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Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development  

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Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is ...

A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

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Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

2011-01-01

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Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Provi...

Melissa B. Agustin; Waya P. Sengpracha; Weerachai Phutdhawong

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Electrocoagulation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME.

Melissa B. Agustin; Waya P. Sengpracha; Weerachai Phutdhawong

2008-01-01

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Co-Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge-Sawdust  

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Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge (POMS) with sawdust was conducted in natural aerated reactor. Composting using natural aerated reactor is cheap and simple. The goal of this study is to observe the potential of composting process and utilizing compost as media for growing Cymbopogun citratus

Abu Zahrim Yaser; Rakmi Abd Rahman; Mohd Sahaid Kalil

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Evaluation of Hybrid Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) For Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment  

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The pollution load of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is in the range of 50,000 mg COD/L. With more than 500 palm oil mills, Malaysia produces some 13.9 million tonnes of crude palm oil annually and generates around 35 x 106 m3 POME. Typically, raw POME is difficult to degrade...

Z. Ahmad; Z. Ujang; G. Olsson; A.A. Abdul Latiff

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PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT  

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Full Text Available The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) such as methane and carbon dioxide emissions by avoiding the formation of liquid biomass in the form of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) shows the improved milling process contributes to significant reduction of GHG emission from palm oil mills as compared to the process of capturing biogas from POME. The palm based food source contains phytonutrients, namely carotenoids, tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienols) and water soluble polyphenols.

Chiew Wei Puah; Yuen May Choo; Soon Hock Ong

2013-01-01

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Environmental Performance of the Milling Process Of Malaysian Palm Oil Using The Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

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Malaysia is currently the world leader in the production and export of palm oil. This study has a gate to gate system boundary. The inventory data collection starts at the oil palm fresh fruit bunch hoppers when the fresh fruit bunch is received at the mill up till the production of the crude palm o...

Vijaya Subramaniam; Ma A. Ngan; Choo Y. May; Nik M.K. Sulaiman

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Biohydrogen Production Using Hydrolysates Of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome)  

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Full Text Available Dark hydrogen fermentation using lignocellulosic biomass has been widely reported. In this study, raw and hydrolysed Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) were used as substrates to produce hydrogen by POME sludge in 30-mL serum bottle. A higher cumulative volume of hydrogen of 1439 mL H2.L-1 POME was obtained from hydrolysed POME as compared to raw POME. Fermentation process was then carried out in 2-L stirred tank bioreactor using hydrolysed POME as medium and it was found that a two-fold of hydrogen volumetric rate increase was achieved.

N.A. Khaleb; J.Md. Jahim; S. Ahmad Kamal

2012-01-01

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Effect of Microwave and Ultrasonic Pretreatments on Biogas Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effleunt  

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Problem Statement: Oil palm production is a major agricultural industry in Malaysia. In 2006, palm oil mills in Malaysia produced more than 58 million tonnes of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Existing treatment in a series of open lagoons at high ambient temperatures, results in the uncontrol...

N. Saifuddin; S A. Fazlili

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Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1) and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bo...

Jamal I. Daoud; Md. Z. Alam

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Co-Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge-Sawdust  

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Full Text Available Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge (POMS) with sawdust was conducted in natural aerated reactor. Composting using natural aerated reactor is cheap and simple. The goal of this study is to observe the potential of composting process and utilizing compost as media for growing Cymbopogun citratus, one of Malaysia herbal plant. The highest maximum temperature achieved is about 40°C and to increase temperature bed, more biodegradable substrate needs to be added. The pH value decrease along the process with final pH compost is acidic (pH 5.7). The highest maximum organic losses are about 50% with final C/N ratio of the compost is about 19. Final compost also showed some fertilizing value but need to be adjusted to obtain an ideal substrate. Addition of about 70% sandy soil causes highest yield and excellent root development for C. citratus in potted media. Beside that, compost from POMS-sawdust also found to have fertilizer value and easy to handle. Composting of POMS with sawdust shows potential as an alternative treatment to dispose and recycle waste components.

Abu Zahrim Yaser; Rakmi Abd Rahman; Mohd Sahaid Kalil

2007-01-01

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Adsorption Chromatography of Carotenes from Extracted Oil of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available Carotenes is one of the most important vitamin A precursor in human nutrition which has numerous advantages. Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is wastewater which consists of carotenes in the oil and grease content. Therefore, adsorption chromatography is used to separate the carotenes from the oil and grease in POME. Several types of adsorbents, temperatures and mass loading were studied in the experiments. The 40°C and oil:adsorbent ratio of 1:5 was recommended to be the most suitable temperature and mass loading for separation of carotenes by adsorption chromatography. Silica gel also shows better quality of adsorbent in separation of carotenes in hexane fractions.

A.L. Ahmad; C.Y. Chan; S.R. Abd Shukor; M.D. Mashitah

2010-01-01

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Screening of thermotolerant microorganisms and application for oil separation from palm oil mill wastewater  

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Full Text Available The characteristics of palm oil mill wastewater (POMW) were brown color, pH 3.8-4.3, temperature 48-55oC, total solids 68.2-82.1 g/l, suspended solids 26.2-65.6 g/l, oil and grease 19.1-25.1 g/l, COD 49.9-160.7g/l and BOD 32.5-75.3 g/l. After centrifugation (3,184 xg) of 50 ml POMW for 10 min, the POMW was separated into 3 layers: top (oil), middle (supernatant) and bottom layer (sediment). The sediment containeddry weight 1.19 g and oil and grease 1.07 g. In order to release oil and grease trapped in palm fiber debris in the POMW, cellulase- and/or xylanase-enzyme-producing and thermotolerant microorganisms wereisolated. The isolates SO1 and SO2 were isolated from soil near the first anaerobic pond of the palm oil mill. They were aerobic, Gram positive, rod shaped, thermotolerant microorganisms and produced cellulase 12.11 U/ml (3 days) and 7.2 U/ml (4 days), and xylanase 50.98 U/ml (4 days) and 20.42 U/ml (4 days), respectivelyin synthetic medium containing carboxymethycellulose as a carbon source. When these 2 isolates were added into the steriled POMW under shaking condition for 7 days, after centrifugation at 3,184 xg the isolate SO1gave the better % reduction of dry weight (64.66 %) and of oil and grease in the bottom layer (85.32 %) of the POMW.

Treetippa Laohaprapanon; Poonsuk Prasertsan; Aran H-Kittikun

2007-01-01

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Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia  

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Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on ...

Mohd Sahaid Kalil; Pang Wey Kit; Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff; Yoshino Sadazo; Rakmi Abdul Rahman

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Adsorption of residual oil from palm oil mill effluent using rubber powder  

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Full Text Available A synthetic rubber powder was used to adsorb the residual oil in palm oil mill effluent (POME). POME is the wastewater produced by the palm oil industry. It is a colloidal suspension which is 95-96% water, 0.6-0.7% oil and 4-5% total solids including 2-4% suspended solids originating in the mixing of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge and hydrocyclone wastewater. POME contains 4,000 mg dm-3 of oil and grease, which is relatively high compared to the limit of only 50 mg dm-3 set by the Malaysian Department of Environment. A bench-scale study of the adsorption of residual oil in POME using synthetic rubber powder was conducted using a jar test apparatus. The adsorption process was studied by varying parameters affecting the process. The parameters were adsorbent dosage, mixing speed, mixing time and pH. The optimum values of the parameters were obtained. It was found that almost 88% removal of residual oil was obtained with an adsorbent dosage of 30 mg dm-3 and mixing speed of 150 rpm for 3 hr at a pH 7. Adsorption equilibrium was also studied, and it was found that the adsorption process on the synthetic rubber powder fit the Freundlich isotherm model.

A.L. Ahmad; S. Bhatia; N. Ibrahim; S. Sumathi

2005-01-01

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BOTANICAL EXTRACT FROM THE AQUEOUS STREAM OF THE PALM OIL MILLING PROCESS FOR THE PREVENTION AND INHIBITION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND HAEMOLYSIS IN HUMAN RED BLOOD CELLS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a composition for the prevention and inhibition of oxidative stress and haemolysis in human red blood cell wherein said composition compounds obtained from the aqueous stream of palm oil milling (palm oil vegetation liquor), in particular from vegetative liquor from the milling of palm oil fruit.

BALASUNDRAM NAGENDRAN; SAMBANTHAMURTHI RAVIGADEVI; TAN YEW AI; P MANICKAM KALYANA SUNDRAM; WAHID MOHID BASRI BIN; SAMMAN SAMMIR; AGAR NIHAL S

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A botanical extract from the aqueous stream of the palm oil milling process for the prevention and inhibition of oxidative stress and haemolysis in human red blood cells  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a composition for the prevention and inhibition of oxidative stress and haemolysis in human red blood cell wherein said composition compounds obtained from the aqueous stream of palm oil milling ( palm oil vegetation liquor), in particular from vegetative liquor from the milling of palm oil fruit.

NAGENDRAN BALASUNDRAM; RAVIGADEVI SAMBANTHAMURTHI; TAN YEW ALI; KALYANA SUNDRAM; BASRI WAHID MOHD; SAMIR SAMMAN; AGAR NIHAL S

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Environmental Performance of the Milling Process Of Malaysian Palm Oil Using The Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

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Full Text Available Malaysia is currently the world leader in the production and export of palm oil. This study has a gate to gate system boundary. The inventory data collection starts at the oil palm fresh fruit bunch hoppers when the fresh fruit bunch is received at the mill up till the production of the crude palm oil in the storage tanks at the mill. The plantation phase and land use for the production of oil palm fresh fruit bunch is not included in this system boundary. This gate to gate case study of 12 mills identifies the potential impacts associated with the production of palm oil using the life cycle assessment approach and evaluates opportunities to overcome the potential impacts. Most of the impact categories show savings rather than impact. Within the system boundary there are only two main parameters that are causing the potential impacts to the environment; they are the Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) followed by the boiler ash. The impact categories that the POME contributes to are under the Respiratory Organics and Climate Change. Both these impact categories are related to air emissions. The main air emission from the POME ponds during the anaerobic digestion is the biogas which consists of methane, carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen sulfide. An alternate scenario was conducted to see how the impact will be if the biogas was harvested and used as energy and the results shows that when the biogas is harvested, the impact from the POME is removed. The other significant impact is the boiler ash. This is the ash that is produced when the biomass is burnt in the boiler. This potential impact contributes to the ecotoxicity impact category. This is mainly because of the disposal of this ash which in most cases was used for land application in the roads leading to the mil or in the plantations. If the parameters causing these two potential impacts are curbed, then this will be a further plus point for the Malaysian oil palm industry which is already avoiding fossil fuel based energy and chemical use for processing.

Vijaya Subramaniam; Ma A. Ngan; Choo Y. May; Nik M.K. Sulaiman

2008-01-01

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High-rate anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent  

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Full Text Available Palm oil mil effluent (POME) contains high amount of organic matter, oil & grease, total solids and suspended solids. Anaerobic treatment of POME was conducted at room temperature (30±2ºC) and high temperature (50±0.5ºC). The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT), organic loading rate (OLR), COD:N ratio and temperature on the anaerobic digestion of POME were investigated. The optimum conditions were found to be 10 days HRT, OLR of 9.50 kg COD m-3d-1, COD:N ratio of 65 and the optimum temperature at 50ºC. The highest COD reduction of 81.1% was achieved. Biogas production in general was greater than 0.30 m3/kg COD/d. Comparison on anaerobic treatment using POME and POME treated by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi Rhizopus sp. ST4 revealed that the biopretreated POME gave higher COD removal (72.6%) but lower biogas production (0.97 m3/m3/d or 0.27 m3/kg COD/d) than the POME without pretreatment (56.1% and 1.16 m3/m3/d or 0.37 m3/kg COD/d, respectively).

Monticha Pechsuth; Poonsuk Prasertsan; Masao Ukita

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Factors affecting treatment of palm oil mill effluent using enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275  

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Full Text Available Powdered enzyme was produced by freeze-drying the enzyme solution extracted from 3 days culture of Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 on palm cake with the addition of 0.2% glucose and 2% urea. The product yield was 38% by weight. The half-life of the enzyme was 9 months keeping at 4ºC. The enzyme was tested with decanter effluent with different characteristics from two palm oil mills. The decanter effluent possessing high suspended solid (SS) and low oil (9.5 g/l) content was selected for studying the factors affecting the separation of SS and oil as bulking solid. Results indicated that the effluent must contain oil not less than 15 g/l so that the bulking solid would occur from the reaction of the enzyme (with xylanase activity of 200 U/ ml) after incubation at 40ºC for 6 h. Minimum concentrations of the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 and commercial xylanase (Meicellase) were 200 and 600 U/ml, respectively. The optimum pH was 4.5. Treatment of palm oil mill effluent by the enzyme from A. niger ATCC 6275 for 3 h under the optimum conditions resulted in 78% separation of suspended solids with oil & grease removal of 95% and COD reduction of 35%.

Prasertsan, P.; H-Kittikun, A.; Chantaphaso, S.

2001-01-01

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Methane Emission from Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) in a Thermophilic Anaerobic Reactor  

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Full Text Available As the issue of global warming draws increasing concern, many studies to reduce CO2 and CH4 gases (greenhouse gases, GHG) have been implemented in several countries, including in Indonesia. Considering that Indonesia has a huge numbers of palm oil mills, no doubt if their waste water treatment as one of the major sources in GHG.  This paper presents the results from a research project between Metawater Co., Ltd.-Japan and University of Sumatera Utara-Indonesia. The objective of the research is to study the methane emission of thermophilic fermentation in the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) on a laboratory scale. Anaerobic digestion was performed in two-litre water jacketed biodigester type continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and operated at a thermophilic temperature (55 oC). As raw material, a real liquid waste (POME) from palm oil mill was used. Fresh POME was obtained from seeding pond of PTPN II waste water treatment facility which has concentration of 39.7 g of VS/L and COD value of 59,000 mg/L. To gain precise results, complete recording and reliable equipment of reactor was employed. As the experimental results, for hydraulic retention time (HRT) 8 days, VS decomposition rate of 63.5% and gas generation of 6.05-9.82 L/day were obtained, while for HRT 6 and 4 days, VS decomposition rate of 61.2, 53.3% and gas generation of  6.93-8.94  and  13.95-16.14 L/day were obtained respectively. Keywords—methane (CH4), palm oil mill effluent (POME), anaerobic digestion, thermophilic, green house gases (GHG)

I Irvan; Bambang Trisakti; Vivian Wongistani; Yoshimasa Tomiuchi

2012-01-01

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Baseline study of methane emission from open digesting tanks of palm oil mill effluent treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases, especially CO2 and CH4 has been recognized as one of the main causes of global warming. Several measures under the Kyoto Protocol 1997 have been drawn up to reduce the greenhouse gases emission. One of the measures is Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) that was created to enable developed countries to cooperate with developing countries in emission reduction activities. In Malaysia, palm oil industry particularly from palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic treatment has been identified as an important source of CH4. However, there is no study to quantify the actual CH4 emission from the commercial scale wastewater treatment facility. Hence, this paper shall address the CH4 emission from the open digesting tanks in Felda Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. CH4 emission pattern was recorded for 52 weeks from 3600 m3 open digesting tanks. The findings indicated that the CH4 content was between 13.5% and 49.0% which was lower than the value of 65% reported earlier. The biogas flow rate ranged between 0.8l min(-1)m(-2) and 9.8l min(-1)m(-2). Total CH4 emission per open digesting tank was 518.9 kgday(-1). Relationships between CH4 emission and total carbon removal and POME discharged were also discussed. Fluctuation of biogas production was observed throughout the studies as a result of seasonal oil palm cropping, mill activities, variation of POME quality and quantity discharged from the mill. Thus only through long-term field measurement CH4 emission can be accurately estimated.

Yacob S; Hassan MA; Shirai Y; Wakisaka M; Subash S

2005-06-01

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Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

2010-01-01

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Separation of oil-water-sludge emulsions coming from palm oil mill process through microwave techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The palm oil mills extraction process requires the separation of oil-water-sludge emulsions. For this purpose, the use of sedimentation and/or centrifugation techniques have been required until now. However, significant losses persist in different process flows and new methods are needed to further decrease them, such as methods based on electromagnetic waves application. In the study, emulsions obtained from two flow processes, namely press liquor stream (PL) and recovered stream of the centrifugal step (RC), were exposed to microwave radiation with different exposure times. In the case of the press liquor stream, different oil/water dilution ratios were also studied. The sedimentation speed and efficiency were studied for the irradiated samples and compared to those obtained for the same fluids with no radiation. Also, chromatographic tests were performed on the recovered oil to determine the effect on the oil quality after microwave radiation. The obtained results allow us to conclude that microwave exposure during periods below 1 minute lead to better sedimentation speed and efficiency. It was observed that microwaves facilitate the break of the charges and polarities balances in the emulsions at considerably lower temperatures than the corresponding in the conventional process, without affecting the recovered oil quality.

Pérez-Páez R; Catalá-Civera JM; García-Baños B; Castillo EF; Bastos JM; Zambrano LS

2008-01-01

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Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME and 98% biodegradability. Meanwhile, the maximum methane potential of EFB was 202mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 79.1m3 CH4/ton EFB with 38% biodegradability. Co-digestion of EFB with POME enhanced microbial biodegradability and resulted in 25–32% higher methane production at mixing ratios of 0.4:1, 0.8:1 and 2.3:1 on VS basis than digesting EFB alone. The methane yield was 276–340mL CH4/gVS-added for co-digestion of EFB with POME at mixing ratios of 0.4:1–2.3:1, while minor improvement was observed at mixing ratios of 6.8:1 and 11:1 (175–197mL CH4/gVS-added). The best improved was achieved from co-digestion of treated EFB by NaOH presoaking and hydrothermal treatment with POME, which resulted in 98% improvement inmethane yield comparing with co-digesting untreated EFB. The maximum methane production of co-digestion treated EFB with POME was 82.7m3 CH4/ton of mixed treated EFB and POME (6.8:1), corresponding to methane yield of 392mL CH4/gVS-added. The electricity production of 1ton mixture of treated EFB and POME would be 1190MJ or 330kWh of electricity. The study shows that there is a great potential to co-digestion treated EFB with POME for bioenergy production.

O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan

2012-01-01

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A Study on Zeolite Performance in Waste Treating Ponds for Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available Oil palm currently occupies the largest acreage of farm land in Malaysia. In 2011, the production of palm oil in Malaysia was recorded as 19.8 million tons which has led to a huge amount of wastewater known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). This work focuses on the ponding system which acts as wastewater treatment plant in order to treat POME. The conventional ponding system applied in mills consists of a series of seven ponds. The maintenance costs of the pond are expensive thus study of alternative methods is needed. POME treatment using zeolite shows a potential to overcome the problem. Samples collected from selected ponds are tested and analyzed using water analyzer method. Result from adsorption by zeolite shows a significant reduction of COD, BOD, Fe, Zn, Mn and turbidity. This shows that zeolite is highly potential to be applied as adsorbent in the POME treatment plants. The results here may lead to lower maintenance cost, lower quantity of treatment ponds and lesser land occupied for the treatment of POME in Malaysia.

M. Halim Shah Ismail; Shazryenna Dalang; Syafiie Syam; Shamsul Izhar

2013-01-01

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Reduction of Methane Released from Palm Oil Mill Lagoon in Malaysia and Its Countermeasures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palm oil industry in Malaysia is one of the potential candidates for the CDM project because large amount of methane is emitted from the lagoons and open digesting tank of the wastewater treatment system. Therefore the first objective of the project is to investigate the actual GHG emission from the lagoons and open digesting tank in palm oil mills in order to establish the baseline for CDM project. Results indicated that methane contribution to biogas released from the open digesting tank and lagoon systems were 35% and 45%, respectively. These values are much lower than the reported value of 65% obtained by complete anaerobic condition of lab-scale experiments. Based on actual methane release measurement and information gathered from palm oil mill about wastewater treatment, significant amount of methane emission to the atmosphere can be reduced with the installation of new closed digesting tank system converted from the open digesting tank such as just by covering it with applying CDM. It is estimated that a total of RM2.6 million could be obtained from the selling of electricity generated from biogas generation and Certified Emission Reduction (CER)

Shirai, Y.; Wakisaka, M.; Yacob, S. [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, 808-0196 Kitakyushu-shi (Japan); Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor (Malaysia); Suzuki, S. [EX Corporation, 17-22, Takada 2 chome, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-0033 (Japan)

2003-07-01

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Effect of adding palm oil mill decanter cake slurry with regular turning operation on the composting process and quality of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Formation of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and decanter cake slurry by adding palm oil mill effluent (POME) with regular turning operation was investigated. The experiment was conducted in a commercial composting plant under the normal production process. The addition of decanter cake slurry has hastened the composting process of the EFB. The C/N ratio after 51 days for the mature compost with the decanter cake slurry was 18.65 while that of the matured compost without the decanter cake slurry remained high at 28.96. The compost formed from the addition of decanter cake to EFB and POME had 46.4% nitrogen, 17.9% phosphorus, 17.7% potassium and 23.1% calcium more than that without decanter cake. The use of compost produced from EFB, POME and decanter cake slurry could solve more environmental problems and enhance economic benefits in the oil palm industry.

Yahya A; Sye CP; Ishola TA; Suryanto H

2010-11-01

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Effect of adding palm oil mill decanter cake slurry with regular turning operation on the composting process and quality of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and decanter cake slurry by adding palm oil mill effluent (POME) with regular turning operation was investigated. The experiment was conducted in a commercial composting plant under the normal production process. The addition of decanter cake slurry has hastened the composting process of the EFB. The C/N ratio after 51 days for the mature compost with the decanter cake slurry was 18.65 while that of the matured compost without the decanter cake slurry remained high at 28.96. The compost formed from the addition of decanter cake to EFB and POME had 46.4% nitrogen, 17.9% phosphorus, 17.7% potassium and 23.1% calcium more than that without decanter cake. The use of compost produced from EFB, POME and decanter cake slurry could solve more environmental problems and enhance economic benefits in the oil palm industry. PMID:20609579

Yahya, Azmi; Sye, Chong Puay; Ishola, Tajudeen Abiodun; Suryanto, Hadi

2010-07-06

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Management of palm oil mill effluent through production of cellulases by filamentous fungi  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A laboratory scale study to evaluate the potentiality of filamentous fungi for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a basal medium was initiated. A total of 25 filamentous fungi in which 16 filamentous fungi were isolated and purified from oil palm industrial residues and 9 strains from laboratory stock were screened using POME with 1% total suspended solids. Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 was identified as a potential strain for cellulolytic enzyme production as compared to other genera of Aspergillus, Penicillum, Rhizopus, Phanerochaete, Trichoderma and basidiomycete groups. The results showed that T. reesei RUT C-30 gave the highest filter paper cellulase and carboxy methyl cellulase activity of 0.917 and 2.51 U/ml respectively at day 5 of fermentation. Other parameters such as growth formation, pH, filterability and total biosolids were observed to evaluate the bioconversion process.

Rashid ShahSamiur; Alam MdZahangir; Karim MIsmailA; Salleh MHamzah

2009-12-01

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A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very...

Elaine L.Y. Man; Adam Baharum

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Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

Charles Ogugua Nwuche; James Chukwuma Ogbonna

2011-01-01

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Isolation of lipase producing fungi from palm oil Mill effluent (POME) dump sites at Nsukka  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In this study, twelve fungal lipase producing strains belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma and Mucor genera were isolated from palm oil mill effluent composts. The Aspergillus spp. were more frequent (42%) and was present in all the samples assayed. Mucor sp. was the least encountered (8.3%).The lipase producing profile showed that Trichoderma (8.07-8.24 u/mL) and Aspergillus (6.25 -7.54 u/mL) spp. were the highest lipase producers while Mucor (5.72 u/mL) was the least.

Nwuche, Charles Ogugua; Ogbonna, James Chukwuma

2011-02-01

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Evaluation of Hybrid Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) For Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Treatment  

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Full Text Available The pollution load of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is in the range of 50,000 mg COD/L. With more than 500 palm oil mills, Malaysia produces some 13.9 million tonnes of crude palm oil annually and generates around 35 x 106 m3 POME. Typically, raw POME is difficult to degrade because it contains significant amounts of oil (tryacylglycerols) and degradative products such as di-and monoacylglycerols and fatty acids. The fatty acids composition (C12 – C20) of each of this fraction are different from one another and contribute to the high value of pollution load in POME. Thus POME has to be treated, usually in a series of anaerobic and aerobic treatment steps, for the organic matter to be degraded before the effluent is allowed to be discharged into public waterways. The objective of this study was to observe the performance of a hybrid membrane bioreactor (MBR) for POME. The raw POME was introduced into sequencing processes of anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic in order to achieve biological nutrient removal and the membrane modules were submerged into the aerobic zone. The critical flux of MBR using the flux-step method based on transmembrane pressure (TMP) was conducted as well as flux and permeability studies for assessing fouling in a membrane bioreactor operating at constant flux. The reactor was operated at a mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentration of 4000 to 8000 mg/l. The removal efficiency of COD, SS, TN and TP achieved were 94%, 98%, 83% and 64% respectively. The hybrid MBR was found to be able to degrade POME significantly and high quality effluent could be reused for various other applications.Keywords:

Z. Ahmad; Z. Ujang; G. Olsson; A.A. Abdul Latiff

2009-01-01

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Palm kernel oil blends  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides oil blends suitable for use as cocoa butter substitutes. These oil blends are based on palm kernel oil and its derivatives, and include palm kernel oil, hydrogenated palm kernel oil, palm kernel stearin and hydrogenated palm kernel stearin. Also disclosed are edible food products such as confectionery products and chocolate alternative compositions made from these palm kernel oil blends.

Nalur Shantha Chandrasekaran

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Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1) and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bodies. Approach: The aim of this study was to identify the potential of low cost substrate such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for the production of cellulase enzyme by liquid state bioconversion. The filamentous fungus Trichoderma harzianum was used for liquid state bioconversion of POME for cellulase production. Statistical optimization was carried out to evaluate the physico-chemical parameters (factors) for maximum cellulase production by 2-level fractional factorial design with six central points. The polynomial regression model was developed using the experimental data including the effects of linear, quadratic and interaction of the factors. The factors involved were substrate (POME) and co-substrate (wheat flour) concentrations, temperature, pH, inoculum and agitation. Results: Statistical analysis showed that the optimum conditions were: Temperature of 30°C, substrate concentration of 2%, wheat flour concentration of 3%, pH of 4, inoculum of 3% and agitation of 200 rpm. Under these conditions, the model predicted the enzyme production to be about 14 FPU mL-1. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) of the design showed a high coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.999, thus ensuring a high satisfactory adjustment of the quadratic model with the experimental data. Conclusion/Recommendations: This study indicates a better solution for waste management through the utilization of POME for cellulase production that could be used in the industrial applications such as bioethanol production.

Jamal I. Daoud; Md. Z. Alam

2010-01-01

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Performance and microbial diversity of palm oil mill effluent microbial fuel cell.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To evaluate the bioenergy generation and the microbial community structure from palm oil mill effluent using microbial fuel cell. METHODS AND RESULTS: Microbial fuel cells enriched with palm oil mill effluent (POME) were employed to harvest bioenergy from both artificial wastewater containing acetate and complex POME. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) showed maximum power density of 3004 mW m(-2) after continuous feeding with artificial wastewater containing acetate substrate. Subsequent replacement of the acetate substrate with complex substrate of POME recorded maximum power density of 622 mW m(-2). Based on 16S rDNA analyses, relatively higher abundance of Deltaproteobacteria (88.5%) was detected in the MFCs fed with acetate artificial wastewater as compared to POME. Meanwhile, members of Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria codominated the microbial consortium of the MFC fed with POME with 21, 20 and 18.5% abundances, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Enriched electrochemically active bacteria originated from POME demonstrated potential to generate bioenergy from both acetate and complex POME substrates. Further improvements including the development of MFC systems that are able to utilize both fermentative and nonfermentative substrates in POME are needed to maximize the bioenergy generation. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: A better understanding of microbial structure is critical for bioenergy generation from POME using MFC. Data obtained in this study improve our understanding of microbial community structure in conversion of POME to electricity.

Jong BC; Liew PW; Lebai Juri M; Kim BH; Mohd Dzomir AZ; Leo KW; Awang MR

2011-12-01

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Alternative Technologies for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gases Emission from Palm Oil Mills in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alternative methodologies for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the crude palm oil (CPO) production by a wet extraction mill in Thailand were developed. The production of 1 metric ton (MT) of CPO from mills with biogas capture (4 mills) and without biogas capture (2 mills) in 2010 emitted GHG emissions of 935 kgCO2eq, on average. Wastewater treatment plants with and without biogas capture emitted GHG of 64% and 47% of total GHG emission, respectively. The rest of the emissions mostly originated from the fresh fruit bunches acquisition. The establishment of biogas recovery system must be the first step for GHG reduction. It could reduce GHG emissions by 373 kgCO2eq/MT CPO. The main source of GHG emission of 163 kgCO2eq/MT CPO from the mills with biogas capture was the open pond used for cooling of wastewater before entering the biogas recovery system. The reduction of GHG emissions could be done by I) using a wastewater dispersed unit for cooling; II) using a covered pond; III) enhancing the performance of the biogas recovery system; and IV) changing the stabilization pond to an aerated lagoon. By using options I), II), III), and IV), GHG reductions of 216, 208, 92.2, and 87.6 kgCO2eq/MT CPO, respectively, can be achieved.

Kaewmai R; H-Kittikun A; Suksaroj C; Musikavong C

2013-09-01

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Thermophilic biohydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using suspended mixed culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A batch study was conducted to determine the fate of carbohydrate and oil that are present in palm oil mill effluent (POME) during the biohydrogen fermentation process. Sucrose and crude palm oil (CPO) were chosen as substrates and the kinetic profile indicated that mainly sucrose was metabolised by the mixed sludge. The hydrogen yield based on the COD of sucrose added was 146 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} which is equivalent to a hydrogen to hexose mole ratio of 2.5. The free fatty acids from hydrolysed CPO were not metabolised further which render insignificant generation of hydrogen and volatile fatty acids from oil-based substrate. The average continuous biohydrogen production rate (HPR) from a unit volume of POME under thermophilic condition at 55 C was 2.64 m{sup 3} m{sup -3} d{sup -1} at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days. Hydrogen constitutes up to 52% of the total biogas and methane was not detected over the 60 day continuous operation. The hydrogen yield (i.e. based on mole ratio of hydrogen to hexose) was 1.72 with an average carbohydrate conversion efficiency of 58%. These limit the potential of recovering more hydrogen energy from POME under current operating conditions. (author)

Ismail, Isnazunita [Environment and Bioprocess Technology Centre, SIRIM Berhad, 40911 Shah Alam, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Hassan, Mohd. Ali; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini [Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Soon, Chen Sau [Environment and Bioprocess Technology Centre, SIRIM Berhad, 40911 Shah Alam, Selangor D.E. (Malaysia)

2010-01-15

 
 
 
 
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Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)  

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Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME an...

Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

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COMPOUNDS EXTRACTED FROM PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT FOR THE TREATMENT OF CANCER, COMPOSITIONS THEREOF AND METHODS THEREWITH  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention describes a composition and methods for prevention and treatment of cancer comprising compounds extracted from Palm oil mill effluent. Also, the invention describes effective therapeutic dosages of the compounds and their combinations. The present invention can be prepared independently or as a combination product.

P MANICKAM KALYANA SUNDRAM; SAMBATHAMURTHI RAVIGADEVI; TAN YEW AI; WAHID MOHD BASRI; LEOW SOON SEN

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Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified. PMID:24012093

Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Tokura, Mitsunori; Shirai, Yoshihito

2013-08-14

44

Indigenous cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria enhanced rapid co-composting of lignocellulose oil palm empty fruit bunch with palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) with continuous addition of palm oil mill (POME) anaerobic sludge which contained nutrients and indigenous microbes was studied. In comparison to the conventional OPEFB composting which took 60-90days, the rapid composting in this study can be completed in 40days with final C/N ratio of 12.4 and nitrogen (2.5%), phosphorus (1.4%), and potassium (2.8%), respectively. Twenty-seven cellulolytic bacterial strains of which 23 strains were closely related to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus firmus, Thermobifida fusca, Thermomonospora spp., Cellulomonas sp., Ureibacillus thermosphaericus, Paenibacillus barengoltzii, Paenibacillus campinasensis, Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Pseudoxanthomonas byssovorax which were known as lignocellulose degrading bacteria and commonly involved in lignocellulose degradation. Four isolated strains related to Exiguobacterium acetylicum and Rhizobium sp., with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic activities. The rapid composting period achieved in this study can thus be attributed to the naturally occurring cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic strains identified.

Zainudin MH; Hassan MA; Tokura M; Shirai Y

2013-08-01

45

Particulate emission factor: A case study of a palm oil mill boiler  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study to investigate the particulate emission from a boiler of a palm oil mill plant equipped with a multi-cyclones particulate arrest or was performed and reported in this paper. The particulate emission concentration was measured at the outlet of a 8 mt/ hr capacity water-tube typed boiler of a palm oil mill plant processing 27mt/ hr of fresh fruit bunch (FFB). The particulate sample was collected iso-kinetically using the USEPA method 5 sampling train through a sampling port made at the duct of the exiting flue gas between the boiler and a multi-cyclones unit. Results showed that the particulate emission rates exiting the boiler varied from 0.09 to 0.60 g/s with an average of 0.29 + 0.18 g/ s. While the average particulate emission concentration exiting the boiler was 12.1 + 7.36 g/ Nm3 (corrected to 7 % oxygen concentration), ranging from 3.62 to 25.3 g/ Nm3 (at 7 % O2) of the flue gas during the measurement. Based on the 27 mt/ hr FFB processed and the capacity of the boiler of 8mt steam/ hr, the calculated particulate emission factor was 39 g particulate/ mt FFB processed or 131 g particulate/ mt boiler capacity, respectively. In addition, based on the finding and in order to comply with the emission limits of 0.4 g/ Nm3, the collection efficiency of any given particulate emission pollution control system to consider for the mill will be from 87 to 98 %, which is not easily achievable with the existing multi-cyclones unit. A considerable amount of efforts are still needed pertaining to the particulate emission control problem in the industry. (author)

2010-01-01

46

Enumeration, identification and decontamination of microorganisms on empty fruit bunches (EFB) and palm press fibre (PPF) from selected palm oil mills in the Peninsular Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The PPF and EFB temporarily disposed into the environment at the mill are heavily contaminated with micro-organisms, therefore require decontamination prior to utilisation. The current methods for decontaminating PPF and EFB has been briefly reviewed (Mat Rasol et. al.,1987). They suggested that these by-products can be effectively decontaminated by gamma-irradiation and the resulting sterilised by-products could subsequently be used for conversion into animals feeds by fermentation with fungi or chemical stock. The primary objectives of the investigation are: a) to enumerate contaminating microorganisms on PPF and EFB collected from various oil palm mills in the Peninsular Malaysia, and b) to establish the inactivation curves of the PPF and EFB from the selected palm oil mills

1998-01-01

47

Concurrent bioelectricity generation and palm oil mill effluent treatment using microbial fuel cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) provides promising microbial environmental technology to generate bio energy while treating organic wastewaters at the same time. In this study, a dual-chamber MFC system was developed to evaluate the continuous bioelectricity production while treating palm oil mill effluent (POME). A maximum power density of 622 mW/ m2 was generated with continuous feeding of 200 ppm POME. Meanwhile, a COD removal efficiency of 23% and coulombic efficiency of 32 % was recorded. Direct 16S rDNA analyses showed predomination by Geobacter-related sequences at the MFC anode electrode. It is shown that electrochemically-active bacteria originated from POME can be enriched to concurrently generate electricity and treat POME. (author)

2010-01-01

48

Direct Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Acetone-butanol-ethanol by Solvent Producing Clostridia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on direct use of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as fermentation medium for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIMB 13357 and C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 have been carried out in batch culture system. Investigations were carried out on the effect of concentration of sedimented POME, the effect of initial culture pH and the use of immobilized cells for ABE production. It was found that C. acetobutylicum NCIMB13357 grown in 90% sedimented POME with initial pH 5.8 produced highest total ABE (4 g L-1). However, butanol production was maximum (1.82 gL-1) in the culture with the initial pH of 6.0. Results obtained from these experiment with immobilized cells of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 indicated that ABE production from POME could be improved when high concentrations of cells at solventogenic growth phase were used.

Mohd Sahaid Kalil; Pang Wey Kit; Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff; Yoshino Sadazo; Rakmi Abdul Rahman

2003-01-01

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Comparison on decolorization of palm oil mill effluent by biological, chemical and physical methods  

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Full Text Available Decolorization of palm oil mill effluent pretreated by enzyme from Aspergillus niger ATCC 6275 was investigated. The culture filtrate after separation of suspended solids was used for decolorization by biological, chemical and physical methods. Results indicated that the chemical method (using coagulant) was more effective than the biological method (using commercial peroxidase, two strains of white-rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus versicolor) and physical method (using activated carbon, pararubber seed and sand filter). Studies on the effect of coagulant concentrations on decolorization revealed that using the combination of 10 ml/l polyferric sulphate and 10 g/l calcium oxide gave the highest color removal of 84.5% and organic matter (in term of chemical oxygen demand, COD) removal of 86.5%.

Prasertsan, P.; H-Kittikun, A; Chantaphaso, S.

2001-01-01

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Pre-treatment and membrane ultrafiltration using treated palm oil mill effluent (POME)  

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Full Text Available Treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) has always been a topic of research in Malaysia. This effluent that is extremely rich in organic content needs to be properly treated to minimize environmental hazards before it is released into watercourses. The common practice for treating POME in Malaysia involves a combination of aerobic and anaerobic methods. The purpose of tertiary treatment is to allow the treated water to be reused in the mill operations for other purposes such as feed water. The proposed treatment will also ensure the industry to meet a more stringent discharge standard in terms of the BOD, COD and nitrogen values. In this study membrane ultrafiltration is used as the tertiary treatment method. Before the actual membrane operation was conducted, the samples were pre-treated using three separate method namely filtration, centrifugation and coagulation. It was found that the combination of filtrationultrafiltration treatment POME produced the best-treated sample quality in terms of pollutant contents elimination, namely % BOD, % COD and % nitrogen removal.

Wong Pui Wah; Nik Meriam Sulaiman; Meenakshisundaram Nachiappan; Balaraman Varadaraj

2002-01-01

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Cultivation of Chlorella sp. as Biofuel Sources in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)  

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Full Text Available Renewable energy is essential and vital aspect for development in Indonesia especially less oil reserve for coming 15 years. Biodiesel has received much attention as renewable energy in recent years. One of potential biodiesel is produced from microalgae. Due to high content of nutrients in Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME), this waste is a potential for nutrient growth for microalgae. Chlorella is one of high potential for biodiesel since it has high lipid content (20-30%). The objective of the research is to determine growth rate and biomass productivity in Chlorella Sp cultured in POME. Chlorella Sp was cultured in 20%, 50%, 70% POME using urea concentration 0.1gr/L (low nitrogen source) and 1gr/l (high nitrogen source) at flask disk, pH 6.8-7.2; aerated using aquarium pump and fluorescence lamp 3000-6000 lux as light. Medium was measured using spectrophotometer Optima Sp-300 OD at 680 wave length in 15 days to calculate specific growth rate. At end of cultivation, Chlorella sp was filtered and measured as dry weight. Result indicated that Chlorella sp at 50% POME 1gr/L urea showed higher specific growth rate (0.066/day). Factor affecting growth rate of microalgae is CNP ratio, POME concentration, and urea concentration.

H Hadiyanto; Muhamad Maulana Azimatun Nur; Ganang Dwi Hartanto

2012-01-01

52

Effect of Microwave and Ultrasonic Pretreatments on Biogas Production from Anaerobic Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effleunt  

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Full Text Available Problem Statement: Oil palm production is a major agricultural industry in Malaysia. In 2006, palm oil mills in Malaysia produced more than 58 million tonnes of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Existing treatment in a series of open lagoons at high ambient temperatures, results in the uncontrolled production of methane and carbon dioxide, which are both green house gases (GHGs). With the increased worldwide concern on environmentally friendly production processes particularly the emission of methane, it is important to develop an alternative concept for POME treatment. This study elucidates the effects of pre-treatment of palm oil mill effluent by microwave irradiation and ultrasonic on anaerobic digestion. Approach: Effects of pre-treatment on sludge characterisation parameters were monitored. The Soluble Chemical Oxygen Demand (SCOD)/total COD ratio and biodegradability of soluble organic matter increased significantly after both the pre-treatments which indicated an increase in disintegration of the floc structure of the sludge. Three identical bioreactors with working volume of 5 litres were used as anaerobic digesters at 32-35°C. The reactors were separately fed with pre-treated sludge (microwave, ultrasonic and combination of microwave and ultrasonic) and control sludge at different Hydraulic Retention Times (HRT) to check for the production of methane. Results: The maximum SCOD/TCOD ratio reached almost 29% after 30 min of ultrasonic treatment, while it was 45% after 7 min of microwave irradiation. The BOD5/SCOD ratio also increased after the pre-treatments suggesting the biodegradability of the soluble organic material increased during the treatment. It was observed that TVFA released was increased after both the treatments, with microwave treatment showing a higher yield of TVFA. Greatest enhancement in methane production was shown by the 3 min microwave plus 10 min ultrasonic treatment. Conclusion: The microwave in combination with ultrasonic would be a rapid and economical method for sludge pre-treatment for enhancement of biogas production.

