroxicam.

Keywords: Palm oil esters; Piroxicam Solubility; partition coefficient; Rheology; Surface activity.

Muthanna F. Abdulkarim

2011-04-01

347

Intelligent Color Vision System for Ripeness Classification of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch  

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Full Text Available Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Neural Network (ANN learning. The performance of the ANN for ripeness classification of oil palm FFB was investigated using two methods: training ANN with full features and training ANN with reduced features based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA data reduction technique. Results showed that compared with using full features in ANN, using the ANN trained with reduced features can improve the classification accuracy by 1.66% and is more effective in developing an automated ripeness classifier for oil palm FFB. The developed ripeness classifier can act as a sensor in determining the correct oil palm FFB ripeness category.

Haidi Ibrahim

2012-10-01

348

Topological and thermal properties of polypropylene composites based on oil palm biomass  

Science.gov (United States)

Roughness on pristine and polymer composite surfaces is of enormous practical importance for polymer applications. This study deals with the use of varying quantity of oil palm ash as a nanofiller in a polypropylene based matrix. The oil palm ash sample was preprocessed to break the particles into small diameter by using ultra sonication before using microfluidizer for further deduction in size and homogenization. The oil palm ash was made to undergo many passes through the microfluidizer for fine distribution of particles. Polypropylene based composites containing different loading percentage oil palm ash was granulated by twin screw extruder and then injection molded. The surface morphology of the OPA passed through microfluidizer was analyzed by Tapping Mode - Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM). Thermal analysis results showed an increase in the activation energy values. The thermal stability of the composite samples showed improvement as compared to the virgin polymer as corroborated by the on-set degradation temperatures and the temperatures at which 50% degradation occurred.

Bhat, A. H.; Dasan, Y. K.

2014-10-01

349

EXTRACTION OF OIL FROM PRESSED PALM OIL (Elaes guineensis FIBERS USING SUPERCRITICAL CO2  

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Full Text Available Residual fibers from palm oil production are a good source of carotene, since they contain more than 5% of the original oil, with about 5000 ppm of carotenoids. As carotenoids are thermosensitive molecules, supercritical CO2 can be used for oil recovery, because this technique employs low temperatures. In this work results of oil extraction experiments from pressed palm oil fibers are shown. Fibers were from AGROPALMA, an industry which is located in Tailândia (Pará, Brazil. Extractions were carried out at 200, 250 and 300 bar and at temperatures of 45 and 55oC. Oil was analyzed by UV/vis spectrophotometry for total carotene determination. Results showed a large increase in extraction rate from 200 to 250 bar and a small variation from 250 to 300 bar. The total amount of carotenes did not increase in the course of extraction at 300 bar, but it showed a large increase at 200 and at 250 bar. Free fatty acids are present in amounts larger than those found in commercial oils.

FRANÇA Luiz F.

1997-01-01

350

Diversity of Macrofungi in Oil Palm Agroforests of Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study of mushrooms associated with oil palm agroforests in Edo State, South-South of Nigeria was undertaken. A total of 49 fruit bodies belonging to 26 different species of mushrooms in the divisions Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, class Gasteromycetes, Discomycetes, Hymenomycetes were recorded from the study. The order Agaricales, family Tricholomataceae and genus Marasmius were the most abundant and commonly represented taxa. Palm Fronds (PF supported the highest number of mushroom taxa (19% followed by Fallen Palm Tree (FPT, Fruit Bunch (FB and Decomposing Palm Litters (DPL each of which supported 14% of the total species of mushrooms recorded during the study. Mushrooms irrespective of their functional role as natural decomposers were recognised by the study as pivotal to sustainable local agroforest management practices in Nigeria. Oil palm plantations surveyed during the study competes favourably with forests as sources of indigenous utility mushrooms.

O.O. Osemwegie

2009-01-01

351

Differential transcriptomic profiles effected by oil palm phenolics indicate novel health outcomes  

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Abstract Background Plant phenolics are important nutritional antioxidants which could aid in overcoming chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, two leading causes of death in the world. The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a rich source of water-soluble phenolics which have high antioxidant activities. This study aimed to identify the in vivo effects and molecular mechanisms involved in the biological activities of oil palm phenolics (OPP...

Tan YewAi; Sundram Kalyana; Sekaran Shamala; Leow Soon-Sen; Sambanthamurthi Ravigadevi

2011-01-01

352

Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Roots Response to Mechanization in Bernam Series Soil  

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Problem statement: Field practices involving the use of mechanization in oil palm plantations could result in soil compaction which alters the soil physical properties. The gradual deterioration of soil physical conditions could restrict the growth and function of roots. This study was carried out to evaluate the response of oil palm roots to changes in soil physical properties due to mechanization in Bernam series soil belonging to the clay texture class. Approach: Compaction t...