N. Saifuddin; S A. Fazlili

2009-01-01

53

Comparative mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of organic loading rate and operating temperature on the microbial diversity and performances of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) were investigated. The following two UASB reactors were run in parallel for comparison: (1) under a mesophilic condition (37 degrees C) and (2) under a mesophilic condition in transition to a thermophilic condition (57 degrees C). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the microbial population profiles significantly changed with the organic loading rate (OLR) and the temperature transition from the mesophilic to the thermophilic condition. Significant biomass washout was observed for the mesophilic UASB when operating at a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.5 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L.d. In contrast, the thermophilic UASB can be operated at this OLR and at a temperature of 57 degrees C with satisfactory COD removal and biogas production. The PCR-based DGGE analysis suggested that the thermophilic temperature of 57 degrees C was suitable for a number of hydrolytic, acidogenic, and acetogenic bacteria.

Khemkhao M; Nuntakumjorn B; Techkarnjanaruk S; Phalakornkule C

2012-07-01

54

Comparative mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of organic loading rate and operating temperature on the microbial diversity and performances of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) were investigated. The following two UASB reactors were run in parallel for comparison: (1) under a mesophilic condition (37 degrees C) and (2) under a mesophilic condition in transition to a thermophilic condition (57 degrees C). A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the microbial population profiles significantly changed with the organic loading rate (OLR) and the temperature transition from the mesophilic to the thermophilic condition. Significant biomass washout was observed for the mesophilic UASB when operating at a high organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.5 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L.d. In contrast, the thermophilic UASB can be operated at this OLR and at a temperature of 57 degrees C with satisfactory COD removal and biogas production. The PCR-based DGGE analysis suggested that the thermophilic temperature of 57 degrees C was suitable for a number of hydrolytic, acidogenic, and acetogenic bacteria. PMID:22876480

Khemkhao, Maneerat; Nuntakumjorn, Boonyarit; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

2012-07-01

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The particulate matter dispersion studies from a local palm oil mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The appearance of industrial emissions and the degradation of scenic vistas are two characteristics of air pollution that humans object. Reduction in visibility suggests worsening pollution levels. The emissions from mobile source and stationary source are the major source of air pollutions contribution in Malaysia. Suspended particulate matter (SPM). The consequence of increasing the particulate concentrations, the particulate matter dissolves with vapour and grows into droplets when the humidity exceeds approximately 70% and causing opaque situation know as haze. This work focuses on the dispersion particulate matter from palm oil mill. The data obtained serves the purpose of modeling the transport of particulate matter for obtaining permits and prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) to the environment. Gaussian Plume Model from a point source, subject to various atmospheric conditions is used to calculate particulate matter concentration then display the distribution of plume dispersion using geographic information system (GIS). The calculated particulate matter concentration is evaluated using Transilient Matrice function. Atmospheric Stability, mixing height, wind direction, wind speed, natural and artificial features play an important role in dispersion process. High concentration area exhibits immediately under prevailing wind direction. (Author)

2006-01-01

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Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent using combined high-rate anaerobic reactors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Combined system of high-rate anaerobic reactors for treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) was developed and investigated in this study. The system composed of one common primary hybrid reactor which was shared by two different secondary filter reactors. An overall COD removal efficiency of 93.5% was achieved in both systems. The secondary reactors contributed not only in enhancing the COD removal efficiency, but also ensured the performance stability of the entire system. Biomass remained intact in the secondary reactor in contrast to the primary reactor in which occasional washout of biomass was observed. The pH of POME was adjusted at the beginning of the operation, as the process continued POME did not require the external pH adjustment as the pH was maintained in desired range. The biogas was produced up to 110 l/d with the yield of 0.171-0.269 l [CH?]/g [COD removed] and 59.5-78.2% content of methane.

Choi WH; Shin CH; Son SM; Ghorpade PA; Kim JJ; Park JY

2013-08-01

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Biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum EB6 from palm oil mill effluent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A hydrogen producer was successfully isolated from anaerobic digested palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge. The strain, designated as Clostridium butyricum EB6, efficiently produced hydrogen concurrently with cell growth. A controlled study was done on a synthetic medium at an initial pH value of 6.0 with 10 g/L glucose with the maximum hydrogen production at 948 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium and the volumetric hydrogen production rate at 172 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium/h. The supplementation of yeast extract was shown to have a significant effect with a maximum hydrogen production of 992 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium at 4 g/L of yeast extract added. The effect of pH on hydrogen production from POME was investigated. Experimental results showed that the optimum hydrogen production ability occurred at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen production and maximum volumetric hydrogen production rate were at 3195 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium and 1034 mL H{sub 2}/L-medium/h, respectively. The hydrogen content in the biogas produced was in the range of 60-70%. (author)

Chong, Mei-Ling; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Hassan, Mohd Ali [Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shirai, Yoshihito [Graduate School of Life Sciences and System Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 808-0196 Hibikimo 2-4, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

2009-01-15

58

Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent using combined high-rate anaerobic reactors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combined system of high-rate anaerobic reactors for treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) was developed and investigated in this study. The system composed of one common primary hybrid reactor which was shared by two different secondary filter reactors. An overall COD removal efficiency of 93.5% was achieved in both systems. The secondary reactors contributed not only in enhancing the COD removal efficiency, but also ensured the performance stability of the entire system. Biomass remained intact in the secondary reactor in contrast to the primary reactor in which occasional washout of biomass was observed. The pH of POME was adjusted at the beginning of the operation, as the process continued POME did not require the external pH adjustment as the pH was maintained in desired range. The biogas was produced up to 110 l/d with the yield of 0.171-0.269 l [CH?]/g [COD removed] and 59.5-78.2% content of methane. PMID:23489567

Choi, Won-Ho; Shin, Chang-Ha; Son, Sung-Min; Ghorpade, Praveen A; Kim, Jeong-Joo; Park, Joo-Yang

2013-02-24

59

Adsorption isotherm studies of BOD, TSS and colour reduction from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using boiler fly ash  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the two most important vegetable oils in the world's oil and fats market. The extraction and purification processes generate different kinds of waste generally known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). Earlier studies had indicated the possibility of using boiler fly ash to adsorb impurities and colour in POME treatment. The adsorption treatment of POME using boiler fly ash was further investigated in detail in this work with regards to the reduction of BOD, colour and TSS from palm oil mill effluent. The amount of BOD, colour and TSS adsorbed increased as the weight of the boiler fly ash used was increased. Also, the smaller particle size of 425µm adsorbed more than the 850µm size. Attempts were made to fit the experimental data with the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The R² values, which ranged from 0.8974-0.9898, 0.8848-0.9824 and 0.6235-0.9101 for Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms respectively, showed that Freundlich isotherm gave a better fit followed by Langmuir and then Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The sorption trend could be put as BOD > Colour > TSS. The apparent energy of adsorption was found to be 1.25, 0.58 and 0.97 (KJ/mol) for BOD, colour and TSS respectively, showing that sorption process occurs by physiosorption. Therefore, boiler fly ash is capable of reducing BOD, Colour and TSS from POME and hence could be used to develop a good adsorbent for POME treatment.

J.C Igwe; C.O Onyegbado; A.A Abia

2010-01-01

60

Adsorption isotherm studies of BOD, TSS and colour reduction from palm oil mill effluent (POME) using boiler fly ash  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Palm oil is one of the two most important vegetable oils in the world's oil and fats market. The extraction and purification processes generate different kinds of waste generally known as palm oil mill effluent (POME). Earlier studies had indicated the possibility of using boiler fly ash to adsorb impurities and colour in POME treatment. The adsorption treatment of POME using boiler fly ash was further investigated in detail in this work with regards to the reduction of B (more) OD, colour and TSS from palm oil mill effluent. The amount of BOD, colour and TSS adsorbed increased as the weight of the boiler fly ash used was increased. Also, the smaller particle size of 425µm adsorbed more than the 850µm size. Attempts were made to fit the experimental data with the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The R² values, which ranged from 0.8974-0.9898, 0.8848-0.9824 and 0.6235-0.9101 for Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms respectively, showed that Freundlich isotherm gave a better fit followed by Langmuir and then Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm. The sorption trend could be put as BOD > Colour > TSS. The apparent energy of adsorption was found to be 1.25, 0.58 and 0.97 (KJ/mol) for BOD, colour and TSS respectively, showing that sorption process occurs by physiosorption. Therefore, boiler fly ash is capable of reducing BOD, Colour and TSS from POME and hence could be used to develop a good adsorbent for POME treatment.

Igwe, J.C; Onyegbado, C.O; Abia, A.A

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Project Economics as a Tool for Evaluation of Viability of Projects, A Case of Palm Oil Milling Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research work, a case study of a proposed palm oil milling plant by an entrepreneur is looked into. This is with a view to ensuring its Viability, and also delving into the Risk, Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis of vital parameters. At the end of all analyses, the entrepreneur is well guided to take a decision on whether or not to commit his or her scarce resources. Basic engineering economy methods for project evaluation are highlighted. With the added information from the sensitivity analysis the investor would be better informed about critical factor and therefore could take appropriate actions.

John Obukoeroro

2011-01-01

62

Isolation and Characterization of Thermophilic Cellulase-Producing Bacteria from Empty Fruit Bunches-Palm Oil Mill Effluent Compost  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problems statement: Lack of information on locally isolated cellulase-producing bacterium in thermophilic compost using a mixture of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as composting materials. Approach: The isolation of microbes from compost heap was conducted at day 7 of composting process where the mixture of composting materials consisted of 45.8% cellulose, 17.1% hemicellulose and 28.3% lignin content. The temperature, pH and moisture content of the composting pile at day 7 treatment were 58.3, 8.1 and 65.5°C, respectively. The morphological analysis of the isolated microbes was conducted using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Gram stain method. The congo red test was conducted in order to detect 1% CMC agar degradation activities. Total genomic DNAs were extracted from approximately 1.0 g of mixed compost and amplified by using PCR primers. The PCR product was sequent to identify the nearest relatives of 16S rRNA genes. The localization of bacteria chromosomes was determined by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis. Results: Single isolated bacteria species was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB)-Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) compost at thermophilic stage. Restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles of the DNAs coding for the 16S rRNAs with the phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated bacteria from EFB-POME thermophilic compost gave the highest homology (99%) with similarity to Geobacillus pallidus. The strain was spore forming bacteria and able to grow at 60°C with pH 7. Conclusion: Thermophilic bacteria strain, Geobacillus pallidus was successfully isolated from Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Oil Mil Effluent (POME) compost and characterized.

Azhari S. Baharuddin; Mohamad N.A. Razak; Lim S. Hock; Mohd N. Ahmad; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Nor A.A. Rahman; Umi K.M Shah; Mohd A. Hassan; Kenji Sakai; Yoshihito Shirai

2010-01-01

63

Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78°C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0) as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5–99.2%). Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Results Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70°C and was also stable up to 60°C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T) and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T). Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T). Conclusion Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular thermostable lipase into culture medium. The strain T1T was identified as Geobacillus zalihae T1T as it differs from its type strains Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T) and Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T) on some physiological studies, cellular fatty acids composition, RiboPrint analysis, length of lipase gene and protein profile.

Rahman Raja; Leow Thean; Salleh Abu; Basri Mahiran

2007-01-01

64

Effect of temperature on the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Two continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) each fed with palm oil mill effluent (POME), operated at 37ºC and 55ºC, respectively, were investigated for their performance under varies organic loading rates (OLRs). The 37ºC reactor operated successfully at a maximum OLR of 12.25 g[COD]/L/day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The 55ºC reactor operated successfully at the higher loading rate of 17.01 g[COD]/L/day and had a HRT of 5 days. The 37ºC reactor a (more) chieved a 71.10% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), a biogas production rate of 3.73 L of gas/L[reactor]/day containing 71.04% methane, whereas the 55ºC reactor achieved a 70.32% reduction of COD, a biogas production rate of 4.66 L of gas/L[reactor]/day containing 69.53% methane. An OLR of 9.68 g[COD]/L/day, at a HRT of 7 days, was used to study the effects of changing the temperature by 3ºC increments. The reactor processes were reasonably stable during the increase from 37ºC to 43ºC and the decrease from 55ºC to 43ºC. When the temperature was increased from 37ºC to 46ºC, the total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration and biogas production was 2,059 mg as acetic acid/L and 1.49 L of gas/L[reactor]/day at day 56, respectively. When the temperature was reduced from 55ºC to 40ºC, the TVFA concentration and biogas production was 2,368 mg as acetic acid/L and 2.01 L of gas/L[reactor]/day at day 102, respectively. By first reducing the OLR to 4.20 g[COD]/L/day then slowly increasing the OLR back to 9.68 g[COD]/L/day, both reactors were restored to stable conditions at 49ºC and 37ºC respectively. The initial 37ºC reactor became fully acclimatized at 55ºC with an efficiency similar to that when operated at the initial 37ºC whereas the 55ºC reactor also achieved stability at 37ºC but with a lower efficiency

Choorit, Wanna; Wisarnwan, Pornpan

2007-07-01

65

The Effect of Higher Sludge Recycling Rate on Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in a Semi-Commercial Closed Digester for Renewable Energy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: A 500 m3 semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester was constructed for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment and methane gas capture for renewable energy. During the start-up operation period, the Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) accumulat...

Alawi Sulaiman; Zainuri Busu; Meisam Tabatabaei; Shahrakbah Yacob; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Mohd Ali Hassan; Yoshihito Shirai

66

Effect of Ni and Co as Trace Metals on Digestion Performance and Biogas Produced from The Fermentation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Macro and micro nutrients are important ingredients for successful anaerobic digestion. The presence or lack of nutrients can enhance or limit the functioning of the fermentation process. Micro-nutrients most often reported as stimulatory are trace metals such as nickel, cobalt, iron, and zinc. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of nickel and cobalt as trace metals on digestion performance and biogas produced from the fermentation of palm oil mill effluent (POME). Anaerobic digestion was performed in a two litres stirred tank reactor and operated at a thermophilic temperature (55 oC). As raw material, a real liquid waste (POME) from palm oil mill was used. Fresh POME was obtained from a fat pit of palm oil mill’s waste water treatment facility belongs to one of the palm oil company in North Sumatera which has VS concentration of 26,300 mg/L and COD value of 42,000 mg/L. To gain precise results, complete recording and reliable equipment of digester were employed. Supporting materials were also needed such as sodium bicarbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, and hydrochloric acid solution. Variables observed were included M-alkalinity, total solid (TS), volatile solid (VS), and biogas production. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) was maintained at 6 days. Experimental results concluded that the reduction of trace metals concentration did not affect the TS and VS concentration and M-alkalinity.

Irvan Matseh

2012-01-01

67

Development and characterisation of novel heterogeneous palm oil mill boiler ash-based catalysts for biodiesel production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Novel heterogeneous catalysts from calcium oxide (CaO)/calcined calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) loaded onto different palm oil mill boiler ashes were synthesised and used in the transesterification of crude palm oil (CPO) with methanol to yield biodiesel. Catalyst preparation parameters including the type of ash support, the weight percentage of CaO and calcined CaCO(3) loadings, as well as the calcination temperature of CaCO(3) were optimised. The catalyst prepared by loading of 15 wt% calcined CaCO(3) at a fixed temperature of 800°C on fly ash exhibited a maximum oil conversion of 94.48%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the CaCO(3) was transformed into CaO at 770°C and interacted well with the ash support, whereas rich CaO, Al(2)O(3) and SiO(2) were identified in the composition using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The fine morphology size (<5 ?m) and high surface area (1.719 m(2)/g) of the fly ash-based catalyst rendered it the highest catalytic activity.

Ho WW; Ng HK; Gan S

2012-12-01

68

Influence of palm oil mill effluent as inoculum on anaerobic digestion of cattle manure for biogas production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anaerobic digestion for palm oil mill effluent (POME) is widely known for its potential in biogass production. In this study, the potential of using cattle manure for biogas production in complete mix anaerobic bioreactor was investigated using POME at unregulated pH and temperature. Two identical bioreactors were used in this study; namely R1 and R2 fed with cattle manure without and with POME as inoculum, respectively. Both bioreactors were allowed for five days to run in batch mode followed by semi continuous operations at HRT of 20 days. R2 produced 41% methane content compared to 18% produced in R1. A better COD percentage reduction of 45% was found in R2 which was operated with POME as inoculum compared to R1 with 35%. These results indicated that POME as inoculum has an influence on the start-up time and the rate of biogas produced.This findings will help in waste reduction.

Saidu M; Yuzir A; Salim MR; Salmiati; Azman S; Abdullah N

2013-08-01

69

Influence of palm oil mill effluent as inoculum on anaerobic digestion of cattle manure for biogas production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobic digestion for palm oil mill effluent (POME) is widely known for its potential in biogass production. In this study, the potential of using cattle manure for biogas production in complete mix anaerobic bioreactor was investigated using POME at unregulated pH and temperature. Two identical bioreactors were used in this study; namely R1 and R2 fed with cattle manure without and with POME as inoculum, respectively. Both bioreactors were allowed for five days to run in batch mode followed by semi continuous operations at HRT of 20 days. R2 produced 41% methane content compared to 18% produced in R1. A better COD percentage reduction of 45% was found in R2 which was operated with POME as inoculum compared to R1 with 35%. These results indicated that POME as inoculum has an influence on the start-up time and the rate of biogas produced.This findings will help in waste reduction. PMID:23588120

Saidu, Mohammed; Yuzir, Ali; Salim, Mohd Razman; Salmiati; Azman, Shamila; Abdullah, Norhayati

2013-03-25

70

Kinetics of methane production from palm oil mill effluent in an immobilised cell bioreactor using saponite as support medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A kinetic study of the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was carried out in a continuous, well-stirred digester with microorganisms immobilised on saponite support granules. A COD removal of 96.2% was achieved in the reactor at a volumetric loading rate of 10.6kg COD/m[sup 3] day (hydraulic retention time of 6.2 days); the methane production rate was first order with respect to biodegradable substrate concentration. The apparent rate constant was proportional to the volatile suspended solids concentration and the product yield coefficient, Y[sub p], was 0.325 litre CH[sub 4] STP/g COD consumed. (author)

Borja, R. (Inst. de la Grasa y sus Derivados, Seville (Spain)); Banks, C.J. (Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. of Science and Technology)

1994-01-01

71

Waste to Wealth: Hidden Treasures in the Oil Palm Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The palm oil industry plays an important role in the creation of waste to wealth using the abundant oil palm biomass resources generated from palm oil supply chain i.e. upstream to downstream activities. The oil palm biomass and other palm-derived waste streams available are oil palm trunks (felled), fronds (felled and pruned), shell, mesocarp fibers, empty fruit bunches (EFB), palm oil mill effluent (POME), palm kernel expelled (PKE), palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD), used frying oil (UFO), residual oil from spent bleaching earth (SBE) and glycerol. For 88.5 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass generated was more than 25 million tones (dry weight basis) with the generation of 59 million tonnes of POME from 410 palm oil mills. Oil palm biomass consists of mainly lignocellulose materials that can be potentially and fully utilized for renewable energy, wood-based products and high value-added products such as pytonutrients, phenolics, carotenes and vitamin E. Oil palm biomass can be converted to bio energy with high combustible characteristics such as briquettes, bio-oils, bio-producer gas, boiler fuel, biogas and bio ethanol. Oil palm biomass can also be made into wood-based products such as composite and furniture, pulp and paper and planting medium. The recovery of phenolics from POME as valuable antioxidants has potential drug application. Other possible applications for oil palm biomass include fine chemicals, dietary fibers, animal feed and polymers. There must be a strategic and sustainable resource management to distribute palm oil and palm biomass to maximize the use of the resources so that it can generate revenues, bring benefits to the palm oil industry and meet stringent sustainability requirements in the future. (author)

2010-01-01

72

Comparative studies on the adsorption properties of powdered activated carbon and propenoic acid modified sawdust in the treatment of secondary palm oil mill effluent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Propenoic acid monomer was used to modify pulped cellulosic materials (sawdust). The sorption properties of the propenoic acid modified sawdust (PAMS) were compared with those of powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the tertiary treatment of palm oil mill effluent, previously clarified with iron (III) chloride plus lime (secondary effluent). The adsorption processes were effected in a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) at a pressure of 80 kilo Newton per meter square (kNm/sup -2/). Optimum amount of PAC and PAMS used for the fluidized adsorption of contaminants from the secondary palm oil mill effluent (POME) were 2.5 g/1 and 4.0 g/1, respectively. These sorption processes were found to be optimum at 10 min and 50 min for PAC and PAMS, respectively. At optimum sorption conditions, removal differentials of 28.6%/g chemical oxygen demand, 19.1%/g suspended solids, and 19.3%/g colour in favour of PAC were established. The application of optimum conditions for adsorption, for both adsorbents, to the bulk treatment of the palm oil mill effluent yielded a clear effluent with wider reuse applicability. (author)

2006-01-01

73

Integrated Palm Oil Processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: th...

A. L. Compere W. L. Griffith J. M. Googin

1983-01-01

74

UASB performance and microbial adaptation during a transition from mesophilic to thermophilic treatment of palm oil mill effluent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) at organic loading rates (OLR) between 2.2 and 9.5 g COD l(-1) day(-1) was achieved by acclimatizing the mesophilic (37 °C) microbial seed to the thermophilic temperature (57 °C) by a series of stepwise temperature shifts. The UASB produced up to 13.2 l biogas d(-1) with methane content on an average of 76%. The COD removal efficiency ranged between 76 and 86%. Microbial diversity of granules from the UASB reactor was also investigated. The PCR-based DGGE analysis showed that the bacterial population profiles significantly changed with the temperature transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. In addition, the results suggested that even though the thermophilic temperature of 57 °C was suitable for a number of hydrolytic, acidogenic and acetogenic bacteria, it may not be suitable for some Methanosaeta species acclimatized from 37 °C. Specifically, the bands associated with Methanosaeta thermophila PT and Methanosaeta harundinacea can be detected during the four consecutive operation phases of 37 °C, 42 °C, 47 °C and 52 °C, but their corresponding bands were found to fade out at 57 °C. The DGGE analysis predicted that the temperature transition can result in significant methanogenic biomass washout at 57 °C.

Khemkhao M; Nuntakumjorn B; Techkarnjanaruk S; Phalakornkule C

2012-07-01

75

UASB performance and microbial adaptation during a transition from mesophilic to thermophilic treatment of palm oil mill effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) at organic loading rates (OLR) between 2.2 and 9.5 g COD l(-1) day(-1) was achieved by acclimatizing the mesophilic (37 °C) microbial seed to the thermophilic temperature (57 °C) by a series of stepwise temperature shifts. The UASB produced up to 13.2 l biogas d(-1) with methane content on an average of 76%. The COD removal efficiency ranged between 76 and 86%. Microbial diversity of granules from the UASB reactor was also investigated. The PCR-based DGGE analysis showed that the bacterial population profiles significantly changed with the temperature transition from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions. In addition, the results suggested that even though the thermophilic temperature of 57 °C was suitable for a number of hydrolytic, acidogenic and acetogenic bacteria, it may not be suitable for some Methanosaeta species acclimatized from 37 °C. Specifically, the bands associated with Methanosaeta thermophila PT and Methanosaeta harundinacea can be detected during the four consecutive operation phases of 37 °C, 42 °C, 47 °C and 52 °C, but their corresponding bands were found to fade out at 57 °C. The DGGE analysis predicted that the temperature transition can result in significant methanogenic biomass washout at 57 °C. PMID:22466006

Khemkhao, Maneerat; Nuntakumjorn, Boonyarit; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

2012-03-29

76

Utilization of palm oil mill effluent as a novel and promising substrate for biosurfactant production by Nevskia ramosa NA3  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper introduces palm oil mill effluent as a promising substrate for biosurfactant production. Potential strains ofbacteria were isolated from various hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and screened for biosurfactant production with the helpof the drop collapse method and surface tension measurements. Out of 26 isolates of bacteria, the strain NA3 showed thehighest bacterial growth with the highest surface tension reduction of 27.2 mN/m. It was then identified as Nevskia ramosaNA3 by biochemical and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The Plackett-Burman experimental design was employed to determinethe important nutritional requirements for biosurfactant production by N. ramosa NA3 under controlled conditions. Six outof 11 factors of the production medium were found to significantly affect the production of biosurfactant. FeCl2 and NaNO3had a direct proportional correlation with the biosurfactant production. Commercial sugar, glucose, K2HPO4 and MgCl2showed inversely proportional relationship with biosurfactant production in the selected experimental range.

Chanika Saenge Chooklin; Sirirat Phertmean; Benjamas Cheirsilp; Suppasil Maneerat; Atipan Saimmai

2013-01-01

77

Synthetic Polyelectrolytes Based on Acrylamide and Their Application as a Flocculent in the Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five cationic polyacrylamides of varying molecular weights but similar charge density were synthesized using free radical polymerization and Mannich reaction, characterized by different methods (infra red (IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), viscosity measurements and conductometric titration) and applied as flocculants to palm oil mill effluents (POME). Flocculent performance was assessed by determining the polyelectrolyte dosage and the removal efficiency of the resulting supernatants using turbidity, suspended solids (SS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) as indicators. It was found that varying in the molecular weight of the cationic polyacrylamide from 20X103 to 1.5X106 g mol-1 affects flocculent performance significantly. Polyelectrolyte adsorption increased as the molecular weight of the polyelectrolyte increased. High molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (1.5X106 g mol-1) is the most effective polymer as it obtains a high removal efficiency (%) with a dosage as low as 60 mg L-1 at pH 3 of POME. The very high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (over 5 million g mol-1) produced very poor floc formation this is because polyelectrolytes having very high molecular weights do not dissolve readily but tend to form gel lumps.

A. Ariffin; Raid S.A. Shatat; A.R. Nik Norulaini; A.K. Mohd Omar

2004-01-01

78

Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35°C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-CODg/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m(3)d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased significantly after long-term operation due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the granules. Granulation and methanogenesis decreased with an increase in the influent CaO-CKD concentration. PMID:22047724

Ahmad, Anwar; Ghufran, Rumana; Abd Wahid, Zularisam

2011-10-17

79

Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The granulation process in palm oil mill effluent using calcium oxide-cement kiln dust (CaO-CKD) provides an attractive and cost effective treatment option. In this study the efficiency of CaO-CKD at doses of 1.5-20 g/l was tested in batch experiments and found that 10 g of CaO/l caused the greatest degradation of VFA, butyrate and acetate. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor was operated continuously at 35°C for 150 days to investigate the effect of CaO-CKD on sludge granulation and methanogenesis during start-up. The treatment of POME emphasized the influence of varying organic loading rates (OLR). Up to 94.9% of COD was removed when the reactor was fed with the 15.5-65.5 g-CODg/l at an OLR of 4.5-12.5 kg-COD/m(3)d, suggesting the feasibility of using CaO in an UASB process to treat POME. The ratio of volatile solids/total solids (VS/TS) and volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic sludge in the UASB reactor decreased significantly after long-term operation due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the granules. Granulation and methanogenesis decreased with an increase in the influent CaO-CKD concentration.

Ahmad A; Ghufran R; Abd Wahid Z

2011-12-01

80

Comparison of UASB and EGSB reactors performance, for treatment of raw and deoiled palm oil mill effluent (POME)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and deoiled POME was investigated both in batch assays and continuous reactor experiments using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. The methane potential determined from batch assays of POME and deoiled POME was 503 and 610mL-CH4/gVS-added, respectively. For the treatment of POME in continuously fed reactors, both in UASB and EGSB reactors more than 90% COD removal could be obtained, at HRT of 5 days, corresponding to OLR of 5.8gVS/(L-reactor.d). Similar methane yields of 436–438mL-CH4/gVS-added were obtained for UASB and EGSB respectively. However, for treatment of deoiled POME, both UASB and EGSB reactors could operate at lower OLR of 2.6gVS/(L-reactor.d), with the methane yield of 600 and 555mL-CH4/gVS-added for UASB and EGSB, respectively. The higher methane yield achieved from the deoiled POME was attributed to lower portion of biofibers which are more recalcitrant compared the rest of organic matter in POME. The UASB reactor was found to be more stable than EGSB reactor under the same OLR, as could be seen from lower VFA concentration, especially propionic acid, compared to the EGSB reactor.

Fang, Cheng; O-Thong, Sompong

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Sustainability of Palm Oil Industries: An Innovative Treatment via Membrane Technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaysia is the largest producer of palm oil, the processing of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) has resulted large amount Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The highly polluting POME is identified as the major stumbling block to the development of palm oil industry in Malaysia. Hence, an integrated m...

A.L. Ahmad; C.Y. Chan

82

Optimization of decolorization of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by growing cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus using response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conventional treatment process of palm oil mill effluent (POME) produces a highly colored effluent. Colored compounds in POME cause reduction in photosynthetic activities, produce carcinogenic by-products in drinking water, chelate with metal ions, and are toxic to aquatic biota. Thus, failure of conventional treatment methods to decolorize POME has become an important problem to be addressed as color has emerged as a critical water quality parameter for many countries such as Malaysia. Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from POME sludge was successfully grown in POME supplemented with glucose. Statistical optimization studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of the types and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature, and size of the inoculum. Characterization of the fungus was performed using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller surface area analysis. Optimum conditions using response surface methods at pH 5.7, 35 °C, and 0.57 % w/v glucose with 2.5 % v/v inoculum size resulted in a successful removal of 71 % of the color (initial ADMI of 3,260); chemical oxygen demand, 71 %; ammoniacal nitrogen, 35 %; total polyphenolic compounds, 50 %; and lignin, 54 % after 5 days of treatment. The decolorization process was contributed mainly by biosorption involving pseudo-first-order kinetics. FTIR analysis revealed that the presence of hydroxyl, C-H alkane, amide carbonyl, nitro, and amine groups could combine intensively with the colored compounds in POME. This is the first reported work on the application of A. fumigatus for the decolorization of POME. The present investigation suggested that growing cultures of A. fumigatus has potential applications for the decolorization of POME through the biosorption and biodegradation processes. PMID:23054764

Neoh, Chin Hong; Yahya, Adibah; Adnan, Robiah; Abdul Majid, Zaiton; Ibrahim, Zaharah

2012-09-29

83

Optimization of decolorization of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by growing cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus using response surface methodology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The conventional treatment process of palm oil mill effluent (POME) produces a highly colored effluent. Colored compounds in POME cause reduction in photosynthetic activities, produce carcinogenic by-products in drinking water, chelate with metal ions, and are toxic to aquatic biota. Thus, failure of conventional treatment methods to decolorize POME has become an important problem to be addressed as color has emerged as a critical water quality parameter for many countries such as Malaysia. Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from POME sludge was successfully grown in POME supplemented with glucose. Statistical optimization studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of the types and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature, and size of the inoculum. Characterization of the fungus was performed using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller surface area analysis. Optimum conditions using response surface methods at pH 5.7, 35 °C, and 0.57 % w/v glucose with 2.5 % v/v inoculum size resulted in a successful removal of 71 % of the color (initial ADMI of 3,260); chemical oxygen demand, 71 %; ammoniacal nitrogen, 35 %; total polyphenolic compounds, 50 %; and lignin, 54 % after 5 days of treatment. The decolorization process was contributed mainly by biosorption involving pseudo-first-order kinetics. FTIR analysis revealed that the presence of hydroxyl, C-H alkane, amide carbonyl, nitro, and amine groups could combine intensively with the colored compounds in POME. This is the first reported work on the application of A. fumigatus for the decolorization of POME. The present investigation suggested that growing cultures of A. fumigatus has potential applications for the decolorization of POME through the biosorption and biodegradation processes.

Neoh CH; Yahya A; Adnan R; Abdul Majid Z; Ibrahim Z

2013-05-01

84

PCR-based DGGE and FISH analysis of methanogens in an anaerobic closed digester tank for treating palm oil mill effluent  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-targeted fluorescent in situ hybridization combined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-cloning, light microscopy using Gram stains, scanning electron microscopy and denatured gradient gel electrophoresis were used to reveal the distribution of methanogens within an anaerobic closed digester tank fed with palm oil mill effluent. For specific detection of methanogens, 16S rRNA-cloning analysis was conducted followed by restriction fragment length (more) polymorphism (RFLP) for presumptive identification of methanogens. To cover the drawbacks of the PCR-cloning study, the organization of the microorganisms was visualized in the activated sludge sample by using fluorescent oligonucleotide probes specific to several different methanogens, and a probe for bacteria. In situ hybridization with methanogens and bacterial probes and denatured gradient gel electrophoresis within activated sludge clearly confirmed the presence of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanosarcina sp. cells. Methanosaeta concilii was found to be the dominant species in the bioreactor. These results revealed the presence of possibly new strain of Methanosaeta in the bioreactor for treating palm oil mill effluent called Methanosaeta concilii SamaliEB (Gene bank accession number: EU580025). In addition, fluorescent hybridization pictured the close association between the methanogens and bacteria and that the number of methanogens was greater than the number of bacteria.

Tabatabaei, Meisam; Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Wright, André-Denis G.; Shirai, Yoshihito; Abdullah, Norhani; Sakai, Kenji; Ikeno, Shinya; Mori, Masatsugu; Kazunori, Nakamura; Sulaiman, Alawi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

2009-07-01

85

Palm Oil Prospects for 2005.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last two decades, palm oil has emerged as the most traded edible oil and a major component of global oil consumption and production. The increase in palm oil's importance is due primarily to changes in the economics underlying the highly complex ed...

J. Castaneda M. Giordano

1995-01-01

86

Characteristics of granular sludge developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge fixed-film bioreactor treating palm oil mill effluent.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, characteristics of the granular sludge (including physical characteristics under stable conditions and process shocks arising from suspended solid overload, soluble organic overload, and high temperature; biological activity; and sludge kinetic evaluation in a batch experiment) developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed-film reactor for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment was investigated. The main aim of this work was to provide suitable understanding of POME anaerobic digestion using such a granular sludge reactor, particularly with respect to granule structure at various operating conditions. The morphological changes in granular sludge resulting from various operational conditions was studied using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. It was shown that the developed granules consisted of densely packed rod- (Methanosaeta-like microorganism; predominant) and cocci- (Methanosarsina) shaped microorganisms. Methanosaeta aggregates functioned as nucleation centers that initiated granule development of POME-degrading granules. Under the suspended solid overload condition, most of the granules were covered with a thin layer of fiberlike suspended solids, so that the granule color changed to brown and the sludge volume index also increased to 24.5 from 12 to 15 mL/g, which caused a large amount of sludge washout. Some of the granules were disintegrated because of an acidified environment, which originated from acidogenesis of high influent organic load (29 g chemical oxygen demand [COD]/L d). At 60 degrees C, the rate of biomass washout increased, as a result of disintegration of the outer layer of the granules. In the biological activity test, approximately 95% COD removal was achieved within 72 hours, with an initial COD removal rate of 3.5 g COD/L d. During POME digestion, 275 mg calcium carbonate/L bicarbonate alkalinity was produced per 1000 mg COD(removed)/ L. A consecutive reaction kinetic model was used to simulate the data obtained from the sludge activity in the batch experiment. The mathematical model gave a good fit with the experimental results (R2 > 0.93). The slowest step was modeled to be the acidification step, with a rate constant between 0.015 and 0.083 hours(-1), while the rate constant for the methanogenic step was obtained to be between 0.218 and 0.361 hours(-1). PMID:17824529

Zinatizadeh, A A L; Mohamed, A R; Mashitah, M D; Abdullah, A Z; Hasnain Isa, M

2007-08-01

87

Characteristics of granular sludge developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge fixed-film bioreactor treating palm oil mill effluent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, characteristics of the granular sludge (including physical characteristics under stable conditions and process shocks arising from suspended solid overload, soluble organic overload, and high temperature; biological activity; and sludge kinetic evaluation in a batch experiment) developed in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket fixed-film reactor for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment was investigated. The main aim of this work was to provide suitable understanding of POME anaerobic digestion using such a granular sludge reactor, particularly with respect to granule structure at various operating conditions. The morphological changes in granular sludge resulting from various operational conditions was studied using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. It was shown that the developed granules consisted of densely packed rod- (Methanosaeta-like microorganism; predominant) and cocci- (Methanosarsina) shaped microorganisms. Methanosaeta aggregates functioned as nucleation centers that initiated granule development of POME-degrading granules. Under the suspended solid overload condition, most of the granules were covered with a thin layer of fiberlike suspended solids, so that the granule color changed to brown and the sludge volume index also increased to 24.5 from 12 to 15 mL/g, which caused a large amount of sludge washout. Some of the granules were disintegrated because of an acidified environment, which originated from acidogenesis of high influent organic load (29 g chemical oxygen demand [COD]/L d). At 60 degrees C, the rate of biomass washout increased, as a result of disintegration of the outer layer of the granules. In the biological activity test, approximately 95% COD removal was achieved within 72 hours, with an initial COD removal rate of 3.5 g COD/L d. During POME digestion, 275 mg calcium carbonate/L bicarbonate alkalinity was produced per 1000 mg COD(removed)/ L. A consecutive reaction kinetic model was used to simulate the data obtained from the sludge activity in the batch experiment. The mathematical model gave a good fit with the experimental results (R2 > 0.93). The slowest step was modeled to be the acidification step, with a rate constant between 0.015 and 0.083 hours(-1), while the rate constant for the methanogenic step was obtained to be between 0.218 and 0.361 hours(-1).

Zinatizadeh AA; Mohamed AR; Mashitah MD; Abdullah AZ; Hasnain Isa M

2007-08-01

88

A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) Reactor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28{+-}2 C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37{+-}1 C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

Habeeb, S.A.; Latiff, AB. Aziz Abdul; Daud, Zawawi; Ahmad, Zulkifli [Faculty of Civil and Enviromental Engineering, University Tun Hussein Onn (Malaysia)

2011-07-01

89

A biodegradation and treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using a hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (HUASB) reactor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generally, anaerobic treatment has become a viable alternative in support of industrial wastewater treatment. Particularly, it is used in common to treat the palm oil mill effluent (POME). This study was carried out to assess the start-up performance of a bioreactor hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB). Whereby, three identical reactors of 7.85-l capacity R1, R2, and R3 were operated for 57 days in order to provide two alienated comparisons. Identical operation conditions of organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1.85 kg.m-3.day-1, and 2.6 day, respectively. R1 was operated in room temperature of 28±2°C, and packed with palm oil shell as filter medium support. R2 was set with room temperature but packed with course gravel. R3 was provided with water bath system to adjust its temperature at 37±1°C mesophilic, while its filter material had to be palm oil shell. During the whole operation period R3 was more efficient for organic materials, where a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 82% was registered, while R1 and R2 were relatively less efficient of 78%, and 76%, respectively. Furthermore, TSS removal of R3 was also higher than R1, and R2 as registered 80%, 77% and 76%, respectively. On the other hand, turbidity and colour removal were not efficient and needed a post treatment. The seeded sludge was developed in each reactor as illustrated in this paper. Therefore, all reactors show favorable performance of anaerobic treatability of POME as well as good response of microbial species development.

S. A. Habeeb, AB. Aziz Abdul Latiff, Zawawi Daud, Zulkifli Ahmad

2011-01-01

90

Calculation of the release of total organic matter and total mineral using the hydrodynamic equations applied to palm oil mill effluent treatment by cascaded anaerobic ponds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anaerobic treatment processes to remove organic matter from palm oil mill effluent (POME) have been used widely in Malaysia. Still the amounts of total organic and total mineral released from POME that may cause degradation of the receiving environment need to be verified. This paper proposes the use of the hydrodynamic equations to estimate performance of the cascaded anaerobic ponds (CAP) and to calculate amounts of total organic matter and total mineral released from POME. The CAP efficiencies to remove biochemical oxygen demands, chemical oxygen demands, total solids and volatile solids (VS) as high as 94.5, 93.6, 96.3 and 98.2 %, respectively, are estimated. The amounts of total organic matter and total mineral as high as 538 kg VS/day and 895 kg FS/day, respectively, released from POME to the receiving water are calculated. The implication of the proposed hydrodynamic equations contributes to more versatile environmental assessment techniques, sometimes replacing laboratory analysis.

Fulazzaky MA

2013-01-01

91

Techno-economic Analysis of Electricity Generation from Biogas Using Palm Oil Waste  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Malaysia, nearly 80 million tons of fresh fruit bunches are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tons of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). This POME is known to generate biogas consisting of methane-a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global ...

Shahida Begum; Mohd Firdaus M. Saad

92

Coconut, date and oil palm genomics  

Science.gov (United States)

A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

93

Range of Choice in Palm Oil Processing Technologies for Cameroon.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report discusses the ecological, agronomic, and industrial factors affecting the economics of palm oil production. It begins by describing the characteristics of palm oil and palm kernel oils, and the cultivation and harvesting of oil palm. The curren...

E. L. Hyman

1988-01-01

94

Soft energy from palm oil and its wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A time series analysis of energy sources showed that about 90% of the present energy needs of Malaysia come from petroleum. However, the photosynthetic conversion of sunlight to plant matter has been supplying energy to man for a long time. Traditionally firewood has been the direct source of photosynthetic energy, but this study proposes that energy can be obtained from the oil palm through the use of its product: the bunches, the fiber, the oil and the mill effluent. A scheme for the bioconversion of palm oil mill effluent through anaerobic digestion is presented. It was found that biogas generated from this process has an energy content of about 24.1 MJ/cubic meters of gas. The energy equivalent of this for a 60 ton/h mill was calculated at about 180 barrels of oil per day. An energy evaluation of all the wastes from the palm oil fruit was made and it revealed that this can satisfy approximately 17% of Malaysia's energy requirements, thus reducing her dependence upon petroleum. This study also suggests that with rising oil prices it will be appropriate to consider palm oil itself as an alternative fuel in our search for soft energy paths as it can account for about 20% of Malaysia's energy consumption. Developing countries in the tropics which depend heavily on imported petroleum can thus turn to bioconversion energy from the palm oil tree. (Refs. 13).

Wong, K.K.

1981-07-01

95

Preliminary experimental results of Sewage Sludge (SS) Co-digestion with Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for Enhanced Biogas Production in Laboratory Scale Anaerobic Digester  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation on the feasibility of co-digesting Sewage Sludge with Palm Oil Mill Effluent for enhancing the biogas production and the corresponding effect of the co-digestion substrate ratio on the biogas production has been evaluated. Anaerobic co-digestion of POME with SS was performed at ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 60:40 and 0:100 to find the optimum blend required for enhanced waste digestion and biogas production. Single stage batch digestion was carried out for 12 days in a laboratory scale anaerobic digester. Co-digestion of sludge's at the 70:30 proportion resulted in optimal COD and C: N ratio which subsequently recorded the highest performance with regards to biogas production at 28.1 L's compared to the 1.98 L's of biogas produced from digestion of SS alone. From the results obtained, it is evident that co-digestion of POME and SS is an attractive option to be explored for enhancement of biogas production in anaerobic digesters.

Sivasankari, R.; Kumaran, P.; Normanbhay, Saifuddin; Halim Shamsuddin, Abd

2013-06-01

96

Method for refining of palm oils  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention relates to a method for the refining of palm type oils such as palm oil and other similar natural oils including palm kernel oil, coconut oil, and the like. The method includes adding a small quantity of phosphoric acid to a crude palm type oil, treating said oil with a small quantity of activated clay, and then subjecting said oil to steam refining of 200 DEG to 270 DEG C. with the blowing of superheated steam into the oil under high vacuum after the activated clay has been removed.

WATANABE HARUO; NEGISHI MASAAKI

97

Palm oil use in Mortadella  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil and its fractions can be combined to obtain designed fats with desired composition and physical properties. Incorporation of this type of ingredient in meat products can influence meat products process and sensory quality. In this study, a mixture of palm refined oil and stearin were employed to replace pork fat in a mortadella type product. A two-component mixture design was employed by the D-optimum design. Moisture, fat, protein, cocking losses and instrumental texture profiles were determined, besides a sensory evaluation. Results indicate that 8.8 % of pork fat can be replaced to obtain a good quality mortadella. Maximum palm fat in formulation was 44% of total fat content.

Dany Pérez Dubé; Octavio Venegas Fornias; Margarita Núñez de Villavicencio; Juan González Ríos

2010-01-01

98

Sustainable biogas and biomass utilization in Malaysian palm oil industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Palm oil industry in Malaysia is producing palm oil more than 12 million tones every year, while yielding more than 14 million of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and 25 million tones of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the POME treatment, huge anaerobic ponds (lagoon) are adopted, generating large amount of methane, more than 20 times global warming effect than CO{sub 2}. The objective of this research is to estimate actual methane emission from the POME treatment and to find out any possibility to utilize generated methane as an energy source under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Methane emission of 0.238 kg CH{sub 4} per kg COD removed or 12.36 kg CH{sub 4} per tone POME are obtained from actual mill operation throughout annual measurement. This indicates that more than 200,000 tones of methane, which is equivalent to 4 million tones of carbon dioxide, are estimated to be emitted from whole Malaysia. 500 tones of methane fermentor installed to palm oil mill to prevent GHG emission under the CDM. By this, lagoon system as major source of local environment pollution necessary no more, thus obtaining another 3 to 4 times large land area than mill. Our proposal is to establish novel industry utilizing biogas energy for value added material or energy conversion of excess biomass, thus enabling reduction of GHG and local environment pollution and sustainable development of local community. (orig.)

Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito (Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Yacob, Shahrakbah (Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn Bhd, Selangor (Malaysia)); Ali Hassan, M. (Dept. of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia))

2007-07-01

99

The Effect of Higher Sludge Recycling Rate on Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in a Semi-Commercial Closed Digester for Renewable Energy  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: A 500 m3 semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester was constructed for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment and methane gas capture for renewable energy. During the start-up operation period, the Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) accumulation could not be controlled and caused instability on the system. Approach: A settling tank was installed and sludge was recycled as to provide a balanced microorganisms population for the treatment of POME and methane gas production. The effect of sludge recycling rate was studied by applying Organic Loading Rates (OLR) (between 1.0 and 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1) at different sludge recycling rates (6, 12 and 18 m3 day-1). Results: At sludge recycling rate of 18 m3 day-1, the maximum OLR was 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 with biogas and methane productivity of 1.5 and 0.9 m3 m-3 day-1, respectively. By increasing the sludge recycling rate the VFA concentration was controlled below its inhibitory limit (1000 mg L-1) and the COD removal efficiency recorded was above 95% which indicated good treatment performance for the digester. Two methanogens species (Methanosarcina sp. and Methanosaeta concilii) had been identified from sludge samples obtained from the digester and recycled stream. Conclusion: By increasing the sludge recycling rate upon higher application of OLR, the treatment process was kept stable with high COD removal efficiency. The biogas and methane productivity were initially improved but reduced once OLR and recycling rate were increased to 10.0 kg COD m3 day-1 and 18 m3 day-1 respectively.

Alawi Sulaiman; Zainuri Busu; Meisam Tabatabaei; Shahrakbah Yacob; Suraini Abd-Aziz; Mohd Ali Hassan; Yoshihito Shirai

2009-01-01

100

Co-Digestion of Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Refined Glycerin Wash Water for Chemical Oxygen Demand Removal and Methane Production  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Refined Glycerin Wash Water (RGWW) from the oleochemical industry contains high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and requires proper treatment before disposal. Unfortunately the wash water also contains high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl) that could cause inhibition to the normal biological treatment process. However, there is feasibility of co-digesting the RGWW and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for its treatment and methane recovery. Approach: A large 500 m3 semi-commercial closed digester tank was used to study the effect of co-digesting POME and RGWW under mesophilic condition at different RGWW percentage. The digester performance in terms of COD removal efficiency and methane production rate and stability based on total Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) accumulation, Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solid (MLVSS) and pH were evaluated. Results: At 1.0% of RGWW co-digested, both COD removal efficiency and methane production rate showed satisfactory results with higher than 90% and 505 m3 day-1, respectively. However, once the percentage was increased to a maximum of 5.25%, COD removal efficiency remains high but the methane production rate reduced significantly down to 307 m3 day-1. At this stage, the digester was already unstable with high total VFA recorded of 913 mg L-1 and low cells concentration of 8.58 g L-1. This was probably due to the effect of plasmolysis on the methanogens at high concentration of NaCl in the digester of nearly 4000 mg L-1. Conclusion: Co-digesting of RGWW with high NaCl content and POME is satisfactory for COD removal but not for increasing the methane production.

A. Sulaiman; M. R. Zakaria; M. A. Hassan; Y. Shirai; Z. Busu

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Process modeling and analysis of palm oil mill effluent treatment in an up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed film bioreactor using response surface methodology (RSM).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the interactive effects of feed flow rate (QF) and up-flow velocity (V up) on the performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed film (UASFF) reactor treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) were investigated. Long-term performance of the UASFF reactor was first examined with raw POME at a hydraulic loading rate (HRT) of 3 d and an influent COD concentration of 44300 mg/l. Extreme reactor instability was observed after 25 d. Raw POME was then chemically pretreated and used as feed. Anaerobic digestion of pretreated POME was modeled and analyzed with two operating variables, i.e. feed flow rate and up-flow velocity. Experiments were conducted based on a central composite face-centered design (CCFD) and analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). The region of exploration for digestion of the pretreated POME was taken as the area enclosed by the feed flow rate (1.01, 7.63 l/d) and up-flow velocity (0.2, 3 m/h) boundaries. Twelve dependent parameters were either directly measured or calculated as response. These parameters were total COD (TCOD) removal, soluble COD (SCOD) removal, effluent pH, effluent total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), effluent bicarbonate alkalinity (BA), effluent total suspended solids (TSS), CH4 percentage in biogas, methane yield (Y M), specific methanogenic activity (SMA), food-to-sludge ratio (F/M), sludge height in the UASB portion and solid retention time (SRT). The optimum conditions for POME treatment were found to be 2.45 l/d and 0.75 m/h for QF and V up, respectively (corresponding to HRT of 1.5 d and recycle ratio of 23.4:1). The present study provides valuable information about interrelations of quality and process parameters at different values of the operating variables.

Zinatizadeh AA; Mohamed AR; Abdullah AZ; Mashitah MD; Hasnain Isa M; Najafpour GD

2006-10-01

102

Process modeling and analysis of palm oil mill effluent treatment in an up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed film bioreactor using response surface methodology (RSM).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the interactive effects of feed flow rate (QF) and up-flow velocity (V up) on the performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed film (UASFF) reactor treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) were investigated. Long-term performance of the UASFF reactor was first examined with raw POME at a hydraulic loading rate (HRT) of 3 d and an influent COD concentration of 44300 mg/l. Extreme reactor instability was observed after 25 d. Raw POME was then chemically pretreated and used as feed. Anaerobic digestion of pretreated POME was modeled and analyzed with two operating variables, i.e. feed flow rate and up-flow velocity. Experiments were conducted based on a central composite face-centered design (CCFD) and analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). The region of exploration for digestion of the pretreated POME was taken as the area enclosed by the feed flow rate (1.01, 7.63 l/d) and up-flow velocity (0.2, 3 m/h) boundaries. Twelve dependent parameters were either directly measured or calculated as response. These parameters were total COD (TCOD) removal, soluble COD (SCOD) removal, effluent pH, effluent total volatile fatty acid (TVFA), effluent bicarbonate alkalinity (BA), effluent total suspended solids (TSS), CH4 percentage in biogas, methane yield (Y M), specific methanogenic activity (SMA), food-to-sludge ratio (F/M), sludge height in the UASB portion and solid retention time (SRT). The optimum conditions for POME treatment were found to be 2.45 l/d and 0.75 m/h for QF and V up, respectively (corresponding to HRT of 1.5 d and recycle ratio of 23.4:1). The present study provides valuable information about interrelations of quality and process parameters at different values of the operating variables. PMID:16949124

Zinatizadeh, A A L; Mohamed, A R; Abdullah, A Z; Mashitah, M D; Hasnain Isa, M; Najafpour, G D

2006-09-01

103

TRANS FREE PALM OIL AND PALM KERNAL OIL FRACTIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A trans free non hydrogenated high C-16 type palm fat suitable for the manufacture of trans free non hydrogenated hard structural fat that is being suitable for use in the manufacture of low SAFA (Saturated Fatty Acid) poly/mono unsaturated margarine and spreads and shortening and fat blends incorporating such hard Structural fat. The Structural fat is made from selectively fractionated non-hydrogenated high melting palm oil fraction with a C-16 fatty acid residue of at least 70 % , which is subjected to chemical random interesterification using alkaline metal catalyst such as sodium methoxide/sodium methylate, with a dry fractionated non hydrogenated hard palm kernel stearin fraction. The structural fat that is produced has high yield ratios that can be economically and commercially incorporated in the oil blends for the manufacture of trans free margarine/spreads/shortening as well as other plastic W/O emulsions. Also described is a process for the manufacturing such structural fat as well as hard palm fraction including process for the manufacture of extra hard trans free structural fat by panning and pressing of above structural fat.

ULLANOORMADAM Sahasranamam R.

104

The oil Palm tree: A renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper highlights the role of the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) as a renewable energy in poverty eradication in developing countries. Many uses of the oil palm are known. This paper describes the processing of palm oil fruits for the extraction of both palm oil and palm kernel oil at the small-scale level. Palm oil and palm kernel oil are the primary major products of the oil palm tree. These oils also are raw materials for the production of a variety of products such as cooking oils, biodiesel, edible fats in the confectionery and bakery trades, ice-cream, mayonnaise, toilet soap, powder detergents, pomades, candles, etc. The palm kernel cake is a major ingredient in the livestock feed manufacture. Palm wine, an alcoholic beverage produced from the sap obtained by the tapping of the male inflorescence is sweet when fresh and sugar can be produced from it. Gin is distilled from the fermented wine. The trunk and the leaflet of the tree are also used for the production of various materials. The sale of all these products of the palm tree will yield cash (money) and social recognition for the oil palm tree farmer. It is also argued that adequate support from the government in terms of research in oil palm, training of farmers, provision of processing facilities, and social amenities will help to promote the quality of products and increase the earnings of the oil palm farmers and processors. In order to attract the land-less farmers, incentives are should be offered to them in the shape of land and seeds at an affordable price. They should also be provided road approach, drinking water facility, low cost sanitation, primary education, basic health facilities, oil extraction mill and market to the nearest township to enable them to sell the fruit, seed, oil and inter-cropped vegetables. These facilities if provided would be result oriented, functional and economically viable thereby eradicating poverty in the society.

Omokaro Obire,*1 and Ramesh R. Putheti,2

2010-01-01

105

Effect of Palm Oil on Serum Lipid Profile in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil is considered as plant oil in which two types of cooking oil, palm seed oil and palm oil are derived. Palm oil has almost 50% saturated fatty acid and 50% poly unsaturated fatty acid. It is considered to be useful due to metabolites products such as prostacycline and antithrombois in ca...

Karaji-Bani, M.; Montazeri, F.; Hashemi, M.

106

21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils... Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils...cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both...

2009-04-01

107

Effect of organic loading rate on methane and volatile fatty acids productions from anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in UASB and UFAF reactors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) with the separation of the acidogenic and methanogenic phase was studied in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an up-flowanaerobic filter (UFAF) reactor. Furthermore, the effect of OLR on methane and volatile fatty acid productions in UASB and UFAF reactors was investigated. In this research, UASB as acidogenic reactor wasused for volatile fatty acid production and UFAF as methanogenic reactor was used for methane production. Therefore, POME without pH adjustment was used as influent for the UASB reactor. Moreover, the syntheticwastewater with pH adjustment to 6.00 was fed into the UFAF reactor. The inoculum source for both reactors was the combination of POME sludge collected from the CSTR of a POME treatment plant and granulesludge collected from the UASB reactor of a frozen sea food industry treatment plant. During experimental operation, the organic loading rate (OLR) was gradually increased from 2.50 to 17.5 g COD/l/day in theUASB reactor and 1.10 to 10.0 g COD/l/day in the UFAF reactor. Consequently, hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged from 20.0 to 2.90 days in the UASB reactor and from 13.5 to 1.50 days in the UFAF reactor.The result showed that the COD removal efficiency from both reactors was greater than 60.0%. In addition, the total volatile fatty acids increased with the increasing OLR. The total volatile fatty acids and acetic acidproduction in the UASB reactor reached 5.50 g/l and 4.90 g/l, respectively at OLR of 17.5 g COD/l/day and HRT of 2.90 days before washout was observed. In the UFAF reactor, the methane and biogas productionincreased with increasing OLR until an OLR of 7.50 g COD/l/day. However, the methane and biogas production significantly decreased when OLR increased up to 10.0 g COD/l/day. Therefore, the optimum OLR inthe laboratory-scale UASB and UFAF reactors were concluded to be 15.5 and 7.50 g COD/l/day, respectively.

Ronnachai Chaisri; Piyarat Boonsawang; Poonsuk Prasertsan; Sumate Chaiprapat

2007-01-01

108

Sterilization of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Using Microwave Technique  

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Full Text Available Dramatically increasing rate of free fatty acid (FFA) in long storage oil palm fruit is one of the most crucial problems of oil palm mill industries. The aim of this paper is to study the possibility of oil palm fruits sterilization by using microwave irradiation in order of halting enzymatic lipolysis reaction which caused of FFA production. The results indicate that microwave heating can be interrupted the FFA produced reaction and the optimum condition heating temperature of the fruits mesocarp is 50 °C but not exceed to 80 °C, and the fruits can be storage for 7 days at ambient condition without FFA significantly generation. Conclude that heating from irradiation of microwave is capacitating for dry and clean sterilization system.

I. Umudee; M. Chongcheawchamnan; M. Kiatweerasakul; C. Tongurai

2013-01-01

109

Bio-oils from Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches  

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Full Text Available Problem Statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the mesocarp fibre, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB), frond, trunk and palm oil mill effluent (POME). For 80 million tonnes of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processed last year, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 25 million tones. The objectives of this study were to: (i) Determine the effect of various pyrolysis parameters on product yields and (ii) Characterise liquid product obtained under different condition. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) was investigated using quartz fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures, particle sizes and heating rates on the yield of the products were investigated. The temperature of pyrolysis and heating rate were varied in the range 300-700 °C and 10-100 °C min1 respectively. The particle size was varied in the range of Results: Under the experimental conditions, the maximum bio-oil yield was 42.28% obtained at 500 ºC, with a heating rate of 100 ºC min-1 and particle size of 91-106 µm. The calorific values of bio-oil ranged from 20-21 MJ kg-1. A great range of functional groups of phenol, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids were indicated in FTIR spectrum. Conclusion: The chemical characterisation results showed that the bio-oil obtained from oil palm EFB maybe a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks.

Mohamad A. Sukiran; Chow M. Chin; Nor K.A. Bakar

2009-01-01

110

Export Competitiveness of Indonesia’s Palm Oil Product  

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This study analyzes the export competitiveness of Indonesia’s palm oil product as compared to Malaysia’s in three regions: Asia, Africa and Europe. Two palm oil products are analyzed: Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and refined palm oil. Market share is utilized as the measurement of competitiveness. The resul...

Amzul Rifin

111

European Policies towards Palm Oil - Sorting Out some Facts  

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This paper analyses the role of palm oil and its sustainability from different perspectives. We consider the role of palm oil within the GHG context. We discuss the impact of palm oil on biodiversity and analyse how palm oil can contribute to economic growth and development in tropical countries. Fi...

Pehnelt, Gernot; Vietze, Christoph

112

Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

2006-01-01

113

Air Quality Impacts of Smallholder Oil Palm Processing in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Air emissions during palm oil processing by smallholders are issues of public health concern demanding urgent intervention by environmentalist. In this study, six smallholder oil palm processing mills were studied inElele,Nigeria. Air emission parameters (NO2, NH3, CO, H2S, SO2, VOC), noise and meteorology (wind speed, temperature, relative humidity and pressure) were determined at three distances (10 ft,25 ftand50 ft) in both wind ward and lee ward directions from the mills covering boiling and digestion activities. The emissions from biomass were found to be significantly higher than that from fossil diesel, while noise was higher during digestion. The health implications of air emissions were discussed. The study concluded by directing attentions of regulatory agencies to monitor the activities of smallholder oil palm processing to ensure the environmental sustainability of their operations. In summary, evidence during boiling activity revealed that: ·      H2S ranged from - 2.400 ppm at10 ft, - 2.067 ppm at25 ftand - 0.833 ppm at50 ftfrom the mills in the wind ward direction, and - 1.167 ppm at10 ft, - 0.567 ppm at25 ftand - 0.367 ppm at50ftdistance from the mills in lee ward direction and was significantly lower during digestion. ·      SPM ranged from 1634 - 7853 ?g/m3 at10 ft, 657 - 1110 ?g/m3 at25 ftand 81 - 854 ?g/m3 at50 ftfrom the mills in the wind ward direction, and 46 - 236 ?g/m3 at10 ft, 44 - 120 ?g/m3 at25 ftand 30 - 58 ?g/m3 at50 ftfrom the mills in lee ward direction. SPM was significantly lower during digestion. ·      VOC ranged from 67 - 13.933 ppm at10 ft, 1.033 - 13.133 ppm at25ftand 0.500 -

Elijah I. Ohimain; Sylvester C. Izah; Stephen O. Abah

2013-01-01

114

A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural.

Loi CC; Boo HC; Mohammed AS; Ariffin AA

2011-09-01

115

Sustainability of Palm Oil Industries: An Innovative Treatment via Membrane Technology  

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Full Text Available Malaysia is the largest producer of palm oil, the processing of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) has resulted large amount Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). The highly polluting POME is identified as the major stumbling block to the development of palm oil industry in Malaysia. Hence, an integrated membrane process with physical-chemical treatment had been successfully achieved for treatment of POME. The role of membrane was explored significantly; where the chemical treated POME was further treated using ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membrane. The concept of sustainable development in palm oil industries is achieved by recovering and recycling the crystal clear water and sludge as organic fertilizer from POME back to its process and plantations using the innovative membrane treatment. Consequently, zero discharge is achieved by eliminating the discharge of POME into the rivers.

A.L. Ahmad; C.Y. Chan

2009-01-01

116

An experimental investigation to evaluate the heating value of palm oil waste by calorimetry. Paper no. IGEC-1-040  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A palm oil mill produces palm oil and kernel palm oil as main products and biomass residue (fiber and shell). This excess biomass residue can be used as fuel in boilers to meet energy and process heat demand in the industries. Quality of the palm oil waste (POW) is characterized by low fixed carbon and relatively high moisture content which may affect the heating value (HV). By applying the principle of calorimetry, a bomb calorimeter is utilized to evaluate the heating value of POW. From the experimental results, it is found that higher heating value (HHV) varies with the moisture content (MC) and it is observed as a function of MC. (author)

2005-01-01

117

An experimental investigation to evaluate the heating value of palm oil waste by calorimetry. Paper no. IGEC-1-040  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A palm oil mill produces palm oil and kernel palm oil as main products and biomass residue (fiber and shell). This excess biomass residue can be used as fuel in boilers to meet energy and process heat demand in the industries. Quality of the palm oil waste (POW) is characterized by low fixed carbon and relatively high moisture content which may affect the heating value (HV). By applying the principle of calorimetry, a bomb calorimeter is utilized to evaluate the heating value of POW. From the experimental results, it is found that higher heating value (HHV) varies with the moisture content (MC) and it is observed as a function of MC. (author)

Supeni, E.E.; Megat Mohd, M.H.; Mohd Sapuan, S.; Nor Maria, A.; Ismail, M.Y.; Thoguluva, R.V. [Univ. Putra Malaysia, Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selangor D.E., (Malaysia)]. E-mail: eris@eng.upm.edu.my; Chuah, T.G. [Univ. Putra Malaysia, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selangor D.E., (Malaysia)

2005-07-01

118

Export Competitiveness of Indonesia’s Palm Oil Product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzes the export competitiveness of Indonesia’s palm oil product as compared to Malaysia’s in three regions: Asia, Africa and Europe. Two palm oil products are analyzed: Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and refined palm oil. Market share is utilized as the measurement of competitiveness. The results indicate that Indonesia’s palm oil export has increased significantly over the period from 1999-2001 and 2005-2007. The reasons for the increase in Indonesia’s export are the increase in demand and the increase in export competitiveness of Indonesia’s palm oil product compared to Malaysia’s product.c

Amzul Rifin

2010-01-01

119

Enzymatic synthesis of fatty hydrazides from palm oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty hydrazides (FH) have been successfully synthesized from palm oils by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The synthesis was carried out by treating the oils with hydrazine hydrate at neutral pH using an immobilized lipase, Lipozyme as the catalyst. The percentages of conversion of RBD (refined, bleached and deodorized) palm oil (PO), RBD palm olein (POn), RBD palm stearin (PS) and RBD palm kernel olein (PKOn) into their fatty hydrazides are 95, 97, 97 and 99, respectively. PMID:18391474

Mohamad, Sharifah; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Haron, Md Jelas; Rahman, Mohd Zaki Abd

2008-01-01

120

Price Forecasting Methodology of the Malaysian Palm Oil Market  

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Malaysia is the second largest producer of palm oil in the world and the price of palm oil depends so much on the world oils and fat market. The study presents several numbers of econometric models that are being used to forecast a short term ex-ante spot palm oil price in future prices of the Malay...

Aye Aye Khin; Zainalabidin Mohamed; Chinnasamy Agamudai Nambhi Malarvizhi; Seethaletchumy Thambiah

 
 
 
 
121

Irradiation effect on chemical components of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm press fibre  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Physico-chemical properties of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm press fibre (PPF), which are major by-products of the oil palm industries, were studied for upgrading their utilisation as animal feed by radiation-fermentation process. Comparative analyses of raw EFB and PPF from 3 different mills showed significant variations in some of their chemical components. Significant differences were also observed between the chemical components of EFB and PPF samples. The water holding capacities (WHC) of both EFB and PPF suggested their suitability for use as fermentation media. Gamma irradiation of up to 50 kGy have little effect on the components of both EFB and PPF. Irradiation dose of 25 kGy appeared to produce enhancement effect on cellulase hydrolysis of holocellulose and alpha-cellulose of EFB but a retarding effect on hydrolysis of PPF

1998-01-01

122

Addressing the threats to biodiversity from oil-palm agriculture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil-palm agriculture is the greatest immediate threat to biodiversity in Southeast Asia. Despite the efforts of environmentalists, oil palm continues to expand across the tropics. Those concerned about the impacts of oil palm on biodiversity must face some harsh social, economic, and ecological realities: (i) oil palm has been a very profitable crop; (ii) palm oil is used in so many products that simple, direct actions, such as boycotts, are unlikely to succeed; (iii) there is currently insufficient demand for certified sustainable palm oil and inadequate political clout from environmental groups in two of the biggest markets for palm oil—China and India—to slow the rate of forest conversion; and (iv) oil-palm agriculture has improved the lives of poor rural communities in Southeast Asia (although it has also disenfranchised some indigenous communities). To address the threats posed by oil-palm agriculture to biodiversity, environmentalists must change the behavior of the palm oil business through: (i) regulations to curb undesirable activities (e.g., a ban on converting forests to oil palm); (ii) financial incentives to promote desirable behavior (e.g., production of certified, sustainable oil palm); (iii) financial disincentives designed to discourage undesirable behavior (e.g., consumer pressure on major manufacturers and retailers to use palm oil that does not come from plantations created at the expense of forests); and (iv) the promotion of alternative, more biodiversity-friendly uses of forested land that might otherwise be converted to oil palm. There is no single best approach for dealing with the oil-palm crisis in Southeast Asia; a mixture of regulations, incentives, and disincentives targeted at all sectors of the oil-palm industry is necessary to protect the region's rapidly disappearing forests.

Wilcove DS; Koh LP

2010-04-01

123

PALM PHENOLICS AND FLAVONOIDS AS POTENT BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL ANTIOXIDANTS FOR APPLICATIONS IN FOODS AND EDIBLE OILS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention relates to the use of palm phenolics as natural antioxidants and food preservatives. In particular, the present invention relates to antioxidant compounds derived from a plant material, wherein the said antioxidant compounds are phenolics comprising but not confined to phenolic acids and flavonoids extracted from by-products of palm oil mill.

TAN YEW AI; SAMBANTHMURTHI RAVIGADEVI A P; MANICKAM KALYANA SUNDRAM A L; WAHID MOHD BASRI BIN

124

Analysis on Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO):A Qualitative Assessment the Success Factors for ISPO  

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Full Text Available ISPO (Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil) serves as the baseline of sustainability standards for palm oil industry and is expected to improve the competitive advantage of Indonesian palm oil industry. ISPO was introduced by the government in March 2011 and currently most of plantations are in process of applying ISPO. The objective of this research is to analyze success factors affecting implementation of ISPO. Using qualitative method of in-depth interview on 20 selected experts representing actors mapped in the value chain of palm oil industry. The results depicted that; very little companies apply sustainable principles hence ISPO is needed for industrial standards, success factors affecting ISPO implementation, and necessary conditions for ISPO implementation. SWOT technique resulting 8 recommended strategies to be applied for ISPO implementation. Acknowledging ISPO applies to upstream industry (plantations and mills) only, managerial implication for this research is the need to develop of a grand master plan for Indonesian palm oil Industry by developing integrated policies complementing ISPO aiming for sustainability, growing and developing downstream industry to add value to CPO product, and for upstream industry to be developed by farmers and cooperatives while big investors to develop mills and downstream industry.Keywords: Palm Oil, ISPO, Sustainable Certification, Success Factors, Qualitative

Dina Harsono; M. Achmad Chozin; Anas M. Fauzi

2012-01-01

125

Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number  

Science.gov (United States)

This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

126

Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

Meftah Salem M. Alfatni; Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff; Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri; Osama M. Ben Saaed; Omar M. Eshanta

2008-01-01

127

Exploratory Study of Oil Palm Shell as Partial Sand Replacement in Concrete  

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Full Text Available Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers has been disposing oil palm shell, which is a by-product from palm oil mill thus causing negative impact to the environment. At the same time, extensive mining of natural river sand in large amount to meet the increasing demand of concrete production for the use in rapidly developing construction industry has posed the risk of natural aggregate depletion and ecological imbalance in future. The effect of finely Crushed Oil Palm Shell (COPS) as partial sand replacement material in concrete mix towards density and compressive strength was investigated in this study. Total of five mixes consisting various content of crushed oil palm shell as partial sand replacement ranging from 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were prepared in form of cubes. All the specimens were water cured before tested at 7, 14 and 28 days. Compressive strength was conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390. Generally, the compressive strength and density decrease with the increase in the crushed oil palm shell replacement level. Between 50 to 75% replacement, the mix produced possess lower density enabling it to be categorized as lightweight concrete and has the potential to be used as non-load bearing structure. The application in structural concrete material is suited for mix consisting around 25% of crushed oil palm shell.

K. Muthusamy; N.A. Zulkepli; F. Mat Yahaya

2013-01-01

128

UV curable palm oil based ink  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV ink system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

2002-01-01

129

UV curable palm oil based inks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UV curable inks are useful for their instant drying, energy saving and high productivity properties. The basic materials for formulating UV curable inks consist of prepolymer, monomers, photoinitiators, pigments and other additives. The percentage composition and ingredients depend very much on the types of inks to be produced. Palm oil is one of the main raw materials available in the country. Hence, the diversification of palm oil derivatives into new products has been given priority. The current focus of the present work is to evaluate the use of palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA) as a prepolymer in the UV inks system. A study was conducted on the use of POBUA with other materials in ink formulation. These include the types and concentration of photoinitiators, monomers and commercial urethane acrylates. The evaluation of the ink properties such as curing, adhesion, color density have been carried out. It was found that POBUA could be introduced in the UV ink system. (Author)

2002-01-01

130

Storage Stability and Sensory Evaluation of Taro Chips Fried in Palm Oil, Palm Olein Oil, Groundnut Oil, Soybean Oil and Their Blends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taro (Colocasia esculenta) chips fried in Palm Oil (PO), Soybean Oil (SBO), Palm Olein Oil (POO), Groundnut Oil (GO) and in 40:60 w/w blend ratio of palm oil: POO; SBO; GO were stored for 0-5 weeks in dark and in fluorescent light. Chips were subjected to weekly chemical and sensory analysis. Results showed that significant (p0.05) affected by dark storage. Peroxide Value (PV) was highest in soybean oil fried chips (p>0.05) during storage. Peroxide Value (PV) increased at a slower rate in chips fried in palm oil, palm olein oil/blends.

C.A. Emmanuel-Ikpeme; C. A. Eneji; U. Essiet

2007-01-01

131

Performance of a diesel generator fuelled with palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pure palm oil may be employed in diesel engines as an alternative fuel. Engine performance and emissions were influenced by basic differences between diesel fuel and palm oils such as mass based heating values, viscosity, density and molecular oxygen content. The high viscosity of palm oil resulted in poor atomisation, carbon deposits, clogging of fuel lines and starting difficulties in low temperatures. When heated at 100{degree}C palm oil presented lower viscosity, better combustion and less deposits. Tests were conducted in a naturally aspirated MWM 229 direct injection four-stroke 70 kW diesel-generator fuelled with 100% palm oil. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

de Almeida, S.C.A.; Belchior, C.R.; Nascimento, M.V.G.; dos S.R. Vieira, L.; Guilherme Fleury, G. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Department of Mechanical Engineering

2002-11-01

132

Evaluation of the Quality of Palm Oil Produced by Different Methods of Processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five palm oil samples obtained by different methods of processing were evaluated for quality. The palm oil samples evaluated were oils produced by traditional aqueous palm oil extraction method, palm oil press, fibre extract, Adapalm mechanized extraction method and adulterated palm oil extract. The...

G.I.Onwuka; B.I. Akaerue

133

Oil palm and its clonal propagation by tissue culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Until recently there has been no known method of vegetative propagation for the oil palm. Now tissue culture techniques make it possible to produce uniform clones of high - yielding top quality oil palms. This article reviews the clonal propagation of the oil palm by tissue culture - the development of which will allow oil palm breeders to combine germ plasm from a wider genetic base than hitherto, removing the pressure to breed for uniformity and the consequent increase of homozygosity of parent palms. (Refs. 15).

Jones, L.H.

1983-09-01

134

Techno-economic Analysis of Electricity Generation from Biogas Using Palm Oil Waste  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Malaysia, nearly 80 million tons of fresh fruit bunches are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tons of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). This POME is known to generate biogas consisting of methane-a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. The amount of methane gas generated annually is equivalent to 19 million tons of carbon dioxide. To meet the regulatory requirement, more than 85% of the mills use solely the lagoon systems in waste water treatment, typically anaerobic first stage followed by facultative treatment. However, these two major palm oil wastes are a viable Renewable Energy (RE) source for production of electricity. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to study the technological parameters for different capacity digester to produce electricity. The cost related data are collected from Serting Hilir Palm Oil Mill. Net present worth, internal rate of return and payback period were calculated. On the basis of the calculated values it has been found that the application of biogas plant for generation of electricity is economically viable in Malaysian perspective and this viability or economic attractiveness increase with the increase of plant size. The findings of this study should be useful to give some directions and guidelines for future planning and implementation of biogas plants in Malaysia.

Shahida Begum; Mohd Firdaus M. Saad

2013-01-01

135

An experimental investigation to evaluate the heating value of palm oil waste by calorimetry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malaysia is one of the world's largest palm oil producing countries, accounting for nearly 50 per cent of the total world production. Palm oil mills produce palm oil and kernel palm oil as the main products. Excess biomass residue in the form of fiber and shell is also produced, which can be used as fuel in boilers to meet energy and process heat demand in the industries. The total biomass energy potential is estimated to be equivalent to 2 to 3 per cent of the total power produced in the country. In order to evaluate the potential of biomass solid as a fuel in the combustion system, it is necessary to know the heating value of the biomass solid. This parameter is typically a function of the fuel composition. The key parameter that influences the thermal efficiency of palm oil waste (POW) is moisture content when it is burned. This paper described how the higher heating value (HHV) of POW is determined using a calorimeter. HHV was correlated as a function of moisture content (MC) for palm oil fibre and shells. In this study, the quality of the POW was characterized by low fixed carbon and relatively high moisture content that could influence the heating value. Experimental results indicate that HHV varies with MC. A linear correlation was made between HHV and MC. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

Suspeni, E.E.; Megat, M.M.H.; Sapuan, M.S.; Nor Maria, A. [Putra Malaysia Univ., Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering; Chuah, T.G. [Putra Malaysia Univ., Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

2005-07-01

136

Application of Extreme Value Copulas to Palm Oil Prices Analysis  

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Full Text Available In this paper we study the tail behavior of the palm oil future markets using the Extreme Value Theory and focusing on the dependence structure between the returns on palm oil future price in three palm oil futures markets, namely Malaysian futures markets (KLSE), Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE) and Singapore Exchange Derivatives Trading Limited (SGX-DT) by using the Extreme Value Copulas. The results demonstrated that the returns on palm oil future price among KLSE and SGX-DT have dependence in extreme, whereas the returns on palm oil future price among KLSE and DCE, SGX-DT and DCE do not have any dependence. The results could be beneficial for any person or company wishing to be engaged in the commerce of trading palm oil.

Kantaporn Chuangchid; Aree Wiboonpongse; Songsak Sriboonchitta; Chukiat Chaiboonsri

2012-01-01

137

Determination of Antioxidants in Oil Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis)  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Previous findings on the occurrence of water soluble antioxidants in palm oil has brought to the question on whether these compounds is also present in other parts of the oil palm; namely its leaves. Approach: It is now believed that the water soluble antioxidants are also present in other biomass of the oil palm, namely, the leaves. This study reported on the determination of the water soluble antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Results: The results showed the analyses of the antioxidants in oil palm leaves. Conclusion: This study is thus conducted to trace the availability of these antioxidants in the leaves of the oil palm of the Elaeis guineensis variety.

Ng M. Han; Choo Y. May

2010-01-01

138

Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

2013-03-01

139

Price Forecasting Methodology of the Malaysian Palm Oil Market  

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Full Text Available Malaysia is the second largest producer of palm oil in the world and the price of palm oil depends so much on the world oils and fat market. The study presents several numbers of econometric models that are being used to forecast a short term ex-ante spot palm oil price in future prices of the Malaysian palm oil market from July 2011 to December 2011. These models include Vector Error Correction Method (VECM) equation econometric model, Multivariate Autoregressive-Moving-Average (MARMA) model (composite model) and the univariate model of Autoregressive-Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) (Box-Jenkins model). The objective is to determine the forecasting model in terms of the comparative forecasting models’ accuracy of the monthly spot palm oil price. Monthly data of palm oil price from January 1980 to June 2011 were being used as an estimation periods to forecast palm oil spot price from July 2011 to December 2011. Comparative forecasting models accuracy between VECM equation econometric model, MARMA model and univariate model of ARIMA were made in terms of their estimation accuracy based on RMSE, MAE, RMPE and (U-Theil) criteria. The results revealed that MARMA model (composite model) is more accurate and efficient measured in terms of its statistical criteria than VECM equation econometric model and ARIMA model (Box-Jenkins model) in forecasting the spot palm oil price of the Malaysian palm oil market.

Aye Aye Khin; Zainalabidin Mohamed; Chinnasamy Agamudai Nambhi Malarvizhi; Seethaletchumy Thambiah

2013-01-01

140

A Gate to Gate Assessment of Environmental Performance for Production of Crude Palm Kernel Oil Using Life Cycle Assessment Approach  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry is an export orientated industry which heavily relies on the world market. In 2007 alone the total export earnings reached RM 45.1 billion. It is essential that the oil palm industry is ready to meet the higher expectation of its overseas customers on the environmental performance of the industry. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to evaluate the environmental impacts of a product or process throughout its entire life cycle. To identify the potential environmental impacts associated with the production of CPKO and to use this assessment for evaluating opportunities to overcome the potential impacts. Approach: This study had a gate to gate system boundary that starts with the collection and transportation of the palm kernel from the palm oil mills to the production of Crude Palm Kernel Oil (CPKO) at the kernel crushing plants. Six kernel crushing plants were selected to collect inventory data which consists of inputs of raw materials and energy; outputs of solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. Five crushing plants used electricity directly from the grid while one crushing plant used the electricity generated at the neighboring palm oil mill for processing. This study compared the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) of two scenarios namely; when the crushing plants uses electricity from the grid versus the crushing plant which uses electricity generated from the palm oil mill. The LCIA was conducted using the Simapro software and the Eco-Indicator 99 methodology. Results: For scenario one there was two potential impacts mainly from the electricity consumption from the grid for processing and diesel consumption for transporting the palm kernel from the mills. For scenario two, the potential impact from the electricity consumption from the grid was reduced due to the use of renewable energy from the palm oil mill and the impact from diesel consumption was reduced due to the short distance for transporting the palm kernel. Conclusion: It was recommended that more kernel crushing plants should be integrated with the palm oil mills to over come these impacts.