Zuraidah Yahya; Aminuddin Husin; Jamal Talib; Jamarei Othman; Ahmed, Osumanu H.; Jalloh, Mohamadu B.

2010-01-01

353

Characterization of oil palm MADS box genes in relation to the mantled flower abnormality  

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In vitro propagation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) frequently induces a somaclonal variant called `mantled¿ abnormality, in which the stamens of both male and female flowers are transformed into carpels. This leads to a reduced yield or complete loss of the harvest of palm oil. The high frequency of the abnormality in independent lines and the high reversal rate suggest that it is due to an epigenetic change. The type of morphological changes suggest that it involves homeotic MADS bo...

Syed Alwee, S.; Linden, C. G.; Schoot, J.; Folter, S.; Angenent, G. C.; Cheah, S. C.; Smulders, M. J. M.

2006-01-01

354

The Cointegration Analysis on the Spot Prices of the Malaysian Crude Palm Oil Futures Market  

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Futures markets play an important role in the price discovery and forward pricing of agricultural commodities. The analysis of this study has mainly focused on the empirical test of the effect of production, stock and export variables on the prices of the Malaysian Crude Palm oil futures market. For the empirical work, correlation analysis, multiple regression and recent econometric analysis were conducted to determine the price relationships of the Malaysian Crude Palm oil futures markets...

Nik Muhammad Naziman Ab Rahman

2012-01-01

355

Environmental and Social Impacts of Oil Palm Plantations and their Implications for Biofuel Production in Indonesia  

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This paper reviews the development of oil palm with linkages to biofuel in Indonesia and analyzes the associated environmental and socioeconomic impacts. We selected three plantation study sites in West Papua (Manokwari), West Kalimantan (Kubu Raya), and Papua (Boven Digoel) to assess the impacts. Research findings indicate that the development of oil palm in all three sites has caused deforestation, resulting in significant secondary external impacts such as water pollution, soil erosion, an...

Heru Komarudin; Rubeta Andriani; Krystof Obidzinski; Agus Andrianto

2012-01-01

356

Developing a Sustainability Framework for the Second Life of Palm Oil Clinker  

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Palm oil constitutes a main agricultural commodity for the country, therefore the large quantity of palm oil clinker (POC) produced as a waste at the refineries is not unexpected. Upon the discovery of the rock-like but porous POC as being strong and robust enough as substitutes of aggregates, they have since become popular alternative materials in road pavement and concrete. However, POC is also potentially viable in other civil engineering applications for a second life, and this includes b...

Chee-Ming Chan Alina Shamsuddin

2012-01-01

357

Determination of the Equilibrium Moisture Content of Oil Palm Fronds Feedstock for Gasification Process  

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Malaysia has abundant, but unutilized oil palm fronds waste. The lack of knowledge on the characteristics of biomass is considered as one of the barriers for not utilizing it as a source of energy. Particularly, determining the moisture content of biomass and reducing it to the required level for the use of thermochemical processes, have remained as a major concern. In this study, the hygroscopic nature of oil palm fronds was investigated and the equilibrium moisture content in a specif...

Atnaw, S. M.; Moni, M. N.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Guangul, F. M.; Konda, R. E.

2013-01-01

358

Differential Metabolite Profiles during Fruit Development in High-Yielding Oil Palm Mesocarp  

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To better understand lipid biosynthesis in oil palm mesocarp, in particular the differences in gene regulation leading to and including de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, a multi-platform metabolomics technology was used to profile mesocarp metabolites during six critical stages of fruit development in comparatively high- and low-yielding oil palm populations. Significantly higher amino acid levels preceding lipid biosynthesis and nucleosides during lipid biosynthesis were observed in a higher ...

Teh, Huey Fang; Neoh, Bee Keat; Hong, May Ping Li; Low, Jaime Yoke Sum; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Ithnin, Nalisha; Thang, Yin Mee; Mohamed, Mohaimi; Chew, Fook Tim; Yusof, Hirzun Mohd; Kulaveerasingam, Harikrishna; Appleton, David R.

2013-01-01

359

In situ measurements of complex permittivity and moisture content in oil palm fruits  

Science.gov (United States)

An in situ measurement system for oil palm fruit's permittivity and moisture content determination is presented. The instrumentation is includes a six-port reflectometer and an open ended coaxial probe which operates at 2 GHz. The developed system was tested and compared with the data obtained using commercial dielectric measurement probe and mixture model. This system is found to be practical for in situ measurement as well as fast and cost effective for oil palm fruit's properties and quality inspection.

Lee, K. Y.; Abbas, Z.; Yeow, Y. K.; Nur Sharizan, M. D.; Meng, C. E.