S. Vijaya; A. N. Ma; Y. M. Choo

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Epoxidation of Palm Kernel Oil Fatty Acids  

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Full Text Available Epoxidation of palm kernel oil fatty acids using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide was carried out effectively using a homogeneous reaction. It was found that epoxidation reaction occurred optimally at a temperature of 40oC and reaction time of 120 minits. The oxirane conversion was the highest at 1.46mol and 0.85mol of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid respectively. It was found that a maximum of 99% relative conversion of ethylenic oxirane was obtained, similar to the conversion of iodine value. The formation of epoxide adduct of palm kernel oil fatty acids (FAPKO) was confirmed by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral analysis showed the disappearance of double bonds and replaced by epoxy group in the EFAPKO.

Michelle Ni Fong Fong; Jumat Salimon

2013-01-01

142

Sustainability of smallholder palm oil production in Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil is a widely used commodity and is part of a number of daily products. It is the most used vegetable oil, not just for food consumption, but also for soap and cosmetics. Recently the search for co2 neutral fuels have spurred demand for palm oil to be used in diesel cars. The large demand hav...

Bertule, Maija; Degn, Lasse Twiggs

143

Using of mucilage palm oil in the toilet soap production.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mucilage palm oil (M.P.O.) was obtained from physical refining step for crude palm oil. The components of M.P.O. were high content of free fatty acids (82.2%) with simple amount of neutral oil (11.9%), while the residual content (unsaponifiable matter and impurities) was 2.1% and in addition to 3.8%...

Girgis, Adel Y.

144

Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. II – Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil (PO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100) were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100ºC). The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized...

Simões, Ilka S.; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Guaraldo Gonçalves, Lireny Aparecida; Grimaldi, Renato

145

A choice of renewable or upgraded material from oil palm solid wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Malaysian palm oil industries are producing a large amount of solid wastes from the palm oil mills. Malaysia generates around 1.10 million tons of oil palm shells in year 1980 but this amount increased up to 4.11 million tons in year 2002 as wastes. Disposal of these wastes created environmental problems. Thus, a process was designed to reuse and recycle these wastes into value added products. This research used oil palm shells as a renewable material resource by thermo-chemical process to produce pyrolysis oil. The oil could be utilized as fuel or converted to valued added products. Since it contain a significant amount of phenols, it was extracted using solvent extraction technique to gain the useful phenol and phenolic compounds. The extracted oil-palm-shell-based phenol was used in the manufacturing of phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. Then the capability of wood bonding was tested comparing with the petroleum-based phenol formaldehyde wood adhesives. For the commercial values of this research, the total global consumption of phenol in 2000 was 11.3 million metric ton that worth USD 10.0 billions. Thus, the commercial potentiality of this research is very high as the oil-palm-shell-based phenol could replace the petroleum-based phenol. The methods and products utilize low manufacturing cost from relatively simple technology and locally abundant raw material, comparable performances in wood bonding and competitive in price. It is estimated that around USD 900 / ton for petroleum-based, but just USD 250 / ton for palm-shell-based phenol

146

Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

Ng WK

2002-01-01

147

OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES  

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Full Text Available This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Kwei Nam Law

2011-01-01

148

Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information.

Bourgis F; Kilaru A; Cao X; Ngando-Ebongue GF; Drira N; Ohlrogge JB; Arondel V

2011-07-01

149

Gas Exchange Responses of Oil Palm to Ganoderma boninense Infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparison of physiological parameters was carried out between healthy and Ganoderma infected 17-year old oil palms grown under the same field conditions. Results from gas exchange measurements indicate that stomatal conductance was significantly reduced in infected palms. This led to significant reductions in transpiration rate and intercellular CO2 concentration in the infected palms. The relative leaf chlorophyll content and quantum efficiency of PS II were also significantly reduced in the infected palms. The results indicate that infected palms were under water stress that was induced by injury to their root and vascular transport system and not related to soil water deficits.

M.H. Haniff; S. Ismail; A.S. Idris

2005-01-01

150

Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production of palm oil derived biodiesel can be almost carbon neutral.

Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving

2012-01-01

151

Study on effective utilization of palm oil (Part 2). Extraction of carotenes from palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a part of the result of an international cooperation project with Malaysia Palm Oil Research Institute. Extraction of carotenes from palm oil was carried out by means of molecular distillation or adsorption method. High recovery and enrichment of carotene was obtained from the sample treated with phosphoric acid or polyphosphoric acid. However, even the maximum enrichment was only 3.8 times of carotene concentration of the sample, which was far remote from the target value of 10. The yield of recovery was also as low as 40%. Adsorption of carotenes was found to be chemisorptive in nature. The highest enrichment and recovery were obtained in the caseof oil pretreated with the phosphorous pentoxide, the recovery was 34.3% and enrichment was 11.3 which exceeded the target of 10. This adsorption process may be commercialized if the demand for carotene will grow to justify it. (2 figs, 7 tabs, 18 refs)

Mamuro, Hideo; Kubota, Yasuhiko; Shiina, Hisako; Nakasato, Satoshi

1987-01-08

152

Performance Evaluation of Palm Oil as Biodiesel  

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Full Text Available This work involved the production of diesel from most commonly available palm fruits oil Pisifera elaeis guineensis and testing for the brake power, torque of an engine and specific fuel consumption of a conventional diesel engine utilizing the produced diesel from palm oil. The obtained results were compared with those for fossil diesel fuel. The results show that the value of brake power was 6927.21W for fossil diesel while that of biodiesel was 7135.02W. Similarly the value for brake torque for fossil diesel was 44.1Nm and that of biodiesel was 45.42Nm. The average value obtained for the specific fuel consumption in the three experiments conducted for fossil diesel and biodiesel were 69.09 and 129.21 l/kWh respectively. It was discovered that the values of brake power, torque power and specific fuel consumption for bio diesel fuel were higher than those of fossil diesel fuel.

Sunday A. LAWAL; Ahmed BABAKANO

2011-01-01

153

Pulsating combustion of palm oil fruit bark  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the characteristics of palm oil fruit bark pulsating combustion. The fruit is abundant in the Brazilian state of Bahia and its bark is a residue available from the process of palm oil extraction. The residue is a potential alternative fuel for small energy generating units. A Rijke type pulsating combustor with a 200 mm internal diameter was tested in the burning of the material. Two combustor lengths were investigated (2400 and 3200 mm). The combustor wall was refrigerated by a water jacket. The pulsating combustion of the bark produced a maximum power output of 1.9 MW m{sup -2}. The maximum combustion efficiency was 96% which was obtained with an excess of air of 10%. The frequencies ranged between 65 Hz and 70 Hz in the longer configuration and between 85 Hz and 90 Hz in the shorter configuration. The acoustic pressure amplitude in the combustor mid section reached 4kPa. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Torres, E.A.; Victorio, J.R.S.; Ferreira, M.A.; Carvalho, J.A. Jr. (Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento, Camacari (Brazil))

1991-03-01

154

The hidden carbon liability of Indonesian palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report highlights the urgent need for global palm oil consumers and investors to support Unilever's call for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance in Indonesia. This report focuses on Unilever, which shares major institutional investors with other leading corporations including Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft. Not only do these corporations share investors, they also share growing carbon liability within their raw material supply chains through the expansion in the palm oil sector in Indonesia. Unilever has recognised the global problems associated with palm oil expansion and the need for drastic reform to this sector. Unilever has taken a bold move in calling for an immediate moratorium on deforestation and peatland clearance. While Unilever's position is strengthened by its status as the largest palm oil consumer in the world, this report shows how, unless companies like Nestle, Procter and Gamble and Kraft support its call for a halt to deforestation, the palm oil industry will continue to present a massive carbon liability over the coming years. This report uses Unilever's palm oil supply chains as a case study to help quantify the carbon liability and collateral risks associated with the Indonesian palm oil sector. It shows how, by buying palm oil from suppliers who account for more than one-third of Indonesia's palm oil production, Unilever and its competitors are increasing their potential carbon liability and thus leaving investors exposed to potentially significant levels of hidden risk, compromising long-term financial and brand stability.

NONE

2008-05-15

155

Gas Exchange Responses of Oil Palm to Ganoderma boninense Infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comparison of physiological parameters was carried out between healthy and Ganoderma infected 17-year old oil palms grown under the same field conditions. Results from gas exchange measurements indicate that stomatal conductance was significantly reduced in infected palms. This led to signi...

M.H. Haniff; S. Ismail; A.S. Idris

156

Gas Exchange of Excised Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Fronds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gas exchange and leaf water relations were studied on attached and excised oil palm fronds. Excised palm fronds experienced water stress and responded by closing their stomata in an attempt to avoid water loss through transpiration. This inhibited the diffusion of CO2 into the leaf, decre...

M.H. Haniff

157

Waffle or cake comprises dried sugarcane juice, red palm oil, coconut oil and wholemeal flour  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The waffle or cake is made from a mixture comprising dried sugarcane juice, red palm oil, coconut oil and wholemeal flour. A bakery product in the form of a cake or waffle known under the tradename GOVITA (RTM: undefined) comprises dried sugarcane juice, red palm oil, coconut oil and wholemeal flour.

158

Predicting fresh fruit bunch yield of oil palm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to develop the simulation model for predicting fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield of oil palm through multiple linear regression analysis. Two experiments were conducted at the oil palm plantation of Agricultural and Technology College, Krabi province. Six-year-old Tenera hybrid palms were used for the experiments. These palms were planted in Tha-sae soil series (Typic Paleudults; Fine loamy mixed)with spacing of 9x9x9 m. In the first experiment, 151 Tenera palms were selected and marked randomly throughout an area of plantation about 16 ha. For each selected palm, FFB yield and yield component characters (FFB number and bunch weight) were recorded at every harvesting time for four consecutive years (June 1993 to May 1997). The results showed that the FFB number and bunch weight could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield. In the second experiment, nine plots of Tenera hybrid palms were arranged. The plot size was 0.48 ha and had twenty palms per plot for data collection for three consecutive years (January 1994 to December 1996). These data included leaf nutrient (N, P, K, Mg and B) contents in the 17th frond, the fresh fruit bunch (FFB) yield and the amount of rainfall. The results showed that N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves, the amount of rainfall and FFB yield in the previous year, together with the N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves (in the predicting year) could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield.

Eksomtramage, T.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Tongkum, P.; Nilnond, C.

2001-01-01

159

Polygon Sawing: An Optimum Sawing Pattern for Oil Palm Stems  

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Full Text Available The shortage in wood supply makes the effort to find alternative for wood material become more and more important. It was reported that the outer parts of oil palm stems could be used as solid wood after being properly treated. Being a monocotyledon, oil palm stems have a contradictory characteristic to the conventional hardwoods and softwoods and thus the sawing patterns suitable for hardwoods and softwoods should not be suitable for the oil palm stems. Two modified sawing patterns (polygon sawing and cobweb sawing) plus one ordinary sawing pattern (life sawing) were compared in the sawing of oil palm stems. The purpose of this study was to find the most suitable sawing pattern for oil palm stems. The cobweb sawing provided the highest outer lumber recovery (35%) followed by polygon sawing (27%) and life sawing (23%). The polygon sawing provided the highest occurrence of wide lumbers, followed by the cobweb sawing and life sawing. The cobweb sawing need more than twice effective sawing time (15.4 min) than the life sawing and polygon sawing. In overall, the polygon sawing was the most suitable pattern for the sawing of oil palm stem.

Edi Suhaimi Bakar; Fauzi Febrianto; Imam Wahyudi; Zaidon Ashaari

2006-01-01

160

Palm oil boom in Indonesia: from plantation to downstream products and biodiesel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indonesia has been the biggest producer of palm oil (PO) in the world since 2005. The total production in 2007 was 17.0 and 1.9 million tons of crude palm oil (CPO) and crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), respectively. More than 70% of the CPO was exported and 87% of the domestic consumption was used for food. The production and subsequent refining and fractionation of CPO and CPKO generated biomass by-products that consists of trunk, frond, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fiber, shell, and palm kernel meal (PKM), and discharged wastes of palm oil mill effluent (POME) as well as palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). The amount of by-products and wastes produced has been growing very rapidly and efforts to diversify and improve their utilization are a great challenge. As claimed in many research reports, the by-products and wastes could be potentially utilized as sources of energy, animal feed, chemicals, paper pulp, advanced materials, medicines and food ingredients. A more important role may be played by PO as the Indonesian Government took further steps in 2006 to become the world's largest producer of biodiesel. As a starting point, Presidential Instruction No. 1/2006 for the Production and Use of Biofuel as Alternative Fuel was issued in January 2006. Responding to this Presidential Instruction, at least 15 companies are planning to establish new larger biodiesel refineries to enhance the currently produced 82.5 million L of biodiesel. It is planned to start production in 2008/2009 with two new refineries that have a total capacity of ca. 1,600 million L/year. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

2008-06-15

 
 
 
 
161

77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a...

2012-02-14

162

77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS Program; Extension...Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA''). EPA published a...

2012-04-02

163

Potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon for transesterification of palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon was developed for transesterification of palm oil. The Central Composite Design (CCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst loading and methanol to oil molar ratio on the production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst. The highest yield was obtained at 64.1 C reaction temperature, 30.3 wt.% catalyst loading and 24:1 methanol to oil molar ratio. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel met the standard specifications. This study proves that activated carbon supported potassium hydroxide is an effective catalyst for transesterification of palm oil. (author)

Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2010-11-15

164

Comparative transcriptome and metabolite analysis of oil palm and date palm mesocarp that differ dramatically in carbon partitioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm can accumulate up to 90% oil in its mesocarp, the highest level observed in the plant kingdom. In contrast, the closely related date palm accumulates almost exclusively sugars. To gain insight into the mechanisms that lead to such an extreme difference in carbon partitioning, the transcriptome and metabolite content of oil palm and date palm were compared during mesocarp development. Compared with date palm, the high oil content in oil palm was associated with much higher transcript levels for all fatty acid synthesis enzymes, specific plastid transporters, and key enzymes of plastidial carbon metabolism, including phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. Transcripts representing an ortholog of the WRI1 transcription factor were 57-fold higher in oil palm relative to date palm and displayed a temporal pattern similar to its target genes. Unexpectedly, despite more than a 100-fold difference in flux to lipids, most enzymes of triacylglycerol assembly were expressed at similar levels in oil palm and date palm. Similarly, transcript levels for all but one cytosolic enzyme of glycolysis were comparable in both species. Together, these data point to synthesis of fatty acids and supply of pyruvate in the plastid, rather than acyl assembly into triacylglycerol, as a major control over the storage of oil in the mesocarp of oil palm. In addition to greatly increasing molecular resources devoted to oil palm and date palm, the combination of temporal and comparative studies illustrates how deep sequencing can provide insights into gene expression patterns of two species that lack genome sequence information. PMID:21709233

Bourgis, Fabienne; Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Ngando-Ebongue, Georges-Frank; Drira, Noureddine; Ohlrogge, John B; Arondel, Vincent

2011-06-27

165

Curing reactions of palm oil alkyd enamels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Amino resins are the most popularly used cross-linking agents for thermosetting coatings. The most common amino resins are those derived from melamine, 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine and formaldehyde. They are attractive for developing high performance and low cost coatings to improve performances of other film-forming resins with reactive functional groups such as hydroxyl, carboxylic, and amide groups. Alkyds modified with melamine are mainly used in industrial baking enamels for metal surfaces. Short-oil alkyds containing 38-45% phthalic anhydride and a high proportion of hydroxyl values in the alkyd resins render good compatibility with melamine-formaldehyde resins. However, the actual mechanisms and pathways of the curing reactions involved are still not fully understood. This paper describes three palm oil alkyds, synthesized with high hydroxyl values. Clear coating enamels were made by mixing 4 parts; of alkyd resin with 1 part of a methylated melamine resin. The complex curing reactions of the clear enamel can be illustrated qualitatively by using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to set suitable curing temperatures without degradation. The dry hard time with various curing temperatures was examined. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to follow the changes in functional group concentrations as a function of time and temperature. (author)

2000-01-01

166

Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid

2005-01-01

167

Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid.

Wan Nik, W.B. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Kolej Universiti Sains dan Teknologi Malaysia, Mengabang Telipot, 21030 Kuala Terengganu (Malaysia)]. E-mail: niksani@kustem.edu.my; Ani, F.N. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2005-08-15

168

Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil using thermal neutron moderation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditional methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron detector was used in the investigation. The equipment was originally designed for detection of liquid levels in petrochemical and other process industries. Standards in the form of liquid hydrocarbons were used to obtain calibration lines for thermal neutron reflection parameter as a function of hydrogen content. Measured reflection parameters with respective hydrogen content with or without heat treatment of the three edible palm oils available on the market were compared with a brand cooking oil (frytol). The average total hydrogen content in the local oil samples prior to heating was measured to be 11.62 w% which compared well with acceptable value of 12 w% for palm oils in the sub-region. After heat treatment, the frytol oil (produced through bleaching process) had the least loss of hydrogen content of 0.26% in comparison with palm kernel oil of 0.44% followed by dzomi of 1.96% and by amidze of 3.22%. (author)

2001-01-01

169

Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO? refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO?) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO?) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

Akanda MJ; Sarker MZ; Ferdosh S; Manap MY; Ab Rahman NN; Ab Kadir MO

2012-01-01

170

Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO2) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

Mohammed Jahurul Haque Akanda; Mohammed Zaidul Islam Sarker; Sahena Ferdosh; Mohd Yazid Abdul Manap; Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman; Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

2012-01-01

171

Catalytic conversion of palm oil to fuels and chemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conversion of palm oil to hydrocarbons using a selective zeolite catalyst was studied. The palm oil was passed over HZMS-5 catalyst in a fixed-bed micro-reactor, operated at atmospheric pressure in a temperature range of 360-420 degrees C, and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 2-4 h{sub 1}. The main objective was to study the effect of reaction variables such as temperature and oil space velocity on the conversion of palm oil to fuels and chemicals, and to find the optimum value of palm oil conversion and yield of organic liquid products, especially gasoline range hydrocarbons. Results showed maximum conversion of palm oil to a mixture of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons of 67 weight-per cent. The amount of gas in the converted material increased with an increase in the reaction temperature. The maximum gasoline-range hydrocarbons yield of 40 weight-per cent of the total product was obtained at 400 degrees C and 2h{sub 1} space velocity. Formation of kerosene and diesel range hydrocarbons was the minimum where formation of gasoline was maximum. Calcined HZSM-5 showed the highest rate of cracking or reaction. It also enhanced the formation of aromatic and alcohol compounds compared to uncalcined HZSM-5. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs.

Leng, T. L.; Mohamed, A. R.; Bhatia, S. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, Perak Branch Campus, School of Chemical Engineering, Perak Darul Ridzuan (Malaysia)

1999-02-01

172

An Econometric Analysis of the Link between Biodiesel Demand and Malaysian Palm Oil Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to describe the important factors affecting Malaysian palm oil industry especiallybiodiesel demand. To that end a market model representing palm oil production, import, world excess demand,domestic consumption, export demand, rest of the world excess supply and palm oil prices is formulated. Asystem of equations of eight structural equations and four identities is estimated by two stage least squaresmethod using annual data for the period 1976-2008. The domestic price equation is formed to investigate the linkbetween biodiesel demand and the Malaysian palm oil market. The domestic price is significantly affected byMalaysian ending stock, world palm oil price, biodiesel demand and lagged domestic price. The elasticity ofMalaysian palm oil domestic price with respect to biodiesel demand is then obtained. Results suggest thatbiodiesel demand has a positive impact on the Malaysian palm oil domestic price. Thus, significant growth inbiodiesel demand is important in explaining Malaysian palm oil price determination.

Shri Dewi A/P Applanaidu; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; Mad Nasir Shamsudin; Amna Awad Abdel Hameed

2011-01-01

173

Air/oil lubrication of mill drives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large gear drives and power shaft bearings for rolling mills have historically been lubricated with circulating oil, wet sump systems that flood gears and bearings with large volumes of oil. Recent investigations have demonstrated that such systems contribute to heat build-up from oil-shear friction and increase drive power consumption. Other problems include: compromises in the selection of a single oil to serve different types of lubrication points; high oil consumption; contamination of lubricating oil by process fluids; contamination of process fluids and mill product by lubricating oil; and health, safety and environmental issues. To improve the performance of the 6-stand continuous billet/round rolling mill in its Lorain, Ohio facility, USS/KOBE Steel developed a hybrid air/oil centralized system to replace a circulating oil system pumping 150 gpm with a system delivering only 42 cu in./hr to each stand. This article discusses the continuous improvement process which identified the hybrid air/oil system, and the test and development steps that proved its suitability. In addition, the basic theory, equipment and controls that have made the series-progressive air/oil concept a practical and beneficial technique for heavy-duty mill drives are presented.

Nemes, G.L. [Lubriquip, Cleveland, OH (United States); Balogh, D. [F.D. Johnson Co., Cleveland, OH (United States); Wilson, G.A. [USS/KOBE Steel Co., Lorain, OH (United States)

1995-07-01

174

Comparison Study On Oil Palm Trunk And Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Fibre Reinforced Laterite Bricks  

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Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to compare the physical properties and mechanical properties of Oil Palm Trunk (OPT) fibre and Oil Palm Fruit Bunches (OPFB) fibre reinforced laterite bricks. For comparison purposes, the properties such as dimension, density, water absorption and the compressive strength of both types of bricks were determined. The effects of the incorporation of various amounts of fibres on the above properties were analysed. The tests were carried out according to BS 3821: 1985 for clay bricks.The samples were pressed at the factory Majpadu Bricks Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia and tested at the Material Testing Laboratory, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia.The findings of this research were, firstly, the dimension of bricks content with OPFB fibres were less accurate than bricks with OPT fibres. Secondly, the density of bricks with OPFB fibres was higher than the density of bricks with OPT fibres. Thirdly, in compressive strength of the bricks with OPFB fibres was higher than bricks with OPT fibres, with the maximum fibre content identified as 3 percent fibres. Finally, the water absorption of bricks with OPFB fibres was lower than the water absorption of bricks with OPT fibres. It can be concluded that the bricks with OPFB fibres had better physical and mechanical properties than bricks with OPT fibres.

Noorsaidi Mahat; Zaiton Yaacob; Nadia Fatihah Mastan; Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid; Zainab Zainordin; Mohamad Rohaidzat Mohamed Rashid; Husrul Nizam Husin; Natasha Khalil; Mohamat Najib Mat Noor; Wan Faizal Iskandar Wan Abdullah; Nurul Asra Abd Rahman; Suryani Ahmad

2010-01-01

175

SOIL FERTILITY AND NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT ON SPODOSOL FOR OIL PALM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was carried out in Oil Palm Plantation in Ngabang, Landak Distric, West Kalimantan in May 2008. Composite soil samples were taken from the soils, in which the oil palms indicated the nutrient disorders. The aims of the research were to study the soil fertility and nutrient management of Spodosols for oil palm crops. The results indicated that spodic horizons in the oil palm plantation varied between 30 and 70 cm. Besides spodic horizons, the albic horizon, the horizon that can’t be penetrated by the crops root, was also found. The texture is sandy with the sand content about 69-98 %. The soil has acidic properties, C organic varied from low to high, low phosphate, potassium, magnesium and Cation Exchange Capacity. In contrast, in the spodic horizon, the content of organic carbon, total nitrogen and CEC were higher, as well exchangeable Aluminum. There was close relationship between soil organic carbon and nitrogen and CEC in the soil. It is advice not to use spodosols for food crop and estate crops. The application of slow release fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers is highly input when oil palm planted on the Spodosol.

Antonius Kasno; Djadja Subardja

2010-01-01

176

Characterization of adsorbent prepared from oil-palm shell by CO{sub 2} activation for removal of gaseous pollutants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characterization of activated carbon prepared from oil-palm shell, an abundant agricultural solid waste from palm-oil processing mills in some tropical countries, by carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) activation was carried out in this paper. The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbon were studied. It was found that significant weight losses occurred during the activation process due to continual release of volatile matter and carbon burn-off through weak carbon-CO{sub 2} oxidation, resulting in an increase of solid density and a decrease of apparent density. Hence, the activated carbons prepared from oil-palm shells possessed well-developed porosities and predominant microporosities, which were verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), respectively. The development of microporosity for the oil-palm-shell activated carbon would lead to potential applications in gas-phase adsorption for the removal of air pollutants. Adsorption test results showed a linear relationship between the BET surface area and the adsorptive capacity for both nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gases. This could be elucidated by the neutral surface functional groups of the oil-palm-shell activated carbon, as detected by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

Guo, Jia; Lua, Aik Chong [School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore)

2002-08-01

177

The feasibility of producing oil palm with altered lignin content to control Ganoderma disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oil palm is a major crop which is grown for the production of vegetable oil used in foods, cosmetics and biodiesel. The palm is of major economic importance in southeast Asia where it is grown extensively in Malaysia and Indonesia. There is concern about Ganoderma rots of oil palm which need to be c...

Paterson, R. R. M.; Moen, Sariah; Lima, Nelson

178

COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING SHIKIMIC ACID OBTAINED FROM OIL PALM BASED MATERIALS AND METHOD OF PRODUCING THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides compositions and method for production of shikimic acid based on extracts obtained from oil palm-based materials, and more particularly oil palm based waste materials and by-products. The method includes purifying shikimic acid from extracts comprising oil palm phenolics (OPP).

TG SAMBANDAN; RHA CHOKYUN; SAMBANTHAMURTHI RAVIGADEVI; J SINSKEY ANTHONY; TAN YEW AI; P MANICKAM KALYANA SUNDRAM; WAHID MOHD BASRI

179

21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... Multipurpose Additives § 172.861 Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm...or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut...

2009-04-01

180

Metabolites Profiling of Heat Treated Whole Palm Oil Extract  

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Full Text Available The chemically complex and diverse nature of the plant metabolome require several platform technologies to profile the entire range of metabolites. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) technique was used to profile and identify a set of small-molecule metabolites found in heat treated whole palm oil extract. An investigation was carried out on the effect of heat treatment on the yield, quality and metabolites profile for whole palm oil extract. Palm fruits were collected, cleaned and sterilized for 0, 20, 40 and 60 min. The pulps were then stripped from the sterilized fruits and later was pressed using laboratory scale expeller. The resulting puree was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20 min. The result shows that there was a significantly difference between sterilization time of 0 and 40 min in yield and quality. Of all, the highest oil yield of 19.90.21% (w/w) was obtained at 40 min of sterilization with DOBI value of 5.950.08 and FFA of 1.440.22%. The MarkerView software version 1.2.0.1 analysis of the UPLC-ESI-MS/MS preliminary experimental data demonstrated the distribution and identity of several compounds in the whole palm oil extract for 40 min sterilization and 0 min sterilization. This study have demonstrated the potential of UPLC-ESI-MS/MS to identify, characterize and profile the metabolites in heat treated whole palm oil extract for further research in developing health application of phytochemicals from palm oil.

N.A. Mohd Fauzi; M.R. Sarmidi; L.S. Chua

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from Several Palm Oil Refineries  

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Full Text Available This research studied the characteristics of Palm Fatty Acids Distillates (PFADs) from several palm oil refineries. It was aimed to know the potency of PFAD as bioactive compounds source, including vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols), phytosterols, squalene and possibly co-enzyme Q10 and polycosanol. Sampling was conducted at 6 palm oil refineries. The results showed that PFAD was dominated by free fatty acids of 85-95% with low oxidation level indicated by peroxide value of 1-10 meq/kg and anisidin value of 6-31. Bioactive compounds found were vitamin E 60-200 ppm, phytosterols 400-7500 ppm and squalene 400-2800 ppm, meanwhile polycosanol and co-enzyme Q10 were not found. Vitamin E was dominated by tocotrienols and ? tocotrienol was the major vitamin E, followed by ? and ? tocotrienols. Phytosterols in PFADs from several palm oil refineries had variety in quantity and composition. Generally it was dominated by &beta sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol

Teti Estiasih; Kgs. Ahmadi; Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih; Jaya Mahar Maligan; Ahmad Zaki Mubarok; Elok Zubaidah; Jhauharotul Mukhlisiyyah; Risma Puspitasari

2013-01-01

182

Preliminary studies of epoxidized palm oil as sizing chemical for carbon fibers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epoxidized palm oil is derived from palm oil through chemical reaction with peracetic acid. Preliminary studies to coat carbon fibers have shown promising result towards applying natural product in carbon fibre composites. Mechanical studies of sized carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil showed significant increase in tensile and interfacial shear strength. Surface morphology of sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil reveals clear increase in root means square-roughness (RMS). This indicates the change of the surface topography due to sized or coated carbon fibers with epoxidized palm oil. (author)

2010-01-01

183

Enzymatic Destruction Kinetics of Oil Palm Fruits by Microwave Sterilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microwave sterilization of oil palm fruit is carried out to deactivate lipase and soften the fruits. This study is aims to determine enzymatic destruction kinetics from microwave sterilization of oil palm fruits such as decimal reduction time (D-value), temperature sensitivity (z-value), kinetic constant (k) and activation energy (Ea). Three power levels (medium, medium high and high) of the microwave oven were used and lipase assayed was conducted to determine the lipase activity. Microwave sterilization of oil palm fruits depends on the destruction kinetic parameters such as D-value, z-value and Ea. It required only 8.333 to 16.949 minutes to deactivate the lipase, and the process is not temperature sensitive which is indicated by z-value. The z-value indicated requirement to increase temperature up to 71.5, 77.0 and 83.0oC respectively from initial maximum temperature to reduce the D-value. Minimum energy required to start the destruction process of lipase was 13.927 to 14.049 kJ/mole obtained from microwave sterilization of 1 kg oil palm fruits at all power levels. Oil quality observed from free fatty acid (FFA) concentration that indicated FFA below 3.5%.

Maya Sarah; Mohd. Rozainee Taib

2013-01-01

184

Modification of palm oil for anti-inflammatory nutraceutical properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Palm oil is one of the most important edible oils in the world. Its composition (rich in palmitate and oleate) make it suitable for general food uses but its utility could be increased if its fatty acid quality could be varied. In this study, we have modified a palm olein fraction by transesterification with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenate or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Evaluation of the potential nutritional efficacy of the oils was made using chondrocyte culture systems which can be used to mimic many of the degenerative and inflammatory pathways involved in arthritis. On stimulation of such cultures with interleukin-1alpha, they showed increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha and IL-1beta and the proteinase ADAMTS-4. This increased expression was not affected by challenge of the cultures with palm olein alone but showed concentration-dependent reduction by the modified oil in a manner similar to EPA. These results show clearly that it is possible to modify palm oil conveniently to produce a nutraceutical with effective anti-inflammatory properties.

Zainal Z; Longman AJ; Hurst S; Duggan K; Hughes CE; Caterson B; Harwood JL

2009-07-01

185

Partial Discharge Phase Distribution Of Palm Oil As Insulating Liquid  

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Full Text Available Due to the low biodegradability level of mineral oil and its susceptibility to the fire, palm oil was proposed as alternative insulating liquid. This paper discusses partial discharge (PD) in palm oil under sinusoidal voltages and the comparison with mineral oil. PD was generated using a needle-plane electrode configuration which is enable enhancing electric field at the needle tip. PD pulses were detected using RC detector and they were measured using a Computer-based partial discharge measurement system. The results showed that PD activities in both oils are similar. The PD was initiated at the negative polarity of applied voltage. The discharges took place in both polarity’s of applied voltage with PD number was higher at negative one. Several discharges phenomena showed the presence of space charge which changed electric field and governed PD activities besides the main field introduced by voltage application.

Abdul Rajab; Umar K.; D. Hamdani; Aminuddin S.; Suwarno; Y. Abe; M. Tsuchie; M. Kozako; S. Ohtsuka; M. Hikita

2011-01-01

186

Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition. Red palm oil decreased total chicken plasma cholesterol, confirming the cholesterol reducing effect of this dietary oil. PMID:23659541

Nyquist, Nicole F; Rødbotten, Rune; Thomassen, Magny; Haug, Anna

2013-05-09

187

Chicken meat nutritional value when feeding red palm oil, palm oil or rendered animal fat in combinations with linseed oil, rapeseed oil and two levels of selenium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chicken meat nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition and selenium content depends on the choice of dietary oil and selenium level used in the chickens' feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of replacing commonly used rendered animal fat as a dietary source of saturated fatty acids and soybean oil as a source of unsaturated fatty acids, with palm oil and red palm oil in combinations with rapeseed oil, linseed oil and two levels of selenium enriched yeast on chicken breast meat nutritional value. The study also wished to see whether red palm oil had a cholesterol lowering effect on chicken plasma.204 male, newly hatched broiler chickens were randomly divided into twelve dietary treatment groups, and individually fed one out of six dietary fat combinations combined with either low (0.1 mg Se /kg feed) or high (1 mg Se/kg feed) dietary selenium levels. Linseed oil, independent of accompanying dietary fat source, lead to increased levels of the n-3 EPA, DPA and DHA and reduced levels of the n-6 arachidonic acid (AA). The ratio between AA/EPA was reduced from 19/1 in the soybean oil dietary groups to 1.7/1 in the linseed oil dietary groups. Dietary red palm oil reduced total chicken plasma cholesterol levels. There were no differences between the dietary groups with regard to measured meat antioxidant capacity or sensory evaluation. Chicken meat selenium levels were clearly influenced by dietary selenium levels, but were not influenced by feed fatty acid composition. High dietary selenium level lead to marginally increased n-3 EPA and higher meat fat % in breast muscle but did not influence the other LC PUFA levels. Chicken breast meat nutritional value from the soybean oil and low selenium dietary groups may be regarded as less beneficial compared to the breast meat from the linseed oil and high selenium dietary groups. Replacing rendered animal fat with palm oil and red palm oil had no negative effects on chicken muscle nutritional value with regard to fatty acid composition. Red palm oil decreased total chicken plasma cholesterol, confirming the cholesterol reducing effect of this dietary oil.

Nyquist NF; Rødbotten R; Thomassen M; Haug A

2013-01-01

188

Investigation on the Use of Palm Olein as Lubrication Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research work is on the possibility of producing lubricating oil from vegetable oil with palm olein as a case study. The sample analysed was obtained from Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State. Some of the physical and chemical properties such as viscosity, flash/fire point, pour point and specific gravity were analysed. This sample was bleached to remove the red colour (carotene) and gummy materials. The bleached sample was tested to determine the above mentioned properties. Comparison of the crude palm olein and the bleached sample with the conventional lubricants obtained from Elf Plc, Kaduna and Unipetrol Plc, Kaduna was made. Finally, it was discovered that the crude palm olein and the bleached sample exhibit a good base as a lubricant.

A. B. HASSAN; M. S. ABOLARIN; A. NASIR; U. RATCHEL

2006-01-01

189

Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H) and doubled haploid (DH) palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.

Dunwell Jim M; Wilkinson Mike J; Nelson Stephen; Wening Sri; Sitorus Andrew C; Mienanti Devi; Alfiko Yuzer; Croxford Adam E; Ford Caroline S; Forster Brian P; Caligari Peter DS

2010-01-01

190

Crystallisation and Melting Behavior of Methyl Esters of Palm Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The methyl esters of palm oil, which consists of saturated and unsaturated esters (0.6 to 95.9% unsaturation) of the C12 to C18 fatty acids, solidify at the two temperature ranges, -52 to -45°C and -24 to 21°C, when the esters are cooled. When the esters are heated, they melt at two distinct tempera...

Cheng S. Foon; Yung C. Liang; Noor L.H.M. Dian; Choo Y. May

191

Bio ethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The oil palm industry has an abundance of oil palm biomass. The type of biomass generated includes empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm trunk (OPT), kernel, shell and fronds. Generally, ligno celluloses biomass derived from oil palm has great potential to be converted into various forms of renewable energy. In this study, EFB in pulverized form was used as a feedstock for bio ethanol production. EFB contains lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose which can be converted into fermentable sugar and bio ethanol. The EFB was initially pre-treated with 1% NaOH followed by acid hydrolysis with 0.7% sulfuric acid and enzyme prior to fermentation process with Saccharomyces cerevisea. The various process parameters for bio ethanol production was optimized i.e. pH, temperature, rate of agitation and initial feedstock concentration. The fermentation of EFB hydrolysate was at pH 4, 30 degree Celsius and 100 rpm within 72 hours of incubation yielded 10.48 g/L of bio ethanol from 50 g/L of EFB. The bio ethanol production in a 6-L bioreactor showed 36% conversion of fermentable sugar from EFB into bio ethanol. (author)

2010-01-01

192

Ergonomics Observation: Harvesting Tasks at Oil Palm Plantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives: Production agriculture is commonly associated with high prevalence of ergonomic injuries, particularly during intensive manual labor and during harvesting. This paper intends to briefly describe an overview of oil palm plantation management highlighting the ergonomics problem each of the breakdown task analysis. Methods: Although cross-sectional field visits were conducted in the current study, insight into past and present occupational safety and health concerns particularly regarding the ergonomics of oil palm plantations was further exploited. Besides discussion, video recordings were extensively used for ergonomics analysis. Results: The unique commodity of oil palm plantations presents significantly different ergonomics risk factors for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) cutters during different stages of harvesting. Although the ergonomics risk factors remain the same for FFB collectors, the intensity of manual lifting increases significantly with the age of the oil palm trees-weight of FFB. Conclusion: There is urgent need to establish surveillance in order to determine the current prevalence of ergonomic injuries. Thereafter, ergonomics interventions that are holistic and comprehensive should be conducted and evaluated for their efficacy using approaches that are integrated, participatory and cost-effective.

Ng YG; Shamsul Bahri MT; Irwan Syah MY; Mori I; Hashim Z

2013-07-01

193

Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo  

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Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m?2 h?1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y?1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m?2 h?1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been accounted for in models and could become more important in the future due to expansion of the areas of oil palm plantation.

P. K. Misztal; S. M. Owen; A. B. Guenther; R. Rasmussen; C. Geron; P. Harley; G. J. Phillips; A. Ryan; D. P. Edwards; C. N. Hewitt; E. Nemitz; J. Siong; M. R. Heal; J. N. Cape

2010-01-01

194

Biodiesel production from palm oil via heterogeneous transesterification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the study of the transesterification of palm oil via heterogeneous process using montmorillonite KSF as heterogeneous catalyst. This study was carried out using a design of experiment (DOE), specifically response surface methodology (RSM) based on four-variable central composite design (CCD) with {alpha} (alpha) = 2. The transesterification process variables were reaction temperature, x{sub 1} (50-190 C), reaction period, x{sub 2} (60-300 min), methanol/oil ratio, x{sub 3} (4-12 mol mol{sup -1}) and amount of catalyst, x{sub 4} (1-5 wt%). It was found that the yield of palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) could reach up to 79.6% using the following reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 190 C, reaction period at 180 min, ratio of methanol/oil at 8:1 mol mol{sup -1} and amount of catalyst at 3%. (author)

Kansedo, Jibrail; Lee, Keat Teong; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

2009-02-15

195

Growth Performance, Body Composition, Haematology and Product Quality of the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Fed Diets with Palm Oil  

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The replacement value of palm oil for codliver oil in diets for juvenile African catfish (initial weight 24.04 g) was investigated. For 8 weeks, fish were fed experimental diets in which there was either 9% codliver oil (Diet 1), 6% codliver oil, 3% palm oil (Diet 2), 3% codliver oil, 6% palm oi...

Stephen N. Ochang; Oyedapo A. Fagbenro; Olabode T. Adebayo

196

The Modulating Effects of Red Palm Oil (?-Carotene) on Aflatoxin ?1-induced Toxicity in Weaning rats. H. C. C.  

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Full Text Available Palm oil (?-Carotene) was evaluated for its ability to inhibit/ ameliorate the aflatoxin ?1-induced toxicity in six groups of experimental rats thus (water control, aflatoxin ?1-treated, palm oil treated, palm oil and aflatoxin ?1-alternate group, palm oil and aflatoxin ?1 and aflatoxin ?, and palm oil treated groups). Palm oil (1.4 ?g ?-carotene as Palm oil) was given orally while aflatoxin ?1 (2 mg kg?1 body weight) was given up to eight days and ?-glutamyl transferase (E. C. 2.3.2.2) activities were assayed in the liver and sera samples. The treatment with the palm oil caused a significant decrease in ?-glutamyl transferase activities in the palm oil treated groups compared with aflatoxin-treated controls in both liver and sera samples suggesting that palm oil contains antioxidant principles. Also treatment with palm oil ameliorated the histopathological lesion like fatty degeneration and necrosis induced by aflatoxin ?1 thus suggesting that palm oil was cytoprotective. It is concluded that pretreatment with palm oil was necessary for maximum inhibition of aflatoxin ?1-induced toxicity. The mechanism of inhibition by palm oil appeared to be inhibition of propagation of free radicals. Also administering palm oil and aflatoxin ?1 alternately appeared to be necessary for maximum inhibition of toxicity.

Maduka; A. O. Uwaifo; J. O. Nwankwo

2001-01-01

197

Biodiesel fuels from palm oil, palm oil methylester and ester-diesel blends  

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Full Text Available Because of increasing cost and environmental pollution effects of fossil fuels, palm oil, its methylester and ester-diesel blends were analyzed comparatively with diesel for their fuel properties that will make them serve as alternatives to diesel in diesel engines. Equally, the samples were comparatively analyzed for their trace metal composition in relation to corrosion. Also the bond structure/stability of the samples in relation to diesel were monitored with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Results confirmed that most methylester blends with diesel fell within the grade 2D while the oil, methylester and 90:10 blend fell into 4D grade diesel fuels. From bond structure/stability comparison, all the samples were stable at 28 oC and had similarity in structure with diesel. All samples are commercializable. The trace metal composition of most samples was below that of the diesel with exception of Mn, Pb and Zn. The total acid numbers of all samples were below that of diesel and would not cause corrosion. It is recommended that processing of these samples should be done to conserve fossil fuel and as alternative diesel fuels in diesel engines.

V.I.E. Ajiwe; V.O. Ajibola; C.M.A.O. Martins

2003-01-01

198

Intelligent Color Vision System for Ripeness Classification of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch  

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Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil pa...

Fadilah, Norasyikin; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Halim, Zaini Abdul; Ibrahim, Haidi; Ali, Syed Salim Syed

199

Enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel via alcoholysis of palm oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The enzymatic alcoholysis of crude palm oil with methanol and ethanol was investigated using commercial immobilized lipases (Lipozyme RM IM, Lipozyme TL IM). The effect of alcohol (methanol or ethanol), molar ratio of alcohol to crude palm oil, and temperature on biodiesel production was determined. The best ethyl ester yield was about 25 wt.% and was obtained with ethanol/oil molar ratio of 3.0, temperature of 50 degrees C, enzyme concentration of 3.0 wt.%, and stepwise addition of the alcohol after 4 h of reaction. Experiments with 1 and 3 wt.% of KOH and 3 wt.% of MgO were carried out to compare their catalytic behavior with the enzymatic transesterification results. The commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme TL IM, showed the best catalytic performance.

Matassoli AL; Corrêa IN; Portilho MF; Veloso CO; Langone MA

2009-05-01

200

Enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel via alcoholysis of palm oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The enzymatic alcoholysis of crude palm oil with methanol and ethanol was investigated using commercial immobilized lipases (Lipozyme RM IM, Lipozyme TL IM). The effect of alcohol (methanol or ethanol), molar ratio of alcohol to crude palm oil, and temperature on biodiesel production was determined. The best ethyl ester yield was about 25 wt.% and was obtained with ethanol/oil molar ratio of 3.0, temperature of 50 degrees C, enzyme concentration of 3.0 wt.%, and stepwise addition of the alcohol after 4 h of reaction. Experiments with 1 and 3 wt.% of KOH and 3 wt.% of MgO were carried out to compare their catalytic behavior with the enzymatic transesterification results. The commercial immobilized lipase, Lipozyme TL IM, showed the best catalytic performance. PMID:19023524

Matassoli, André L F; Corrêa, Igor N S; Portilho, Márcio F; Veloso, Cláudia O; Langone, Marta A P

2008-11-21

 
 
 
 
201

Use of Oil Palm Waste as a Renewable Energy Source and Its Impact on Reduction of Air Pollution in Context of Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy supply to supplement the increasing energy demand and reducing environment pollution is renewable energy resources. Malaysia is currently the world's second largest producer and exporter of palm oil and 47% of the world's supply of palm oil is produced by this country. Nearly 80 million tonnes of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) are processed annually in 406 palm oil mills and are generating approximately 54 million tonnes of palm oil mill effluent (POME), known to generate biogas consisting of methane – a Green House Gas (GHG) identifiable to cause global warming. This is 21 times more potent GHG than CO2. These two major oil palm wastes are a viable renewable energy (RE) source for production of electricity. If the two sources are used in harnessing the renewable energy potential the pollution intensity from usage of non-renewable sources can also be reduced significantly. This study focused on the pollution mitigation potential of biogas as biogas is a renewable energy. Utilization of this renewable source for the production of electricity is believed to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere.

Begum, Shahida; P, Kumaran; M, Jayakumar

2013-06-01

202

Enzymatic catalyzed palm oil hydrolysis under ultrasound irradiation: diacylglycerol synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diacylglycerol (DAG) rich oils have an organoleptic property like that of regular edible oils, but these oils do not tend to be accumulated as fat. Palm oil ranks first in the world in terms of edible oil production owing to its low cost. The aim of this study was to propose a new methodology to produce diacylglycerol by hydrolysis of palm oil using Lipozyme RM IM commercial lipase as a catalyst under ultrasound irradiation. The reactions were carried out at 55 °C with two different methods. First, the reaction system was exposed to ultrasonic waves for the whole reaction time, which led to enzymatic inactivation and water evaporation. Ultrasound was then used to promote emulsification of the water/oil system before the hydrolysis reaction, avoiding contact between the probe and the enzymes. An experimental design was used to optimize the ultrasound-related parameters and maximize the hydrolysis rate, and in these conditions, with a change in equilibrium, DAG production was evaluated. Better reaction conditions were achieved for the second method: 11.20 wt.% (water+oil mass) water content, 1.36 wt.% (water+oil mass) enzyme load, 12 h of reaction time, 1.2 min and 200 W of exposure to ultrasound. In these conditions diacylglycerol yield was 34.17 wt.%. PMID:23402907

Awadallak, Jamal A; Voll, Fernando; Ribas, Marielen C; da Silva, Camila; Filho, Lucio Cardozo; da Silva, Edson A

2013-01-05

203

Effects of palm oil and calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids in fattening diets on digestibility, performance and chemical body composition of lambs  

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12 pages, 6 tables.-- Available online Oct 5, 2005. , The effects on digestibility, performance and chemical body composition of inclusion of palm oil (PO, VETALGRAS®) or calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CaF, MAGNAPAC®), at two levels, in diets of growing lambs were determined. Experimental diets...

Manso, Teresa; Castro, Teresa; Mantecón, Ángel R.; Jimeno, Vicente

204

Improvement potential for net energy balance of biodiesel derived from palm oil: A case study from Indonesian practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel derived from palm oil has been recognized as a high-productivity oil crop among the first generation of biofuels. This study evaluated and discussed the net energy balance for biodiesel in Indonesia by calculating the net energy ratio (NER) and net energy production (NEP) form the total energy input and output. The results of the calculation of energy input for the default scenario demonstrated that the primary energy inputs in the biodiesel production lifecycle were the methanol feedstock, energy input during the biodiesel production process, and urea production. These three items amounted to 85% of the total energy input. Next, we considered and evaluated ways to potentially improve the energy balance by utilizing by-products and biogas from wastewater treatment in the palm oil mill. This result emphasized the importance of utilizing the biomass residue and by-products. Finally, we discussed the need to be aware of energy balance issues between countries when biofuels are transported internationally. (author)

Kamahara, Hirotsugu [Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Hasanudin, Udin [Department of Agroindustrial Technology, University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Widiyanto, Anugerah [International Cooperation Center for Engineering Education Development, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Tachibana, Ryuichi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Atsuta, Yoichi; Goto, Naohiro; Daimon, Hiroyuki [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Fujie, Koichi [Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 240-8501 (Japan)

2010-12-15

205

Effects of chemical interesterification on the physicochemical, microstructural and thermal properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil and soybean oil blends.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blends of palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and soybean oil (SBO) at certain proportions were formulated using a mixture design based on simplex-lattice (Design Expert 8.0.4 Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, 2010). All the 10 oil blends were subjected to chemical interesterification (CIE) using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The solid fat content (SFC), triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal properties (DSC), polymorphism and microstructural properties were studied. Palm-based trans-free table margarine containing ternary mixture of PS/PKO/SBO [49/20/31 (w/w)], was optimally formulated through analysis of multiple isosolid diagrams and was found to have quite similar SMP and SFC profile as compared to the commercial table margarine. This study has shown chemical interesterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their mixtures. PMID:23199984

Fauzi, Siti Hazirah Mohamad; Rashid, Norizzah Abd; Omar, Zaliha

2012-10-12

206

Effect of hydraulic press parameters on crude palm oil yield  

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Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on the effect of hydraulic press parameters such as press cage diameter (D) (80, 120, and 150 mm) and wall pore diameter (H) (4, 6, and 10 mm) and expression pressure (P) on crude palm oil yield. The oil yield was found to increase with increase in cage diameter from 80 to 120 mm, after which it decreased as the cage diameter was increased to 150 mm. The volumetric oil flow followed the same pattern. The oil yield and volumetric flow increased with increase in pore size from 4 to 6 mm and decreased as the pore size increases to 10 mm. Increase in pressure form 0.5 to 1.5 MPa was observed to increase oil yield. Statistical analysis of the effect of the processing factors on oil yield indicates that the effect of all the factors were significant at 99%. It was observed that oil yield can be represented by the regression equation: Y=27.76-0.07D+0.33H+5.82P. The results of this study are useful in optimising the design of presses for palm oil extraction.

O.K. Owolarafe; A.S. Osunleke; B.E. Oyebamiji

2007-01-01

207

Biodiesel’s characteristics preparation from palm oil  

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Full Text Available Using vegetable oils directly as an alternative diesel fuel has presented engine problems. The problems have been attributed to high viscosity of vegetable oil that causes the poor atomization of fuel in the injector system and pruduces uncomplete combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the vegetable oil into ester (metil ester) by tranesterification process to decrease its viscosity. In this research has made biodiesel by reaction of palm oil and methanol using lye (NaOH) as catalyst with operation conditions: constant temperature at 60 oC in atmosferic pressure, palm oil : methanol volume ratio = 5 : 1, amount of NaOH used as catalyst = 3.5 gr, 4.5 gr, 5 gr and 5.5 gr and it takes about one hour time reaction. The ester (metil ester) produced are separatedfrom glycerin and washed until it takes normal pH (6-7) where more amount of catalyst used will decrease the ester (biodiesel) produced. The results show that biodiesels’ properties made by using 3.5 (M3.5) gr, 4.5 gr (M4.5) and 5 (M5.0) gr catalyst close to industrial diesel oil and the other (M5.5) closes to automotive diesel oil, while blending diesel oil with 20 % biodiesel (B20) is able to improve the diesel engine performances.

Tilani Hamid S.; Rachman Yusuf

2002-01-01

208

Oil palm vegetation liquor: a new source of phenolic bioactives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Waste from agricultural products represents a disposal liability, which needs to be addressed. Palm oil is the most widely traded edible oil globally, and its production generates 85 million tons of aqueous by-products annually. This aqueous stream is rich in phenolic antioxidants, which were investigated for their composition and potential in vitro biological activity. We have identified three isomers of caffeoylshikimic acid as major components of oil palm phenolics (OPP). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay confirmed potent free radical scavenging activity. To test for possible cardioprotective effects of OPP, we carried out in vitro LDL oxidation studies as well as ex vivo aortic ring and mesenteric vascular bed relaxation measurements. We found that OPP inhibited the Cu-mediated oxidation of human LDL. OPP also promoted vascular relaxation in both isolated aortic rings and perfused mesenteric vascular beds pre-contracted with noradrenaline. To rule out developmental toxicity, we performed teratological studies on rats up to the third generation and did not find any congenital anomalies. Thus, these initial studies suggest that OPP is safe and may have a protective role against free radical damage, LDL oxidation and its attendant negative effects, as well as vascular constriction in mitigating atherosclerosis. Oil palm vegetation liquor thus represents a new source of phenolic bioactives.

Sambanthamurthi R; Tan Y; Sundram K; Abeywardena M; Sambandan TG; Rha C; Sinskey AJ; Subramaniam K; Leow SS; Hayes KC; Wahid MB

2011-12-01

209

Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)  

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Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell) was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002). The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera). In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

Eksomtramage, T.; Songsri, N.; Juntaraniyom, T; Tongkum, P.; Nilnond, C.; Chaumongkol, Y.

2001-01-01

210

Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author).

Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Othman, Z.BT.; Awang, M.R.

1992-01-01

211

Some chemical properties of irradiated empty fruit bunch and palm press fiber of oil palm byproducts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of irradiation and alkali treatment for digestibility of oil palm by-products by commercial enzymes was investigated to obtain the informations about formation of carbohydrate polymers or sugar components for producing animal feed from cellulosic by-products. According to the colorimetric analysis, produced reducing sugar from holocellulose of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Press Fiber (PPF) by Cellulase ONOZUKA 3S were about ten times higher than those from raw samples. The results show that the digestibility of EFB and PPF increased significantly by delignification. The differences of digestibility between irradiated and unirradiated samples were shown clearly by the combination of enzymatic degradation and the HPLC analysis. By irradiation, digestibility of EFB was significantly increased. Higher dose is more effective for the digestion of EFB by enzyme. Alkali treatment is also quite effective to enzymatic degradation. The difference of neutral sugar component was observed between alkali treated and untreated samples. These results suggest that the combination of alkali treatment and irradiation is effective for digestion by enzyme. The analysis of products by HPLC after enzymatic degradation is useful method to examine the digestibility and the sugar composition of oil palm by-products. (author)

1992-01-01

212

THE POTENTIAL OF OIL PALM TRUNK BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR COMPRESSED WOOD  

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Full Text Available Compressed wood, which is formed by a process that increases the wood’s density, aims to improve its strength and dimensional stability. Compressed wood can be used in building and construction, especially for construction of walls and flooring. Currently, supplies of wood are becoming limited, and the oil palm tree has become one of the largest plantation species in Malaysia. Oil palm trunk could be an appropriate choice for an alternative source for compressed wood. This paper aims to review the current status of oil palm biomass, including the availability of this tree, in order to illustrate the potential of oil palm biomass as an alternative source for compressed wood. Up to the present there has been insufficient information regarding the manufacturing conditions and properties of compressed wood from oil palm trunk. This paper will cover the background of compressed wood and the possibilities of producing compressed wood using oil palm trunk as a raw material.

Othman Sulaiman,; Nurjannah Salim,; Noor Afeefah Nordin,; Rokiah Hashim; , Mazlan Ibrahim,; Masatoshi Sato

2012-01-01

213

Neural Network in Modeling Malaysian Oil Palm Yield  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Forecasting of palm oil yield has become an important element in the management of oil palm industry for proper planning and decision making. The importance of yield forecasting has led us to explore modeling of palm oil yield for Malaysia using the most recent development of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The main issue in yield forecasting is to predict the future value with the minimum error. Approach: Artificial neural networks are computing systems containing many interconnected nonlinear neurons, capable of extracting linear and nonlinear regularity in a given data set. It is an artificial intelligence model originally designed to replicate the human brains learning process, a network with many elements or neurons that are connected by communications channels or connectors. The ANN can perform a particular function when certain values are assigned to the connections or weights between elements. In this study, a secondary data set from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) on the foliar nutrient composition, fertilizer trials and Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) yield were taken and analyzed. The foliar nutrient composition variables are the nitrogen N, phosphorus P, potassium K, calcium Ca and magnesium Mg concentration, while the fertilizer trials data are the N, P, K and Mg fertilizers and are measured in kg per palm per year. The foliar composition data was presented in the form of measured values whiles the fertilizer data in ordinal levels, from zero to three. Results: Two experiments were conducted to demonstrate the implementation ANN and for both experiment, the result demonstrated that the number of hidden nodes produces an effect to the overall forecast performance of the ANN architecture. From the first experiment, it shows that the number of runs does not affect the ANN performance, but changing the momentum to learning rates, due to shows a significant improvement in the forecast result. The experimental result will be in the form of statistical analysis, the best neural network performance, the residual analysis and the effect on the learning rate on the NN performance. Conclusion: This study showed that modeling of oil palm yield using neural network requires data to be prepared or modified to satisfy the requirement of the parameters involved. This analysis yields the conclusion that only the number of hidden nodes has a significant influence on the NN performance and there is no effect resulting from the number of runs or the momentum term value on the neural networks performance.

Zuhaimy Ismail; Azme Khamis

2011-01-01

214

The oil palm SHELL gene controls oil yield and encodes a homologue of SEEDSTICK.  

Science.gov (United States)

A key event in the domestication and breeding of the oil palm Elaeis guineensis was loss of the thick coconut-like shell surrounding the kernel. Modern E. guineensis has three fruit forms, dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), a hybrid between dura and pisifera. The pisifera palm is usually female-sterile. The tenera palm yields far more oil than dura, and is the basis for commercial palm oil production in all of southeast Asia. Here we describe the mapping and identification of the SHELL gene responsible for the different fruit forms. Using homozygosity mapping by sequencing, we found two independent mutations in the DNA-binding domain of a homologue of the MADS-box gene SEEDSTICK (STK, also known as AGAMOUS-LIKE 11), which controls ovule identity and seed development in Arabidopsis. The SHELL gene is responsible for the tenera phenotype in both cultivated and wild palms from sub-Saharan Africa, and our findings provide a genetic explanation for the single gene hybrid vigour (or heterosis) attributed to SHELL, via heterodimerization. This gene mutation explains the single most important economic trait in oil palm, and has implications for the competing interests of global edible oil production, biofuels and rainforest conservation. PMID:23883930

Singh, Rajinder; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; Rosli, Rozana; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; Budiman, Muhammad A; Hogan, Michael; Bacher, Blaire; Van Brunt, Andrew; Wang, Chunyan; Ordway, Jared M; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Martienssen, Robert A

2013-07-24

215

Replacing palm oil for soybean oil in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), feed  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four isonitrogenous and isocaloric semi-purified feeds containing various levels of palm oil (0,1, 2 and 3%) as a replacement for soybean oil were fed to three replicate groups of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), fingerlings, mean initial weight 5.5 g, in 45-l aquaria for 5 weeks under controlled laboratory conditions. Weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and the chemical composition of the fish bodies did not vary significantly (P > 0.05). These results indicate that palm oil could replace soybean oil in feeds for O. niloticus fingerlings without any negative effect on the fish growth or body composition under these conditions.

Al-Owafeir MA; Belal IEH

1996-04-01

216

Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB), in powder and fib...

A. B. Nasrin; A. N. Ma; Y. M. Choo; s. Mohamad; M. H. Rohaya; A. Azali; Z. Zainal

217

Biolistic-mediated production of transgenic oil palm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effectiveness of mannose (using phosphomannose isomerase [pmi] gene) as a positive selection agent to preferably allow the growth of transformed oil palm embryogenic calli was successfully evaluated. Using the above selection agent in combination with the previously optimized physical and biological parameters and the best constitutive promoter, oil palm embryogenic calli were transformed with pmi gene for producing transgenic plants. Bombarded embryogenic calli were exposed to embryogenic calli medium containing 30:0 g/L mannose to sucrose 3 weeks postbombardment. Selectively, proliferating embryogenic calli started to emerge around 6 months on the above selection medium. The proliferated embryogenic calli were individually isolated once they reached a specific size and regenerated to produce complete plantlets. The complete regenerated plantlets were evaluated for the presence of transgenes by PCR and Southern analyses.

Parveez GK; Bahariah B

2012-01-01

218

Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fattythioic acids from palm oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present work focuses on the synthesis of fattythioic acids (FTAs) by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction of palm oil with carbonothioic S,S-acid using Lipozyme. The product was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The effects of various reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, amount of enzyme, molar ratio of substrates, and various organic solvents of the reaction system were investigated. The optimum conditions to produce FTAs were respectively, incubation time, 20 h, temperature, 40°C, amount of enzyme, 0.05 g and molar ratio of carbonothioic S,S-acid to palm oil, 5.0:1.0. Hexane was the best solvent for this reaction. The conversion of the products at optimum conditions was around 91%.

Al-Mulla EA

2011-01-01

219

Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fattythioic acids from palm oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work focuses on the synthesis of fattythioic acids (FTAs) by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction of palm oil with carbonothioic S,S-acid using Lipozyme. The product was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The effects of various reaction parameters such as reaction time, temperature, amount of enzyme, molar ratio of substrates, and various organic solvents of the reaction system were investigated. The optimum conditions to produce FTAs were respectively, incubation time, 20 h, temperature, 40°C, amount of enzyme, 0.05 g and molar ratio of carbonothioic S,S-acid to palm oil, 5.0:1.0. Hexane was the best solvent for this reaction. The conversion of the products at optimum conditions was around 91%. PMID:21178316

Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar

2011-01-01

220

STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%), good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g), and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; CODCr=8140 mg/L). The SEP pulp from oil palm EFB fiber was very suitable for packaging paper when combined with American OCC pulp.

Xiwen Wang,; Jian Hu,; Jingshan Zeng

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Conservation value and permeability of neotropical oil palm landscapes for orchid bees.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1) oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2) orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features. PMID:24147137

Livingston, George; Jha, Shalene; Vega, Andres; Gilbert, Lawrence

2013-10-17

222

Sustainable Management of a Matured Oil Palm Plantation in UPM Campus, Malaysia Using Airborne Remote Sensing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate and reliable near-real time information is needed for a sustainable oil palm plantation management, especially on plant quality and health. Airborne remote sensing provides the effective recent agricultural crop information for the oil palm plantation industry planning, management and sustainable development. A study on the characteristic of a matured oil palm plantation in UPM campus was conducted using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing technique. Airborne hyperspectral remote sensing can be used as an effective tool in monitoring the characteristic of oil palm plantation in order to predict and manage the oil palm production. The general objective of this study is to assess the capability and usefulness of UPM-APSB’s AISA airborne hyperspectral sensor to determine the characteristic of a matured oil palm plantation for its sustainable development while the specific objective is to identify, classify and produce the thematic map of matured oil palm plantation in the study site. The age of the oil palm plantation used in this study is 27 years old. Sobel filtering was used to enhance the image. Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) analysis was then used to classify the characteristic of the plantation within the study area. A thematic map of 27 years old matured oil palm plantation was produced and the characteristic of the oil palm plantation in the study site was identified as 173 healthy, 7 dead, 9 stressed oil palm trees and open areas in the plantation with a mapping accuracy of 93.33%. This has shown that UPM-APSB’s AISA airborne hyperspectral sensor is capable of mapping a matured oil palm plantation with such characteristics for its sustainable management and future development.

Kamaruzaman Jusoff

2009-01-01

223

Conservation value and permeability of neotropical oil palm landscapes for orchid bees.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1) oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2) orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features.

Livingston G; Jha S; Vega A; Gilbert L

2013-01-01

224

Method for preparing hard butters from palm oil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hard butters, which are suitable replacements for cacao butter and which may be used for confectionary products without the occurrence of blooming, are obtained by hydrogenating a soft palm oil fraction having an iodine value of at least 55 with a conventional hydrogenation catalyst in the presence of methionine, whereby at least 40% of the glycerides are trans-isomers (calculated as trielaidine) and, optionally separating the middle-fraction of the hydrogenated product.

KANEGAE JUNJI; IZUMI TSUGIO; MANDAI AKIO

225

Indigenous Peoples’ Resistance to Oil Palm Plantations in Borneo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The expansion of oil palm plantations in Southeast Asia is threatening the right to food of rural communities who are being displaced and deprived of the land and other natural resources on which they rely to produce their food. Since the 1980s, this expansion has been particularly significant in Malaysia and Indonesia, two of the major world producers and exporters of palm oil. Huge forest areas on the island of Borneo have been cleared and converted to the production of palm oil both on the Malaysian side (Sarawak and Sabah) and on the Indonesian side (Kalimantan) of the island. While the development of the biofuel and food industries may translate into considerable revenues for multinational corporations and governments in the region, it is far more difficult to show how villagers living in these forests have benefited from all these activities. The development of oil palm plantations has adverse impacts on indigenous communities of Borneo, many of which are trying to resist their expansion. In this paper, we tried to understand why and how these communities are opposing resistance. Through the analysis of twenty-five cases from Borneo, we found that the issues of land rights and land damage are the ones that generate the strongest resistance from communities in Sarawak and Kalimantan. While the reactions of indigenous communities in both countries are very similar at the beginning and consist mainly of asking to meet corporation and/or state officials to negotiate proper compensation for the use of the land and the damage done, as well as to have their land rights recognized, they take different paths after this initial stage.

Denis Côté; Laura Cliche

2011-01-01

226

Effect of dietary palm oil on growth and carcass composition of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings  

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This study investigated the effects of dietary palm oil (PO) on growth performance and carcass composition of Heterobranchus longifilis with the goal of replacing dietary fish oil with palm oil. In this study triplicate groups of H. longifilis fingerlings were fed the experimental diets for 8 weeks....

Theophilus Babalola; David Apata

227

Prospects for Inhibition of lignin degrading enzymes to control ganoderma white rot of oil palm  

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Oil palm (OP) is prone to a rot by the fungus Ganoderma which may be capable of being controlled by enzyme inhibitors. Palm oil is used in the production of vegetable oil for foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and, most recently, biodiesel. However, the fundamental process of the disease as “white ro...

Paterson, R. R. M.; Meon, Sariah; Abidin, M.A. Zainal; Lima, Nelson

228

PROPERTIES OF BINDERLESS PARTICLEBOARD PANELS MANUFACTURED FROM OIL PALM BIOMASS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboard panels manufactured from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) biomass without using any adhesives. Different parts of oil palm, including the core and mid sections of trunks, fronds, bark, and leaves, were used to make the panels with an average target density of 0.80g/cm3. Based on the test results, it seems that panels made from bark and leaves did not have satisfactory strength and dimensional stability. However, the panels having particles from the core portion of the trunks exhibited the highest modulus of rupture and internal bond strength but lowest in thickness swelling and water absorption values among the samples. The panels made with particles of mid-section of trunks and fronds followed the samples having core portion trunks material. Three types of raw material, namely fronds, mid-, and core-parts of the trunks appeared as though they could have potential to manufacture particleboard panels with acceptable properties based on requirements stated in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Similar to the above findings, surface quality of the samples were also found acceptable for the panels made from three types of particles. Based on the results of this work, oil palm in the form of biomass could be considered as an environmentally friendly alternative raw material to manufacture binderless particleboard panels.

Rokiah Hashim,; Wan Noor Aidawati Wan Nadhari,; Othman Sulaiman,; Masatoshi Sato,; Salim Hiziroglu,; Fumio Kawamura,; Tomoko Sugimoto,; Tay Guan Seng; ,Ryohei Tanaka

2012-01-01

229

Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.

Kok SY; Namasivayam P; Ee GC; Ong-Abdullah M

2013-07-01

230

How the palm oil industry is cooking the climate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Every year, 1.8 billion tonnes (Gt) of climate changing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are released by the degradation and burning of Indonesia's peatlands, which is 4% of global GHG emissions from less than 0.1% of the land on earth. This report shows how, through growing demand for palm oil, the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel industries are driving the wholesale destruction of peatlands and rainforests. These companies include Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, who between them account for a significant volume of global palm oil use, mainly from Indonesia and Malaysia. Overlaying satellite imagery of forest fires with maps indicating the locations of the densest carbon stores in Indonesia, Greenpeace researchers have been able to pinpoint carbon 'hotspots'. Our research has taken us to the Indonesian province of Riau on the island of Sumatra, to document the current activities of those involved in the expansion of palm oil. These are the producers who trade with Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, as well as many of the other top names in the food, cosmetic and biofuel industries. The area of peatland in Riau is tiny: just 4 million hectares, about the size of Taiwan or Switzerland. Yet Riau's peatlands store 14.6Gt of carbon. If these peatlands were destroyed, the resulting GHG emissions would be equivalent to one year's total global emissions. Unless efforts are made to halt forest and peatland destruction, emissions from these peatlands may trigger a 'climate bomb'.

2007-01-01

231

The addition of palm oil biodiesel and coal derived FT distillate to GHGenius  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The GHGenius model is suitable for analyzing pollutants emitted during the processing and use of transportation fuels. This study covers work on the addition of coal to the FT distillate pathway in the model. The production of palm oil and palm oil biodiesel and light duty diesel applications have been added, as well. FT distillate from coal is described with regard to coal production, process description and parameters, energy balance, upstream greenhouse gases emissions, lifecycles emissions, and cost effectiveness. Palm production, land use issues, oil extraction process, palm oil biodiesel production, energy balance, upstream and lifecycles emissions, and cost effectiveness are described. 13 refs., 8 figs., 34 tabs.

NONE

2006-05-15

232

Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

2012-11-01

233

MIXTURE OF PALM-KERNEL OILS, EDIBLE FOOD PRODUCT (VERSIONS) AND CHOCOLATE SUBSTITUTE COMPOSITION (VERSIONS)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: fat-and-oil industry. SUBSTANCE: mixture comprises 10- 16 wt% of palm-kernel oil, 6-12 wt% of hydrogenized palm-kernel oil, 55-75 wt% of palm-kernel stearin and 7-13 wt% of hydrogenized palm-kernel stearin. Edible product comprises above mixture used as oil mixture. Chocolate substitute composition comprises dry cocoa and above oil mixture. According to another version, chocolate substitute composition comprises dry cocoa, sugar, dry milk and above oil mixture. Components are used in predetermined ratio. Edible food product comprises chocolate substitute. EFFECT: improved quality and wider range of edible palm-kernel oil mixtures. 18 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 5 ex

NALUR SKHANTKHA CHANDRASEKARAN

234

Kinetics of palm kernel oil and ethanol transesterification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, there are no available data on the kinetics and mechanisms of transesterification of local vegetable oils. The need for local production of biodiesel necessitates that the mechanism and kinetics of the process is well understood, since the properties of the biodiesel depends on the type of oil use for the transesterification process. The objective of this work is to evaluate the appropriate kinetics mechanism and to find out the reaction rate constants for palm kernel oil transesterification with ethanol when KOH was used as a catalyst. In this present work, 16 biodiesel samples were prepared at specified times based on reported optimal conditions and the samples analysed by gas chromatography. The experimental mass fractions were calibrated and fitted to mathematical models of different proposed mechanisms in previous works.The rate data fitted well to second-order kinetics without shunt mechanism. It was also observed that, although transesterification reaction of crude palm kernel oil is a reversible reaction, the reaction rate constants indicated that the forward reactions were the most prominent.

Julius C. Ahiekpor, David K. Kuwornoo

2010-01-01

235

Gas Exchange of Excised Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Fronds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gas exchange and leaf water relations were studied on attached and excised oil palm fronds. Excised palm fronds experienced water stress and responded by closing their stomata in an attempt to avoid water loss through transpiration. This inhibited the diffusion of CO2 into the leaf, decreased the intercellular CO2 level and resulted in a reduction in photosynthetic rate. Water deficit develops in the excised tissue as the demand by transpiration exceeds the supply of water. The leaf water potential (?l), leaf osmotic potential (?s) and leaf turgor potential (?p) were reduced in response to the disruption in water supply. Results show that gas exchange measurements on excised fronds must be carried out immediately after excision in order to avoid water stress effects.

M.H. Haniff

2006-01-01

236

Evaluation of the Lubricating Properties of Palm Kernel Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The search for renewable energy resources continues to attract attention in recent times as fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal and natural gas, which are been used to meet the energy needs of man are associated with negative environmental impacts such as global warming. Biodiesel offered reduced exhaust emissions, improved biodegradability, reduced toxicity and higher carotene rating which can improve performance and clean up emissions. Standard methods were used to determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil, which includes the Density, Viscosity, flash/fire point, carbon residue, volatility and Specific Gravity were determined by chemical experimental analysis. The flash/fire points of the Heavy duty oil (SAE 40) and Light duty oil (SAE 30) is 260/300(°C) and 243/290(°C) respectively while the pour points of the samples are 22°C for palm kernel oil while 9°C and 21°C for SAE 40and SAE 30 respectively.

John J MUSA

2009-01-01

237

Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber.

Mohd Jaafar MN; Eldrainy YA; Mat Ali MF; Wan Omar WZ; Mohd Hizam MF

2012-02-01

238

Damage Pattern and Nesting Characteristic of Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Oil Palm on Peat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The oil palm industry of Malaysia has expanded into peat area in Sarawak. Problem statement: The subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus was a serious pest of oil palm on peat. Control of this termite has resorted to heavy usage of chemicals which was deemed uneconomical and ho...

Wei-Hong Lau; Choon-Fah J. Bong; Seow-Phan Chan

239

Reaction Kinetics of Transesterification Between Palm Oil and Methanol under Subcritical Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to evaluate transesterification kinetics for biodiesel production from palm oil under subcritical conditions. Experimental investigation was carried out with palm oil and methanol at molar ratio of 46:1, temperatures between 150-200 °C and pressure around 140-...

Anusan Permsuwan; Nakorn Tippayawong; Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat; Churat Thararux; Sunanta Wangkarn

240

Determinants of Indonesian Palm Oil Export: Price and Income Elasticity Estimation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For Indonesian economy, palm oil is considered as one of important commodities. It provides a large amount of export revenue and job opportunities. From year 2000 to 2009, palm oil production in Indonesia has increased every year. In , 2008 about 70% of its production was exported. Recently, Indones...

Ambiyah Abdullah

 
 
 
 
241

Separation of Coenzyme Q10 in Palm Oil by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil is known to host a variety of phytonutrients; some having antioxidant property such as the carotenes and vitamin E. These antioxidants are also present in the oil recovered from the palm-pressed fibre. Study was carried out to investigate the presence of coenzyme Q10, yet another non-glycer...

Ng M. Han; Choo Y. May; Ma A. Ngan; Chuah C. Hock; Mohd A. Hashim

242

Development of pressure sensitive adhesives from palm oil acrylated resins by irradiation - a preliminary study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives, PSA, has been developed from various palm oil resins synthesised at MINT Laboratory namely epoxidised palm oil acrylates/methacrylates, EPOLA/EPOMA. The performances of these resins are compared in term of their curing rates and physical properties of cured products

1995-01-01

243

Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and suggest...

Wicke, B.; Sikkema, R.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.P.C.

244

Monitoring the Free Fatty Acid Level of Crude Palm Oil Stored under Light of Different Wavelenghts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of light of different colours (wavelength) on the Free Fatty Acid (FFA) value of stored crude palm oil is hereby reported. Equal portions of the palm oil samples were stored in an environment of red, blue and green lights, respectively for a period of 21 days. Aliquots were taken from eac...

Oyem H. Henry

245

Ganoderma Species Associated with Basal Stem Rot Disease of Oil Palm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Basal Stem Rot disease (BSR) is one of the most serious diseases that have been causing major losses in the oil palm industry in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Several species of Ganoderma have been reported pathogenic to oil palm, however, the...

Ling-Chie Wong; Choon-Fah J. Bong; A. S. Idris

246

Fabrication of Silver Nanoparticles Dispersed in Palm Oil Using Laser Ablation  

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In this study we used a laser ablation technique for preparation of silver nanoparticles. The fabrication process was carried out by ablation of a silver plate immersed in palm oil. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm was used for ablation of the plate at different times. The palm oil a...

Reza Zamiri; Azmi Zakaria; Hossein Abbastabar Ahangar; Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini; Mohd Adzir Mahdi

247

Downdraft Gasification of Oil Palm Frond: Effects of Temperature and Operation Time  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Currently produced more than 40 million tons a year, only a small portion of oil palm frond is used as domestic animals forage and as raw material in small-scale furniture industry, while the rest is left at the plantation floor to naturally decompose. This study introduces oil palm frond as a so...

M.N.Z. Moni; Shaharin A. Sulaiman

248

Biodegradation of oil palm empty fruit bunch by composite micro-organisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison study on the comparative biodegradation ability on EFB by five groups of composite micro-organisms [Organomine, Thomas, Ohres C, Ohres II and micro-organisms from POME (palm oil mill effluent)] has been performed with the aim of producing a compost at a faster rate than that by natural biodegradation. The experiment was carried out by mixing 50 gram EFB (dry weight basis) with 3% ammonium sulphate to which was added 1% composite micro-organisms and water to produce a composting media of moisture content about 60%. Respiration of composite micro-organisms as well as from decomposition of EFB releasing CO sub 2. The choice of useful micro-organisms was based on its ability to degrade EFB as reflected by higher evolution rate of CO sub 2 released and retaining higher percentage of nitrogen in the final product

1998-01-01

249

Effects of land applications waste water of crude palm oil factory on some nutrient available in soil and nutrient content in palm oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was aimed to study effect of waste water of crude palm oil (CPO) factory on some nutrient available in soil and nutrient content in palm oil. The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized block design with six levels of waste water treatments (0, 250, 500, 750, 1.000, and 1.250 L tree-1 palm oil) in three replications. The result showed that the level 750 L tree-1 of waste water treatment have significant effects on increased of nutrient available in soil (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) including soil pH, but not significant with level 1000 and 1250 L tree-1 except P. On the other hand, nutrient content in palm oil (N, P, and K) were not significantly influenced by waste water treatments.

Irwan Sukri Banuwa; Mamat Anwar Pulung

2008-01-01

250

Extraction of ?-carotenes from palm oil mesocarp using sub-critical R134a  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sub-critical extraction of palm oil from palm mesocarp using R134a solvent was conducted via the dynamic mode to investigate the ability of R134a to extract ?-carotene. The yield of palm oil and the solubility of ?-carotene were investigated at 40, 60 and 80°C and pressure range from 45-100bar. The extracted oil was analysed for ?-carotene content using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results showed that palm oil yield increased with pressure and temperature. The maximum solubility of ?-carotene was obtained at 100bar and 60°C while the lowest solubility occurred at 80bar and 40°C. The higher concentration of extracted ?-carotene ranging from 330-780ppm as compared to that achieved through conventional palm oil processing indicates that extraction of ?-carotene using R134a is viable.

Mustapa AN; Manan ZA; Mohd Azizi CY; Setianto WB; Mohd Omar AK

2011-03-01

251

Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

Daud, D.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

2013-06-01

252

Nutrient composition of Nigerian palm kernel from the dura and tenera varieties of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The dura and tenera varieties of the oil palm from Calaro Oil Palm Estate, Akamkpa in Cross River State, Nigeria and NIFOR Experimental Oil Palm Station, Abak in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria were studied to evaluate their proximate, mineral, toxicant and fatty acid compositions. These parameters were determined for both undefatted and defatted samples. The defatted samples had higher nutrient levels than the undefatted ones. The dura variety had a higher moisture content than the tenera in both locations. Antinutrients, such as hydrocyanic acid and total oxalate, were also higher in the dura variety than the tenera. The mineral analysis of the samples showed high levels of magnesium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc, phosphorus, sodium and potassium. The tenera variety showed higher values of most of these minerals than the dura in both of the locations. Palm kernel therefore appears to be a good source of these mineral elements. Phytate and lead were not detected in any of the samples. The fatty acid profile indicated lauric (C 12:0), oleic (C 18:1) and palmitic (C 16:0) to be the major constituent fatty acids of the palm kernel oil samples. There were no significant differences in fatty acid composition between the varieties or locations.

Akpanabiatu MI; Ekpa OD; Mauro A; Rizzo R

2001-02-01

253

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author)

1994-01-01

254

Upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A huge amount of agricultural wastes are discarded or burned causing the serious environmental pollution problems in the world. Upgrading of these wastes into useful end-products is suggested not only to recycle the agro-resources but also to reduce pollution. Empty fruit bunch (EFB), stalk material after fruit stripping, is a major cellulosic waste of the palm oil industry. The current availability of EFB in Malaysia is estimated to be 3 million tones per year. EFB is normally incinerated to produce bunch ash. Burning and incineration processes emit considerable amount of smokes and pollutants thus affecting surrounding areas. Recently, it has been realized that there is a need to utilize these by-products effectively in order to improve the economic situation of the oil palm industry as well as to reduce pollution problems. EFB is a valuable and useful biomass. This paper describes the production of animal feed and mushroom from oil palm wastes by radiation and fermentation treatment. The process is as follows: decontamination of microorganisms in fermentation media of EFB by irradiation, inoculation of useful fungi, and subsequently production of proteins and edible mushrooms. The dose of 30 kGy was required for the sterilization of contaminating bacteria whereas the dose of 10 kGy was enough to eliminate the fungi. Among many kinds of fungi tested, Coprinus cinereus and Pleurotus sajor-caju were selected as the most suitable microorganism for the fermentation of EFB. The protein content of the product increased and the crude fiber content decreased after solid state fermentation. P.sajor-caju was suitable for the mushroom production on EFB with rich bran and the residue can be used as the ruminant animal feeds. It is expected that the process is applicable to other cellulosic wastes such as sugar cane bagasse, rice straw, etc. produced in other Asian countries, and contribute to reduce the environmental pollution problems. (author).

Kume, Tamikazu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

1994-01-01

255

How the palm oil industry is cooking the climate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Every year, 1.8 billion tonnes (Gt) of climate changing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are released by the degradation and burning of Indonesia's peatlands, which is 4% of global GHG emissions from less than 0.1% of the land on earth. This report shows how, through growing demand for palm oil, the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel industries are driving the wholesale destruction of peatlands and rainforests. These companies include Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, who between them account for a significant volume of global palm oil use, mainly from Indonesia and Malaysia. Overlaying satellite imagery of forest fires with maps indicating the locations of the densest carbon stores in Indonesia, Greenpeace researchers have been able to pinpoint carbon 'hotspots'. Our research has taken us to the Indonesian province of Riau on the island of Sumatra, to document the current activities of those involved in the expansion of palm oil. These are the producers who trade with Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, as well as many of the other top names in the food, cosmetic and biofuel industries. The area of peatland in Riau is tiny: just 4 million hectares, about the size of Taiwan or Switzerland. Yet Riau's peatlands store 14.6Gt of carbon. If these peatlands were destroyed, the resulting GHG emissions would be equivalent to one year's total global emissions. Unless efforts are made to halt forest and peatland destruction, emissions from these peatlands may trigger a 'climate bomb'.