2010-03-01

360

Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches  

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Full Text Available This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be investigated.

Tanasri Sihabut

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches  

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This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be inv...

Tanasri Sihabut; Nikhom Laemsak

2010-01-01

362

Microbiological treatment of oil mill waste waters  

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Full Text Available Experiments of the biological treatment of the oil mill waste waters, deriving from continuous system, have been carried out with selected mutant ferments, adapted to rather forced toxic conditions. The commercial microbio formulations SNKD, LLMO and PSBIO have been utilized; the last two are liquid suspensions, constituted by living micro-organisms that, in contrast to those frozen or lyophilized, do not need be revitalized before their use and became completely active in short time. The experiments with the SNKD biological preparation were carried out both on filtered oil mill outflows (type A with an initial COD of approximately 43 g/l and on waste water dephenolized by Caro-acid (type B with a COD equal to 30 g/l. The experiments with LLMO and PSBIO complexes were conduced both on oil mill outflows filtered and diluted (ratio 1:0.5 with an initial COD equal to 44 g/l (type C, and on waste water that were filtered and preventatively subjected to a cryogenic treatment (type D, with an initial COD of approximately 22 g/l. The residual COD with the microbio formulation SNKD, was about 15 g/l (type A and 5 g/l (type B; with the PSBIO It was about 7 g/l (type C and 1.5 g/l (type D; with the microbio formulation LLMO it resulted in 6 g/l (type C and 1.3 g/l (type D.

Han sido efectuadas pruebas de tratamiento biológico de alpechines, provenientes de sistemas continuos, con fermentos seleccionados adaptados a condiciones de toxicidad muy elevadas. Han sido utilizadas las formulaciones microbianas SNKD, LLMO y PSBIO; las dos últimas son suspensiones líquidas, constituidas por microorganismos vivos, los cuales a diferencia de los liofilizados o congelados, no deben ser revitalizados antes del uso; estos tienen una fase «lag» más breve y entran antes en completa actividad. Las pruebas con la preparación biológica SNKD han sido efectuadas en los alpechines filtrados (tipo A con DQO inicial alrededor de 43 g/l, y también con alpechín filtrado «defenolado» con ácido de Caro (H2SO5 (tipo B, con DCX igual a 30 g/l; los complexos LLMO y PSBIO se utilizan en alpechines provenientes de la elaboración de otras variedades de aceitunas, filtradas y diluidas en la relación 1:0,5 (tipo C con DQO inicial igual a 44 g/l, y también en alpechín filtrado y sometido previamente a criotratamiento (tipo D, con DQO inicial de 22 g/l aproximadamente. La DQO residual, con la formulación microbiana SNKD, ha resultado igual a 15 g/l (Tipo A y a 5 g/l (tipo B, con el PSBIO a 7 g/l (tipo C y a 1,5 g/l (tipo D; con la formulación microbiana LLMO a 6 g/l (tipo C y a 1,3 g/l (tipo D.

Ranalli, A.

1992-02-01

363

The Relationship between Palm Oil Quality Index Development and Physical Properties of Fresh Fruit Bunches in the Ripening Process  

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Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most important tree crop in the rural economy of the humid rainforest of Malaysia. The oil is consumed as household food, used domestically for industrial purposes, and an important foreign exchange earning export. Normally, oil palm will be harvested after four years of planting. The oil palm yield will increase variously until the tenth year of planting. The yield will then remains at a stable stage until the twenty-fifth year. The maturity and palm oil d...

Afshin Keshvadi; Johari Bin Endan, Haniff Harun

2011-01-01

364

Stress – Strain Behaviour of an Oil Palm Fibre Reinforced Lateritic Soil  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the use of oil palm fibre in the reinforcement of a lateritic soil. The results show considerable improvement in the strength of the reinforced clay soil, with optimum palm fibre content of about 0.7% of the dry weight. However, further increase in fibre content did not significantly affect the strength. Stress-strain curves show inverse relation between peak stress and strain. It is therefore concluded that oil palm fibre cements soil particles and fibre together; thus, promotes stress distribution evenly and improves deformation resistance.

George Rowland Otoko

2014-08-01

365

Comparison of the Effects of Supplemental Red Palm Oil and Sunflower oil on Maternal Vitamin A Status.  

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Conflicting results have been reported on the ability of dietary carotenoids to improve vitamin A status in lactating women. Red palm oil is one of the richest dietary sources of beta-carotene. We aimed to determine the efficacy of red palm oil in increasing retinol and provitamin A status in pregnant and lactating women. Ninety rural, pregnant Tanzanian women from 3 randomly selected villages were recruited during their third trimester to participate in 3 dietary intervention groups: a contr...