NONE

2007-11-15

256

DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANTS IN OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) undergoes sterilization before being threshed to separate the fruits from the bunch. Upon threshing, the fruits were pressed for its oil while the now Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) will be discarded or used as biomass. It is believed that the EFB contains small amount of oil as well as phytonutrients which contain antioxidative property. This study reports on the extraction and analyses of various types of phenolic compounds, which have been known to exhibit antioxidant property, from the EFB. Different methods were employed in order to extract the Soluble Free (SF), Insoluble Bound (ISB) and Esterified Free (EF) phenolics in the EFB. Analyses of these phenolics were carried out spectrophotometricaly. The concentrations of the SF, ISB and EF phenolics varies among the wet and dried EFB extracts. All the extracts from both wet and dried EFB exhibit radical scavenging activities.

Ng Mei Han; Choo Yuen May

2012-01-01

257

Fermentation assisted byproduct recovery in the palm oil industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of palm oil from Elaeis guineensis is a leading natural product industry in Malaysia, giving rise to a number of residues, including a rich, fruity liquor from the pulp. The liquor, of which 7-10 million tonnes a year are currently produced, has some 6% organic solids, including 0.7-1.0% or more of oil which physical processing has failed to extract. Present anaerobic digestion processes exploit only the energy and fertiliser value. Methods are described in this paper for thermophilic, microbially assisted digestion for component separation and recovery, exploiting the widely used techniques for fruit juice extraction involving enzymic breakdown of starch, pectin and other cell components. Anaerobiosis and acidogenesis help protect and release residual oil, concomitantly preserving the solids against rancidity and spoilage by ensilage. The separated wet solids are nutritive (17% protein on dry matter), biologically safe and attractive to livestock. Downstream use of the liquor is aided by the thermophilic digestion. (Refs. 33).

Stanton, W.R.

1983-05-01

258

Biodiesel Production from Crude Palm Oil by Transesterification Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An overflow system for batch esterification of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) to obtain Palm Oil Biodiesel (POB) was developed using a batch reactor (shake flask). The alkali catalyst of potassium hydroxide had been used to carry the transestrication process with methanol; ultimately, 2 layers were form from the reaction-the lower layer of glycerol and the upper layer of methyl esters; the later layer is the targeted biodiesel. Optimization of the process was held for determining of the best possible yield of biodiesel at the end of the reaction which was 93.6%. This was carried by finding the optimal values of reaction time of 60 min, reaction temperature of 60°C, agitation speed of 250 rpm, molar ratio of methanol to oil of 10:1 (m/m) and dosage of the catalyst of 1.4 (%wt). Other experimental design and analytical tests were conducted including: density of POB at room temperature, 0.8498 kg L-1, surface tension at STP of 26.96 mN m-1, with Huh-Mason correction of 0.1 and finally free fatty acid percentage of 0.12% (equivalent to acid value of 0.26 mg KOH g-1).

A.N. Alkabbashi; Md Z. Alam; M.E.S. Mirghani; A.M.A. Al-Fusaiel

2009-01-01

259

Synthesis of hyper branched polyol from palm oil oleic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hyper branched polyol from oleic acid of palm oil has been synthesized by a two-step reaction. Dipentaerythritol was initially reacted with 2, 2-bis (hydroxymethyl) propionic acid in a solution medium aided by p-toluene sulfonic acid as a catalyst. This mixture was then used as core and reacted with the oleic acid. Optimization parameters such as processing temperature and reaction time, and chemical analysis (for example OHV, AV, FTIR, NMR and GPC) of the macromolecule synthesized is presented in this paper. (author)

2010-01-01

260

Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber  

Science.gov (United States)

In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

 
 
 
 
261

Oil palm genome sequence reveals divergence of interfertile species in Old and New worlds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm is the most productive oil-bearing crop. Although it is planted on only 5% of the total world vegetable oil acreage, palm oil accounts for 33% of vegetable oil and 45% of edible oil worldwide, but increased cultivation competes with dwindling rainforest reserves. We report the 1.8-gigabase (Gb) genome sequence of the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, the predominant source of worldwide oil production. A total of 1.535?Gb of assembled sequence and transcriptome data from 30?tissue types were used to predict at least 34,802 genes, including oil biosynthesis genes and homologues of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), and other transcriptional regulators, which are highly expressed in the kernel. We also report the draft sequence of the South American oil palm Elaeis oleifera, which has the same number of chromosomes (2n = 32) and produces fertile interspecific hybrids with E. guineensis but seems to have diverged in the New World. Segmental duplications of chromosome arms define the palaeotetraploid origin of palm trees. The oil palm sequence enables the discovery of genes for important traits as well as somaclonal epigenetic alterations that restrict the use of clones in commercial plantings, and should therefore help to achieve sustainability for biofuels and edible oils, reducing the rainforest footprint of this tropical plantation crop. PMID:23883927

Singh, Rajinder; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Manaf, Mohamad Arif Abdul; Rosli, Rozana; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd Amin; Azizi, Norazah; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Bacher, Blaire; Lakey, Nathan; Smith, Steven W; He, Dong; Hogan, Michael; Budiman, Muhammad A; Lee, Ernest K; DeSalle, Rob; Kudrna, David; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Wing, Rod A; Wilson, Richard K; Fulton, Robert S; Ordway, Jared M; Martienssen, Robert A; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

2013-07-24

262

Analysis of quality of the biogasoils of palm oil and castor oil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biodiesel is a fuel made from raw materials of renewable origin such as vegetable oils. The objective of this work is to make a quality analysis of two types of biodiesel made from raw materials available in Colombia such as palm oil and castor oil. Biodiesel from palm oil complies with the majority of technical requirements specified by ASTM standards D-975 y D-6751. A high cloud point is the main drawback of this kind of biodiesel. This is a consequence of its highly saturated chemical nature. On the other hand, biodiesel from castor oil presents more difficulties in order to be used in diesel engines because of having a low cetane index and a high viscosity

2004-01-01

263

Development of Oil Palm Tissue Culture Weight Measurement System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The base to grow the oil palm tissue culture is jelly like liquid, added with certain composition of nutrition, fertilizer and soil components in order to propel the growth of the plant tissue cells. It is assumed that the base liquid composition will definitely changes as the cells growth, since the cells will consume the nutrition in it, and also excrete toxic and waste to it. This can be recognized from the changing in color of the base liquid, and also the degradation of the transparency of the liquid. This paper attempts to introduce the design protocols of oil palm tissue culture weight measurement system using optical sensor, rule-based Expert System (ES), and MySQL acts as database. This system measures indirectly the weight of callus on explants raised on a nutrient medium in flask from the voltage of the base liquid composition density measured by an optical sensor. We found that the weight of callus and the base liquid composition density were inversely proportional to the voltages outputs of the optical sensor. Finally, our proposed system reduces the callus weight measurement process time compared to convention method

Abu Bakar Hasan; Rozita Mustafa; Ahmad Jais Alias; Ahmad Tarmizi Hashim; Khairil Anuar; Shahrul Ahmad; Jamaludin omar

2012-01-01

264

SYNGAS FOR METHANOL PRODUCTION FROM PALM OIL BIOMASS RESIDUES GASIFICATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Colombia, Biodiesel is produced from palm oil and methanol; this methanol could be obtained from gasification of the raw palm oil residuals. The complete process includes: pre-treatment of the biomass, gasification, the cleaning and conditioning of the gas and finally the synthesis of methanol. In this article, a review of the gasification stage is carried out, a classification of the existent gasification reactors is presented and the characteristics of three types of gasifiers are detailed. Furthermore, a summary of certain chemical and physical requirements of the gas obtained by the gasification process are introduced. Some conditions are highlighted: the ratio hydrogen to carbon monoxide (H2/CO) must be close to two and, the quantities of diluted nitrogen, sulphur and water in the gas must be low. Keeping in mind these characteristics we proceeded to recommend the gasifier and gasification medium convenient for the results preferred. Finally, a chemical equilibrium – fluid dynamic model is introduced to estimate the composition of the gas produced and to study the effect of the temperature and operation pressure in the quality of the gas produced. The gasification process considers a fluidized bed gasifier and the simulated results are compared with experimental data. The results showed that the simulation approach accurately represents the gasification process and allows considering the simulation for some other biomass residues.

Antonio Jose Bula

2012-01-01

265

Neural Network Model for Oil Palm Yield Modeling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research presents a study on the development of a model for oil palm yield using neural network approach. The structure of this neural network requires the identification of the input variables and the output. We identified that the percentages of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in leave were used as input variables and fresh fruit bunch was used as the target variable. An investigation of the combinations of activation function in the input layer to the hidden layer and the hidden layer to the output layer found that each combination also affects the neural network performance. The effect of the learning rate, momentum term, number of runs and number of hidden nodes was also investigated. The number of hidden nodes was found to significantly affect the neural network performance. However, the learning rate, momentum term and number of runs were found to have an insignificant effect on the neural network performance. Using R2 values the suitability of the models were measured. Results demonstrate that the neural network model outperformed regression analysis, which can be considered as alternative in modeling of oil palm yield.

Azme Khamis; Zuhaimy Ismail; Khalid Haron; Ahmad Tarmizi Mohammed

2006-01-01

266

Functional palm oil-based margarine by enzymatic interesterification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme was a sn-1, 3 specific lipase and immobilized on granulated silica. The interesterified products were analyzed for triacylglycerol by gas chromatography and solid fat content. C44 and C46 of the substrate were within the range of 0.1-0.3 %, however, after enzymatic interesterification, the TAG contents were increased to 5-14% and 10-18% respectively. The change in the TAG content indicated a presence of enzymatic activity in the substrate, which served as a tool in monitoring the conversion degree of the reaction. Even though the enzymatic interesterification increased the SFC of the products at 5 to 30 ?C, beyond 35 ?C, the SFCs were lower than the substrate. This is a good characteristic since the modification process enabled a reduction in SFC at body temperature. Based on the SFC of the earlier described formulation, POS/PKO/FO (0.55/0.15/0.30, w/w/w %) blend was predicted to have a similar SFC profile as a commercial table margarine.

Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

267

Oil palm fiber (OPF) and its composites: A review  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty first century has witnessed remarkable achievements in green technology in material science through the development of biocomposites. Oil palm fiber (OPF) extracted from the empty fruit bunches is proven as a good raw material for biocomposites. The cellulose content of OPF is in the range of 43%-65% and lignin content is in the range of 13%-25%. A compilation of the morphology, chemical constituents and properties of OPF as reported by various researchers are collected and presented in this paper. The suitability of OPF in various polymeric matrices such as natural rubber, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, phenol formaldehyde, polyurethane, epoxy, polyester, etc. to form biocomposites as reported by various researchers in the recent past is compiled. The properties of these composites viz., physical, mechanical, water sorption, thermal, degradation, electrical properties, etc. are summerised. Oil palm fiber loading in some polymeric matrices improved the strength of the resulting composites whereas less strength was observed in some cases. The composites became more hydrophilic upon addition of OPF. However treatments on fiber surface improved the composite properties. Alkali treatment on OPF is preferred for improving the fiber-matrix adhesion compared to other treatments. The effect of various treatments on the properties of OPF and that of resulting composites reported by various researchers is compiled in this paper. The thermal stability, dielectric constant, electrical conductivity, etc. of the composites improved upon incorporation of OPF. The strength properties reduced upon weathering/degradation. Sisal fiber was reported as a good combination with OPF in hybrid composites.

Shinoj S; Visvanathan R; Panigrahi S; Kochubabu M

2011-01-01

268

Isolation and Characterization of Diazotrophic Rhizobacteria of Oil Palm Roots  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Beneficial rhizobacteria were isolated from two different compartments of oil palm roots; the rhizosphere or rhizoplane and the inner root tissues. The root samples were collected from oil palm plantation at Felda Lepar 9, Temerloh Pahang (Block 17, Square 6) (soil pH 4.30; 10:25 0.01M CaCl2). Identification of the isolates was conducted by classical biochemical and physiological tests. Acetylene Reduction Assay (ARA) test was also conducted to quantify the ability of the isolates to fix atmospheric N2. Twenty-nine strains of rhizobacteria were isolated from root samples and were maintained aerobically on N-free solid media. Seven of the isolates were identified as Gram negative while the rest were Gram positive. The isolates were successfully identified as Paenibacillus durus (formerly P. azotofixans), Paenibacillus polymyxa, Azospirillum lipoferum, Herbaspirillum seropedicae and Acetobacter diazotrophicus. The N2 fixation capacities of the isolates ranged from 7.0 x 10-12 to 1.0 x 10-8 mol C2H4/cfu/hour.

Azlin, C. O.; Amir, H. G.; Chan, L. K.

2005-01-01

269

Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects of carotenoids and dietary palm oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Four carotenoids, canthaxanthin, beta-carotene, 8H-apo-beta-carotenal, and 8'-apo-beta-carotene methylester were tested for their ability to suppress the mutagenicity of 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine and benzo[a]pyrene (BP) in Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA 100. The anticarcinogenic efficacy of the four carotenoids was further assessed in the BP-induced forestomach tumor model in female Swiss mice. The effect of dietary palm oil was also examined in BP-induced neoplasia in the female Haffkine Swiss mouse strain. Canthaxanthin, beta-carotene, 8'-apo-beta-carotenal, and 8'-apo-beta-carotene methylester showed a dose-dependent decrease in the mutagenicity compared with 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine and BP in strain TA 100. In the BP-induced forestomach tumor model, all four carotenoids showed a similar significant anticarcinogenic effect. Dietary administration of palm oil showed a dose-dependent antitumor activity in the animals. Our results show that the intrinsic antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties of the carotenoids are not significantly influenced by their conversion to vitamin A.

Azuine MA; Goswami UC; Kayal JJ; Bhide SV

1992-01-01

270

Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. II – Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm oil (PO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100) were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100ºC). The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by Polarized Light Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Results showed the effect of various factors on the form and width of crystals. The mean area of crystals revealed the increase of crystals when PKO was added, with values varying from 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 to PO and 1.8 x 10E6 µm2 to PKO. After interesterification, the crystal widths were lower at PO/PKO 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 20/80 fractions and were higher to anothers. The beta-prime polimorphic form was observed in the pure palm oil sample. The results showed in melting curves, onset values from –19.6ºC to more unsaturated peaks until 20.7ºC to more saturated ones. The higher values to more saturated peak in a melting curve to palm oil, 38.7 J.g-1 before and 48.4 J.g-1 after interesterification, showed a mores table saturated group. I n a genera l way, t h e interesterification promoted an increase of crystallization rate and a better compatibility between PO/PKO fractions.Fueron interesterificados en el laboratorio mezclas de aceite de palma (PO) y aceite de palmiste (PKO) en diferentes proporciones (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100) bajo condiciones predeterminadas (0.4% metoxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100ºC). Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por Microscopía de Luz Polarizada y por Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC). Los resultados mostraron el efecto de varios factores sobre la forma y anchura de los cristales. El área media de los cristales revela el aumento de tamaño de los mismos cuando aumenta la proporción de PKO, con valores que varían entre 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 para PO y 1.8 x 10E6 µm2 para PKO. Después de la interesterificación, la anchura de los cristales fue menor para las formulaciones de PO/PKO de 100/0, 80/20, 60/40 y 20/80, y fue mayor en las otras. La forma polimórfica b‘ se observo en la muestra de aceite de palma puro. Los resultados mostrados por las curvas de fusión, presentan valores de “onsetâ€? desde –19.6ºC para los picos correspondientes a los triglicéridos más insaturados, hasta 20.7ºC para los más saturados. Los valores mayores de entalpía de fusión de los picos más saturados del aceite de palma, es 38.7 J.g-1 antes y 48.4 J.g-1 después de la interesterificación, mostrando un grupo saturado más estable. De forma global, la interesterificación causa un incremento en el gradiente de cristalización y mejora la compatibilidad en las fracciones de PO/PKO.

Simões, Ilka S.; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Guaraldo Gonçalves, Lireny Aparecida; Grimaldi, Renato

2001-01-01

271

Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that u...

Mohammed Jahurul Haque Akanda; Mohammed Zaidul Islam Sarker; Sahena Ferdosh; Mohd Yazid Abdul Manap; Nik Norulaini Nik Ab Rahman

272

Proteomic Analysis of the Oil Palm Fruit Mesocarp Reveals Elevated Oxidative Phosphorylation Activity is Critical for Increased Storage Oil Production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Palm oil is a highly versatile commodity with wide applications in the food, cosmetics and biofuel industries. Storage oil in the oil palm mesocarp can make up a remarkable 80% of its dry mass, making it the oil crop with the richest oil content in the world. As such, there has been an ongoing interest in understanding the mechanism of oil production in oil palm fruits To identify the proteome changes during oil palm fruit maturation and factors affecting oil yield in oil palm fruits, we examined the proteomic profiles of oil palm mesocarps at 4 developing stages - 12, 16, 18 & 22 weeks after pollination (WAP) - by 8-plex iTRAQ labeling coupled with 2D-LC and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. It was found that proteins from several important metabolic processes, including starch and sucrose metabolism, glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, fatty acid biosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation, were differentially expressed in a concerted manner. These increases led to an increase in carbon flux and a diversion of resources such as ATP and NADH that are required for lipid biosynthesis. The temporal proteome profiles between the high oil-yielding (HY) and low oil-yielding (LY) fruits also showed significant differences in the levels of proteins involved in the regulation of the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. In particular, the expression level of the beta subunit of the ATP synthase complex (Complex IV of the electron transport chain) was found to be increased during fruit maturation in high oil-yielders but decreased in the low oil-yielders during the fruit maturation. These results suggested that increased energy supply is necessary for augmented oil yield in the high oil-yielding oil palm trees.

Loei H; Lim J; Lau M; Lim TK; Lin Q; Chew FT; Kulaveerasingam H; Chung MC

2013-10-01

273

Determinants of Indonesian Palm Oil Export: Price and Income Elasticity Estimation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For Indonesian economy, palm oil is considered as one of important commodities. It provides a large amount of export revenue and job opportunities. From year 2000 to 2009, palm oil production in Indonesia has increased every year. In , 2008 about 70% of its production was exported. Recently, Indonesia has become the largest palm oil exporter and has 48% of the worlds market share. The aim of present study was to estimate the determinants of both crude palm oil exports (HS = 151110) and refined palm oil exports (HS = 151190) from Indonesia to the world market. In this study the export demand approach is used as a methodology to estimate price and income elasticity for Indonesian palm oil exports since January 1996 to July 2010. The results found that Indonesian palm oil export is significantly determined by its own export price and foreign countries income. The value of the elasticity of its own export price in the short- run is -0.54 which is larger than the value in the long-run is -0.41. It is similar to the estimated value of foreign countries income elasticity. It has larger value in the short-run (0.61) than in the long-run (0.49). The inelastic income elasticity result indicated Indonesian palm oil export is normal good. The estimated results are supported by in-significant result of world price of soybean oil. In conclusion, Indonesian government should consider the improvement of marketing strategies, trade and domestic policies which support Indonesian palm oil export.

Ambiyah Abdullah

2011-01-01

274

Comparative Determination of Antinutritional Factors in Groundnut Oil and Palm Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research was aimed at determining the degree of antinutritional factors in palm oil and groundnut oil and to know the effect of these factors on the nutritional value of these oils and to know the possible preventive measures. Antinutritional factors are substances found in most food substances which are poisonous to humans and in some ways limit the nutrient availability to the body. The groundnut oil and palm oil were extracted using the soxhlet extraction method. Oxalate and phytate were determined using titration method and aflatoxin was determined using thin layer chromatography. Tannin, trypsin inhibitor, cyanogenic glycosides, hemagglutinin and alkaloids were determined using different procedures. The lethal level of anti-nutritional factors is 50-60 mg/kg for cyanogenic glycosides and phytate and 2.5 g/kg for oxalate and trypsin inhibitor, the lethal doses of these substances were higher compared to the amount that can be possibly found in a food substance at a time from the findings of this research work, groundnut oil contains a higher concentration of the analyzed anti-nutritional factors compared to palm oil.

H.M. Inuwa; V.O. Aina; Baba Gabi; I. Aimola; Amao Toyi

2011-01-01

275

Comparative Study of Stability Measurements for Two Frying Oils: Soybean Oil and Refined Palm Oil  

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Full Text Available The quality of soybean oil (SO) and refined palm oil (RPO), frying at 180ºC for 12 h wasinvestigated. The purpose of the study was to find out the quality deterioration of the two oils with respect totime as affected by fritters frying and to generate equations that can be used for predicting the qualityparameters. The physicochemical characteristics of two oils were evaluated by taking the oil samples (100 mL)in the pan (fryer) after 1h of frying. The parameters evaluated were K233, K269, viscosity, polar compounds,fatty acids methyl ester analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC).There was a gradual increase in K233, K269, viscosity and polar compounds with during frying of the twosamples. Linoleic acid was degraded during frying in the two oils. Viscosity correlated well (r > 0.99) withpolar compounds and time of frying. K233 and K269 correlated well (r > 0.99) with during frying, polarcompounds duration of frying and absorption capacity of oils in fritters.

J.M. Nzikou

2010-01-01

276

Improvement of Murrah Buffalo Milk Production Fed Palm Oil Solid Waste Containing Ration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A field trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary inclusion of palm oil solid waste on milk production of murrah buffalo raised under palm oil plantation. Two farms from different districts were involved in this study. Forty cows with 7–9 month pregnancy were selected from each farm and they were divided into control and treatment groups. Cows in control group were offered a mixed supplement of 1 kg copra meal + 2 kg fresh grated cassava root + mineral mix and treatments group were offered the control diet + 1 kg palm oil solid waste. The dietary supplement was offered to the cows for 2 months before and 2 months period after calving. The cows were grazed under palm oil plantation. The addition of palm oil solid waste in the diet improved (P<0.05) milk yield (8.5 l/d vs 10.5 l /d), calves weight at birth (19.6 kg vs 22.1 kg) and live weight gain of the calves (0.66 kg/d vs 0.99 kg/d). Additional dietary inclusion of palm oil solid waste improved milk yield of murrah buffalo, and further improvement of milk yield was expected to achieve by higher inclusion of palm oil solid waste in the diet.

P. Mahyuddin

2010-01-01

277

Financial assessment of oil palm cultivation on peatland in Selangor, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil palm plantations on peat soils are generally believed to have greater environmental impacts than those on other soil types. Nonetheless, Malaysia operates substantial incentives to maximise palm oil production, which in practice encourage the establishment of plantations on peatland. This paper explores the social and economic basis of oil palm cultivation on one peatland estate at Sungai Panjang in the state of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. Data were obtained by conducting a questionnaire survey of 200 farmers who cultivate oil palm on peat soil. Some of the data were cross-tabulated against farmers’ ages in order to identify any age-related trends in education level, the area of land farmed, annual income and knowledge about oil palm cultivation. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to model the financial output from oil palm in terms of the costs of chemical inputs and labour. The results indicated that cultivation of this crop gives decreasing returns to scale on peatland in Sungai Panjang, and that chemical inputs are more important than labour cost in determining the level of financial output. Finally, the financial viability of oil palm cultivation for farmers was assessed by calculating three financial indicators (NPV, BCR and IRR). This can be a profitable investment so long as growth conditions, costs, selling price and interest rate do not fluctuate substantially. Greater annual returns can be achieved over 20–25 years than over shorter periods, especially of less than 10 years.

M.N. Noormahayu; A.R. Khalid; M.A. Elsadig

2009-01-01

278

Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health.

Sundram K; Sambanthamurthi R; Tan YA

2003-01-01

279

Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health. PMID:14506001

Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

2003-01-01

280

Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance. PMID:24039700

Smit, Hans Harmen; Meijaard, Erik; van der Laan, Carina; Mantel, Stephan; Budiman, Arif; Verweij, Pita

2013-09-06

 
 
 
 
281

Breaking the Link between Environmental Degradation and Oil Palm Expansion: A Method for Enabling Sustainable Oil Palm Expansion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Land degradation is a global concern. In tropical areas it primarily concerns the conversion of forest into non-forest lands and the associated losses of environmental services. Defining such degradation is not straightforward hampering effective reduction in degradation and use of already degraded lands for more productive purposes. To facilitate the processes of avoided degradation and land rehabilitation, we have developed a methodology in which we have used international environmental and social sustainability standards to determine the suitability of lands for sustainable agricultural expansion. The method was developed and tested in one of the frontiers of agricultural expansion, West Kalimantan province in Indonesia. The focus was on oil palm expansion, which is considered as a major driver for deforestation in tropical regions globally. The results suggest that substantial changes in current land-use planning are necessary for most new plantations to comply with international sustainability standards. Through visualizing options for sustainable expansion with our methodology, we demonstrate that the link between oil palm expansion and degradation can be broken. Application of the methodology with criteria and thresholds similar to ours could help the Indonesian government and the industry to achieve its pro-growth, pro-job, pro-poor and pro-environment development goals. For sustainable agricultural production, context specific guidance has to be developed in areas suitable for expansion. Our methodology can serve as a template for designing such commodity and country specific tools and deliver such guidance.

Smit HH; Meijaard E; van der Laan C; Mantel S; Budiman A; Verweij P

2013-01-01

282

Strategic environmental assessment for sustainable expansion of palm oil biofuels in Brazilian north region  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biofuels development in Brazil is a key factor for the environment and sustainable development of the country. Brazil has great potential of available areas and has favourable climate and geography for biofuel production, such as palm oil, soy, sugar cane, etc. This research aims to evaluate palm oil production and expansion in Para state, in the north of Brazil and also Amazonian territory. Degraded land will be evaluated through remote sensing, because palm oil crops should be placed in these lands, and secondly, expansion scenarios would be created. This PhD research will be a decision support tool for public policies.

Carvalho, Carolina

2010-09-15

283

Investigation on Nonlinear-Optical Properties of Palm Oil/Silver Nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the spatial self phase modulation of palm oil containing silver nanoparticles (palm oil/Ag-NPs). The study carried out using continuous wave diode pumped solid state laser with wavelength of 405 nm and power of 50 mW. The strong spatial self phase modulation patterns were observed that suggest the palm oil/Ag-NPs have a relatively large nonlinear refractive index. The obtained values of nonlinear refractive index were increased with the increment in the volume fractions. The observed experimental patterns were also theoretically modeled which are in good agreement with experimental results.

Zamiri, R.; Parvizi, R.; Zakaria, A.; Sadrolhosseini, A. R.; Zamiri, G.; Darroudi, M.; Husin, M. S.

2012-06-01

284

Influence of palm oil on the efficacy of glyphosate in the control of Cyperus rotondus L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the addition of palm oil to the formulation on the efficacy of glyphosate for the control of Cyperus rotundus was evaluated in the laboratory, glass-house and field. Triton X-100 failed to maintain a stable emulsion of palm oil in the formulation 10 minutes after mixing. In glass-house experiments adding mineral oil and palm oil to the glyphosate spray mixture did not increase the herbicidal efficacy. In general, glyphosate was more effective when sprayed at the volume application rate of 100 L/ha than at 400 L/ha. In contrast to the glass-house studies, in the field trial the addition of palm oil increased the efficacy of glyphosate. (author).

1998-01-01

285

Effect of levels P and K fertilizer on growth and yield of oil palm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of P and K levels on growth and yield of oil palm were studied at the Agricultural and Technology College Plantation in Trang province in October, 1993 using eight-year-old palms planted on the Natham soil series (fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults) at the spacing of 8.5 x 8.5 x 8.5 m. A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The four treatments consisted of the combinations of two fertilizers: P (2 levels; 0.4, 0.8 kg P2O5/palm/year) and K (2 levels; 1.2, 2.4 kg K2O/palm/year). All treatments were applied the same rate of N (0.8 kg N/palm/year). The growth and oil palm yield were recorded for 4 years. The results showed clear effects of high P and K levels on growth of oil palm. Although the number of fronds did not differ, leaf area, leaf dry matter weight and leaflets of 17th frond tended to increase. The high K level tended also to give an increased FFB yield in years 2, 3 and 4. However, the effect of P levels on FFB yield of oil palm varied over the years. Considering a suitable rate of fertilizer application in terms of economic return, the low fertilizer rate (P 0.4 kg P2O5/palm/ year, K 1.2 kg K2O/palm/year and N 0.8 kg N/palm/year) gave the highest profit, although it resulted in the lowest FFB yield.

Eksomtramage, T.; Nilnond, C.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Tongkum, P.; Sangkaew, S.

2001-01-01

286

Fungal degradation of oil palm cellulosic wastes after radiation pasteurisation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fungal degradation ability was appreciated for upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes. In this work, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm press Fiber (PPF) were fermented in an attempt to upgrade to animal feed. However, the heavy contamination of microorganisms in EFB and PPF was observed, and they consist of largely spore forming bacteria and toxigenic moulds of Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus and etc. Therefore, pasteurisation was necessary to be carried out before fermentation, and gamma-irradiation of ca. 10 kGy was employed. Solid-state culture media from EFB and PPF for cultivation of cellulolytic fungi were prepared by addition of some inorganic salts as nitrogen source. The degradation of crude fibre by Coprinus cinereus, Pleurotus species, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, and T. viride was obtained in the range between 18 to 76 % after 18 to 20 days cultivation on non-alkali treated cellulosic wastes. C. cinereus could degradate crude fiber more than 50 %, and which resulted in reduction of crude fibre content to 20{approx}28 % and giving to 10-13 % crude protein content. Release of reducing sugars was obtained as 40 to 145 mg glucose/g after saccharification of precultivated alkali-treated EFB by C. cinereus, A. niger, T. knoningi and T. viride. (author).

Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Mat Rasol Awang; Fajah Bt Ali

1990-10-01

287

Fungal degradation of oil palm cellulosic wastes after radiation pasteurisation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fungal degradation ability was appreciated for upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes. In this work, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm press Fiber (PPF) were fermented in an attempt to upgrade to animal feed. However, the heavy contamination of microorganisms in EFB and PPF was observed, and they consist of largely spore forming bacteria and toxigenic moulds of Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus and etc. Therefore, pasteurisation was necessary to be carried out before fermentation, and gamma-irradiation of ca. 10 kGy was employed. Solid-state culture media from EFB and PPF for cultivation of cellulolytic fungi were prepared by addition of some inorganic salts as nitrogen source. The degradation of crude fibre by Coprinus cinereus, Pleurotus species, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, and T. viride was obtained in the range between 18 to 76 % after 18 to 20 days cultivation on non-alkali treated cellulosic wastes. C. cinereus could degradate crude fiber more than 50 %, and which resulted in reduction of crude fibre content to 20?28 % and giving to 10-13 % crude protein content. Release of reducing sugars was obtained as 40 to 145 mg glucose/g after saccharification of precultivated alkali-treated EFB by C. cinereus, A. niger, T. knoningi and T. viride. (author)

1990-01-01

288

Biogasoline Production from Palm Oil Via Catalytic Hydrocracking over Gamma-Alumina Catalyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bio gasoline conversion from palm oil is an alternative energy resources method which can be substituted fossil fuel base energy utilization. Previous research resulted that palm oil can be converted into hydrocarbon by catalytic cracking reaction with ?-alumina catalyst. In this research, catalytic cracking reaction of palm oil by ?-alumina catalyst is done in a stirrer batch reactor with the oil/catalyst weight ratio variation of 100:1, 75:1, and 50:1; at suhue variation of 260 to 340oC and reaction time variation of 1 to 2 hour. Post cracking reaction, bio gasoline yield could be obtained after 2 steps batch distillation. Physical property test result such as density and viscosity of this cracking reaction product and commercial gasoline tended a closed similarity. According to result of the cracking product's density, viscosity and FTIR, it can conclude that optimum yield of the palm oil catalytic cracking reaction could be occurred when oil/catalyst weight ratio 100:1 at 340 oC in 1.5 hour and base on this bio gasoline's FTIR, GC and GC-MS identification results, its hydrocarbons content was resembled to the commercial gasoline. This palm oil catalytic cracking reaction shown 11.8% (v/v) in yield and 28.0% (v/v) in conversion concern to feed palm oil base and produced a 61.0 octane number's bio gasoline.

Anondho Wijanarko; Dadi Ahmad Mawardi; Mohammad Nasikin

2006-01-01

289

Radiation curable coatings from palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation (ultra-violet, UV) curable coatings were prepared by using palm oil acrylated polyester prepolymer (PEPP-1) in combination with different reactive diluents in the presence of photoinitiator Irgacure 184 (Irg184). The effects of viscosity of coating materials, radiation dose and curing behavior were investigated. The UV cured polymeric films properties such as pendulum hardness, wettability (contact angle), gel ,content, swelling character, tensile strength, elongation at break, and deformation stability were then determined. The optimum formulations were also coated on wood substrates after which the gloss and hardness of the cured film on the wood substrate were measured. Some formulations showed promising coatings properties and has a good potential application for the wood coating industry. (Author)

2002-01-01

290

Chemical Analyses of Palm Kernel Oil-Based Polyurethane Prepolymer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU) was prepared from palm kernel oil-based monoester polyol (PKO-p) via prepolymerization method at NCO/OH ratio of 200/100, 150/100, 100/100, and 75/100 at ambient temperature under nitrogen gas atmosphere. The structure of the synthesized prepolymerized PKO-p PU was determined using FTIR and 13C NMR. The disapperance of NCO peak in the FTIR spectrum at 2270 cm–1 - 2250 cm–1 cm showed that MDI has completely reacted to form PU. The appearance of C=O peak at 1700 cm–1 indicated that hydrogen bonding was formed between the soft segmented chain of the PKO-p and the hard segmented MDI. Hence, urethane bond was the main polymeric chain in the PU.

Chee Sien Wong; Khairiah Haji Badri

2012-01-01

291

Crystallisation and Melting Behavior of Methyl Esters of Palm Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The methyl esters of palm oil, which consists of saturated and unsaturated esters (0.6 to 95.9% unsaturation) of the C12 to C18 fatty acids, solidify at the two temperature ranges, -52 to -45°C and -24 to 21°C, when the esters are cooled. When the esters are heated, they melt at two distinct temperatures, -25 and -33°C and a broad peak at -9 to 28°C. The heating thermograms also showed an exothermic crystallisation peak in between two endothermic melting peaks, indicating the occurrence of re-crystallisation of low melting methyl esters into higher melting point crystal and then melt again at higher temperature.

Cheng S. Foon; Yung C. Liang; Noor L.H.M. Dian; Choo Y. May

2006-01-01

292

The study of palm oil methyl ester and its corrosiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

The present aim of this study is to determine the corrosion effect of palm oil methyl ester (POME) on aluminium alloy 5083 (AA5083). The static immersion test was carried out at 60°C for 68 days according to ASTM G-31-72. The corrosion analysis was done by using weight loss method and electrochemical test. The POME was analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) to determine its functional group. The result from weight loss method shows the decreasing in weight loss of AA5083 which signifies the ability of POME to reduce corrosion rate. The electrochemical test shows the decreasing in polarization resistance, Rp while the corrosion current densities, icorr increase. The corrosion rate reduces from 2.250mpy to 0.1946mpy. The low concentration of fatty acid C18:2 and high anti oxidant element contributes to the reduction of corrosion rate of AA5083 in POME.

Sani, W. B. Wan; Samo, K. B.; Da, T. H.; Zulkifli, M. F. R.

2012-06-01

293

Utilization of palm oil fuel ash in aerated concrete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examined experimentally the use of PO FA (palm Oil Fuel Ash) as cementitious material in aerated concrete. The POFA used in different cement replacement amounts. The effect of POFA was studied in terms of compressive strength, overall weight (density). The POFA adopted as cement replacement during this study was ranging from 0-50% with affincrement of 10%. The influence of curing period on compressive strength and density of the selected mix with 20% of POFA was also investigated. Microstructure and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) analysis was also performed. The study was conducted by adopting standard size and test procedures specified by the standards. The results of the study reveals that a cement replacement with POFA of the order of 30% produces the lightweight aerated concrete of greater strength than OPC aerated concrete and POFA may be a potential cementitious material to produce lightweight aerated concrete. (author)

2010-01-01

294

Combustion of palm oil solid waste in fluidized bed combustor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Results of experimental investigations of fluidized bed combustion of palm oil wastes consisting of shell, fibre and empty fruit bunches high heating value of 17450 kJ/kg and low heating value of 14500 kJ/kg. The fluidized bed combuster used has a vessel size of 486 x 106 mm3, surface area of evaporation tubes and distribution air pipes of 500 mm2 and 320 mm2 respectively. It was found that a fuel feeding rate 160 kg/h is required to achieve a steam flow rate of 600 kg/h, with the combustion efficiency 96% and boiler efficiency of 72%, emission level of flue gas NOx at less than 180 ppm, SO2 at less than 20 ppm are measured in the flue gas. (Author)

2000-01-01

295

Wavelet neural networks applied to pulping of oil palm fronds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the organosolv pulping of the oil palm fronds, the influence of the operational variables of the pulping reactor (viz. cooking temperature and time, ethanol and NaOH concentration) on the properties of the resulting pulp (yield and kappa number) and paper sheets (tensile index and tear index) was investigated using a wavelet neural network model. The experimental results with error less than 0.0965 (in terms of MSE) were produced, and were then compared with those obtained from the response surface methodology. Performance assessment indicated that the neural network model possessed superior predictive ability than the polynomial model, since a very close agreement between the experimental and the predicted values was obtained.

Zainuddin Z; Wan Daud WR; Pauline O; Shafie A

2011-12-01

296

ANTIMALARIAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRACTS OF ELAEIS GUINEENSIS (OIL PALM) LEAVES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The leaves of ELAEIS GUINEENSIS, a tropical African plant, French name oil palm, family Arecaceae in the large family of Palmae, harvested at an altitude of less than 300 meters, decocted for 45 minutes at 1000C give an antimalarial substance after dehydration (the extract of 100 kilograms of leaves gives 3077 grams, moisture level less than 10%). Any pharmaceutical industry can transform this extract into a drug (syrup, gel capsule, oral ampule, etc.). This substance taken orally at 1 g per 10 kg of body weight destroys Plasmodium, causal agent of malaria. The dosage frequency is at least four times the first day of treatment and at least 3 times the following days. The thick drop and the parasitic density constitute the medical exams for evaluation and confirmation of the efficacy of this extract.

KINNOUDO CELESTIN

297

Forecasting on Crude Palm Oil Prices Using Artificial Intelligence Approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An accurate prediction of crude palm oil (CPO) prices is important especially when investors deal with ever-increasing risks and uncertainties in the future. Therefore, the applicability of the forecasting approaches in predicting the CPO prices is becoming the matter into concerns. In this study, two artificial intelligence approaches, has been used namely artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). We employed in-sample forecasting on daily free-on-board CPO prices in Malaysia and the series data stretching from a period of January first, 2004 to the end of December 2011. The predictability power of the artificial intelligence approaches was also made in regard with the statistical forecasting approach such as the autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model. The general findings demonstrated that the ANN model is superior compared to the ANFIS and ARFIMA models in predicting the CPO prices.

Abdul Aziz Karia; Imbarine Bujang; Ismail Ahmad

2013-01-01

298

Determination of oil palm fresh fruit bunch ripeness—Based on flavonoids and anthocyanin content  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Non-destructive and real-time oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) grading systems are of major exploratory concern for researchers in the oil palm industry. The objective is to reduce time, labour, costs, and most importantly, to increase the oil extraction rate, in order to achieve a good quality of palm oil at a more acceptable price. This research investigates the potential of flavonoids and anthocyanins as a predictor to classify the degree of oil palm FFB ripeness. This paper also discusses the relationship between these predictors and the ripeness categories period. One hundred and eighty oil palm FFB samples were collected from a private plantation in Malaysia, according to three maturity categories i.e., ripe, under-ripe, and over-ripe. Each sample was randomly scanned 10 times, both front and back using a hand-held Multiplex®3 multi-parameter fluorescence sensor. The results show that flavonoid and anthocyanin content decreased from immature to over mature oil palm FFBs. Overall, the relationship using Pearson's correlation between flavonoids and anthocyanins was r2=0.84 and the most outstanding relationship accuracy was at the over-ripe stage, at 90%. Statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and pair-wise testing proved that both predictors gave significance difference between under-ripe, ripe, and over-ripe maturity categories. This shows that both predictors can be good indicators to classify oil palm FFB. Classification analysis was performed by using both predictors together and separately through several methods. The highest overall classification accuracy was 87.7% using a Stochastic Gradient Boosting Trees model and with both predictors. The other classification methods used either independent or both predictors together and gave various results ranging from 50 to 85% accuracy. This research proves that flavonoids and anthocyanins can be used as predictors of oil palm maturity classification.

Hazir MHM; Shariff ARM; Amiruddin MD

2012-03-01

299

Preferência do bicudo-das-palmeiras por dendezeiro, caiaué e por seu híbrido interespecífico/ Preference of palm weevils for oil palm, caiaué, and for their interspecific hybrid  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar, em campo, a preferência do bicudo-das-palmeiras (Rhynchophorus palmarum) por estipes de dendezeiro (Elaeis guineensis), caiaué (Elaeis oleifera) e pelo híbrido entre caiaué e dendezeiro. O experimento foi conduzido no banco de germoplasma de dendê da Comissão Executiva de Planejamento da Lavoura Cacaueira. Entre os três genótipos testados, o caiaué é significativamente menos preferido por Rhynchophorus palmarum, seguido do híbrido interespecífico e do dendezeiro. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to determine, in the field, the preference of the palm weevil (Rhynchophorus palmarum) for trunks of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), caiaué (Elaeis oleifera), and for the interspecific hybrid between caiaué and oil palm. The experiment was carried out at the oil palm germplasm bank of Comissão Executiva de Planejamento da Lavoura Cacaueira, Brazil. Among the three tested genotypes, caiaué is significantly less preferred by Rhynchophorus palmarum, followed by the interspecific hybrid, and oil palm.

Moura, José Inácio Lacerda; Santos, Lindolfo Pereira dos; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Krug, Cristiane

2013-04-01

300

CELLULOSE PHOSPHATE FROM OIL PALM BIOMASS AS POTENTIAL BIOMATERIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigates cellulose phosphate from oil palm biomass (OPEFB-CP) as a potential biomaterial. To this effect, oil palm biomass microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) was phosphorylated using the H3PO4/ P2O5/ Et3PO4/ hexanol method. Characterization of OPEFB-CP was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cytotoxicity evaluation of OPEFB-CP was conducted on mouse connective tissue fibroblast cells (L929) using MTS Assay analysis, and the proliferation rate of OPEFB-CP on L929 was assessed by the indirect extraction method, whilst mineralization assessment was carried out by immersion of the material in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for 30 days. Disruption of the crystalline structure of OPEFB-MCC, changes in surface morphology of OPEFB-CP, the presence of new FTIR peaks on OPEFB-CP at 2380 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1, and a smaller rate of mass loss of OPEFB-CP are indications of a successful grafting of phosphate groups. OPEFB-CP showed non-cytotoxic in vitro biocompatibility after 72h exposure with an IC-50 value 45mg/mL and a proliferation rate of up to 8 days with no change in cells morphology below the IC-50 concentration. Apatite formation was observed on OPEFB-CP surfaces after 30 days in SBF with a Ca:P ratio of 1.85.

Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Mohamad Haafiz Mohamah Kassim; Md. Azman Seeni Mohamded

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been applied to verify the geographical origin of crude palm oil (continental scale). For this purpose 94 crude palm oil samples were collected from South East Asia (55), South America (11) and Africa (28). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to develop a hierarchical classification model by combining two consecutive binary PLS-DA models. First, a PLS-DA model was built to distinguish South East Asian from non-South East Asian palm oil samples. Then a second model was developed, only for the non-Asian samples, to discriminate African from South American crude palm oil. Models were externally validated by using them to predict the identity of new authentic samples. The fatty acid fingerprinting model revealed three misclassified samples. The volatile compound fingerprinting models showed an 88%, 100% and 100% accuracy for the South East Asian, African and American class, respectively. The verification of the geographical origin of crude palm oil is feasible by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting. Further research is required to further validate the approach and to increase its spatial specificity to country/province scale. PMID:23200002

Tres, A; Ruiz-Samblas, C; van der Veer, G; van Ruth, S M

2012-10-24

302

Intelligent color vision system for ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunch.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) learning. The performance of the ANN for ripeness classification of oil palm FFB was investigated using two methods: training ANN with full features and training ANN with reduced features based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) data reduction technique. Results showed that compared with using full features in ANN, using the ANN trained with reduced features can improve the classification accuracy by 1.66% and is more effective in developing an automated ripeness classifier for oil palm FFB. The developed ripeness classifier can act as a sensor in determining the correct oil palm FFB ripeness category. PMID:23202043

Fadilah, Norasyikin; Mohamad-Saleh, Junita; Abdul Halim, Zaini; Ibrahim, Haidi; Syed Ali, Syed Salim

2012-10-22

303

Intelligent Color Vision System for Ripeness Classification of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ripeness classification of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) during harvesting is important to ensure that they are harvested during optimum stage for maximum oil production. This paper presents the application of color vision for automated ripeness classification of oil palm FFB. Images of oil palm FFBs of type DxP Yangambi were collected and analyzed using digital image processing techniques. Then the color features were extracted from those images and used as the inputs for Artificial Neural Network (ANN) learning. The performance of the ANN for ripeness classification of oil palm FFB was investigated using two methods: training ANN with full features and training ANN with reduced features based on the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) data reduction technique. Results showed that compared with using full features in ANN, using the ANN trained with reduced features can improve the classification accuracy by 1.66% and is more effective in developing an automated ripeness classifier for oil palm FFB. The developed ripeness classifier can act as a sensor in determining the correct oil palm FFB ripeness category.

Norasyikin Fadilah; Junita Mohamad-Saleh; Zaini Abdul Halim; Haidi Ibrahim; Syed Salim Syed Ali

2012-01-01

304

Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test) was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity) to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

Gumpon Prateepchaikul; Teerawat Apichato

2003-01-01

305

Formulation and characterization of palm oil esters based nano-cream for topical delivery of piroxicam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Palm oil esters are high molecular weight esters oil that has been newly synthesized by University Putra Malaysia researchers. It has received a lot of attention for its pharmaceutical and chemical application. Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic and antipyretic activity. It has low solubility in water as well as in oil with Log P value of 1.8. Generally, drugs with Log P value of more than 0.5 are needed to be formulated into a modified dosage form. One of these formulations is nano sized cream. Hence, the ability of formulating of these tricky drugs into dispersed system is questionable. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of palm oil esters to be the oil phase for formulation of piroxicam into O/W nano-cream. Three points were selected from prepared pseudoternary diagram of palm oil esters and different Tween and Span mixtures. Piroxicam solubility and partition coefficient in oil and external phase was detected. Rheological properties, droplet size, structural properties and zeta potential of the dispersion system containing piroxicam were measured. O/W cream was formed with droplet size measurement by TEM of less than 100 nm. It could be concluded that palm oil esters is suitable oil for the formulation of suitable nano-cream containing piroxicam.Keywords: Palm oil esters; Piroxicam Solubility; partition coefficient; Rheology; Surface activity.

Muthanna F. Abdulkarim; Ghassan Zuhair Abdullah; Mallikarjun Chitneni; Elrashid Saleh Mahdi; Mun Fei Yam; Ahmed Faisal; Ibrahim M. Salman; Omar Ziad Ameer; Mohanad N. Sahib; Munavvar Zubaid Abdulsattar; Mahiran Basri; Azmin Mohd Noor

2011-01-01

306

Diversity of Macrofungi in Oil Palm Agroforests of Edo State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available A study of mushrooms associated with oil palm agroforests in Edo State, South-South of Nigeria was undertaken. A total of 49 fruit bodies belonging to 26 different species of mushrooms in the divisions Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, class Gasteromycetes, Discomycetes, Hymenomycetes were recorded from the study. The order Agaricales, family Tricholomataceae and genus Marasmius were the most abundant and commonly represented taxa. Palm Fronds (PF) supported the highest number of mushroom taxa (19%) followed by Fallen Palm Tree (FPT), Fruit Bunch (FB) and Decomposing Palm Litters (DPL) each of which supported 14% of the total species of mushrooms recorded during the study. Mushrooms irrespective of their functional role as natural decomposers were recognised by the study as pivotal to sustainable local agroforest management practices in Nigeria. Oil palm plantations surveyed during the study competes favourably with forests as sources of indigenous utility mushrooms.

O.O. Osemwegie; J.A. Okhuoya

2009-01-01

307

Palm oil thorn-induced squamous cell carcinoma with underlying burns scar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Marjolin's ulcers are malignancies that arise from previously traumatised, chronically inflamed or scarred skin. We present a case with childhood burns, who had repeated irritation of his forearm skin with palm oil thorns that eventually led to malignant change.

Qi Qi C; Ajit Singh V

2012-01-01

308

Filtration and Expression of Palm Oil Slurries as a Part of the Dry Fractionation Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Influence of the crystallization conditions on the particle size distribution and the filtration and expression rates; Consolidation theory; Measurement and modelling of the compressibility of palm oil filter cakes, I. Creep behavior at constant...

G. F. Kamst

1995-01-01

309

Effect of fertilizer application on yield of oil palm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of fertilizer application rates on leaf nutrient contents and yield of oil palm were investigated at the Agricultural and Technological College Plantation in Trang province during May 1998 - June 2001. A five-year-old oil palm plantation, planted on the Na Tham soil series (Fine loamy, mixed, isohyperthermic Oxic Plinthudults) with spacing 9x9x9 m, was selected for study. A randomized complete block designwith three replications with 20 palms/replication was used. The treatments included six different rates of fertilizer application. The rates of fertilizer were as follows: T1 (farmer practice), T2 (40% of application rate in T4), T3 (70% of application rate in T4), T4 (urea 2,750 g/plant; triple super phosphate 1,500 g/plant; potassium chloride 4,000 g/plant; kieserite 1,000 g/plant; borate 80 g/plant), T5 (130% of application rate in T4) and T6 (170% of application rate in T4). The high leaf nutrient contents of N, P and K at the range of 2.6-2.8%, 0.16-0.18% and 1.13-1.18%, respectively, were found in the high nutrient application rate treatments (T5, T6). However, the amounts of leaf Ca and Mg in T5 and T6 decreased from 0.75-0.80% and 0.33- 0.37% at the beginning of experiment to 0.65-0.70% and 0.22-0.24%, respectively, at the end of the experiment. Small increases of leaf sulphur and boron up to about 0.20-0.22% and 16-19 mg/kg were also found in the high rate of fertilizer treatments. Accumulated fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB) increased according to increasing rate of fertilizer application. Accumulated FFB yield of 268.4 kg/plant in the low fertilizer rate (T1) (farmer practice) and 278.8 kg/plant in T2 were found compared with the highest yield of 370.2 kg/plant in the highest fertilizer application treatment (T6) for the 3 years experiment. Regarding the economic return, the medium rate of fertilizer application (T3) which achieved an accumulated FFB yield of 338.0 kg/ plant gave the highest profit with the VCR (Value: Cost ratio) of 2.53.

Nilnond, C.; Juntaraniyom, T.; Tongkum, P.; Leowarin, W.; Eksomtramage, T.

2001-01-01

310

Malaysian palm oil. Surviving the food versus fuel dispute for a sustainable future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past few decades, palm oil has gone through a revolution that few would have predicted. From a humble source of edible oil that was heavily criticized as being un-healthy and un-fit for human consumption, it has proven itself based on scientific findings that it is indeed one of the most nutritious edible oils in the world. Besides, palm oil, the cheapest vegetable oil in the market has diversified as one of the main feedstock for oleo-chemical industries. Recently, with the price of crude petroleum hitting records height every other day, palm oil has become one of the few feasible sources for biodiesel, a renewable substitute for petroleum-derived diesel. Nevertheless, the conversion of palm oil into biodiesel has again received criticism from various NGOs worldwide, mainly on extinction of orang utans, deforestation and particularly the food versus fuel dispute. It was claimed that the conversion of food crops to fuel would significantly increase the number of undernourished people in the world. Malaysia, being the world second largest producer of palm oil, is not spared from this criticism. On the contrary, in the present study it was found that palm oil is indeed the most economical and sustainable source of food and biofuel in the world market. Besides, it was shown that it has the capacity to fulfill both demands simultaneously rather than engaging in priority debate. Nevertheless, fuel is now a necessity rather than a luxury for economy and development purposes. A few strategies will then be presented on how palm oil can survive in this feud and emerged as the main supply of affordable and healthy source of edible oil while concurrently satisfying the market demand for biodiesel throughout the world. (author)

2009-01-01

311

Characterisation of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches for Fuel Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was an attempt to produce bio-oil from empty fruit bunches (EFB) of oil palm waste using fast pyrolysis technology. A 150 g/h fluidised bed bench scale fast pyrolysis unit operating at atmospheric pressure was used to obtain the pyrolysis liquid. A comparison of the elemental composition of unwashed and washed feedstock was made in this study. With the five methods of treatment being considered, elements such as Al, P, Cl, Ti, Fe and Cu were removed during the washing. However, Na, S and K decreased with the reduction of the ash content of the feedstock. The properties of the liquid product were analysed and compared with wood derived bio-oil and petroleum fuels. The liquids produced had high acid content, with a High Heating Value (HHV) of about 50% of conventional petroleum fuel. The char content was in the range of 0.2–2.0%. The composition and particle size distribution of the washed and unwashed feedstock were determined, and the thermal degradation behaviour was analysed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The product yield for washed EFB was similar to that of low ash wood, while the product yield for unwashed EFB was much closer to that of higher ash feedstock. The pyrolysis liquids derived from unwashed EFB were found to be in both an aqueous and an organic phase, which presents challenges for their commercial application as a fuel. Some possibilities of upgrading were also discussed in this work.

N. Abdullah; F. Sulaiman; H. Gerhauser

2011-01-01

312

Feasibility of producing insulation boards from oil palm fronds and empty Fruit bunches  

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Full Text Available This research focused on the feasibility of producing insulation boards made from oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunches via the wet forming process. Results confirmed no difference in the visual appearance between both board types. Both displayed low thermal conductivity, offering evidence of being good insulators. Boards made from empty fruit bunch weighed less than boards made from oil palm fronds. Other properties such as fire retardant, water absorption and strength still need to be investigated.

Tanasri Sihabut; Nikhom Laemsak

2010-01-01

313

Food Security and Emerging Innovations in Oil Palm Production in Osun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Given its enormous yield per hectare and high productivity cycle, Oil palm is considered as a stabilizing crop to global food security especially in developing countries. However, in recent years, the domestic consumption of palm oil in West Africa including Nigeria has increased more rapidly than its production with the vast majority of the farmers working at near subsistence level and employing crude production and processing techniques. This study therefore appraised the impact of emerging innovations on oil palm production in Osun state, Nigeria. Specifically, the research examined the emerging innovations in oil palm production, the impact of such innovations on the level of the farmer’s output and the factors affecting farmers’ acceptability of innovations. A three stage random sampling technique was used to collect data from 100 oil palm farmers using a well structured questionnaire out of which 90 was found useful for the study. Descriptive statistics, T test analysis and the logistic regression model were the analytical tools employed for the study. The result of the analyses showed that there are some emerging innovations in oil palm production in the study area; however, the indigenous technologies still dominates. Farmers who employed modern technologies were found to have higher output when compared to those of indigenous technologies. Farmers’ age and level of education were identified as the major factors affecting the acceptability of innovation in the study area. It is therefore recommended that the government should invest more on adult education and there should be increased awareness on the need to embrace modern technologies and innovations for the transformation of the oil palm industry in the country and consequently raise farmers’ standard of living. Younger people should also be encouraged to go into oil palm production.

O.E. Ayinde; M. Muchie; A.H. Adenuga; M.O. Jesudun; F.I. Olagunju; M.O. Adewumi

2012-01-01

314

PREPARATION METHOD OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER FROM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH OF OIL PALM  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preparation method of organic fertilizer from empty fruit bunch of oil palm is provided, including the following steps: (1) shredding the empty fruit bunch of oil palm into strips (2) adding supplementary materials in order of sludge or grass carbon soil first, then cellulose fermentation bacterium and urea, and spraying water (3) then composting the materials at high temperature for fermentation (4) making the materials into at least one of organic fertilizers, organic-inorganic compound fertilizers and bio-organic fertilizers.

CHEN XIAOMIN

315

Spectroscopic Determination of Metals in Palm Oils from Different Stages of the Technological Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnesium, calcium, copper, iron, and lead in palm oils ( Elaeis guineensis ) at various stages of the refining process were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion. The mean concentrations of Mg, Ca, Cu, Fe, and Pb in the studied palm oils varied from 20.7 to 7090.1 ?g kg(-1), from 193.9 to 8077.9 ?g kg(-1), from 29.7 to 463.0 ?g kg(-1), from 115.2 to 415.9 ?g kg(-1), and from 1.7 to 16.0 ?g kg(-1), respectively, which are below the Polish legal requirements. The comparable precisions for the proposed ICP-MS (RSD = 0.81-5.99%) and standard GFAAS (RSD = 1.18-5.26%) methods demonstrate the benefit of the ICP-MS method in the routine analysis of metal ions in palm oils. There are significant, positive correlations between Ca and Mg, between Ca and Cu, between Fe and Pb, between Cu and Fe, between Cu and Mg, and between Cu and Pb in palm oils determined by two analytical methods (r = 0.8798-0.9817, p palm oil had the highest level of the determined metals concentrations. Also, the analyzed metals in palm oils from different steps of the refining process were grouped using HCA to assess the effectiveness of technological processes for their removal. PMID:23394464

Szyd?owska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Trokowski, Konrad; Karlovits, György; Sz?yk, Edward

2013-02-20

316

Life cycle energy efficiency and potentials of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biodiesel production from palm oil has been considered one of the most promising renewable resources for transportation fuel in Thailand. The objective of this study was to analyze the energy performance and potential of the palm oil methyl ester (PME) production in Thailand. The PME system was divided into four stages: the oil palm plantation, transportation, crude palm oil (CPO) production, and transesterification into biodiesel. The results showed that the highest fossil-based energy consumption was in the transesterification process, followed by the plantation, transportation, and CPO production. A net energy value and net energy ratio (NER) of 24.0 MJ/FU and 2.5, respectively, revealed that the PME system was quite energy efficient. In addition, if all the by-products from the CPO production (such as empty fruit branches, palm kernel shells, and biogas) were considered in terms of energy sources, the NER would be more than 3.0. The PME can be a viable substitute for diesel and can decrease the need for oil imports. Based on B100 demand in 2008, PME can be substituted for 478 million liters of diesel. Moreover, with palm oil output potential and B5 implementation, it can be substituted for 1134 million liters of diesel. (author)

2010-01-01

317

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Peat Soils Cultivated to Rice Field, Oil Palm and Vegetable  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Presently, about 20% of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) fields in Indonesia are on peat soil, in addition to that otherarea of peat soil has been conventionally used for rice field and vegetables. To elucidate the global warmingpotentials of peat soils cultivated to oil palm, vegetable or rice field, field experiment has been carried out in SouthKalimantan. Air samples were taken from rice field, oil palm and vegetable fields in weekly basis for six month periodand analyzed for concentrations of N2O, CH4 and CO2. The global warming potentials (GWP) of the three gases werecalculated by multiplying the emission of each gas with their respective mole warming potential. This step wasfollowed by the addition of the three gases’ GWP to have the total GWP. The results showed that the emissions ofgreenhouse gases from peat soils changed seasonally and varied with the crops cultivated. Oil palm has resultedthe highest GWP, mostly contributed by N2O. There was no statistical different in total GWP of paddy andvegetable fields. The annual N2O emission from oil palm field was 4,582 g N ha-1 yr-1. Water, nutrients and organicmatter managements are among the potential techniques to minimize gas emissions from oil palm field which needfield trials.

Abdul Hadi; Luthfi Fatah; Syaifuddin; Abdullah; Dedi Nursyamsi Affandi; Rosenani Abu Bakar; Kazuyuki Inubushi

2012-01-01

318

Enzymatic synthesis of phenyl fatty hydroxamic acids from canola and palm oils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phenyl fatty hydroxamic acids (PFHAs) were synthesized from canola or palm oils and phenyl hydroxylamine (FHA) catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM or RM IM. The reaction was carried out by shaking the reaction mixture at 120 rpm. The optimization was carried out by changing the reaction parameters, namely; temperature, organic solvent, amount and kind of enzyme, period of reaction and the mol ratio of reactants. The highest conversion was obtained when the reaction was carried out under the following conditions: temperature, 39°C; solvent, petroleum ether; kind and amount of lipase, 80 mg Lipozyme TL IM/mmol oil; reaction period, 72 h and FHA-oil ratio, 7.3 mmol FHA/ mmol oil. The highest conversion percentage of phenyl hydroxylaminolysis of the Ladan and Kristal brands commercial canola oils, palm stearin and palm kernel oils were 55.6, 52.2, 51.4 and 49.7 %, respectively.

Jahangirian H; Haron MJ; Silong S; Yusof NA

2011-01-01

319

Enzymatic synthesis of phenyl fatty hydroxamic acids from canola and palm oils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenyl fatty hydroxamic acids (PFHAs) were synthesized from canola or palm oils and phenyl hydroxylamine (FHA) catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM or RM IM. The reaction was carried out by shaking the reaction mixture at 120 rpm. The optimization was carried out by changing the reaction parameters, namely; temperature, organic solvent, amount and kind of enzyme, period of reaction and the mol ratio of reactants. The highest conversion was obtained when the reaction was carried out under the following conditions: temperature, 39°C; solvent, petroleum ether; kind and amount of lipase, 80 mg Lipozyme TL IM/mmol oil; reaction period, 72 h and FHA-oil ratio, 7.3 mmol FHA/ mmol oil. The highest conversion percentage of phenyl hydroxylaminolysis of the Ladan and Kristal brands commercial canola oils, palm stearin and palm kernel oils were 55.6, 52.2, 51.4 and 49.7 %, respectively. PMID:21606615

Jahangirian, Hossein; Haron, Md Jelas; Silong, Sidik; Yusof, Nor Azah

2011-01-01

320

Reheated Palm Oil Consumption and Risk of Atherosclerosis: Evidence at Ultrastructural Level  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Palm oil is commonly consumed in Asia. Repeatedly heating the oil is very common during food processing. Aim. This study is aimed to report on the risk of atherosclerosis due to the reheated oil consumption. Material and Methods. Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into co...

Xian, Tan Kai; Omar, Noor Azzizah; Ying, Low Wen; Hamzah, Aniza; Raj, Santhana; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Othman, Faizah; Hussan, Farida

 
 
 
 
321

Physical and chemical characteristics of toilet soap made from apricot kernel oil and palm stearin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present work was to use apricot kernel oil with palm stearin in toilet soap-making. Apricot kernel oil was obtained from apricot kernel seed (Prunus armeniaca) through hydraulic pressing (12000lb/in2). Kernel contained 43.3% oil. The fat...

Girgis, Adel Y.; El-Aziz, N.M. Abd; El-Salam, S.M. Abd

322

MONITORING OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL (VCO) ADULTERATION WITH PALM OIL USING FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) may be adulterated with cheaper oils, such as palm oil (PO). Thus, the detection and quantification of VCO adulteration with PO was monitored using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics of partial least square (PLS) and discriminant analysis at frequency regions of 3,010-3,000, 1,660-1,650 and 1,120-1,105/cm. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) measurements were made on pure VCO and that adulterated with varying concentrations of PO (0.5-50% w/w in VCO). PLS calibration exhibited a good relationship between actual and FTIR-predicted values with coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.999 and standard error of calibration of 0.533. The cross validation was performed by removing one standard at a time, and the final R² value of 0.996 and standard error of prediction of 0.953 were obtained. The discriminant analysis using seven principal components was able to classify pure VCO and that adulterated with PO. The adulteration of virgin coconut oil (VCO) with cheaper oils is a serious matter, not only for food suppliers but also for consumers. Therefore, an analytical technique offering fast and reliable detection of such adulteration must be developed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics of partial least square for quantitative analysis of adulterant, and discriminant analysis for classification between VCO and that adulterated with palm oil, can be employed for detection of palm oil as an adulterant in VCO for quality assurance purposes.

ROHMAN A; CHE MAN YB

2009-11-01

323

Air/oil lubrication systems for mill drives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large mill gear drives and power shaft bearings have historically been lubricated with circulating oil, wet sump systems which flood gears and bearings with large volumes of oil. Recent investigations have demonstrated that such systems contribute to heat buildup from oil-shear friction and increase drive power consumption. Other problems include: compromises in the selection of a single oil to serve different types of lube points; high oil consumption; contamination of lube oil by process fluids; contamination of process fluids and mill product by lubricating oil; and health, safety and environmental issues. To improve the performance of the 6-stand continuous rolling mill in its Lorain, Ohio facility, USS/Kobe Steel Co. has developed a hybrid air/oil centralized system that is replacing a circulating oil system pumping 150 gpm with one that lubricates each of the six stands with only 42 cu in./hr. This paper details the continuous improvement process which identified this hybrid air/oil system and the test and development steps which proved its suitability. In addition, the paper presents the basic theory, equipment and controls which have made the air/oil concept a practical and beneficial technique for heavy-duty mill drives.

Nemes, G.L. (Lubriquip Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Balogh, D. (F.D. Johnson Co., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Wilson, G.A. (USS/Kobe Steel Co., Lorain, OH (United States))

1994-09-01

324

The development of palm oil based acrylated resins and their applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since Malaysia provides 57 and 75% of the world's production and exports of palm oil respectively, it is natural that we should be in the forefront of the research of widening the use of palm oil in oleochemicals industry, which are currently increase in popularity. The presence of unsaturation in the fatty acids of vegetable oils such as palm oil, technically paves the way for the production of acrylated resins. The more unsaturated the oil, the better it will perform in the radiation curing related applications. The first acrylated palm oil was synthesised in early 1989, through acrylation process, whereby, acrylic acid is introduced into oxirane group of the epoxidised palm oil products, EPOP, at 100-130 deg C in the presence of triethylamine, TEA, as a catalyst and 4-methoxyphenol as an inhibitor. The acrylated products namely epoxidised palm oil (olein) acrylate, EPOLA/EPOPA, was found curable when subjected to UV or EB irradiations. The EPOLA based formulated resins were satisfactorily been used as radiation curable coating materials on various substrates such as woods, bamboos, glass, ceramics and metals without any major defects at reasonably fast cure rate. Preliminary investigations also revealed their potentials as radiation curable pressure sensitive adhesives and printing inks. Isocyanation of EPOLAs at 50 to 90deg C with the presence of 1% inhibitor such as 4-methoxyphenol resulted in resins called Palm oil based urethane acrylates, POBUA. This newly synthesised resins possess certain advantages over EPOLA such as higher molecular weight, better crosslinking density, abrasion resistance, tensile properties and also pendulum hardness. Early results might suggest that POBUA is in a better position to be used as resins for radiation curing of surface coating applications

1995-01-01

325

Development of transformation vectors for the production of potentially high oleate transgenic oil palm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The main target of Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) genetic engineering programme is to produce high oleate transgenic palms. The availability of effective transformation vector is one of the pre-requisites for genetic manipulation of oil palm through recombinant DNA technology. Here, we describe the construction of a series of transformation vectors that have a maize ubiquitin promoter (UbiPro)-driven bar gene for selection of transformants on herbicide (Basta or Bialapho (more) s), and mesocarp-specific promoter (MSP1) for expression of the transgenes [antisense palmitoyl-ACP-thioesterase (PAT) and sense ?-ketoacyl-ACP-synthase II (KASII) and sense ?9-stearoyl-ACP-desaturase (SAD)] potentially responsible for high oleate content in oil palm mesocarp. The transformation vectors constructed in this study are suitable for use in both particle bombardment (biolistic) and Agrobacterium-based transformation protocols.

Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad

2008-07-01

326

Major components in oils obtained from Amazonian palm fruits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Native palm trees belong to the Arecaceae family and are among the most useful plant resources in the Amazons. Despite its great diversity and various uses, few species have been study in detail, which makes it necessary to perform more comprehensive studies on the quality and composition of species not yet explored. This study deals with the characterization of the major compounds in the oils obtained from the mesocarp of fruits of the main palm species from the State of Amapá, Brasil, i.e. bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), inajá (Maximiliana maripa), pupunha (Bactris gasipaes) and tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare). Physicochemical characteristics, fatty acids and triacylglycerol (TAG) contents were analyzed by HPLC and GC. The proximate composition of the fruits was also analyzed. The results relating to acidity, peroxide value and polar compounds indicate good quality of the oils obtained. Oleic acid ranging from 39.2 to 71.6% and palmitic acid ranging from 20.8 to 39.6% were the two major fatty acids in all the samples. The oils from inajá were characterized by the presence of significant amounts of lauric (4.6%) and miristic (10.7%) acids while in bacaba, buriti, pupunha and tucumã, as in most edible vegetable oils, only the fatty acids of 16 and 18 carbon atoms were present. Accordingly, the major TAG species in all the samples were POP, POO and OOO. The mesocarp of the palm fruit had a high content in lipids ranging from 17.0% for pupunha to 38.3% for bacaba, expressed as dry basis.Las palmeras nativas de la familia Arecaceae constituyen recursos alimentarios de gran importancia en la región amazónica. A pesar de su diversidad y utilidad, muchas especies son poco conocidas por lo que son de interés los estudios dirigidos a conocer la calidad y composición de las especies menos exploradas para evaluar su potencial económico. El objetivo de este estudio fue la caracterización de los aceites obtenidos del mesocarpio de frutos de especies de bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), inajá (Maximiliana maripa), pupunha (Bactris gasipaes) y tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare), de importante producción en el Estado de Amapá, Brasil. Se analizaron sus características físicoquímicas, composición de ácidos grasos y composición de triglicéridos (TAG) mediante cromatografías líquida y de gases. Se determinó igualmente la composición proximal de los mesocarpios de los frutos. Los resultados indicaron que los aceites obtenidos eran todos de buena calidad. Por otra parte, el ácido oleico, entre 39.2 y 71.6%, y el ácido palmítico, entre 20.8 y 39.6%, fueron los dos ácidos mayoritarios en todos los aceites. El aceite de inajá fue el único con cantidades significativas de ácido laurico (4.6%) y mirístico (10.7%) ya que los demás contenían sólo ácidos grasos de 16 y 18 átomos de carbono. De acuerdo con su composición, las especies mayoritarias de TAG en todas las muestras fueron POP, POO y OOO. Finalmente, el contenido en aceite de los frutos fue elevado, oscilando entre 17.0% en la especie de pupunha hasta el 38.3% en la de bacaba, expresados sobre base seca.

Santos, M. F. G.; Marmesat, S.; Brito, E. S.; Alves, R. E.; Dobarganes, M. C.

2013-01-01

327

CRUDE PALM OIL AS A BIOADDITIVE IN POLYPROPYLENE BLOWN FILMS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growing public concern about environment and potential risks to health in the polymer and plasticizer industry promises to increase the market for a safer alternative plasticizer such as a vegetable oil-based agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of crude palm oil as a bio-additive in polypropylene blown films. The polypropylene was blended with 1%, 3%, and 5% dosages of CPO using a twin screw extruder. The extruded samples were blown using the blown thin film technique. Mechanical, physical, and morphological properties were characterized. Modifying polypropylene with CPO showed good enhancement in the mechanical properties of the polypropylene. Tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, and tear strength all increased. The scanning electron microscopy photographs of the CPO-modified PP clearly supported the results from the mechanical strength tests. The presence of CPO in the PP matrices decreased the density and increased the melt flow rate. These findings contribute new knowledge to the additives area and give important implications for designing and manufacturing polymer packaging materials.

Emiliana Rose Jusoh,; Mohd Halim Shah Ismail,; Luqman Chuah Abdullah,; Robiah Yunus,; Wan Aizan Wan Abdul Rahman

2012-01-01

328

Production of fatty alcohol from palm oil methyl ester  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty alcohol is an important raw material for the production of surfactants, and is currently in demand by markets and has a high potential for growth. Moreover, fatty alcohol can be made from methylester that is produced from fats and natural oil. The production of fatty alcohol involved hydrogenation using the suspension method process and methyl ester in palm oil as the raw material. Copper chromite was used as the catalyst for the hydrogenationreaction and the experiment was proceeded in a close system pressure reaction vessel. The reaction was conducted at approximately 150-250oC, 1100-1700 psig, 2-8% catalyst W/V of methyl ester and reaction timefrom 5-20 hr. After the reaction, the products were analysed to check for percent conversion using gas chromatography (GC). The hydrogenation reaction began at 200oC. The best hydrogenation reaction for theproduction of fatty alcohol occurred at 250oC, 1700 psig, 6% catalyst and reaction time of 20 hr, which gave a purity greater than 97%.

Sahutsarungsi, S.; Bunyakan, C; Tongurai, C.

2007-01-01

329

Study of Pseudoternary Phase Diagram Behaviour and the Effect of Several Tweens and Spans on Palm Oil Esters Characteristics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Palm oil esters are high molecular weight esters oil that has been newly synthesized by University Putra Malaysia researchers. It has received a lot of attention for its pharmaceutical and chemical application. The aim of this study is to study the effects of the palm oil esters with differ...

Muthanna F. Abdulkarim; Ghassan Z. Abdullah; M.H.F. Sakeena; Mallikarjun Chitneni; Mun F. Yam; Elrashid S. Mahdi

330

Phenology of the oil palm interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Oil palm is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Because of its high productivity and perennial nature, it has been expanding quickly. Commercial plantations consist mostly of the African palm E. guineensis Jacq. However, producers in Latin America are increasingly planting the O × G interspecific hybrid, a cross between African palm (E. guineensis) and the American palm (E. oleifera (Kunth) Cortés). This interspecific hybrid has emerged as a promising solu (more) tion to diseases such as the bud rot of oil palm because of the apparent partial resistance of this genotype to the disease. This work studied and described the phenology of the O × G interspecific hybrid. The phenology stages were coded using the BBCH scale. The scale for the phenophases was defined using a three-digit code. Due to the nature of the palm, no descriptions were used for stage two (formation of side shoots/tillering) and stage four (development of harvestable vegetative plant parts or vegetative reproductive organs) because these stages do not apply to oil palm. The scale was constructed using germinating seeds, pre-nursery and nursery plants and five year-old palms. For the description of the stem elongation, different age palms of the same O × G hybrid were used. Observations were performed during an 18-month period. Additionally, the interval for the change from one phenology stage to another was determined both in days and degree-days (DD). The interspecific O × G hybrid required 6408 DD from when the spear leaf unfolds until the bunch was ripened and harvested, and 4427.6 DD from leaf unfolding to anthesis.

Hormaza, Paola; Fuquen, Eloina Mesa; Romero, Hernán Mauricio

2012-01-01

331

Heat-oxidation stability of palm oil blended with extra virgin olive oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rancimat induction time of palm oil (PO), several extra virgin olive oils (EV) and their binary blends have been determined at three different temperatures (120, 130 and 140°C). Analytical composition and oxidation stability of PO/EV blends were found to be a linear combination of the oil partners. Induction time of pure PO was always higher than those of EV oils and blends, in which induction time increased proportionally with the percentage of PO. However, induction time of 80% PO blend was similar to that of pure PO. Fatty acid composition appeared to be the most important factor affecting heat-oxidation stability and a saturated/unsaturated ratio near 1 was the optimally stable composition. Conversely, total phenols had a zero or negative role on the oxidative stability of the blends. Finally, in heat-oxidised oils significant losses of polyunsaturated fatty acids and formation of short-chain fatty acids were recorded. PMID:22953920

De Leonardis, Antonella; Macciola, Vincenzo

2012-06-29

332

Heat-oxidation stability of palm oil blended with extra virgin olive oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rancimat induction time of palm oil (PO), several extra virgin olive oils (EV) and their binary blends have been determined at three different temperatures (120, 130 and 140°C). Analytical composition and oxidation stability of PO/EV blends were found to be a linear combination of the oil partners. Induction time of pure PO was always higher than those of EV oils and blends, in which induction time increased proportionally with the percentage of PO. However, induction time of 80% PO blend was similar to that of pure PO. Fatty acid composition appeared to be the most important factor affecting heat-oxidation stability and a saturated/unsaturated ratio near 1 was the optimally stable composition. Conversely, total phenols had a zero or negative role on the oxidative stability of the blends. Finally, in heat-oxidised oils significant losses of polyunsaturated fatty acids and formation of short-chain fatty acids were recorded.

De Leonardis A; Macciola V

2012-12-01

333

Electrochemical treatment of olive oil mill wastewater  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility of oxidizing at a PbO{sub 2} anode the phenols and polyphenols, present in the olive oil mill wastewater, has been studied as a pre-treatment for the submission of such wastewater to the traditional biological treatments. The results obtained operating at current densities ranging 500 to 2000 A/m{sup 2} show that it is possible to reduce the concentration of the phenolic components, which interfere with the biological treatments, down to low values without decreasing too much the total organic content of the wastewater. [Italian] E' stata studiata la possibilita' di ossidare anodicamente i componenti fenolici delle acque reflue di frantoio, quale pretrattamento delle stesse prima del loro invio ai processi di trattamento biologico. I risultati ottenuti impiegando PbO{sub 2} quale materiale anodico e operando con densita' di corrente comprese tra 500 e 2000 A/m{sup 2} mostrano come sia possibile eliminare, o almeno diminuire sino a concentrazioni accettabili, dalle acque di frantoio i fenoli e i polifenoli, che interferiscono con i normali trattamenti biologici, senza diminuire eccessivamente il carico organico totale.

Longhi, P.; Fiori, G [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy). Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Vodopivec, B. [Milan Univ. Bicocca, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Biotechnologies and Biosciences

2001-04-01

334

Effect of Co-Solvents on Transesterification of Refined Palm Oil in Supercritical Methanol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the non-catalytic transesterification of refined palm oil, using supercritical methanol as a solvent with and without the presence of co-solvent, i.e. toluene, benzene, or hexane. Without the presence of a co-solvent, methyl esters can be produced via the non-catalytic transesterification of palm oil at 300oC, using a methanol to oil molar ratio of 45:1, with 89.4% conversion achieved after 50 min. The reaction performance could be improved by adding either benzene or toluene (with 10% v/v solvent to oil) as co-solvent to 92.1 and 95.1%, respectively, while reducing the required amount of excess methanol from 45:1 to 25:1. Under most conditions, the conversion of palm oil decreased with the addition of hexane due to its antisolvent properties.

Narupon Jomtib; Chattip Prommuak; Motonobu Goto; Mitsuru Sasaki; Artiwan Shotipruk

2011-01-01

335

Grinding of coal-oil slurries with the Szego mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper a first systematic set of results on grinding coal in oil with the novel Szego mill is presented and is a contribution to the general knowledge of wet grinding in non- aqueous media. Grinding of coal in fuel oil for coal-oil mixtures (COM) preparation is simpler and may give better slurry properties than dry grinding followed by dispersion in oil. A 42 weight percent slurry of 600-840 micrometer particles of Pittsburgh coal in No.2, 4, and 6 fuel oils has been ground with the novel Szego mill. Particle size distributions at different residence times are reported down to a 10 micrometer median size, together with energy consumption data. Low mill hold-ups and high rotational speeds enhanced the rate of grinding. 9 references.

Papachristodoulou, G.; Trass, O.

1985-02-01

336

Upgrading of oil palm wastes by radiation processing - project review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Early works on oil palm waste treatment at MINT started in 1984 with the objective of degrading EFB (Empty Fruit Bunches) by radiation. This idea was shared by JAERI that adopted the research project with MINT in 1986 under the Japanese Science and Technology Agency (STA) programme. The results of these preliminary works show that EFB can be degraded using gamma radiation at a dose of ranging from 500 to 1000 kGy - 50 to 100 times higher than what is considered to be the economic dose. It is generally accepted that the economics of radiation treatment process could only be realised if the treatment dose can be kept below 10 kGy, which was incidentally, during the course of this early works, found to be the pasteurisation dose for oil palm by - products. With these information, MINT and JAERI agreed to pursue further research in this area and formulated a bilateral research co-operation in radiation pasteurisation of EFB and subsequent degradation by cellulolytic fungi or mushrooms. The research has the objective of upgrading EFB, which was not considered as suitable for feed due to its known physical properties as coarse and highly fibrous, to animal feed as well as substrate for mushroom cultivation and enzyme production. In addition to the desire to provide an environment friendly method for waste disposal to a growing industry, the possibility of catalysing the development of livestock industry by commercial farming in the process is another motivation for this project. Malaysia is estimated to be only about 40% self-sufficient in beef production. Thus there is great opportunity for the growth and expansion of this industry in Malaysia. However, growth in ruminant population should not result in the alienation of land for pastures. Among the reasons for the lack of interest in livestock production through commercial farming is the unavailability of local feed material which could be cheaper than imported feed grains, particularly maize. Feed is one the main cost components in the production of livestock

1998-01-01

337

BIO-OIL FROM FAST PYROLYSIS OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an investigation on fast pyrolysis technology of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) to bio-oil. EFB is one of the solid wastes that are rapidly increasing in the palm oil industry. The composition and particle size distribution of the unwashed feedstock and washed feedstock were determined and its thermal degradation behaviour was analysed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). A 150 g/h fluidized bed bench scale fast pyrolysis unit was used to study the impact of key variables: reactor temperature in the range of 425°C to 550°C and feedstock ash content in the range of 1.15 to 5.43 mf wt%. The properties of the liquid product were analysed and compared with wood derived bio-oil and petroleum fuels. It was found that the maximum ash content of washed feedstock that produced homogenous liquids is less than 3 mf wt%. The results of pyrolysis experiments showed that the bio-oil from washed EFB with low ash content had similar properties as wood.