Lietz, G.; Henry, C. J.; Mulokozi, G.; Mugyabuso, J. K.; Ballart, A.; Ndossi, G. D.; Lorri, W.; Tomkins, A.

2001-01-01

366

Intestinal motility and transit following chronic ingestion of different forms of palm oil diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at finding the effect of palm oil diets on the small intestinal motor activity and transit in rats. Adult albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten rats each. The first group was fed on rat chow containing 15% (wt/wt) of fresh palm oil diets for fifteen weeks. The second was fed on rat chow containing 15% (wt/wt) thermally oxidized diet while the third group was the control and so was fed on rat chow only. Water and feed were allowed freely to all the groups. Intestinal motility and transit were measured after the feeding period. Results show that there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in basal tone of the ileum from rats fed on thermally oxidized palm oil diet when compared with fresh palm oil fed and control diets respectively. Contraction to acetylcholine (10(-11) - 10(-5)M) showed a biphasic tone with highest contraction at lower doses of acetylcholine and lowest tone at 10(-7)M in both fresh palm oil-fed and thermally oxidized oil-fed groups when compared with control. There was a significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of inhibition of atropine effect in the oxidized oil fed group when compared with control while there was a significant (P < 0.01) increase in transit of food material in the intestine of oxidized oil-fed group when compared with control and fresh palm oil-fed groups. These results show that chronic ingestion of oxidized palm oil diet causes an increase in basal tone of ileum and enhances intestinal motility and transit in the rat. PMID:19434222

Obembe, A O; Okwari, O O; Owu, D U; Antai, A B; Osim, E E

2008-01-01

367

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peat Soils Cultivated to Rice Field, Oil Palm and Vegetable  

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Full Text Available Presently, about 20% of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq fields in Indonesia are on peat soil, in addition to that otherarea of peat soil has been conventionally used for rice field and vegetables. To elucidate the global warmingpotentials of peat soils cultivated to oil palm, vegetable or rice field, field experiment has been carried out in SouthKalimantan. Air samples were taken from rice field, oil palm and vegetable fields in weekly basis for six month periodand analyzed for concentrations of N2O, CH4 and CO2. The global warming potentials (GWP of the three gases werecalculated by multiplying the emission of each gas with their respective mole warming potential. This step wasfollowed by the addition of the three gases’ GWP to have the total GWP. The results showed that the emissions ofgreenhouse gases from peat soils changed seasonally and varied with the crops cultivated. Oil palm has resultedthe highest GWP, mostly contributed by N2O. There was no statistical different in total GWP of paddy andvegetable fields. The annual N2O emission from oil palm field was 4,582 g N ha-1 yr-1. Water, nutrients and organicmatter managements are among the potential techniques to minimize gas emissions from oil palm field which needfield trials.

Rosenani Abu Bakar

2012-05-01

368

Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Frond: Effects of Temperature and Operation Time  

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Full Text Available Currently produced more than 40 million tons a year, only a small portion of oil palm frond is used as domestic animals forage and as raw material in small-scale furniture industry, while the rest is left at the plantation floor to naturally decompose. This study introduces oil palm frond as a solid biomass fuel for gasification to produce synthesis gas that can be utilized for heat and energy generation in a cleaner and more efficient manner than direct combustion. Oil palm frond was gasified in the downdraft gasifier at 700 to 1000°C reactor temperature with a controlled air supply of 180 to 200 L min-1. The effects of reactor temperature and operation time to the quality of syngas produced from oil palm frond downdraft gasification were investigated. At a calorific value around 18 MJ kg-1, oil palm frond was found to produce synthesis gas that sustainably burnt in air with a higher heating value of around 5 MJ N-1 m-3. Oil palm frond was found to be optimally producing syngas with desired energy content at a reactor temperature range of 700-900°C and within the first 45 min of gasifier operation.

Shaharin A. Sulaiman

2013-01-01

369

Life cycle energy efficiency and potentials of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biodiesel production from palm oil has been considered one of the most promising renewable resources for transportation fuel in Thailand. The objective of this study was to analyze the energy performance and potential of the palm oil methyl ester (PME) production in Thailand. The PME system was divided into four stages: the oil palm plantation, transportation, crude palm oil (CPO) production, and transesterification into biodiesel. The results showed that the highest fossil-based energy consumption was in the transesterification process, followed by the plantation, transportation, and CPO production. A net energy value and net energy ratio (NER) of 24.0 MJ/FU and 2.5, respectively, revealed that the PME system was quite energy efficient. In addition, if all the by-products from the CPO production (such as empty fruit branches, palm kernel shells, and biogas) were considered in terms of energy sources, the NER would be more than 3.0. The PME can be a viable substitute for diesel and can