N. Abdullah; H. Gerhauser; A.V. Bridgwater

2007-01-01

338

Measurement of Oil Palm LAI by Manual and LAI-2000 Method  

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Full Text Available In this study, accurate Leaf Area Index (LAI) of different palm age groups were determined by manual (direct) method. Optical methods for quantifying variation in LAI of different palm ages were evaluated using LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyser (PCA) as an indirect method. In the manual method, LAI values obtained were 0.69, 1.11, 2.38, 2.49, 3.41, 3.83, 4.05 and in the indirect method LAI values obtained were 1.75, 1.4, 1.14, 1.42, 2.87, 1.89, 3.05 for 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 12 and 16 year old palms, respectively. Results showed that the PCA LAI values were overestimated for immature palms but underestimated for mature palms. The PCA LAI values were overestimated by 30.8-153% for 2 to 3-year old palms and underestimated by 24-52% for beyond 6-year old palms as compared to manual measurement. The relationship between palm age and LAI was also established in this study. A strong linear relationship between direct LAI and palm age was observed with a correlation coefficient, R = 0.90. However, the relationship between PCA LAI and palm age was weak and not significant. A relationship was observed between PCA LAI and direct LAI with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.57. The study shows that it was possible to rapidly determine LAI using the LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyser. This rapid and non-destructive method saves labour when compared to manual measurements. However, this instrument gave inconsistent of LAI values in respect to oil palm age.

M.A. Awal; W.I. Wan Ishak

2008-01-01

339

ANTI-OBESITY AND ANTI-DYSLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF OIL PALM PHENOLICS IN PREVENTING ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water-soluble phenolics from the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) possess significant antioxidant and health-promoting properties. This invention documents the effects of administering oil palm phenolics to mice, with the aim of identifying whether these compounds possess significant anti-obesity or anti-dyslipidemics properties for the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We first explored the gene expression changes caused by oil palm phenolics in livers of mice given a low-fat normal diet, in which fatty acid beta oxidation genes were up-regulated while five cholesterol biosynthesis genes were down-regulated. In addition, the weight gain of mice given oil palm palm phenolics was delayed, suggesting that oil palm phenolics may play a role in delaying the onset of obesity. Using Illumina microarrays, we found that the atherogenic diet caused oxidative stress, up-regulated the inflammatory response and increased the turnover of metabolites and cells in the liver, spleen and heart. In contrast, we found that oil palm phenolics showed signs of attenuating the effects of the atherogenic diet in mice. The extract increased unfolded protein response in the liver, while attenuated antigen presentation and processing in the spleen. Oil palm phenolics also increased the expression of antioxidant genes in the heart. A majority of the genes regulated by oil palm phenolics in the different organs showed a difference in direction of regulation when compared to the atherogenic diet.

SAMBANTHAMURTHI RAVIGADEVI; TAN YEW AI; P MANICKAM KALYANA SUNDRAM; WAHID MOHD BASRI

340

The impact of logging and forest conversion to oil palm on soil bacterial communities in Borneo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land-use changes on soil bacteria, which constitute a large proportion of total biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, is a major conservation frontier. Here we studied the effects of logging history and forest conversion to oil palm in Sabah, Borneo, on the soil bacterial community. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, to compare the bacterial community of primary, once-logged, and twice-logged forest, and land converted to oil palm. Bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity level, and OTU richness and local-scale ?-diversity showed no difference between the various forest types and oil palm plantations. Focusing on the turnover of bacteria across space, true ?-diversity was higher in oil palm than in forest, whereas community dissimilarity-based metrics of ?-diversity were only marginally different between habitats, suggesting that at large scales oil palm could have higher overall ?-diversity than forest, driven by a slightly more heterogeneous community across space. Clearance of primary and logged forest for oil palm did, however, significantly impact the composition of soil bacterial communities, reflecting in part the loss of some forest bacteria, whereas primary and logged forests did not differ in composition. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacteria of tropical forest are to some extent resilient or resistant to logging, but that impacts of forest conversion to oil palm are more severe.

Lee-Cruz L; Edwards DP; Tripathi BM; Adams JM

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
341

Adsorption of Palm Oil Carotene and Free Fatty Acids onto Acid Adsorption of Palm Oil Carotene and Free Fatty Acids onto Acid Activated Cameroonian Clays  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The adsorption of carotene and free fatty acids from crude palm oil by local clay, activated with various concentrations of sulphuric acid (0.5, 1 and 2 M) was investigated. Kinetic studies of the adsorption of carotene and of free fatty acids at 65, 80 and 90°C, showed that the time required attain...

Nde-Aga Binwie Joy; Kamga Richard; Nguetnkam Jean Pierre

342

Spectral reflectance of oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) bunches as indicator for optimal harvesting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the appropriate harvesting time of Tenera oil palm bunches, the spectral reflectance of ripening bunches was investigated from images taken by a digital Canon PowerShot A20 camera. Every second day images were taken from selected bunches at an oil-palm estate during the growth of the bunchesfrom immaturity to the over-ripe phase, to trace the changes in color which correlate with the process of ripening. The images were analyzed measuring the changes in the three basic colors red, green and blue, using a specially developed Color Analysis computer program for Oil-palm 'fruit' (CAOP), and determining the correlation with the measured palm-oil content of the nuts.Of the three color-bands, the red light reflectance showed the best correlation with ripeness, as the red color increased regularly and practically linearly up to the stage of the maximal oil yield. Some seven days after the thus determined optimal harvesting date for the ripe bunches, some of the ripe nuts will detachfrom the bunch and fall, but then it is too late to use the fallen nuts as indicators for harvesting. From our investigations in the field and in the laboratory we recommend that harvesting should follow immediately after the red reflectance starts declining, after having reached its peak value for the Tenera oil-palm some 5±3 days before nuts begin to detach from the bunch.

Wunsri, S.; Chittrakarn, T.; Bhongsuwan, T.; Kongsaeng, S.

2005-01-01

343

Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis. PMID:23735505

Dussert, Stéphane; Guerin, Chloé; Andersson, Mariette; Joët, Thierry; Tranbarger, Timothy J; Pizot, Maxime; Sarah, Gautier; Omore, Alphonse; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne

2013-06-04

344

Comparative transcriptome analysis of three oil palm fruit and seed tissues that differ in oil content and fatty acid composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) produces two oils of major economic importance, commonly referred to as palm oil and palm kernel oil, extracted from the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. While lauric acid predominates in endosperm oil, the major fatty acids (FAs) of mesocarp oil are palmitic and oleic acids. The oil palm embryo also stores oil, which contains a significant proportion of linoleic acid. In addition, the three tissues display high variation for oil content at maturity. To gain insight into the mechanisms that govern such differences in oil content and FA composition, tissue transcriptome and lipid composition were compared during development. The contribution of the cytosolic and plastidial glycolytic routes differed markedly between the mesocarp and seed tissues, but transcriptional patterns of genes involved in the conversion of sucrose to pyruvate were not related to variations for oil content. Accumulation of lauric acid relied on the dramatic up-regulation of a specialized acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase paralog and the concerted recruitment of specific isoforms of triacylglycerol assembly enzymes. Three paralogs of the WRINKLED1 (WRI1) transcription factor were identified, of which EgWRI1-1 and EgWRI1-2 were massively transcribed during oil deposition in the mesocarp and the endosperm, respectively. None of the three WRI1 paralogs were detected in the embryo. The transcription level of FA synthesis genes correlated with the amount of WRI1 transcripts and oil content. Changes in triacylglycerol content and FA composition of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves infiltrated with various combinations of WRI1 and FatB paralogs from oil palm validated functions inferred from transcriptome analysis.

Dussert S; Guerin C; Andersson M; Joët T; Tranbarger TJ; Pizot M; Sarah G; Omore A; Durand-Gasselin T; Morcillo F

2013-07-01

345

Improving palm oil quality through identification and mapping of the lipase gene causing oil deterioration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The oil palm fruit mesocarp contains high lipase activity that increases free fatty acids and necessitates post-harvest inactivation by heat treatment of fruit bunches. Even before heat treatment the mesocarp lipase activity causes consequential oil losses and requires costly measures to limit free fatty acids quantities. Here we demonstrate that elite low-lipase lines yield oil with substantially less free fatty acids than standard genotypes, allowing more flexibility for post-harvest fruit processing and extended ripening for increased yields. We identify the lipase and its gene cosegregates with the low-/high-lipase trait, providing breeders a marker to rapidly identify potent elite genitors and introgress the trait into major cultivars. Overall, economic gains brought by wide adoption of this material could represent up to one billion dollars per year. Expected benefits concern all planters but are likely to be highest for African smallholders who would be more able to produce oil that meets international quality standards.

Morcillo F; Cros D; Billotte N; Ngando-Ebongue GF; Domonhédo H; Pizot M; Cuéllar T; Espéout S; Dhouib R; Bourgis F; Claverol S; Tranbarger TJ; Nouy B; Arondel V

2013-01-01

346

Improving palm oil quality through identification and mapping of the lipase gene causing oil deterioration  

Science.gov (United States)

The oil palm fruit mesocarp contains high lipase activity that increases free fatty acids and necessitates post-harvest inactivation by heat treatment of fruit bunches. Even before heat treatment the mesocarp lipase activity causes consequential oil losses and requires costly measures to limit free fatty acids quantities. Here we demonstrate that elite low-lipase lines yield oil with substantially less free fatty acids than standard genotypes, allowing more flexibility for post-harvest fruit processing and extended ripening for increased yields. We identify the lipase and its gene cosegregates with the low-/high-lipase trait, providing breeders a marker to rapidly identify potent elite genitors and introgress the trait into major cultivars. Overall, economic gains brought by wide adoption of this material could represent up to one billion dollars per year. Expected benefits concern all planters but are likely to be highest for African smallholders who would be more able to produce oil that meets international quality standards.

Morcillo, F.; Cros, D.; Billotte, N.; Ngando-Ebongue, G.-F.; Domonhedo, H.; Pizot, M.; Cuellar, T.; Espeout, S.; Dhouib, R.; Bourgis, F.; Claverol, S.; Tranbarger, T. J.; Nouy, B.; Arondel, V.

2013-01-01

347

Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants. (author)

2008-01-01

348

Root system architecture and gravitropism in the oil palm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has a root system consisting of primary (or order 1) roots, which are either orthogravitropic (R1 VD, with positive gravitropism) or diagravitropic (R1 H). Their statenchyma have very similar characteristics (mainly vacuolated, large cells). However, their statoliths sediment along the longitudinal wall in R1 H and along the distal wall in R1 VD (furthest cell wall from the apical meristem, opposite the proximal wall). Order 2 roots may have vertical upward (R2 VU) or downward growth (R2 VD) or even horizontal growth (R2 H). In all cases, the statoliths are located near the lower wall of the statocyte (distal in R2 VD, proximal in R2 VU and longitudinal in R2 H). Order 3 roots are usually agravitropic. When they grow upwards, R3 VU, their amyloplasts are located near the proximal wall. Likewise, the growth direction of R4 varies, but they have little or no statolith sedimentation. Roots with marked gravitropism (positive or negative) have amyloplasts that can sediment along different walls. But, irrespective of amyloplast position in the statocytes, the direction of root growth may be stable. The relation between the different reactions of roots and different sensitivity to auxin or to a curvature-halting signal is discussed.

Jourdan C; Michaux-Ferriere N; Perbal G

2000-06-01

349

PYROLYSIS LIQUID DERIVED FROM OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oil palm waste especially empty fruit bunches (EFB) is a major management and disposal problem in Malaysia. This is an exploratory evaluation of the potential for recovering renewable fuels from the EFB via fast pyrolysis. Preliminary studies were done on the characteristics of the empty fruit bunches, and the thermal behaviours using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were included as well. For the fast pyrolysis experimentation, a 150 g/h fluidized bed bench scale unit was used to study the effect of reaction temperature and vapour residence time on the pyrolysis products. Reaction temperatures studied were from 400 to 600ºC. It was found that the maximum organics liquid yield was at a reactor temperature of 450ºC. In all cases the pyrolysis liquid separated into two phases: an aqueous and a tarry phase. The pyrolysis liquid was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. From the FTIR analysis, it was found that the pyrolysis liquid derived from empty EFB consisted mostly of hydrocarbon compounds.

N. Abdullah; A.V. Bridgwater

2006-01-01

350

Crude palm oil as fuel extender for diesel engines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work an investigation has been conducted into the use of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) as an extender fuel for diesel engines. Mixtures of CPO with normal diesel fuel (with a percentage of 25%, 50% and 75% CPO by volume) were used to fuel a stationary diesel engine and the engine performance variables, i.e., power output, fuel consumption, and exhaust-gas emission, were compared to those of normal diesel fuel. The results obtained, for a fixed throttle opening and variable speed, indicate that at high engine speeds, the engine performance with CP0/diesel mixtures with up to 50% CPO is comparable to that of diesel fuel. However, the results of the 75% CPO mixture showed a higher temperature and emission of CO and NO compared to the diesel fuel. At low engine speeds, the engine performance with CPO mixtures gave higher power output and lower emission of NO compared to that with diesel fuel, but showed higher specific fuel consumption and higher emission of CO. Based on these results, the study recommends that CPO can be used to extend diesel fuel in a mixture of up to 50% CPO by volume for an unmodified engine. (Author)

2000-01-01

351

Taskforce Sustainable Palm Oil. Annual Report 2011; Taskforce Duurzame Palmolie. Jaarraportage 2011  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Taskforce Sustainable Palm Oil has mapped the results realized in 2011 as well as the activities that have been conducted by the Task Force. The Task Force was formally established in November 2010 as an initiative of the Product Board for Margarine, Fats and Oils. All chains in the palm oil chain located in the Netherlands then agreed that late 2015, all palm oil used for the Dutch food industry should be sustainably produced [Dutch] De Task Force Duurzame Palmolie heeft de resultaten in kaart gebracht die in 2011 zijn behaald en de activiteiten die door de Task Force zijn ondernomen. De Task Force is formeel opgericht in november 2010, op initiatief van het Productschap Margarine, Vetten en Olien. Alle in Nederland gevestigde schakels in de palmolieketen hebben toen met elkaar afgesproken dat uiterlijk eind 2015 alle voor de Nederlandse voedingsmiddelen industrie bestemde palmolie duurzaam is en wordt geproduceerd.

Van der Bijl, J.; Leegwater, M. [Productschap Margarine, Vetten en Olien MVO, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)

2012-03-15

352

Comparison of Oxidation Stability and Quenchant Cooling Curve Performance of Soybean Oil and Palm Oil  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential use of vegetable oil-derived industrial oils continues to be of great interest because vegetable oils are relatively non-toxic, biodegradable, and they are a renewable basestock alternative to petroleum oil. However, the fatty ester components containing conjugated double bonds of the triglyceride structure of vegetable oils typically produce considerably poorer thermal-oxidative stability than that achievable with petroleum basestocks under typical use conditions. Typically, these conditions involve furnace loads of hot steel (850 °C), which are rapidly immersed and cooled to bath temperatures of approximately 50-60 °C. This is especially true when a vegetable oil is held in an open tank with agitation and exposed to air at elevated temperatures for extended periods of time (months or years). This paper will describe the thermal-oxidative stability and quenching performance of soybean oil and palm oil and the resulting impact on the heat transfer coefficient. These results are compared to typical fully formulated, commercially available accelerated (fast) and an unaccelerated (slow) petroleum oil-based quenchants.

Said, Diego; Belinato, Gabriela; Sarmiento, Gustavo S.; Otero, Rosa L. Simencio; Totten, George E.; Gastón, Analía; Canale, Lauralice C. F.

2013-07-01

353

The effect of palm oil addition to the diet of dairy sheep on the immune response.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a diet based on palm oil has any influence on the immune response and on the number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in dairy sheep. To address this issue, 30 ewes in early lactation were confined and divided into three groups (n = 10) receiving a daily isoproteic and isoenergetic diet. Palm oil was added to the feed at different concentrations: 0% (control; group A), 4% (group B) and 6% (group C). The animals were treated with levamisole 10 days before the beginning of the experiment. Faecal samples were collected and analysed for EPG on day zero of the experiment. On days 60 and 120, individual faecal and blood samples were collected, and the FAMACHA(©) score for assessing clinical anaemia was carried out. The groups receiving palm oil showed a significant reduction in EPG in relation to the control group (A) on day 120. Serum immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM and IgE) and proinflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-?, IL-1 and IL-6) were significantly increased on days 60 and 120 (p palm oil stimulates the immune response in sheep, thus reducing EPG of GIN. The hypothesis that palm oil has direct anthelmintic activity should be tested in future studies. PMID:23751141

Bianchi, A E; Macedo, V P; Duarte, M M M F; Lopes, L S; Stefani, L M; Rossett, J; Klauck, V; Radavelli, W; Pazinato, R; Bottari, N B; Da Silva, A S

2013-06-11

354

Flow cytometric analysis of oil palm: a preliminary analysis for cultivars and genomic DNA alteration  

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Full Text Available DNA contents of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) cultivars were analyzed by flow cytometry using different external reference plant species. Analysis using corn (Zea mays line CE-777) as a reference plant gave the highest DNA content of oil palm (4.72±0.23 pg 2C-1) whereas the DNA content was found to be lower when using soybean (Glycine max cv. Polanka) (3.77±0.09 pg 2C-1) or tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Stupicke) (4.25±0.09 pg 2C-1) as a reference. The nuclear DNA contents of Dura (D109), Pisifera (P168) and Tenera (T38) cultivars were 3.46±0.04, 3.24±0.03 and 3.76±0.04 pg 2C-1 nuclei, respectively, using soybean as a reference. One haploid genome of oil palm therefore ranged from 1.56 to 1.81±109 base pairs. DNA contents from one-year-old calli and cell suspension of oil palm were found to be significantly different from those of seedlings. It thus should be noted that genomic DNA alteration occurred in these cultured tissues. We therefore confirm that flow cytometric analysis could verify cultivars, DNA content and genomic DNA alteration of oil palm using soybean as an external reference standard.

Theera Srisawat; Kamnoon Kanchanapoom; Kovit Pattanapanyasat; Surakitti Srikul; Warawut Chuthammathat

2005-01-01

355

The effect of palm oil addition to the diet of dairy sheep on the immune response.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a diet based on palm oil has any influence on the immune response and on the number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in dairy sheep. To address this issue, 30 ewes in early lactation were confined and divided into three groups (n = 10) receiving a daily isoproteic and isoenergetic diet. Palm oil was added to the feed at different concentrations: 0% (control; group A), 4% (group B) and 6% (group C). The animals were treated with levamisole 10 days before the beginning of the experiment. Faecal samples were collected and analysed for EPG on day zero of the experiment. On days 60 and 120, individual faecal and blood samples were collected, and the FAMACHA(©) score for assessing clinical anaemia was carried out. The groups receiving palm oil showed a significant reduction in EPG in relation to the control group (A) on day 120. Serum immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM and IgE) and proinflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-?, IL-1 and IL-6) were significantly increased on days 60 and 120 (p < 0.05) in groups B and C. Therefore, these results suggest that palm oil stimulates the immune response in sheep, thus reducing EPG of GIN. The hypothesis that palm oil has direct anthelmintic activity should be tested in future studies.

Bianchi AE; Macedo VP; Duarte MM; Lopes LS; Stefani LM; Rossett J; Klauck V; Radavelli W; Pazinato R; Bottari NB; Da Silva AS

2013-06-01

356

Development of lightweight aggregate concrete using local palm oil clinker industrial waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malaysia is one of the largest producers and manufacturers of palm oil products. Palm oil by-products can be recycled into palm oil clinker (POC). Palm-oil byproducts can be used in concrete, resulting in lower construction costs due to the reduction of dead load and the preservation of nature by eliminating the need to harvest natural aggregates from natural sources. This paper presented the results of an investigation into the mechanical properties of lightweight aggregate concrete made with palm oil clinker as an aggregate replacement material. Five concrete mixtures were prepared including one control mixture and four POC concrete. The paper discussed the materials and methods employed in the study. The paper also reported on tests that were undertaken in which POC was replaced to determine the influence of fine and coarse aggregate in fresh and hardened state concrete. In addition, the properties of POC concrete were evaluated and compared to control concrete by conducting a series of tests on compressive strength, slump and durability. Results were presented according to:workability and density; strength development; split tensile strength; flexural strength; and modulus of elasticity. It was concluded that the POC concrete had sufficient strength and adequate density to be accepted as structural lightweight concrete. 14 refs., 7 tabs., 2 figs.

Al-Mattarneh, H.M.A.; Muhammad, B.S.; Yin, W.K.; Hassan, A.H.; Hassan, H. [Tenaga National Univ., Kajang (Malaysia). Dept. of Civil Engineering

2007-07-01

357

Irradiated Palm Oil Waste (Sludge) As Feed Supplement For Nila Gift Fish (Oreochromis niloticus)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the experiment was to study the fish weight development after being fed with irradiated palm oil waste pellet. Irradiated Palm oil waste pellet was produced from palm oil waste (sludge) with some additional materials, i.e. rice bran, fish powder, soybean powder, tapioca powder. The mixture was then irradiated with a dose of 4 kGy to decontaminate pathogen microbe and other contaminant microbes, the experiment have been carried out in 4 treatments. Treatment A was male fish which was being fed with irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized feed (2:1), treatment C was female with the same feed as A, treatment B was male fish feed with commercial pelletized, treatment D was female fish with the same feed as B. Each treatment was placed in a pond. The feed with the amount of 3% of total body weight was given to the fishes 2 times per day. The result of this experiment showed that the male fish weight receiving treatment A and B were 195.37 g and 175.12 g. The female fish weight at treatments C and D were 170.28 g and 160.15 g, respectively. Data obtained from this experiment showed that the treatment of irradiated sludge palm oil waste pellet and commercial pelletized (2:1) were more efficient as fish feeding compared to commercial pellets

2002-01-01

358

Enzymatic Synthesis of Fatty Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives Based on Palm Kernel Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fatty hydroxamic acid derivatives were synthesized using Lipozyme TL IM catalyst at biphasic medium as the palm kernel oil was dissolved in hexane and hydroxylamine derivatives were dissolved in water: (1) N-methyl fatty hydroxamic acids (MFHAs); (2) N-isopropyl fatty hydroxamic acids (IPFHAs) and (3) N-benzyl fatty hydroxamic acids (BFHAs) were synthesized by reaction of palm kernel oil and N-methyl hydroxylamine (N-MHA), N-isopropyl hydroxylamine (N-IPHA) and N-benzyl hydroxylamine (N-BHA), respectively. Finally, after separation the products were characterized by color testing, elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. For achieving the highest conversion percentage of product the optimum molar ratio of reactants was obtained by changing the ratio of reactants while other reaction parameters were kept constant. For synthesis of MFHAs the optimum mol ratio of N-MHA/palm kernel oil = 6/1 and the highest conversion was 77.8%, for synthesis of IPFHAs the optimum mol ratio of N-IPHA/palm kernel oil = 7/1 and the highest conversion was 65.4% and for synthesis of BFHAs the optimum mol ratio of N-BHA/palm kernel oil = 7/1 and the highest conversion was 61.7%.

Hossein Jahangirian; Md Jelas Haron; Nor Azah Yusof; Sidik Silong; Anuar Kassim; Roshanak Rafiee-Moghaddam; Mazyar Peyda; Yadollah Gharayebi

2011-01-01

359

The Cointegration Analysis on the Spot Prices of the Malaysian Crude Palm Oil Futures Market  

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Full Text Available Futures markets play an important role in the price discovery and forward pricing of agricultural commodities. The analysis of this study has mainly focused on the empirical test of the effect of production, stock and export variables on the prices of the Malaysian Crude Palm oil futures market. For the empirical work, correlation analysis, multiple regression and recent econometric analysis were conducted to determine the price relationships of the Malaysian Crude Palm oil futures markets with the production, stock and export variables. Order of integration for all the variables was checked using Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-Perron tests of unit root. The Johansen approach was used to test cointegration in multivariate system that involved long run and short run estimations. The Vector Error Correction Model was used to test for causal relationships. The empirical evidence obtained from the study shows there exist a significant long run and short run relationships between the cash and future prices of the Malaysian Crude Palm oil futures market with the production, stock and export variables. The results of the causality test also shows that there is a strong relationship between the Malaysian Crude Palm oil futures market with the production, stock and export variables This mean that any information flow regarding the price movement of the Malaysian Crude Palm oil futures market will affect the production, stock and export variables and vice-versa.

Nik Muhammad Naziman Ab Rahman

2012-01-01

360

Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein gene in transgenic oil palm  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Oil palm, like all other crops, is susceptible to attack from several insect pests causing significant reduction in productivity. In the past, cry genes from Bacillus thuringiensis have been reported to be effective in conferring resistance towards insect pests in crops such as corn and rice. One of the advantages of these toxin proteins is their specificity towards certain harmful insects. A rapid and efficient method was developed for the transformation and evaluation o (more) f CryIA(b) expression in oil palm. A recombinant vector was introduced into immature embryos (IEs) of oil palm via the biolistic method. More than 700 putative transformed IEs from independent transformation events were generated. Transient transformation efficiency of 81-100 % was achieved. We found that pre-treatment of target tissues with phytohormones is essential for increasing the transformation efficiency. This finding could enable higher transformation rate in oil palm that was previously difficult to transform. PCR analysis further confirmed the presence of the CryIA(b) in the transformed tissues. Expression of CryIA(b) from PCR-positive samples was further confirmed using a rapid gene expression detection system. This novel and rapid detection system could serve as a good opportunity to analyze the impact of transgenes upon transfer to the new environment, especially for crops with long generation cycle, such as oil palm.

Lee, Mei-Phing; Yeun, Li-Huey; Abdullah, Ruslan

2006-04-01

 
 
 
 
361

Collection of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) Germplasm in the Northern Regions of Ghana  

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Full Text Available Oil palm germplasm collection was carried out in the Northern Regions of Ghana for evaluation, screening for drought tolerance and further incorporation into breeding programmes of Ghana’s Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (C.S.I.R)-Oil Palm Research Institute (O.P.R.I). The study highlights the collection of 22 oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) accessions from 5 locations in the Northern Regions of Ghana. The Northern Regions are not suitable for oil palm cultivation due to unfavourable weather conditions. Only Dura (D) forms of Oil palm were present without the existence of the other forms. The smallest shell thickness recorded was 1.6 mm. Data on stem height, bunch weight, bunch length, bunch depth, bunch diameter, bunch width, bunch spine length, bunch stalk weight, fruit length and width were recorded in-situ. Mesocarp, kernel and shell to fruit ratios were computed. Data collected were analysed using standard procedures; Elementary statistics (mean values, standard error, range and co-efficient of variation) were computed. Results revealed some variation for both qualitative and quantitative traits assessed on the accessions. Seedlings have been raised from these accessions for testing for drought screening and yield evaluation.

E. Sapey; K. Adusei-Fosu; D. Agyei-Dwarko; G. Okyere-Boateng

2012-01-01

362

Nutrient intake and digestibility of the lipid residue of biodiesel from palm oil in sheep  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of lipid residue of biodiesel originated in the processing of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in the diet on the digestibility of feedlot lambs. Twenty-five crossbred male castrated lambs, weighing 20±1.61 kg, were distributed in randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The experimental period lasted 22 days; 15 for diet adaptation, 2 for the adaptation to the indicator LIPE (lignin from Eucalyptus grandis isolated, purified and enriched, UFMG, Minas Gerais) and 5 for fecal sampling. Diets were formulated with 64% concentrate based on corn and soybean meal, 31% Massai grass (Panicum maximum cv. Massai) hay and 5% lipid supplementation from increasing levels of substitution of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of palm oil for biodiesel oil from palm residue. The lambs were offered two meals a day, at 7h00 and 16h00. There was linear effect of inclusion of the residue from palm oil biodiesel on dry matter intake. There was no change in digestibility of nutrients except for ether extract. The use of biodiesel from palm oil residue up to 100% replacement for the lipid supplementation of sheep positively influences the consumption without altering the digestibility of nutrients.

Laura Cristina Barra Raiol; Fernando Kuss; André Guimarães Maciel e Silva; Bruno Cabral Soares; Karla Débora Santana de Souza; Juliana Cristina Nogueira Colodo; José de Brito Lourenço Júnior; Sandra Cristina de Ávila

2012-01-01

363

Nutrient intake and digestibility of the lipid residue of biodiesel from palm oil in sheep  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of lipid residue of biodiesel originated in the processing of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in the diet on the digestibility of feedlot lambs. Twenty-five crossbred male castrated lambs, weighing 20±1.61 kg, were distributed in randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The experimental period lasted 22 days; 15 for diet adaptation, 2 for the adaptation to the indicator LIPE (lignin fro (more) m Eucalyptus grandis isolated, purified and enriched, UFMG, Minas Gerais) and 5 for fecal sampling. Diets were formulated with 64% concentrate based on corn and soybean meal, 31% Massai grass (Panicum maximum cv. Massai) hay and 5% lipid supplementation from increasing levels of substitution of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of palm oil for biodiesel oil from palm residue. The lambs were offered two meals a day, at 7h00 and 16h00. There was linear effect of inclusion of the residue from palm oil biodiesel on dry matter intake. There was no change in digestibility of nutrients except for ether extract. The use of biodiesel from palm oil residue up to 100% replacement for the lipid supplementation of sheep positively influences the consumption without altering the digestibility of nutrients.

Raiol, Laura Cristina Barra; Kuss, Fernando; Silva, André Guimarães Maciel e; Soares, Bruno Cabral; Souza, Karla Débora Santana de; Colodo, Juliana Cristina Nogueira; Lourenço Júnior, José de Brito; Ávila, Sandra Cristina de

2012-11-01

364

Effects of parameters on yield for sub-critical R134a extraction of palm oil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extraction of palm oil from its palm mesocarp using sub-critical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) as an alternative solvent to supercritical CO? was studied. The effects of pressure, temperature, flowrate and sample pre-treatment method on extraction yield were examined. Dynamic method was used to determine palm oil solubility at flowrate between 0.5 and 5.0ml/min. Extraction was performed at pressures between 45 and 100bar which was lower than those required by CO? solvent, and at temperatures between 40° and 80°C. The results show that extraction yields using R134a increased with pressure and temperature, and that temperature effect (p-value=0.0000) on palm oil solubility prevailed over that of pressure (p-value=0.0087). The maximum yield of 66.06w/w% was obtained at 100bar and 80°C which was the best pressure and temperature. Substantial oil yields at relatively lower pressure proved that sub-critical R134a is a viable alternative to CO? for extraction of palm oil.

Mustapa AN; Manan ZA; Mohd Azizi CY; Nik Norulaini NA; Omar AKMohd

2009-12-01

365

Will Forests Remain in the Face of Oil Palm Expansion? Simulating Change in Malinau, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The severe tensions between conservation and development are illustrated by events in Malinau Dstrict (Kalimantan, Indonesia). Conservationists decry proposed plans for logging and conversion of pristine tropical forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis). Although the local government is willing to declare the district a “conservation district,” at the same time, it shows interest in oil palm conversion. This article explores the impact of the potential conversion of 500 000 ha of forest to oil palm on forest cover, in-migration, and the local economy in Malinau. The simulation model was developed using STELLA® software, and relies on a combination of empirical data, data from the literature, and stakeholder perceptions. If a company were to clear the forest for timber without planting oil palm (as commonly happens), poverty levels are likely to rise rather than decline over the long term. If large-scale oil palm plantations were to be established, they could yield significant benefits to local authorities. However, such development would induce massive employment-driven migration, with wide-ranging consequences for the current inhabitants of the region. By visualizing and quantifying these trade-offs between conservation and development, the model stimulates debate and information exchange among conservationists, development actors, and district authorities so that well-informed choices can be made.

Marieke Sandker; Aritta Suwarno; Bruce M. Campbell

2007-01-01

366

Characterization of activated carbons from oil-palm shell by CO2 activation with no holding carbonization temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Activated carbons can be produced from different precursors, including coals of different ranks, and lignocellulosic materials, by physical or chemical activation processes. The objective of this paper is to characterize oil-palm shells, as a biomass byproduct from palm-oil mills which were converted into activated carbons by nitrogen pyrolysis followed by CO2 activation. The effects of no holding peak pyrolysis temperature on the physical characteristics of the activated carbons are studied. The BET surface area of the activated carbon is investigated using N2 adsorption at 77 K with selected temperatures of 500, 600, and 700°C. These pyrolysis conditions for preparing the activated carbons are found to yield higher BET surface area at a pyrolysis temperature of 700°C compared to selected commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons thus result in well-developed porosities and predominantly microporosities. By using this activation method, significant improvement can be obtained in the surface characteristics of the activated carbons. Thus this study shows that the preparation time can be shortened while better results of activated carbon can be produced.

Herawan SG; Hadi MS; Ayob MR; Putra A

2013-01-01

367

Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 oC.

David K. Kuwornoo, Julius C. Ahiekpor

2010-01-01

368

Reheated palm oil consumption and risk of atherosclerosis: evidence at ultrastructural level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Palm oil is commonly consumed in Asia. Repeatedly heating the oil is very common during food processing. Aim. This study is aimed to report on the risk of atherosclerosis due to the reheated oil consumption. Material and Methods. Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control, fresh-oil, 5 times heated-oil and 10 times heated-oil feeding groups. Heated palm oil was prepared by frying sweet potato at 180°C for 10 minutes. The ground standard rat chows were fortified with the heated oils and fed it to the rats for six months. Results. Tunica intima thickness in aorta was significantly increased in 10 times heated-oil feeding group (P < 0.05), revealing a huge atherosclerotic plaque with central necrosis projecting into the vessel lumen. Repeatedly heated oil feeding groups also revealed atherosclerotic changes including mononuclear cells infiltration, thickened subendothelial layer, disrupted internal elastic lamina and smooth muscle cells fragmentation in tunica media of the aorta. Conclusion. The usage of repeated heated oil is the predisposing factor of atherosclerosis leading to cardiovascular diseases. It is advisable to avoid the consumption of repeatedly heated palm oil. PMID:23320039

Xian, Tan Kai; Omar, Noor Azzizah; Ying, Low Wen; Hamzah, Aniza; Raj, Santhana; Jaarin, Kamsiah; Othman, Faizah; Hussan, Farida

2012-12-19

369

Reheated palm oil consumption and risk of atherosclerosis: evidence at ultrastructural level.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. Palm oil is commonly consumed in Asia. Repeatedly heating the oil is very common during food processing. Aim. This study is aimed to report on the risk of atherosclerosis due to the reheated oil consumption. Material and Methods. Twenty four male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control, fresh-oil, 5 times heated-oil and 10 times heated-oil feeding groups. Heated palm oil was prepared by frying sweet potato at 180°C for 10 minutes. The ground standard rat chows were fortified with the heated oils and fed it to the rats for six months. Results. Tunica intima thickness in aorta was significantly increased in 10 times heated-oil feeding group (P < 0.05), revealing a huge atherosclerotic plaque with central necrosis projecting into the vessel lumen. Repeatedly heated oil feeding groups also revealed atherosclerotic changes including mononuclear cells infiltration, thickened subendothelial layer, disrupted internal elastic lamina and smooth muscle cells fragmentation in tunica media of the aorta. Conclusion. The usage of repeated heated oil is the predisposing factor of atherosclerosis leading to cardiovascular diseases. It is advisable to avoid the consumption of repeatedly heated palm oil.

Xian TK; Omar NA; Ying LW; Hamzah A; Raj S; Jaarin K; Othman F; Hussan F

2012-01-01

370

Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 deg C.

Kuwornoo, David. K. [Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana); Ahiekpor, Julius C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, P.O. Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana)

2010-07-01

371

Damage Pattern and Nesting Characteristic of Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Oil Palm on Peat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oil palm industry of Malaysia has expanded into peat area in Sarawak. Problem statement: The subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus was a serious pest of oil palm on peat. Control of this termite has resorted to heavy usage of chemicals which was deemed uneconomical and hostile to the environment. Baiting system has inconsistent success due to the limited knowledge of the behavior of the pest. Approach: This study was to investigate damage and nesting characteristic of the pest. Infested palm in the peat area was dissected using a chainsaw and observation was made on the endoecie and damage. Microclimate inside the palm was recorded using a data logger and acid insoluble lignin from 3 different infested palms was determined. Results: Dissection of infested palm revealed that termite generally attacked the palm from the spear in immature palm or basal region in mature palm due to the energy requirement and level of water table. Spear region infestation was possible because of the moist environment provided by the proximity of the fronds and leaf sheaths. The high lignin content (42-45%) in the thin laminae indicated the concentration of lignin or incorporation of peat in nest construction. Wood stump residues remained in the plantation was one of the main reasons of termite infestation. The stability and protection of the wood stump encouraged termite breeding. A C. curvignathus queen was discovered in the endoecie under the wood stump and was seen mobile. Conclusion: The pest was generally available in area where wood stumps and moisture were available. Manipulation of water table for certain period after spraying of chemical may help reduce infestation by the termite.

Wei-Hong Lau; Choon-Fah J. Bong; Seow-Phan Chan

2011-01-01

372

The economic feasibility of vegetal oil diesel obtained from palm oil; A viabilidade economica do diesel vegetal obtido a partir do palm oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper`s aim is to verify production costs technical economical feasibility of a vegetable diesel fuel, obtained by trans esterification from oil palm. The study shows that depending yields, agricultural interest taxes and on the petroleum price`s evolution, at the international market, the vegetable diesel oil, will be competitive with regular diesel oil. It could already be competitive in some Amazonian, remote areas which present good climatic and soil conditions. So a pilot field project is suggested to evaluate its feasibility, which when confirmed, would allow large scale developments, for instance in these Amazonian areas, where the rain forest was irrationally devastated in recent years. By this way, it could be gotten important self sustainable, environmental and economical returns, thus it deals with a renewable energy source in replacement to petroleum. 8 refs, 9 tabs.

Andrade Pinto, R. de [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Andrade Pinto, A. de [Parana Univ., Curitiba, (Brazil)

1993-12-31

373

Palm oil based biofuel using blended crude palm oil/medium fuel oil: physical and thermal properties studies. Paper no. IGEC-1-015  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is renewable bio-based resource. It is an attractive alternative fuel which provides the potential to reduce emission problems. CPO is an example of biofuels that can be blended with petroleum distillates as a fuel in mobile engines and industrial processes to help offset the increasing energy demand. This paper highlights the results of blended Crude Palm Oil (CPO)/Medium Fuel Oil (MFO) as an alternative environmentally friendly boiler's fuel. Heating values of the blend fuels have been measured using an oxygen bomb calorimeter. Combustion performance of a blend containing 50% CPO in MFO fuel was examined using a commercial boiler. The blend burned satisfactorily without major modification to the appliance and fuel delivery system. SO{sub 2} emissions were 51.67% lower than MFO, H{sub 2}S decreased about 55.61% while NO{sub x} were 18.67% reduced. Results indicate potential reductions of SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and NO{sub x}, and greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum distillates can be replaced with this blend. (author)

Chuah, T.G.; Zakiah, M. [Univ. Putra Malaysia, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selangor D. E. (Malaysia)]. E-mail: chuah@eng.upm.edu.my; Wan Hasamuddin, W.H.; Hj. Ahmad, H. [Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Product Agro Unit, Engineering and Processing Div., Selangor D.E. (Malaysia); Fakhru' l-Razi, A.; Robiah, Y.; Choong, T.S.Y.; Yip, Y.F. [Univ. Putra Malaysia, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Selangor D. E. (Malaysia)

2005-07-01

374

Palm oil based biofuel using blended crude palm oil/medium fuel oil: physical and thermal properties studies. Paper no. IGEC-1-015  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is renewable bio-based resource. It is an attractive alternative fuel which provides the potential to reduce emission problems. CPO is an example of biofuels that can be blended with petroleum distillates as a fuel in mobile engines and industrial processes to help offset the increasing energy demand. This paper highlights the results of blended Crude Palm Oil (CPO)/Medium Fuel Oil (MFO) as an alternative environmentally friendly boiler's fuel. Heating values of the blend fuels have been measured using an oxygen bomb calorimeter. Combustion performance of a blend containing 50% CPO in MFO fuel was examined using a commercial boiler. The blend burned satisfactorily without major modification to the appliance and fuel delivery system. SO2 emissions were 51.67% lower than MFO, H2S decreased about 55.61% while NOx were 18.67% reduced. Results indicate potential reductions of SO2, H2S and NOx, and greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum distillates can be replaced with this blend. (author)

2005-01-01